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Journal Cover Trends in Organized Crime
  [SJR: 0.26]   [H-I: 14]   [454 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1936-4830 - ISSN (Online) 1084-4791
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • A script analysis of the distribution of counterfeit alcohol across two
           European jurisdictions
    • Authors: Nicholas Lord; Jon Spencer; Elisa Bellotti; Katie Benson
      Pages: 252 - 272
      Abstract: This article presents a script analysis of the distribution of counterfeit alcohols across two European jurisdictions. Based on an analysis of case file data from a European regulator and interviews with investigators, the article deconstructs the organisation of the distribution of the alcohol across jurisdictions into five scenes (collection, logistics, delivery, disposal, proceeds/finance) and analyses the actual (or likely permutations of) behaviours within each scene. The analysis also identifies underlying and routine activities and processes connecting each scene at the intersections of licit and illicit markets and networks as we see the ‘integration’, ‘incorporation’, ‘de-integration’ and ‘allocation’ of the illicit product at various stages and under particular conditions. Furthermore, the article analyses the required resources, equipment and relations of the distribution in addition to examining the actors involved by utilising a social network analysis to link specific actors to specific roles in specific scenes. Likely deception points in the script are presented in order to inform the intervention and disruption strategies of the regulator. Our core argument is that in this case, distribution is most vulnerable where the illicit product is integrated into and then de-integrated out of the licit system and that increased capable guardianship is necessary at these critical points.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9305-8
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3-4 (2017)
       
  • ‘No banquet can do without liquor’: alcohol counterfeiting in the
           People’s Republic of China
    • Authors: Anqi Shen; Georgios A. Antonopoulos
      Pages: 273 - 295
      Abstract: The illegal trade in alcohol has been an empirical manifestation of organised crime with a very long history; yet, the nature of the illegal trade in alcohol has received relatively limited academic attention in recent years despite the fact that it has been linked with significant tax evasion as well as serious health problems and even deaths. The current article focuses on a specific type associated with the illegal trade in alcohol, the counterfeiting of alcohol in China. The article pays particular attention to the counterfeiting of baijiu - Chinese liquor - in mainland China. The aim of the article is to offer an account of the social organisation of the alcohol counterfeiting business in China by illustrating the counterfeiting process, the actors in the business as well as its possible embeddedness in legal practices, trades and industries. The alcohol counterfeiting business is highly reflective to the market demand and consumer needs. Alcohol counterfeiting in China is characterised primarily by independent actors many of whom are subcontracted to provide commodities and services about the counterfeiting process. The business relies on personal networks – family and extended family members, friends and acquaintances. Relationships between actors in the business are very often based on a customer-supplier relationship or a ‘business-to-business market’. The alcohol counterfeiting business in China highlights the symbiotic relationship between illegal and legal businesses.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-016-9296-x
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3-4 (2017)
       
  • Illicit pharmaceutical networks in Europe: organising the illicit medicine
           market in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands
    • Authors: Alexandra Hall; Rosa Koenraadt; Georgios A. Antonopoulos
      Pages: 296 - 315
      Abstract: It has been widely suggested that the global market in counterfeit, falsified and illegally traded medicines has expanded at a tremendous rate in recent years, offering lucrative opportunities for criminal entrepreneurs with little legal risk. However, with a few exceptions, there has been little criminological research conducted on the trade’s actors and organisation. Of the few studies that are available, most position the supply of these products in the context of ‘transnational organised crime’, often presupposing the overwhelming presence of large-scale, hierarchical structures in the trade. This article, based on two extensive research projects in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, offers an account of the illicit supply of medicines in two European jurisdictions. The research outlines the nature and dynamics of the trade including the roles played by each national context as nodes in the global supply chain. The focus then shifts to the modus operandi, actors, online trade and social organisation in both countries. In contradistinction to the ‘transnational organised crime’ narrative, the empirical data outlined in this paper demonstrates that actors and networks involved in the trade are highly flexible and complex structures that straddle the categories of licit and illicit, online and offline, and global and local. This suggests that operations supplying illicit medicines vary largely in terms of size, reach, organisation and legality.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9304-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3-4 (2017)
       
  • An empirical examination of product counterfeiting crime impacting the
           U.S. military
    • Authors: Brandon A. Sullivan; Jeremy M. Wilson
      Pages: 316 - 337
      Abstract: Counterfeit parts in the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) supply chain threaten national security by compromising critical military operations and placing the lives of military service members at risk. With the goal of illustrating the nature of the risk as it relates to types of counterfeit parts, how they entered the supply chain, and were identified and processed through the criminal justice system, we assemble and analyze open-source information on criminal schemes involving counterfeits in the DOD supply chain. We utilize the Product Counterfeiting Database (PCD) to capture every indicted scheme linked to the DOD and describe characteristics of the schemes, offenders, and victims. These data provide empirical insights into the counterfeiting of parts and equipment in the DOD supply chain. We conclude with an overview of key issues to consider when weighing opportunities for product counterfeiting as well as implications for policy and practice.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9306-7
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3-4 (2017)
       
  • Assessing the developing knowledge-base of product counterfeiting: a
           content analysis of four decades of research
    • Authors: Brandon A. Sullivan; Fiona Chan; Roy Fenoff; Jeremy M. Wilson
      Pages: 338 - 369
      Abstract: Considering the steady and rapid growth of product counterfeiting and the damage it causes to society, it is important for criminology and criminal justice scholars to assist criminal justice officials, industry practitioners, and law makers in understanding the product counterfeiting problem and developing strategies to combat it. However, for researchers to be effective in their advisory role they must first establish what is known about product counterfeiting. As a first step in this process, we investigated relevant published research through a content analysis of 47 articles discussing product counterfeiting published in criminal justice and criminology journals through 2014. We analyzed various characteristics about the articles themselves, their authors, the journals they appeared in, and the nature and extent of their focus on product counterfeiting. We conclude this study with an evaluation of the state of product counterfeiting research and recommendations for future research.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-016-9300-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3-4 (2017)
       
  • 2015 Situation report on counterfeiting in the European union
    • Pages: 370 - 382
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9307-6
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3-4 (2017)
       
  • Trade in counterfeit and pirated goods: Mapping the economic impact
    • Pages: 383 - 394
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9308-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3-4 (2017)
       
  • Recent publications on organized crime
    • Authors: Klaus von Lampe
      Pages: 395 - 405
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9324-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3-4 (2017)
       
  • The shaping of covert social networks: isolating the effects of secrecy
    • Authors: Nigel G. Fielding
      Pages: 16 - 30
      Abstract: Secrecy amongst participants is widely regarded as a hallmark of organized crime. Accordingly, covertness is treated as an essential feature of organized crime networks and as one of the distinctive characteristics differentiating such networks from others. In other respects contemporary understandings of organized crime networks based on routine activities theory see strong parallels between criminal organizations and legitimate business organizations. Noting the scarcity of empirical evidence about covert networks and flaws in the conceptualization of how such networks form and operate, this article questions the basis for the assumption that covertness is a distinctive feature of organized crime networks.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-016-9277-0
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1-2 (2017)
       
  • Loan-sharking in a time of crisis: lessons from Rome’s illegal
           credit market
    • Authors: Isabella Clough Marinaro
      Pages: 196 - 215
      Abstract: One of the consequences of Italy’s on-going financial crisis has been rising civil society activism and media attention to the growing phenomenon of families and small businesses becoming indebted to illegal moneylenders. Much of the public discourse focuses on indications that major organized crime groups are strengthening their participation in this sector and appropriating homes and business assets as a means of laundering money and expanding their presence in the legal economy. This article examines the multiple and complex factors that leave rising numbers of small business owners with few alternatives to seeking illegal sources of credit in order to continue operating financially. Focusing on the city of Rome and drawing on in-depth interviews with support groups and former debtors, as well as on a wide range of documentation and statistical data, it provides a multiscalar analysis of the ways in which local social norms concerning informal credit and the exigencies of day-to-day business practice on a micro scale are interwoven with the macro-level effects of legislation, banking practices, and the capacity of institutions mandated to fight illegal lending. It questions whether an adequate system of alternatives to borrowing illegally exists and the extent to which the official mechanisms in place to disincentivize this practice are effective.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-016-9279-y
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1-2 (2017)
       
  • When elites and outlaws do philanthropy: on the limits of private vices
           for public benefit
    • Authors: Tereza Kuldova
      Abstract: In the last decade, elitist philanthropy exploded in certain parts of the West and so did philanthropy of outlaw motorcycle clubs. The question is, under what conditions does philanthropy become an effective strategy of legitimization of one’s power in society' Neoliberalism did not only result in extreme inequality, weakening of the state, and emergence of increasingly disillusioned population, but also enabled philanthropy to become an effective strategy of legitimization of the informal power of both billionaires and criminal organizations alike. Philanthropy became instrumental both to image management in face of crises of reputation and to the insertion of these transnational non-state actors into governance. The destructive effects of neoliberalism allowed both groups to grow, and to reproduce and accelerate the very conditions in which they thrive, thus further weakening the state and fuelling inequality. The argument counters popular narratives about how private vices and greed can serve public benefit.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9323-6
       
  • Preventing organised crime originating from outlaw motorcycle clubs
    • Authors: Tore Bjørgo
      Abstract: How can a holistic model of crime prevention be applied to crime originating from outlaw motorcycle clubs' The police in different countries and even in different police districts have varied considerably in the ways they have dealt with these outlaw MC clubs and the criminal activities associated with them. Some police forces have mainly applied a repressive criminal justice approach whereas others have put more emphasis on dialogue, prevention and harm reduction. This article will argue for a comprehensive approach which combines “soft” and “hard” measures, based on a holistic model of crime prevention developed in my previous works (Bjørgo 2013, 2016), based on nine preventive mechanisms. Several preventive actors beyond the police possess a variety of measures which can be implemented to activate these preventive mechanisms. Such a holistic approach reduces the need to rely on repressive approaches alone. Most of the examples in this article are from Norway and Denmark.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9322-7
       
  • EULEX and the fight against organised crime in Kosovo: what’s the
           record'
    • Authors: Joschka J. Proksik
      Abstract: Staffed by international police officers, prosecutors and judges, EULEX was mandated to strengthen Kosovo’s domestic rule-of-law institutions and endowed with executive authority to ensure that high-level criminal cases, including organised crime, are properly investigated and prosecuted. Yet, after more than nine years of operation, EULEX has proven largely ineffective in using its executive authority to counter organised crime and its capacity-building efforts have not led to significant local improvements in this area. Insufficient framework conditions shaped by years of impunity for politico-criminal power structures prevent capacity-building efforts from taking effect as local rule-of-law institutions remain hesitant and timid to investigate and prosecute high-level criminals. It is argued that EULEX’s own conduct and weak executive performance has severely undermined the mission’s efforts to strengthen local law enforcement through capacity-building.
      PubDate: 2017-10-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9321-8
       
  • Diamonds, gold and crime displacement: Hatton Garden, and the evolution of
           organised crime in the UK
    • Authors: Paul Lashmar; Dick Hobbs
      Abstract: The 2015 Hatton Garden Heist was described as the ‘largest burglary in English legal history’. However, the global attention that this spectacular crime attracted to ‘The Garden’ tended to concentrate upon the value of the stolen goods and the vintage of the burglars. What has been ignored is how the burglary shone a spotlight into Hatton Garden itself, as an area with a unique ‘upperworld’ commercial profile and skills cluster that we identify as an incubator and facilitator for organised crime. The Garden is the UK’s foremost jewellery production and retail centre and this paper seeks to explore how Hatton Garden’s businesses integrated with a fluid criminal population to transition, through hosting lucrative (and bureaucratically complex) VAT gold frauds from 1980 to the early 1990s, to become a major base for sophisticated acquisitive criminal activities. Based on extensive interviews over a thirty year period, evidence from a personal research archive and public records, this paper details a cultural community with a unique criminal profile due to the particularities of its geographical location, ethnic composition, trading culture, skills base and international connections. The processes and structures that facilitate criminal markets are largely under-researched (Antonopoulos et al. 2015: 11), and this paper considers how elements of Hatton Garden’s ‘upperworld’ businesses integrated with project criminals, displaced by policing strategies, to effect this transition.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9320-9
       
  • Human trafficking and criminal proceedings in Portugal: discourses of
           professionals in the justice system
    • Authors: Marlene Matos; Mariana Gonçalves; Ângela Maia
      Abstract: Since the adoption of the UN Trafficking Protocol in 2000, the predominant approach to combat human trafficking has been based on the criminalization of traffickers in conjunction with a concern for victims’ protection. However, few empirical studies considered the effectiveness of those measures, which makes it difficult to understand why criminal cases of human trafficking generally result in few convictions. In Portugal, recent legislative changes have made the legal framework on human trafficking more comprehensive, inclusive and convergent with European directives. The effects of the implementation of those legislative changes on investigation and prosecution are still overlooked. The present study analyses the discourses of justice system professionals that concern the investigation and prosecution of human trafficking. It examines and identifies the factors that, in their perspective, block the recognition of the typifying elements of the crime of human trafficking and create obstacles to the prosecution and conviction of those crimes. Our findings suggest that legislative advances recognized by the participants need to be accompanied by other changes, some of a more systemic nature and others that are more specific. An efficient criminal procedure should include better legal phrasing of the means of evidence of human trafficking that is supported by objective instruments for this to be considered valid; the centralization of proof that the testimony of the victim has to overcome; specialized professional training of an ongoing nature; an efficient cooperation between the various law enforcement agencies at the national and international levels, with public prosecution services and magistrates; a greater clarification of the condition of the special vulnerability of victims and an informed perspective regarding the global nature of the phenomenon of human trafficking, one that is also sensitive towards the victim (e.g., in relation to the victims’ vulnerability, illegal status, and their difficulties in terms of social and cultural integration).
      PubDate: 2017-08-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9317-4
       
  • An introduction to the special issue on ‘counterfeiting’
    • Authors: Georgios A. Antonopoulos; Alexandra Hall; Joanna Large; Anqi Shen
      Abstract: This paper provides an introduction to the articles and report excerpts included in the special issue of Trends in Organized Crime on ‘Counterfeiting’. The aim of this special issue is to add to the relatively sparse literature currently available that addresses this expansive and complex criminological phenomenon. In particular, the special issue draws together empirical research findings and theoretical accounts on the organization of the counterfeit trade across a broad spectrum of goods, and highlights a number of issues associated with researching counterfeiting.
      PubDate: 2017-08-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9319-2
       
  • Criminal organizing applying the theory of partial organization to four
           cases of organized crime
    • Authors: Amir Rostami; Hernan Mondani; Fredrik Liljeros; Christofer Edling
      Abstract: We explore how the idea of partial organization can provide insights in the study of organized crime. Studying criminal organizing with a theoretical framework used for other social organizing phenomena can help us see the interplay between different forms of criminal collaboration under a single analytical lens, and start a discussion on whether criminal organizing is intrinsically different from other types of social organizing. We analyze four cases of criminal collaboration in Sweden between 1990 and 2015: the Syriac mafia, the Hells Angels Mc Sweden, the street gang Werewolf Legion, and the Hallunda robbery. While the outlaw motorcycle gang, and to a certain extent the street gang, are complete organizations, the mafia is based around and heavily parasitic on other institutions. We have also shown that time-bounded projects are found in the criminal context, with these emerging from strong network relations. Our results show that most of the elements of criminal organizing are not formalized and that partial organization is at least as important and powerful as complete organization.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9315-6
       
  • Gangs in the DRC and El Salvador: towards a third generation of gang
           violence interventions'
    • Authors: Ellen Van Damme
      Abstract: The phenomenon of gangs in El Salvador and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has already been researched, but a comparative study of gangs and gang policies is lacking. In this paper we discuss several gang violence prevention initiatives regarding the Mara Salvatrucha and Barrio 18 in El Salvador, and the kuluna and bashege in Kinshasa, DRC. In order to analyze the different gang interventions, we implement the typology of first and second gang violence prevention initiatives (Rodgers et al. 2009), and propose the evolution towards a third generation of gang violence prevention interventions. While first generation initiatives are security and law-enforcement driven, and second generation initiatives socio-preventive driven, third generation initiatives are more politically driven. The latter indicates a shift towards a vision of dialogue and negotiations to deal with gang violence. However, the different generations are not predefined within time and third generation initiatives can also be followed up by first generation initiatives, which was for example the case in the gang truce in El Salvador. Also, comparative gang research includes challenges, especially when the gang phenomenon in one country is better researched and documented than in other countries. As such, we were unable to identify politically-driven initiatives in the DRC to compare with the ones in El Salvador. Further research is thus required. With this paper we not only aim to contribute to the literature on gang violence prevention and reduction initiatives, we also want to push researchers, practitioners and policymakers to look beyond the borders when setting up gang (violence) prevention and rehabilitation projects, and to learn from other regions where similar initiatives have been implemented to deal with comparable issues of gang violence.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9316-5
       
  • Russia’s Night Wolves Motorcycle Club: from 1%ers to political
           activists
    • Authors: Yuliya Zabyelina
      Abstract: In the late 2000s, the Night Wolves Motorcycle Club, Russia’s largest motorcycle organization, became closely intertwined with the Kremlin’s domestic and international agendas, although only a decade ago they protested against the Soviet establishment and called for freedom and democracy. This article traces the ideological development of the Night Wolves, explores the nature of their relationship with the Kremlin, and evaluates their role in President Vladimir Putin’s sistema—a system of governance grounded on informal mechanisms of power distribution and personalized loyalties. In addition, the article analyzes the activities of the Night Wolves in Ukraine and their role in the consolidation of pro-Russian forces and propagation of Kremlin-designed narratives.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9314-7
       
  • Recent publications on organized crime
    • Authors: Klaus von Lampe
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9311-x
       
 
 
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