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Future Internet
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.219
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 172  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1999-5903
Published by MDPI Homepage  [222 journals]
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 42: Language Cognition and Pronunciation
           Training Using Applications

    • Authors: Kan, Ito
      First page: 42
      Abstract: In language learning, adults seem to be superior in their ability to memorize knowledge of new languages and have better learning strategies, experiences, and intelligence to be able to integrate new knowledge. However, unless one learns pronunciation in childhood, it is almost impossible to reach a native-level accent. In this research, we take the difficulties of learning tonal pronunciation in Mandarin as an example and analyze the difficulties of tone learning and the deficiencies of general learning methods using the cognitive load theory. With the tasks designed commensurate with the learner's perception ability based on perception experiments and small-step learning, the perception training app is more effective for improving the tone pronunciation ability compared to existing apps with voice analysis function. Furthermore, the learning effect was greatly improved by optimizing the app interface and operation procedures. However, as a result of the combination of pronunciation practice and perception training, pronunciation practice with insufficient feedback could lead to pronunciation errors. Therefore, we also studied pronunciation practice using machine learning and aimed to train the model for the pronunciation task design instead of classification. We used voices designed as training data and trained a model for pronunciation training, and demonstrated that supporting pronunciation practice with machine learning is practicable.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12030042
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 19: MCCM: An Approach for Connectivity and
           Coverage Maximization

    • Authors: Alia Ghaddar, Monah Bou Hattoum, Ghassan Fadlallah, Hamid Mcheick
      First page: 19
      Abstract: The internet of Things (IoT) has attracted significant attention in many applications in both academic and industrial areas. In IoT, each object can have the capabilities of sensing, identifying, networking and processing to communicate with ubiquitous objects and services. Often this paradigm (IoT) using Wireless Sensor Networks must cover large area of interest (AoI) with huge number of devices. As these devices might be battery powered and randomly deployed, their long-term availability and connectivity for area coverage is very important, in particular in harsh environments. Moreover, a poor distribution of devices may lead to coverage holes and degradation to the quality of service. In this paper, we propose an approach for self-organization and coverage maximization. We present a distributed algorithm for “Maintaining Connectivity and Coverage Maximization” called M C C M . The algorithm operates on different movable devices in homogeneous and heterogeneous distribution. It does not require high computational complexity. The main goal is to keep the movement of devices as minimal as possible to save energy. Another goal is to reduce the overlapping areas covered by different devices to increase the coverage while maintaining connectivity. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve higher coverage and lower nodes’ movement over existing algorithms in the state of the art.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020019
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 20: A Review of Advanced Algebraic

    • Authors: Grigorios Kakkavas, Despoina Gkatzioura, Vasileios Karyotis, Symeon Papavassiliou
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Network tomography has emerged as one of the lean approaches for efficient network monitoring, especially aiming at addressing the ever-increasing requirements for scaling and efficiency in modern network architectures and infrastructures. In this paper, we explore network coding and compressed sensing as enabling technologies in the context of network tomography. Both approaches capitalize on algebraic tools for achieving accuracy while allowing scaling of operation as the size of the monitored network increases. Initially, a brief overview of the tomographic problems and the related classification of methods is provided to better comprehend the problems encountered and solutions provided to date. Subsequently, we present representative approaches that employ either one of the aforementioned technologies and we comparatively describe their fundamental operation. Eventually, we provide a qualitative comparison of features and approaches that can be used for further research and technology development for network monitoring in future Internet infrastructures.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020020
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 21: Adaptive Pre/Post-Compensation of
           Cascade Filters in Coherent Optical Transponders

    • Authors: Abdo, D’Amours
      First page: 21
      Abstract: We propose an adaptive joint pre- and post- compensation to correct the filtering effects caused by cascading reconfigurable optical add drop multiplexers (ROADMs). The improvement is achieved without using additional hardware (HW) on the link or within the signal processor in the transponders. Using Monte Carlo simulations, the gradient-descent based method shows an improvement of 0.6 dB and 1.1 dB in the required optical signal-to-noise ratio (R-OSNR) at the threshold pre-decoder bit error rate (BER) of 0.02 versus pre-compensation only in the linear and nonlinear operating region of fiber respectively. We experimentally verified the method with lab measurements in the presence of heavy filtering and optical impairments. We observed a gain up to ~0.4 dB compared to typically used pre-compensation only. Additionally, other tangible system benefits of our method are listed and discussed.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020021
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 22: Mobility, Citizens, Innovation and
           Technology in Digital and Smart Cities

    • Authors: Thays A. Oliveira, Yuri B. Gabrich, Helena Ramalhinho, Miquel Oliver, Miri W. Cohen, Luiz S. S. Ochi, Serigne Gueye, Fábio Protti, Alysson A. A. Pinto, Diógenes V. M. V. M. Ferreira, Igor M. M. Coelho, Vitor N. N. Coelho
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Cities are constantly transforming and, consequently, attracting efforts from researchers and opportunities to the industry. New transportation systems are being built in order to meet sustainability and efficiency criteria, as well as being adapted to the current possibilities. Moreover, citizens are becoming aware about the power and possibilities provided by the current generation of autonomous devices. In this sense, this paper presents and discusses state-of-the-art transportation technologies and systems, highlighting the advances that the concepts of Internet of Things and Value are providing. Decentralized technologies, such as blockchain, are been extensively investigated by the industry, however, its widespread adoption in cities is still desirable. Aligned with operations research opportunities, this paper identifies different points in which cities’ services could move to. This also study comments about different combinatorial optimization problems that might be useful and important for an efficient evolution of our cities. By considering different perspectives, didactic examples are presented with a main focus on motivating decision makers to balance citizens, investors and industry goals and wishes.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 23: A Rule-Based Language and Verification
           Framework of Dynamic Service Composition

    • Authors: Willy Kengne Kungne, Georges-Edouard Kouamou, Claude Tangha
      First page: 23
      Abstract: The emergence of BPML (Business Process Modeling Language) has favored the development of languages for the composition of services. Process-oriented approaches produce imperative languages, which are rigid to change at run-time because they focus on how the processes should be built. Despite the fact that semantics is introduced in languages to increase their flexibility, dynamism is limited to find services that have disappeared or become defective. They do not offer the possibility to adapt the composite service to execution. Although rules-based languages were introduced, they remain very much dependent on the BPML which is the underlying technology. This article proposes the specification of a rule-based declarative language for the composition of services. It consists of the syntactic categories which make up the concepts of the language and a formal description of the operational semantics that highlights the dynamism, the flexibility and the adaptability of the language thus defined. This paper also presents a verification framework made of a formal aspect and a toolset. The verification framework translates service specifications into Promela for model checking. Then, a validation framework is proposed that translates the verified specifications to the operational system. Finally, a case study is presented.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020023
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 24: Well-Being and Social Media: A
           Systematic Review of Bergen Addiction Scales

    • Authors: Duradoni, Innocenti, Guazzini
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Does social media addiction impair the well-being of non-clinical individuals' Despite the Internet being able to be considered as a promoting factor for individual empowerment, previous literature suggests that the current massive availability of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) may be dangerous for users' well-being. This article discusses the relationship between the most used social media addiction measures (i.e., the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale—BFAS, the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale—BSMAS) and well-being. A systematic review considering all the publications indexed by PsycInfo, PsycArticles, PubMed, Science Direct, Sociological Abstracts, Academic Search Complete, and Google Scholar databases was performed to collect the data. Ten of 635 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. Overall, most of the included works captured a negative but small relationship between BFAS/BSMAS and well-being, across multiple definitions and measurement.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020024
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 25: Strategies of Success for Social
           Networks: Mermaids and Temporal Evolution

    • Authors: Massimo Marchiori, Lino Possamai
      First page: 25
      Abstract: The main goal of this article is to investigate techniques that can quickly lead to successful social systems by boosting network connectivity. This is especially useful when starting new online communities where the aim is to increase the system utilization as much as possible. This aspect is very important nowadays, given the existence of many online social networks available on the web, and the relatively high level of competition. In other words, attracting users’ attention is becoming a major concern, and time is an essential factor when investing money and resources into online social systems. Our study describes an effective technique that deals with this issue by introducing the notion of mermaids, special attractors that alter the normal evolutive behavior of a social system. We analyze how mermaids can boost social networks, and then provide estimations of fundamental parameters that business strategists can take into account in order to obtain successful systems within a constrained budget.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020025
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 26: A Novel Low-Complexity Fault Diagnosis
           Algorithm for Energy Internet in Smart Cities

    • Authors: Jiong Wang, Hua Zhang, Dongliang Lin, Huibin Feng, Tao Wang, Hongyan Zhang, Xiaoding Wang
      First page: 26
      Abstract: The smart energy system, viewed as an “Energy Internet”, consists of the intelligent integration of decentralized sustainable energy sources, efficient distribution, and optimized power consumption. That implies the fault diagnosis for a smart energy system should be of low complexity. In this paper, we propose a Strong Tracking Unscented Kalman Filter ( S T U K F ) and modified Bayes’ classification-based Modified Three Sigma test ( M T S ), abbreviated as S F B T , for smart energy networks. The theoretical analysis and simulations indicate that S F B T detects faults with a high accuracy and a low complexity of O ( n ) .
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020026
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 27: A Survey of Security Vulnerability
           Analysis, Discovery, Detection, and Mitigation on IoT Devices

    • Authors: Miao Yu, Jianwei Zhuge, Ming Cao, Zhiwei Shi, Lin Jiang
      First page: 27
      Abstract: With the prosperity of the Internet of Things (IoT) industry environment, the variety and quantity of IoT devices have grown rapidly. IoT devices have been widely used in smart homes, smart wear, smart manufacturing, smart cars, smart medical care, and many other life-related fields. With it, security vulnerabilities of IoT devices are emerging endlessly. The proliferation of security vulnerabilities will bring severe risks to users’ privacy and property. This paper first describes the research background, including IoT architecture, device components, and attack surfaces. We review state-of-the-art research on IoT device vulnerability discovery, detection, mitigation, and other related works. Then, we point out the current challenges and opportunities by evaluation. Finally, we forecast and discuss the research directions on vulnerability analysis techniques of IoT devices.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020027
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 28: A Methodology based on Computational
           Patterns for Offloading of Big Data Applications on Cloud-Edge Platforms

    • Authors: Beniamino Di Martino, Salvatore Venticinque, Antonio Esposito, Salvatore D’Angelo
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming a widespread reality, as interconnected smart devices and sensors have overtaken the IT market and invaded every aspect of the human life. This kind of development, while already foreseen by IT experts, implies additional stress to already congested networks, and may require further investments in computational power when considering centralized and Cloud based solutions. That is why a common trend is to rely on local resources, provided by smart devices themselves or by aggregators, to deal with part of the required computations: this is the base concept behind Fog Computing, which is becoming increasingly adopted as a distributed calculation solution. In this paper a methodology, initially developed within the TOREADOR European project for the distribution of Big Data computations over Cloud platforms, will be described and applied to an algorithm for the prediction of energy consumption on the basis of data coming from home sensors, already employed within the CoSSMic European Project. The objective is to demonstrate that, by applying such a methodology, it is possible to improve the calculation performances and reduce communication with centralized resources.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020028
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 29: EAOA: Energy-Aware Grid-Based
           3D-Obstacle Avoidance in Coverage Path Planning for UAVs

    • Authors: Alia Ghaddar, Ahmad Merei
      First page: 29
      Abstract: The presence of obstacles like a tree, buildings, or birds along the path of a drone has the ability to endanger and harm the UAV’s flight mission. Avoiding obstacles is one of the critical challenging keys to successfully achieve a UAV’s mission. The path planning needs to be adapted to make intelligent and accurate avoidance online and in time. In this paper, we propose an energy-aware grid based solution for obstacle avoidance (EAOA). Our work is based on two phases: in the first one, a trajectory path is generated offline using the area top-view. The second phase depends on the path obtained in the first phase. A camera captures a frontal view of the scene that contains the obstacle, then the algorithm determines the new position where the drone has to move to, in order to bypass the obstacle. In this paper, the obstacles are static. The results show a gain in energy and completion time using 3D scene information compared to 2D scene information.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020029
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 30: Intelligent Thermal Comfort
           Controlling System for Buildings Based on IoT and AI

    • Authors: Zhao, Genovese, Li
      First page: 30
      Abstract: With the improvement of technologies, people's demand for intelligent devices of indoor and outdoor living environments keeps increasing. However, the traditional control system only adjusts living parameters mechanically, which cannot better meet the requirements of human comfort intelligently. This article proposes a building intelligent thermal comfort control system based on the Internet of Things and intelligent artificial intelligence. Through the literature review, various algorithms and prediction methods are analyzed and compared. The system can automatically complete a series of operations through IoT hardware devices which are located at multiple locations in the building with key modules. The code is developed and debugged by Python to establish a model for energy consumption prediction with environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, radiant temperature, and air velocity on thermal comfort indicators. By using the simulation experiments, 1700 data sets are used for training. Then, the output PMV predicted values are compared with the real figure. The results show that the performance of this system is superior to traditional control on energy-saving and comfort.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020030
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 31: A Survey on Troll Detection

    • Authors: Tomaiuolo, Lombardo, Mordonini, Cagnoni, Poggi
      First page: 31
      Abstract: A troll is usually defined as somebody who provokes and offends people to make them angry, who wants to dominate any discussion or who tries to manipulate people's opinions. The problems caused by such persons have increased with the diffusion of social media. Therefore, on the one hand, press bodies and magazines have begun to address the issue and to write articles about the phenomenon and its related problems while, on the other hand, universities and research centres have begun to study the features characterizing trolls and to look for solutions for their identification. This survey aims at introducing the main researches dedicated to the description of trolls and to the study and experimentation of methods for their detection.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020031
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 32: Data Exchange in Cluster Structure for
           Longevity of IoT

    • Authors: Jeon
      First page: 32
      Abstract: In the Internet of Things (IoT), the scope of wireless sensor nodes is extended to things deployed in a pervasive world. For various IoT service applications, things can gather and share their information with each other through self-decision-making. Therefore, we cannot apply the existing information aggregation methods of wireless sensor networks to the IoT environment, which aim to transmit the collected data to only a sink node or a central server. Moreover, since the existing methods involve all the sensor nodes in the process of data exchange, they can cause an increase in the network traffic, delay of data transmission, and amount of energy consumed by things. In this paper, we propose a clustering-property-based data exchange method for efficient energy consumption in IoT networks. First, the proposed method assigns properties to each thing according to the characteristics of the obtained data. Second, it constructs a cluster network considering the location of things and their energy consumption. Finally, the things in a cluster communicate with other things in a different cluster based on their properties. In the experiment, the proposed method exhibits a better performance than the existing method. Owing to the energy-saving effect, we demonstrate that the proposed method results in a more reliable network and improves the longevity of IoT networks.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020032
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 33: RFID RSS Fingerprinting System for
           Wearable Human Activity Recognition

    • Authors: Shuaieb, Oguntala, AlAbdullah, Obeidat, Asif, Abd-Alhameed, Bin-Melha, Kara-Zaïtri
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Alternative healthcare solutions have been identified as a viable approach to ameliorate the increasing demand for telehealth and prompt healthcare delivery. Moreover, indoor localisation using different technologies and approaches have greatly contributed to alternative healthcare solutions. In this paper, a cost-effective, radio frequency identification (RFID)-based indoor location system that employs received signal strength (RSS) information of passive RFID tags is presented. The proposed system uses RFID tags placed at different positions on the target body. The mapping of the analysed data against a set of reference position datasets is used to accurately track the vertical and horizontal positioning of a patient within a confined space in real-time. The Euclidean distance model achieves an accuracy of 98% for all sampled activities. However, the accuracy of the activity recognition algorithm performs below the threshold performance for walking and standing, which is due to similarities in the target height, weight and body density for both activities. The obtained results from the proposed system indicate significant potentials to provide reliable health measurement tool for patients at risk.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020033
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 34: Unsteady Multi-Element Time Series
           Analysis and Prediction Based on Spatial-Temporal Attention and Error
           Forecast Fusion

    • Authors: Wang, Xu
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Harmful algal blooms (HABs) often cause great harm to fishery production and the safety of human lives. Therefore, the detection and prediction of HABs has become an important issue. Machine learning has been increasingly used to predict HABs at home and abroad. However, few of them can capture the sudden change of Chl-a in advance and handle the long-term dependencies appropriately. In order to address these challenges, the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) based spatial-temporal attentions model for Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration prediction is proposed, a model which can capture the correlation between various factors and Chl-a adaptively and catch dynamic temporal information from previous time intervals for making predictions. The model can also capture the stage of Chl-a when values soar as red tide breaks out in advance. Due to the instability of the current Chl-a concentration prediction model, the model is also applied to make a prediction about the forecast reliability, to have a basic understanding of the range and fluctuation of model errors and provide a reference to describe the range of marine disasters. The data used in the experiment is retrieved from Fujian Marine Forecasts Station from 2009 to 2011 and is combined into 8-dimension data. Results show that the proposed approach performs better than other Chl-a prediction algorithms (such as Attention LSTM and Seq2seq and back propagation). The result of error prediction also reveals that the error forecast method possesses established advantages for red tides prevention and control.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020034
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 35: Information-Centric Networking (ICN)

    • Authors: Nikos Fotiou
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Information-Centric Networking (ICN) is novel paradigm considered for the future Internet, as well as for emerging architectures, such as the Internet of Things. Despite the significant research efforts that take place all around the world there are still many challenges and open issues related to the applicability of ICN. The papers of this special issue, six in total, identify such challenges, and propose solutions, design guidelines, and new research directions.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020035
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 36: Latent Structure Matching for
           Knowledge Transfer in Reinforcement Learning

    • Authors: Yi Zhou, Fenglei Yang
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Reinforcement learning algorithms usually require a large number of empirical samples and give rise to a slow convergence in practical applications. One solution is to introduce transfer learning: Knowledge from well-learned source tasks can be reused to reduce sample request and accelerate the learning of target tasks. However, if an unmatched source task is selected, it will slow down or even disrupt the learning procedure. Therefore, it is very important for knowledge transfer to select appropriate source tasks that have a high degree of matching with target tasks. In this paper, a novel task matching algorithm is proposed to derive the latent structures of value functions of tasks, and align the structures for similarity estimation. Through the latent structure matching, the highly-matched source tasks are selected effectively, from which knowledge is then transferred to give action advice, and improve exploration strategies of the target tasks. Experiments are conducted on the simulated navigation environment and the mountain car environment. The results illustrate the significant performance gain of the improved exploration strategy, compared with traditional ϵ -greedy exploration strategy. A theoretical proof is also given to verify the improvement of the exploration strategy based on latent structure matching.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020036
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 37: Global Trends and Advances Towards a
           Smarter Grid and Smart Cities

    • Authors: Om P. Malik
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Taking advantage of new developing technologies, power systems are being developed into smarter grids with the vision of becoming the next-generation electric grid for smart cities. Some of the emerging issues and challenges associated with the development of technologies for smarter grids and smart cities are highlighted in this special issue of the Future Internet journal.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020037
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 38: Cognitive Training for the Treatment
           of Addictions Mediated by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)

    • Authors: Sandra Restrepo, Dubis Rincón, Edwin Sepulveda
      First page: 38
      Abstract: This work constitutes a narrative review of the state of knowledge and advances in the intervention and treatment of addictions through the use of information and communication technologies, considering the growing demand for virtuality-mediated strategies that facilitate the approach of problems of public health such as addictions, which increase considerably year after year. To this end, the reader will be provided with a current overview of the drug use trend; subsequently, a conceptualization of the concept of addiction and its understanding from a neurobiological perspective and, finally, the progress in terms of intervention processes and therapeutic approach will be presented; which will imply an approach to the concept of e-health and rehabilitation mediated by information and communication technologies (ICT).
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020038
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 39: Hierarchical Gated Recurrent Unit with
           Semantic Attention for Event Prediction

    • Authors: Zichun Su, Jialin Jiang
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Event prediction plays an important role in financial risk assessment and disaster warning, which can help government decision-making and economic investment. Previous works are mainly based on time series for event prediction such as statistical language model and recurrent neural network, while ignoring the impact of prior knowledge on event prediction. This makes the direction of event prediction often biased or wrong. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical event prediction model based on time series and prior knowledge. To ensure the accuracy of the event prediction, the model obtains the time-based event information and prior knowledge of events by Gated Recurrent Unit and Associated Link Network respectively. The semantic selective attention mechanism is used to fuse the time-based event information and prior knowledge, and finally generate predicted events. Experimental results on Chinese News datasets demonstrate that our model significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, and increases the accuracy by 2.8%.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020039
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 40: A Blockchain based PKI Validation
           System based on Rare Events Management

    • Authors: Talamo, Arcieri, Dimitri, Schunck
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Public key infrastructures (PKIs) are the cornerstone for the security of the communication layer of online services relying on certificate-based authentication, such as e-commerce, e-government, online banking, cloud services, and many others. A PKI is an infrastructure based on a hierarchical model, but the use of PKIs in non-hierarchical contexts has exposed them to many types of attacks. Here, we discuss weaknesses exploited in past attacks and we propose a solution based on an original consensus algorithm developed for use on blockchain technology. In this implementation we retain the full functionality around X.509 certificates, i.e., for the triad (server name, server address, X.509 server certificate), and demonstrate a mechanism for obtaining fast consensus. The main properties of the solution are that a consensus may be reached even when not all members of the involved PKI participate in a transaction, and that no advanced trust agreement among PKIs is needed. The proposed solution is able to detect PKI attacks and can distinguish errors from attacks, allowing precise management of anomalies.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020040
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 41: Know Your Customer (KYC)
           Implementation with Smart Contracts on a Privacy-Oriented Decentralized

    • Authors: Kapsoulis, Psychas, Palaiokrassas, Marinakis, Litke, Varvarigou
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Enterprise blockchain solutions attempt to solve the crucial matter of user privacy, albeit that blockchain was initially directed towards full transparency. In the context of Know Your Customer (KYC) standardization, a decentralized schema that enables user privacy protection on enterprise blockchains is proposed with two types of developed smart contracts. Through the public KYC smart contract, a user registers and uploads their KYC information to the exploited IPFS storage, actions interpreted in blockchain transactions on the permissioned blockchain of Alastria Network. Furthermore, through the public KYC smart contract, an admin user approves or rejects the validity and expiration date of the initial user’s KYC documents. Inside the private KYC smart contract, CRUD (Create, read, update and delete) operations for the KYC file repository occur. The presented system introduces effectiveness and time efficiency of operations through its schema simplicity and smart integration of the different technology modules and components. This developed scheme focuses on blockchain technology as the most important and critical part of the architecture and tends to accomplish an optimal schema clarity.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12020041
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 7: Software Defined Networking (SDN) and
           Network Function Virtualization (NFV)

    • Authors: Papavassiliou
      First page: 7
      Abstract: The role of Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) have been instrumental in realizing the transition and vision “from black boxes to a white box towards facilitating 5G network architectures”. Though significant research results and several deployments have occurred and realized over the last few years focusing on the NFV and SDN technologies, several issues—both of theoretical and practical importance—remain still open. Accordingly, the papers of this special issue are significant contributions samples within the general ecosystem highlighted above, ranging from SDN and NFV architectures and implementations, to SDN-NFV integration and orchestration approaches, while considering issues associated with optimization, network management and security aspects. In particular, a total of nine excellent articles (one review and eight original research articles) have been accepted, following a rigorous review process, and addressing many of the aforementioned challenges and beyond.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-01-02
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12010007
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 8: A Novel Resource Allocation Scheme in
           NOMA-Based Cellular Network with D2D Communications

    • Authors: Jingpu Wang, Xin Song, Yatao Ma
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has become a promising technology for 5G. With the support of effective resource allocation algorithms, it can improve the spectrum resource utilization and system throughput. In this article, a new resource allocation algorithm in the NOMA-enhanced cellular network with device-to-device (D2D) communications is proposed, in which we use two new searching methods and an optimal link selection scheme to maximize the system throughput and limit the interferences of the NOMA-based cellular network. In the proposed joint user scheduling, tree-based search power allocation and link selection algorithm, we simplify the solving process of previous methods and set up the optimization function, which does not need to be derivable. With successive interference cancellation (SIC) technology, we give conditions for the D2D devices accessing into the network. We also propose a suboptimal scheme to schedule cellular users and D2D devices into multiple subchannels, which reduces the complexity of the exhaustive search method. Through consistent tree-based searching for the power allocation coefficients, we can get the maximum arithmetic average of the system sum rate. Meanwhile, for the existence of the part of interferences from larger power users which can be canceled by the SIC in NOMA systems, the search options are decreased for increasing the search rate of the power allocation algorithm. Moreover, we propose a distance-aware link selection scheme to guarantee the quality of communications. In summary, the proposed algorithm can improve the system throughput, has a low complexity cost and potentially increases spectral utilization. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves a higher data transmission rate than some of the traditional methods and we also investigate the convergence and the computational complexity cost of the joint algorithm.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12010008
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 9: Study on Bridge Displacement Monitoring
           Algorithms Based on Multi-Targets Tracking

    • Authors: Jiajia Wang, Guangming Li
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Bridge displacement measurement is an important area of bridge health monitoring, which can directly reflect whether the deformation of bridge structure exceeds its safety permission. Target tracking technology and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) are two fast-developing and well-known methods for non-contact bridge displacement monitoring in Digital Image Processing (DIP) methods. The former’s cost of erecting detection equipment is too large for bridges with a large span that need to locate more multi-targets because of its tracking only one target on a camera while the latter is not suitable for remote detection because it requires very high detection conditions. After investigating the evolution of bridge displacement monitoring, this paper proposes a bridge displacement monitoring algorithm based on multi-target tracking. The algorithm takes full account of practical application and realizes accuracy, robustness, real-time, low-cost, simplicity, and self-adaptability, which sufficiently adapts the bridge displacement monitoring in theory.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12010009
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 10: An Architecture for Biometric
           Electronic Identification Document System Based on Blockchain

    • Authors: Rafael Páez, Manuel Pérez, Gustavo Ramírez, Juan Montes, Lucas Bouvarel
      First page: 10
      Abstract: This paper proposes an architecture for biometric electronic identification document (e-ID) system based on Blockchain for citizens identity verification in transactions corresponding to the notary, registration, tax declaration and payment, basic health services and registration of economic activities, among others. To validate the user authentication, a biometric e-ID system is used to avoid spoofing and related attacks. Also, to validate the document a digital certificate is used with the corresponding public and private key for each citizen by using a user’s PIN. The proposed transaction validation process was implemented on a Blockchain system in order to record and verify the transactions made by all citizens registered in the electoral census, which guarantees security, integrity, scalability, traceability, and no-ambiguity. Additionally, a Blockchain network architecture is presented in a distributed and decentralized way including all the nodes of the network, database and government entities such as national register and notary offices. The results of the application of a new consensus algorithm to our Blockchain network are also presented showing mining time, memory and CPU usage when the number of transactions scales up.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12010010
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 11: WLAN Aware Cognitive Medium Access
           Control Protocol for IoT Applications

    • Authors: Asfund Ausaf, Mohammad Zubair Khan, Muhammad Awais Javed, Ali Kashif Bashir
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT)-based devices consist of wireless sensor nodes that are battery-powered; thus, energy efficiency is a major issue. IEEE 802.15.4-compliant IoT devices operate in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band of 2.4 GHz and are subject to interference caused by high-powered IEEE 802.11-compliant Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) users. This interference causes frequent packet drop and energy loss for IoT users. In this work, we propose a WLAN Aware Cognitive Medium Access Control (WAC-MAC) protocol for IoT users that uses techniques, such as energy detection based sensing, adaptive wake-up scheduling, and adaptive backoff, to reduce interference with the WSN and improve network lifetime of the IoT users. Results show that the proposed WAC-MAC achieves a higher packet reception rate and reduces the energy consumption of IoT nodes.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12010011
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 12: Mitigating Webshell Attacks through
           Machine Learning Techniques

    • Authors: You Guo, Hector Marco-Gisbert, Paul Keir
      First page: 12
      Abstract: A webshell is a command execution environment in the form of web pages. It is often used by attackers as a backdoor tool for web server operations. Accurately detecting webshells is of great significance to web server protection. Most security products detect webshells based on feature-matching methods—matching input scripts against pre-built malicious code collections. The feature-matching method has a low detection rate for obfuscated webshells. However, with the help of machine learning algorithms, webshells can be detected more efficiently and accurately. In this paper, we propose a new PHP webshell detection model, the NB-Opcode (naïve Bayes and opcode sequence) model, which is a combination of naïve Bayes classifiers and opcode sequences. Through experiments and analysis on a large number of samples, the experimental results show that the proposed method could effectively detect a range of webshells. Compared with the traditional webshell detection methods, this method improves the efficiency and accuracy of webshell detection.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12010012
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 13: Long-Range Wireless Radio
           Technologies: A Survey

    • Authors: Brandon Foubert, Nathalie Mitton
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Wireless networks are now a part of the everyday life of many people and are used for many applications. Recently, new technologies that enable low-power and long-range communications have emerged. These technologies, in opposition to more traditional communication technologies rather defined as "short range", allow kilometer-wide wireless communications. Long-range technologies are used to form Low-Power Wide-Area Networks (LPWAN). Many LPWAN technologies are available, and they offer different performances, business models etc., answering different applications’ needs. This makes it hard to find the right tool for a specific use case. In this article, we present a survey about the long-range technologies available presently as well as the technical characteristics they offer. Then we propose a discussion about the energy consumption of each alternative and which one may be most adapted depending on the use case requirements and expectations, as well as guidelines to choose the best suited technology.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12010013
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 14: Twitter-Based Safety Confirmation
           System for Disaster Situations

    • Authors: Utsu, Abe, Nishikawa, Uchida
      First page: 14
      Abstract: In the aftermath of disastrous events in Japan, safety information and rescue requests, as well as emergency alerts and damage situations, have been shared on Twitter. However, even victims who are familiar with smartphones or similar devices and social media cannot easily share detailed information, such as the coordinates or address of their current location, which are essential components of safety information and rescue requests. Moreover, local governments and rescue experts have difficulty in gathering such tweets from Twitter. In this paper, we propose a novel system to enable the victims to share their safety information, make rescue requests, and enable quick information gathering for decision making by local government staff or rescue experts. The proposed system is a Twitter-based safety confirmation system named T-@npi. Using the proposed application, the users can easily submit their safety information and send rescue requests on Twitter. The users who want to confirm the safety information can check it quickly on Twitter or via this system. Furthermore, the registered safety information is displayed on an online map to support rescue and assistance activities by local governments and rescue experts.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-01-16
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12010014
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 15: Multi-Authority Revocable Access
           Control Method Based on CP-ABE in NDN

    • Authors: Wu, Zhang, Xu
      First page: 15
      Abstract: For the future of the Internet, because information-centric network (ICN) have natural advantages in terms of content distribution, mobility, and security, it is regarded as a potential solution, or even the key, to solve many current problems. Named Data Network (NDN) is one of the research projects initiated by the United States for network architecture. NDN is a more popular project than ICN. The information cache in the NDN separates content from content publishers, but content security is threatened because of the lack of security controls. Therefore, a multi-authority revocable access control method based on CP-ABE needs to be proposed. This method constructs a proxy-assisted access control scheme, which can implement effective data access control in NDN networks, and the scheme has high security. Because of the partial decryption on the NDN node, the decryption burden of the consumer client in the solution is reduced, and effective user and attribute revocation is achieved, and forward security and backward security are ensured, and collusion attacks are prevented. Finally, through the other security and performance analysis of the scheme of this paper, it proves that the scheme is safe and efficient.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-01-16
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12010015
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 16: Geocentric Spherical Surfaces
           Emulating the Geostationary Orbit at Any Latitude with Zenith Links

    • Authors: Matricciani
      First page: 16
      Abstract: According to altitude, the orbits of satellites constellations can be divided into geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), medium Earth orbit (MEO), and low Earth orbit (LEO) constellations. We propose to use a Walker star constellation with polar orbits, at any altitude, to emulate the geostationary orbit with zenith paths at any latitude. Any transmitter/receiver will be linked to a satellite as if the site were at the equator and the satellite at the local zenith. This constellation design can have most of the advantages of the current GEO, MEO, and LEO constellations, without having most of their drawbacks. Doppler phenomena are largely minimized because the connected satellite is always seen almost at the local zenith. The extra free-space loss, due to the fixed pointing of all antennas, is at most 6 dBs when the satellite enters or leaves the service area. The connections among satellites are easy because the positions in the orbital plane and in adjacent planes are constant, although with variable distances. No steering antennas are required. The tropospheric propagation fading and scintillations are minimized. Our aim is to put forth the theoretical ideas about this design, to which we refer to as the geostationary surface (GeoSurf) constellation.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12010016
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 17: Steganalysis of Quantization Index
           Modulation Steganography in G.723.1 Codec

    • Authors: Zhijun Wu, Rong Li, Panpan Yin, Changliang Li
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Steganalysis is used for preventing the illegal use of steganography to ensure the security of network communication through detecting whether or not secret information is hidden in the carrier. This paper presents an approach to detect the quantization index modulation (QIM) of steganography in G.723.1 based on the analysis of the probability of occurrence of index values before and after steganography and studying the influence of adjacent index values in voice over internet protocol (VoIP). According to the change of index value distribution characteristics, this approach extracts the distribution probability matrix and the transition probability matrix as feature vectors, and uses principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the dimensionality. Through a large amount of sample training, the support vector machine (SVM) is designed as a classifier to detect the QIM steganography. The speech samples with different embedding rates and different durations were tested to verify their impact on the accuracy of the steganalysis. The experimental results show that the proposed approach improves the accuracy and reliability of the steganalysis.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12010017
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 18: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Future
           Internet in 2019

    • Authors: Future Internet Editorial Office
      First page: 18
      Abstract: The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...]
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2020-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12010018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 1: Coverage and Energy Efficiency Analysis
           for Two-Tier Heterogeneous Cellular Networks Based on Matérn Hard-Core

    • Authors: Jie Yang, Ziyu Pan, Lihong Guo
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Due to the dense deployment of base stations (BSs) in heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs), the energy efficiency (EE) of HCN has attracted the attention of academia and industry. Considering its mathematical tractability, the Poisson point process (PPP) has been employed to model HCNs and analyze their performance widely. The PPP falls short in modeling the effect of interference management techniques, which typically introduces some form of spatial mutual exclusion among BSs. In PPP, all the nodes are independent from each other. As such, PPP may not be suitable to model networks with interference management techniques, where there exists repulsion among the nodes. Considering this, we adopt the Matérn hard-core process (MHCP) instead of PPP, in which no two nodes can be closer than a repulsion radius from one another. In this paper, we study the coverage performance and EE of a two-tier HCN modelled by Matérn hard-core process (MHCP); we abbreviate this kind of two-tier HCN as MHCP-MHCP. We first derive the approximate expression of coverage probability of MHCP-MHCP by extending the approximate signal to interference ratio analysis based on the PPP (ASAPPP) method to multi-tier HCN. The concrete SIR gain of the MHCP model relative to the PPP model is derived through simulation and data fitting. On the basis of coverage analysis, we derive and formulate the EE of MHCP-MHCP network. Simulation results verify the correctness of our theoretical analysis and show the performance difference between the MHCP-MHCP and PPP modelled network.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-12-19
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12010001
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 2: An Adaptive Differential Protection and
           Fast Auto-Closing System for 10 kV Distribution Networks Based on 4G LTE
           Wireless Communication

    • Authors: Wen An, Jun Jie Ma, Hong Yang Zhou, Hong Shan Chen, Xu Jun, Xu Jian
      First page: 2
      Abstract: With the development of wireless communication technology and computer technology, more and more smart technologies have been applied in electricity distribution networks. This paper presents an adaptive current differential protection and fast auto-closing system for application in 10 kV distribution networks in China Southern Power Grid. The current differential protection can adaptively change its settings according to the topology change of the primary distribution networks, thus the system effectively reduces the operation and maintenance cost of the power distribution network. In order to restore the power supply for the healthy part of the 10 kV networks quickly after a power system fault is cleared, the protection and control system provides wide area control function for automatic fault isolation and automatic switching. The traditional overcurrent protection and control system have no fault location function, it may take several minutes or even hours to manually locate a fault and then restore the power supply. Compared with the protection and control system of the traditional 10 kV distribution networks, the system developed can locate and isolate faults within 900 ms (assuming that the operating time of the load switch is 700 ms), and can quickly restore power supply in less than one second after a power system fault is cleared.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-12-20
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12010002
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 3: Decoupling-Based Channel Access

    • Authors: Jianjun Lei, Ying Wang, Hong Yun
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Legacy IEEE 802.11 Medium Access Control (MAC) adopts the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) mechanism, which provides the same access opportunity for all contenders. However, in dense multi-rate Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs), the pure distributed control mechanism will cause high collision rate and performance anomaly, which results in low network utilization and wasting valuable channel resources. In this paper, we present a decoupling MAC mechanism (DMAC) based on the idea of contention/reservation to reduce collision and realize collision free data transmission. In proposed mechanism, the channel access time is partitioned into channel contention process and data transmission process. The proposed algorithm makes full use of the distributed random channel access mechanism and performs a centralized collision-free data transmission. Wherein, we also design an adaptive algorithm to adjust the length of the contention period to improve the channel utilization. Furthermore, we further propose two airtime fairness algorithms Improve-DMAC1 (I-DMAC1) and Improve-DMAC2 (I-DMAC2) for delay sensitive network and high throughput network scenarios, respectively, to solve the performance anomaly in multi-rate WLANs, based on DMAC. We verify the effectiveness of these decoupling algorithms through extensive simulations. Moreover, the simulation results show that the proposed algorithms achieve better performance than the 802.11 standard and other protocols.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-12-23
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12010003
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 4: Transactive Energy to Thwart Load
           Altering Attacks on Power Distribution Systems

    • Authors: Samuel Yankson, Mahdi Ghamkhari
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The automatic generation control mechanism in power generators comes into operation whenever an over-supply or under-supply of energy occurs in the power grid. It has been shown that the automatic generation control mechanism is highly vulnerable to load altering attacks. In this type of attack, the power consumption of multiple electric loads in power distribution systems is remotely altered by cyber attackers in such a way that the automatic generation control mechanism is disrupted and is hindered from performing its pivotal role. The existing literature on load altering attacks has studied implementation, detection, and location identification of these attacks. However, no prior work has ever studied design of an attack-thwarting system that can counter load altering attacks, once they are detected in the power grid. This paper addresses the above shortcoming by proposing an attack-thwarting system for countering load altering attacks. The proposed system is based on provoking real-time adjustment in power consumption of the flexible loads in response to the frequency disturbances caused by the load altering attacks. To make the adjustments in-proportion to the frequency disturbances, the proposed attack-thwarting system uses a transactive energy framework to establish a coordination between the flexible loads and the power grid operator.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-12-24
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12010004
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 5: 5G Cross-Border Operation for Connected
           and Automated Mobility: Challenges and Solutions

    • Authors: Apostolos Kousaridas, Andreas Schimpe, Sebastian Euler, Xavier Vilajosana, Mikael Fallgren, Giada Landi, Francesca Moscatelli, Sokratis Barmpounakis, Francisco Vázquez-Gallego, Roshan Sedar, Rodrigo Silva, Laurent Dizambourg, Stefan Wendt, Maciej Muehleisen, Kurt Eckert, Jérôme Härri, Jesus Alonso-Zarate
      First page: 5
      Abstract: The vision of cooperative, connected and automated mobility (CCAM) across Europe can only be realized when harmonized solutions that support cross-border traffic exist. The possibility of providing CCAM services along different countries when vehicles drive across various national borders has a huge innovative business potential. However, the seamless provision of connectivity and the uninterrupted delivery of services along borders also poses interesting technical challenges. The situation is particularly innovative given the multi-country, multi-operator, multi-telco-vendor, and multi-car-manufacturer scenario of any cross-border layout. This paper introduces the challenges associated to a cross-border deployment of communication technologies through the analysis of three use cases: tele-operated driving, high-definition map generation and distribution for autonomous vehicles, and anticipated cooperative collision avoidance. Furthermore, a set of 5G solutions have been identified to ensure that CCAM services can be supported efficiently in cross-border scenarios. Faster handover of a data connection from one operator to another, generalized inter-mobile edge computing (MEC) coordination, and quality of service (QoS) prediction are some of the solutions that have been introduced to reduce the uncertainties of a real 5G cross-border deployment.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-12-24
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12010005
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 12, Pages 6: Search Engine Optimization

    • Authors: Veglis, Giomelakis
      First page: 6
      Abstract: The introduction of the World Wide Web (WWW), 25 years ago, has considerably altered the manner in which people obtain information [...]
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/fi12010006
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 246: A Deep Ensemble Learning Method for
           Effort-Aware Just-In-Time Defect Prediction

    • Authors: Albahli
      First page: 246
      Abstract: Since the introduction of just-in-time effort aware defect prediction, many researchers are focusing on evaluating the different learning methods, which can predict the defect inducing changes in a software product. In order to predict these changes, it is important for a learning model to consider the nature of the dataset, its unbalancing properties and the correlation between different attributes. In this paper, we evaluated the importance of these properties for a specific dataset and proposed a novel methodology for learning the effort aware just-in-time prediction of defect inducing changes. Moreover, we devised an ensemble classifier, which fuses the output of three individual classifiers (Random forest, XGBoost, Multi-layer perceptron) to build an efficient state-of-the-art prediction model. The experimental analysis of the proposed methodology showed significant performance with 77% accuracy on the sample dataset and 81% accuracy on different datasets. Furthermore, we proposed a highly competent reinforcement learning technique to avoid false alarms in real time predictions.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11120246
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 247: Learning Dynamic Factors to Improve
           the Accuracy of Bus Arrival Time Prediction via a Recurrent Neural Network

    • Authors: Xin Zhou, Peixin Dong, Jianping Xing, Peijia Sun
      First page: 247
      Abstract: Accurate prediction of bus arrival times is a challenging problem in the public transportation field. Previous studies have shown that to improve prediction accuracy, more heterogeneous measurements provide better results. So what other factors should be added into the prediction model' Traditional prediction methods mainly use the arrival time and the distance between stations, but do not make full use of dynamic factors such as passenger number, dwell time, bus driving efficiency, etc. We propose a novel approach that takes full advantage of dynamic factors. Our approach is based on a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN). The experimental results indicate that a variety of prediction algorithms (such as Support Vector Machine, Kalman filter, Multilayer Perceptron, and RNN) have significantly improved performance after using dynamic factors. Further, we introduce RNN with an attention mechanism to adaptively select the most relevant input factors. Experiments demonstrate that the prediction accuracy of RNN with an attention mechanism is better than RNN with no attention mechanism when there are heterogeneous input factors. The experimental results show the superior performances of our approach on the data set provided by Jinan Public Transportation Corporation.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11120247
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 248: Performance Analysis of On-Demand
           Scheduling with and without Network Coding in Wireless Broadcast

    • Authors: G. G. Md. Nawaz Ali, Victor C.S. Lee, Yuxuan Meng, Peter H. J. Chong, Jun Chen
      First page: 248
      Abstract: On-demand broadcast is a scalable approach to disseminating information to a large population of clients while satisfying dynamic needs of clients, such as in vehicular networks. However, in conventional broadcast approaches, only one data item can be retrieved by clients in one broadcast tick. To further improve the efficiency of wireless bandwidth, in this work, we conduct a comprehensive study on incorporating network coding with representative on-demand scheduling algorithms while preserving their original scheduling criteria. In particular, a graph model is derived to maximize the coding benefit based on the clients’ requested and cached data items. Furthermore, we propose a heuristic coding-based approach, which is applicable for all the on-demand scheduling algorithms with low computational complexity. In addition, based on various application requirements, we classify the existing on-demand scheduling algorithms into three groups—real-time, non-real-time and stretch optimal. In view of different application-specific objectives, we implement the coding versions of representative algorithms in each group. Extensive simulation results conclusively demonstrate the superiority of coding versions of algorithms against their non-coding versions on achieving their respective scheduling objectives.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-11-26
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11120248
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 249: Real-Time Stream Processing in Social
           Networks with RAM3S

    • Authors: Ilaria Bartolini, Marco Patella
      First page: 249
      Abstract: The avalanche of (both user- and device-generated) multimedia data published in online social networks poses serious challenges to researchers seeking to analyze such data for many different tasks, like recommendation, event recognition, and so on. For some such tasks, the classical “batch” approach of big data analysis is not suitable, due to constraints of real-time or near-real-time processing. This led to the rise of stream processing big data platforms, like Storm and Flink, that are able to process data with a very low latency. However, this complicates the task of data analysis since any implementation has to deal with the technicalities of such platforms, like distributed processing, synchronization, node faults, etc. In this paper, we show how the RAM 3 S framework could be profitably used to easily implement a variety of applications (such as clothing recommendations, job suggestions, and alert generation for dangerous events), being independent of the particular stream processing big data platforms used. Indeed, by using RAM 3 S, researchers can concentrate on the development of their data analysis application, completely ignoring the details of the underlying platform.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11120249
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 250: A Method of Node Layout of a Complex
           Network Based on Community Compression

    • Authors: Chengxiang Liu, Wei Xiong, Xitao Zhang, Zheng Liu
      First page: 250
      Abstract: As the theory of complex networks is further studied, the scale of nodes in the network is increasing, which makes it difficult to find useful patterns from only the analysis of nodes. Therefore, this paper proposes a complex network node layout method based on community compression, which can effectively display the mesoscale structure characteristics of the network, making it more convenient for users to analyze the status and function of a single node or a class of nodes in the whole complex network. To begin with, the whole network is divided into communities with different granularity by the Louvain algorithm. Secondly, the method of nodes importance analysis based on topological potential theory is extended from the network to the community structure, and the internal nodes of the community are classified into three types, namely important nodes, relatively important nodes, and fringe nodes. Furthermore, a compression algorithm for the community structure is designed to realize the compression of the network by retaining important nodes and merging fringe nodes. Finally, the compression network is laid out by the traditional force-directed layout method. Experimental results show that, compared with the compression layout methods of a complex network based on degree or PageRank, the method in this paper can retain the integrated community composition and its internal structure, which is convenient for users to effectively analyze the topology structure of a complex network.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11120250
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 251: Secure WiFi-Direct Using Key Exchange
           for IoT Device-to-Device Communications in a Smart Environment

    • Authors: Zakariae Belghazi, Nabil Benamar, Adnane Addaim, Chaker Abdelaziz Kerrache
      First page: 251
      Abstract: With the rapid growth of Internet of Things (IoT) devices around the world, thousands of mobile users share many data with each other daily. IoT communication has been developed in the past few years to ensure direct connection among mobile users. However, wireless vulnerabilities exist that cause security concerns for IoT device-to-device (D2D) communication. This has become a serious debate, especially in smart environments where highly sensitive information is exchanged. In this paper, we study the security requirements in IoT D2D communication. In addition, we propose a novel authentication approach called Secure Key Exchange with QR Code (SeKeQ) to verify user identity by ensuring an automatic key comparison and providing a shared secret key using Diffie-Hellman key agreement with an SHA-256 hash. To evaluate the performance of SeKeQ, we ran a testbed using devices with a WiFi-Direct communication interface. The obtained results depict that our proposal can offer the required security functions including key exchange, data confidentiality, and integrity. In addition, our proposal can reach the same security performances as MANA (Manual Authentication) and UMAC (Universal-Hashing Message Authentication Code) but with 10 times fewer key computations and reduced memory occupancy.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11120251
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 252: An Efficient Dynamic Load Balancing
           Scheme Based on Nash Bargaining in SDN

    • Authors: Guoyan Li, Kaixin Li, Yi Liu, Yuheng Pan
      First page: 252
      Abstract: Static multi-controller deployment architecture cannot adapt to the drastic changes of network traffic, which will lead to a load imbalance between controllers, resulting in a high packet loss rate, high latency, and other network performance degradation problems. In this paper, an efficient dynamic load balancing scheme based on Nash bargaining is proposed for a distributed software-defined network. Firstly, considering the connectivity of network nodes, the switch migration problem is transformed into a network mapping relationship reconstruction problem. Then, we establish the Nash bargaining game model to fairly optimize the two contradictory goals of migration cost and load balance. Finally, the model is solved by an improved firefly algorithm, and the optimal network mapping state is obtained. The experimental results show that this scheme can optimize the migration cost and load balance at the same time. Compared with the existing research schemes, the migration process of the switch is optimized, and, while effectively balancing the load of the control plane, the migration cost is reduced by 14.5%.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11120252
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 253: Reinforcement Learning Based Query
           Routing Approach for P2P Systems

    • Authors: Fawaz Alanazi, Taoufik Yeferny
      First page: 253
      Abstract: Peer-to-peer (P2P) systems have offered users an efficient way to share various resources and access diverse services over the Internet. In unstructured P2P systems, resource storage and indexation are fully distributed among participating peers. Therefore, locating peers sharing pertinent resources for a specific user query is a challenging issue. In fact, effective query routing requires smart decisions to select a certain number of peers with respect to their relevance for the query instead of choosing them at random. In this respect, we introduce here a new query-oriented approach, called the reinforcement learning-based query routing approach (RLQR). The main goal of RLQR is to reach high retrieval effectiveness as well as a lower search cost by reducing the number of exchanged messages and contacted peers. To achieve this, the RLQR relies on information gathered from previously sent queries to identify relevant peers for forthcoming queries. Indeed, we formulate the query routing issue as the reinforcement learning problem and introduce a fully distributed approach for addressing it. In addition, RLQR addresses the well-known cold-start issue during the training stage, which allows it to improve its retrieval effectiveness and search cost continuously, and, therefore, goes quickly through the cold-start phase. Performed simulations demonstrate that RLQR outperforms pioneering query routing approaches in terms of retrieval effectiveness and communications cost.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-12-09
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11120253
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 254: Research on Community Detection of
           Online Social Network Members Based on the Sparse Subspace Clustering

    • Authors: Zihe Zhou, Bo Tian
      First page: 254
      Abstract: The text data of the social network platforms take the form of short texts, and the massive text data have high-dimensional and sparse characteristics, which does not make the traditional clustering algorithm perform well. In this paper, a new community detection method based on the sparse subspace clustering (SSC) algorithm is proposed to deal with the problem of sparsity and the high-dimensional characteristic of short texts in online social networks. The main ideal is as follows. First, the structured data including users’ attributions and user behavior and unstructured data such as user reviews are used to construct the vector space for the network. And the similarity of the feature words is calculated by the location relation of the feature words in the synonym word forest. Then, the dimensions of data are deduced based on the principal component analysis in order to improve the clustering accuracy. Further, a new community detection method of social network members based on the SSC is proposed. Finally, experiments on several data sets are performed and compared with the K-means clustering algorithm. Experimental results show that proper dimension reduction for high dimensional data can improve the clustering accuracy and efficiency of the SSC approach. The proposed method can achieve suitable community partition effect on online social network data sets.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-12-09
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11120254
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 255: A Novel Neural Network-Based Method
           for Medical Text Classification

    • Authors: Li Qing, Weng Linhong, Ding Xuehai
      First page: 255
      Abstract: Medical text categorization is a specific area of text categorization. Classification for medical texts is considered a special case of text classification. Medical text includes medical records and medical literature, both of which are important clinical information resources. However, medical text contains complex medical vocabularies, medical measures, which has problems with high-dimensionality and data sparsity, so text classification in the medical domain is more challenging than those in other general domains. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes a unified neural network method. In the sentence representation, the convolutional layer extracts features from the sentence and a bidirectional gated recurrent unit (BIGRU) is used to access both the preceding and succeeding sentence features. An attention mechanism is employed to obtain the sentence representation with the important word weights. In the document representation, the method uses the BIGRU to encode the sentences, which is obtained in sentence representation and then decode it through the attention mechanism to get the document representation with important sentence weights. Finally, a category of medical text is obtained through a classifier. Experimental verifications are conducted on four medical text datasets, including two medical record datasets and two medical literature datasets. The results clearly show that our method is effective.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-12-10
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11120255
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 256: Partial Pre-Emphasis for Pluggable
           400 G Short-Reach Coherent Systems

    • Authors: Ahmad Abdo, Xueyang Li, Md Samiul Alam, Mahdi Parvizi, Naim Ben-Hamida, Claude D’Amours, David Plant
      First page: 256
      Abstract: Pre-emphasis filters are used to pre-compensate for the transmitter frequency response of coherent systems to mitigate receiver noise enhancement. This is particularly essential for low-cost, low-power coherent transceivers due to having an extremely bandlimited transmitter. However, the pre-emphasis filter also increases the signal peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), thus posing a higher effective number of bits (ENoB) requirement for the arbitrary waveform generator (AWG). In this paper, we first numerically study the PAPR impact of partial pre-emphasis filters. We show that with partial pre-emphasis, an ENoB reduction from 5 to 4.5 bits is attainable at the same signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) out of the AWG. Next, we experimentally investigate the overall performance penalty of partial pre-emphasis in a 50 Gbaud 16QAM coherent system. A manageable Q factor penalty of around 0.5 dB is found for both single-polarization and dual-polarization systems with a 0.8 dB PAPR reduction.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-12-11
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11120256
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 257: Spectrum Management Schemes for

    • Authors: Gbolahan Aiyetoro, Pius Owolawi
      First page: 257
      Abstract: The rapid growth of not just mobile devices but also Internet of Things (IoT) devices has introduced a new paradigm in mobile networks. This evolution and the continuous need to provide spectrum efficient, high data rates, low latency, and low energy consumption radio access networks have led to the emergence of fifth generation (5G) networks. Due to technical and economical limitations, the satellite air interface is expected to complement the 5G terrestrial air interface in the provision of 5G services including IoT communications. More importantly, it is on this premise that the 5G satellite air interface is expected to provide network access to IoT devices in rural and remote areas termed Internet of Remote Things (IoRT). While this remains an interesting solution, several radio resource management issues exist. One of them, spectrum management, in the 5G satellite as it affects IoRT communications, remains unclear. Hence, the aim of this paper is to investigate and recommend the spectrum management scheme that will be most suitable not only for Human-to-Human communications but also Machine-to-Machine communications in 5G satellite networks. In order to conduct this investigation, a new dynamic scheduling scheme that will be suitable for such a scenario is proposed in this paper. The investigation is conducted through simulations, using throughput, delay, spectral efficiency, and fairness index as the performance metrics.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-12-11
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11120257
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 258: Blockchain: Current Challenges and
           Future Prospects/Applications

    • Authors: Spyros Makridakis, Klitos Christodoulou
      First page: 258
      Abstract: Blockchain is a new technology, often referred to as the Internet of Value. As with all new technologies, there is no consensus on its potential value, with some people claiming that it will bring more disruptive changes than the Internet and others contesting the extent of its importance. Despite predictions that the future is perilous, there is evidence that blockchain is a remarkable, new technology that will change the way transactions are made, based on its ability to guarantee trust among unknown actors, assure the immutability of records, while also making intermediaries obsolete. The importance of blockchain can be confirmed by the interest in digital currencies, the great number of published blockchain papers, as well as MDPI’s journal Future Internet which exclusively publishes blockchain articles, including this special issue covering present and future blockchain challenges. This paper is a survey of the fast growing field of blockchain, discussing its advantages and possible drawbacks and their implications for the future of the Internet and our personal lives and societies in general. The paper consists of the following parts; the first provides a general introduction and discusses the disruptive changes initiated by blockchain, the second discusses the unique value of blockchain and its general characteristics, the third presents an overview of industries with the greatest potential for disruptive changes, the forth describes the four major blockchain applications with the highest prospective advantages, and the fifth part of the paper ends with a discussion on the most notable subset of innovative blockchain applications—Smart Contracts, DAOs (Decentralized Autonomous Organizations) and super safe networks—and their future implications. There is also a concluding section, which summarizes the paper, describes the future of blockchain, and mentions the challenges to be overcome.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-12-12
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11120258
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 259: A Review of Internet of Things
           Technologies for Ambient Assisted Living Environments

    • Authors: Rytis Maskeliūnas, Robertas Damaševičius, Sagiv Segal
      First page: 259
      Abstract: The internet of things (IoT) aims to extend the internet to real-world objects, connecting smart and sensing devices into a global network infrastructure by connecting physical and virtual objects. The IoT has the potential to increase the quality of life of inhabitants and users of intelligent ambient assisted living (AAL) environments. The paper overviews and discusses the IoT technologies and their foreseen impacts and challenges for the AAL domain. The results of this review are summarized as the IoT based gerontechnology acceptance model for the assisted living domain. The model focuses on the acceptance of new technologies by older people and underscores the need for the adoption of the IoT for the AAL domain.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-12-12
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11120259
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 260: Acquiring Ontology Axioms through
           Mappings to Data Sources

    • Authors: Floriana Di Pinto, Giuseppe De Giacomo, Domenico Lembo, Maurizio Lenzerini, Riccardo Rosati
      First page: 260
      Abstract: Although current languages used in ontology-based data access (OBDA) systems allow for mapping source data to instances of concepts and relations in the ontology, several application domains need more flexible tools for inferring knowledge from data, which are able to dynamically acquire axioms about new concepts and relations directly from the data. In this paper we introduce the notion of mapping-based knowledge base (MKB) to formalize the situation where both the extensional and the intensional level of the ontology are determined by suitable mappings to a set of data sources. This allows for making the intensional level of the ontology as dynamic as the extensional level traditionally is. To do so, we resort to the meta-modeling capabilities of higher-order description logics, in particular the description logic Hi ( DL-Lite R ) , which allows seeing concepts and relations as individuals, and vice versa. The challenge in this setting is to design efficient algorithms for answering queries posed to MKBs. Besides the definition of MKBs, our main contribution is to prove that answering instance queries posed to MKBs expressed in Hi ( DL-Lite R ) can be done efficiently.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-12-13
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11120260
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 261: SEO inside Newsrooms: Reports from
           the Field

    • Authors: Dimitrios Giomelakis, Christina Karypidou, Andreas Veglis
      First page: 261
      Abstract: The journalism profession has changed dramatically in the digital age as the internet, and new technologies, in general, have created new working conditions in the media environment. Concurrently, journalists and media professionals need to be aware and possess a new set of skills connected to web technologies, as well as respond to new reading tendencies and information consumption habits. A number of studies have shown that search engines are an important source of the traffic to news websites around the world, identifying the significance of high rankings in search results. Journalists are writing to be read, and that means ensuring that their news content is found, also, by search engines. In this context, this paper represents an exploratory study on the use of search engine optimization (SEO) in news websites. A series of semi-structured, in-depth interviews with professionals at four Greek media organizations uncover trends and address issues, such as how SEO policy is operationalized and applied inside newsrooms, which are the most common optimization practices, as well as the impact on journalism and news content. Today, news publishers have embraced the use of SEO practices, something that is clear also from this study. However, the absence of a distinct SEO culture was evident in newsrooms under study. Finally, according to results, SEO strategy seems to depend on factors, such as ownership and market orientation, editorial priorities or organizational structures.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-12-13
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11120261
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 262: Dependable and Secure Voting
           Mechanism in Edge Computing

    • Authors: Pedro A.R.S. Costa, Marko Beko
      First page: 262
      Abstract: Edge computing is a distributed computing paradigm that encompasses data computing and storage and is performed close to the user, efficiently guaranteeing faster response time. This paradigm plays a pivotal role in the world of the Internet of Things (IoT). Moreover, the concept of the distributed edge cloud raises several interesting open issues, e.g., failure recovery and security. In this paper, we propose a system composed of edge nodes and multiple cloud instances, as well as a voting mechanism. The multi-cloud environment aims to perform centralized computations, and edge nodes behave as a middle layer between edge devices and the cloud. Moreover, we present a voting mechanism that leverages the edge network to validate the performed computation that occurred in the centralized environment.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11120262
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 263: The Missing Link to Computational

    • Authors: Michael Pollak, Martin Ebner
      First page: 263
      Abstract: After a lengthy debate within the scientific community about what constitutes the problem solving approach of computational thinking (CT), the focus shifted to enable the integration of CT within compulsory education. This publication strives to focus the discussion and enable future research in an educational setting with a strong focus on the Austrian circumstances and the goal to allow wide international adoption later on. Methodically, a literature review was conducted to gain knowledge about the current strands of research and a meta study to show the diversity of proposed and materialized studies. Three main questions were answered, establishing that CT as an idea is rooted in scientific literature dating back to the 1980s and grew in popularity after Wing introduced the concept to a broader audience. A number of authors contributed to the current state of the field, with the most cited review coming from Grover and Pea. The challenge to integrate CT in curricula around the world was met by many experiments and case studies but without a conclusive framework as of yet. Ultimately, this paper determines that expert integration is a blank spot in the literature and aims to create a strong, inclusive path to CT education by inviting practitioners.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-12-16
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11120263
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 221: Integration of LTE 230 and LTE 1800
           in Power Wireless Private Networks

    • Authors: Ding, Miao, Zhang, Li, Liu, Zou, Xu
      First page: 221
      Abstract: Power wireless private networks (PWPNs) have been highly developed in China in recent years. They provide a basis for the energy Internet of Things, which enables the exchange of energy information between devices. Although the power wireless private network is an imitation of the public cellular network, a number of special challenges remain in power private networks. Due to the lack of general standards for PWPNs at the beginning of deployment, there are now two independent PWPN systems in China: long-term evolution (LTE) 230 and LTE 1800. Each has its own core and access networks with independent hardware. In this paper, we propose a high-level design of multinetwork integration to allow LTE 230 and LTE 1800 to coexist. For core network integration, we propose a protocol controller to select the active protocol according to the user’s mode selection, since both LTE 230 and LTE 1800 evolved from the standard LTE system. For access network integration, we propose a multinetwork integration controller to help the device access the optimal cell. The simulation results show that the integrated system can retain the advantages of these two independent systems in terms of both capacity and coverage.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-10-23
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110221
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 222: Fog Computing in IoT Smart
           Environments via Named Data Networking: A Study on Service Orchestration

    • Authors: Marica Amadeo, Giuseppe Ruggeri, Claudia Campolo, Antonella Molinaro, Valeria Loscrí, Carlos T. Calafate
      First page: 222
      Abstract: By offering low-latency and context-aware services, fog computing will have a peculiar role in the deployment of Internet of Things (IoT) applications for smart environments. Unlike the conventional remote cloud, for which consolidated architectures and deployment options exist, many design and implementation aspects remain open when considering the latest fog computing paradigm. In this paper, we focus on the problems of dynamically discovering the processing and storage resources distributed among fog nodes and, accordingly, orchestrating them for the provisioning of IoT services for smart environments. In particular, we show how these functionalities can be effectively supported by the revolutionary Named Data Networking (NDN) paradigm. Originally conceived to support named content delivery, NDN can be extended to request and provide named computation services, with NDN nodes acting as both content routers and in-network service executors. To substantiate our analysis, we present an NDN fog computing framework with focus on a smart campus scenario, where the execution of IoT services is dynamically orchestrated and performed by NDN nodes in a distributed fashion. A simulation campaign in ndnSIM, the reference network simulator of the NDN research community, is also presented to assess the performance of our proposal against state-of-the-art solutions. Results confirm the superiority of the proposal in terms of service provisioning time, paid at the expenses of a slightly higher amount of traffic exchanged among fog nodes.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110222
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 223: Operation Scheduling Optimization for
           Microgrids Considering Coordination of Their Components

    • Authors: Hirotaka Takano, Ryota Goto, Thin Zar Soe, Nguyen Duc Tuyen, Hiroshi Asano
      First page: 223
      Abstract: Operation scheduling is one of the most practical optimization problems to efficiently manage the electric power supply and demand in microgrids. Although various microgrid-related techniques have been developed, there has been no established solution to the problem until now. This is because the formulated problem becomes a complicated mixed-integer programming problem having multiple optimization variables. The authors present a framework for this problem and its effective solution to obtain an operation schedule of the microgrid components considering their coordination. In the framework, trading electricity with traditional main power grids is included in the optimization target, and uncertainty originating from variable renewable energy sources is considered. In the solution, the formulated problem is reformulated to reduce the dimensions of its solution space, and, as a result, a combined algorithm of binary particle swarm optimization and quadratic programming is applicable. Through numerical simulations and discussions of their results, the validity of the authors’ proposal is verified.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110223
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 224: Impacts of Video Display on Purchase
           Intention for Digital and Home Appliance Products—Empirical Study from

    • Authors: Ruohong Hao, Bingjia Shao, Rong Ma
      First page: 224
      Abstract: Rapid online trading expansion and the bloom of internet technologies has raised the importance of effective product video presentations for online retailers. This article developed a model for the impacts of video presentations on purchase intention for digital and home appliance products. Four group experiments were designed, and empirical tests were performed. This research found that presenting videos on how to use digital and home appliance products increased purchase intention by raising the information gained by customers. Meanwhile, video tutorial information had insignificant effects related to the knowledge and experience of customers.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110224
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 225: FaDe: A Blockchain-Based Fair Data
           Exchange Scheme for Big Data Sharing

    • Authors: Yuling Chen, Jinyi Guo, Changlou Li, Wei Ren
      First page: 225
      Abstract: In the big data era, data are envisioned as critical resources with various values, e.g., business intelligence, management efficiency, and financial evaluations. Data sharing is always mandatory for value exchanges and profit promotion. Currently, certain big data markets have been created for facilitating data dissemination and coordinating data transaction, but we have to assume that such centralized management of data sharing must be trustworthy for data privacy and sharing fairness, which very likely imposes limitations such as joining admission, sharing efficiency, and extra costly commissions. To avoid these weaknesses, in this paper, we propose a blockchain-based fair data exchange scheme, called FaDe. FaDe can enable de-centralized data sharing in an autonomous manner, especially guaranteeing trade fairness, sharing efficiency, data privacy, and exchanging automation. A fairness protocol based on bit commitment is proposed. An algorithm based on blockchain script architecture for a smart contract, e.g., by a bitcoin virtual machine, is also proposed and implemented. Extensive analysis justifies that the proposed scheme can guarantee data exchanging without a trusted third party fairly, efficiently, and automatically.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110225
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 226: Collaborative Blockchain-Based
           Detection of Distributed Denial of Service Attacks Based on Internet of
           Things Botnets

    • Authors: Georgios Spathoulas, Nikolaos Giachoudis, Georgios-Paraskevas Damiris, Georgios Theodoridis
      First page: 226
      Abstract: Internet of Things is one of the most significant latest developments in computer science. It is common for modern computing infrastructures to partially consist of numerous low power devices that are characterized by high diversity in both hardware and software. Existing security models, approaches and solutions are not able to sufficiently protect such systems. In this paper we propose the use of lightweight agents installed at multiple internet of things (IoT) installations (e.g., smart-homes), in order to collaboratively detect distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks conducted by the use of IoT devices botnets. Specifically, agents exchange outbound traffic information in order to identify possible victims of DDoS attacks. This information exchange is governed by a blockchain smart contract, that ensures the integrity of both the procedure and the information. A simulation of the operation of the proposed methodology has been conducted in order to evaluate both its detection efficiency and its resilience against malicious agents that aim to falsify results.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-10-25
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110226
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 227: IoT Based Smart City Bus Stops

    • Authors: Miraal Kamal, Manal Atif, Hafsa Mujahid, Tamer Shanableh, A. R. Al-Ali, Ahmad Al Nabulsi
      First page: 227
      Abstract: The advent of smart sensors, single system-on-chip computing devices, Internet of Things (IoT), and cloud computing is facilitating the design and development of smart devices and services. These include smart meters, smart street lightings, smart gas stations, smart parking lots, and smart bus stops. Countries in the Gulf region have hot and humid weather around 6–7 months of the year, which might lead to uncomfortable conditions for public commuters. Transportation authorities have made some major enhancements to existing bus stops by installing air-conditioning units, but without any remote monitoring and control features. This paper proposes a smart IoT-based environmentally - friendly enhanced design for existing bus stop services in the United Arab Emirates. The objective of the proposed design was to optimize energy consumption through estimating bus stop occupancy, remotely monitor air conditioning and lights, automatically report utility breakdowns, and measure the air pollution around the area. In order to accomplish this, bus stops will be equipped with a WiFi-Based standalone microcontroller connected to sensors and actuators. The microcontroller transmits the sensor readings to a real-time database hosted in the cloud and incorporates a mobile app that notifies operators or maintenance personnel in the case of abnormal readings or breakdowns. The mobile app encompasses a map interface enabling operators to remotely monitor the conditions of bus stops such as the temperature, humidity, estimated occupancy, and air pollution levels. In addition to presenting the system’s architecture and detailed design, a system prototype is built to test and validate the proposed solution.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-10-26
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110227
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 228: Special Issue “New Perspectives in
           Intelligent Transportation Systems and Mobile Communications towards a
           Smart Cities Context”

    • Authors: Giovanni Pau, Alessandro Severino, Antonino Canale
      First page: 228
      Abstract: Intelligent transportation solutions and smart information and communication technologies will be the core of future smart cities. For this purpose, these topics have captivated noteworthy interest in the investigation and construction of cleverer communication protocols or the application of artificial intelligence in the connection of in-vehicle devices by wireless networks, and in in-vehicle services for autonomous driving using high-precision positioning and sensing systems. This special issue has focused on the collection of high-quality papers aimed at solving open technical problems and challenges typical of mobile communications for Intelligent Transportation Systems.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-10-28
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110228
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 229: Predicting Rogue Content and Arabic
           Spammers on Twitter

    • Authors: Adel R. Alharbi, Amer Aljaedi
      First page: 229
      Abstract: Twitter is one of the most popular online social networks for spreading propaganda and words in the Arab region. Spammers are now creating rogue accounts to distribute adult content through Arabic tweets that Arabic norms and cultures prohibit. Arab governments are facing a huge challenge in the detection of these accounts. Researchers have extensively studied English spam on online social networks, while to date, social network spam in other languages has been completely ignored. In our previous study, we estimated that rogue and spam content accounted for approximately three quarters of all content with Arabic trending hashtags in Saudi Arabia. This alarming rate, supported by autonomous concurrent estimates, highlights the urgent need to develop adaptive spam detection methods. In this work, we collected a pure data set from spam accounts producing Arabic tweets. We applied lightweight feature engineering based on rogue content and user profiles. The 47 generated features were analyzed, and the best features were selected. Our performance results show that the random forest classification algorithm with 16 features performs best, with accuracy rates greater than 90%.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-10-30
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110229
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 230: High-Level Smart Decision Making of a
           Robot Based on Ontology in a Search and Rescue Scenario

    • Authors: Xiaolei Sun, Yu Zhang, Jing Chen
      First page: 230
      Abstract: The search and rescue (SAR) scenario is complex and uncertain where a robot needs to understand the scenario to make smart decisions. Aiming at the knowledge representation (KR) in the field of SAR, this paper builds an ontology model that enables a robot to understand how to make smart decisions. The ontology is divided into three parts, namely entity ontology, environment ontology, and task ontology. Web Ontology Language (OWL) is adopted to represent these three types of ontology. Through ontology and Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) rules, the robot infers the tasks to be performed according to the environment state and at the same time obtains the semantic information of the victims. Then, the paper proposes an ontology-based algorithm for task planning to get a sequence of atomic actions so as to complete the high-level inferred task. In addition, an indoor experiment was designed and built for the SAR scenario using a real robot platform—TurtleBot3. The correctness and usability of the ontology and the proposed methods are verified by experiments.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110230
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 231: A Context-Aware Conversational Agent
           in the Rehabilitation Domain

    • Authors: Thanassis Mavropoulos, Georgios Meditskos, Spyridon Symeonidis, Eleni Kamateri, Maria Rousi, Dimitris Tzimikas, Lefteris Papageorgiou, Christos Eleftheriadis, George Adamopoulos, Stefanos Vrochidis, Ioannis Kompatsiaris
      First page: 231
      Abstract: Conversational agents are reshaping our communication environment and have the potential to inform and persuade in new and effective ways. In this paper, we present the underlying technologies and the theoretical background behind a health-care platform dedicated to supporting medical stuff and individuals with movement disabilities and to providing advanced monitoring functionalities in hospital and home surroundings. The framework implements an intelligent combination of two research areas: (1) sensor- and camera-based monitoring to collect, analyse, and interpret people behaviour and (2) natural machine–human interaction through an apprehensive virtual assistant benefiting ailing patients. In addition, the framework serves as an important assistant to caregivers and clinical experts to obtain information about the patients in an intuitive manner. The proposed approach capitalises on latest breakthroughs in computer vision, sensor management, speech recognition, natural language processing, knowledge representation, dialogue management, semantic reasoning, and speech synthesis, combining medical expertise and patient history.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110231
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 232: Name-Based Security for
           Information-Centric Networking Architectures

    • Authors: Fotiou, Polyzos
      First page: 232
      Abstract: Information-Centric Networking (ICN) is an emerging communication paradigm built around content names. Securing ICN using named-based security is, therefore, a natural choice. For this paper, we designed and evaluated name-based security solutions that satisfy security requirements that are particular to ICN architectures. In order to achieve our goal, we leverage identity-based encryption, identity-based proxy re-encryption, and the emerging paradigm of decentralized identifiers. Our solutions support outsourcing content storage, content integrity protection and content authentication, and provenance verification, as well as access control. We show that our solutions have tolerable storage and computation overhead, thus proving their feasibility.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110232
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 233: Research on Cooperative Communication
           Strategy and Intelligent Agent Directional Source Grouping Algorithms for
           Internet of Things

    • Authors: Zou, Zhang, Yi
      First page: 233
      Abstract: In order to improve the network layer of the Internet of things to improve transmission reliability, save time delay and energy consumption, the Internet of things cooperative communication and intelligent agent technology were studied in this paper. In cooperative communication, a new cooperative communication algorithm KCN (k-cooperative node), and a reliability prediction model are proposed. The k value is determined by the end-to-end reliability. After k cooperative nodes are selected, other nodes enter dormancy. In aggregate traffic allocation, game theory is used to model the traffic equilibrium and end-to-end delay optimization scenarios. In practice, the optimal duty cycle can be calculated, which makes some cooperative nodes enter an idle state to save energy. Under the premise of guaranteeing end-to-end delay, it is shown that the reliability of the proposed KCN algorithm is better than that of the other existing routing protocols. In the aspect of intelligent agent, a directional source grouping algorithm D-MIP is proposed. This algorithm studies the routing problem of multi-agent parallel access to multiple source nodes. A directed source packet multi-agent routing planning algorithm is proposed. The iterative algorithm of each source node is limited to a sector, and the optimal intelligent agent route is obtained by selecting an appropriate angle. Compared with other algorithms, it is shown through a lot of simulated results that energy consumption and time delay has been saved by the proposed D-MIP algorithm.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110233
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 234: Toward Addressing Location Privacy
           Issues: New Affiliations with Social and Location Attributes

    • Authors: Vgena, Kitsiou, Kalloniatis, Kavroudakis, Gritzalis
      First page: 234
      Abstract: Nowadays, location-sharing applications (LSA) within social media enable users to share their location information at different levels of precision. Users on their side are willing to disclose this kind of information in order to represent themselves in a socially acceptable online way. However, they express privacy concerns regarding potential malware location-sharing applications, since users’ geolocation information can provide affiliations with their social identity attributes that enable the specification of their behavioral normativity, leading to sensitive information disclosure and privacy leaks. This paper, after a systematic review on previous social and privacy location research, explores the overlapping of these fields in identifying users’ social attributes through examining location attributes while online, and proposes a targeted set of location privacy attributes related to users’ socio-spatial characteristics within social media.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110234
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 235: Edge Computing Simulators for IoT
           System Design: An Analysis of Qualities and Metrics

    • Authors: Majid Ashouri, Fabian Lorig, Paul Davidsson, Romina Spalazzese
      First page: 235
      Abstract: The deployment of Internet of Things (IoT) applications is complex since many quality characteristics should be taken into account, for example, performance, reliability, and security. In this study, we investigate to what extent the current edge computing simulators support the analysis of qualities that are relevant to IoT architects who are designing an IoT system. We first identify the quality characteristics and metrics that can be evaluated through simulation. Then, we study the available simulators in order to assess which of the identified qualities they support. The results show that while several simulation tools for edge computing have been proposed, they focus on a few qualities, such as time behavior and resource utilization. Most of the identified qualities are not considered and we suggest future directions for further investigation to provide appropriate support for IoT architects.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110235
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 236: Machine Learning-Based Patient Load
           Prediction and IoT Integrated Intelligent Patient Transfer Systems

    • Authors: Kambombo Mtonga, Santhi Kumaran, Chomora Mikeka, Kayalvizhi Jayavel, Jimmy Nsenga
      First page: 236
      Abstract: A mismatch between staffing ratios and service demand leads to overcrowding of patients in waiting rooms of health centers. Overcrowding consequently leads to excessive patient waiting times, incomplete preventive service delivery and disgruntled medical staff. Worse, due to the limited patient load that a health center can handle, patients may leave the clinic before the medical examination is complete. It is true that as one health center may be struggling with an excessive patient load, another facility in the vicinity may have a low patient turn out. A centralized hospital management system, where hospitals are able to timely exchange patient load information would allow excess patient load from an overcrowded health center to be re-assigned in a timely way to the nearest health centers. In this paper, a machine learning-based patient load prediction model for forecasting future patient loads is proposed. Given current and historical patient load data as inputs, the model outputs future predicted patient loads. Furthermore, we propose re-assigning excess patient loads to nearby facilities that have minimal load as a way to control overcrowding and reduce the number of patients that leave health facilities without receiving medical care as a result of overcrowding. The re-assigning of patients will imply a need for transportation for the patient to move from one facility to another. To avoid putting a further strain on the already fragmented ambulatory services, we assume the existence of a scheduled bus system and propose an Internet of Things (IoT) integrated smart bus system. The developed IoT system can be tagged on buses and can be queried by patients through representation state transfer application program interfaces (APIs) to provide them with the position of the buses through web app or SMS relative to their origin and destination stop. The back end of the proposed system is based on message queue telemetry transport, which is lightweight, data efficient and scalable, unlike the traditionally used hypertext transfer protocol.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-11-12
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110236
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 237: Feature Fusion Text Classification
           Model Combining CNN and BiGRU with Multi-Attention Mechanism

    • Authors: Jingren Zhang, Fang’ai Liu, Weizhi Xu, Hui Yu
      First page: 237
      Abstract: Convolutional neural networks (CNN) and long short-term memory (LSTM) have gained wide recognition in the field of natural language processing. However, due to the pre- and post-dependence of natural language structure, relying solely on CNN to implement text categorization will ignore the contextual meaning of words and bidirectional long short-term memory (BiLSTM). The feature fusion model is divided into a multiple attention (MATT) CNN model and a bi-directional gated recurrent unit (BiGRU) model. The CNN model inputs the word vector (word vector attention, part of speech attention, position attention) that has been labeled by the attention mechanism into our multi-attention mechanism CNN model. Obtaining the influence intensity of the target keyword on the sentiment polarity of the sentence, and forming the first dimension of the sentiment classification, the BiGRU model replaces the original BiLSTM and extracts the global semantic features of the sentence level to form the second dimension of sentiment classification. Then, using PCA to reduce the dimension of the two-dimensional fusion vector, we finally obtain a classification result combining two dimensions of keywords and sentences. The experimental results show that the proposed MATT-CNN+BiGRU fusion model has 5.94% and 11.01% higher classification accuracy on the MRD and SemEval2016 datasets, respectively, than the mainstream CNN+BiLSTM method.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-11-12
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110237
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 238: Software Architecture for Mobile
           Cloud Computing Systems

    • Authors: Alreshidi, Ahmad, B. Altamimi, Sultan, Mehmood
      First page: 238
      Abstract: Mobile cloud computing (MCC) has recently emerged as a state-of-the-art technology for mobile systems. MCC enables portable and context-aware computation via mobile devices by exploiting virtually unlimited hardware and software resources offered by cloud computing servers. Software architecture helps to abstract the complexities of system design, development, and evolution phases to implement MCC systems effectively and efficiently. This paper aims to identify, taxonomically classify, and systematically map the state of the art on architecting MCC-based software. We have used an evidence-based software engineering (EBSE) approach to conduct a systematic mapping study (SMS) based on 121 qualitatively selected research studies published from 2006 to 2019. The results of the SMS highlight that architectural solutions for MCC systems are mainly focused on supporting (i) software as a service for mobile computing, (ii) off-loading mobile device data to cloud-servers, (iii) internet of things, edge, and fog computing along with various aspects like (iv) security and privacy of mobile device data. The emerging research focuses on the existing and futuristic challenges that relate to MCC-based internet of things (IoTs), mobile-cloud edge systems, along with green and energy-efficient computing. The results of the SMS facilitate knowledge transfer that could benefit researchers and practitioners to understand the role of software architecture to develop the next generation of mobile-cloud systems to support internet-driven computing.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-11-13
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110238
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 239: Body-to-Body Cooperation in Internet
           of Medical Things: Toward Energy Efficiency Improvement

    • Authors: Dalal Abdulmohsin Hammood, Hasliza A. Rahim, Ahmed Alkhayyat, R. Badlishah Ahmad
      First page: 239
      Abstract: Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) technologies provide suitability among physicians and patients because they are useful in numerous medical fields. Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) are one of the most crucial technologies from within the IoMT evolution of the healthcare system, whereby each patient is monitored by low-powered and lightweight sensors. When the WBSNs are integrated into IoMT networks, they are quite likely to overlap each other; thus, cooperation between WBSN sensors is possible. In this paper, we consider communication between WBSNs and beyond their communication range. Therefore, we propose inter-WBAN cooperation for the IoMT system, which is also known as inter-WBAN cooperation in an IoMT environment (IWC-IoMT). In this paper, first, a proposed architecture for the IoT health-based system is investigated. Then, a mathematical model of the outage probability for the IWC-IoMT is derived. Finally, the energy efficiency of the IWC-IoT is analysed and inspected. The simulation and numerical results show that the IWC-IoMT (cooperative IoMT) system provides superior performance compared to the non-cooperative system.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110239
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 240: Multimedia Independent Multipath
           Routing Algorithms for Internet of Things Based on a Node Hidden
           Communication Model

    • Authors: Cong Wu, Jianhui Yang
      First page: 240
      Abstract: In order to achieve a multi-path routing algorithm with time delay and energy consumption balance to alleviate the energy holes around a sink, a multimedia independent multipath routing algorithm for internet of things (IoT) based on node hidden communication model is proposed in this paper. On the premise of satisfying the application delay, a multi-source multi-path routing algorithm is proposed by using the idea of software definition and fitting multiple curves to form independent multi-path routing. Through a sink node centralized programming control source node routing, according to the priority of the source node, the dynamic angle of the source node can be allocated, which effectively reduces the energy consumption of the network. In addition, considering that the Internet of Things has more perceptive nodes, limited computing and storage capacity, frequent joining and exiting operations and other factors, a hidden communication model of nodes is designed for the IoT. It is helpful to improve the level of privacy protection in the IoT, and to effectively improve the ability of nodes to resist attacks in the IoT. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm avoids the interference between paths and various network attacks to the greatest extent, and the energy consumption is relatively low under the requirement of quality of service (QoS) delay.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110240
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 241: Reputation-Based Trust Approaches in
           Named Data Networking

    • Authors: Ioanna Angeliki Kapetanidou, Christos-Alexandros Sarros, Vassilis Tsaoussidis
      First page: 241
      Abstract: Information-Centric Networking (ICN) has arisen as an architectural solution that responds to the needs of today’s overloaded Internet, departing from the traditional host-centric access paradigm. In this paper we focus on Named Data Networking (NDN), the most prominent ICN architecture. In the NDN framework, disseminated content is at the core of the design and providing trusted content is essential. In this paper, we provide an overview of reputation-based trust approaches, present their design trade-offs and argue that these approaches can consolidate NDN trust and security by working complementary to the existing credential-based schemes. Finally, we discuss future research directions and challenges.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110241
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 242: Academic Excellence, Website Quality,
           SEO Performance: Is there a Correlation'

    • Authors: Andreas Giannakoulopoulos, Nikos Konstantinou, Dimitris Koutsompolis, Minas Pergantis, Iraklis Varlamis
      First page: 242
      Abstract: The academic excellence of universities around the globe has always been a matter of extended study and so has the quality of an institution’s presence in the World Wide Web. The purpose of this research is to study the extent to which a university’s academic excellence is related to the quality of its web presence. In order to achieve this, a method was devised that quantified the website quality and search engine optimization (SEO) performance of the university websites of the top 100 universities in the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) Shanghai list. A variety of tools was employed to measure and test each website and produced a Web quality ranking, an SEO performance ranking, as well as a combined overall web ranking for each one. Comparing these rankings with the ARWU shows that academic excellence is moderately correlated with website quality, but SEO performance is not. Moreover, the overall web ranking also shows a moderate correlation with ARWU which seems to be positively influenced by website quality and negatively by SEO performance. Conclusively, the results of the research indicate that universities place particular emphasis on issues concerning website quality, while the utilization of SEO does not appear to be of equal importance, indicating possible room for improvement in this area.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110242
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 243: Roll Motion Prediction of Unmanned
           Surface Vehicle Based on Coupled CNN and LSTM

    • Authors: Wenjie Zhang, Pin Wu, Yan Peng, Dongke Liu
      First page: 243
      Abstract: The prediction of roll motion in unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) is vital for marine safety and the efficiency of USV operations. However, the USV roll motion at sea is a complex time-varying nonlinear and non-stationary dynamic system, which varies with time-varying environmental disturbances as well as various sailing conditions. The conventional methods have the disadvantages of low accuracy, poor robustness, and insufficient practical application ability. The rise of deep learning provides new opportunities for USV motion modeling and prediction. In this paper, a data-driven neural network model is constructed by combining a convolution neural network (CNN) with long short-term memory (LSTM) for USV roll motion prediction. The CNN is used to extract spatially relevant and local time series features of the USV sensor data. The LSTM layer is exploited to reflect the long-term movement process of the USV and predict roll motion for the next moment. The fully connected layer is utilized to decode the LSTM output and calculate the final prediction results. The effectiveness of the proposed model was proved using USV roll motion prediction experiments based on two case studies from “JingHai-VI” and “JingHai-III” USVS of Shanghai University. Experimental results on a real data set indicated that our proposed model obviously outperformed the state-of-the-art methods.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110243
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 244: Wideband Spectrum Sensing Based on
           Reconfigurable Filter Bank in Cognitive Radio

    • Authors: Wang, Wu, Yao, Qin
      First page: 244
      Abstract: In order to ease the conflict between the bandwidth demand of high-rate wireless communication and the shortage of spectrum resources, a wideband spectrum sensing method based on reconfigurable filter bank (RFB) with adjustable resolution is presented. The wideband signals are uniformly divided into multi-narrowband signals by RFB, which is designed by polyphase uniform Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) modulation, and each sub-band is sensed by energy detection. According to the idle proportion of detected sub-bands, the number of RFB sub-bands is reset in next spectrum-sensing time. By simulating with collected wideband dataset, the influence of filter bank sub-bands number and idle state proportion on the sensing results is analyzed, and then on the basis of the trade-off between spectrum-sensing resolution and computational complexity, the optimal sub-bands number of filter bank is selected, so as to improve the detection performance and save resources.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110244
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 245: Pedestrian Attribute Recognition with
           Graph Convolutional Network in Surveillance Scenarios

    • Authors: Xiangpeng Song, Hongbin Yang, Congcong Zhou
      First page: 245
      Abstract: Pedestrian attribute recognition is to predict a set of attribute labels of the pedestrian from surveillance scenarios, which is a very challenging task for computer vision due to poor image quality, continual appearance variations, as well as diverse spatial distribution of imbalanced attributes. It is desirable to model the label dependencies between different attributes to improve the recognition performance as each pedestrian normally possesses many attributes. In this paper, we treat pedestrian attribute recognition as multi-label classification and propose a novel model based on the graph convolutional network (GCN). The model is mainly divided into two parts, we first use convolutional neural network (CNN) to extract pedestrian feature, which is a normal operation processing image in deep learning, then we transfer attribute labels to word embedding and construct a correlation matrix between labels to help GCN propagate information between nodes. This paper applies the object classifiers learned by GCN to the image representation extracted by CNN to enable the model to have the ability to be end-to-end trainable. Experiments on pedestrian attribute recognition dataset show that the approach obviously outperforms other existing state-of-the-art methods.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11110245
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 206: Adaptive Coherent Receiver Settings
           for Optimum Channel Spacing in Gridless Optical Networks

    • Authors: Ahmad Abdo, Sadok Aouini, Bilal Riaz, Naim Ben-Hamida, Claude D’Amours
      First page: 206
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel circuit and system to optimize the spacing between optical channels in gridless (also called flexible-grid or elastic) networking. The method will exploit the beginning-of-life link margin by enabling the channel to operate in super-Nyquist dense wavelength division multiplexing mode. We present the work in the context of software-defined networking and high-speed optical flexible-rate transponders. The clock recovery scheme allows the mitigation of jitter by decoupling the contribution of high-jitter noise sources from the clock recovery loop. The method and associated algorithm are experimentally verified where a spectrum gain of up to 2 GHz in spacing between two channels in the Media Channel (MC) is obtained compared to conventional clocking strategies. We showed that the improvement is equivalent to increasing throughput, in a data-center interconnect scenario, by up to 300 giga-bits per second per route.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11100206
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 207: Threat Analysis for Smart Homes

    • Authors: Georgios Kavallieratos, Nabin Chowdhury, Sokratis Katsikas, Vasileios Gkioulos, Stephen Wolthusen
      First page: 207
      Abstract: The development and deployment of highly dynamic, cyber+connected operational environments, such as smart homes, smart cities, and smart transportation systems, is increasing. The security analysis of such dynamic environments necessitates the use of dynamic risk assessment methodologies and the modeling of dynamically changing states. In this paper, we focus on the smart home environment, where the deployment of IoT devices increase the attack surface. We examine existing dynamic risk assessment methodologies, and by leveraging a smart home reference architecture we identify the security risks of a smart home’s physical and communication viewpoints, taking into consideration also dynamic operational aspects. Further, we develop a smart home network topology generator and a graph-based attack model to study dependencies among dynamically changing states and the propagation of a malware infection.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11100207
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 208: Joint Optimization of
           Pico-Base-Station Density and Transmit Power for an Energy-Efficient
           Heterogeneous Cellular Network

    • Authors: Jie Yang, Ziyu Pan, Hengfei Xu, Han Hu
      First page: 208
      Abstract: Heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs) have emerged as the primary solution for explosive data traffic. However, an increase in the number of base stations (BSs) inevitably leads to an increase in energy consumption. Energy efficiency (EE) has become a focal point in HCNs. In this paper, we apply tools from stochastic geometry to investigate and optimize the energy efficiency (EE) for a two-tier HCN. The average achievable transmission rate and the total power consumption of all the BSs in a two-tier HCN is derived, and then the EE is formulated. In order to maximize EE, a one-dimensional optimization algorithm is used to optimize picocell BS density and transmit power. Based on this, an alternating optimization method aimed at maximizing EE is proposed to jointly optimize transmit power and density of picocell BSs. Simulation results validate the accuracy of the theoretical analysis and demonstrate that the proposed joint optimization method can obviously improve EE.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11100208
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 209: Partitioning Convolutional Neural
           Networks to Maximize the Inference Rate on Constrained IoT Devices

    • Authors: Fabíola Martins Campos de Oliveira, Edson Borin
      First page: 209
      Abstract: Billions of devices will compose the IoT system in the next few years, generating a huge amount of data. We can use fog computing to process these data, considering that there is the possibility of overloading the network towards the cloud. In this context, deep learning can treat these data, but the memory requirements of deep neural networks may prevent them from executing on a single resource-constrained device. Furthermore, their computational requirements may yield an unfeasible execution time. In this work, we propose *dn2pciot, a new algorithm to partition neural networks for efficient distributed execution. Our algorithm can optimize the neural network inference rate or the number of communications among devices. Additionally, our algorithm accounts appropriately for the shared parameters and biases of *cnn. We investigate the inference rate maximization for the LeNet model in constrained setups. We show that the partitionings offered by popular machine learning frameworks such as TensorFlow or by the general-purpose framework METIS may produce invalid partitionings for very constrained setups. The results show that our algorithm can partition LeNet for all the proposed setups, yielding up to 38% more inferences per second than METIS.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11100209
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 210: About Linda Again: How Narratives and
           Group Reasoning Can Influence Conjunction Fallacy

    • Authors: Camillo Donati, Andrea Guazzini, Giorgio Gronchi, Andrea Smorti
      First page: 210
      Abstract: Conjunction fallacy (together with other systematic reasoning errors) is usually explained in terms of the dual process theory of reasoning: Biases should be ascribed to fast and automatic processes, whereas slow and deliberative processes are responsible of producing answers that are correct with respect of normative criterion. The dual process theory is related to Bruner’s distinction between narrative and paradigmatic thought: Both modes of thought can be characterized by the two different processes of reasoning. In this paper, we explore the role of Bruner’s mode of thought manipulating also the difference between group vs individual reasoning. We observed that the narrative strategy of response induces more wrong answers. However, narrative-based strategies have higher effectiveness in the case of group reasoning. Our results suggest that narrative reasoning and group reasoning may induce violations of the conjunction rule when acceptable by the verisimilitude of the story. Five models are also presented in order to predict answer correctness and strategy of reasoning using a text analysis software.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-10-08
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11100210
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 211: A Trustworthy Communication Hub for
           Cyber-Physical Systems

    • Authors: Juhani Latvakoski, Jouni Heikkinen
      First page: 211
      Abstract: The motivation for this research arises from the challenges in the trustworthy communications related operation of cyber-physical systems (CPS), especially in the energy and mobility domains. The increasing amount of distributed energy resources (DERs) of prosumers and electric vehicles requires new ways for CPS communications to enable information exchanges for smart operation in peak consumption hours and balancing power levels in the energy grids in order to lower the energy cost. The huge number of mobile appliances and the related service providers do not serve properly the privacy of the owners, owing to the vertical silo type of operating model in industries. As the results of this research, we provide a trustworthy communication hub for CPS (CPS hub) for solving the challenges related to trustworthy communications between physical resources owned by different stakeholders. The CPS hub realizes the communication spaces concept, and enables combined trust and communications processes when dynamic resources owned by different stakeholders are exchanging information. The evaluations showed that the provided CPS hub enable information exchanges between distributed energy resources of different stakeholders, so that they can join the aggregation process for more flexible and efficient resource usage in energy markets. The CPS hub enable interaction between heterogeneous physical devices of multiple stakeholders to exchange information so that, for example, authorities can see the situation in the emergency area and, simultaneously, the policies of the owners can be taken into concern. Despite limited evaluation scenarios, it is shown that consideration of the ownership issues in the trustworthy communication for information exchanges between heterogeneous physical resources (devices) is possible and feasible. Several future research items, such as, for example, scalability; real-time and streams based operation; as well as consideration of the security, privacy, trust, and safety challenges, were detected. However, the evaluations showed that the constructed CPS hub contribute a set of very essential technical enablers for future smart CPS systems and create strong a basis for such future research towards a future smart society.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-10-08
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11100211
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 212: Low Delay Inter-Packet Coding in
           Vehicular Networks

    • Authors: Irina Bocharova, Boris Kudryashov, Nikita Lyamin, Erik Frick, Maben Rabi, Alexey Vinel
      First page: 212
      Abstract: In Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITSs), vehicles need to wirelessly connect with Roadside units (RSUs) over limited durations when such point-to-point connections are possible. One example of such communications is the downloading of maps to the C-ITS vehicles. Another example occurs in the testing of C-ITS vehicles, where the tested vehicles upload trajectory records to the roadside units. Because of real-time requirements, and limited bandwidths, data are sent as User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets. We propose an inter-packet error control coding scheme that improves the recovery of data when some of these packets are lost; we argue that the coding scheme has to be one of convolutional coding. We measure performance through the session averaged probability of successfully delivering groups of packets. We analyze two classes of convolution codes and propose a low-complexity decoding procedure suitable for network applications. We conclude that Reed–Solomon convolutional codes perform better than Wyner–Ash codes at the cost of higher complexity. We show this by simulation on the memoryless binary erasure channel (BEC) and channels with memory, and through simulations of the IEEE 802.11p DSRC/ITS-G5 network at the C-ITS test track AstaZero.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11100212
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 213: Blockchain Technology for Intelligent

    • Authors: Spyros Voulgaris, Nikos Fotiou, Vasilios A. Siris, George C. Polyzos, Mikael Jaatinen, Yannis Oikonomidis
      First page: 213
      Abstract: In the last few years, we have been witnessing the convergence of the physical with the digital world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is progressing at a fast pace, and IoT devices are becoming pervasive in our physical environments, bringing the vision of Intelligent Environments closer to reality. At the same time, the newly-introduced blockchain technology is offering for the first time ever cryptographically proven trust based on a set of mutually untrusted nodes. Blockchain technology thus has the potential to become a key component of many IoT systems, offering them an unprecedented level of accountability, transparency, and reliability. This paper first lays out the principles on which blockchain systems are operating, along with descriptions of the most noteworthy blockchain implementations. It then presents a number of systems through which blockchains may interact with external systems and third-party data sources. Finally, it provides a survey of the state-of-the-art blockchain-based systems targeting IoT applications.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11100213
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 214: Beam Training for Millimeter-Wave
           Communication Based on Tabu Table Enhanced Rosenbrock Algorithm

    • Authors: Li, Sun, Jiang
      First page: 214
      Abstract: The codebook-based beamforming for millimeter-wave (mm Wave) communication systems is usually used to compensate the severe attenuation of the mm Wave region. The beam training process based on pre-specified beam codebooks is considered a global optimization problem in 2-D planes formed by the potential beam index. The Rosenbrock algorithm (RA) is adopted to implement optimum beam searching whereas the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is used to solve the problem of falling into the local optimum, due to the unavailable gradient information of the objective function. However, the RA implements rounding to the integer which leads to the problem of repeated search and beam space discontinuity caused by beam index will impair the powerful local search ability. Thus, in this paper, an enhanced RA based on tabu search and combined with SA algorithm is proposed as an alternative solution for beam search success rate. The proposed algorithm reduces the search times by forbidding the repeat search with tabu table and design of neighbor region. Moreover, to prevent the search failure, the search candidate index is defined to keep the local search ability of the original algorithm and wrap around of beam index is applied to maintain continuity of the search direction. Experimental simulations show that the proposed technique can improve the search efficiency in terms of reduced steps and increase search success rate during the beam training procedure compared to existing techniques.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11100214
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 215: Sensorial Network Framework Embedded
           in Ubiquitous Mobile Devices

    • Authors: Behan, Krejcar, Sabbah, Selamat
      First page: 215
      Abstract: : Today’s digital society is interconnected and networked, with modern smart devices ubiquitously built into and embedded within smart environments and other environments, where people (their users) typically live. It is very important to mention that sensorial awareness of an environment depends on one’s current location and equipment, as well as the equipment’s real-time capabilities. Personal sensorial information is considered to be the key factor for progress in the improvement of the productivity of everyday life and creation of a smart surrounding environment. This paper describes the design, implementation, and testing process of a new sensorial framework based on the current possibilities created by ubiquitous smart mobile devices with sensors, which involves computing power and battery power issues. The two parts of the proposed framework have been designed, implemented, and tested. The client part is represented by a front-end mobile application, and the back-end part is represented by a server-side application. The analysis of the data, captured during the testing phase, involves the analysis of the processing time, battery consumption, and transmitted data amount. This analysis reveals that Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and user datagram protocol (UDP) protocols have a comparable performance, although TCP is preferable for use in local networks. In comparison to other solutions such as MobiSense or Feel the World framework, the final solution of the proposed and developed sensorial framework has two main capabilities, which are the security support and social networking possibilities. The advantage of the MobiSense platform is the existence of several real-world applications, whereas the proposed sensorial framework needs to be verified in the massive context of many users in real time.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11100215
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 216: A Survey on LoRaWAN Architecture,
           Protocol and Technologies

    • Authors: Mehmet Ali Ertürk, Muhammed Ali Aydın, Muhammet Talha Büyükakkaşlar, Hayrettin Evirgen
      First page: 216
      Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) expansion led the market to find alternative communication technologies since existing protocols are insufficient in terms of coverage, energy consumption to fit IoT needs. Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) emerged as an alternative cost-effective communication technology for the IoT market. LoRaWAN is an open LPWAN standard developed by LoRa Alliance and has key features i.e., low energy consumption, long-range communication, builtin security, GPS-free positioning. In this paper, we will introduce LoRaWAN technology, the state of art studies in the literature and provide open opportunities.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11100216
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 217: 5G V2X System-Level Architecture of
           5GCAR Project

    • Authors: Condoluci, Gallo, Mussot, Kousaridas, Spapis, Mahlouji, Mahmoodi
      First page: 217
      Abstract: One of the goals of the 5G Communication Automotive Research and innovation (5GCAR) project has been to evaluate and propose system architecture enhancements aiming at supporting the strict requirements of vehicle-to-everything (V2X) use cases. In this paper, we provide an overview of 3GPP 5G system architecture, which is used as a baseline architecture in the project, and we present the main architectural enhancements introduced by 5GCAR. The work of the project focused on the following categories: (i) end-to-end security, also including aspects of privacy; (ii) network orchestration and management; (iii) network procedures; (iv) edge computing enhancements; and (v) multi-connectivity cooperation. The enhancements introduced by 5GCAR to above-listed categories are discussed in this paper, while a more detailed analysis of some selected features is presented.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11100217
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 218: Simulation-Based Performance

    • Authors: Johannes Kölsch, Christopher Heinz, Axel Ratzke, Christoph Grimm
      First page: 218
      Abstract: IoT systems consist of Hardware/Software systems (e.g., sensors) that are embedded in a physical world, networked and that interact with complex software platforms. The validation of such systems is a challenge and currently mostly done by prototypes. This paper presents the virtual environment for simulation, emulation and validation of an IoT platform and its semantic model in real life scenarios. It is based on a decentralized, bottom up approach that offers interoperability of IoT devices and the value-added services they want to use across different domains. The framework is demonstrated by a comprehensive case study. The example consists of the complete IoT “Smart Energy” use case with focus on data privacy by homomorphic encryption. The performance of the network is compared while using partially homomorphic encryption, fully homomorphic encryption and no encryption at all.As a major result, we found that our framework is capable of simulating big IoT networks and the overhead introduced by homomorphic encryption is feasible for VICINITY.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-10-22
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11100218
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 219: Assessing the Techno-Economic
           Benefits of Flexible Demand Resources Scheduling for Renewable
           Energy–Based Smart Microgrid Planning

    • Authors: Mark Kipngetich Kiptoo, Oludamilare Bode Adewuyi, Mohammed Elsayed Lotfy, Theophilus Amara, Keifa Vamba Konneh, Tomonobu Senjyu
      First page: 219
      Abstract: The need for innovative pathways for future zero-emission and sustainable power development has recently accelerated the uptake of variable renewable energy resources (VREs). However, integration of VREs such as photovoltaic and wind generators requires the right approaches to design and operational planning towards coping with the fluctuating outputs. This paper investigates the technical and economic prospects of scheduling flexible demand resources (FDRs) in optimal configuration planning of VRE-based microgrids. The proposed demand-side management (DSM) strategy considers short-term power generation forecast to efficiently schedule the FDRs ahead of time in order to minimize the gap between generation and load demand. The objective is to determine the optimal size of the battery energy storage, photovoltaic and wind systems at minimum total investment costs. Two simulation scenarios, without and with the consideration of DSM, were investigated. The random forest algorithm implemented on scikit-learn python environment is utilized for short-term power prediction, and mixed integer linear programming (MILP) on MATLAB® is used for optimum configuration optimization. From the simulation results obtained here, the application of FDR scheduling resulted in a significant cost saving of investment costs. Moreover, the proposed approach demonstrated the effectiveness of the FDR in minimizing the mismatch between the generation and load demand.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-10-22
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11100219
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2019)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 11, Pages 220: Blockchain and the Tokenization of
           the Individual: Societal Implications

    • Authors: Monique J. Morrow, Mehran Zarrebini
      First page: 220
      Abstract: We are living in a world where the very systems upon which trust is based are being challenged by new and exciting paradigm shifts. Centralization whether in the form of governments, financial institutions, enterprises and organizations is simply being challenged because of the lack of trust associated with data governance often experienced in the form of data breaches or simply a monetization of our data without our permission and/or incentives to participate in this emerging decentralization of structures. We see this trust deficit challenging the very institutions we have depended on including but not limited to financial institutions, private enterprises or government bodies. A new “social contract” is required as we continuously evolve into more decentralized and self-governing (or semi self-governing) entities. We will see more development in digital sovereignty with the caveat that a governance model will need to be defined. This position paper will present evidence that supports the premise that blockchain and individual tokenization could provide a new social contract.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2019-10-22
      DOI: 10.3390/fi11100220
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2019)
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