Journal Cover Biodiversity and Conservation
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0960-3115 - ISSN (Online) 1572-9710
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • A review of ecological gradient research in the Tropics: identifying
           research gaps, future directions, and conservation priorities
    • Authors: Jannes Muenchow; Petra Dieker; Jürgen Kluge; Michael Kessler; Henrik von Wehrden
      Pages: 273 - 285
      Abstract: The Tropics are global centers of biodiversity. Ecological and land use gradients play a major role in the origin and maintenance of this diversity, yet a comprehensive synthesis of the corresponding large body of literature is still missing. We searched all ISI-listed journals for tropical gradient studies. From the resulting 1023 studies, we extracted study-specific information, and analyzed it using descriptive analytical tools and GLMs. Our results reveal that dry tropical areas are vastly understudied compared to their humid counterparts. The same holds true for large parts of Africa, but also the Philippines and the South Asian region. However, we also found that (applied) research output of developing tropical countries is nowadays on par with the output of developed countries. Vegetation and elevation were the most studied response variable and gradient, respectively. By contrast, inconspicous organisms such as oribatid mites and edaphic gradients were largely missing in the literature. Regarding biodiversity, tropical gradient studies dealt extensively with species richness and ecosystem diversity, but much less with genetic diversity. We encourage a wider use of modern statistical learning tools such as non-linear (spatio-temporal) regression and classification techniques, and simulations. Finally, we would embrace an even further development of synergies between applied and basic research and between researchers based in developed and in tropical countries.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-017-1465-y
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
  • Key environmental determinants of global and regional richness and
           endemism patterns for a wild bee subfamily
    • Authors: Nadia Bystriakova; Terry Griswold; John S. Ascher; Michael Kuhlmann
      Pages: 287 - 309
      Abstract: Reports of world-wide decline of pollinators, and of bees in particular, raise increasing concerns about maintenance of pollination interactions. While local factors of bee decline are relatively well known and potential mitigation strategies at the landscape scale have been outlined, the regional and continental-scale threats to bee diversity have only been marginally explored. Here we document large-scale spatial patterns for a representative bee subfamily, the determinants of its species richness, and assess major threats to these pollinators. Using a comprehensive global dataset of Colletinae (genera Colletes, also called “polyester” or “cellophane” bees for their underground nests lined with a polyester secretion, and Mourecotelles), a species-rich subfamily whose organismal and physiological ecology is representative of many bees, we measured species richness and endemism on global to continental scales. We explored the relationships between bee species richness and potential environmental stress factors grouped into three categories: contemporary climate, habitat heterogeneity, and anthropogenic pressure. Bees of the subfamily Colletinae demonstrate the reversed latitudinal gradient in species richness and endemism suggested for bees; the highest species richness of Colletinae was found between 30° and 50° latitude in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Centres of endemism largely overlapped with those of species richness. The importance of the Greater Cape Floristic Region, previously identified as a centre of richness and endemism of bees, was confirmed for Colletinae. On the global scale, present-day climate was a significant predictor of species richness as was flowering plant diversity represented by vascular plant species richness and centres of plant diversity. Our main conclusion is that climate change constitutes a potential threat to bee diversity, as does declining diversity of vascular plants. However, a significant overlap between centres of bee richness and plant diversity might increase chances for developing conservation strategies.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-017-1432-7
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
  • Effects of habitat simplification on assemblages of cavity nesting bees
           and wasps in a semiarid neotropical conservation area
    • Authors: Lilian M. A. Flores; Lorenzo R. S. Zanette; Francisca S. Araujo
      Pages: 311 - 328
      Abstract: Habitat complexity is directly correlated to insect diversity in most natural environments. Structural complexity reflects an increase in vertical stratification and plant diversity and often leads to a greater availability of floral resources and nesting sites. Efficient conservation strategies require understanding of how changes in habitat structure affect insects that provide essential ecosystem services. We analyzed how the diversity and species composition of bees and wasps that nest in pre-existing cavities is affected by habitat complexity. Our study was developed in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil, in the Ubajara National Park and surrounding area. Four types of habitats within two physiognomies were sampled for two consecutive years. We used 120 trap-nest (9000 cavities) distributed in 40 sample points. Overall, 657 cavities were occupied by 11 species of bees, nine of wasps, and six of cleptoparasitic/parasitoids. Bees and wasp diversity increases with habitat complexity. While species richness was higher in more complex physiognomies, abundance was higher in disturbed areas. Species composition also varied with habitat structure. Habitat simplification has adverse effects on the diversity and composition of assemblages. These effects are stronger in more complex habitats indicating that conservation of humid habitats within semiarid areas is essential to maintain bee and wasp regional diversity.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-017-1436-3
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
  • Plant community composition and structural characteristics of an invaded
           forest in the Galápagos
    • Authors: Gonzalo Rivas-Torres; S. Luke Flory; Bette Loiselle
      Pages: 329 - 344
      Abstract: Non-native species have invaded habitats worldwide, greatly impacting the structure and function of native communities and ecosystems. To better understand mechanisms of invasion impacts and how to restore highly impacted and transformed ecosystems, studies are needed that evaluate invader effects on both biotic communities and structural characteristics. On Santa Cruz Island in Galápagos we compared biotic (plant species richness, diversity, and community composition) and structural (canopy openness, forest height, and leaf litter) characteristics of a relic forest dominated by an endemic and highly threatened tree and a forest dominated by an invasive tree. The forests are located within the historical distribution of the endemic tree, which now occupies only 1% of its original extent. We found that the invaded forest had 42% lower native plant species richness and 17% less plant diversity than the endemic tree dominated forest. Additionally, with the invader there was 36% greater non-native plant species richness, 37% higher non-native plant diversity, and highly dissimilar plant composition when compared to the endemic-dominated forest. Additionally, the invaded forest had a more open and taller tree canopy and greater leaf litter cover than native forest. The presence of the invasive tree and the associated forest structural changes were the primary factors in models that best explained higher non-native diversity in the invaded forest. Our correlational results suggest that an invasive tree has significantly altered plant assemblage and forest structural characteristics in this unique ecosystem. Experiments that remove the invader and evaluate native plant community responses are needed to identify thresholds for practical restoration of this threatened and biologically unique native forest.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-017-1437-2
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
  • The culture of bird conservation: Australian stakeholder values regarding
           iconic, flagship and rare birds
    • Authors: Gillian B. Ainsworth; James A. Fitzsimons; Michael A. Weston; Stephen T. Garnett
      Pages: 345 - 363
      Abstract: Iconic, flagship and rare threatened bird taxa attract disproportionate amounts of public attention, and are often used to enable broader conservation strategies. Yet, little is known about why certain taxa achieve iconic or flagship status. Also unclear is whether the perception of rarity among those acting to conserve threatened birds is sufficient to influence attitudes and behaviour that lead to effective conservation action and, if so, which characteristics of rare birds are important to their conservation. We interviewed 74 threatened bird conservation stakeholders to explore perceptions about iconic, flagship and rare threatened birds and classified their attitudes using a new typology of avifaunal attitudes. There was a relationship between societal interest and conservation effort for threatened species characterised as iconic, flagship and rare. Iconic species tended to arouse interest or emotion in people due to being appealing and readily encountered, thereby attracting conservation interest that can benefit other biodiversity. Flagships tended to have distinguishing physical or cultural characteristics and were used to convey conservation messages about associated biodiversity. Attitudes about rarity mostly related to a taxon’s threatened status and small population size. Rarity was important for threatened bird conservation but not always associated with attitudes and behaviour that lead to effective conservation action. We conclude that conservation action for individual threatened bird taxa is biased and directly influenced by the ways taxa are socially constructed by stakeholders, which is specific to prevailing culture and stakeholder knowledge.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-017-1438-1
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
  • Armed conflict and development in South Sudan threatens some of Africa’s
           longest and largest ungulate migrations
    • Authors: Malik D. Morjan; Nathaniel D. Rayl; Paul W. Elkan; James C. Deutsch; M. Blake Henke; Todd K. Fuller
      Pages: 365 - 380
      Abstract: Many terrestrial mammalian migrations are disappearing before they are documented. The Boma-Jonglei ecosystem in South Sudan, one of the world’s poorest and most conflicted countries, contains some of the largest, longest, and least studied ungulate migrations. A rapidly increasing human population, ongoing armed conflict, and looming oil development, however, threatens the migration of 800,000 white-eared kob (Kobus kob leucotis) and 160,000 tiang (Damaliscus lunatus tiang) in this system. To document these migrations and identify potential conflicts, we examined the movements of ungulates in the Boma-Jonglei ecosystem using data from 14 collared individuals (12 kob, 2 tiang). We identified two separate dry season ranges of kob; from each, kob initiated migration with the onset of the rainy season, and migrated to a shared rainy season range also shared by the tiang. The maximum straight-line distance between telemetry locations of kob (399 km) and tiang (298 km) on their dry and rainy season ranges indicated these migrations were among the longest in Africa. The kob range was 68,805 km2, 29% of which was within national parks and 72% within leased oil concessions (54–83% of parks overlap with potential oil concessions). The range of the tiang (35,992 km2) occurred almost entirely (> 99%) within land leased to oil companies. Because disruption or elimination of these migrations will inevitably lead to significant population reductions, maintenance of the migration routes we identified through additional protection measures are essential to conserve one of the largest ungulate aggregations in the world.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-017-1440-7
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
  • Pattern of evolutionarily distinct species among four classes of animals
           and their conservation status: a comparison using evolutionary
           distinctiveness scores
    • Authors: Federico Morelli; Anders Pape Møller
      Pages: 381 - 394
      Abstract: The percentage of species with high evolutionary distinctiveness (ED) scores in four different classes was related to conservation concern. We considered the number of species belonging to the upper level of the distribution of ED scores, and the overall distribution of ED scores in each category of concern assigned by IUCN. Generalized linear and mixed models were used to explore the relationship between variables, separately for each animal class. Overall values of ED score were higher for Squamates, Rhynchocephalia and amphibians than mammals and birds. However, the frequency distribution of ED scores was similar among classes, with a leptokurtotic distribution. Amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals showed a markedly right skewed distribution, with a similar proportion of species in each equal category of the distribution. In all classes, the number of species with the highest ED score (positioned in the upper 20% of the frequency distribution of the variable) was very small ranging between 0.01 and 0.05%. ED score was slightly but negatively correlated with IUCN conservation status in amphibians, but unrelated in the other three classes. The bird population trend was unrelated to ED score of bird species in both USA and Europe. Also, the population’s trend for selected mammal species was unrelated to the ED score of those species. Our results provide more evidence that distribution shape of ED of animal forms is uniform among classes, with only very few species characterized by highest ED scores in each group. Surprisingly, ED score and IUCN conservation status were unrelated in the four classes examined. Finally, our study underlines that declining animals are not necessarily the most evolutionarily distinct species.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-017-1441-6
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
  • Bellwether of the Canaries: anthropogenic effects on the land snail fauna
           of the Canary Islands
    • Authors: Alexander F. Wall; Yurena Yanes; Joshua H. Miller; Arnold I. Miller
      Pages: 395 - 415
      Abstract: Natural areas near human-modified landscapes experience factors that may affect local biodiversity at levels commensurate with natural environmental factors. The land snails of the Canary Islands provide excellent opportunities to evaluate the importance of anthropogenic agents in mediating the diversity and distribution of species. Land snails are particularly sensitive to disturbance and are an integral part of terrestrial ecosystems. This study analyzed the distributions and abundances of terrestrial macrosnail shell assemblages at 60 localities throughout the coastal scrub biome of the Canary Islands. This was accomplished using data on natural and anthropogenic variables to assess their relative importance in governing land snail diversity. A total of 34,801 dead shells represented a diverse malacofauna with highly localized endemism. Due to uncertain species identifications, samples from the 18 sites from the two easternmost islands are described, but excluded from statistical analyses. Regression tree analysis indicated that proximity to agricultural sites was the most important predictor of species diversity. Sites with no or very little agricultural area (≤ 0.167 km2) within a 1 km radius had significantly higher richness and diversity. These results have implications for Canary Islands conservation. Protected areas that are patchworks of natural and agricultural landscapes are still subject to native biodiversity loss because of anthropogenic impacts even when the footprint of agriculture is small.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-017-1443-4
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
  • Abandoned Foreigners: is the stage set for exotic pet reptiles to invade
           Central Europe'
    • Authors: Katharina J. Filz; Aline Bohr; Stefan Lötters
      Pages: 417 - 435
      Abstract: Considerable scientific, politic and economic attention has been directed to biological invasions. Multiple pathways serve to introduce species to new environments and the release or escape of pets are among the most important sources for species invasions. Risk assessments help to identify species that are likely to become invasive and to set up preventive measures. Weighing the relative importance of ecological and human factors driving the establishment success of abandoned pets, we here present a new methodological guideline to help prioritising management activities for frequently traded pet reptiles. Climate match scores between the different distribution ranges as well as traits and niche axes shared by native and non-native species were assessed. Moreover, we tested for discrepancies in niche breadth between native and non-native ranges and estimated the ability of species to coexist with humans. Potentially moderate to high establishment success in most species was linked to appropriate climate match scores, broader niches with restrained human impacts and high similarities in reproductive traits with the native herpetofauna. Providing baseline information on the invasion potential of pet reptiles, this assessment calls for trade regulations and, to an even greater degree, for large scale education campaigns to prevent the establishment of non-native populations.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-017-1444-3
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
  • Settlement pattern of tortoises translocated into the wild: a key to
           evaluate population reinforcement success
    • Authors: Fabien Pille; Sébastien Caron; Xavier Bonnet; Simon Deleuze; Delphine Busson; Thomas Etien; Florent Girard; Jean-Marie Ballouard
      Pages: 437 - 457
      Abstract: A lack of long-term monitoring often impedes the evaluation of translocation used to reinforce populations. Crucial questions regarding the exact timing and place of possible settlement remain unanswered. To examine these issues we radio-tracked during three years 24 tortoises (Testudo hermanni hermanni) released to reinforce a resident population impacted by fire. Individuals from the resident population (N = 20) and from a distant control population (N = 11) were also radio-tracked. More than 11,000 fixes were collected, enabling us to precisely describe movement patterns. Most translocated tortoises first dispersed (> 500 m to > 3000 m away) in a random direction and sometimes crossed unfavorable areas. Later, a marked shift in movement pattern, from a relatively unidirectional course to multidirectional displacements indicated settlement. Movement patterns of translocated and resident individuals became undistinguishable after settlement. Most individuals settled during the first year after release but several settled in the second year. Mean annual survival rate (> 85%) remained within the range of the species but was lower compared to the resident (93%) and control tortoises (100%). Overall, most translocated individuals (~ 63%) settled and adapted well to their novel environment. This result is essential regarding current controversies that are unfounded and that limit conservation translocations. Yet, translocation sites should be large enough and/or surrounded by secondary favorable areas to limit the mortality associated with dispersal in hazardous environments. Large numbers of individuals rescued during urbanization works may easily supply conservation translocations to reinforce fragile populations.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-017-1445-2
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
  • Interdecadal trends in composition, density, size, and mean trophic level
           of fish species and guilds before and after coastal development in the
           Mexican Caribbean
    • Authors: Juan J. Schmitter-Soto; Alfonso Aguilar-Perera; Alicia Cruz-Martínez; Roberto L. Herrera-Pavón; Aura A. Morales-Aranda; Dorka Cobián-Rojas
      Pages: 459 - 474
      Abstract: This study explores the possible influence of human coastal development (before and after) and protected area status (within and outside a marine protected area, MPA) on composition, density, and maximum size of fish species and guilds, including mean trophic level of the fish community, in four localities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexican Caribbean. Reef fish density, maximum length, species composition, and trophic guilds were recorded by SCUBA belt transects and stationary points in fore reef and lagoon reef areas at decadal intervals (1995–1998, 2006–2010, 2014–2015). Mean density of most species and guilds decreased significantly through the years, as also did mean trophic level of the fish community. Some fish species increased in length. Fish density for many species was larger outside than inside the MPA in 1995–1998; however, the difference tended to disappear in the more recent decades, which reflects either a positive effect of the MPA, or a detrimental effect of coastal development in the non-protected area. Nevertheless, the overall negative trends suggest a regional or global rather than a local cause.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-017-1446-1
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
  • The conservation status of Texas groundwater invertebrates
    • Authors: Benjamin T. Hutchins
      Pages: 475 - 501
      Abstract: Biodiversity conservation requires an objective and consistent method for evaluating the conservation status of species. Conservation status assessments can identify conservation priorities and can highlight data gaps, effective conservation strategies, and groups of taxa that are underrepresented in conservation efforts relative to charismatic flagship and umbrella species. Groundwater invertebrates have a suite of traits that make them inherently vulnerable. But they go largely unnoticed by the general public and conservation practitioners, and comprehensive conservation status assessments are lacking for most species. In this article, the conservation status of all sixty-nine described groundwater-obligate invertebrates recorded from Texas, U.S.A. was assessed using NatureServe methodology. Some of the smallest taxa (e.g. copepods, ostracods, and mites) are too poorly known to evaluate their conservation status. Species restricted to springs were generally more at risk than species in other groundwater habitats, and beetles and snails were the most imperiled taxonomic groups. Most species faced low or medium severity threats, and only seven percent faced high or very high magnitude threats. Threat level varied among aquifers and among sites within aquifers and was primarily dependent on human population density and the adequacy of regulatory mechanisms protecting groundwater quality and quantity. Regardless of threat severity, fifty-five percent of evaluated species were ranked as imperiled or critically imperiled, largely due to extreme small-range endemism. Relative to other regions, Texas’ groundwater fauna is not unique in terms of rarity and threat, suggesting that as an ecological group, groundwater-obligate species are probably among the world’s most imperiled taxa.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-017-1447-0
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
  • Camera trapping mammals in the scrubland’s of the Cape Floristic
           Kingdom—the importance of effort, spacing and trap placement
    • Authors: R. B. Colyn; F. G. T. Radloff; M. J. O’Riain
      Pages: 503 - 520
      Abstract: As a non-invasive monitoring method camera traps are noted as being an effective, accurate and rapid means of compiling species richness estimates of medium to large terrestrial mammals. However, crucial elements of camera trap survey design are rarely empirically addressed, which has raised the need for both a standardised and optimised camera trapping protocol. Our study confirms that an appropriate camera placement buffer and targeting areas of animal activity, contributes to more complete species richness estimates as well as significantly reducing the rate of false trigger events. However, attaining the required survey effort in terms of camera days was the most important factor in providing accurate species richness estimates. Our results suggest that reliable estimates of species richness can be achieved in open scrubland when cameras are spaced 1 × 1 km apart and left in the targeted area until a survey effort of a 1000 camera days is realised.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-017-1448-z
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
  • The contemporary conservation reserve visitor phenomenon!
    • Authors: David Newsome; Michael Hughes
      Pages: 521 - 529
      Abstract: Visitors place a complex array of demands on conservation reserves, including provisions for recreation. Rising recreation demand includes a new suite of activities ranging from adventure racing, music events, and motorised activities to extreme sports. Policy implications raise questions anew: what is the fundamental purpose of conservation reserves—nature conservation or recreation or both, and where should the emphasis lie' There is a risk that the current and future emphasis appears to be on increased commercialisation, marketing of conservation reserves as music and/or sporting event venues, places where personal physical challenges can be undertaken alongside a mentality that celebrates human achievement rather than the appreciation of nature! Such a trend may de-emphasise visitor perceptions of conservation reserves as tools for nature conservation. The reported trend in recreational activity requires debate, policy direction and target areas need protected area management effectiveness evaluation to assess conservation implications.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-017-1435-4
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
  • Online trade of Barbary macaques Macaca sylvanus in Algeria and Morocco
    • Authors: Daniel Bergin; Sadek Atoussi; Siân Waters
      Pages: 531 - 534
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-017-1434-5
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
  • Correction to: The conservation value of tree decay processes as a key
           driver structuring tree cavity nest webs in South American temperate
    • Authors: Tomás A. Altamirano; José Tomás Ibarra; Kathy Martin; Cristian Bonacic
      Pages: 535 - 537
      Abstract: In the original publication of the article, Table 3 was incorrectly published. The corrected Table 3 is given below.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-017-1457-y
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
  • Why conserving species in the wild still matters
    • Authors: David L. Stokes
      Abstract: Wildlife conservation efforts have traditionally prioritized protection of species in the wild over protection in zoos and other captive states. This emphasis mirrors a long-held and more general Western view of the wild and wilderness as antidote to the ills of civilization. However, recent philosophical treatments have posited that with the rise of human dominance in the world we have reached the end of nature as distinct from human culture, true wilderness no longer exists, and nature and wilderness are merely social constructs. With the putative disappearance of wild nature, its status as an organizing principle in conservation is called into question. While debate over the objective existence of wild nature continues, this commentary argues that regardless of one’s opinion on the philosophical issue, there are important practical reasons to continue to prioritize conservation of species in the wild. These are: the reality that this is the only practical hope for the vast majority of endangered species, the value of relatively wild habitats in accommodating species’ evolved requirements, the value to both ecosystems and humans of species remaining functional components of ecosystems, and the role of the wild in inspiring conservation action by humans. Ironically, as the world becomes ever less wild, conservation of species in the wild becomes more important.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-018-1509-y
  • How much abandoned farmland is required to harbor comparable species
           richness and abundance of bird communities in wetland' Hierarchical
           community model suggests the importance of habitat structure and landscape
    • Authors: Masashi Hanioka; Yuichi Yamaura; Satoshi Yamanaka; Masayuki Senzaki; Kazuhiro Kawamura; Akira Terui; Futoshi Nakamura
      Abstract: While wetlands have been converted into farmlands, large amounts of farmlands are now being abandoned, and this novel habitat is expected to be inhabited by species which depend on wetlands. Here we examined the effects of habitat and landscape variables on the densities of wetland bird species in abandoned farmlands. We surveyed birds in abandoned farmlands with different patch area, habitat, and landscape variables in Kushiro district, eastern Hokkaido, northern Japan. We also surveyed birds in 15 ha of the remaining wetlands as a reference habitat. We used abundance-based hierarchical community models (HCMs) to estimate patch-level estimates of abundance of each species based on sampling plots data that only partially covered the studied patches. We observed 14 wetland species and analyzed them with HCMs. Abandoned farmland patch areas had significant positive effects on the densities of two species. Tree densities and shrub coverage exerted positive and negative effects on some species. Amounts of surrounding wetland/grassland had positive effects on many species. Ensemble of species-level models suggested that 24.7 and 10.6 ha of abandoned farmlands would be needed to harbor a comparable total abundance and species richness in 15-ha wetlands, respectively. These required amounts can be increased/decreased depending on the covariates. The use of HCMs allows us to predict species- and community-level responses under varied conditions based on incomplete sampling data. A quantity of 1.6 times larger areas of abandoned farmlands may be required to restore wetland bird communities in eastern Hokkaido.
      PubDate: 2018-02-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-018-1510-5
  • How to meet the 2020 GSPC target 8 in Europe: priority-setting for seed
           banking of native threatened plants
    • Authors: S. Rivière; E. Breman; M. Kiehn; A. Carta; J. V. Müller
      Abstract: The contribution of the European Native Seed Conservation Network (ENSCONET, 2004-2009) and the ENSCONET Consortium (since 2010) towards meeting the 2020 Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) target 8 was assessed in 2017. While the outcome was positive (62.7% of European threatened species already conserved ex situ in seed banks), the analysis showed that it was essential to provide guidance on which European native threatened species should be collected as a priority if the target was to be reached by 2020. In this paper we present a priority-setting method and its result, designed to guide collecting strategies across Europe to meet the 2020 GSPC target 8. The result of our study is a country-based checklist of European threatened taxa to be collected and stored ex situ across the seed banks of the ENSCONET Consortium by 2020. After discussing the results of the applied method, the ENSCONET Consortium Steering Committee has identified some key action points to support the implementation of such a collecting strategy across Europe in order to meet the 2020 GSPC target 8 for Europe.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-018-1513-2
  • Richness, species composition and functional groups in Agaricomycetes
           communities along a vegetation and elevational gradient in the Andean
           Yungas of Argentina
    • Authors: Nouhra Eduardo; Soteras Florencia; Pastor Nicolás; Geml József
      Abstract: The Neotropics are among the least explored regions from a mycological perspective. A few recent molecular studies in South America have shown high fungal diversity as well as numerous groups of mostly undescribed taxa. Through soil metabarcoding analysis we compared richness and species composition among macrofungal communities, belonging to Agaricales, Russulales, Boletales and Phallomycetidae groups, in three elevational forests types in the subtropical Yungas of Northwestern Argentina (Piedmont forest; Montane forest, Montane cloud forest). The aims of this study were to assess richness of taxonomic and functional groups along the elevation gradient and to assess the relationships between environmental variables and species composition in the studied fungal communities. The results have shown rich Agaricomycetes communities, diversely structured among forests habitats. The elevation gradient differentially affected the richness and distribution of Agaricales, Russulales, Boletales and Phallomycetidae. Based on fungal trophic modes and guilds, the gradient also affected the ectomycorrhizal taxa distribution. When considering the basidiomata growth forms (agaricoid, boletoid, gasteroid, etc.), only the secotioid type showed significant elevational differences. Additional analyses indicated that saprotrophic nutritional mode was dominant along the entire gradient, being partially replaced by biotrophic modes at higher elevations. Fungal communities in the Montane cloud forests are most dissimilar when compared with communities at the Piedmont forest and Montane forest, which is consistent with the different biogeographic origins of these forests. DNA metabarcoding sequence analysis provided detailed information on the diversity and taxonomic and functional composition of macrofungal communities.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-018-1512-3
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