Journal Cover Trends in Organized Crime
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1936-4830 - ISSN (Online) 1084-4791
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Recent publications on organized crime (Publication Monitor 1–2018)
    • Authors: Klaus von Lampe
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-018-9333-z
  • Illegal fishing and fisheries crime as a transnational organized crime in
    • Authors: Ioannis Chapsos; Steve Hamilton
      Abstract: Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing is increasingly drawing international attention and coastal states strengthen their efforts to address it as a matter of priority due to its severe implications for food, economic, environmental and social security. As the largest archipelagic country in the world, this is especially problematic for Indonesia. In this already complex geographical and security environment, the authors test the hypothesis that IUU fishing and fisheries crime(s) classify as transnational organized criminal activities. The article argues that IUU fishing is much more than simply a fisheries management issue, since it goes hand in hand with fisheries crime. As a result, although the two concepts are quite distinct, they are so closely interlinked and interrelated throughout the entire value chain of marine fisheries, that they can only be managed effectively collectively by understanding them both within the framework of transnational organized crime. To make this argument, the research utilizes qualitative and quantitative data collected from approximately two thousand trafficked fishers, rescued in 2015 from slavery conditions while stranded in two remote Indonesian locations: Benjina on Aru island and on Ambon island. The article’s findings also unveil new trends relating to the inner workings of the illegal fishing industry, in four different, yet interlinked categories: recruitment patterns and target groups; document forgery; forced labor and abuse; and fisheries violations. The paper concludes by confirming the hypothesis and highlights that IUU fishing provides the ideal (illegal) environment for fisheries crimes and other forms of transnational organized crimes to flourish.
      PubDate: 2018-01-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-018-9329-8
  • A script analysis of the distribution of counterfeit alcohol across two
           European jurisdictions
    • Authors: Nicholas Lord; Jon Spencer; Elisa Bellotti; Katie Benson
      Pages: 252 - 272
      Abstract: This article presents a script analysis of the distribution of counterfeit alcohols across two European jurisdictions. Based on an analysis of case file data from a European regulator and interviews with investigators, the article deconstructs the organisation of the distribution of the alcohol across jurisdictions into five scenes (collection, logistics, delivery, disposal, proceeds/finance) and analyses the actual (or likely permutations of) behaviours within each scene. The analysis also identifies underlying and routine activities and processes connecting each scene at the intersections of licit and illicit markets and networks as we see the ‘integration’, ‘incorporation’, ‘de-integration’ and ‘allocation’ of the illicit product at various stages and under particular conditions. Furthermore, the article analyses the required resources, equipment and relations of the distribution in addition to examining the actors involved by utilising a social network analysis to link specific actors to specific roles in specific scenes. Likely deception points in the script are presented in order to inform the intervention and disruption strategies of the regulator. Our core argument is that in this case, distribution is most vulnerable where the illicit product is integrated into and then de-integrated out of the licit system and that increased capable guardianship is necessary at these critical points.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9305-8
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3-4 (2017)
  • ‘No banquet can do without liquor’: alcohol counterfeiting in the
           People’s Republic of China
    • Authors: Anqi Shen; Georgios A. Antonopoulos
      Pages: 273 - 295
      Abstract: The illegal trade in alcohol has been an empirical manifestation of organised crime with a very long history; yet, the nature of the illegal trade in alcohol has received relatively limited academic attention in recent years despite the fact that it has been linked with significant tax evasion as well as serious health problems and even deaths. The current article focuses on a specific type associated with the illegal trade in alcohol, the counterfeiting of alcohol in China. The article pays particular attention to the counterfeiting of baijiu - Chinese liquor - in mainland China. The aim of the article is to offer an account of the social organisation of the alcohol counterfeiting business in China by illustrating the counterfeiting process, the actors in the business as well as its possible embeddedness in legal practices, trades and industries. The alcohol counterfeiting business is highly reflective to the market demand and consumer needs. Alcohol counterfeiting in China is characterised primarily by independent actors many of whom are subcontracted to provide commodities and services about the counterfeiting process. The business relies on personal networks – family and extended family members, friends and acquaintances. Relationships between actors in the business are very often based on a customer-supplier relationship or a ‘business-to-business market’. The alcohol counterfeiting business in China highlights the symbiotic relationship between illegal and legal businesses.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-016-9296-x
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3-4 (2017)
  • Illicit pharmaceutical networks in Europe: organising the illicit medicine
           market in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands
    • Authors: Alexandra Hall; Rosa Koenraadt; Georgios A. Antonopoulos
      Pages: 296 - 315
      Abstract: It has been widely suggested that the global market in counterfeit, falsified and illegally traded medicines has expanded at a tremendous rate in recent years, offering lucrative opportunities for criminal entrepreneurs with little legal risk. However, with a few exceptions, there has been little criminological research conducted on the trade’s actors and organisation. Of the few studies that are available, most position the supply of these products in the context of ‘transnational organised crime’, often presupposing the overwhelming presence of large-scale, hierarchical structures in the trade. This article, based on two extensive research projects in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, offers an account of the illicit supply of medicines in two European jurisdictions. The research outlines the nature and dynamics of the trade including the roles played by each national context as nodes in the global supply chain. The focus then shifts to the modus operandi, actors, online trade and social organisation in both countries. In contradistinction to the ‘transnational organised crime’ narrative, the empirical data outlined in this paper demonstrates that actors and networks involved in the trade are highly flexible and complex structures that straddle the categories of licit and illicit, online and offline, and global and local. This suggests that operations supplying illicit medicines vary largely in terms of size, reach, organisation and legality.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9304-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3-4 (2017)
  • An empirical examination of product counterfeiting crime impacting the
           U.S. military
    • Authors: Brandon A. Sullivan; Jeremy M. Wilson
      Pages: 316 - 337
      Abstract: Counterfeit parts in the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) supply chain threaten national security by compromising critical military operations and placing the lives of military service members at risk. With the goal of illustrating the nature of the risk as it relates to types of counterfeit parts, how they entered the supply chain, and were identified and processed through the criminal justice system, we assemble and analyze open-source information on criminal schemes involving counterfeits in the DOD supply chain. We utilize the Product Counterfeiting Database (PCD) to capture every indicted scheme linked to the DOD and describe characteristics of the schemes, offenders, and victims. These data provide empirical insights into the counterfeiting of parts and equipment in the DOD supply chain. We conclude with an overview of key issues to consider when weighing opportunities for product counterfeiting as well as implications for policy and practice.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9306-7
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3-4 (2017)
  • Assessing the developing knowledge-base of product counterfeiting: a
           content analysis of four decades of research
    • Authors: Brandon A. Sullivan; Fiona Chan; Roy Fenoff; Jeremy M. Wilson
      Pages: 338 - 369
      Abstract: Considering the steady and rapid growth of product counterfeiting and the damage it causes to society, it is important for criminology and criminal justice scholars to assist criminal justice officials, industry practitioners, and law makers in understanding the product counterfeiting problem and developing strategies to combat it. However, for researchers to be effective in their advisory role they must first establish what is known about product counterfeiting. As a first step in this process, we investigated relevant published research through a content analysis of 47 articles discussing product counterfeiting published in criminal justice and criminology journals through 2014. We analyzed various characteristics about the articles themselves, their authors, the journals they appeared in, and the nature and extent of their focus on product counterfeiting. We conclude this study with an evaluation of the state of product counterfeiting research and recommendations for future research.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-016-9300-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3-4 (2017)
  • 2015 Situation report on counterfeiting in the European union
    • Pages: 370 - 382
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9307-6
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3-4 (2017)
  • Trade in counterfeit and pirated goods: Mapping the economic impact
    • Pages: 383 - 394
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9308-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3-4 (2017)
  • Recent publications on organized crime
    • Authors: Klaus von Lampe
      Pages: 395 - 405
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9324-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3-4 (2017)
  • Situating gangs within Scotland’s illegal drugs market(s)
    • Authors: Robert McLean; James A. Densley; Ross Deuchar
      Abstract: The Scottish government’s (2008) publication ‘The road to recovery: A new approach to tackling Scotland’s drug problem’ elaborates and outlines the Scottish National Party’s (SNP) desire to make Scotland ‘drug free’ by 2019. To achieve this objective, the Scottish Government’s (2015) ‘Serious Organised Crime Strategy’ (SSOCS) entails dismantling networks of drug supply. Yet missing from this strategic planning is a) recognition of how, if at all, different types of gangs are involved in drug supply, and b) how drug supply processes actually work. Therefore, this article seeks to extend McLean’s (J Deviant Behav, 2017) Scottish gang model, which specifies a typology of gangs in Scotland, in an effort to locate precise levels of gang involvement in the drugs market. This is achieved by drawing upon Pearson and Hobbs’ (2001) hierarchical model of the UK’s illegal drug(s) market. In-depth interviews with 35 offenders involved in criminal networks and five practitioners, indicate that recreational Youth Street Gangs are really only involved in ‘social supply’. Youth Criminal Gangs are primarily involved in commercially motivated dealing at the low- to mid-levels, including bulk-buying between the retail-to-wholesale markets. And enterprising Serious Organised Crime Gangs operate from the middle-to-apex market level. Conclusions which situate this gang typology within the illegal drug market(s) are used to put forward recommendations aimed at dismantling of drug supply networks.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9328-1
  • Examining the demographic profile and attitudes of citizens, in areas
           where organized crime groups proliferate
    • Authors: Stuart Kirby; Michelle McManus; Laura Boulton
      Abstract: Whilst studies refer to the community impact of Organized Crime (OC), no survey currently exists to examine the views of those citizens who reside in areas where Organized Crime Groups (OCGs) proliferate. 431 questionnaires from households co-existing in high density OCGs areas were analysed in relation to: a) demographic information; b) views on the community and the police; and c) how they expected other residents to react to illegal incidents. Overall respondents thought the average citizen would refuse to intervene in 10% - 48% of illegal incidents, with the specific case influencing whether and how they would respond. The analysis then compared three communities who lived in high density OCG areas with a control community (n = 343). The ‘OCG’ communities were more likely to report low collective efficacy and were generally least likely to expect their neighbours to confront a crime in action. Conversely, whilst the control group showed higher levels of collective efficacy and expected the average resident to be more likely in confronting illegal behaviour, this trend did not extend to street drug dealing and serious crime associated with OC. The study discusses the unreported intimidation associated with OCGs and the challenges of policing hostile environments.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9326-3
  • Mexican cartel negotiative interactions with the state
    • Authors: Adam Dulin
      Abstract: This research applies pure sociology to the negotiation activity of Mexican drug trafficking organizations (DTOs). By operationalizing status along several social dimensions, the author employs crisp set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (cs QCA) to identify unique status configurations associated with negotiative interactions with the state. The results indicate that high status configurations are unique to groups that utilize negotiations in a particular territory. These findings provide further insight into the different positions of strength from which DTOs will pursue non-violent activity.
      PubDate: 2017-12-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9327-2
  • Projected heroes and self-perceived manipulators: understanding the
           duplicitous identities of human traffickers
    • Authors: Kimberly Mehlman-Orozco
      Abstract: This qualitative inquiry examines human trafficker identities through stories from convicted offenders. Thematic findings suggest that the projected-identity of sex traffickers may be different from their true self-identity. Identity regulation to produce the appropriate individual by situation facilitates both improvisational and patterned methods of victim recruitment. Sex traffickers exercise their coercive power predominately through the use of deception and fraud, projecting themselves as “honest heroes” and “lovers” of their victims. Rather than using force to perpetually repress victims, sex traffickers more frequently gain compliance by building a trauma bond with their victims, who are also typically found at the margins of society. Recruitment into a commercial sexually exploitive victimization involves the perceived fulfillment of physiological and emotional needs, as well as strategic infusion of counterculture virtues. For tenured sex traffickers, force is normally only intermittently exercised to punish recalcitrant victims in a way that maintains the longevity of control through trauma bonding.
      PubDate: 2017-12-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9325-4
  • When elites and outlaws do philanthropy: on the limits of private vices
           for public benefit
    • Authors: Tereza Kuldova
      Abstract: In the last decade, elitist philanthropy exploded in certain parts of the West and so did philanthropy of outlaw motorcycle clubs. The question is, under what conditions does philanthropy become an effective strategy of legitimization of one’s power in society' Neoliberalism did not only result in extreme inequality, weakening of the state, and emergence of increasingly disillusioned population, but also enabled philanthropy to become an effective strategy of legitimization of the informal power of both billionaires and criminal organizations alike. Philanthropy became instrumental both to image management in face of crises of reputation and to the insertion of these transnational non-state actors into governance. The destructive effects of neoliberalism allowed both groups to grow, and to reproduce and accelerate the very conditions in which they thrive, thus further weakening the state and fuelling inequality. The argument counters popular narratives about how private vices and greed can serve public benefit.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9323-6
  • Preventing organised crime originating from outlaw motorcycle clubs
    • Authors: Tore Bjørgo
      Abstract: How can a holistic model of crime prevention be applied to crime originating from outlaw motorcycle clubs' The police in different countries and even in different police districts have varied considerably in the ways they have dealt with these outlaw MC clubs and the criminal activities associated with them. Some police forces have mainly applied a repressive criminal justice approach whereas others have put more emphasis on dialogue, prevention and harm reduction. This article will argue for a comprehensive approach which combines “soft” and “hard” measures, based on a holistic model of crime prevention developed in my previous works (Bjørgo 2013, 2016), based on nine preventive mechanisms. Several preventive actors beyond the police possess a variety of measures which can be implemented to activate these preventive mechanisms. Such a holistic approach reduces the need to rely on repressive approaches alone. Most of the examples in this article are from Norway and Denmark.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9322-7
  • EULEX and the fight against organised crime in Kosovo: what’s the
    • Authors: Joschka J. Proksik
      Abstract: Staffed by international police officers, prosecutors and judges, EULEX was mandated to strengthen Kosovo’s domestic rule-of-law institutions and endowed with executive authority to ensure that high-level criminal cases, including organised crime, are properly investigated and prosecuted. Yet, after more than nine years of operation, EULEX has proven largely ineffective in using its executive authority to counter organised crime and its capacity-building efforts have not led to significant local improvements in this area. Insufficient framework conditions shaped by years of impunity for politico-criminal power structures prevent capacity-building efforts from taking effect as local rule-of-law institutions remain hesitant and timid to investigate and prosecute high-level criminals. It is argued that EULEX’s own conduct and weak executive performance has severely undermined the mission’s efforts to strengthen local law enforcement through capacity-building.
      PubDate: 2017-10-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9321-8
  • Diamonds, gold and crime displacement: Hatton Garden, and the evolution of
           organised crime in the UK
    • Authors: Paul Lashmar; Dick Hobbs
      Abstract: The 2015 Hatton Garden Heist was described as the ‘largest burglary in English legal history’. However, the global attention that this spectacular crime attracted to ‘The Garden’ tended to concentrate upon the value of the stolen goods and the vintage of the burglars. What has been ignored is how the burglary shone a spotlight into Hatton Garden itself, as an area with a unique ‘upperworld’ commercial profile and skills cluster that we identify as an incubator and facilitator for organised crime. The Garden is the UK’s foremost jewellery production and retail centre and this paper seeks to explore how Hatton Garden’s businesses integrated with a fluid criminal population to transition, through hosting lucrative (and bureaucratically complex) VAT gold frauds from 1980 to the early 1990s, to become a major base for sophisticated acquisitive criminal activities. Based on extensive interviews over a thirty year period, evidence from a personal research archive and public records, this paper details a cultural community with a unique criminal profile due to the particularities of its geographical location, ethnic composition, trading culture, skills base and international connections. The processes and structures that facilitate criminal markets are largely under-researched (Antonopoulos et al. 2015: 11), and this paper considers how elements of Hatton Garden’s ‘upperworld’ businesses integrated with project criminals, displaced by policing strategies, to effect this transition.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9320-9
  • Human trafficking and criminal proceedings in Portugal: discourses of
           professionals in the justice system
    • Authors: Marlene Matos; Mariana Gonçalves; Ângela Maia
      Abstract: Since the adoption of the UN Trafficking Protocol in 2000, the predominant approach to combat human trafficking has been based on the criminalization of traffickers in conjunction with a concern for victims’ protection. However, few empirical studies considered the effectiveness of those measures, which makes it difficult to understand why criminal cases of human trafficking generally result in few convictions. In Portugal, recent legislative changes have made the legal framework on human trafficking more comprehensive, inclusive and convergent with European directives. The effects of the implementation of those legislative changes on investigation and prosecution are still overlooked. The present study analyses the discourses of justice system professionals that concern the investigation and prosecution of human trafficking. It examines and identifies the factors that, in their perspective, block the recognition of the typifying elements of the crime of human trafficking and create obstacles to the prosecution and conviction of those crimes. Our findings suggest that legislative advances recognized by the participants need to be accompanied by other changes, some of a more systemic nature and others that are more specific. An efficient criminal procedure should include better legal phrasing of the means of evidence of human trafficking that is supported by objective instruments for this to be considered valid; the centralization of proof that the testimony of the victim has to overcome; specialized professional training of an ongoing nature; an efficient cooperation between the various law enforcement agencies at the national and international levels, with public prosecution services and magistrates; a greater clarification of the condition of the special vulnerability of victims and an informed perspective regarding the global nature of the phenomenon of human trafficking, one that is also sensitive towards the victim (e.g., in relation to the victims’ vulnerability, illegal status, and their difficulties in terms of social and cultural integration).
      PubDate: 2017-08-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9317-4
  • An introduction to the special issue on ‘counterfeiting’
    • Authors: Georgios A. Antonopoulos; Alexandra Hall; Joanna Large; Anqi Shen
      Abstract: This paper provides an introduction to the articles and report excerpts included in the special issue of Trends in Organized Crime on ‘Counterfeiting’. The aim of this special issue is to add to the relatively sparse literature currently available that addresses this expansive and complex criminological phenomenon. In particular, the special issue draws together empirical research findings and theoretical accounts on the organization of the counterfeit trade across a broad spectrum of goods, and highlights a number of issues associated with researching counterfeiting.
      PubDate: 2017-08-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9319-2
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