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American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.438
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 204  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0002-9165 - ISSN (Online) 1938-3207
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [409 journals]
  • Vitamin D: no cure for depression
    • Authors: Jorde R; Grimnes G.
      Pages: 1043 - 1044
      Abstract: There is no doubt about vitamin D's role in the development and maintenance of a healthy skeleton. Based on observational studies, one could also be hopeful that vitamin D could prevent much more than rickets—as a “silver bullet” for many diseases. High intakes of vitamin D, sun exposure, and high serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D; the marker of vitamin D status] are all associated with good health. Conversely, low serum 25(OH)D concentrations are consistently associated with the presence of chronic disease risk factors, including hypertension, and predict future diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and even mortality (1). Furthermore, the receptor for the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) is found in practically every tissue in which it has been examined, including areas in the central nervous system. Enzymes necessary for activation of vitamin D have a wide tissue distribution, indicating a role for vitamin D far beyond intestinal calcium absorption, calcium homeostasis, and skeletal health (2). Vitamin D receptor knockout mice develop a bone phenotype similar to that seen in humans with rickets or osteomalacia, but they also exhibit susceptibility to immunological diseases, hypertension, reduced muscle mass, and abnormal behavior (3).
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz186
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • The gut: a regulatory hall governing fat-soluble micronutrient absorption
    • Authors: Reboul E.
      Pages: 1045 - 1046
      Abstract: The gut has long been considered a simple entry gate into the body for nutrients and micronutrients, including the fat-soluble molecules that flow into the blood via chylomicrons initially released into the lymph. However, recent research has emphasized that the gut can actually be considered a hall, with entry doors, waiting rooms, and exit gates (1).
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz199
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • A formative time in our understanding of formate
    • Authors: Miller J.
      Pages: 1047 - 1048
      Abstract: Formate, the simplest, anionic form of a carboxylate (HCOO−), has been recognized as a product of biological systems since the 17th century when John Wray summarized observations of an acidic liquor produced by ants (family Formicidae) (1). But it is only during approximately the past decade that the metabolic and biological importance of formate has begun to be appreciated. Specifically, formate is now recognized as a critical 1-carbon donor and as such plays a central role in the so-called “canonical functions” of folate and 1-carbon metabolism—that is, synthesis of thymidylate for DNA, synthesis of purines for DNA and RNA, and the remethylation of homocysteine to form methionine and the universal methyl donor, S-adenosylmethionine. These are, of course, essential biochemical pathways, and therefore formate is implicated as a key metabolite for supporting cellular function and replication. Indeed, accumulating evidence connects formate to both cancer biology and developmental biology, including neural tube closure.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz216
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Childhood adiposity trajectories: discerning order amongst the chaos
    • Authors: Aris I; Oken E.
      Pages: 1049 - 1050
      Abstract: Childhood obesity tracks into later life (1), suggesting that BMI (a growth metric commonly used to define obesity) in early childhood may affect cardiometabolic risks such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Many epidemiological studies examining associations between childhood BMI and later cardiometabolic outcomes have focused on single-point exposures of BMI (2, 3), which does not adequately reflect the complex and dynamic BMI changes that vary over time during the child's development. Groups of children may also follow distinct BMI developmental patterns, which may confer different risks for cardiometabolic disease later in life. Identifying heterogeneous growth patterns during early childhood, rather than simply assessing size at a single point in time, could prove more useful in predicting health outcomes in later childhood and even adulthood.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz217
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Environmental enteric dysfunction: a socioeconomic problem looking for a
           medical solution'
    • Authors: Sullivan P.
      Pages: 1051 - 1052
      Abstract: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED, or environmental enteropathy) is a disorder of chronic intestinal inflammation. It is a disease of poverty and is found widely among children and adults living in unhygienic conditions with constant exposure to enteric pathogens from suboptimal water and sanitation provision (1, 2). The realization that subclinical gut disease is probably the main cause of childhood stunting, as well as low efficacy of oral vaccines and poor neurocognitive development, has led to an explosion of research into EED in the last 2 decades (3). Features of EED thought to contribute to growth failure have included increased gastrointestinal permeability, mucosal inflammation, enteric dysbiosis, bacterial translocation, systemic inflammation, and nutrient malabsorption (4).
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz225
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Dairy foods, dairy fat, diabetes, and death: what can be learned from 3
           large new investigations'
    • Authors: Mozaffarian D.
      Pages: 1053 - 1054
      Abstract: Dairy products are a major component of most diets, contributing ∼10% of calories in the United States (1). Surprisingly, for such a major share of the food supply, their health effects remain remarkably uncertain, insufficiently studied, and controversial. Dietary guidelines on dairy remain largely based on theoretical considerations about isolated nutrients (e.g., theorized benefits of calcium or vitamin D; theorized harms of total fat or saturated fat) or short-term dietary pattern studies of surrogate markers (2), rather than on the mounting evidence on how milk, cheese, yogurt, butter, and other dairy foods relate to major clinical endpoints. Such evidence on health outcomes is crucial, because dairy products appear to be a heterogeneous class with complex effects dependent upon the interplay of diverse nutrients and processing characteristics (e.g., probiotics, fermentation, milk fat globule membrane, and more) (3).
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz250
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • A randomized crossover trial assessing the effects of acute exercise on
           appetite, circulating ghrelin concentrations, and butyrylcholinesterase
           activity in normal-weight males with variants of the obesity-linked FTO
           rs9939609 polymorphism
    • Authors: Dorling J; Clayton D, Jones J, et al.
      Pages: 1055 - 1066
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) rs9939609 A-allele is associated with higher acyl-ghrelin (AG) concentrations, higher energy intake, and obesity, although exercise may mitigate rs9939609 A-allele–linked obesity risk. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) hydrolyzes AG to des-acyl-ghrelin (DAG), potentially decreasing appetite. However, the effects of the FTO rs9939609 genotype and exercise on BChE activity, AG, DAG, and energy intake are unknown.ObjectiveWe hypothesized that individuals homozygous for the obesity-risk A-allele (AAs) would exhibit higher postprandial AG and energy intake than individuals homozygous for the low obesity-risk T-allele (TTs), but that exercise would increase BChE activity and diminish these differences.MethodsTwelve AA and 12 TT normal-weight males completed a control (8 h rest) and an exercise (1 h of exercise at 70% peak oxygen uptake, 7 h rest) trial in a randomized crossover design. A fixed meal was consumed at 1.5 h and an ad libitum buffet meal at 6.5 h. Appetite, appetite-related hormones, BChE activity, and energy intake were assessed.ResultsAAs displayed lower baseline BChE activity, higher baseline AG:DAG ratio, attenuated AG suppression after a fixed meal, and higher ad libitum energy intake compared with TTs [effect sizes (ESs) ≥ 0.72, P ≤ 0.049]. Exercise increased Δ BChE activity in both genotypes (ESs = 0.37, P = 0.004); however, exercise lowered AG and the AG:DAG ratio to a greater extent in AAs (P ≤ 0.023), offsetting the higher AG profile observed in AAs during the control trial (ESs ≥ 1.25, P ≤ 0.048). Exercise did not elevate energy intake in either genotype (P = 0.282).ConclusionsExercise increases BChE activity, suppresses AG and the AG:DAG ratio, and corrects the higher AG profile observed in obesity-risk AA individuals. These findings suggest that exercise or other methods targeting BChE activity may offer a preventative and/or therapeutic strategy for AA individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03025347.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz188
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Dietary intakes of flavan-3-ols and cardiometabolic health: systematic
           review and meta-analysis of randomized trials and prospective cohort
           studies
    • Authors: Raman G; Avendano E, Chen S, et al.
      Pages: 1067 - 1078
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAlthough available data suggest that some dietary flavan-3-ol sources reduce cardiometabolic risk, to our knowledge no review has systematically synthesized their specific contribution.ObjectiveWe aimed to examine, for the first time, if there is consistent evidence that higher flavan-3-ol intake, irrespective of dietary source, reduces cardiometabolic risk.MethodsMEDLINE, Cochrane Central, and Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau abstracts were searched for prospective cohorts and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published from 1946 to March 2019 on flavan-3-ol intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Random-effects models meta-analysis was used. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach assessed the strength of evidence.ResultsOf 15 prospective cohorts (23 publications), 4 found highest compared with lowest habitual intakes of flavan-3-ols were associated with a 13% reduction in risk of CVD mortality and 2 found a 19% reduction in risk of chronic heart disease (CHD) incidence. Highest compared with lowest habitual intakes of monomers were associated with a reduction in risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (n = 5) and stroke (n = 4) (10% and 18%, respectively). No association was found for hypertension. Of 156 RCTs, flavan-3-ol intervention resulted in significant improvements in acute/chronic flow-mediated dilation (FMD), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). All analyses, except HbA1c, were associated with moderate/high heterogeneity. When analyses were limited to good methodological quality studies, improvements in TC, HDL cholesterol, SBP, DBP, HOMA-IR, and acute/chronic FMD remained significant. In GRADE evaluations, there was moderate evidence in cohort studies that flavan-3-ol and monomer intakes were associated with reduced risk of CVD mortality, CHD, stroke, and T2DM, whereas RCTs reported improved TC, HDL cholesterol, SBP, and HOMA-IR.ConclusionsAvailable evidence supports a beneficial effect of flavan-3-ol intake on cardiometabolic outcomes, but there was considerable heterogeneity in the meta-analysis. Future research should focus on an integrated intake/biomarker approach in cohorts and high-quality dose–response RCTs. This review was registered at www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ as CRD42018035782.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz178
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Abdominal adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and
           adolescents: a Mendelian randomization analysis
    • Authors: Viitasalo A; Schnurr T, Pitkänen N, et al.
      Pages: 1079 - 1087
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundMendelian randomization studies in adults suggest that abdominal adiposity is causally associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease in adults, but its causal effect on cardiometabolic risk in children remains unclear.ObjectiveWe aimed to study the causal relation of abdominal adiposity with cardiometabolic risk factors in children by applying Mendelian randomization.MethodsWe constructed a genetic risk score (GRS) using variants previously associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRadjBMI) and examined its associations with cardiometabolic factors by linear regression and Mendelian randomization in a meta-analysis of 6 cohorts, including 9895 European children and adolescents aged 3–17 y.ResultsWHRadjBMI GRS was associated with higher WHRadjBMI (β = 0.021 SD/allele; 95% CI: 0.016, 0.026 SD/allele; P = 3 × 10−15) and with unfavorable concentrations of blood lipids (higher LDL cholesterol: β = 0.006 SD/allele; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.011 SD/allele; P = 0.025; lower HDL cholesterol: β = −0.007 SD/allele; 95% CI: −0.012, −0.002 SD/allele; P = 0.009; higher triglycerides: β = 0.007 SD/allele; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.012 SD/allele; P = 0.006). No differences were detected between prepubertal and pubertal/postpubertal children. The WHRadjBMI GRS had a stronger association with fasting insulin in children and adolescents with overweight/obesity (β = 0.016 SD/allele; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.032 SD/allele; P = 0.037) than in those with normal weight (β = −0.002 SD/allele; 95% CI: −0.010, 0.006 SD/allele; P = 0.605) (P for difference = 0.034). In a 2-stage least-squares regression analysis, each genetically instrumented 1-SD increase in WHRadjBMI increased circulating triglycerides by 0.17 mmol/L (0.35 SD, P = 0.040), suggesting that the relation between abdominal adiposity and circulating triglycerides may be causal.ConclusionsAbdominal adiposity may have a causal, unfavorable effect on plasma triglycerides and potentially other cardiometabolic risk factors starting in childhood. The results highlight the importance of early weight management through healthy dietary habits and physically active lifestyle among children with a tendency for abdominal adiposity.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz187
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Folate status in the US population 20 y after the introduction of folic
           acid fortification
    • Authors: Pfeiffer C; Sternberg M, Zhang M, et al.
      Pages: 1088 - 1097
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundEnriched cereal-grain products have been fortified in the United States for >20 y to improve folate status in women of reproductive age and reduce the risk of folic acid–responsive neural tube birth defects (NTDs).ObjectivesOur objectives were to assess postfortification changes in folate status in the overall US population and in women aged 12–49 y and to characterize recent folate status by demographic group and use of folic acid–containing supplements.MethodsWe examined cross-sectional serum and RBC folate data from the NHANES 1999–2016.ResultsSerum folate geometric means increased from 2007–2010 to 2011–2016 in persons aged ≥1 y (38.7 compared with 40.6 nmol/L) and in women (35.3 compared with 37.0 nmol/L), whereas RBC folate showed no significant change. Younger age groups, men, and Hispanic persons showed increased serum and RBC folate concentrations, whereas non-Hispanic black persons and supplement nonusers showed increased serum folate concentrations. The folate insufficiency prevalence (RBC folate <748 nmol/L; NTD risk) in women decreased from 2007–2010 (23.2%) to 2011–2016 (18.6%) overall and in some subgroups (e.g., women aged 20–39 y, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women, and supplement nonusers). After covariate adjustment, RBC folate was significantly lower in all age groups (by ∼10–20%) compared with persons aged ≥60 y and in Hispanic (by 8.2%), non-Hispanic Asian (by 12.1%), and non-Hispanic black (by 20.5%) compared with non-Hispanic white women (2011–2016). The 90th percentile for serum (∼70 nmol/L) and RBC (∼1800 nmol/L) folate in supplement nonusers aged ≥60 y was similar to the geometric mean in users (2011–2014).ConclusionsBlood folate concentrations in the US population overall and in women have not decreased recently, and folate insufficiency rates are ∼20%. Continued monitoring of all age groups is advisable given the high folate status particularly in older supplement users.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz184
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Short-term dietary reduction of branched-chain amino acids reduces
           meal-induced insulin secretion and modifies microbiome composition in type
           2 diabetes: a randomized controlled crossover trial
    • Authors: Karusheva Y; Koessler T, Strassburger K, et al.
      Pages: 1098 - 1107
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundEpidemiological studies have shown that increased circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This may result from altered energy metabolism or dietary habits.ObjectiveWe hypothesized that a lower intake of BCAAs improves tissue-specific insulin sensitivity.MethodsThis randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, crossover trial examined well-controlled T2D patients receiving isocaloric diets (protein: 1 g/kg body weight) for 4 wk. Protein requirements were covered by commercially available food supplemented ≤60% by an AA mixture either containing all AAs or lacking BCAAs. The dietary intervention ensured sufficient BCAA supply above the recommended minimum daily intake. The patients underwent the mixed meal tolerance test (MMT), hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (HECs), and skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue biopsies to assess insulin signaling.ResultsAfter the BCAA− diet, BCAAs were reduced by 17% during fasting (P < 0.001), by 13% during HEC (P < 0.01), and by 62% during the MMT (P < 0.001). Under clamp conditions, whole-body and hepatic insulin sensitivity did not differ between diets. After the BCAA− diet, however, the oral glucose sensitivity index was 24% (P < 0.01) and circulating fibroblast-growth factor 21 was 21% higher (P < 0.05), whereas meal-derived insulin secretion was 28% lower (P < 0.05). Adipose tissue expression of the mechanistic target of rapamycin was 13% lower, whereas the mitochondrial respiratory control ratio was 1.7-fold higher (both P < 0.05). The fecal microbiome was enriched in Bacteroidetes but depleted of Firmicutes.ConclusionsShort-term dietary reduction of BCAAs decreases postprandial insulin secretion and improves white adipose tissue metabolism and gut microbiome composition. Longer-term studies will be needed to evaluate the safety and metabolic efficacy in diabetes patients.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03261362.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz191
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Quantitative assessment of betainized compounds and associations with
           dietary and metabolic biomarkers in the randomized study of the healthy
           Nordic diet (SYSDIET)
    • Authors: Tuomainen M; Kärkkäinen O, Leppänen J, et al.
      Pages: 1108 - 1118
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundRecently, a group of betainized compounds have been suggested to play a role in health effects in relation to a whole-grain-rich diet.ObjectivesThe aims of this study were to develop a quantitative mass spectrometric method for selected betainized compounds in human plasma, and to investigate their association with nutrient intake and measures of metabolic health in participants of the SYSDIET study.MethodsThe SYSDIET study was a controlled randomized intervention including individuals with metabolic syndrome, where the healthy Nordic diet (HND) group increased intakes of whole grains, canola oil, berries, and fish, whereas the control diet (CD) group consumed low-fiber cereal products, milk fat, and restricted amounts of fish and berries. A quantitative LC combined with triple quadrupole MS method for betainized compounds was developed and applied to fasting plasma samples from baseline (week 0) and the end of the intervention (week 18 or 24). Concentrations of betainized compounds were correlated with intakes of selected nutrients and fiber and measures of metabolic health.ResultsPipecolic acid betaine (PAB) concentrations were significantly higher in the HND group than in the CD group (P = 0.00032) at the end of the intervention and correlated directly (P < 0.0001) with intakes of dietary fiber (r = 0.376) and a biomarker related to whole-grain rye intake, namely the ratio of alkylresorcinol C17:0 to C21:0 (r = 0.442). PAB was associated inversely with fasting plasma insulin consistently at the beginning and at the end of the intervention (P < 0.001, r = −0.300; P < 0.01, r = −0.250, respectively), as well as IL-1 receptor antagonist (P < 0.01, r = −0.232 at the beginning; P < 0.01, r = −0.236 at the end) and serum LDL/HDL cholesterol (P < 0.01, r = −0.239 at the beginning; P < 0.01, r = −0.241 at the end).ConclusionsAmong adults with the metabolic syndrome, PAB plasma concentrations were associated with fasting insulin, inflammation, and lipids and were significantly increased with adoption of the HND. Further studies are needed to clarify the biological functions of betainized compounds. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00992641.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz179
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of depression and poor
           physical function in older persons: the D-Vitaal study, a randomized
           clinical trial
    • Authors: de Koning E; Lips P, Penninx B, et al.
      Pages: 1119 - 1130
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundDepressive symptoms and impaired physical functioning are prevalent among older adults. Supplementation with vitamin D might improve both conditions, particularly in persons with low vitamin D status.ObjectiveThe D-Vitaal study primarily aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on depressive symptoms, functional limitations, and physical performance in a high-risk older population with low vitamin D status. Secondary aims included examining the effect of vitamin D supplementation on anxiety symptoms, cognitive functioning, mobility, handgrip strength, and health-related quality of life.MethodsThis study was a randomized placebo-controlled trial with 155 participants aged 60–80 y who had clinically relevant depressive symptoms, ≥1 functional limitations, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations of 15–50/70 nmol/L (depending on season). Participants received 1200 IU/d vitamin D3 (n = 77) or placebo tablets (n = 78) for 12 mo. Serum 25(OH)D was measured at baseline and 6 mo; outcomes were assessed at baseline, 6 mo, and 12 mo. Linear mixed-models analyses were conducted to assess the effect of the intervention.ResultsThe supplementation increased serum 25(OH)D concentrations in the intervention group to a mean ± SD of 85 ± 16 nmol/L compared with 43 ± 18 nmol/L in the placebo group after 6 mo (P < 0.001). No relevant differences between the treatment groups were observed regarding depressive symptoms, functional limitations, physical performance, or any of the secondary outcomes.ConclusionsSupplementation with 1200 IU/d vitamin D for 12 mo had no effect on depressive symptoms and physical functioning in older persons with relatively low vitamin D status, clinically relevant depressive symptoms, and poor physical functioning. This trial is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register (www.trialregister.nl) under NTR3845.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz141
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Formate concentrations in maternal plasma during pregnancy and in cord
           blood in a cohort of pregnant Canadian women: relations to genetic
           polymorphisms and plasma metabolites
    • Authors: Brosnan J; Plumptre L, Brosnan M, et al.
      Pages: 1131 - 1137
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundOne-carbon metabolism, responsible for purine and thymidylate synthesis and transmethylation reactions, plays a critical role in embryonic and fetal development. Formate is a key player in one-carbon metabolism. In contrast to other one-carbon metabolites, it is not linked to tetrahydrofolate, is present in plasma at appreciable concentrations, and may therefore be distributed to different tissues.ObjectiveThe study was designed to determine the concentration of formate in cord blood in comparison with maternal blood taken earlier in pregnancy and at delivery and to relate formate concentrations to potential precursors and key fetal genotypes.MethodsFormate and amino acids were measured in plasma during early pregnancy (12–16 wk), at delivery (37–42 wk), and in cord blood samples from 215 mothers, of a prospective cohort study. Three fetal genetic variants in one-carbon metabolism were assessed for their association with cord plasma concentrations of formate.ResultsThe formate concentration was ∼60% higher in the cord blood samples than in mothers’ plasma. The maternal formate concentrations did not differ between the early pregnancy samples and those taken at delivery. Plasma concentrations of 4 formate precursors (serine, glycine, tryptophan, and methionine) were increased in cord blood compared with the maternal samples. Cord blood formate was influenced by fetal genotype, being ∼12% higher in infants harboring the MTHFR A1298C (rs1801131) AC or CC genotypes and 10% lower in infants harboring the MTHFD1 G1958A (rs2236225) GA or AA genotypes.ConclusionsThe increased formate concentrations in cord blood may support the increased activity of one-carbon metabolism in infants. As such, it would support increased rates of purine and thymidylate synthesis and the provision of methionine for methylation reactions.
      PubDate: Sat, 27 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz152
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on insulin resistance and β-cell
           function in prediabetes: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled
           trial
    • Authors: Wallace H; Holmes L, Ennis C, et al.
      Pages: 1138 - 1147
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundObservational studies have suggested an inverse association between low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and development of type 2 diabetes. High-quality trials are required to test the hypothesis that vitamin D is a direct contributor to type 2 diabetes pathogenesis.ObjectiveThe purpose of this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on insulin resistance (IR) and β-cell function in people with prediabetes and suboptimal vitamin D status (<50 nmol/L).MethodsSixty-six individuals were randomly assigned to receive 3000 IU (75 µg) vitamin D3 or placebo daily for 26 wk. Compliance was monitored by pill count and change in serum 25(OH)D concentration using LC-MS. The primary endpoint was between-group difference in change in IR assessed using a 2-step euglycemic–hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with infusion of tritiated glucose. An oral-glucose-tolerance test was performed pre- and postintervention to calculate indices of β-cell function. Between-group comparisons were made using ANCOVA.ResultsIn total, 64 participants completed the study. Baseline serum 25(OH)D concentrations in the vitamin D3 and placebo group were 30.7 and 30.0 nmol/L, with status increasing by 70.5 nmol/L and 5.3 nmol/L, respectively (between-group difference in vitamin D: 65.8 nmol/L; 95% CI: 54.2, 77.3 nmol/L; P < 0.01), after supplementation. There was no difference between groups in measures of whole-body, peripheral, or hepatic IR or in any measure of glycemic control or β-cell function.ConclusionThis study employed a robust assessment of IR and β-cell function and targeted a high-risk population with low 25(OH)D status at baseline and found that vitamin D3 supplementation had no effect on insulin action in people with prediabetes.This trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01889810.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz171
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Vitamin E absorption and kinetics in healthy women, as modulated by food
           and by fat, studied using 2 deuterium-labeled α-tocopherols in a 3-phase
           crossover design
    • Authors: Traber M; Leonard S, Ebenuwa I, et al.
      Pages: 1148 - 1167
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundDetermining the human vitamin E [α-tocopherol (α-T)] requirement is difficult, and novel approaches to assess α-T absorption and trafficking are needed.ObjectiveWe hypothesized that the dual-isotope technique, using 2 deuterium-labeled [intravenous (IV) d6- and oral d3-] α-T, would be effective in determining α-T fractional absorption. Further, defined liquid meal (DLM) fat or fasting would modulate α-T fractional absorption and lipoprotein transport.MethodsA 3-phase cr ossover design was used. At 0 h, participants received IV d6-α-T and consumed d3-α-T with a 600-kcal DLM (40% or 0% fat) followed by controlled meals or by the 0% fat DLM, a 12-h fast, and then controlled meals. Blood samples and fecal samples were collected at intervals and analyzed by LC-MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from plasma tracer concentrations and enrichments. Fractional absorption was calculated from d3- to d6-α-T areas under the curve, from a novel mathematical model, and from the balance method (oral d3-α-T minus fecal d3-α-T excreted).ResultsEstimated α-T fractional absorption during the 40% fat intervention was 55% ± 3% (mean ± SEM; n = 10), which was 9% less than during the 0% fat intervention (64% ± 3%, n = 10; P < 0.02). Fasting had no apparent effect (56% ± 3%, n = 7), except it slowed plasma oral d3-α-T appearance. Both balance data and model outcomes confirmed that the DLM fat did not potentiate d3-α-T absorption. During the IV emulsion clearance, HDL rapidly acquired d6-α-T (21 ± 2 nmol/L plasma per minute). During the first 8 h postdosing, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) were preferentially d3-α-T enriched relative to LDL or HDL, showing the TRL precursor role.ConclusionsQuantitatively, α-T absorption is not limited by fat absence or by fasting. However, α-T leaves the intestine by a process that is prolonged during fasting and potentiated by eating, suggesting that α-T absorption is highly dependent on chylomicron assembly processes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00862433.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz172
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Bariatric surgery and the risk of congenital anomalies in subsequent
           pregnancies
    • Authors: Auger N; Bilodeau-Bertrand M, Tith R, et al.
      Pages: 1168 - 1174
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundData on the relationship between bariatric surgery and risk of birth defects are conflicting.ObjectivesWe studied the association of bariatric surgery with birth defects in future pregnancies in a large cohort of women.MethodsWe carried out a retrospective cohort study of 2,194,348 pregnancies that occurred between 1989 and 2016 in Quebec, Canada. We identified women who had bariatric surgery before pregnancy, and included nonobese women with no surgery as a comparison group. We estimated risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs for the associations between bariatric surgery and the risk of birth defects, using log-binomial regression models adjusted for maternal age, comorbidities, parity, whether there was a multiple birth, socioeconomic deprivation, and the presence of folic acid food fortification.ResultsIn this study, 1845 deliveries were among women who had bariatric surgery before pregnancy (0.08%). Having bariatric surgery was associated with 1.20 times the risk of birth defects in later pregnancies (95% CI: 1.01, 1.43), compared with having no surgery or obesity. Obesity without having bariatric surgery was, in contrast, more weakly associated with birth defects (RR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.12). The association with bariatric surgery was greater for heart (RR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.12) and musculoskeletal defects (RR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.71). Associations were primarily present before folic acid food fortification was implemented (RR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.41, 2.92), but not after (RR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.28).ConclusionsHaving bariatric surgery was a risk factor for birth defects, and particularly heart and musculoskeletal defects. After fortification, however, an association was no longer present. Future studies are needed to determine whether micronutrient supplementation underpins the difference in the changing results pre- and postfortification.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz195
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Body mass index trajectories in early childhood in relation to
           cardiometabolic risk profile and body composition at 5 years of age
    • Authors: Wibaek R; Vistisen D, Girma T, et al.
      Pages: 1175 - 1185
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundBoth impaired and accelerated postnatal growth have been associated with adult risks of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, like type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, the timing of the onset of cardiometabolic changes and the specific growth trajectories linking early growth with later disease risks are not well understood.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to identify distinct trajectories of BMI growth from 0 to 5 y and examine their associations with body composition and markers of cardiometabolic risk at age 5 y.MethodsIn a prospective birth cohort study of 453 healthy and term Ethiopian children with BMIs assessed a median of 9 times during follow-up, we identified subgroups of distinct BMI trajectories in early childhood using latent class trajectory modeling. Associations of the identified growth trajectories with cardiometabolic markers and body composition at 5 y were analyzed using multiple linear regression analyses in 4 adjustment models for each outcome.ResultsWe identified 4 heterogeneous BMI growth trajectories: stable low BMI (19.2%), normal BMI (48.8%), rapid catch-up to high BMI (17.9%), and slow catch-up to high BMI (14.1%). Compared with the normal BMI trajectory, children in the rapid catch-up to high BMI trajectory had higher triglycerides (TGs) (range of β-coefficients in Models 1–4: 19–21%), C-peptides (23–25%), fat masses (0.48–0.60 kg), and fat-free masses (0.50–0.77 kg) across the 4 adjustment models. Children in the stable low BMI trajectory had lower LDL cholesterol concentrations (0.14–0.17 mmol/L), HDL cholesterol concentrations (0.05–0.09 mmol/L), fat masses (0.60–0.64 kg), and fat-free masses (0.35–0.49 kg), but higher TGs (11–13%).ConclusionsThe development of obesity and cardiometabolic risks may be established already in early childhood; thus, our data provide a further basis for timely interventions targeted at young children from low-income countries with unfavorable growth patterns. The birth cohort was registered at ISRCTN as ISRCTN46718296.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz170
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Quantifying energy expenditure in childhood: utility in managing pediatric
           metabolic disorders
    • Authors: Watson L; Carr K, Venables M, et al.
      Pages: 1186 - 1191
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundEnergy expenditure prediction equations are used to estimate energy intake based on general population measures. However, when using equations to compare with a disease cohort with known metabolic abnormalities, it is important to derive one's own equations based on measurement conditions matching the disease cohort.ObjectiveWe aimed to use newly developed prediction equations based on a healthy pediatric population to describe and predict resting energy expenditure (REE) in a cohort of pediatric patients with thyroid disorders.MethodsBody composition was measured by DXA and REE was assessed by indirect calorimetry in 201 healthy participants. A prediction equation for REE was derived in 100 healthy participants using multiple linear regression and z scores were calculated. The equation was validated in 101 healthy participants. This method was applied to participants with resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) disorders, due to mutations in either thyroid hormone receptor β or α (β: female n = 17, male n = 9; α: female n = 1, male n = 1), with deviation of REE in patients compared with the healthy population presented by the difference in z scores.ResultsThe prediction equation for REE = 0.061 * Lean soft tissue (kg) − 0.138 * Sex (0 male, 1 female) + 2.41 (R2 = 0.816). The mean ± SD of the residuals is −0.02 ± 0.44 kJ/min. Mean ± SD REE z scores for RTHβ patients are −0.02 ± 1.26. z Scores of −1.69 and −2.05 were recorded in male (n = 1) and female ( n = 1) RTHα patients.ConclusionsWe have described methodology whereby differences in REE between patients with a metabolic disorder and healthy participants can be expressed as a z score. This approach also enables change in REE after a clinical intervention (e.g., thyroxine treatment of RTHα) to be monitored.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz177
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Dairy fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in 3 cohorts of US men and
           women
    • Authors: Ardisson Korat A; Li Y, Sacks F, et al.
      Pages: 1192 - 1200
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundPrevious studies have examined dairy products with various fat contents in relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, although data regarding dairy fat intake per se are sparse.ObjectivesWe aimed to evaluate the association between dairy fat intake and risk of T2D in 3 prospective cohorts. We also examined associations for isocalorically replacing dairy fat with other macronutrients.MethodsWe prospectively followed 41,808 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS; 1986–2012), 65,929 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS; 1984–2012), and 89,565 women in the NHS II (1991–2013). Diet was assessed quadrennially using validated FFQs. Fat intake from dairy products and other relevant sources was expressed as percentage of total energy. Self-reported incident T2D cases were confirmed using validated supplementary questionnaires. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the HR for dairy fat intake and T2D risk.ResultsDuring 4,219,457 person-years of follow-up, we documented 16,511 incident T2D cases. Dairy fat was not associated with risk of T2D when compared with calories from carbohydrates (HR for extreme quintiles: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.02). Replacing 5% of calories from dairy fat with other sources of animal fat or carbohydrate from refined grains was associated with a 17% (HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.21) and a 4% (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) higher risk of T2D, respectively. Conversely, a 5% calorie replacement with carbohydrate from whole grains was associated with a 7% lower risk of T2D (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.98).ConclusionsDairy fat intake was not associated with T2D risk in these cohort studies of US men and women when compared with calories from carbohydrate. Replacing dairy fat with carbohydrates from whole grains was associated with lower risk of T2D. Replacement with other animal fats or refined carbohydrates was associated with higher risk.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz176
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Changes in dairy product consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: results
           from 3 large prospective cohorts of US men and women
    • Authors: Drouin-Chartier J; Li Y, Ardisson Korat A, et al.
      Pages: 1201 - 1212
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundWhether changes in dairy product consumption are related to subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unknown.ObjectiveWe evaluated the association of long-term changes in dairy product consumption with subsequent risk of T2D among US men and women.MethodsWe followed up 34,224 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986–2012), 76,531 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (1986–2012), and 81,597 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II (1991–2013). Changes in dairy consumption were calculated from consecutive quadrennial FFQs. Multivariable Cox proportional regression models were used to calculate HRs for T2D associated with changes in dairy product consumption. Results of the 3 cohorts were pooled using an inverse variance–weighted, fixed-effect meta-analysis.ResultsDuring 2,783,210 person-years, we documented 11,906 incident T2D cases. After adjustment for initial and changes in diet and lifestyle covariates, decreasing total dairy intake by >1.0 serving/d over a 4-y period was associated with an 11% (95% CI: 3%, 19%) higher risk of T2D in the subsequent 4 y compared with maintaining a relatively stable consumption (i.e., change in intake of ±1.0 serving/wk). Increasing yogurt consumption by >0.5 serving/d was associated with an 11% (95% CI: 4%, 18%) lower T2D risk, whereas increasing cheese consumption by >0.5 serving/d was associated with a 9% (95% CI: 2%, 16%) higher risk compared with maintaining stable intakes. Substituting 1 serving/d of yogurt or reduced-fat milk for cheese was associated with a 16% (95% CI: 10%, 22%) or 12% (95% CI: 8%, 16%) lower T2D risk, respectively.ConclusionsIncreasing yogurt consumption was associated with a moderately lower risk of T2D, whereas increasing cheese consumption was associated with a moderately higher risk among US men and women. Our study suggests that substituting yogurt or reduced-fat milk for cheese is associated with a lower risk of T2D.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz180
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Associations between dietary vitamin intake, ABCA1 gene promoter DNA
           methylation, and lipid profiles in a Japanese population
    • Authors: Fujii R; Yamada H, Munetsuna E, et al.
      Pages: 1213 - 1219
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundHigher intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of specific types of cancer and of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the protective role of the vitamins contained in fruits and vegetables on CVD is controversial. This discrepancy can raise the question of the effects of antioxidants in vitamins on CVD. Recently, we reported that higher vegetable intake was significantly associated with the decreased DNA methylation level of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a gene associated with HDL-cholesterol metabolism.ObjectiveWe investigated whether ABCA1 DNA methylation mediates an effect of dietary vitamin intake on lipid profiles, an important risk factor for CVD, in a Japanese population.MethodsA total of 225 individuals (108 men and 117 women) with no clinical history and no drug use for dyslipidemia participated in this cross-sectional study. We used the pyrosequencing method to measure the ABCA1 DNA methylation levels at 8 CpG sites, and we used mean DNA methylation level in statistical analysis. Dietary vitamin intake was assessed with the FFQ and adjusted for the residual method.ResultsIn women, higher dietary vitamin intake [vitamin A, β-carotene, folic acid, vitamin C (VC), vitamin D, and vitamin E] was significantly associated with lower mean ABCA1 DNA methylation levels (P = 0.004, 0.03, 0.005, 0.001, 0.03, and 0.04, respectively). In addition, in women, we found a significant inverse association between mean ABCA1 DNA methylation and HDL cholesterol (P = 0.04) but not for other lipid indexes. Mediation analysis showed a significant indirect effect of VC intake on HDL cholesterol through ABCA1 DNA methylation level in women (P = 0.04).ConclusionsAlthough this study does not prove causality, the results suggest that ABCA1 DNA methylation mediates the protective effect of VC on HDL cholesterol in women, which could offer a novel biological mechanism in CVD prevention.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz181
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Associations of dairy product consumption with mortality in the European
           
    • Authors: Pala V; Sieri S, Chiodini P, et al.
      Pages: 1220 - 1230
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe relation of dairy product consumption to health and mortality is controversial.ObjectivesWe investigated associations of consumption of various dairy products with mortality in the Italian cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)–Italy study.MethodsDairy product consumption was assessed by validated semiquantitative FFQs. Multivariable Cox models stratified by center, age, and sex and adjusted for confounders estimated associations of milk (total, full fat, and reduced fat), yogurt, cheese, butter, and dairy calcium consumption with mortality for cancer, cardiovascular disease, and all causes. Nonlinearity was tested by restricted cubic spline regression.ResultsAfter a median follow-up of 14.9 y, 2468 deaths were identified in 45,009 participants: 59% from cancer and 19% from cardiovascular disease. No significant association of consumption of any dairy product with mortality was found in the fully adjusted models. A 25% reduction in risk of all-cause mortality was found for milk intake from 160 to 120 g/d (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.91) but not for the highest (>200 g/d) category of intake (HR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.08) compared with nonconsumption. Associations of full-fat and reduced-fat milk consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality were similar to those for milk as a whole.ConclusionsIn this Italian cohort characterized by low to average milk consumption, we found no evidence of a dose–response association between milk consumption and mortality and also no association of consumption of other dairy products investigated with mortality.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz183
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Does exclusion of extreme reporters of energy intake (the “Goldberg
           cutoffs”) reliably reduce or eliminate bias in nutrition studies'
           Analysis with illustrative associations of energy intake with health
           outcomes
    • Authors: Ejima K; Brown A, Schoeller D, et al.
      Pages: 1231 - 1239
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe Goldberg cutoffs are used to decrease bias in self-reported estimates of energy intake (EISR). Whether the cutoffs reduce and eliminate bias when used in regressions of health outcomes has not been assessed.ObjectiveWe examined whether applying the Goldberg cutoffs to data used in nutrition studies could reliably reduce or eliminate bias.MethodsWe used data from the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-Term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE), the Interactive Diet and Activity Tracking in American Association of Retired Persons (IDATA) study, and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). Each data set included EISR, energy intake estimated from doubly labeled water (EIDLW) as a reference method, and health outcomes including baseline anthropometric, biomarker, and behavioral measures and fitness test results. We conducted 3 linear regression analyses using EISR, a plausible EISR based on the Goldberg cutoffs (EIG), and EIDLW as an explanatory variable for each analysis. Regression coefficients were denoted ${\hat{\beta }_{\rm SR}}$, ${\hat{\beta }_{\rm G}}$, and ${\hat{\beta }_{\rm DLW}}$, respectively. Using the jackknife method, bias from ${\hat{\beta }_{\rm SR}}$ compared with ${\hat{\beta }_{\rm DLW}}$ and remaining bias from ${\hat{\beta }_{\rm G}}$ compared with ${\hat{\beta }_{\rm DLW}}$ were estimated. Analyses were repeated using Pearson correlation coefficients.ResultsThe analyses from CALERIE, IDATA, and NDNS included 218, 349, and 317 individuals, respectively. Using EIG significantly decreased the bias only for a subset of those variables with significant bias: weight (56.1%; 95% CI: 28.5%, 83.7%) and waist circumference (WC) (59.8%; 95% CI: 33.2%, 86.5%) with CALERIE, weight (20.8%; 95% CI: −6.4%, 48.1%) and WC (17.3%; 95% CI: −20.8%, 55.4%) with IDATA, and WC (−9.5%; 95% CI: −72.2%, 53.1%) with NDNS. Furthermore, bias significantly remained even after excluding implausible data for various outcomes. Results obtained with Pearson correlation coefficient analyses were qualitatively consistent.ConclusionsSome associations between EIG and outcomes remained biased compared with associations between EIDLW and outcomes. Use of the Goldberg cutoffs was not a reliable method for eliminating bias.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz198
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Tryptophan, glutamine, leucine, and micronutrient supplementation improves
           environmental enteropathy in Zambian adults: a randomized controlled trial
           
    • Authors: Louis-Auguste J; Besa E, Zyambo K, et al.
      Pages: 1240 - 1252
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundEnvironmental enteropathy (EE) refers to villus blunting, reduced absorption, and microbial translocation in children and adults in tropical or deprived residential areas. In previous work we observed an effect of micronutrients on villus height (VH).ObjectiveWe aimed to determine, in a randomized controlled trial, if amino acid (AA) or multiple micronutrient (MM) supplementation can improve intestinal structure or barrier dysfunction in Zambian adults with EE.MethodsAA (tryptophan, leucine, and glutamine) and/or MM supplements were given for 16 wk in a 2 × 2 factorial comparison against placebo. Primary outcomes were changes in VH, in vivo small intestinal barrier dysfunction assessed by confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE), and mechanistic (or mammalian) target of rapamycin complex 1 (MTORC1) nutrient responsiveness in lamina propria CD4+ lymphocytes.ResultsOver 16 wk AA, but not MM, supplementation increased VH by 16% (34.5 μm) compared with placebo (P = 0.04). Fluorescein leak, measured by CLE, improved only in those allocated to both AA and MM supplementation. No effect was seen on MTORC1 activation, but posttreatment MTORC1 and VH were correlated (ρ = 0.51; P = 0.001), and change in MTORC1 was correlated with change in VH in the placebo group (ρ = 0.63; P = 0.03). In secondary analyses no effect was observed on biomarkers of microbial translocation. Metabolomic analyses suggest alterations in a number of microbial- and host-derived metabolites including the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, which was increased by AA supplementation and correlated with VH.ConclusionsIn this phase 2 trial, AA supplementation protected against a decline in VH over the supplementation period, and improved barrier function when combined with micronutrients. Leucine and MTORC1 metabolism may be involved in the mechanism of effect. This trial was registered at www.pactr.org as PACTR201505001104412.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz189
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Methodological error in measurement of energy expenditure by the doubly
           labeled water method: much ado about nothing'
    • Authors: Ludwig D; Ebbeling C, Wong J, et al.
      Pages: 1253 - 1254
      Abstract: Dear Editor:
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz156
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Reply to DS Ludwig et al.
    • Authors: Hall K; Guo J, Chen K, et al.
      Pages: 1255 - 1256
      Abstract: Dear Editor:
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz157
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Is a high workload an unaccounted confounding factor in the relation
           between heavy coffee consumption and cardiovascular disease risk'
    • Authors: Atroszko P.
      Pages: 1257 - 1258
      Abstract: Dear Editor:
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz164
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Reply to PA Atroszko
    • Authors: Zhou A; Hyppönen E.
      Pages: 1259 - 1260
      Abstract: Dear Editor:
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz165
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Reply to MF Rolland-Cachera and KF Michaelsen
    • Authors: Switkowski K; Jacques P, Must A, et al.
      Pages: 1261 - 1262
      Abstract: Dear Editor:
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz194
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Corrigendum to: Blueberries improve biomarkers of cardiometabolic function
           in participants with metabolic syndrome—results from a 6-month,
           double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2019;109:1535-45
           
    • Pages: 1262 - 1262
      Abstract: Corrigendum to: Blueberries improve biomarkers of cardiometabolic function in participants with metabolic syndrome—results from a 6-month, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2019;109:1535-45.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz214
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Calendar of Events
    • Pages: 1263 - 1263
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz263
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Protein intake in young children and later health: importance of the time
           window for programming adiposity
    • Authors: Rolland-Cachera M; Michaelsen K.
      Pages: 1263 - 1264
      Abstract: Dear Editor:
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz193
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • The iodine nutritional status in the Italian population: data from the
           Italian National Observatory for Monitoring Iodine Prophylaxis (OSNAMI)
           (period 2015–2019)
    • Authors: Olivieri A; Andò S, Bagnasco M, et al.
      Pages: 1265 - 1266
      Abstract: Dear Editor:
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz206
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Reply to A Olivieri et al.
    • Authors: Campanozzi A; Macchia P, De Filippo G, et al.
      Pages: 1267 - 1267
      Abstract: Dear Editor:
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz207
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 5 (2019)
       
 
 
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