Journal Cover Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
  [SJR: 0.831]   [H-I: 47]   [140 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1352-4658 - ISSN (Online) 1469-1833
   Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [367 journals]
  • BCP volume 46 issue 3 Cover and Front matter
    • PubDate: 2018-05-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1352465818000176
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 3 (2018)
  • BCP volume 46 issue 3 Cover and Back matter
    • PubDate: 2018-05-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1352465818000188
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 3 (2018)
  • Coping Strategies in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities
           Showing Multiple Forms of Challenging Behaviour: Associations with
           Maternal Mental Health
    • Authors: D. Adams; J. Rose, N. Jackson, E. Karakatsani, C. Oliver
      Pages: 257 - 275
      Abstract: Background: It is well documented that mothers of children with intellectual disabilities experience elevated mental health difficulties and that these are exacerbated by the presence of challenging behaviour. However, comparatively little is known about the effect of specific coping strategies for managing such behaviours. Aims: This paper aims to document coping strategies used by mothers of children showing multiple forms of challenging behaviour and to explore how these relate to positive and negative maternal mental health. Method: Eighty-nine mothers of children with intellectual disabilities completed questionnaires assessing maternal mental health (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Scale) and maternal coping strategies (Brief COPE). Results: Coping strategies were not associated with child age or ability, but were associated with maternal mental health. Higher levels of problem- and positive-coping strategies were associated with higher positive affect. Although active-avoidance coping was the least frequently reported, it was associated with higher levels of negative affect and increased anxiety and depression. Moderated mediation analyses identified that active-avoidance coping mediated the relationship between the number of forms of challenging behaviour and poor maternal mental health, but only in mothers with lower levels of problem-focused coping. Conclusions: Active-avoidance coping is associated with poorer negative mental health in mothers of children with intellectual disabilities who have average to low levels of problem-focused coping. This is reflective of that noted within a range of populations, highlighting it as a key area for intervention.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1352465817000704
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 3 (2018)
  • Treating Sleep Problems in Young People at Ultra-High Risk of Psychosis: A
           Feasibility Case Series
    • Authors: Jonathan Bradley; Daniel Freeman, Eleanor Chadwick, Allison G. Harvey, Bradley Mullins, Louise Johns, Bryony Sheaves, Belinda Lennox, Matthew Broome, Felicity Waite
      Pages: 276 - 291
      Abstract: Background: Our view is that sleep disturbance may be a contributory causal factor in the development and maintenance of psychotic experiences. A recent series of randomized controlled intervention studies has shown that cognitive-behavioural approaches can improve sleep in people with psychotic experiences. However, the effects of psychological intervention for improving sleep have not been evaluated in young people at ultra-high risk of psychosis. Improving sleep might prevent later transition to a mental health disorder. Aims: To assess the feasibility and acceptability of an intervention targeting sleep disturbance in young people at ultra-high risk of psychosis. Method: Patients were sought from NHS mental health services. Twelve young people at ultra-high risk of psychosis with sleep problems were offered an eight-session adapted CBT intervention for sleep problems. The core treatment techniques were stimulus control, circadian realignment, and regulating day-time activity. Participants were assessed before and after treatment and at a one month follow-up. Results: All eligible patients referred to the study agreed to take part. Eleven patients completed the intervention, and one patient withdrew after two sessions. Of those who completed treatment, the attendance rate was 89% and an average of 7.6 sessions (SD = 0.5) were attended. There were large effect size improvements in sleep. Post-treatment, six patients fell below the recommended cut-off for clinical insomnia. There were also improvements in negative affect and psychotic experiences. Conclusion: This uncontrolled feasibility study indicates that treating sleep problems in young people at ultra-high of psychosis is feasible, acceptable, and may be associated with clinical benefits.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1352465817000601
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 3 (2018)
  • Associations between Trauma, Dissociation, Adult Attachment and Proneness
           to Hallucinations
    • Authors: Katherine Berry; Paul Fleming, Samantha Wong, Sandra Bucci
      Pages: 292 - 301
      Abstract: Background: Childhood adversity, dissociation and adult attachment have all been implicated in the development of hallucinations or ‘voice-hearing’. Testing psychological models in relation to subclinical phenomena, such as proneness to hallucinations in non-clinical samples, provides a convenient methodology to develop understanding of the processes and mechanisms underlying clinical symptoms. Aims: This paper investigates the relative contribution of childhood adversity, dissociation and adult attachment in explaining hallucination proneness in a non-clinical sample. Methods: Students and staff with no previous contact with secondary care at the University of Manchester were recruited. Participants completed a series of self-report measures: the Launay‒Slade Hallucination Scale (LSHS), the Relationship Scale Questionnaire (RSQ), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Dissociative Experiences Schedule (DES II) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Results: As hypothesized, insecure attachment, childhood adversity and dissociative symptoms were correlated with hallucination proneness. Multiple regression analysis, controlling for confounds of age and negative affect, indicated that the RSQ, CTQ and DES II predicted hallucination proneness. Only DES II and RSQ avoidant attachment were significant independent predictors in the final model. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence to support the idea that attachment and dissociation are important psychological mechanisms involved in voice-hearing proneness. Further testing is required with a clinical population.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1352465817000716
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 3 (2018)
  • How Supervisees on a Foundation Course in CBT Perceive a Supervision
           Session and what they Bring Forward to the Next Therapy Session
    • Authors: Anna Törnquist; Sarah Rakovshik, Jan Carlsson, Joakim Norberg
      Pages: 302 - 317
      Abstract: Background: There is limited research into the effect of supervision in cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) from the supervisees’ perspective. Aims: The aim of the study was to acquire knowledge from the supervisees’ perspective as to what in particular in the supervision process contributes to the therapy process. Method: Fourteen supervisees on a foundation course participated in the study. A qualitative approach was used with thematic analysis of the participants’ written diaries after supervision and therapy sessions. Results: Analyses of supervisees’ experiences suggested that a variety of therapeutic interventions were easier to implement if one had the supervisor's support and felt free to decide if and when the suggested interventions could best be implemented. Evaluation in the form of positive feedback from the supervisor indicating that the supervisee was ‘doing the right thing’ was perceived to be important. A unifying theme when supervisees felt they were not getting anything out of the supervision was that the supervisees did not have a supervision question. Conclusions: The results of this research suggest that the supervisor's support during training is perceived to be important for the supervisee. Receiving positive feedback from one's supervisor in an evaluation is perceived to have a great impact on whether the therapist implements the suggested therapeutic interventions discussed in the previous supervision.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1352465817000558
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 3 (2018)
  • Post-Traumatic Symptomatology and Compulsions as Potential Mediators of
           the Relation Between Child Sexual Abuse and Auditory Verbal Hallucinations
    • Authors: Simon McCarthy-Jones
      Pages: 318 - 331
      Abstract: Background: Whilst evidence is mounting that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) can be a cause of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), it is unclear what factors mediate this relation. Recent evidence suggests that post-traumatic symptomatology may mediate the CSA–AVH relation in clinical populations, although this hypothesis has not yet been tested in the general population. There is also reason to believe that obsessive ideation could mediate the CSA–AVH relation. Aims: To test for evidence to falsify the hypotheses that post-traumatic symptomatology, obsessions, compulsions, anxiety and depression mediate the relation between CSA and AVH in a general population sample. Method: Indirect effects of CSA on AVH via potential mediators were tested for, using a regression-based approach employing data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (n = 5788). Results: After controlling for demographics, IQ and child physical abuse, it was found that CSA, IQ, post-traumatic symptomatology and compulsions predicted lifetime experience of AVH. Mediation analyses found significant indirect effects of CSA on AVH via post-traumatic symptomatology [odds ratio (OR): 1.11; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.00–1.29] and compulsions (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01–1.28). Conclusions: These findings offer further support for the hypothesis that post-traumatic symptomatology is a mediator of the CSA–AVH relation. Although no evidence was found for obsessional thoughts as a mediating variable, a potential mediating role for compulsions is theoretically intriguing. This study's findings reiterate the need to ask about experiences of childhood adversity and post-traumatic symptomology in people with AVH, as well as the likely therapeutic importance of trauma-informed and trauma-based interventions for this population.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1352465817000686
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 3 (2018)
  • Comparison of Treatment Outcomes Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and
           Heterosexual Individuals Receiving a Primary Care Psychological
    • Authors: Katharine A. Rimes; Matthew Broadbent, Rachel Holden, Qazi Rahman, David Hambrook, Stephani L. Hatch, Janet Wingrove
      Pages: 332 - 349
      Abstract: Background: Lesbian, gay and bisexual individuals experience more anxiety and depression than heterosexual people. Little is known about their comparative treatment response to psychological interventions. Aims: To compare sociodemographic/clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes across sexual orientation groups, for adults receiving primary care psychological interventions from Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services in London, adjusting for possible confounders. Method: Data from 188 lesbian women, 222 bisexual women, 6637 heterosexual women, 645 gay men, 75 bisexual men and 3024 heterosexual men were analysed from pre-treatment and last treatment sessions. Males and females were analysed separately. Results: Before treatment, lesbian and bisexual women were more likely to report clinical levels of impairment (Work and Social Adjustment Scale) than heterosexual women; there were no significant differences in depression (PHQ-9) or anxiety (GAD-7). Bisexual men were more likely to meet depression caseness than gay men but less likely to meet anxiety caseness than gay or heterosexual men. Compared with heterosexual women, lesbian and bisexual individuals showed smaller reductions in depression and impairment, controlling for age, ethnicity, employment, baseline symptoms, number of sessions and intervention type. Bisexual women experienced significantly smaller reductions in anxiety than heterosexual women and were less likely to show recovery or reliable recovery. There were no significant differences in treatment outcomes between gay, bisexual and heterosexual men. Conclusions: Reasons for poorer outcomes in lesbian and bisexual women require investigation, for example lifetime trauma or stigma/discrimination regarding gender or sexual orientation in everyday life or within therapy services.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1352465817000583
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 3 (2018)
  • Changes in Emotion Processing following Brief Augmented Psychodynamic
           Interpersonal Therapy for Functional Neurological Symptoms
    • Authors: Isobel Anne Williams; Stephanie Howlett, Liat Levita, Markus Reuber
      Pages: 350 - 366
      Abstract: Background: Functional neurological symptoms (FNS) are considered non-volitional and often very disabling, but are not explainable by neurological disease or structural abnormalities. Brief Augmented Psychodynamic Interpersonal Therapy (BAPIT) was adapted to treat the putative emotion processing deficits thought to be central to FNS aetiology and maintenance. BAPIT for FNS has previously been shown to improve levels of distress and functioning, but it is unknown whether improvements on such measures correlate with changes in emotion processing ‒ which this treatment focuses on. Aim: To determine (a) whether the recently developed Emotional Processing Scale-25 can be used to demonstrate BAPIT-associated changes in patients with FNS, and (b) whether changes in the EPS-25 are associated with changes in previously validated outcome measures. Method: 44 patients with FNS completed questionnaires including the EPS-25 and measures of clinical symptomology (health-related quality of life (SF-36), somatic symptoms (PHQ-15), psychological distress (CORE-10) and illness understanding (BIPQ)) pre- and post-therapy. Results: At group level, emotion processing improved following therapy (p = .049). Some measures of clinical symptomology also improved, namely health-related quality of life (p = .02) and illness understanding (p = .01). Improvements in the EPS-25 correlated with improvements in mental health-related quality of life and psychological distress. Conclusions: Emotion processing and some measures of clinical symptomology improved in patients with FNS following BAPIT. The EPS-25 demonstrated changes that correlated with previously validated outcome measures. The EPS-25 is a suitable measure of psychotherapy-associated change in the FNS patient population.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1352465817000807
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 3 (2018)
  • Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for the Treatment of Dental Phobia: A
           Controlled Feasibility Study
    • Authors: Kumar Raghav Gujjar; Arjen van Wijk, Ratika Sharma, Ad de Jongh
      Pages: 367 - 373
      Abstract: Background: Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has been used to treat a variety of fears and phobias. Aim: To determine the feasibility (i.e. safety and efficacy) of using VRET to treat dental phobia. Method: Safety was evaluated by determining any adverse events or symptom exacerbation. Efficacy of VRET was evaluated by comparing the reduction in dental anxiety scores (measured 16 times within a 14-week study period, and at 6-month follow-up), and its behavioural effects with that of an informational pamphlet (IP) on ten randomized patients with dental phobia using a controlled multiple baseline design. Participants’ heart rate response during VRET, and their experience post-VRET, were indexed. Results: No personal adverse events or symptom exacerbation occurred. Visual analysis and post-hoc intention-to-treat analysis showed a significantly greater decrease in dental anxiety scores [higher PND (percentage of non-overlap data) scores of 100% and lower POD (percentage of overlap data) of 0%, Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, F (1,8) = 8.61, p = 0.019, and Dental Fear Scale, F (1,8) = 10.53, p = 0.012], and behavioural avoidance in the VRET compared with the IP group [d = 4.2 and –1.4, respectively). There was no increase in average heart rate during VRET. Of the nine treatment completers, six (four from the VRET group and two from the IP group) no longer had dental phobia at 6-month follow-up. Four of the five VRET participants, but none of the IP participants, scheduled a dental treatment appointment following the intervention. Conclusion: VRET is a feasible alternative for patients with dental phobia.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1352465817000534
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 3 (2018)
  • A Preliminary Investigation of Pathways to Inflated Responsibility Beliefs
           in Children with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
    • Authors: Lindsey M. Collins; Meredith E. Coles
      Pages: 374 - 379
      Abstract: Background: Cognitive theorists posit that inflated responsibility beliefs contribute to the development of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Salkovskis et al. (1999) proposed that experiencing heightened responsibility, overprotective parents and rigid rules, and thinking one influenced or caused a negative life event act as ‘pathways’ to the development of inflated responsibility beliefs, thereby increasing risk for OCD. Studies in adults with OCD and non-clinical adolescents support the link between these experiences and responsibility beliefs (Coles et al., 2015; Halvaiepour and Nosratabadi, 2015), but the theory has never been tested in youth with current OCD. Aims: We provided an initial test of the theory by Salkovskis et al. (1999) in youth with OCD. We predicted that childhood experiences proposed by Salkovskis et al. (1999) would correlate positively with responsibility and harm beliefs and OCD symptom severity. Method: Twenty youth with OCD (age 9‒16 years) completed a new child-report measure of the experiences hypothesized by Salkovskis et al. (1999), the Pathways to Inflated Responsibility Beliefs Scale-Child Version (PIRBS-CV). Youth also completed the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire-Child Version (Coles et al., 2010) and the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (Foa et al., 2010). Results: Consistent with hypotheses, the PIRBS-CV was significantly related to responsibility and harm beliefs and OCD symptom severity. Conclusions: Results provide initial support for the theory proposed by Salkovskis et al. (1999) as applied to youth with OCD. Future studies are needed to further assess the model in early-onset OCD.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1352465817000844
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 3 (2018)
  • Emotion-Focused+Therapy+for+Generalised+Anxiety+Jeanne+C.+Watson+and+Leslie+S.+Greenberg+American+Psychological+Association,+Washington,+DC,+USA;+2017,+280+pp.+(hb)+ISBN:+9781433826788&rft.title=Behavioural+and+Cognitive+Psychotherapy&rft.issn=1352-4658&">Emotion-Focused Therapy for Generalised Anxiety Jeanne C. Watson and
           Leslie S. Greenberg American Psychological Association, Washington, DC,
           USA; 2017, 280 pp. (hb) ISBN: 9781433826788
    • Authors: Rachelle Dawson
      Pages: 380 - 381
      PubDate: 2018-05-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1352465817000625
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 3 (2018)
  • Reviewers
    • Pages: 382 - 383
      PubDate: 2018-05-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1352465818000085
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 3 (2018)
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