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Future Internet
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.219
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 129  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1999-5903
Published by MDPI Homepage  [205 journals]
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 82: On the Security of Rotation Operation
           Based Ultra-Lightweight Authentication Protocols for RFID Systems

    • Authors: Masoumeh Safkhani, Nasour Bagheri, Mahyar Shariat
      First page: 82
      Abstract: Passive Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags are generally highly constrained and cannot support conventional encryption systems to meet the required security. Hence, designers of security protocols may try to achieve the desired security only using limited ultra-lightweight operations. In this paper, we show that the security of such protocols is not provided by using rotation functions. In the following, for an example, we investigate the security of an RFID authentication protocol that has been recently developed using rotation function named ULRAS, which stands for an Ultra-Lightweight RFID Authentication Scheme and show its security weaknesses. More precisely, we show that the ULRAS protocol is vulnerable against de-synchronization attack. The given attack has the success probability of almost ‘1’, with the complexity of only one session of the protocol. In addition, we show that the given attack can be used as a traceability attack against the protocol if the parameters’ lengths are an integer power of 2, e.g., 128. Moreover, we propose a new authentication protocol named UEAP, which stands for an Ultra-lightweight Encryption based Authentication Protocol, and then informally and formally, using Scyther tool, prove that the UEAP protocol is secure against all known active and passive attacks.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-08-21
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10090082
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 83: A HMM-R Approach to Detect L-DDoS
           Attack Adaptively on SDN Controller

    • Authors: Wentao Wang, Xuan Ke, Lingxia Wang
      First page: 83
      Abstract: A data center network is vulnerable to suffer from concealed low-rate distributed denial of service (L-DDoS) attacks because its data flow has the characteristics of data flow delay, diversity, and synchronization. Several studies have proposed addressing the detection of L-DDoS attacks, most of them are only detect L-DDoS attacks at a fixed rate. These methods cause low true positive and high false positive in detecting multi-rate L-DDoS attacks. Software defined network (SDN) is a new network architecture that can centrally control the network. We use an SDN controller to collect and analyze data packets entering the data center network and calculate the Renyi entropies base on IP of data packets, and then combine them with the hidden Markov model to get a probability model HMM-R to detect L-DDoS attacks at different rates. Compared with the four common attack detection algorithms (KNN, SVM, SOM, BP), HMM-R is superior to them in terms of the true positive rate, the false positive rate, and the adaptivity.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-08-23
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10090083
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 84: Using Noise Level to Detect Frame
           Repetition Forgery in Video Frame Rate Up-Conversion

    • Authors: Yanli Li, Lala Mei, Ran Li, Changan Wu
      First page: 84
      Abstract: Frame repetition (FR) is a common temporal-domain tampering operator, which is often used to increase the frame rate of video sequences. Existing methods detect FR forgery by analyzing residual variation or similarity between video frames; however, these methods are easily interfered with by noise, affecting the stability of detection performance. This paper proposes a noise-level based detection method which detects the varying noise level over time to determine whether the video is forged by FR. Wavelet coefficients are first computed for each video frame, and median absolute deviation (MAD) of wavelet coefficients is used to estimate the standard deviation of Gaussian noise mixed in each video frame. Then, fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used to calculate the amplitude spectrum of the standard deviation curve of the video sequence, and to provide the peak-mean ratio (PMR) of the amplitude spectrum. Finally, according to the PMR obtained, a hard threshold decision is taken to determine whether the standard deviation bears periodicity in the temporal domain, in which way FR forgery can be automatically identified. The experimental results show that the proposed method ensures a large PMR for the forged video, and presents a better detection performance when compared with the existing detection methods.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-08-24
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10090084
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 85: Predictive Power Management for Wind
           Powered Wireless Sensor Node

    • Authors: Yin Wu, Bowen Li, Fuquan Zhang
      First page: 85
      Abstract: A conventional Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) cannot have an infinite lifetime without a battery recharge or replacement. Energy Harvesting (EH), from environmental energy sources, is a promising technology to provide sustainable powering for a WSN. In this paper, we propose and investigate a novel predictive energy management framework that combines the Maximal Power Transferring Tracking (MPTT) algorithm, a predictive energy allocation strategy, and a high efficiency transmission power control mechanism: First, the MPTT optimal working point guarantees minimum power loss of the EH-WSN system; Then, by exactly predicting the upcoming available energy, the power allocation strategy regulates EH-nodes’ duty cycle accurately to minimize the power failure time; Ultimately, the transmission power control module further improves energy efficiency by dynamically selecting the optimum matching transmission power level with minimum energy consumption. A wind energy powered wireless sensor system has been equipped and tested to validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Results indicate that compared with other predictive energy managers, the proposed mechanism incurs relatively low power failure time while maintaining a high-energy conversion rate.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10090085
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 86: Sharing with Live Migration Energy
           Optimization Scheduler for Cloud Computing Data Centers

    • Authors: Samah Alshathri, Bogdan Ghita, Nathan Clarke
      First page: 86
      Abstract: The cloud-computing concept has emerged as a powerful mechanism for data storage by providing a suitable platform for data centers. Recent studies show that the energy consumption of cloud computing systems is a key issue. Therefore, we should reduce the energy consumption to satisfy performance requirements, minimize power consumption, and maximize resource utilization. This paper introduces a novel algorithm that could allocate resources in a cloud-computing environment based on an energy optimization method called Sharing with Live Migration (SLM). In this scheduler, we used the Cloud-Sim toolkit to manage the usage of virtual machines (VMs) based on a novel algorithm that learns and predicts the similarity between the tasks, and then allocates each of them to a suitable VM. On the other hand, SLM satisfies the Quality of Services (QoS) constraints of the hosted applications by adopting a migration process. The experimental results show that the algorithm exhibits better performance, while saving power and minimizing the processing time. Therefore, the SLM algorithm demonstrates improved virtual machine efficiency and resource utilization compared to an adapted state-of-the-art algorithm for a similar problem.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10090086
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 87: Log Likelihood Ratio Based Relay
           Selection Scheme for Amplify and Forward Relaying with Three State Markov

    • Authors: Manish Sahajwani, Alok Jain, Radheyshyam Gamad
      First page: 87
      Abstract: This paper presents log likelihood ratio (LLR) based relay selection scheme for a cooperative amplify and forward relaying system. To evaluate the performance of the aforementioned system model, a three state Markov chain based fading environment has been presented to toggle among Rayleigh, Rician, and Nakagami-m fading environment. A simulation is carried out while assuming that there is no possibility of direct transmission from the source and destination terminal. Simulation results on the basis of Bit Error Rate (BER), Instantaneous Channel Capacity, and Outage probability have been presented and compared for different cases. In each case, the best performance of the proposed algorithm is obtained with a Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation scheme.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10090087
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 88: A Systematic Literature Review on
           Military Software Defined Networks

    • Authors: Vasileios Gkioulos, Håkon Gunleifsen, Goitom Kahsay Weldehawaryat
      First page: 88
      Abstract: Software Defined Networking (SDN) is an evolving network architecture paradigm that focuses on the separation of control and data planes. SDN receives increasing attention both from academia and industry, across a multitude of application domains. In this article, we examine the current state of obtained knowledge on military SDN by conducting a systematic literature review (SLR). Through this work, we seek to evaluate the current state of the art in terms of research tracks, publications, methods, trends, and most active research areas. Accordingly, we utilize these findings for consolidating the areas of past and current research on the examined application domain, and propose directions for future research.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10090088
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 89: Novel Cross-View Human Action Model
           Recognition Based on the Powerful View-Invariant Features Technique

    • Authors: Sebastien Mambou, Ondrej Krejcar, Kamil Kuca, Ali Selamat
      First page: 89
      Abstract: One of the most important research topics nowadays is human action recognition, which is of significant interest to the computer vision and machine learning communities. Some of the factors that hamper it include changes in postures and shapes and the memory space and time required to gather, store, label, and process the pictures. During our research, we noted a considerable complexity to recognize human actions from different viewpoints, and this can be explained by the position and orientation of the viewer related to the position of the subject. We attempted to address this issue in this paper by learning different special view-invariant facets that are robust to view variations. Moreover, we focused on providing a solution to this challenge by exploring view-specific as well as view-shared facets utilizing a novel deep model called the sample-affinity matrix (SAM). These models can accurately determine the similarities among samples of videos in diverse angles of the camera and enable us to precisely fine-tune transfer between various views and learn more detailed shared facets found in cross-view action identification. Additionally, we proposed a novel view-invariant facets algorithm that enabled us to better comprehend the internal processes of our project. Using a series of experiments applied on INRIA Xmas Motion Acquisition Sequences (IXMAS) and the Northwestern–UCLA Multi-view Action 3D (NUMA) datasets, we were able to show that our technique performs much better than state-of-the-art techniques.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10090089
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 90: v-Mapper: An Application-Aware
           Resource Consolidation Scheme for Cloud Data Centers

    • Authors: Aaqif Afzaal Abbasi, Hai Jin
      First page: 90
      Abstract: Cloud computing systems are popular in computing industry for their ease of use and wide range of applications. These systems offer services that can be used over the Internet. Due to their wide popularity and usage, cloud computing systems and their services often face issues resource management related challenges. In this paper, we present v-Mapper, a resource consolidation scheme which implements network resource management concepts through software-defined networking (SDN) control features. The paper makes three major contributions: (1) We propose a virtual machine (VM) placement scheme that can effectively mitigate the VM placement issues for data-intensive applications; (2) We propose a validation scheme that will ensure that a cloud service is entertained only if there are sufficient resources available for its execution and (3) We present a scheduling policy that aims to eliminate network load constraints. We tested our scheme with other techniques in terms of average task processing time, service delay and bandwidth usage. Our results demonstrate that v-Mapper outperforms other techniques and delivers significant improvement in system’s performance.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10090090
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 91: Intelligent Communication in Wireless
           Sensor Networks

    • Authors: Mostefa Bendjima, Mohammed Feham
      First page: 91
      Abstract: Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are designed to collect information by means of a large number of energy-limited battery sensor nodes. Therefore, it is important to minimize the energy consumed by each sensor, in order to extend the network life. The goal of this work is to design an intelligent WSN that collects as much information as possible to process it intelligently. To achieve this goal, an agent is sent to each sensor in order to process the information and to cooperate with neighboring sensors while mobile agents (MA) can be used to reduce information shared between source nodes (SN) and send them to the base station (Sink). This work proposes to use communication architecture for wireless sensor networks based on the multi-agent system (MAS) to ensure optimal information collection. The collaboration of these agents generates a simple message that summarizes the important information in order to transmit it by a mobile agent. To reduce the size of the MA, the sensors of the network have been grouped into sectors. For each MA, we have established an optimal itinerary, consuming a minimum amount of energy with data aggregation efficiency in a minimum time. Successive simulations in large-scale wireless sensor networks through the SINALGO (published under a BSD license) simulator show the performance of the proposed method, in terms of energy consumption and package delivery rate.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10090091
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 68: Internet of Nano-Things, Things and
           Everything: Future Growth Trends

    • Authors: Mahdi Miraz, Maaruf Ali, Peter Excell, Richard Picking
      First page: 68
      Abstract: The current statuses and future promises of the Internet of Things (IoT), Internet of Everything (IoE) and Internet of Nano-Things (IoNT) are extensively reviewed and a summarized survey is presented. The analysis clearly distinguishes between IoT and IoE, which are wrongly considered to be the same by many commentators. After evaluating the current trends of advancement in the fields of IoT, IoE and IoNT, this paper identifies the 21 most significant current and future challenges as well as scenarios for the possible future expansion of their applications. Despite possible negative aspects of these developments, there are grounds for general optimism about the coming technologies. Certainly, many tedious tasks can be taken over by IoT devices. However, the dangers of criminal and other nefarious activities, plus those of hardware and software errors, pose major challenges that are a priority for further research. Major specific priority issues for research are identified.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10080068
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 69: A Watermark-Based in-Situ Access
           Control Model for Image Big Data

    • Authors: Jinyi Guo, Wei Ren, Yi Ren, Tianqin Zhu
      First page: 69
      Abstract: When large images are used for big data analysis, they impose new challenges in protecting image privacy. For example, a geographic image may consist of several sensitive areas or layers. When it is uploaded into servers, the image will be accessed by diverse subjects. Traditional access control methods regulate access privileges to a single image, and their access control strategies are stored in servers, which imposes two shortcomings: (1) fine-grained access control is not guaranteed for areas/layers in a single image that need to maintain secret for different roles; and (2) access control policies that are stored in servers suffers from multiple attacks (e.g., transferring attacks). In this paper, we propose a novel watermark-based access control model in which access control policies are associated with objects being accessed (called an in-situ model). The proposed model integrates access control policies as watermarks within images, without relying on the availability of servers or connecting networks. The access control for images is still maintained even though images are redistributed again to further subjects. Therefore, access control policies can be delivered together with the big data of images. Moreover, we propose a hierarchical key-role-area model for fine-grained encryption, especially for large size images such as geographic maps. The extensive analysis justifies the security and performance of the proposed model
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10080069
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 70: Multidiscipline Integrated Platform
           Based on Probabilistic Analysis for Manufacturing Engineering Processes

    • Authors: Lijun Zhang, Kai Liu, Jian Liu
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Researchers from different disciplines, such as materials science, computer science, safety science, mechanical engineering and controlling engineering, have aimed to improve the quality of manufacturing engineering processes. Considering the requirements of research and development of advanced materials, reliable manufacturing and collaborative innovation, a multidiscipline integrated platform framework based on probabilistic analysis for manufacturing engineering processes is proposed. The proposed platform consists of three logical layers: The requirement layer, the database layer and the application layer. The platform is intended to be a scalable system to gradually supplement related data, models and approaches. The main key technologies of the platform, encapsulation methods, information fusion approaches and the collaborative mechanism are also discussed. The proposed platform will also be gradually improved in the future. In order to exchange information for manufacturing engineering processes, scientists and engineers of different institutes of materials science and manufacturing engineering should strengthen their cooperation.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10080070
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 71: Hybrid Approach with Improved Genetic
           Algorithm and Simulated Annealing for Thesis Sampling

    • Authors: Shardrom Johnson, Jinwu Han, Yuanchen Liu, Li Chen, Xinlin Wu
      First page: 71
      Abstract: Sampling inspection uses the sample characteristics to estimate that of the population, and it is an important method to describe the population, which has the features of low cost, strong applicability and high scientificity. This paper aims at the sampling inspection of the master’s degree thesis to ensure their quality, which is commonly estimated by random sampling. Since there are disadvantages in random sampling, a hybrid algorithm combined with an improved genetic algorithm and a simulated annealing algorithm is proposed in this paper. Furthermore, a novel mutation strategy is introduced according to the specialty of Shanghai’s thesis sampling to improve the efficiency of sampling inspection; the acceleration of convergence of the algorithm can also take advantage of this. The new algorithm features the traditional genetic algorithm, and it can obtain the global optimum in the optimization process and provide the fairest sampling plan under the constraint of multiple sampling indexes. The experimental results on the master’s thesis dataset of Shanghai show that the proposed algorithm well meets the requirements of the sampling inspection in Shanghai with a lower time-complexity.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10080071
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 72: Context Analysis of Cloud Computing
           Systems Using a Pattern-Based Approach

    • Authors: Ludger Goeke, Nazila Gol Mohammadi, Maritta Heisel
      First page: 72
      Abstract: Cloud computing services bring new capabilities for hosting and offering complex collaborative business operations. However, these advances might bring undesirable side-effects, e.g., introducing new vulnerabilities and threats caused by collaboration and data exchange over the Internet. Hence, users have become more concerned about security and privacy aspects. For secure provisioning of a cloud computing service, security and privacy issues must be addressed by using a risk assessment method. To perform a risk assessment, it is necessary to obtain all relevant information about the context of the considered cloud computing service. The context analysis of a cloud computing service and its underlying system is a difficult task because of the variety of different types of information that have to be considered. This context information includes (i) legal, regulatory and/or contractual requirements that are relevant for a cloud computing service (indirect stakeholders); (ii) relations to other involved cloud computing services; (iii) high-level cloud system components that support the involved cloud computing services; (iv) data that is processed by the cloud computing services; and (v) stakeholders that interact directly with the cloud computing services and/or the underlying cloud system components. We present a pattern for the contextual analysis of cloud computing services and demonstrate the instantiation of our proposed pattern with real-life application examples. Our pattern contains elements that represent the above-mentioned types of contextual information. The elements of our pattern conform to the General Data Protection Regulation. Besides the context analysis, our pattern supports the identification of high-level assets. Additionally, our proposed pattern supports the documentation of the scope and boundaries of a cloud computing service conforming to the requirements of the ISO 27005 standard (information security risk management). The results of our context analysis contribute to the transparency of the achieved security and privacy level of a cloud computing service. This transparency can increase the trust of users in a cloud computing service. We present results of the RestAssured project related to the context analysis regarding cloud computing services and their underlying cloud computing systems. The context analysis is the prerequisite to threat and control identification that are performed later in the risk management process. The focus of this paper is the use of a pattern at the time of design systematic context analysis and scope definition for risk management methods.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10080072
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 73: Joint AP Association and Bandwidth
           Allocation Optimization Algorithm in High-Dense WLANs

    • Authors: Jianjun Lei, Jiarui Tao, Shanshan Yang
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Regarding access point (AP) overload and performance anomaly which is caused by mobile terminals with different bitrates, a joint AP association and bandwidth allocation optimization algorithm is presented in this paper. Meanwhile, load balancing and proportional fairness are analyzed and formulated as an optimization model. Then, we present a Fair Bandwidth Allocation algorithm based on clients’ Business Priority (FBA-BP), which allocates bandwidth based on the bandwidth demand of clients and their business priority. Furthermore, we propose a Categorized AP Association algorithm based on clients’ demands (CAA-BD), which classifies APs by different types of clients and chooses an optimal associating AP for a new client according to AP categories and the aggregated demand transmission time that are calculated by the FBA-BP algorithm. The CAA-BD can achieve load balance and solve the performance anomaly caused by multi-rate clients coexisting. The simulation results show that our proposed algorithm obtains significant performance in terms of AP utilization, throughput, transmission delay and channel fairness in different client density levels compared with the categorized and Strong Signal First (SSF) algorithms.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10080073
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 74: Predict and Forward: An Efficient
           Routing-Delivery Scheme Based on Node Profile in Opportunistic Networks

    • Authors: Kanghuai Liu, Zhigang Chen, Jia Wu, Yutong Xiao, Heng Zhang
      First page: 74
      Abstract: In the social scene of opportunistic networks, message applications find suitable relay nodes or certain transmission destinations from the surrounding neighbors through specific network addresses of users. However, at the dawn of big data and 5G networks, the variational location information of nodes is difficult to be available to mobile devices all the time, and a long wait for the destination may cause severe end-to-end delay. To improve the transmission environment, this study constructs an efficient routing-delivery scheme (Predict and Forward) based on node profile for the opportunistic networks. The node profile effectively characterizes nodes by analyzing and comparing their attributes instead of network addresses, such as physical characteristics, places of residence, workplaces, occupations or hobbies. According to the optimal stopping theory, this algorithm implements the optimal transmission for Prelearn messages by dividing the complex data transmission process into two different phases (Predict and Forward). Through simulations and the comparison of routing algorithms in opportunistic networks, the proposed strategy increases the delivery ratio by 80% with the traditional methods on average, and the average end-to-end delay in this algorithm is the lowest.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10080074
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 75: A Hierarchical Mapping System for Flat
           Identifier to Locator Resolution Based on Active Degree

    • Authors: Jianqiang Liu, Shuai Huo, Yi Wang
      First page: 75
      Abstract: Overloading of IP address semantics appeals for a new network architecture based on Identifier (ID)/Locator separation. The challenge of Identifier (ID)/Locator separation is how to solve the scalability and efficiency challenges of identity-to-location resolution. By analyzing the requirements of the Identifier (ID)/Locator separation protocol, this paper proposes a hierarchical mapping architecture on active-degree (HMAA). This HMAA was divided into three levels: active local level, neutral transfer level, and inert global level. Each mapping item is dynamically allocated to different levels to ensure minimizing delay according to its activity characteristics. The top layer CHORD is constructed by the Markov Decision Process, which can keep consistency between the physical topology and the logical topology. The simulation results on delay time show that HMAA can satisfy the scalability and efficiency requirements of an Identifier (ID)/Locator separation network.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10080075
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 76: SCADA System Testbed for Cybersecurity
           Research Using Machine Learning Approach

    • Authors: Marcio Andrey Teixeira, Tara Salman, Maede Zolanvari, Raj Jain, Nader Meskin, Mohammed Samaka
      First page: 76
      Abstract: This paper presents the development of a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system testbed used for cybersecurity research. The testbed consists of a water storage tank’s control system, which is a stage in the process of water treatment and distribution. Sophisticated cyber-attacks were conducted against the testbed. During the attacks, the network traffic was captured, and features were extracted from the traffic to build a dataset for training and testing different machine learning algorithms. Five traditional machine learning algorithms were trained to detect the attacks: Random Forest, Decision Tree, Logistic Regression, Naïve Bayes and KNN. Then, the trained machine learning models were built and deployed in the network, where new tests were made using online network traffic. The performance obtained during the training and testing of the machine learning models was compared to the performance obtained during the online deployment of these models in the network. The results show the efficiency of the machine learning models in detecting the attacks in real time. The testbed provides a good understanding of the effects and consequences of attacks on real SCADA environments.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10080076
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 77: Motives for Instagram Use and Topics
           of Interest among Young Adults

    • Authors: Yi-Ting Huang, Sheng-Fang Su
      First page: 77
      Abstract: Instagram is currently the most popular social media app among young people around the world. More than 70% of people between the ages of 12 and 24 are Instagram users. The research framework of this study was constructed based on smartphone addiction and the uses and gratifications theory. We used 27 question items divided into five factors, namely social interaction, documentation, diversion, self-promotion, and creativity, to investigate the motives for Instagram use and topics of interest among university students in Taiwan. A total of 307 valid questionnaires were obtained. The results revealed that on the whole, the motives for Instagram use were mostly to look at posts, particularly involving social interaction and diversion motives. The level of agreement expressed toward motives for creating posts was lower. Gender, professional training background, and level of addiction to Instagram all exert influence on motives for Instagram use. Over half of the students majoring in design followed artisans and celebrities (including designers), and female students noticed ads on Instagram more than male students did.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10080077
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 78: Smart Collection of Real-Time
           Vehicular Mobility Traces

    • Authors: Nisrine Ibadah, Khalid Minaoui, Mohammed Rziza, Mohammed Oumsis, César Benavente-Peces
      First page: 78
      Abstract: Mobility trace techniques makes possible drawing the behaviors of real-life movement which shape wireless networks mobility whereabouts. In our investigation, several trace mobility models have been collected after the devices’ deployment. The main issue of this classical procedure is that it produces uncompleted records due to several unpredictable problems occurring during the deployment phase. In this paper, we propose a new procedure aimed at collecting traces while deployment phase failures are avoided, which improves the reliability of data. The introduced procedure makes possible the complete generation of traces with a minimum amount of damage without the need to recover mobile devices or lose them, as it is the case in previous mobility traces techniques. Based on detecting and correcting all accidental issues in real time, the proposed trace scanning offers a set of relevant information about the vehicle status which was collected during seven months. Furthermore, the proposed procedure could be applied to generate vehicular traces. Likewise, it is suitable to record/generate human and animal traces. The research outcomes demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the smart collection algorithm based on the proposed trace mobility model.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10080078
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 79: Queue Spillover Management in a
           Connected Vehicle Environment

    • Authors: Chuanxiang Ren, Wenbo Zhang, Lingqiao Qin, Bo Sun
      First page: 79
      Abstract: To alleviate the queue spillovers at intersections of urban roads during rush hours, a solution to the cross-spill problem based on vehicle networking technologies is proposed. This involves using connected vehicle technology, to realize the interactive information on vehicle and intersection signal control. The maximum control distance between intersections is determined by how vehicles are controlled and would travel in that connected environment. A method of calculating overflow tendency towards intersection queuing is also proposed, based on the maximum phase control distance. By this method, the intersection overflow is identified, and then the signal phases are re-optimized according to the requirements of different phases. Finally, overflow prevention control was also performed in this study. The VISSIM simulation results show that the method can better prevent the overflow of queues at intersections.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10080079
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 80: A Fast and Lightweight Method with
           Feature Fusion and Multi-Context for Face Detection

    • Authors: Lei Zhang, Xiaoli Zhi
      First page: 80
      Abstract: Convolutional neural networks (CNN for short) have made great progress in face detection. They mostly take computation intensive networks as the backbone in order to obtain high precision, and they cannot get a good detection speed without the support of high-performance GPUs (Graphics Processing Units). This limits CNN-based face detection algorithms in real applications, especially in some speed dependent ones. To alleviate this problem, we propose a lightweight face detector in this paper, which takes a fast residual network as backbone. Our method can run fast even on cheap and ordinary GPUs. To guarantee its detection precision, multi-scale features and multi-context are fully exploited in efficient ways. Specifically, feature fusion is used to obtain semantic strongly multi-scale features firstly. Then multi-context including both local and global context is added to these multi-scale features without extra computational burden. The local context is added through a depthwise separable convolution based approach, and the global context by a simple global average pooling way. Experimental results show that our method can run at about 110 fps on VGA (Video Graphics Array)-resolution images, while still maintaining competitive precision on WIDER FACE and FDDB (Face Detection Data Set and Benchmark) datasets as compared with its state-of-the-art counterparts.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10080080
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 81: Interactive 3D Exploration of RDF
           Graphs through Semantic Planes

    • Authors: Fabio Viola, Luca Roffia, Francesco Antoniazzi, Alfredo D’Elia, Cristiano Aguzzi, Tullio Salmon Cinotti
      First page: 81
      Abstract: This article presents Tarsier, a tool for the interactive 3D visualization of RDF graphs. Tarsier is mainly intended to support teachers introducing students to Semantic Web data representation formalisms and developers in the debugging of applications based on Semantic Web knowledge bases. The tool proposes the metaphor of semantic planes as a way to visualize an RDF graph. A semantic plane contains all the RDF terms sharing a common concept; it can be created, and further split into several planes, through a set of UI controls or through SPARQL 1.1 queries, with the full support of OWL and RDFS. Thanks to the 3D visualization, links between semantic planes can be highlighted and the user can navigate within the 3D scene to find the better perspective to analyze data. Data can be gathered from generic SPARQL 1.1 protocol services. We believe that Tarsier will enhance the human friendliness of semantic technologies by: (1) helping newcomers assimilate new data representation formats; and (2) increasing the capabilities of inspection to detect relevant situations even in complex RDF graphs.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10080081
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 56: Big Data Perspective and Challenges in
           Next Generation Networks

    • Authors: Kashif Sultan, Hazrat Ali, Zhongshan Zhang
      First page: 56
      Abstract: With the development towards the next generation cellular networks, i.e., 5G, the focus has shifted towards meeting the higher data rate requirements, potential of micro cells and millimeter wave spectrum. The goals for next generation networks are very high data rates, low latency and handling of big data. The achievement of these goals definitely require newer architecture designs, upgraded technologies with possible backward support, better security algorithms and intelligent decision making capability. In this survey, we identify the opportunities which can be provided by 5G networks and discuss the underlying challenges towards implementation and realization of the goals of 5G. This survey also provides a discussion on the recent developments made towards standardization, the architectures which may be potential candidates for deployment and the energy concerns in 5G networks. Finally, the paper presents a big data perspective and the potential of machine learning for optimization and decision making in 5G networks.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070056
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 57: Dynamic Cost-Aware Routing of Web

    • Authors: Gandhimathi Velusamy, Ricardo Lent
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Work within next generation networks considers additional network convergence possibilities and the integration of new services to the web. This trend responds to the ongoing growth of end-user demand for services that can be delivered anytime, anywhere, on any web-capable device, and of traffic generated by new applications, e.g., the Internet of Things. To support the massive traffic generated by the enormous user base and number of devices with reliability and high quality, web services run from redundant servers. As new servers need to be regularly deployed at different geographical locations, energy costs have become a source of major concern for operators. We propose a cost aware method for routing web requests across replicated and distributed servers that can exploit the spatial and temporal variations of both electricity prices and the server network. The method relies on a learning automaton that makes per-request decisions, which can be computed much faster than regular global optimization methods. Using simulation and testbed measurements, we show the cost reductions that are achievable with minimal impact on performance compared to standard web routing algorithms.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070057
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 58: Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Based Trust
           Management in Heterogeneous Federated Future Internet Testbeds

    • Authors: Dimitrios Dechouniotis, Ioannis Dimolitsas, Konstantinos Papadakis-Vlachopapadopoulos, Symeon Papavassiliou
      First page: 58
      Abstract: A federation of heterogeneous testbeds, which provides a wide range of services, attracts many experimenters from academia and industry to evaluate novel future Internet architectures and network protocols. The candidate experimenter reserves the appropriate testbeds’ resources based on various diverse criteria. Since several testbeds offer similar resources, a trust mechanism between the users and the providers will facilitate the proper selection of testbeds. This paper proposes a fuzzy reputation-based trust framework that is based on a modification of the fuzzy VIKOR multi-criteria decision making method and combines the user’s opinion from previously-conducted experiments with retrieved monitoring data from the utilized testbeds, in order to quantify the reputation of each testbed and the credibility of the experimenter. The proposed framework can process various types of numeric and linguistic data in an on-line fashion and can be easily extended for new types of testbeds and services. Data from active federated testbeds are used to evaluate the performance of the fuzzy reputation-based trust framework under dynamic conditions. Furthermore, a comparison of the proposed framework with another existing state of the art trust framework for federated testbeds is presented, and its superiority is demonstrated.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070058
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 59: Clock Recovery Challenges in DSP-Based
           Coherent Single-Mode and Multi-Mode Optical Systems

    • Authors: Júlio César Medeiros Diniz, Francesco Da Ros, Darko Zibar
      First page: 59
      Abstract: We present an analysis of clock recovery algorithms in both polarization division multiplexing systems and mode division multiplexing systems. The impact of inter-polarization time skew and polarization mode dispersion in single-mode fibers, as well as the combined impact of mode mixing and mode group delay spread in multi-mode fibers under different coupling regimes are investigated. Results show that although the clock tone vanishing has a known solution for single-mode systems, in multi-mode systems even for low group delay spread, strong coupling will cause clock tone extinction, making it harder to implement an effective clock recovery scheme.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070059
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 60: A Novel Two-Layered Reinforcement
           Learning for Task Offloading with Tradeoff between Physical Machine
           Utilization Rate and Delay

    • Authors: Li Quan, Zhiliang Wang, Fuji Ren
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Mobile devices could augment their ability via cloud resources in mobile cloud computing environments. This paper developed a novel two-layered reinforcement learning (TLRL) algorithm to consider task offloading for resource-constrained mobile devices. As opposed to existing literature, the utilization rate of the physical machine and the delay for offloaded tasks are taken into account simultaneously by introducing a weighted reward. The high dimensionality of the state space and action space might affect the speed of convergence. Therefore, a novel reinforcement learning algorithm with a two-layered structure is presented to address this problem. First, k clusters of the physical machines are generated based on the k-nearest neighbors algorithm (k-NN). The first layer of TLRL is implemented by a deep reinforcement learning to determine the cluster to be assigned for the offloaded tasks. On this basis, the second layer intends to further specify a physical machine for task execution. Finally, simulation examples are carried out to verify that the proposed TLRL algorithm is able to speed up the optimal policy learning and can deal with the tradeoff between physical machine utilization rate and delay.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070060
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 61: Personalised and Coordinated
           Demand-Responsive Feeder Transit Service Design: A Genetic Algorithms

    • Authors: Bo Sun, Ming Wei, Chunfeng Yang, Zhihuo Xu, Han Wang
      First page: 61
      Abstract: The purpose of this work is to create an efficient optimization framework for demand-responsive feeder transit services to assign vehicles to cover all pickup locations to transport passengers to a rail station. The proposed methodology features passengers placing a personalized travel order involving the subway schedule chosen by passengers and windows of service time, etc. Moreover, synchronous transfer between the shuttle and feeder bus is fully accounted for in the problem. A mixed-integer linear programming model is formulated to minimize the total travel time for all passengers, which consists of ride-time for vehicles from the pickup locations to the rail station and wait-time for passengers taking the subway beforehand. Different from conventional methods, the proposed model benefits from using a real distribution of passenger demand aggregated from cellular data and travel time or the distance matrix obtained from an open GIS tool. A distributed genetic algorithm is further designed to obtain meta-optimal solutions in a reasonable amount of time. When applied to design a feeder bus system in Nanjing City, China, case study results reveal that the total travel time of the proposed model was reduced by 2.46% compared to the traditional model. Sensitivity analyses were also further performed to investigate the impact of the number of vehicles on the output. Finally, the difference in results of Cplex, standard GA, and the proposed algorithm were compared to prove the validity of the algorithm.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070061
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 62: The GDPR beyond Privacy: Data-Driven
           Challenges for Social Scientists, Legislators and Policy-Makers

    • Authors: Margherita Vestoso
      First page: 62
      Abstract: While securing personal data from privacy violations, the new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) explicitly challenges policymakers to exploit evidence from social data-mining in order to build better policies. Against this backdrop, two issues become relevant: the impact of Big Data on social research, and the potential intersection between social data mining, rulemaking and policy modelling. The work aims at contributing to the reflection on some of the implications of the ‘knowledge-based’ policy recommended by the GDPR. The paper is thus split into two parts: the first describes the data-driven evolution of social sciences, raising methodological and epistemological issues; the second focuses on the interplay between data-driven social research, rule-making and policy modelling, in the light of the policy model fostered by GDPR. Some theoretical reflections about the role of evidence in rule-making will be considered to introduce a discussion on the intersection between data-driven social research and policy modelling and to sketch hypotheses on its future evolutions.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070062
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 63: Towards Prediction of Immersive
           Virtual Reality Image Quality of Experience and Quality of Service

    • Authors: Anil Kumar Karembai, Jeffrey Thompson, Patrick Seeling
      First page: 63
      Abstract: In this article, we evaluate the Quality of Service (QoS) through media impairment levels and device operators’ subjective Quality of Experience (QoE). The human-centered QoE determination commonly requires human subject experimentation, which we combine with Electroencephalography (EEG) measurements to move towards automatized and generalized possibilities of determining the QoE. We evaluate the prediction performance for spherical/immersive images displayed with a mobile device VR viewer (Spherical Virtual Reality (SVR)) with the help of only four-position EEG data gathered at the forehead, which correlates well with practical applicability. We find that QoS levels can be predicted more reliably (directly with R2=0.68 or based on profiles with R2=0.9) than the QoE, which exhibits significant error levels. Additional comparison with previous approaches for the Spherical Augmented Reality (SAR) QoE indicates better predictability in AR scenarios over VR.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070063
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 64: Dynamic Traffic Scheduling and
           Congestion Control across Data Centers Based on SDN

    • Authors: Dong Sun, Kaixin Zhao, Yaming Fang, Jie Cui
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Software-defined Networking (SDN) and Data Center Network (DCN) are receiving considerable attention and eliciting widespread interest from both academia and industry. When the traditionally shortest path routing protocol among multiple data centers is used, congestion will frequently occur in the shortest path link, which may severely reduce the quality of network services due to long delay and low throughput. The flexibility and agility of SDN can effectively ameliorate the aforementioned problem. However, the utilization of link resources across data centers is still insufficient, and has not yet been well addressed. In this paper, we focused on this issue and proposed an intelligent approach of real-time processing and dynamic scheduling that could make full use of the network resources. The traffic among the data centers could be classified into different types, and different strategies were proposed for these types of real-time traffic. Considering the prolonged occupation of the bandwidth by malicious flows, we employed the multilevel feedback queue mechanism and proposed an effective congestion control algorithm. Simulation experiments showed that our scheme exhibited the favorable feasibility and demonstrated a better traffic scheduling effect and great improvement in bandwidth utilization across data centers.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070064
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 65: Performance Analysis of Hybrid
           Optical–Acoustic AUV Swarms for Marine Monitoring

    • Authors: Chiara Lodovisi, Pierpaolo Loreti, Lorenzo Bracciale, Silvello Betti
      First page: 65
      Abstract: Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are assuming an important role in the monitoring and mapping of marine ecosystems, especially for their ability to explore harsh environments. AUV swarm can collect data operating autonomously for long periods enabling new applications in this field. However, the mission duration is usually limited also by the high power consumption required for acoustic transmissions. A new generation of devices complements the acoustic modem with an optical modem that can provide a communication channel with higher capacity and lower power consumption with respect to the acoustic channel. However, the optical link that uses the visible light is very sensitive to the water turbidity that can strongly limit the link coverage. In this paper, we evaluate the networking performances of the Venus vessel, a real AUV prototype equipped with an acoustical modem and an optical modem. The presented analysis aims to evaluate key system parameters allowing to select the best way to set up network communications according to the surrounding conditions (e.g., quality of water) and to the application requirements. Simulation results account for the case of ports or basins, where the water quality is poor and the use of the optical modem is strongly limited by distance. We evaluate system performance in terms of transmission delay in the network and we also provide a power–capacity trade-off.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070065
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 66: Enabling Trustworthy Multicast
           Wireless Services through D2D Communications in 5G Networks

    • Authors: Sara Pizzi, Chiara Suraci, Leonardo Militano, Antonino Orsino, Antonella Molinaro, Antonio Iera, Giuseppe Araniti
      First page: 66
      Abstract: Device-to-device (D2D) communication is considered as one of the key enabling technologies for fifth-generation (5G) networks as it allows data offloading generated by the huge number of connected devices. In this respect, group-oriented services are among the most interesting usage scenarios. Indeed, D2D can improve the performance of the conventional multicast scheme (CMS) in cellular networks, which is known to suffer from low spectral efficiency. Security is a further key field of investigation for 5G systems, as any threat to privacy and security may lead to both deteriorated user experience and inefficient network resources’ utilization. Security issues are even more in focus for D2D connections between devices that are in mutual proximity. To improve the CMS performance and also sustain security requirements of the 5G network, this work proposes a secure D2D data transmission algorithm. Making use of mechanisms such as encryption and signature, this algorithm aims to protect the exchanged data and the privacy of the devices involved in the communication. A simulation campaign conducted using MATLAB shows the ability of the proposed solution to take advantage of the establishment of secure D2D communications and efficiently utilize network resources.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070066
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 67: Network Measurement and Performance
           Analysis at Server Side

    • Authors: Guang-Qian Peng, Guangtao Xue, Yi-Chao Chen
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Network performance diagnostics is an important topic that has been studied since the Internet was invented. However, it remains a challenging task, while the network evolves and becomes more and more complicated over time. One of the main challenges is that all network components (e.g., senders, receivers, and relay nodes) make decision based only on local information and they are all likely to be performance bottlenecks. Although Software Defined Networking (SDN) proposes to embrace a centralize network intelligence for a better control, the cost to collect complete network states in packet level is not affordable in terms of collection latency, bandwidth, and processing power. With the emergence of the new types of networks (e.g., Internet of Everything, Mission-Critical Control, data-intensive mobile apps, etc.), the network demands are getting more diverse. It is critical to provide finer granularity and real-time diagnostics to serve various demands. In this paper, we present EVA, a network performance analysis tool that guides developers and network operators to fix problems in a timely manner. EVA passively collects packet traces near the server (hypervisor, NIC, or top-of-rack switch), and pinpoints the location of the performance bottleneck (sender, network, or receiver). EVA works without detailed knowledge of application or network stack and is therefore easy to deploy. We use three types of real-world network datasets and perform trace-driven experiments to demonstrate EVA’s accuracy and generality. We also present the problems observed in these datasets by applying EVA.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070067
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 44: Studying Semi-TCP and Its Application
           in Marine Internet

    • Authors: Liang Zhou, Sheng-Ming Jiang, Chen-Lin Xiong
      First page: 44
      Abstract: TCP protocol has good performance on the Internet, but its performance is significantly reduced when it is applied to Marine Internet (MI). How to improve the performance of TCP protocol in Marine Internet has become an important research topic. In this paper, an improved Semi-TCP is adopted for Marine Internet, and the implementation scheme of Semi-TCP congestion control is introduced. The exposed terminal problem and congestion control problem of high load networks are analyzed in detail. By using a timer, the congestion control algorithm is improved. Performance analysis and comparison of TCP-Lite, Semi-TCP-RTS, and improved Semi-TCP (Semi-TCP-RTS-V2) are carried out on Exata simulation platform, and the experimental results show that Semi-TCP-RTS-V2 has better transmission performance in ship ad hoc networks.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060044
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 45: A Multiple Access Protocol Based on
           Gray Forecast for Satellite Network

    • Authors: Chong Han, Zilong Li, Jian Zhou, Lijuan Sun, Siyu Chen
      First page: 45
      Abstract: A satellite network’s multiple access protocol must be well designed to efficiently occupy channel resources and meet various qualities of service requirements. In this paper, a combined free/demand assignment multiple access protocol based on gray forecast is proposed. In terms of access, the adoption of the gray forecast method allows the user to book the number of timeslots to have more than the existing number of burst of packets. In terms of bandwidth allocation, a user priority allocation method is used to prioritize users with high needs and focus on the allocation of satellite resources. Experimental results show that the proposed protocol can effectively improve the channel utilization of the entire system. Thus, this protocol has some advantages over existing protocols in network throughput and end-to-end delay.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060045
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 46: A Tiered Control Plane Model for
           Service Function Chaining Isolation

    • Authors: Håkon Gunleifsen, Vasileios Gkioulos, Thomas Kemmerich
      First page: 46
      Abstract: This article presents an architecture for encryption automation in interconnected Network Function Virtualization (NFV) domains. Current NFV implementations are designed for deployment within trusted domains, where overlay networks with static trusted links are utilized for enabling network security. Nevertheless, within a Service Function Chain (SFC), Virtual Network Function (VNF) flows cannot be isolated and end-to-end encrypted because each VNF requires direct access to the overall SFC data-flow. This restricts both end-users and Service Providers from enabling end-to-end security, and in extended VNF isolation within the SFC data traffic. Encrypting data flows on a per-flow basis results in an extensive amount of secure tunnels, which cannot scale efficiently in manual configurations. Additionally, creating secure data plane tunnels between NFV providers requires secure exchange of key parameters, and the establishment of an east–west control plane protocol. In this article, we present an architecture focusing on these two problems, investigating how overlay networks can be created, isolated, and secured dynamically. Accordingly, we propose an architecture for automated establishment of encrypted tunnels in NFV, which introduces a novel, tiered east–west communication channel between network controllers in a multi-domain environment.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060046
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 47: Secure Inter-Frame Space
           Communications for Wireless LANs

    • Authors: Il-Gu Lee
      First page: 47
      Abstract: The internet of things (IoTs) offers a wide range of consumer benefits, from personal portable devices to internet-connected infrastructure. The wireless local area network (WLAN) is one of the potential candidates for IoTs technology to connect billions of smart devices. Long-range WLAN is widely deployed in dense networks as an alternative to cellular networks or satellite internet access because of its low cost, high performance, and existing ecosystem. However, due to the nature of unregulated communications in industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands, WLANs experience interferences from other radios such as radars and frequency hopping devices. Once interference is detected at a WLAN device, the channel is avoided and other channels become crowded. Thus, it degrades network throughput and channel utilization. In this paper, a secure inter-frame space communication system design is proposed for WLANs to share the ISM bands with other radio systems that generate periodic radio signals. The proposed secure inter-frame communication scheme achieves the goal by designing accurate radar detection and secure inter-frame space communication. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly increases the receiver sensitivity and user datagram protocol throughput.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060047
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 48: On the Future of Legal Publishing
           Services in the Semantic Web

    • Authors: Enrico Francesconi
      First page: 48
      Abstract: The development of the Semantic Web represents an essential precondition to the definition of new scenarios for the future Internet. This perspective is of particular interest in the legal information domain for the specialized nature of legal information and the peculiarities of the legal users’ information needs. In this paper, the evolution in recent years of the Semantic Web in the legal domain is reviewed, with particular emphasis to the most recent developments related to Linked Open Data initiative and to the role, in the legal Semantic Web, of the Publications Office of the European Union in its two-fold role of public institution and legal publisher.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060048
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 49: Certificateless Provable Group Shared

    • Authors: Hongbin Yang, Shuxiong Jiang, Wenfeng Shen, Zhou Lei
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Provable Data Possession (PDP) protocol makes it possible for cloud users to check whether the cloud servers possess their original data without downloading all the data. However, most of the existing PDP schemes are based on either public key infrastructure (PKI) or identity-based cryptography, which will suffer from issues of expensive certificate management or key escrow. In this paper, we propose a new construction of certificateless provable group shared data possession (CL-PGSDP) protocol by making use of certificateless cryptography, which will eliminate the above issues. Meanwhile, by taking advantage of zero-knowledge protocol and randomization method, the proposed CL-PGSDP protocol leaks no information of the stored data and the group user’s identity to the verifiers during the verifying process, which is of the property of comprehensive privacy preservation. In addition, our protocol also supports efficient user revocation from the group. Security analysis and experimental evaluation indicate that our CL-PGSDP protocol provides strong security with desirable efficiency.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060049
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 50: Fairness and Trust in Virtual
           Environments: The Effects of Reputation

    • Authors: Mirko Duradoni, Mario Paolucci, Franco Bagnoli, Andrea Guazzini
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Reputation supports pro-social behaviors in a variety of social settings and across different ages. When re-encounters are possible, developing a positive reputation can be a valuable asset that will result in better outcomes. However, in real life, cooperative acts are ambiguous and happen in noisy environments in which individuals can have multiple goals, visibility is reduced, and reputation systems may differ. This study examined how reputation within a virtual environment affects fairness in material allocations and trust in information exchange, in a three-actors interaction game in which each player had an incentive to deceive the others. We compared the results of two experimental conditions, one in which informers could be evaluated, and one without reputational opportunities. A reputational system appeared to enhance both trust and fairness even within a virtual environment under anonymous condition. We tested adolescents and adults finding that they were consistently more generous when visibility was increased, but they showed significantly different patterns in resources allocation and information exchange. Male and female participants, across ages, showed other interesting differences. These findings suggest that reputational effects increase fairness and trust even in a noisy, ambiguous and uncertain environment, but this effect is modulated by age and gender.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060050
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 51: A Driving Behavior Planning and
           Trajectory Generation Method for Autonomous Electric Bus

    • Authors: Lingli Yu, Decheng Kong, Xiaoxin Yan
      First page: 51
      Abstract: A framework of path planning for autonomous electric bus is presented. ArcGIS platform is utilized for map-building and global path planning. Firstly, a high-precision map is built based on GPS in ArcGIS for global planning. Then the global optimal path is obtained by network analysis tool in ArcGIS. To facilitate local planning, WGS-84 coordinates in the map are converted to local coordinates. Secondly, a double-layer finite state machine (FSM) is devised to plan driving behavior under different driving scenarios, such as structured driving, lane changing, turning, and so on. Besides, local optimal trajectory is generated by cubic polynomial, which takes full account of the safety and kinetics of the electric bus. Finally, the simulation results show that the framework is reliable and feasible for driving behavior planning and trajectory generation. Furthermore, its validity is proven with an autonomous bus platform 12 m in length.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060051
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 52: A Novel Self-Adaptive VM Consolidation
           Strategy Using Dynamic Multi-Thresholds in IaaS Clouds

    • Authors: Lei Xie, Shengbo Chen, Wenfeng Shen, Huaikou Miao
      First page: 52
      Abstract: With the rapid development of cloud computing, the demand for infrastructure resources in cloud data centers has further increased, which has already led to enormous amounts of energy costs. Virtual machine (VM) consolidation as one of the important techniques in Infrastructure as a Service clouds (IaaS) can help resolve energy consumption by reducing the number of active physical machines (PMs). However, the necessity of considering energy-efficiency and the obligation of providing high quality of service (QoS) to customers is a trade-off, as aggressive consolidation may lead to performance degradation. Moreover, most of the existing works of threshold-based VM consolidation strategy are mainly focused on single CPU utilization, although the resource request on different VMs are very diverse. This paper proposes a novel self-adaptive VM consolidation strategy based on dynamic multi-thresholds (DMT) for PM selection, which can be dynamically adjusted by considering future utilization on multi-dimensional resources of CPU, RAM and Bandwidth. Besides, the VM selection and placement algorithm of VM consolidation are also improved by utilizing each multi-dimensional parameter in DMT. The experiments show that our proposed strategy has a better performance than other strategies, not only in high QoS but also in less energy consumption. In addition, the advantage of its reduction on the number of active hosts is much more obvious, especially when it is under extreme workloads.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060052
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 53: A Privacy Preserving Framework for
           Worker’s Location in Spatial Crowdsourcing Based on Local Differential

    • Authors: Jiazhu Dai, Keke Qiao
      First page: 53
      Abstract: With the development of the mobile Internet, location-based services are playing an important role in everyday life. As a new location-based service, Spatial Crowdsourcing (SC) involves collecting and analyzing environmental, social, and other spatiotemporal information of individuals, increasing convenience for users. In SC, users (called requesters) publish tasks and other users (called workers) are required to physically travel to specified locations to perform the tasks. However, with SC services, the workers have to disclose their locations to untrusted third parties, such as the Spatial Crowdsourcing Server (SC-server), which could pose a considerable threat to the privacy of workers. In this paper, we propose a new location privacy protection framework based on local difference privacy for spatial crowdsourcing, which does not require the participation of trusted third parties by adding noises locally to workers’ locations. The noisy locations of workers are submitted to the SC-server rather than the real locations. Therefore, the protection of workers’ locations is achieved. Experiments showed that this framework not only preserves the privacy of workers in SC, but also has modest overhead performance.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060053
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 54: StegNet: Mega Image Steganography
           Capacity with Deep Convolutional Network

    • Authors: Pin Wu, Yang Yang, Xiaoqiang Li
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Traditional image steganography often leans interests towards safely embedding hidden information into cover images with payload capacity almost neglected. This paper combines recent deep convolutional neural network methods with image-into-image steganography. It successfully hides the same size images with a decoding rate of 98.2% or bpp (bits per pixel) of 23.57 by changing only 0.76% of the cover image on average. Our method directly learns end-to-end mappings between the cover image and the embedded image and between the hidden image and the decoded image. We further show that our embedded image, while with mega payload capacity, is still robust to statistical analysis.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060054
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 55: Simulating the Cost of Cooperation: A
           Recipe for Collaborative Problem-Solving

    • Authors: Andrea Guazzini, Mirko Duradoni, Alessandro Lazzeri, Giorgio Gronchi
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Collective problem-solving and decision-making, along with other forms of collaboration online, are central phenomena within ICT. There had been several attempts to create a system able to go beyond the passive accumulation of data. However, those systems often neglect important variables such as group size, the difficulty of the tasks, the tendency to cooperate, and the presence of selfish individuals (free riders). Given the complex relations among those variables, numerical simulations could be the ideal tool to explore such relationships. We take into account the cost of cooperation in collaborative problem solving by employing several simulated scenarios. The role of two parameters was explored: the capacity, the group’s capability to solve increasingly challenging tasks coupled with the collective knowledge of a group, and the payoff, an individual’s own benefit in terms of new knowledge acquired. The final cooperation rate is only affected by the cost of cooperation in the case of simple tasks and small communities. In contrast, the fitness of the community, the difficulty of the task, and the groups sizes interact in a non-trivial way, hence shedding some light on how to improve crowdsourcing when the cost of cooperation is high.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060055
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 37: Ex Machina: Analytical platforms, Law
           and the Challenges of Computational Legal Science

    • Authors: Nicola Lettieri, Antonio Altamura, Rosalba Giugno, Alfonso Guarino, Delfina Malandrino, Alfredo Pulvirenti, Francesco Vicidomini, Rocco Zaccagnino
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Over the years, computation has become a fundamental part of the scientific practice in several research fields that goes far beyond the boundaries of natural sciences. Data mining, machine learning, simulations and other computational methods lie today at the hearth of the scientific endeavour in a growing number of social research areas from anthropology to economics. In this scenario, an increasingly important role is played by analytical platforms: integrated environments allowing researchers to experiment cutting-edge data-driven and computation-intensive analyses. The paper discusses the appearance of such tools in the emerging field of computational legal science. After a general introduction to the impact of computational methods on both natural and social sciences, we describe the concept and the features of an analytical platform exploring innovative cross-methodological approaches to the academic and investigative study of crime. Stemming from an ongoing project involving researchers from law, computer science and bioinformatics, the initiative is presented and discussed as an opportunity to raise a debate about the future of legal scholarship and, inside of it, about the challenges of computational legal science.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10050037
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 38: MinHash-Based Fuzzy Keyword Search of
           Encrypted Data across Multiple Cloud Servers

    • Authors: Jingsha He, Jianan Wu, Nafei Zhu, Muhammad Salman Pathan
      First page: 38
      Abstract: To enhance the efficiency of data searching, most data owners store their data files in different cloud servers in the form of cipher-text. Thus, efficient search using fuzzy keywords becomes a critical issue in such a cloud computing environment. This paper proposes a method that aims at improving the efficiency of cipher-text retrieval and lowering storage overhead for fuzzy keyword search. In contrast to traditional approaches, the proposed method can reduce the complexity of Min-Hash-based fuzzy keyword search by using Min-Hash fingerprints to avoid the need to construct the fuzzy keyword set. The method will utilize Jaccard similarity to rank the results of retrieval, thus reducing the amount of calculation for similarity and saving a lot of time and space overhead. The method will also take consideration of multiple user queries through re-encryption technology and update user permissions dynamically. Security analysis demonstrates that the method can provide better privacy preservation and experimental results show that efficiency of cipher-text using the proposed method can improve the retrieval time and lower storage overhead as well.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10050038
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 39: A Fair Cooperative MAC Protocol in
           IEEE 802.11 WLAN

    • Authors: Seyed Davoud Mousavi, Rasool Sadeghi, Mohamadreza Karimi, Erfan Karimian, Mohammad Reza Soltan Aghaei
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Cooperative communication techniques have recently enabled wireless technologies to overcome their challenges. The main objective of these techniques is to improve resource allocation. In this paper, we propose a new protocol in medium access control (MAC) of the IEEE 802.11 standard. In our new protocol, which is called Fair Cooperative MAC (FC-MAC), every relay node participates in cooperation proportionally to its provided cooperation gain. This technique improves network resource allocation by exploiting the potential capacity of all relay candidates. Simulation results demonstrate that the FC-MAC protocol presents better performance in terms of throughput, fairness, and network lifetime.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10050039
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 40: An EV Charging Scheduling Mechanism
           Based on Price Negotiation

    • Authors: Baocheng Wang, Yafei Hu, Yu Xiao, Yi Li
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Scheduling EV user’s charging behavior based on charging price and applying renewable energy resources are the effective methods to release the load pressure of power grids brought about by the large-scale popularity of electric vehicles (EVs). This paper presents a novel approach for EV charging scheduling based on price negotiation. Firstly, the EV charging system framework based on price negotiation and renewable energy resources is discussed. Secondly, the price negotiation model is presented, including the initial price models and the conditions of transactions. Finally, an EV charging scheduling mechanism based on price negotiation (CSM-PN), including the price adjustment strategies of both the operator and EV users is proposed to seek a final transaction during multi-round price negotiation. Simulation results show that this novel approach can effectively improve the charging station operator’s income, reduce the EV users’ costs, and balance the load of the power grid while improving the efficiency of the EV charging system.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10050040
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 41: Route Availability as a Communication
           Quality Metric of a Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    • Authors: Tamotsu Yashima, Kazumasa Takami
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Using ad hoc communication between mobile terminals, MANETs (mobile ad hoc networks) are independent of any communication infrastructure but their communication quality can degrade because, as terminals move about in the service area, routes are constantly disconnected and then re-established. There has been no proposal for a quality metric that models this unstable state, i.e., route nonuniformity. This paper proposes a new concept of route availability (RA) as a metric of route nonuniformity in a MANET and verifies how effectively it represents the quality of service (QoS) of a network or the quality of experience (QoE) of video streaming. We have built an environment that emulates a MANET capable of video streaming, and developed a method of measuring RA for two representative MANET routing methods: AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector) and OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing). We have examined the relationship between RA and conventional network QoS metrics: packet loss rate and throughput. We have also checked RA using a subjective quality assessment test.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10050041
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 42: Test Bed of Semantic Interaction of
           Smart Objects in the Web of Things

    • Authors: Santiago Guerrero-Narváez, Miguel-Ángel Niño-Zambrano, Dalila-Jhoana Riobamba-Calvache, Gustavo-Adolfo Ramírez-González
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Semantic interaction in the Internet of Things (IoT) is an important concept within current IoT development, given that smart things require further autonomy with greater processing, storage, and communication capacities. The problem is now becoming one of how to get these things to interact and collaborate with each other; to form intelligent environments amongst themselves and thus generate better services for users. This article explores a solution approach that consists in providing collaborative behavior to smart things, through the incorporation of an ontology and an architecture. It makes possible things that can communicate and collaborate with each other, allowing the generation of new services of interaction according to user needs. For this task, a real test bed of smart things was created, in which the proposed solution was deployed (Smart Room). Finally, it was concluded that the creation of these types of test bed is feasible, taking into account that response times and the information delivered by the different managed processes are acceptable. New challenges were encountered, however, such as problems of critical region in test beds with conflicting services and management of multiple users.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10050042
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 43: Botnet Detection Based On Machine
           Learning Techniques Using DNS Query Data

    • Authors: Xuan Dau Hoang, Quynh Chi Nguyen
      First page: 43
      Abstract: In recent years, botnets have become one of the major threats to information security because they have been constantly evolving in both size and sophistication. A number of botnet detection measures, such as honeynet-based and Intrusion Detection System (IDS)-based, have been proposed. However, IDS-based solutions that use signatures seem to be ineffective because recent botnets are equipped with sophisticated code update and evasion techniques. A number of studies have shown that abnormal botnet detection methods are more effective than signature-based methods because anomaly-based botnet detection methods do not require pre-built botnet signatures and hence they have the capability to detect new or unknown botnets. In this direction, this paper proposes a botnet detection model based on machine learning using Domain Name Service query data and evaluates its effectiveness using popular machine learning techniques. Experimental results show that machine learning algorithms can be used effectively in botnet detection and the random forest algorithm produces the best overall detection accuracy of over 90%.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10050043
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 32: Development of a Social DTN for
           Message Communication between SNS Group Members

    • Authors: Hidenori Takasuka, Koichi Hirai, Kazumasa Takami
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Smartphones have the ability to communicate with other terminals through ad hoc connections. A variety of applications have been developed to exploit this ability. The authors have developed an Android OS (operating system) application (called “social DTN manager”) that builds a DTN (delay, disruption, disconnection tolerant networking) among members of a social networking service (SNS) community using a community token. The members can exchange messages over this network. Control messages for building a DTN are forwarded to only those nodes that use the same community token in order to reduce flooding of message copies. When a source node sends a communication request to its destination node, they exchange control messages to establish a communication route. Relay nodes use these messages to create and hold routing information for these nodes in their routing tables. Thereafter, relay nodes can forward data messages based on their routing tables. This again reduces flooding of message copies. The social DTN manager incorporates these functions, Facebook Graph API and Google Nearby Connections API. The authors have installed it in Android terminals and confirmed that a social DTN can successfully be built using this application and that data messages can be exchanged between terminals via reactive routes.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10040032
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 33: An Intelligent Content Prefix
           Classification Approach for Quality of Service Optimization in
           Information-Centric Networking

    • Authors: Cutifa Safitri, Yoshihide Yamada, Sabariah Baharun, Shidrokh Goudarzi, Quang Ngoc Nguyen, Keping Yu, Takuro Sato
      First page: 33
      Abstract: This research proposes an intelligent classification framework for quality of service (QoS) performance improvement in information-centric networking (ICN). The proposal works towards keyword classification techniques to obtain the most valuable information via suitable content prefixes in ICN. In this study, we have achieved the intelligent function using Artificial Intelligence (AI) implementation. Particularly, to find the most suitable and promising intelligent approach for maintaining QoS matrices, we have evaluated various AI algorithms, including evolutionary algorithms (EA), swarm intelligence (SI), and machine learning (ML) by using the cost function to assess their classification performances. With the goal of enabling a complete ICN prefix classification solution, we also propose a hybrid implementation to optimize classification performances by integration of relevant AI algorithms. This hybrid mechanism searches for a final minimum structure to prevent the local optima from happening. By simulation, the evaluation results show that the proposal outperforms EA and ML in terms of network resource utilization and response delay for QoS performance optimization.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10040033
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 34: Replicas Strategy and Cache
           Optimization of Video Surveillance Systems Based on Cloud Storage

    • Authors: Rongheng Li, Jian Zhang, Wenfeng Shen
      First page: 34
      Abstract: With the rapid development of video surveillance technology, especially the popularity of cloud-based video surveillance applications, video data begins to grow explosively. However, in the cloud-based video surveillance system, replicas occupy an amount of storage space. Also, the slow response to video playback constrains the performance of the system. In this paper, considering the characteristics of video data comprehensively, we propose a dynamic redundant replicas mechanism based on security levels that can dynamically adjust the number of replicas. Based on the location correlation between cameras, this paper also proposes a data cache strategy to improve the response speed of data reading. Experiments illustrate that: (1) our dynamic redundant replicas mechanism can save storage space while ensuring data security; (2) the cache mechanism can predict the playback behaviors of the users in advance and improve the response speed of data reading according to the location and time correlation of the front-end cameras; and (3) in terms of cloud-based video surveillance, our proposed approaches significantly outperform existing methods.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10040034
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 35: Enhanced Matching Game for Decoupled
           Uplink Downlink Context-Aware Handover

    • Authors: Asmae Ait Mansour, Nourddine Enneya, Mohamed Ouadou
      First page: 35
      Abstract: In this paper, we address the problem of cell association during a handover performed in a dense heterogeneous network, where the preference of a mobile user’s equipment in terms of uplink traffic is not the same as for the downlink traffic. Therefore, since mobility is an intrinsic element of cellular networks, designing a handover from the perspective of the uplink and downlink is mandatory in the context of 5G cellular networks. Based on this arena, we propose a decoupled uplink-downlink handover scheme while making use of femtocells in order to maximize the overall network entity utilities and avoid overloading macrocells. However, the fact that the handover process is performed in a dense heterogeneous network makes the issue NP-hard. Therefore, taking into account the need for self-organizing solutions, we modeled the handover process as a matching game with externalities. Thus, we will provide an aspect of intelligence for the execution of the handover process to mobile user’s equipment (UE). To make the proposition more efficient, we integrate an assignment step to assist the matching game. Hence, the base stations will be investigated and filtered, keeping only the helpful base stations as the players in terms of the quality of service for the uplink and downlink. The numerical results verify the superiority of the proposed context-aware algorithm over traditional downlink handover and traditional decoupled uplink and downlink handover schemes, by improving the load balancing, increasing rates and reducing delays.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10040035
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 36: Dynamic Linked Data: A SPARQL Event
           Processing Architecture

    • Authors: Luca Roffia, Paolo Azzoni, Cristiano Aguzzi, Fabio Viola, Francesco Antoniazzi, Tullio Salmon Cinotti
      First page: 36
      Abstract: This paper presents a decentralized Web-based architecture designed to support the development of distributed, dynamic, context-aware and interoperable services and applications. The architecture enables the detection and notification of changes over the Web of Data by means of a content-based publish-subscribe mechanism where the W3C SPARQL 1.1 Update and Query languages are fully supported and used respectively by publishers and subscribers. The architecture is built on top of the W3C SPARQL 1.1 Protocol and introduces the SPARQL 1.1 Secure Event protocol and the SPARQL 1.1 Subscribe Language as a means for conveying and expressing subscription requests and notifications. The reference implementation of the architecture offers to developers a design pattern for a modular, scalable and effective application development.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10040036
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 22: Learning and Mining Player Motion
           Profiles in Physically Interactive Robogames

    • Authors: Ewerton Oliveira, Davide Orrù, Luca Morreale, Tiago Nascimento, Andrea Bonarini
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Physically-Interactive RoboGames (PIRG) are an emerging application whose aim is to develop robotic agents able to interact and engage humans in a game situation. In this framework, learning a model of players’ activity is relevant both to understand their engagement, as well as to understand specific strategies they adopted, which in turn can foster game adaptation. Following such directions and given the lack of quantitative methods for player modeling in PIRG, we propose a methodology for representing players as a mixture of existing player’s types uncovered from data. This is done by dealing both with the intrinsic uncertainty associated with the setting and with the agent necessity to act in real time to support the game interaction. Our methodology first focuses on encoding time series data generated from player-robot interaction into images, in particular Gramian angular field images, to represent continuous data. To these, we apply latent Dirichlet allocation to summarize the player’s motion style as a probabilistic mixture of different styles discovered from data. This approach has been tested in a dataset collected from a real, physical robot game, where activity patterns are extracted by using a custom three-axis accelerometer sensor module. The obtained results suggest that the proposed system is able to provide a robust description for the player interaction.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10030022
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 23: SDN Based Collaborative Scheme for
           Mitigation of DDoS Attacks

    • Authors: Sufian Hameed, Hassan Ahmed Khan
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Software Defined Networking (SDN) has proved itself to be a backbone in the new network design and is quickly becoming an industry standard. The idea of separation of control plane and data plane is the key concept behind SDN. SDN not only allows us to program and monitor our networks but it also helps in mitigating some key network problems. Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack is among them. In this paper we propose a collaborative DDoS attack mitigation scheme using SDN. We design a secure controller-to-controller (C-to-C) protocol that allows SDN-controllers lying in different autonomous systems (AS) to securely communicate and transfer attack information with each other. This enables efficient notification along the path of an ongoing attack and effective filtering of traffic near the source of attack, thus saving valuable time and network resources. We also introduced three different deployment approaches i.e., linear, central and mesh in our testbed. Based on the experimental results we demonstrate that our SDN based collaborative scheme is fast and reliable in efficiently mitigating DDoS attacks in real time with very small computational footprints.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10030023
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 24: How Data Will Transform Industrial
           Processes: Crowdsensing, Crowdsourcing and Big Data as Pillars of Industry

    • Authors: Virginia Pilloni
      First page: 24
      Abstract: We are living in the era of the fourth industrial revolution, namely Industry 4.0. This paper presents the main aspects related to Industry 4.0, the technologies that will enable this revolution, and the main application domains that will be affected by it. The effects that the introduction of Internet of Things (IoT), Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), crowdsensing, crowdsourcing, cloud computing and big data will have on industrial processes will be discussed. The main objectives will be represented by improvements in: production efficiency, quality and cost-effectiveness; workplace health and safety, as well as quality of working conditions; products’ quality and availability, according to mass customisation requirements. The paper will further discuss the common denominator of these enhancements, i.e., data collection and analysis. As data and information will be crucial for Industry 4.0, crowdsensing and crowdsourcing will introduce new advantages and challenges, which will make most of the industrial processes easier with respect to traditional technologies.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10030024
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 25: Interference Management in Femtocells
           by the Adaptive Network Sensing Power Control Technique

    • Authors: Tehseen Hassan, Fei Gao, Babur Jalal, Sheeraz Arif
      First page: 25
      Abstract: The overlay integration of low-power femtocells over macrocells in a heterogeneous network (HetNet) plays an important role in dealing with the increasing demand of spectral efficiency, coverage and higher data rates, at a nominal cost to network operators. However, the downlink (DL) transmission power of an inadequately deployed femtocell causes inter-cell interference (ICI), which leads to severe degradation and sometimes link failure for nearby macrocell users. In this paper, we propose an adaptive network sensing (ANS) technique for downlink power control to obviate the ICI. The simulation results have shown that the ANS power control technique successfully decreases the cell-edge macro user’s interference and enhances the throughput performance of macro users, while also optimizing the coverage and capacity of the femtocell. When compared with the Femto User Equipment (FUE)-assisted and Macro User Equipment (MUE)-assisted power control technique, the proposed technique offers a good tradeoff in reducing interference to macro users, while maintaining the quality of service (QoS) requirement of the femtocell users.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10030025
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 26: TwinNet: A Double Sub-Network
           Framework for Detecting Universal Adversarial Perturbations

    • Authors: Yibin Ruan, Jiazhu Dai
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Deep neural network has achieved great progress on tasks involving complex abstract concepts. However, there exist adversarial perturbations, which are imperceptible to humans, which can tremendously undermine the performance of deep neural network classifiers. Moreover, universal adversarial perturbations can even fool classifiers on almost all examples with just a single perturbation vector. In this paper, we propose TwinNet, a framework for neural network classifiers to detect such adversarial perturbations. TwinNet makes no modification of the protected classifier. It detects adversarially perturbated examples by enhancing different types of features in dedicated networks and fusing the output of the networks later. The paper empirically shows that our framework can identify adversarial perturbations effectively with a slight loss in accuracy when predicting normal examples, which outperforms state-of-the-art works.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10030026
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 27: Security Awareness in Software-Defined
           Multi-Domain 5G Networks

    • Authors: Jani Suomalainen, Kimmo Ahola, Mikko Majanen, Olli Mämmelä, Pekka Ruuska
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Fifth generation (5G) technologies will boost the capacity and ease the management of mobile networks. Emerging virtualization and softwarization technologies enable more flexible customization of network services and facilitate cooperation between different actors. However, solutions are needed to enable users, operators, and service providers to gain an up-to-date awareness of the security and trustworthiness of 5G systems. We describe a novel framework and enablers for security monitoring, inferencing, and trust measuring. The framework leverages software-defined networking and big data technologies to customize monitoring for different applications. We present an approach for sharing security measurements across administrative domains. We describe scenarios where the correlation of multi-domain information improves the accuracy of security measures with respect to two threats: end-user location tracking and Internet of things (IoT) authentication storms. We explore the security characteristics of data flows in software networks dedicated to different applications with a mobile network testbed.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10030027
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 28: Ecosystemic Evolution Fed by Smart

    • Authors: Dino Giuli
      First page: 28
      Abstract: n/a
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10030028
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 29: Understanding How GitHub Supports
           Curation Repositories

    • Authors: Yu Wu, Jessica Kropczynski, Raquel Prates, John Carroll
      First page: 29
      Abstract: In recent years, software developers have started to appropriate GitHub repositories to curate resources, in order to systematically select, evaluate, and organize existing artifacts for preservation and future use. Curation behaviors in social media sites, such as users’ experiences to curate tweets from Twitter and pins on Pinterest, are well documented. However, GitHub, as a social coding platform, presents a new context for this activity, raising questions about the nature of curation on this task-driven online work site. To explore and understand curation on GitHub, we compared and contrasted curation repositories with software repositories using activity logs and analyzed the content of popular curation repositories. Our results show that: (1) curation repositories have become a favorite category of repositories in GitHub; (2) curation repositories leverage collaborative features and practices native to GitHub in new ways; (3) curation repositories collect and preserve high-quality resources for the software developers’ community. Our results suggest that curation is becoming increasingly important to the software developers’ community, and current practices can be better supported with tools designed specifically for curation.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10030029
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 30: Optimal Design of Demand-Responsive
           Feeder Transit Services with Passengers’ Multiple Time Windows and

    • Authors: Bo Sun, Ming Wei, Senlai Zhu
      First page: 30
      Abstract: This paper presents a mixed-integer linear programming model for demand-responsive feeder transit services to assign vehicles located at different depots to pick up passengers at the demand points and transport them to the rail station. The proposed model features passengers’ one or several preferred time windows for boarding vehicles at the demand point and their expected ride time. Moreover, passenger satisfaction that was related only to expected ride time is fully accounted for in the model. The objective is to simultaneously minimize the operation costs of total mileage and maximize passenger satisfaction. As the problem is an extension of the nondeterministic polynomial problem with integration of the vehicle route problem, this study further develops an improved bat algorithm to yield meta-optimal solutions for the model in a reasonable amount of time. When this was applied to a case study in Nanjing City, China, the mileage and satisfaction of the proposed model were reduced by 1.4 km and increased by 7.1%, respectively, compared with the traditional model. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to investigate the impact of the number of designed bus routes and weights of objective functions on the model performance. Finally, a comparison of Cplex, standard bat algorithm, and group search optimizer is analyzed to verify the validity of the proposed algorithm.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10030030
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 31: A Statistical Analysis of Industrial
           Penetration and Internet Intensity in Taiwan

    • Authors: Chia-Lin Chang, Michael McAleer, Yu-Chieh Wu
      First page: 31
      Abstract: This paper is the first to investigate the effect of industrial penetration (geographic concentration of industries) and internet intensity (the proportion of enterprises that uses the internet) for Taiwan manufacturing firms, and analyses whether the relationships are substitutes or complements. The sample observations are based on a unique set of data, namely 153,081 manufacturing plants, and covers 26 two-digit industry categories and 358 geographical townships in Taiwan. The Heckman sample selection model is used to accommodate sample selectivity for unobservable data for firms that use the internet. The empirical results from Heckman’s two-stage estimation show that: (1) a higher degree of industrial penetration will not affect the probability that firms will use the internet, but it will affect the total expenditure on internet intensity; (2) for two-digit SIC (Standard Industrial Classification) industries, industrial penetration generally decreases the total expenditure on internet intensity; and, (3) industrial penetration and internet intensity are substitutes.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10030031
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 11: Announcing the 2018 Future Internet
           Travel Award for PhD Students

    • Authors: Dino Giuli
      First page: 11
      Abstract: With the goal of promoting the development of early career investigators in the fields of Internet 11 technologies and the information society, Future Internet welcomed applications for the 2018 Future 12 Internet Travel Award for PhD students.[...]
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020011
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 12: The Improved Adaptive Silence Period
           Algorithm over Time-Variant Channels in the Cognitive Radio System

    • Authors: Jingbo Zhang, Zhenyang Sun, Shufang Zhang
      First page: 12
      Abstract: In the field of cognitive radio spectrum sensing, the adaptive silence period management mechanism (ASPM) has improved the problem of the low time-resource utilization rate of the traditional silence period management mechanism (TSPM). However, in the case of the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the ASPM algorithm will increase the probability of missed detection for the primary user (PU). Focusing on this problem, this paper proposes an improved adaptive silence period management (IA-SPM) algorithm which can adaptively adjust the sensing parameters of the current period in combination with the feedback information from the data communication with the sensing results of the previous period. The feedback information in the channel is achieved with frequency resources rather than time resources in order to adapt to the parameter change in the time-varying channel. The Monte Carlo simulation results show that the detection probability of the IA-SPM is 10–15% higher than that of the ASPM under low SNR conditions.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020012
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 13: Push Attack: Binding Virtual and Real
           Identities Using Mobile Push Notifications

    • Authors: Pierpaolo Loreti, Lorenzo Bracciale, Alberto Caponi
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Popular mobile apps use push notifications extensively to offer an “always connected” experience to their users. Social networking apps use them as a real-time channel to notify users about new private messages or new social interactions (e.g., friendship request, tagging, etc.). Despite the cryptography used to protect these communication channels, the strict temporal binding between the actions that trigger the notifications and the reception of the notification messages in the mobile device may represent a privacy issue. In this work, we present the push notification attack designed to bind the physical owners of mobile devices with their virtual identities, even if pseudonyms are used. In an online attack, an active attacker triggers a push notification and captures the notification packets that transit in the network. In an offline attack, a passive attacker correlates the social network activity of a user with the received push notification. The push notification attack bypasses the standard ways of protecting user privacy based on the network layer by operating at the application level. It requires no additional software on the victim’s mobile device.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020013
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 14: A Review of Vehicle to Vehicle
           Communication Protocols for VANETs in the Urban Environment

    • Authors: Irshad Abbasi, Adnan Shahid Khan
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) have been gaining significant attention from the research community due to their increasing importance for building an intelligent transportation system. The characteristics of VANETs, such as high mobility, network partitioning, intermittent connectivity and obstacles in city environments, make routing a challenging task. Due to these characteristics of VANETs, the performance of a routing protocol is degraded. The position-based routing is considered to be the most significant approach in VANETs. In this paper, we present a brief review of most significant position based unicast routing protocols designed for vehicle to vehicle communications in the urban environment. We provide them with their working features for exchanging information between vehicular nodes. We describe their pros and cons. This study also provides a comparison of the vehicle to vehicle communication based routing protocols. The comparative study is based on some significant factors such as mobility, traffic density, forwarding techniques and method of junction selection mechanism, and strategy used to handle a local optimum situation. It also provides the simulation based study of existing dynamic junction selection routing protocols and a static junction selection routing protocol. It provides a profound insight into the routing techniques suggested in this area and the most valuable solutions to advance VANETs. More importantly, it can be used as a source of references to other researchers in finding literature that is relevant to routing in VANETs.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020014
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 15: Smart Pedestrian Crossing Management
           at Traffic Light Junctions through a Fuzzy-Based Approach

    • Authors: Giovanni Pau, Tiziana Campisi, Antonino Canale, Alessandro Severino, Mario Collotta, Giovanni Tesoriere
      First page: 15
      Abstract: In the last few years, numerous research efforts have been conducted to merge the Internet of Things (IoT) with smart city environments. The goal to make a city “smart” is arising as a possible solution to lessen the issues caused by the urban population growth and fast urbanization. Attention also has focused on the pedestrian crossings because they are one of the most dangerous places in the transport field. Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) can undoubtedly be an excellent support in developing infrastructures that can best manage pedestrian crossing. For this reason, this paper introduces a fuzzy logic-based solution able to manage dynamically the traffic lights’ phases in signalized pedestrian crossings. The proposed approach provides the possibility to change the phases of the traffic light taking into account the time of the day and the number of pedestrians about to cross the road. The paper presents a thorough description of the fuzzy logic controller configuration, an in-depth analysis of the application scenario and simulative assessments obtained through Vissim simulations.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020015
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 16: An Efficient Trust-Based Scheme for
           Secure and Quality of Service Routing in MANETs

    • Authors: Muhammad Pathan, Nafei Zhu, Jingsha He, Zulfiqar Zardari, Muhammad Memon, Muhammad Hussain
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Due to the dynamism of topology, sharing of bandwidth and constraint of resources in wireless nodes, the provision of quality of service (QoS) for routing in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) presents a great challenge. Security is another crucial aspect of providing QoS since the existence of malicious nodes present all kinds of threats to MANETs. Although a number of mechanisms have been proposed for protecting MANETs, most of the solutions are only effective for a particular kind of attacks or provide security at the cost of sacrificing QoS. In this paper, we propose a trust-based secure QoS routing scheme by combining social and QoS trust. The primary approach of the proposed scheme relies on mitigating nodes that exhibit various packet forwarding misbehavior and on discovering the path that ensures reliable communication through the trust mechanism. The scheme would select the best forwarding node based on packet forwarding behavior as well as capability in terms of QoS parameters, such as residual energy, channel quality, link quality, etc. We will present an adversary model for packet dropping attack against which we evaluate the proposed scheme. Simulation experiment using Network Simulator-2 (NS2) and under various network conditions show that mixing social and QoS trust parameters can greatly improve security and quality of service routing in terms of overhead, packet delivery ratio and energy consumption.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020016
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 17: Increasing Trustworthiness of Face
           Authentication in Mobile Devices by Modeling Gesture Behavior and Location
           Using Neural Networks

    • Authors: Blerim Rexha, Gresa Shala, Valon Xhafa
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Personal mobile devices currently have access to a significant portion of their user’s private sensitive data and are increasingly used for processing mobile payments. Consequently, securing access to these mobile devices is a requirement for securing access to the sensitive data and potentially costly services. Face authentication is one of the promising biometrics-based user authentication mechanisms that has been widely available in this era of mobile computing. With a built-in camera capability on smartphones, tablets, and laptops, face authentication provides an attractive alternative of legacy passwords for its memory-less authentication process, which is so sophisticated that it can unlock the device faster than a fingerprint. Nevertheless, face authentication in the context of smartphones has proven to be vulnerable to attacks. In most current implementations, a sufficiently high-resolution face image displayed on another mobile device will be enough to circumvent security measures and bypass the authentication process. In order to prevent such bypass attacks, gesture recognition together with location is proposed to be additionally modeled. Gestures provide a faster and more convenient method of authentication compared to a complex password. The focus of this paper is to build a secure authentication system with face, location and gesture recognition as components. User gestures and location data are a sequence of time series; therefore, in this paper we propose to use unsupervised learning in the long short-term memory recurrent neural network to actively learn to recognize, group and discriminate user gestures and location. Moreover, a clustering-based technique is also implemented for recognizing gestures and location.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020017
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 18: Security and Privacy in Wireless and
           Mobile Networks

    • Authors: Georgios Kambourakis, Felix Gomez Marmol, Guojun Wang
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Currently, at the dawn of 5G networks, and the era of the Internet-of-Things, wireless and mobile networking is becoming increasingly ubiquitous [...]
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020018
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 19: Virtual Career Fairs: Perspectives
           from Norwegian Recruiters and Exhibitors

    • Authors: Ådne Vik, Bjørn Nørbech, Debora Jeske
      First page: 19
      Abstract: The present work introduces virtual fairs, particularly the perceived benefits, challenges, and relevance of such fairs for recruitment and employer branding. These aspects were explored in a semi-structured interview with an organizer of virtual fairs across Scandinavia, and a focus group composed of Norwegian recruiters and exhibitors. The results of the data collection can be summarized in the form of themes that relate to web analytics, web services and optimization. The benefits of virtual fairs pertain to the (a) visibility and branding; (b) costs; and (c) analytics-based customization. Challenges of virtual career fairs pertain to the (a) lack of online engagement, (b) preparation and staffing costs; (c) lack of guidelines; (d) talent access and identification; (e) security and infrastructure; (f) long-term planning; (g) and inter-dependencies. The discussion summarizes the implications of branding and recruitment and the value they add to business, also noting how context effects may come into play. The article concludes by exploring the possibility that virtual fairs will complement or become the new standard in recruitment and outlines future avenues for research and practice.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020019
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 20: Blockchain and Smart Contracts for
           Insurance: Is the Technology Mature Enough'

    • Authors: Valentina Gatteschi, Fabrizio Lamberti, Claudio Demartini, Chiara Pranteda, Víctor Santamaría
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Blockchain is receiving increasing attention from academy and industry, since it is considered a breakthrough technology that could bring huge benefits to many different sectors. In 2017, Gartner positioned blockchain close to the peak of inflated expectations, acknowledging the enthusiasm for this technology that is now largely discussed by media. In this scenario, the risk to adopt it in the wake of enthusiasm, without objectively judging its actual added value is rather high. Insurance is one the sectors that, among others, started to carefully investigate the possibilities of blockchain. For this specific sector, however, the hype cycle shows that the technology is still in the innovation trigger phase, meaning that the spectrum of possible applications has not been fully explored yet. Insurers, as with many other companies not necessarily active only in the financial sector, are currently requested to make a hard decision, that is, whether to adopt blockchain or not, and they will only know if they were right in 3–5 years. The objective of this paper is to support actors involved in this decision process by illustrating what a blockchain is, analyzing its advantages and disadvantages, as well as discussing several use cases taken from the insurance sector, which could easily be extended to other domains.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020020
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 21: Robotics Construction Kits: From
           “Objects to Think with” to “Objects to Think and to Emote with”

    • Authors: Antonella D’Amico, Domenico Guastella
      First page: 21
      Abstract: This paper discusses new ideas about the use of educational robotics in social-emotional learning. In particular, educational robotics could be a tool intended to allow children to acquire some of the basic aspects of human emotions and emotional functioning, and to understand how these relate to the mind and body. More specifically, by using robots such as the LEGO Mindstorm construction kits—which allow users to both construct the body of the robot and to provide it with a behavioural repertory—children have the opportunity to visualize (and manipulate) the relationship between the robot’s body and mind. This allows them to simulate “embodied emotional minds” and to reflect on new neuroscientific concepts regarding body-mind and cognition-emotion relationships.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020021
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 103: Initial Coin Offerings and Agile

    • Authors: Simona Ibba, Andrea Pinna, Maria Ilaria Lunesu, Michele Marchesi, Roberto Tonelli
      First page: 103
      Abstract: An ICO (Initial Coin Offering) is an innovative way to fund projects based on blockchain. The funding is based on the selling of tokens by means of decentralized applications called smart contracts written in Solidity, a programming language specific for Ethereum blockchain. The ICOs work in a volatile context and it is crucial that the team is capable of handling constant changes. The Agile methods, proven practices enabling to develop software in presence of changing requirements, could be a means for managing uncertainty. The main goals of this work are to understand software engineering activities related to ICOs, recognize the ICOs developed using Agile methods, and make a comparison between ICOs and Agile ICOs. In addition, we perform a deeper analysis of Agile ICOs concerning project planning, software development, and code features. Our work shows that the roles of the people involved in an ICO can be compared to the typical roles of the SCRUM methodology. The majority of Agile ICOs use tool of testing before storing smart contract on blockchain. Finally, the application of volumetric and complexity software metrics shows that the files of Agile ICOs is on average shorter and less complex than in other smart contracts.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-10-23
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10110103
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 104: RFID Based Manufacturing Process of
           Cloud MES

    • Authors: Chuang Wang, Xu’nan Chen, Abdel-Hamid Ali Soliman, Zhixiang Zhu
      First page: 104
      Abstract: RFID (radio frequency identification) is widely used in the manufacturing processes of enterprises. At the same time, with the advent of the Industry 4.0 era, Manufacturing Execution System (MES) systems began to evolve into cloud MES systems. In this paper, a RFID-based manufacturing process for cloud MES is proposed and a framework manufacturing process fora cloud MES system centered on machine tools is constructed. The process division of the manufacturing process, RFID configuration and cloud processing are analyzed, and other key technologies involved in implementing the framework are briefly discussed. Finally, the effectiveness of a RFID-based manufacturing process of cloud MES is verified by two different types of case analysis namely photovoltaic slice production and garment outsourcing processing.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-10-30
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10110104
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 105: An Integrated Platform for the
           Internet of Things Based on an Open Source Ecosystem

    • Authors: YangQun Li
      First page: 105
      Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) is increasingly part of daily life. However, the development of IoT applications still faces many problems, such as heterogeneity, complex management, and other difficulties. In this paper, first, the open source technologies of IoT are surveyed. We compare these technologies from the point of view of different levels of technical requirements, such as device management, data management, communication, intelligent data processing, security and privacy protection; we also look at requirements of application development and deployment. Second, an IoT integrated development platform architecture for IoT applications based on open source ecosystem is proposed and evaluated in an industrial setting. We applied P2P technology to distributed resource management and blockchain-based smart contract mechanics for resource billing management. The results show that the IoT gateway based on an open source ecosystem had a stable and reliable system performance with a certain data size and concurrency scale. These conditions satisfy the application requirements of the IoT in most sensing environments.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10110105
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 106: Design and Implementation of a RFID
           Reader/Router in RFID-WSN Hybrid System

    • Authors: Wusheng Ji, Li Li, Weiwei Zhou
      First page: 106
      Abstract: In order to put Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) in a hybrid system, this paper presents the design and implementation of a RFID reader/router that can obtain information of both RFID tags and WSN sensor nodes and transmit the information through the WSN to the PC server. The RFID reader and WSN router are combined with both hardware and software. In hardware structure, CC2530 is used as micro controller and RF module for ZigBee wireless communication, and MF RC522 is used as reader RF chip. The software deals with both identity and sensing information and controls the routing. Experiment results show that the RFID reader/router achieves long distance identification, flexibility, scalability, and low cost. It also provides reliable and secured data transmission and broadens the communication range and application scope of RFID readers.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10110106
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 107: Composting as a Service: A Real-World
           IoT Implementation

    • Authors: Yannis Nikoloudakis, Spyridon Panagiotakis, Thrasivoulos Manios, Evangelos Markakis, Evangelos Pallis
      First page: 107
      Abstract: Composting is the delicate procedure of supervised decomposition of organic waste, which gradually transforms waste to nutrient-rich manure. It requires deep knowledge and constant attention by experts to achieve a quality outcome in a timely fashion. Nevertheless, due to the bizarre nature of the materials and the overall procedure, along with the space required and emitted odors, it is required that composting infrastructures and machinery are installed away from residential areas, rendering supervision a very tedious task. Automatic composting machinery is a promising new idea, but still cannot substitute the insightfulness of a human supervisor. In this paper, we introduce COMPosting as a Service (COMPaaS). COMPaaS is a novel cloud service in composition with specialized Internet of Things (IoT)-based composting machinery that allows for unsupervised composting. The focus of this work is on the tiered IT approach that is adopted following the edge-computing paradigm. More specifically, composting machinery, enriched with several sensors and actuators, performs a set of basic routine tasks locally and sends sensor values to a cloud service which performs real-time data analysis and instructs the composting machinery to perform the appropriate actions based on the outcome of the analysis. The overall composting procedure is performed in a completely unsupervised manner, and field evaluation has shown an up to 30% faster outcome in comparison to traditional supervised composting.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-11-05
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10110107
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 108: Quality of Experience in
           Cyber-Physical Social Systems Based on Reinforcement Learning and Game

    • Authors: Eirini Eleni Tsiropoulou, George Kousis, Athina Thanou, Ioanna Lykourentzou, Symeon Papavassiliou
      First page: 108
      Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of museum visitors’ Quality of Experience (QoE) optimization by viewing and treating the museum environment as a cyber-physical social system. To achieve this goal, we harness visitors’ internal ability to intelligently sense their environment and make choices that improve their QoE in terms of which the museum touring option is the best for them and how much time to spend on their visit. We model the museum setting as a distributed non-cooperative game where visitors selfishly maximize their own QoE. In this setting, we formulate the problem of Recommendation Selection and Visiting Time Management (RSVTM) and propose a two-stage distributed algorithm based on game theory and reinforcement learning, which learns from visitor behavior to make on-the-fly recommendation selections that maximize visitor QoE. The proposed framework enables autonomic visitor-centric management in a personalized manner and enables visitors themselves to decide on the best visiting strategies. Experimental results evaluating the performance of the proposed RSVTM algorithm under realistic simulation conditions indicate the high operational effectiveness and superior performance when compared to other recommendation approaches. Our results constitute a practical alternative for museums and exhibition spaces meant to enhance visitor QoE in a flexible, efficient, and cost-effective manner.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10110108
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 109: A Review of DSP-Based Enabling
           Technologies for Cloud Access Networks

    • Authors: Roger Giddings, Xiao Duan, Ehab Al-Rawachy, Mingzhi Mao
      First page: 109
      Abstract: Optical access networks, metro networks and mobile data networks are facing rapidly evolving demands, not only is it essential to satisfy the unyielding need for increased user bandwidths, but future networks must also support the growing wide variation in traffic dynamics and characteristics, due to various emerging technologies, such as cloud-based services, the Internet-of-Things (IoT) and 5G mobile systems, and due to growing trends, such as the proliferation of mobile devices and the rapidly increasing popularity of video-on-demand services. To be cost-effective and commercially sustainable, future optical networks must offer features, such as, dynamic reconfigurability, highly efficient use of network resources, elastic bandwidth provisioning with fine granularity, network sliceabilty and software defined networking (SDN). To meet these requirements Cloud Access Networks (CANs) are proposed which require a number of flexible, adaptive and reconfigurable networking elements. By exploiting digital signal processing (DSP) we have proposed a digital orthogonal filter-based multiplexing technique to implement CANs with multiplexed, independent optical channels at the wavelength, sub-wavelength, and orthogonal sub-band levels. This paper reviews the overall CAN concept, the operating principles of the various CAN network elements and presents an overview of the research work we have undertaken in order to validate the feasibility of the proposed technologies which includes real-time DSP-based demonstrations.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10110109
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 92: Occlusion-Aware Unsupervised Learning
           of Monocular Depth, Optical Flow and Camera Pose with Geometric

    • Authors: Qianru Teng, Yimin Chen, Chen Huang
      First page: 92
      Abstract: We present an occlusion-aware unsupervised neural network for jointly learning three low-level vision tasks from monocular videos: depth, optical flow, and camera motion. The system consists of three different predicting sub-networks simultaneously coupled by combined loss terms and is capable of computing each task independently on test samples. Geometric constraints extracted from scene geometry which have traditionally been used in bundle adjustment or pose-graph optimization are formed as various self-supervisory signals during our end-to-end learning approach. Different from prior works, our image reconstruction loss also takes account of optical flow. Moreover, we impose novel 3D flow consistency constraints over the predictions of all the three tasks. By explicitly modeling occlusion and taking utilization of both 2D and 3D geometry relationships, abundant geometric constraints are formed over estimated outputs, enabling the system to capture both low-level representations and high-level cues to infer thinner scene structures. Empirical evaluation on the KITTI dataset demonstrates the effectiveness and improvement of our approach: (1) monocular depth estimation outperforms state-of-the-art unsupervised methods and is comparable to stereo supervised ones; (2) optical flow prediction ranks top among prior works and even beats supervised and traditional ones especially in non-occluded regions; (3) pose estimation outperforms established SLAM systems under comparable input settings with a reasonable margin.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10100092
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 93: Proactive Caching at the Edge
           Leveraging Influential User Detection in Cellular D2D Networks

    • Authors: Anwar Said, Syed Waqas Haider Shah, Hasan Farooq, Adnan Noor Mian, Ali Imran, Jon Crowcroft
      First page: 93
      Abstract: Caching close to users in a radio access network (RAN) has been identified as a promising method to reduce a backhaul traffic load and minimize latency in 5G and beyond. In this paper, we investigate a novel community detection inspired by a proactive caching scheme for device-to-device (D2D) enabled networks. The proposed scheme builds on the idea that content generated/accessed by influential users is more probable to become popular and thus can be exploited for pro-caching. We use a Clustering Coefficient based Genetic Algorithm (CC-GA) for community detection to discover a group of cellular users present in close vicinity. We then use an Eigenvector Centrality measure to identify the influential users with respect to the community structure, and the content associated to it is then used for pro-active caching using D2D communications. The numerical results show that, compared to reactive caching, where historically popular content is cached, depending on cache size, load and number of requests, up to 30% more users can be satisfied using a proposed scheme while achieving significant reduction in backhaul traffic load.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10100093
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 94: Influence of Crowd Participation
           Features on Mobile Edge Computing

    • Authors: Peiyan Yuan, Xiaoxiao Pang, Xiaoyan Zhao
      First page: 94
      Abstract: Mobile edge computing is a new communication paradigm, which stores content close to the end users, so as to reduce the backhaul delay and alleviate the traffic load of the backbone networks. Crowd participation is one of the most striking features of this technology, and it enables numerous interesting applications. The dynamics of crowd participation offer unprecedented opportunities for both content caching and data forwarding. In this paper, we investigate the influence of the dynamics of crowd participation, from the perspective of opportunistic caching and forwarding, and discuss how we can exploit such opportunities to allocate content and select relays efficiently. Some existing issues in this emerging research area are also discussed.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10100094
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 95: Chinese Event Extraction Based on
           Attention and Semantic Features: A Bidirectional Circular Neural Network

    • Authors: Yue Wu, Junyi Zhang
      First page: 95
      Abstract: Chinese event extraction uses word embedding to capture similarity, but suffers when handling previously unseen or rare words. From the test, we know that characters may provide some information that we cannot obtain in words, so we propose a novel architecture for combining word representations: character–word embedding based on attention and semantic features. By using an attention mechanism, our method is able to dynamically decide how much information to use from word or character level embedding. With the semantic feature, we can obtain some more information about a word from the sentence. We evaluate different methods on the CEC Corpus, and this method is found to improve performance.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10100095
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 96: A Modified BA Anti-Collision Protocol
           for Coping with Capture Effect and Interference in RFID Systems

    • Authors: Isam A. Hussein, Basil H. Jasim, Ramzy S. Ali
      First page: 96
      Abstract: Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has widely been used in the last few years. Its applications focus on auto identification, tracking, and data capturing issues. However, RFID suffers from the main problem of tags collision when multiple tags simultaneously respond to the reader request. Many protocols were proposed to solve the collision problems with good identification efficiency and an acceptable time delay, such as the blocking anti-collision protocol (BA). Nevertheless, most of these protocols assumed that the RFID reader could decode the tag’s signal only when there was one tag responding to the reader request once each time. Hence, they ignored the phenomenon of the capture effect, which results in identifying the tag with the stronger signal as the multiple tags simultaneously respond. As a result, many tags will not be identified under the capture effect. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to take the capture effect phenomenon into consideration in order to modify the blocking BA protocol to ensure a full read rate, i.e., identifying all the tags in the frame without losing any tag. Moreover, the modifications include distinguishing between collision and interference responses (for the period of staying tags) in the noisy environments, for the purpose of enhancing the efficiency of the identification. Finally, the simulation and analytical results show that our modifications and MBA protocol outperform the previous protocols in the same field, such as generalized query tree protocols (GQT1 and GQT2), general binary tree (GBT), and tweaked binary tree (TBT).
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10100096
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 97: The Effect of Customer Participation
           Types on Online Recovery Satisfaction: A Mental Accounting Perspective

    • Authors: Yu Zhang, Bingjia Shao
      First page: 97
      Abstract: With the high popularity of the Internet, online trading has gradually replaced the traditional shopping model and extended to every corner of social life. However, online trading cannot avoid failures; thus, understanding how firms can best recover customers in online contexts to keep customer loyalty is very important. This study investigates the mechanisms by which customer participation types (physical, mental, and emotional) promote customers’ perceived justice and post-recovery satisfaction from a mental accounting perspective. Furthermore, the moderating effects of two modes of online apology speech acts (direct and indirect) on customer participation and perceived justice are investigated. A total of 1083 Chinese tourists who have purchased a Wi-Fi rental service in the past year were contacted according to the database provided by two travel agencies, and 329 stated having experienced an online recovery service and participated in the survey; 297 valid questionnaires were collected. Among them, 48.82% were males and 51.18% females. Most of the respondents were aged 20–35 years. By carrying out data analysis by partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) using SmartPLS, the results show that, first, only mental and physical participation can enhance perceived justice, while emotional participation does not influence perceived justice. Second, the positive influence of mental participation on perceived justice is most significant. Third, only when the service staff adopts the indirect mode to express an online apology, mental and physical participation can enhance perceived justice.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-10-03
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10100097
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 98: Structured Data REST Protocol for End
           to End Data Mashup

    • Authors: Prakash Hardaha, Shailendra Singh
      First page: 98
      Abstract: Due to the exponential growth of the data and its services, visiting multiple webs/apps by a user raises three issues—(1) consumption of extra bytes; (2) time killing process of surfing inside the webs/apps; (3) tedious task of remembering address of webs/apps with their credentials. The data mashup is a set of techniques and user-friendly approaches which not only resolves above issues but also allows ordinary user to fetch required data from multiple disparate data sources and to create the integrated view in his defined digital place. In this paper, we have proposed an extension of existing REST protocol called Structured Data REST (SDRest) protocol and user-friendly novel approach which allows even ordinary users to develop end to end data mashup, using the innovative concept of Structured Data Mashup Box (SDMB) and One Time Configuration (OTC)-Any Time Access (ATA) models. Our implementation shows that pre-mashup configuration can easily be performed by an ordinary user and an integrated user interface view of end user data mashup can be created without any technical knowledge or programming. We have also evaluated the proposed work by comparing it with some of the related works and found that the proposed work has developed user friendly configurable approach using the current state of the art techniques to involve not only the ordinary user but also the mashup service provider and the data service provider to develop public, private and hybrid data mashup.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-10-04
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10100098
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 99: The Optimization of Marine Diesel
           Engine Rotational Speed Control Process by Fuzzy Logic Control Based on
           Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    • Authors: Tien Tran
      First page: 99
      Abstract: The marine main diesel engine rotational speed automatic control plays a significant role in determining the optimal main diesel engine speed under impacting on navigation environment conditions. In this article, the application of fuzzy logic control theory for main diesel engine speed control has been associated with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). Firstly, the controller is designed according to fuzzy logic control theory. Secondly, the fuzzy logic controller will be optimized by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) in order to obtain the optimal adjustment of the membership functions only. Finally, the fuzzy logic controller has been completely innovated by Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. The study results will be represented under digital simulation form, as well as comparison between traditional fuzzy logic controller with fuzzy logic control–particle swarm optimization speed controller being obtained.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-10-04
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10100099
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 100: Agile Service Engineering in the
           Industrial Internet of Things

    • Authors: Thomas Usländer, Thomas Batz
      First page: 100
      Abstract: The emerging Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) will not only leverage new and potentially disruptive business models but will also change the way software applications will be analyzed and designed. Agility is a need in a systematic service engineering as well as a co-design of requirements and architectural artefacts. Functional and non-functional requirements of IT users (in smart manufacturing mostly from the disciplines of mechanical engineering and electrical engineering) need to be mapped to the capabilities and interaction patterns of emerging IIoT service platforms, not to forget the corresponding information models. The capabilities of such platforms are usually described, structured, and formalized by software architects and software engineers. However, their technical descriptions are far away from the thinking and the thematic terms of end-users. This complicates the transition from requirements analysis to system design, and hence the re-use of existing and the design of future platform capabilities. Current software engineering methodologies do not systematically cover these interlinked and two-sided aspects. The article describes in a comprehensive manner how to close this gap with the help of a service-oriented analysis and design methodology entitled SERVUS (also mentioned in ISO 19119 Annex D) and a corresponding Web-based Platform Engineering Information System (PEIS).
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10100100
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 101: Reframing HRI Design Opportunities
           for Social Robots: Lessons Learnt from a Service Robotics Case Study
           Approach Using UX for HRI

    • Authors: Sara Khan, Claudio Germak
      First page: 101
      Abstract: Over the last few decades, semi-autonomous machine’s technology started to promote awareness towards the importance of human–robot interaction (HRI) for improving daily activities. More affordable social robots are being commercially released and in order to implement viable applications of HRI, a combination human-computer interaction and user experience methodologies could play a pivotal role in assessing new scenarios and evaluating new investigations. However, literature shows that it is still challenging to reach an optimal user experience with robotic companions. The aim of the study was to determine the chance to enhance the user experience with a semi-autonomous social robot, using user experience and human–computer interaction methodologies. In this study, a social robotic companion has been developed and prototyped in order to be adopted in a specific public environment such as a company workspace. The challenges emerged from this peculiar environment triggered the need for a more productive and comfortable office for the employees, and, at the same time, the usability, acceptance and likeability of the robotic companion have been evaluated. The results emphasize that, since HRI is highly interdisciplinary, the benefits of combining approaches from other fields could positively benefit from a meaningful social interaction with the users.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10100101
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 102: An Environmentally Aware Scheme of
           Wireless Sensor Networks for Forest Fire Monitoring and Detection

    • Authors: Yi-Han Xu, Qiu-Ya Sun, Yu-Tong Xiao
      First page: 102
      Abstract: Forest fires are a fatal threat to environmental degradation. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are regarded as a promising candidate for forest fire monitoring and detection since they enable real-time monitoring and early detection of fire threats in an efficient way. However, compared to conventional surveillance systems, WSNs operate under a set of unique resource constraints, including limitations with respect to transmission range, energy supply and computational capability. Considering that long transmission distance is inevitable in harsh geographical features such as woodland and shrubland, energy-efficient designs of WSNs are crucial for effective forest fire monitoring and detection systems. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that harnesses the benefits of WSNs for forest fire monitoring and detection. The framework employs random deployment, clustered hierarchy network architecture and environmentally aware protocols. The goal is to accurately detect a fire threat as early as possible while maintaining a reasonable energy consumption level. ns-2-based simulation validates that the proposed framework outperforms the conventional schemes in terms of detection delay and energy consumption.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10100102
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 10: Recent Advances on Cellular D2D

    • Authors: Boon-Chong Seet, Syed Hasan, Peter Chong
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Device-to-device (D2D) communications have attracted a great deal of attention fromresearchers in recent years.[...]
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10010010
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
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