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Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.611
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 303  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0018-9251
Published by IEEE Homepage  [191 journals]
  • IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society
    • Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • From the Editor-in-Chief
    • Authors: M. Rice;
      Pages: 2627 - 2627
      Abstract: Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • A Trajectory-Driven Opportunistic Routing Protocol for VCPS
    • Authors: Yue Cao;Omprakash Kaiwartya;Nauman Aslam;Chong Han;Xu Zhang;Yuan Zhuang;Mehrdad Dianati;
      Pages: 2628 - 2642
      Abstract: By exploring sensing, computing, and communication capabilities on vehicles, vehicular cyber-physical systems (VCPS) are promising solutions to provide road safety and traffic efficiency in intelligent transportation systems. Due to high mobility and sparse network density, VCPS could be severely affected by intermittent connectivity. In this paper, we propose a trajectory-driven opportunistic routing (TDOR) protocol, which is primarily applied for sparse networks, e.g., delay/disruption tolerant networks (DTNs). With geographic routing protocol designed in DTNs, existing works primarily consider the proximity to destination as a criterion for next-hop selections. Differently, by utilizing GPS information of on-board vehicle navigation system to help with data transmission, TDOR selects the relay node based on the proximity to trajectory. This aims to provide reliable and efficient message delivery, i.e., high delivery ratio and low-transmission overhead. TDOR is more immune to disruptions, due to unfavorable mobility of intermediate nodes. Performance evaluation results show TDOR outperforms well-known opportunistic geographic routing protocols, and achieves much lower routing overhead for comparable delivery ratio.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Performance of Satellite Digital Transparent Processors Through Equivalent
    • Authors: V. Sulli;F. Santucci;M. Faccio;D. Giancristofaro;
      Pages: 2643 - 2661
      Abstract: This paper presents a novel analysis and design of satellite digital transparent processors. An equivalent noise model is developed and validated to characterize the nonideal behaviours in all stages of a digital on-board processor, and the typical link-budget approach is extended to incorporate the related noise contributions. The theoretical framework is then exploited to support an explicit design procedure that relates typical link-budget performance indices to the final HW specifications of every single processing block.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Preview Control and Particle Filtering for Automatic Carrier Landing
    • Authors: Ziyang Zhen;Shuoying Jiang;Ju Jiang;
      Pages: 2662 - 2674
      Abstract: This paper studies the automatic carrier landing control problem of aircrafts with the system dynamics of nonlinearity and multivariable coupling, by applying preview control scheme. An automatic carrier landing system is developed, including a particle filtering based flight deck motion prediction, a corrected reference glide slope generation and an integrated guidance and control modules. A preview control algorithm is presented to guarantee the optimal tracking performance, and simulations demonstrate the better carrier landing performance under the deck motion and airwake disturbances, comparing with the proportional-integral-derivative control scheme.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Estimation of Direction of Arrival by Time Reversal for Low-Angle Targets
    • Authors: Xiaolu Zeng;Minglei Yang;Baixiao Chen;Yuanwei Jin;
      Pages: 2675 - 2694
      Abstract: In a low-angle target parameter estimation scenario, the backscattered signals from targets are often distorted due to clutter and multipath, which significantly degrades the performance of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. In general, the backscattered multipaths are modeled as coherent signals with respect to the direct path. Decorrelation algorithms such as spatial smoothing and matrix reconstruction can mitigate the effect of multipath. However, most of these methods will perform poorly or even fail for solving parameter estimation problem of low-angle targets in complex terrain where there are rich multipath scatterings. This paper presents a novel method that combines time reversal (TR) technique, coherent signal-subspace method (CSM), and multiple signal classification algorithm to perform DOA estimation in a low-angle target scenario. The TR technique takes advantage of multipath echoes recorded by a sensor array and adaptively adjusts TR probing waveforms to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in a rich scattering environment. Moreover, the CSM method compresses the energy of a signal into a predefined subspace to exploit the full time-bandwidth product of signal sources and cope with coherent wavefronts. As a result, the proposed new DOA estimation algorithm outperforms significantly the conventional methods. The Cramer–Rao bounds analysis and numerical simulations commendably validate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • FMER: An Energy-Efficient Error Recovery Methodology for SRAM-Based FPGA
    • Authors: Dimitris Agiakatsikas;Ediz Cetin;Oliver Diessel;
      Pages: 2695 - 2712
      Abstract: This paper introduces frame- and module-based configuration memory error recovery (FMER), that is, a FMER technique targeting triple modular redundant (TMR) designs that are realized on SRAM-based FPGAs. Module-based configuration memory (CM) error recovery (MER) is used to reconfigure on demand the CM of faulty TMR modules, whereas the remaining CM of the device recovers from soft errors with periodic scrubbing. We derive reliability, availability, and power consumption models of TMR designs that incorporate FMER, MER, blind scrubbing, and no recovery at all, and show that FMER is particularly beneficial for missions that require high reliability or availability subject to a low-energy budget.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Hankel Matrix Rank as Indicator of Ghost in Bearing-Only Tracking
    • Authors: Korkut Bekiroglu;Mustafa Ayazoglu;Constantino Lagoa;Mario Sznaier;
      Pages: 2713 - 2723
      Abstract: Usually, bearing angle measurements are employed in triangulation methods to display the position of targets. However, in multiradar and multitarget scenarios, triangulation approaches bring out ghosts that operate like real targets. This paper proposes a target/ghost classifier that relies on the fact that the trajectory of a ghost is actually a function of trajectories of at least two targets and therefore, the complexity of a ghost trajectory is “greater” than the complexity of targets’ trajectories.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • An Extended Fast Factorized Back Projection Algorithm for Missile-Borne
           Bistatic Forward-Looking SAR Imaging
    • Authors: Dong Feng;Daoxiang An;Xiaotao Huang;
      Pages: 2724 - 2734
      Abstract: In this paper, an extended fast factorized back projection (FFBP) algorithm is proposed to focus the missile-borne bistatic forward-looking synthetic aperture radar (BFSAR) data. It is also based on the subaperture processing technique to reduce the computational burden, but represents the subimages on the elliptical polar coordinates referenced to the tracks of both transmitter and receiver. First, the imaging geometry and signal model of the missile-borne BFSAR are established. Then, considering the special configuration of the missile-borne BFSAR, a novel elliptical polar coordinate system whose origin is determined by the positions of both transmitter and receiver is established. The subaperture processing approach based on this coordinate system is presented. Successively, based on the range error analysis, the sampling requirements of the elliptical polar subimages are derived to provide a tradeoff between the imaging quality and efficiency. Finally, the computational burden of the proposed algorithm is discussed, and the speed-up factor of the proposed algorithm with respect to the direct back projection algorithm is derived. The experimental results with simulated data prove the validity and feasibility of the proposed algorithm.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Measurement Extraction for a Point Target From an Optical Sensor
    • Authors: Qin Lu;Yaakov Bar-Shalom;Peter Willett;Balakumar Balasingam;
      Pages: 2735 - 2745
      Abstract: This paper considers the measurement extraction for a point target from an optical sensor's focal plane array (FPA) with a dead zone separating neighboring pixels. Assuming that the energy density of the target deposited in the FPA conforms to a Gaussian point spread function and that the noise mean and variance in each pixel are proportional to the pixel area (i.e., according to a Poisson noise model), we derive the Cramér–Rao lower bound (CRLB) for the covariance of the estimated target location. It is observed that that there is an optimal pixel size that minimizes the CRLB for a given dead-zone width, and the maximum likelihood estimator is shown to be efficient via Monte Carlo runs for moderate-to-large signal-to-noise ratios. The test statistic for target detection is derived and it is shown to be a matched filter at the estimated location. The distributions of the test statistic under both hypotheses are derived using some approximations. The detection probability is then obtained.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Multifunction Radio Frequency Photonic Array With Beam-Space
           Down-Converting Receiver
    • Authors: Joseph C. Deroba;Garrett J. Schneider;Christopher A. Schuetz;Dennis W. Prather;
      Pages: 2746 - 2761
      Abstract: A multifunction photonic beam-space array processor is shown to generate the beam space of an X-band array. Subsequent down-conversion of desired beams is performed via introduction of an optical local oscillator and high-speed photodetectors at the processor output. A separate optical path is used to “image” the full field of view of the input array for real-time angle-of-arrival estimation. Finally, experimental results showing simultaneous processing of output beams for a radar waveform and an in-band communications signal are presented. The recovery of a 10-MHz bandwidth, quaternary phase-shift keying communications signal with a nominal error vector magnitude of 15.5% is performed via a vector signal analyzer, whereas a custom digital beam-space beam-forming processor is shown to process the same beam data to recover a 100-MHz chirp radar waveform while simultaneously canceling the in-band communications signal by approximately 20 dB via an adaptive spatial null.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Contracting Angular Velocity Observer For Small Satellites
    • Authors: Rafael Chávez-Moreno;Yu Tang;Juan-Carlos Hernández;Haibo Ji;
      Pages: 2762 - 2775
      Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of estimating the angular velocity given noisy attitude measurements for attitude control in small satellites. Based on contraction analysis, a set of global exponentially convergent observers, namely, reduced-order, complete-order, and synchronized observers is designed. Simulations and experimental results are presented to illustrate their performance.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Partial-Reference Sonar Image Quality Assessment for Underwater
    • Authors: Weiling Chen;Ke Gu;Xiongkuo Min;Fei Yuan;En Cheng;Wenjun Zhang;
      Pages: 2776 - 2787
      Abstract: The rapid growth of ocean exploration has led to an increase in the demand of sonar images, since they contain a great amount of information collected by sonar systems such as distributions of underwater creatures and minerals. For further analysis, sonar images usually need to be transmitted via underwater acoustic channel (UAC). However, the hostile nature of UAC makes the transmitted sonar images have high probability to be afflicted with distortions introduced in transmission procedures. To monitor image quality, a partial-reference sonar image quality predictor (PSIQP) is proposed in this paper. A unique property that differentiates the proposed PSIQP metric from existing works is the consideration of the viewing behavior of the human visual system for sonar images, which motivates us to take both image perception and understanding into consideration. The results of experiments based on sonar image quality database show that the proposed metric provides accurate predictions across a variety of compression and transmission distortions.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Search-Detect-Track Sensor Allocation for Geosynchronous Space Objects
    • Authors: Steven Gehly;Brandon A. Jones;Penina Axelrad;
      Pages: 2788 - 2808
      Abstract: The initiation of tracks for newly discovered objects presents unique challenges in space situational awareness. Recent work explores the use of admissible regions to initialize filters for space object tracking; however, these methods require follow-on measurements to refine the initial admissible region solution. This paper presents an approach to the joint search and track problem, designed to allow a single sensor to build and maintain a catalog of objects without requiring an a priori estimate.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Bistatic ISAR Imaging and Scaling of Highly Maneuvering Target With
           Complex Motion via Compressive Sensing
    • Authors: Min-Seok Kang;Seong-Hyeon Lee;Kyung-Tae Kim;Ji-Hoon Bae;
      Pages: 2809 - 2826
      Abstract: The bistatic configuration used for inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging has attracted considerable attention because of its potential for overcoming certain monostatic ISAR imaging limitations. However, translational motion compensation (TMC) and rotational motion compensation (RMC) are the most fundamental requirements for both bistatic ISAR (Bi-ISAR) and monostatic ISAR imaging to obtain the high levels of image resolution desired. Moreover, range and cross-range scaling (RCRS) and bistatic distortion correction (BDC) are essential functionalities for the efficient use of Bi-ISAR images in applications. In this paper, a novel approach to sparse aperture (SA) Bi-ISAR imaging is presented for simultaneously performing TMC, RMC, RCRS, and BDC on maneuvering targets based on compressive sensing. Instead of solving conventional optimization problems constrained by the sparsity of the signals, the proposed method utilizes sensing matrix estimation technique for Bi-ISAR image reconstruction using parametric signal model reconstruction by looking for the basis functions that best represent the behavior of sensing dictionary matrix comprised of the observed SA data. The reconstruction of the sensing matrix is based on a modified orthogonal matching pursuit (MOMP)-type basis function-searching scheme. Finally, we generate a focused and scaled Bi-ISAR image from the complete Bi-ISAR signal recovered using the proposed method. Several simulation results reveals that the proposed method is very efficient in forming Bi-ISAR images of high-speed maneuvering targets in terms of the Bi-ISAR signal reconstruction accuracy.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Precision of PPP as a Function of the Observing-Session Duration
    • Authors: Maurizio Barbarella;Stefano Gandolfi;Luca Poluzzi;Luca Tavasci;
      Pages: 2827 - 2836
      Abstract: Over the past decade, precise point positioning (PPP) has become a tool widely used in many Global Navigation Satellite Syste applications and the performance levels of the method are often close to those that can be achieved through a differenced approach. The aim of this paper is to analyze the dependency of the precision of a PPP solution output from the GIPSY-OASIS II software on the observing-session durations. In detail, starting from real data acquisitions spanning 24, 12, 6, 3 h, 1 h, and ½ an hour, all processed through the PPP, a continuous function has been defined and the related coefficients have been estimated. The original dataset consists of daily RINEX files provided from 44 sites of both International GNSS Service (IGS) and European Permanent Network (EPN) permanent networks acquired over one year. Each RINEX file was split into several shorter files according to the above listed time spans and processed by using GIPSY-OASIS II together with jet propulsion laboratory (JPL) precise post-processed products. The uncertainty of the proposed function was also estimated and a complete analysis of its compliance with the data sample has been provided. The estimated model is demonstrated to reach a millimeter accuracy level within a statistical confidence level of 99% using the experimental data.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Source Localization Based on Acoustic Single Direction Measurements
    • Authors: Joel Oliveira Reis;Pedro T. M. Batista;Paulo Oliveira;Carlos Silvestre;
      Pages: 2837 - 2852
      Abstract: This paper presents a novel filtering technique to estimate the position of a moving target based on discrete-time direction and velocity measurements. The velocity is assumed to be corrupted by an unknown constant bias, which is explicitly estimated in the process. A nonlinear system is first designed, describing the dynamics and observations associated to the target, followed then by a state augmentation that yields an equivalent linear time-varying system. An observability analysis for the latter is conducted based on necessary and sufficient conditions that are related to the target's motion. The final estimation solution resorts to a Kalman Filter with globally exponentially stable error dynamics. Its performance is assessed via realistic numerical simulations, including Monte Carlo runs and a comparison with both the standard extended Kalman filter and the Bayesian Cramér–Rao bound. A set of experimental results achieved within the scope of a realistic underwater mission scenario is also presented that allows to further assess the proposed technique.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Multi-UAV Task Assignment With Parameter and Time-Sensitive Uncertainties
           Using Modified Two-Part Wolf Pack Search Algorithm
    • Authors: Yongbo Chen;Di Yang;Jianqiao Yu;
      Pages: 2853 - 2872
      Abstract: This paper presents a systematical framework to solve the multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (multi-UAV) cooperative task assignment problem. Based on a combinatorial optimization model, it is solved by a digraph-based method and a novel meta-heuristic optimization method, named modified two-part wolf pack search (MTWPS) algorithm. When the number of UAVs/targets is large, in order to reduce the simulation time, we also present a new solution framework based on an easy-computing objective function. Additionally, the parameter and time-sensitive uncertainties are considered in the extended task assignment problem. For the problem with parameter uncertainty, it is formulated by a robust optimization method and solved by a novel combined algorithm, including the classical interior point method and our MTWPS algorithm. For the problem with time-sensitive uncertainty, it is solved by a practical online hierarchical planning algorithm. Finally, numerical simulations and physical experiments demonstrate that the proposed methods can provide a flyable solution for the UAVs and achieve outstanding performance in comparison with other algorithms.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Localization Performance Analysis of FDA Radar Receiver With Two-Stage
    • Authors: Can Cui;Jie Xiong;Wen-Qin Wang;Wen Wu;
      Pages: 2873 - 2887
      Abstract: Frequency diverse array (FDA) has received much attention, but little work about FDA receiver architectures and receiver processing algorithms have been reported. In this paper, we analyze the localization performance of FDA radar with a two-stage estimator. Three FDA receive architectures are discussed and compared with the phased-array (PA). In order to overcome disadvantages of the monochromatic FDA radar signal model adopted in the literature that ignores the coherent transmit gain in FDA radar, we formulate a bandwidth model for a general FDA radar received signals including both nonoverlapping and overlapping spectra. The localization performance are assessed by the Cramér–Rao bound (CRB) and receive signal noise ratio. The proposed model provides more accurate representation of FDA radar received signals and more reasonable comparisons between FDA and PA radars. Additionally, a fast two-stage estimator is proposed to reduce the two-dimensional multiple signal classification computation complexity. All proposed methods are verified by both theoretical analysis and numerical results.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Intersatellite Communication System Based on Visible Light
    • Authors: David N. Amanor;William W. Edmonson;Fatemeh Afghah;
      Pages: 2888 - 2899
      Abstract: Future space missions will be driven by factors such as the need for reduced cost of spacecraft without diminished performance, new services, and capabilities including reconfigurability, autonomous operations, target observation with improved resolution and servicing (or proximity) operations. Small satellites, deployed as a sensor network in space, can through intersatellite communication (ISC) enable the realization of these future goals. Developing the communication subsystem that can facilitate ISC within this distributed network of small satellites require a complex range of design tradeoffs. For small satellites, the general design parameters that are to be optimized for ISC are size, mass, and power, as well as cost (SMaP-C). Novel and efficient design techniques for implementing the communication subsystem are crucial for building multiple small satellite networks with capability for achieving significant data-rates along the intersatellite links (ISLs). In this paper, we propose an alternative approach to radio frequency and laser ISLs for ISC among small satellites deployed as a sensor network in low earth orbit. For short to medium range ISLs, we present an LED-based visible light communication (VLC) system that addresses the SMaP constraints, including capability for achieving significant data rates. Our research is focused on the development of the physical layer for pico-/nano class of satellites with prime consideration for the impact of solar background illumination on link performance. We develop an analytical model of the intersatellite link (ISL) in MATLAB and evaluate its feasibility and performance for different intensity modulation and direct detection schemes. Using a transmitted optical power of 4 W and digital pulse interval modulation, a receiver bandwidth requirement of 3.5 MHz is needed to achieve a data rate of 2.0 Mbits/s over a moderate link distance of 0.5 km at a BER of 10−6.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Resolution Limits for Tracking Closely Spaced Targets
    • Authors: Steven Schoenecker;Peter Willett;Yaakov Bar-Shalom;
      Pages: 2900 - 2910
      Abstract: In the field of target tracking, a tremendous amount of work has been performed on improving the ability of many different algorithms to detect and track a target in the presence of clutter and other interfering targets. However, to date, surprisingly little work has been performed on analyzing whether or not, for a given target in a given clutter/interfering target environment, it is even possible to track the target at all. Our recent work has started to explore this—we have developed a framework to assess “trackability”—that is, we assess if a given target can be statistically separated from the clutter in the given environment. Here, we expand this framework by adding a second target. Assuming that both the targets are individually trackable, we develop a mechanism for establishing how close the two targets can get to one another and still be resolvable as two distinct targets. Note that we answer the question from the perspective of the tracker: a resolution of measurements is a different (and simpler) matter to adjudicate. Generally resolution of measurements implies resolvability of targets, but the converse is not implied.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • A Nonuniform Clutter Intensity Estimation Algorithm for Random Finite Set
    • Authors: Weifeng Liu;Yimei Chen;Hailong Cui;Chenglin Wen;
      Pages: 2911 - 2925
      Abstract: In many cases, target tracking is subjected to a dense, nonuniform, and time-varying clutter background. This will seriously deteriorate the tracking performance under an unknown clutter environment. In this paper, multitarget tracking under the unknown environment is considered. First, the finite mixture distribution is used to fit the unknown clutter distributions and then Gibbs sampling and Bayesian information criterion are adopted to evaluate and estimate the clutter parameters. Besides, the unknown detection profile and clutter rate are also considered. All these issues are solved in the random finite set framework because it is a principled and top-down approach. Finally, several experiments are provided to verify the proposed algorithm.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Magnetometer Bias Finite-Time Estimation Using Gyroscope Data
    • Authors: Giuseppe Fedele;Luigi D’Alfonso;Gaetano D’Aquila;
      Pages: 2926 - 2936
      Abstract: This paper deals with the problem of estimating the hard iron bias affecting the measurements provided by a triaxial magnetometer. The estimation is carried out using measurements from a magnetometer and a gyroscope mounted on the same inertial measurement unit. The described solutions ensure finite-time estimation performance and robustness against measurements noise. The effectiveness of the proposed solutions is proved by experimental tests carried out using real inertial sensors.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Adaptive Nonsingular Fixed-Time Attitude Stabilization of Uncertain
    • Authors: Qiang Chen;Shuzong Xie;Mingxuan Sun;Xiongxiong He;
      Pages: 2937 - 2950
      Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of adaptive fixed-time attitude stabilization for uncertain rigid spacecraft with inertia uncertainties, external disturbances, actuator saturations, and faults. A nonsingular fixed-time sliding mode surface is constructed so that the settling time of the established surface is independent of the system initial states. By employing an exponential function in the controller design, an adaptive fixed-time control scheme is proposed to shorten the time during which the system states reach the sliding mode surface. With the proposed control method, the information on the bound of the lumped uncertainty is not needed in prior but estimated by the designed update laws. The fixed-time convergence of both the attitude and angular velocity is established, and comparative simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Generalized Likelihood Ratio Detection Schemes for Forward Scatter Radar
    • Authors: Nertjana Ustalli;Pierfrancesco Lombardo;Debora Pastina;
      Pages: 2951 - 2970
      Abstract: This paper introduces innovative detection schemes for forward scatter radar (FSR) based on the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) for both cases, where a fixed threshold can be used and where a fully adaptive CFAR scheme is desired. The detection performance of the newly proposed detectors is characterized analytically and compared to the performance of the standard detection scheme. This shows that the new detectors always outperform the standard FSR detector. In most cases the improvement has an upper bound of 3 dB, but there are specific cases where the standard FSR detector shows significant losses, while the new GLRT schemes suffer a much smaller degradation. Finally, simplified equivalent SNR expressions are introduced that relate the GLRT detection performance to the main parameters describing the FSR observation geometry and the target size and motion. These expressions are shown to be useful for the design of effective FSR geometries that guarantee desired detection performance for specific targets.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Observability of a Thrusting/Ballistic Trajectory in 3-D From a Single
           Fixed Passive Sensor
    • Authors: Kaipei Yang;Yaakov Bar-Shalom;Peter Willett;R. Ben-Dov;B. Milgrom;
      Pages: 2971 - 2979
      Abstract: In previous works, it has been shown that the motion of a thrusting/ballistic object in a three-dimensional (3-D) space is observable with 2-D measurements from a stationary passive sensor. The measurements can either start from the launch point or can be delayed. The observability was investigated by testing the invertibility of the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM). This paper discusses the observability via the uniqueness of the target state vector for a certain sequence of 2-d angle-only measurements from a single fixed passive sensor. The discussion starts with polynomial motion from which the results are extended to nonlinear thrusting/ballistic motion. To illustrate the observability of a thrusting/ballistic target, the estimation problem of such a target with delayed acquisition after burn-out time is solved with a 7-d parameter vector (velocity vector azimuth angle and elevation angle, drag coefficient, 3-d acquisition position, and target speed at the acquisition time). A maximum likelihood (ML) estimator is used for the motion parameter estimation at acquisition time. The impact point prediction is then carried out with the ML estimates. The FIM is investigated via simulations to prove the observability numerically and the maximum likelihood estimator is shown to be efficient.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Range–Velocity Estimation Bounds for Nonuniform Sonar Comb Signals
    • Authors: Jonathan Soli;Granger Hickman;Jeffrey Krolik;
      Pages: 2980 - 2991
      Abstract: This paper focuses on wideband Doppler-sensitive nonuniform frequency comb signals for sonar. Cramér–Rao bounds are derived for joint estimation of target range and velocity for comb signals with arbitrary frequency distribution in a fading channel with noise. Performance of matched filtering, rank-enhanced spectral smoothing, and maximum-likelihood-based estimation techniques is compared to the bounds for a nonuniform coprime comb signal. Bounds for coprime and uniform combs are compared exposing how bandwidth extent and tone count impact performance.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Aeroelastic and Trajectory Control of High Altitude Long Endurance
    • Authors: Pengyuan Qi;Xiaowei Zhao;Yinan Wang;Rafael Palacios;Andrew Wynn;
      Pages: 2992 - 3003
      Abstract: We investigate the aeroelastic and trajectory control of an high altitude long endurance aircraft model in the presence of gust and turbulence disturbances. The model is derived from geometrically nonlinear beam theory using intrinsic degrees of freedom and linear unsteady aerodynamics, which results in a coupled structural dynamics, aerodynamics, and flight dynamics description. The control design employs a two-loop PI/linear active disturbance rejection control (LADRC) and H∞ control scheme in both the longitudinal and lateral channels, based on a reduced-order linearized model. In each channel, the outer loop (position control) employs a PI/LADRC technique to track the desired flight routes and generate attitude command to the inner loop, while the inner loop (attitude control) uses H∞ control to track the attitude command generated from the outer loop and computes the control inputs to the corresponding control surfaces. A particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed for parameter optimization of the weighting matrices in the H∞ control design. The simulation tests conducted on the full-order nonlinear model show that the aeroelastic and trajectory control system achieves good performance with respect to robustness, trajectory tracking, and disturbance rejection.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Short-Circuit Fault Detection Observer Design in a PMSM
    • Authors: Richard T. Meyer;Raymond A. DeCarlo;Scott C. Johnson;Steve Pekarek;
      Pages: 3004 - 3017
      Abstract: This paper explores detecting interturn short-circuit (ITSC) faults in surface permanent magnet synchronous machines (SPMSM) while simultaneously estimating the (typically large) fault current to determine if operation is within thermal limits. ITSC faults are caused by electrical insulation failures in the stator windings and can lead to shorts to ground resulting in oscillations in torque, localized heating, and even fires. This paper proposes a moving horizon observer methodology for detecting such faults, the level of fault, the motor state, and a thermally sensitive parameter in SPMSM. Theoretical verification of the observability and detection of fault levels and currents is also set forth. Fault detection, fault current estimation, and parameter estimation are verified via simulation for a set of ITSC faults using noisy measurements.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Clustering Data Association Using Data Relevance in Spatial Domain for
           Doppler-Only RSN Localization
    • Authors: Qianli Wang;Zhuming Chen;Zisheng Wang;Zhiqin Zhao;Zhengyang Wu;
      Pages: 3018 - 3031
      Abstract: Localization of multitarget by means of a network of dispersed radar sensors using Doppler-only measurement faces the problem of data association, i.e., associating the measured Doppler-shifts with their originated targets. Conventionally, this association is realized based on correlations between successive estimations of targets' state. However, up to now, no data association method is available for localization using only one snapshot measurement. This paper tries to utilize the relevance of measurements in spatial domain instead of in time domain. An approach based on a clustering method, i.e., generalized fuzzy algorithmic scheme (GFAS), is introduced to solve the data association problem with a single snapshot. First, the measured data are formed as a matrix. Then, a clustering method is used for data association. This clustering is a procedure of collecting information of each target from the measurements of multiple sensors. Thus, the results of clustering will be used to associate the measured data with their originated targets. In order to overcome the problem that GFAS may associate more than one piece of data measured by the same sensor with a same target, an improved GFAS (IGFAS) is proposed. Different from other methods for data association, only one snapshot is required in the proposed method. Furthermore, the computational complexity will not increase exponentially as the number of targets or sensors increase. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Sequence Set Design With Accurately Controlled Correlation Properties
    • Authors: Guoyang Yu;Junli Liang;Jian Li;Bo Tang;
      Pages: 3032 - 3046
      Abstract: The topic of designing sequence set with good correlation properties has received considerable attention due to its numerous applications in many active sensing and communication systems. For example, a multiple-input multiple-output radar system transmits orthogonal waveforms or zero correlation zone sequences to achieve a long virtual aperture, which results in enhanced parameter identifiability and improved resolution. However, it is difficult to design sequence set with accurately controlled correlation properties due to numerous nonconvex and highly nonlinear inequality constraints. In this paper, new sequence set design methods, based on the local integrated sidelobe level and the local peak sidelobe level metrics, are proposed to tackle the optimization problems under the nonconvex and nonlinear inequality constraints to meet the correlation requirements. Numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • The Slow-Time k-Space of Radar Tomography and Applications to
           High-Resolution Target Imaging
    • Authors: Hai-Tan Tran;Rocco Melino;
      Pages: 3047 - 3059
      Abstract: This paper introduces a new concept of slow-time spatial frequency space, also known as “slow-time $k$-space,” and redefines the associated cross-range bandwidth, which arises naturally from Doppler radar tomography. The slow-time $k$-space is the most suitable for narrow-band radar imaging, and can be augmented for higher resolution imaging by appropriate signal processing. The respective relationships with the more traditional concepts of fast-time $k$-space and signal (or range) bandwidth are explained. We also discuss image resolution limits and demonstrate the concepts with simulated data examples.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Maritime Moving Target Long Time Integration for GNSS-Based Passive
           Bistatic Radar
    • Authors: Debora Pastina;Fabrizio Santi;Federica Pieralice;Marta Bucciarelli;Hui Ma;Dimitrios Tzagkas;Michail Antoniou;Mikhail Cherniakov;
      Pages: 3060 - 3083
      Abstract: This paper addresses the exploitation of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) as transmitters of opportunity in passive bistatic radar systems for maritime surveillance. The main limitation of this technology is the restricted power budget provided by navigation satellites, which makes it necessary to define innovative moving target detection techniques specifically tailored for the system under consideration. To this aim, this paper puts forward long integration time techniques able to collect the signal energy over long time intervals (tens of seconds), allowing the retrieval of suitable levels of signal-to-disturbance ratios for detection purposes. A local plane based technique is first considered, providing target detection in a plane that represents the section of maritime area covered by the radar antenna. As a suboptimum solution in terms of achievable integration gain, but more efficient from a computational point of view, a second technique is considered working in the conventional bistatic range and Doppler plane (basic plane based). Results against synthetic and experimental datasets show the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Satellite Pose Estimation via Single Perspective Circle and Line
    • Authors: Cai Meng;Zhaoxi Li;Hongchao Sun;Ding Yuan;Xiangzhi Bai;Fugen Zhou;
      Pages: 3084 - 3095
      Abstract: Pose estimation is vital for space robot to capture satellite. Dual poses including center position and normal direction can be obtained from a single perspective view of a radius-known circle such as docking ring of the satellite. To solve the duality and recover the roll angle, this paper presents here a new method called perspective circle and line (PCL), which is based on the perspective view of a single circle and line. First of all, the dual center positions and normal directions are recovered with the circle and the image. Then, the line is utilized to recover the roll angle of the circle analytically. By reprojecting a random point on the line to the image and verifying whether the projection lies on the image line, the false pose of the object is identified. Simulation and physical experiments show that the position and orientation of the circle can be recovered. But in practice they are affected by the accuracy of camera calibration and feature extraction. As a whole, PCL is robust to noise in pose estimation, especially in recovering the orientation.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Look Angle Constrained Impact Angle Control Guidance Law for Homing
           Missiles With Bearings-Only Measurements
    • Authors: Hyeong-Geun Kim;Jun-Yong Lee;H. Jin Kim;
      Pages: 3096 - 3107
      Abstract: This paper presents an impact angle control guidance law that confines the missile look angle during homing in order to not exceed a seeker's field-of-view limit. A sliding surface variable whose regulation guarantees the interception of a stationary target at the desired impact angle is designed, and the guidance law is derived to make the surface variable go to the sliding mode. Using a magnitude-limited sigmoid function in the surface variable, the proposed law prohibits the look angle from exceeding the specified limit during the entire homing. This capability to confine the missile look angle is valuable when a seeker's field-of-view is restricted, since imposing the terminal impact angle constraint demands the missile to fly a curved trajectory. Furthermore, the proposed law can be implemented under bearings-only measurements because the command does not involve any information of the relative range and line-of-sight rate. Numerical simulations are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed law. The result shows that the proposed guidance law accomplishes the impact angle constraint without violating the prescribed look angle limit although it only uses the information of bearing angles.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • An ISAR Imaging Algorithm for Nonuniformly Rotating Targets With Low SNR
           Based on Modified Bilinear Parameter Estimation of Cubic Phase Signal
    • Authors: Qian Lv;Tao Su;Xuehui He;
      Pages: 3108 - 3124
      Abstract: For nonuniformly rotating target in the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) environment, the inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging is a challenging task due to the Doppler spread induced by time-varying rotation. In this paper, an effective modified bilinear parameter estimation algorithm is proposed and applied to reconstruct the ISAR image of nonuniformly rotating targets with low SNR. First, azimuth echoes of a range cell are modeled as multicomponent cubic phase signals (multi-CPSs) after range alignment and phase adjustment. Then, to estimate the parameter of the CPS (the chirp rate and the quadratic chirp rate, which are identified as causes of the target image defocus), a novel integrated parametric cubic phase function (IPCPF) and a reversing Wigner–Ville distribution processing are developed. Compared to other four representative algorithms, the bilinearity of the IPCPF guarantees a higher antinoise performance and a better suppression on cross terms. Moreover, by utilizing the nonuniform fast Fourier transform and the generalized scaled Fourier transform, the brute-force searching is eliminated and the computational cost is reduced. Finally, a new cross-range scaling method based on a regression analysis is proposed for the ISAR imaging. With the synthetic data and the real radar data, several simulation examples and ISAR imaging results demonstrate the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed ISAR imaging algorithm.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Biological Eagle-Eye-Based Visual Platform for Target Detection
    • Authors: Yimin Deng;Haibin Duan;
      Pages: 3125 - 3136
      Abstract: In this paper, the systematic design and implementation of a biological eagle-eye-based visual platform is presented for target detection. Inspired by the structure and properties of the eagle eye, the hardware configuration of the visual platform is presented, and software programs including image stitching and target detection are developed. The saliency analysis method is adopted to estimate the position of the potential target. The optical triangulation is utilized to obtain the relative azimuth information of the estimated target. Comparative experimental results show that the overall platform is efficient at target detection.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • TDOA Estimation With Compressive Sensing Measurements and Hadamard Matrix
    • Authors: Soheil Salari;Francois Chan;Yiu-Tong Chan;William Read;
      Pages: 3137 - 3142
      Abstract: This paper employs a special property of the Hadamard matrix to develop a novel compressive sensing (CS) based framework that eliminates the complex reconstruction step required by standard CS methods. In particular, time-difference-of-arrivals (TDOAs) of a signal at different receivers involved in positioning of unknown sources are directly estimated from CS measurements, without any attempt to reconstruct the full signals. Although this approach is designed for TDOA estimation, it is also capable of accommodating other CS applications.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Efficient Estimation of a Thrusting/Ballistic Trajectory Using a Single
           Passive Sensor
    • Authors: Qin Lu;Yaakov Bar-Shalom;Peter Willett;Ronen Ben-Dov;Ting Yuan;
      Pages: 3143 - 3149
      Abstract: The state of a thrusting/ballistic object moving in a 3-D space can be determined uniquely by a 4-D parameter vector (launch azimuth and elevation angles, drag coefficient, and specific thrust, with the latter two assumed constant) given the location of the launch point (LP). Using the first line-of-sight (LoS) measurement and the known launch altitude, one can reconstruct the LP, which, if taken as the true LP, can be used to estimate the above parameter vector. However, the resulting estimate ignores the fact that the LP based on the first LoS measurement is noisy. To make the estimate account for the LP location uncertainty, we augment the parameter vector with the ground coordinates of the LP, yielding a 6-D vector to be estimated. The estimation errors of the resulting maximum likelihood estimates are shown to meet the Cramér-Rao lower bound, i.e., they are efficient.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Blind Spot of Spectrum Awareness Techniques in Nongeostationary Satellite
    • Authors: Chi Zhang;Jin Jin;Linling Kuang;Chunxiao Jiang;Yuanzhi He;
      Pages: 3150 - 3159
      Abstract: Spectrum awareness techniques have been proposed as a promising solution to improve the utilization of available spectrum bands. However, few works have discussed the feasibility of spectrum awareness techniques in satellite systems. In the scenario of spectrum coexistence between geostationary (GEO) and nongeostationary (NGEO) satellite systems, this paper investigates the issue of blind spot where the spectrum awareness techniques may fail to identify the spectrum holes. Both the uplink and downlink transmissions are analyzed and three key parameters, i.e., altitude of NGEO satellite and antenna diameters of NGEO and GEO earth stations, are considered. Simulation results show that in the uplink, when the NGEO satellite approaches to the GEO satellite with a certain heights, there exists the situation of blind spot. In addition, this paper also provides a specific method to eliminate or reduce the range of blind spot.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Low-Complexity Reduced-Dimension Space–Time Adaptive Processing for
           Navigation Receivers
    • Authors: Yunlong Cai;Xiaomin Wu;Minjian Zhao;Rodrigo C. de Lamare;Benoit Champagne;
      Pages: 3160 - 3168
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose a low-complexity adaptive reduced-rank interference suppression scheme based on alternating low-rank decomposition techniques for navigation receivers. The proposed scheme, which employs a generalized sidelobe canceler structure, makes use of a projection matrix for rank reduction followed by a reduced-dimension receive filter. An alternating optimization strategy based on recursive least squares is devised to compute the basis vectors of the projection matrix and the receive filter adaptively. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves a better performance than existing methods with a reduced computational complexity.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • A Geodesic Flow Particle Filter For Nonthresholded Radar Tracking
    • Authors: Chris Kreucher;Kristine L. Bell;
      Pages: 3169 - 3175
      Abstract: Homotopy methods are an emerging approach to particle filtering that avoid numerical deficiencies of standard particle methods using a particle flow. This correspondence develops a new filter with nonthresholded measurements (i.e., a track-before-detect log-homotopy particle filter). We show the performance by simulating a rotating pulsed radar forming nonthresholded Range/Doppler maps.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Technical Areas and Editors: AESS IEEE Aerospace & Electronic Systems
    • Pages: 3176 - 3181
      Abstract: Presents a listing of the AESS society technical editors.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
  • Information for Authors
    • Pages: 3182 - 3183
      Abstract: These instructions give guidelines for preparing papers for this publication. Presents information for authors publishing in this journal.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 6 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
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