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Journal Cover Journal of Management & Organization
  [SJR: 0.212]   [H-I: 18]   [354 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1833-3672 - ISSN (Online) 1839-3527
   Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [367 journals]
  • Working as a self-employed professional, freelancer, contractor,
           consultant ¯¦ issues, questions ¯¦ and solutions'
    • Authors: McKeown; Tui, Leighton, Patricia
      Pages: 751 - 755
  • Foreword: JMO special issue on self-employment/freelancing
    • Authors: Meager; Nigel
      Pages: 756 - 763
  • Self-employment: Deviation or the norm'
    • Authors: Bridge; Simon
      Pages: 764 - 778
      Abstract: In many countries self-employment has increased recently. But, despite evidence that many people enter self-employment willingly out of choice, there appears to be an instinctive aversion to it, possibly based on an assumption that employment is more desirable and beneficial and is, and should be, the norm. Often using a UK viewpoint, this paper examines the history of work and suggests that, in historical terms, employment is the exception not the norm. The age of the job, it is claimed, lasted only from 1840 to 1980, but its influence continues and many government regulations and union practices are still based on the era of the big business, big labour and big government triumvirate. Therefore, if the future is not to be constrained by laws and practices designed for the past, it is important to identify the perceptions and assumptions which prevail about employment and to highlight those which are incorrect.
  • A consilience framework: Revealing hidden features of the independent
    • Authors: McKeown; Tui
      Pages: 779 - 796
      Abstract: This paper presents the results of a consilience framework developed and tested to reconcile the varying definitions, methodologies and purposes of the data collected on independent contracting within Australia. The result is a multilayered profile of the self-employed contractor which draws together official labour market statistics, taxation office liabilities and marketing-based consumer data sources. The framework sees independent contractors emerge as a dynamic, entrepreneurial and complex group who defy many of the age, gender and industry stereotypes that law and policy makers confine them to. While these initial results are limited to Australia, the challenge independent contractors present to established systems of legal, social and government regulation are embedded within the wider contexts of self-employment and small business. These contexts are universal and the sooner these challenges are answered, the sooner the opportunities they also present can be realised.
  • Fit for self-employment' An extended Person¯"Environment Fit approach
           to understand the work¯"life interface of self-employed workers
    • Authors: Jager; Ward, Kelliher, Clare, Peters, Pascale, Blomme, Rob, Sakamoto, Yuka
      Pages: 797 - 816
      Abstract: The recent growth in self-employment has sparked scholarly interest in why individuals choose and remain in self-employment. Yet, relatively little is known about how self-employed workers enact their daily lives and what this means for their work¯"life interface. Self-employment is often presented as a means to enhance life choice and as enabling work and nonwork activities to be combined more satisfactorily. However, extant evidence on how self-employment is experienced is mixed, with some studies reporting long and irregular working hours and high levels of stress. Furthermore, the way in which self-employment is experienced may be influenced by national context ¯" economic, institutional and cultural factors. In this paper, we develop a multi-level model which extends existing work on the Person¯"Environment Fit by incorporating factors relevant to self-employment. The model assists us to understand how contextual factors create both opportunities and tensions which impact the work¯"life interface of self-employed workers.
  • Independent professionals (IPros) and well-being: An emerging focus for
    • Authors: Syrett; Michel
      Pages: 817 - 825
      Abstract: In this paper, the author, a freelance writer and researcher who has worked in this way for over 30 years, draws on his own experience of independent working to present freelancing and well-being as an important yet neglected area of research. The paper is therefore presents a brief overview of the context of freelancing, particularly in the United Kingdom and Europe as this is the working environment of the author. This overview is blended with a review the existing research on the topic of freelancer well-being. The aim is to reveal the questions and issues that the author feels encompass well-being in this context as well as to highlight some recent initiatives where independent workers and their clients have worked together to support key areas of their vulnerability compared with those in full-time employment. Setting this often intensely personal perspective set against the wider context of academic and practitioner research reveals that, in contrast to some the common public opinion that freelance and contract work is ¯˜second-rate¯™ option, many independent professionals are happy about the way they work and experience high levels of job satisfaction. However, what does also emerge is that beyond local professional bodies and associations, many feel almost completely unsupported. Of greatest concern were reports of being treated with neglect and even suspicion by policy and law makers. The hope is that this paper heralds the beginnings of a wider research agenda into this important but neglected aspect of the independent professional workforce.
  • Chameleons at large: Entrepreneurs, employees and firms ¯" the changing
           context of employment relationships
    • Authors: Wynn; Michael
      Pages: 826 - 842
      Abstract: Current labour markets are witnessing a proliferation of hybrid or quasi-employment status whereby company directors and limited liability partners are gaining access to employment rights. At the same time, legislation is creating new forms of employee shareholder status, where employees trade employment rights for shares in the company. New corporate structures are being developed to promote one-man companies, small and medium sized enterprises and hybrid company/partnerships. This paper examines some of these developments in the light of the theory of the firm and the jurisprudence of company and employment law and considers the implications for workers, employers and the self-employed.
  • Independent work, modern organizations and entrepreneurial labor:
           Diversity and hybridity of freelancers and self-employment
    • Authors: Bögenhold; Dieter, Klinglmair, Andrea
      Pages: 843 - 858
      Abstract: The paper deals with self-employment of one-(wo)man-firms as the smallest units of entrepreneurial companies and focuses at the blurred boundaries between dependent work and self-employment. We call the overlapping identities hybrid entrepreneurs. Based on the collected data it can be shown that the hybrid self-employed differ significantly from non-hybrid ¯˜regular¯™ entrepreneurs with respect to selected socio-demographic characteristics, professional, as well as company-specific factors. The paper takes up several of the findings and tries to discuss them in a framework of (micro) organizations, institutions and self-employment. Taking the case of hybrid employment fosters crucial and provoking questions for an appropriate understanding of the division of enterprises and occupations.
  • Professional self-employment, new power and the sharing economy: Some
           cautionary tales from Uber
    • Authors: Leighton; Patricia
      Pages: 859 - 874
      Abstract: This article reflects on some of the major changes in the ways that people are working today, changes often driven by a preference for greater autonomy and choice, but also to work on a sharing, collaborative or networked basis. Many of the growing numbers of independent professionals are attracted by these ways of working. Developments in Information and Communication Technology have been critical, especially in enabling services, including professional services, to be delivered via internet platforms. This has created, in effect, new forms of intermediation and increasingly complex work relationships. These developments have often proved very controversial, as instanced by the disputes surrounding Uber, the international, internet-based taxi provider. Many of these changes also raise issues of accountability and work quality, along with creating new patterns of work relationships. Inevitably, the changes also highlight the role of regulation, which is the main focus of this article The topic is explored against a backdrop of much recent deregulation, challenges to so-called ¯˜red tape¯™ and laissez faire policies. The myriad of disputes and litigation involving Uber is examined and reflected upon. There are, of course, many differences between the taxi drivers of Uber and the designers, journalists, engineers and consultants, typical of independent professional working, but there are also some key parallels and experiences that provide a cautionary tale!
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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