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Journal of Public Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.719
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 204  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1741-3842 - ISSN (Online) 1741-3850
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [409 journals]
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Webster P; Neal K.
      Pages: 429 - 429
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdz109
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2019)
  • Childhood locus of control and self-esteem, education, psychological
           distress and physical exercise as predictors of adult obesity
    • Authors: Cheng H; Furnham A.
      Pages: 439 - 446
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo investigate to what extent locus of control, self-esteem, psychological distress, physical exercise, as well as socio-demographic factors are associated with obesity in 42-year-old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study.MethodThe sample consisted of 5645 participants born in Great Britain in 1970 and followed up at 10, 34 and 42 years with data on body mass index measured at 34 and 42 years.ResultsThere was an increase of adult obesity from 15.5% at age 34 to 21.2% at 42 years. Locus of control and self-esteem measured at age 10 years, psychological distress and educational qualifications assessed at age 34, and current occupational levels and physical exercise were all significantly associated with adult obesity at age 42. The associations remained significant after controlling for birth weight and gestation, maternal and paternal BMI, childhood BMI, and intelligence.ConclusionChildhood locus of control and self-esteem, educational qualifications, psychological distress and physical exercise were all significantly and independently associated with adult obesity.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy125
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2019)
  • Back pain, mental health and substance use are associated in adolescents
    • Authors: Kamper S; Michaleff Z, Campbell P, et al.
      Pages: 487 - 493
      Abstract: BackgroundDuring adolescence, prevalence of pain and health risk factors such as smoking, alcohol use and poor mental health all rise sharply. The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between back pain and health risk factors in adolescents.MethodsCross-sectional data from the Healthy Schools Healthy Futures study, and the Australian Child Wellbeing Project was used, mean age: 14–15 years. Children were stratified according to back pain frequency. Within each strata, the proportion of children that reported drinking alcohol or smoking or that experienced feelings of anxiety or depression was reported. Test-for-trend analyses assessed whether increasing frequency of pain was associated with health risk factors.ResultsData was collected from ~2500 and 3900 children. Larger proportions of children smoked or drank alcohol within each strata of increasing pain frequency. The trend with anxiety and depression was less clear, although there was a marked difference between the children that reported no pain, and pain more frequently.ConclusionTwo large, independent samples show adolescents that experience back pain more frequently are also more likely to smoke, drink alcohol and report feelings of anxiety and depression. Pain appears to be part of the picture of general health risk in adolescents.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy129
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2019)
  • Clustering of behavioural risk factors for health in UK adults in 2016: a
           cross-sectional survey
    • Authors: Birch J; Petty R, Hooper L, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundFoods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) are known to contribute to overweight and obesity. In addition to overweight and obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity are known risk factors for non-communicable diseases, including several cancers and cardiovascular disease.MethodsSecondary analysis of UK-representative cross-sectional survey data of 3293 adults aged 18+. Regression analyses were undertaken to understand the relationship between consumption of HFSS food and soft drinks, alcohol and tobacco and socio-demographics. Clustering analysis identified groupings of health risk factors.ResultsMales, those aged 18–24 and those from the more deprived groups consumed ready meals and fast food most frequently. Most of the sample (77.3%) engaged in at least one health risk behaviour. Six clusters were identified in the clustering analysis. Older (65+) female respondents were more likely to be inactive. Smokers exhibiting additional risk behaviours were more likely to be of working age from more deprived groups, and men over 65 were more likely to consume harmful levels of alcohol with additional risk factors.ConclusionPolicies and services in the UK tend to focus on changing behaviour to address individual risk factors. This study shows that policies and interventions need to address multiple risk factors.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy144
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2018)
  • Sex and ethnicity modify the associations between individual and
           contextual socioeconomic indicators and ideal cardiovascular health: MESA
    • Authors: De Moraes A; Carvalho H, McClelland R, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundLow socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but its association with different markers of SES may be heterogeneous by sex and race/ethnicity.MethodsWe have examined the relationships of four SES markers (education, family income, occupation and neighborhood SES) to ideal cardiovascular health (ICH), an index formed by seven variables. A total of 6792 cohort participants from six regions in the USA: Baltimore City and Baltimore County, MD; Chicago, IL; Forsyth County, NC; Los Angeles County, CA; New York, NY; and St. Paul, MN of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) (52.8% women) were recruited at baseline (2000–2) and included in the present analysis.ResultsICH was classified as poor, intermediate or ideal. Level of education was significantly and inversely associated with ICH in non-Hispanic White men and women, in Chinese-American and Hispanic American men and African-American women. Family income was inversely and significantly associated with poor ICH in African-American men only.ConclusionsWe conclude that the strength of the associations between some SES markers and ICH differ between sexes and race/ethnic groups.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy145
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2018)
  • The prevention of female genital mutilation in England: what can be
    • Authors: Plugge E; Adam S, El Hindi L, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundFemale genital mutilation (FGM) is a global public health issue. Women in the UK are at risk of FGM and its adverse health consequences but little is known about its practice. Since 1985 it has been a criminal offence to perform FGM in the UK and further legislation has tightened the law but FGM continues.MethodsFour community researchers from the Kenyan, Nigerian, Somalian and Sudanese communities in Oxford conducted focus groups and interviews with 53 people to understand the communities’ beliefs about how best to prevent FGM.ResultsParticipants believed that the current UK legislation alone was not sufficient to tackle FGM and might in fact be counterproductive by alienating communities through its perceived imposition. They felt that there had been insufficient consultation with affected communities, awareness raising and education about the legislation. Community-led solutions were the most effective way to tackle FGM.ConclusionsFGM adversely affects communities globally. In the UK, researchers from affected communities gathered data demonstrating the feasibility and importance of involving communities in FGM prevention work. Further research is needed to understand how best to prevent FGM in affected communities and, very importantly, to examine the impact of the UK legislation relating to FGM.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy128
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2018)
  • Associations between family and home-related factors and child’s snack
           consumption in a multi-ethnic population
    • Authors: van Grieken A; Wang L, van de Gaar V, et al.
      Pages: 430 - 438
      Abstract: BackgroundEnergy-dense snacks are considered unhealthy due to their high concentrations of fat and sugar and low concentrations of micronutrients. The present study aimed to evaluate associations between family and home-related factors and children’s snack consumption. We explored associations within subgroups based on ethnic background of the child.MethodsCross-sectional data of 644 primary school children (mean age: 9.4 years, 53% girls) from the population-based ‘Water Campaign’ study conducted in the Netherlands were used. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between family and home-related factors and child’s snack intake.ResultsOf the children, 28.7% consumed more than one snack per day. Children of parents who expressed more restrictive parenting practices towards the child’s snack consumption (odds ratio (OR) = 2.5, P < 0.001), and who modelled snack eating less often (OR = 2.2, P < 0.001) had lower snack intake. Restrictive parenting practices and parental modelling of healthy snacking were significant for children with a Dutch or Moroccan/Turkish ethnic background, but not for children with a Surinamese/Antillean ethnic background.ConclusionsWe observed that parenting practices and parental modelling were independently associated with the child’s snack intake. Also, the relationships between these factors and the child’s snack consumption differed for children with distinct ethnic backgrounds.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy124
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2018)
  • Nicotine dependence among adolescents in the European Union: How many and
           who are affected'
    • Authors: Coban F; Kunst A, Van Stralen M, et al.
      Pages: 447 - 455
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundNicotine dependence during adolescence increases the risk of continuing smoking into adulthood. The magnitude of nicotine dependence among adolescents in the European Union (EU) has not been established. We aimed to estimate the number of nicotine dependent 15-year-old adolescents in the EU, and identify high-risk groups.MethodsThe number of nicotine dependent 15-year-olds in the EU was derived combining: (i) total number of 15-year-olds in the EU (2013 Eurostat), (ii) smoking prevalence among 15-year-olds (2013/2014 HBSC survey) and (iii) proportion of nicotine dependent 15-year-olds in six EU countries (2013 SILNE survey). Logistic regression analyses identified high-risk groups in the SILNE dataset.ResultsWe estimated 172 636 15-year-olds were moderately to highly nicotine dependent (3.2% of all 15 years old; 35.3% of daily smokers). In the total population, risk of nicotine dependence was higher in males, adolescents with poor academic achievement, and those with smoking parents or friends. Among daily smokers, only lower academic achievement and younger age of smoking onset were associated with nicotine dependence.ConclusionAccording to our conservative estimates, more than 172 000 15-year-old EU adolescents were nicotine dependent in 2013. Prevention of smoking initiation, especially among adolescents with poor academic performance, is necessary to prevent a similar number of adolescents getting addicted to nicotine each consecutive year.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy136
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2018)
  • The effect of childhood deprivation on weight status and mental health in
           childhood and adolescence: longitudinal findings from the Millennium
           Cohort Study
    • Authors: Noonan R.
      Pages: 456 - 461
      Abstract: BackgroundThe study aims were to: (i) examine associations between deprivation at age 7 and health outcomes at age 7 and 14, (ii) determine whether a deprivation gradient to health outcomes exists at age 7 and 14, and (iii) assess the extent to which health outcomes at age 7 are associated with health outcomes at age 14.MethodsData were from wave four and six of the Millennium Cohort Study. Health outcome measures were weight status, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire measured mental health problems. Deprivation was determined using the 2004 English Indices of Multiple Deprivation. Adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic regressions were conducted.ResultsA total of 6109 children (1890 girls) had complete data. Overweight, obesity and mental health problems were greatest among children in the highest deprivation decile at age 7 and 14 (P < 0.001). Health outcomes at age 7 were significantly associated with health outcomes at age 14 (P < 0.001).ConclusionsA marked social gradient to weight status and mental health was evident at age 7 and 14, and no evidence of equalization was found. Weight status and mental health in childhood is strongly associated with weight status and mental health in adolescence.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy139
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2018)
  • A content analysis of alcohol content in UK television
    • Authors: Barker A; Whittamore K, Britton J, et al.
      Pages: 462 - 469
      Abstract: BackgroundExposure to audio-visual alcohol content in media is associated with subsequent alcohol use in young people, but the extent of exposure contained in UK free-to-air prime-time television has not been explored since 2010. We report an analysis of alcohol content in a sample of UK free-to-air prime-time television broadcasts in 2015 and compare this with a similar analysis from 2010.MethodsContent analysis of all programmes and advertisement/trailer breaks broadcast on the five national UK free-to-air channels in the UK between 6 and 10 pm during three separate weeks in September, October and November 2015.ResultsAlcohol content occurred in over 50% of all programmes broadcast and almost 50% of all advert/trailer periods between programmes. The majority of alcohol content occurred before the 9 pm watershed. Branding occurred in 3% of coded intervals and involved 122 brands, though three brands (Heineken, Corona and Fosters) accounted for almost half of all brand appearances.ConclusionAudio-visual alcohol content, including branding, is prevalent in UK television, and is therefore a potential driver of alcohol use in young people. These findings are virtually unchanged from our earlier analysis of programme content from 2010.
      PubDate: Sun, 14 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy142
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2018)
  • Association between early prenatal exposure to ambient air pollution and
           birth defects: evidence from newborns in Xi’an, China
    • Authors: Wang L; Xiang X, Mi B, et al.
      Pages: 494 - 501
      Abstract: BackgroundThe aim of this study was to investigate an association between birth defects and exposure to sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particles ≤10 μm in an aerodynamic diameter (PM10) during early pregnancy in Xi’an, China.MethodsBirth defect data were from the Birth Defects Monitoring System of Xi’an, and data on ambient air pollutants during 2010–15 were from the Xi’an Environmental Protection Bureau. A generalized additive model (GAM) was used to investigate the relationship between birth defects and ambient air pollutants.ResultsAmong the 8865 cases with birth defects analyzed, the overall incidence of birth defects was 117.33 per 10 000 infants. Ambient air pollutant exposure during the first trimester increased the risk of birth defects by 10.3% per 10 μg/m3 increment of NO2 and 3.4% per 10 μg/m3 increment of PM10. No significant association was found between birth defects and SO2. Moreover, NO2 increased risk of neural tube defects, congenital heart disease, congenital polydactyly, cleft palate, digestive system abnormalities and gastroschisis, and PM10 was associated with congenital heart disease and cleft lip with or without cleft palate.ConclusionsChinese women should avoid exposure to high levels of NO2 and PM10 during the first 3 months of pregnancy.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy137
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2018)
  • Responsibility, prudence and health promotion
    • Authors: Brown R; Maslen H, Savulescu J.
      Pages: 561 - 565
      Abstract: This article considers the role of responsibility in public health promotion. Efforts to tackle non-communicable diseases which focus on changing individual behaviour and reducing risk factor exposure sometimes invoke individual responsibility for adopting healthy lifestyles. We provide a critical discussion of this tendency. First, we outline some key distinctions in the philosophical literature on responsibility, and indicate how responsibility is incorporated into health promotion policies in the UK. We argue that the use of some forms of responsibility in health promotion is inappropriate. We present an alternative approach to understanding how individuals can ‘take responsibility’ for their health, based on the concept of prudence (i.e. acting in one’s interests). In this discussion, we do not prescribe or proscribe specific health promotion policies. Rather, we encourage public health professionals to consider how underlying assumptions (in this case, relating to responsibility) can shape health promotion policy, and how alternative framings (such as a shift from encouraging individual responsibility to facilitating prudence) may justify different kinds of action, for instance, shaping environments to make healthy behaviours easier, rather than using education as a tool to encourage responsible behaviour.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy113
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2018)
  • Vitamin D status in preschool children: should vitamin D supplementation,
           preventing vitamin D deficiency be continued in children over 2 years'
    • Authors: Esmaeili dooki M; Moslemi L, Moghadamnia A, et al.
      Pages: 575 - 582
      Abstract: BackgroundThe aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among preschool children in rural and urban areas of Northern Iran and need for continuing vitamin D supplementation after 2 years of age.MethodA sample of 406 children aged 30–72 months was selected from health centres. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), demographic data, anthropometric characteristics and total body surface area, were evaluated.ResultsSubnormal vitamin D levels were found in 68.94% (269) of children. In multiple logistic regression models, season (P = 0.001) and residency (P = 0.006) were significantly correlated with vitamin D deficiency. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age (β = −0.18, P < 0.001), body mass index (β = −1.1, P < 0.001) and sun exposure (β = 0.4, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with 25OHD level.ConclusionOwing to the high prevalence of subnormal vitamin D levels in preschool children, it is recommended that vitamin D deficiency prevention programs are continued in this age group.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy147
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2018)
  • An audit of healthcare provision in internally displaced population camps
           in Nigeria
    • Authors: Ekezie W; Timmons S, Myles P, et al.
      Pages: 583 - 592
      Abstract: BackgroundArmed conflict in Nigeria resulted in more than 2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs). IDPs live in poor conditions lacking basic resources with variable provision across different locations. This audit aimed to determine the health-related resources available to IDPs in camp-like settings in Nigeria and whether these met international standards.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional study approach, information was collected in nine camps across seven states from camp managers, and direct observation in September–October 2016. The Sphere minimum standards in humanitarian crises were used as the audit standards.FindingsThe 5 of 15 assessed standards were met to some extent, including the availability of water and shelter. Sanitation and vaccination were unmet in five camps, with severe overcrowding in five camps, and inadequate waste disposal in all camps. Health programme implementation was uneven, and especially poor in self-settled and dispersed settlements.ConclusionInequality in distribution of humanitarian support was observed across different settings, which could lead to a higher likelihood of water, food and air-related diseases and thereby, a poorer quality of life for IDPs. Ensuring standardized health assessments could promote a more even distribution of resources across IDP locations.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy141
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2018)
  • The role of family absolute and relative income in suicide among Chinese
    • Authors: Zhou Q; Zhang J, Hennessy D.
      Pages: 609 - 617
      Abstract: Backgroundsuicide is a major public health issue in China. However, research on the impact of absolute and relative economic stats on suicide is scarce among the Chinese population, particularly rural young adults. Using a case-control psychological autopsy study design, we aimed to investigate the effect of family absolute and relative income on suicide among Chinese rural young adults and to further explore the potential mediating mechanism under these associations.Methodthe information of 393 suicide cases and 416 community living controls were collected for this study. A Binary Choice Model was used to analyze the association between family absolute and relative income and suicide risk, as well as potential mediating factors for these associations.Resultsa much stronger association was found between relative income and suicide than between absolute income and suicide. Social support was a dominant mediator for the association between family relative income and suicide among both female and male young adults. Coping strain emerged as a mediating factor within the link between absolute income and suicide for males.Conclusionspublic health interventions to reduce suicide should pay more attention to relative income in addition to absolute income as potential targets for intervention, and how social support and coping strain act as mediating factors.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy123
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2018)
  • Public health ethics, through the eyes of a front line director of Public
    • Authors: Laurence B.
      Pages: 628 - 631
      PubDate: Tue, 29 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy091
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2018)
  • Bridging the academic and practice/policy gap in public health:
           perspectives from Scotland and Canada
    • Authors: McAteer J; Di Ruggiero E, Fraser A, et al.
      Pages: 632 - 637
      Abstract: This article presents a critical commentary of specific organizational models and practices for bridging ‘the gap’ between public health research and policy and practice. The authors draw on personal experiences of such models in addition to the wider knowledge translation and exchange literature to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses as implemented in Scotland and Canada since the early 1990s.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy127
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2018)
  • Corrigendum: Sources affecting knowledge and behavior responses to the
           Zika virus in US households with current pregnancy, intended pregnancy and
           a high probability of unintended pregnancy
    • Authors: Chan M; Farhadloo M, Winneg K, et al.
      Pages: 649 - 649
      Abstract: There was an error in the affiliation list. The correct affiliation for Kenneth Winneg is Annenberg Public Policy Center, University of Pennsylvania, 202 S 36th St, Philadelphia, PA 19 104, USA.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy146
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2018)
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