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Trends in Organized Crime
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.26
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 508  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1936-4830 - ISSN (Online) 1084-4791
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Combating trafficking of Hungarian women to Western Europe: a multi-level
           analysis of the international law enforcement cooperation
    • Authors: Noemi Katona
      Abstract: Human trafficking is an increasing field of academic research, but the obstacles of investigation and prosecution of traffickers is still under-researched. This article analyses the challenges of prosecution of criminal groups facilitating the prostitution of Hungarian women to Western European countries by focusing on international cooperation of law enforcement agencies. Although the scientific literature mostly focuses on the influence of international agreements on national level policing, based on a multilevel analysis, the current article scrutinizes the organizational and individual dimensions in transnational policing and the implementation of the anti-trafficking measures in practice. Despite the aims of the global prohibition regime, victim-focus approach in human trafficking remains neglected by large  in the Hungarian practice. The article is based on structured interviews with members of law enforcement agencies, observation of court trials, legal documents and secondary written sources on the investigation of organized crime in Hungary.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-019-09358-7
       
  • Recent publications on organized crime (2019–1)
    • Authors: Klaus von Lampe
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-019-09360-z
       
  • Public nuisance, public enemy, public servant' Introduction to the
           special issue on outlaw bikers in Europe
    • Authors: Klaus von Lampe
      Abstract: This essay presents an introduction to the special issue on outlaw motorcycle clubs in Europe. Apart from providing an overview of the papers contained in the special issue, it presents a classificatory scheme for the analysis of the links between outlaw biker clubs-also known as outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMCGs)-and crime. Against the backdrop of the history of the outlaw biker subculture in Europe, this paper proposes a five-fold typology of criminal activities that can potentially by ascribed to biker clubs as organizational entities, and it presents three different scenarios for an overlap of criminal structures and the formal structure of an outlaw biker club.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-019-09359-6
       
  • Country report on extortion racketeering in the hospitality sector –
           United Kingdom
    • PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-019-09361-y
       
  • The rise of shaming paternalism in Japan: recent tendencies in the
           Japanese criminal justice system
    • Abstract: The ‘reintegrative shaming’ and ‘benevolent paternalism’ models, traditionally used to describe the Japanese criminal justice system, have been periodically criticised for their orientalist approach. Nevertheless, no critique addressed the fact that these models ignored the presence of long-lasting crime syndicates, the yakuza, in Japan. Meanwhile, since 1991 the Japanese government has passed different sets of anti-yakuza countermeasures, increasingly punitive towards members and ex-members of the criminal group, that transferred more policing and surveillance duties to common citizens. In light of the evolution of anti-yakuza countermeasures in the past 25 years, this article argues that an analysis of these laws and regulations can provide a chance to reappraise the ‘reintegrative shaming/benevolent paternalism’ models, and proposes ‘shaming paternalism’ as a more realistic description of the current Japanese criminal justice system. According to this model, criminals are shamed and struggle to reintegrate, and the state’s intrusiveness is operated at various stages. Given the gap in English-speaking literature regarding this topic, firstly the contents of anti-yakuza countermeasures are outlined, followed by an evaluation of their effects on the yakuza population. The levels of reintegration of ex-yakuza members are considered, corroborating the hypothesis that the contemporary Japanese criminal justice system is not focussed on reintegration: actually, the most recent tendencies show an increase in punitiveness and stigmatisation. The paper argues that this trend can be understood as an index of increasing authoritarianism in the Japanese government, and concludes that civil engagement is the only viable option of resistance.
      PubDate: 2019-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-019-09357-8
       
  • Is drawing from the state ‘state of the art’': a review of
           organised crime research data collection and analysis, 2004–2018
    • Authors: James Windle; Andrew Silke
      Abstract: This paper presents a systematic review of organised crime data collection and analysis methods. It did this by reviewing all papers published in Trends in Organized Crime and Global Crime between 2004 and 2018 (N = 463). The review identified a number of key weaknesses. First, organised crime research is dominated by secondary data analysis of open-access documents, and documents are seldom subjected to the same principles guiding primary data collection methods. Second, data analysis lacked balance with a distinct lack of inferential statistical analysis. Third, there was a significant absence of victim or offender voices with an overreliance on data from state bodies and the media. The paper concludes that organised crime, as field of research, appears unbalanced by reliance upon a small number of methods and sources. Rebalancing the field requires more organised crime researchers to speak to offenders and victims, employ greater use of statistical analysis and tighten our methodologies.
      PubDate: 2019-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-018-9356-5
       
  • Criminal organizing applying the theory of partial organization to four
           cases of organized crime
    • Authors: Amir Rostami; Hernan Mondani; Fredrik Liljeros; Christofer Edling
      Pages: 315 - 342
      Abstract: We explore how the idea of partial organization can provide insights in the study of organized crime. Studying criminal organizing with a theoretical framework used for other social organizing phenomena can help us see the interplay between different forms of criminal collaboration under a single analytical lens, and start a discussion on whether criminal organizing is intrinsically different from other types of social organizing. We analyze four cases of criminal collaboration in Sweden between 1990 and 2015: the Syriac mafia, the Hells Angels Mc Sweden, the street gang Werewolf Legion, and the Hallunda robbery. While the outlaw motorcycle gang, and to a certain extent the street gang, are complete organizations, the mafia is based around and heavily parasitic on other institutions. We have also shown that time-bounded projects are found in the criminal context, with these emerging from strong network relations. Our results show that most of the elements of criminal organizing are not formalized and that partial organization is at least as important and powerful as complete organization.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9315-6
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Gangs in the DRC and El Salvador: towards a third generation of gang
           violence interventions'
    • Authors: Ellen Van Damme
      Pages: 343 - 369
      Abstract: The phenomenon of gangs in El Salvador and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has already been researched, but a comparative study of gangs and gang policies is lacking. In this paper we discuss several gang violence prevention initiatives regarding the Mara Salvatrucha and Barrio 18 in El Salvador, and the kuluna and bashege in Kinshasa, DRC. In order to analyze the different gang interventions, we implement the typology of first and second gang violence prevention initiatives (Rodgers et al. 2009), and propose the evolution towards a third generation of gang violence prevention interventions. While first generation initiatives are security and law-enforcement driven, and second generation initiatives socio-preventive driven, third generation initiatives are more politically driven. The latter indicates a shift towards a vision of dialogue and negotiations to deal with gang violence. However, the different generations are not predefined within time and third generation initiatives can also be followed up by first generation initiatives, which was for example the case in the gang truce in El Salvador. Also, comparative gang research includes challenges, especially when the gang phenomenon in one country is better researched and documented than in other countries. As such, we were unable to identify politically-driven initiatives in the DRC to compare with the ones in El Salvador. Further research is thus required. With this paper we not only aim to contribute to the literature on gang violence prevention and reduction initiatives, we also want to push researchers, practitioners and policymakers to look beyond the borders when setting up gang (violence) prevention and rehabilitation projects, and to learn from other regions where similar initiatives have been implemented to deal with comparable issues of gang violence.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9316-5
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Human trafficking and criminal proceedings in Portugal: discourses of
           professionals in the justice system
    • Authors: Marlene Matos; Mariana Gonçalves; Ângela Maia
      Pages: 370 - 400
      Abstract: Since the adoption of the UN Trafficking Protocol in 2000, the predominant approach to combat human trafficking has been based on the criminalization of traffickers in conjunction with a concern for victims’ protection. However, few empirical studies considered the effectiveness of those measures, which makes it difficult to understand why criminal cases of human trafficking generally result in few convictions. In Portugal, recent legislative changes have made the legal framework on human trafficking more comprehensive, inclusive and convergent with European directives. The effects of the implementation of those legislative changes on investigation and prosecution are still overlooked. The present study analyses the discourses of justice system professionals that concern the investigation and prosecution of human trafficking. It examines and identifies the factors that, in their perspective, block the recognition of the typifying elements of the crime of human trafficking and create obstacles to the prosecution and conviction of those crimes. Our findings suggest that legislative advances recognized by the participants need to be accompanied by other changes, some of a more systemic nature and others that are more specific. An efficient criminal procedure should include better legal phrasing of the means of evidence of human trafficking that is supported by objective instruments for this to be considered valid; the centralization of proof that the testimony of the victim has to overcome; specialized professional training of an ongoing nature; an efficient cooperation between the various law enforcement agencies at the national and international levels, with public prosecution services and magistrates; a greater clarification of the condition of the special vulnerability of victims and an informed perspective regarding the global nature of the phenomenon of human trafficking, one that is also sensitive towards the victim (e.g., in relation to the victims’ vulnerability, illegal status, and their difficulties in terms of social and cultural integration).
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9317-4
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • EULEX and the fight against organised crime in Kosovo: what’s the
           record'
    • Authors: Joschka J. Proksik
      Pages: 401 - 425
      Abstract: Staffed by international police officers, prosecutors and judges, EULEX was mandated to strengthen Kosovo’s domestic rule-of-law institutions and endowed with executive authority to ensure that high-level criminal cases, including organised crime, are properly investigated and prosecuted. Yet, after more than nine years of operation, EULEX has proven largely ineffective in using its executive authority to counter organised crime and its capacity-building efforts have not led to significant local improvements in this area. Insufficient framework conditions shaped by years of impunity for politico-criminal power structures prevent capacity-building efforts from taking effect as local rule-of-law institutions remain hesitant and timid to investigate and prosecute high-level criminals. It is argued that EULEX’s own conduct and weak executive performance has severely undermined the mission’s efforts to strengthen local law enforcement through capacity-building.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9321-8
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Merely a transit country' Examining the role of Uganda in the
           transnational illegal ivory trade
    • Authors: Siv Rebekka Runhovde
      Pages: 215 - 234
      Abstract: Uganda is repeatedly implicated in the illegal ivory trade as a transit territory for ivory destined for Asia. Interviews with law enforcement officers reveal that the size of seizures and means of concealment and transportation are varied, showing diversity in the trade’s level of organization and sophistication. Arguably, considerable processing takes place within Uganda in terms of stockpiling, repacking and organization of exports but investigations rarely lead to prosecution and conviction of those responsible. Findings demonstrate the intricate role and responsibility of transit countries and illustrate how the transnational ivory trade operates locally.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-016-9299-7
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Fragmentation and cooperation: the evolution of organized crime in Mexico
    • Authors: Laura H. Atuesta; Yocelyn Samantha Pérez-Dávila
      Pages: 235 - 261
      Abstract: Some researchers suggest that the observed boom in the levels of violence in Mexico since 2008 are a consequence of placing federal military forces in states with a significant organized crime presence. However, little has been said about the role of the changeable, competitive, and violent nature of criminal organizations on this increasing violence. Using the literature on inter- and intra-state conflicts as matter of analogy to explain organized crime developments in Mexico, fragmentation and cooperation seem to be determinant forces that alter the equilibrium within Mexican criminal groups, affecting their territorial control. By using a private dataset gathered by the Drug Policy Program at the Center for Economic Research and Teaching (CIDE), we examine the evolution of criminal organizations in Mexico by focusing on their different alliances and fragmentations from December 2006 to December 2011. Our analysis suggests that violence is a consequence not only of the law enforcement actions, but also of the fragmentation and cooperation within and between private groups.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9301-z
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Illegal gambling businesses & organized crime: an analysis of
           federal convictions
    • Authors: Jay S. Albanese
      Pages: 262 - 277
      Abstract: Illegal gambling operations have been alleged to support organized crime and victimize participants, rather than benefit them. This is said to occur through cheating in the games provided, defrauding the government of tax revenue, and funding other illicit and criminal activities. What has been missing is a systematic analysis of actual cases involving illegal gambling businesses to determine precisely who is involved, how these businesses operate, the nature of the threat posed, and the law enforcement response to it. The analysis reported here examines all federal convictions involving operation of illegal gambling businesses during a single year. There were more than 80 persons charged and convicted of participation in illegal gambling businesses, centered around 40 distinct enterprises. The results indicate that illegal gambling businesses in the United States are long-term operations consisting of four general types, and that enforcement of existing laws, particularly related to illegal online sports betting, are not working effectively.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-017-9302-y
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Review of Communities and Crime: An Enduring American Challenge . By
           Pamela Wilcox, Francis T. Cullen, and Ben Feldmeyer
    • Authors: Justin Kotzé
      Pages: 310 - 313
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-018-9336-9
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Alexandra Hall and Georgios Antonopoulos: Fake meds online: the internet
           and the transnational market in illicit pharmaceuticals
    • Authors: Thomas Raymen
      PubDate: 2018-11-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-018-9355-6
       
  • Brazilian criminal organizations as transnational violent non-state
           actors: a case study of the Primeiro Comando da Capital (PCC)
    • Authors: Marcos Alan S. V. Ferreira
      Abstract: This article aims to analyze the evolution of Brazilian criminal organization Primeiro Comando da Capital (PCC—First Command of the Capital), especially its transformation from a group advocating human rights to a transnational violent non-state actor. Created in the late 1990s by inmates at Taubate Prison, PCC is currently a key trigger of violence in South America. Since a massive attack performed in 2006 against security forces, the group continues to be highly operative, also coordinating drugs and arms smuggling in Brazil and abroad. A combination of sources supported this analysis of PCC’s evolution, mainly Brazilian official judicial minutes, NGOs reports, and news released from reputable sources. The article shows that PCC has gained strength in the 2010s, expanding illicit business operations in cooperation with other criminal groups. The results suggest that PCC’s expansion has changed significantly since their beginnings, into an actor that poses a challenge for the building of peaceful society in all of South America.
      PubDate: 2018-11-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-018-9354-7
       
  • New trends in cross-border organised crime: Bulgaria and Norway in the
           context of the migrant crisis
    • PubDate: 2018-10-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-018-9353-8
       
  • A mixed methods social network analysis of a cross-border drug network:
           the Fernando Sanchez organization (FSO)
    • Authors: Nathan P. Jones; W. Layne Dittmann; Jun Wu; Tyler Reese
      Abstract: This study is a mixed methods case study of the Fernando Sanchez Organization (FSO) better known as the Tijuana Cartel in the 2008–2010 period, aimed at better understanding internal structures and the roles of individuals in crossborder polydrug networks under pressures from rivals and state leadership targeting. In addition to historical archival data to build a qualitative case study, it uses arrest warrant data (an emergency wiretap application and a Racketeering Influenced Corrupt Organizations Act or RICO indictment) from the FSO drug network investigation in order to visualize the structure of the cross border network and to explore research questions regarding the relationship between actor centrality/network topography metrics and variables of interest including organizational role, age, gender, number of prior arrests, location of criminal activity, and location of residence using social network analysis (SNA). Findings included: narcotics distributors, drug couriers, and enforcers for the network all had higher centrality in the network, age was only slightly negatively correlated with eigenvector centrality, gender had no bearing on centrality, the number of prior arrests also had no bearing on degree or betweenness centrality, but did positively correlate with eigenvector centrality. Findings also demonstrated faction subgroup analysis had considerable overlap with both law-enforcement-reported-address and location of criminal activity (coded as actor attributes). This finding suggests it may be possible to predict the location of criminal activity and residence through faction analysis in other binational trafficking networks.
      PubDate: 2018-10-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-018-9352-9
       
  • Business cartels and organised crime: exclusive and inclusive systems of
           collusion
    • Authors: J. D. Jaspers
      Abstract: In this article, two case studies of large-scale bid rigging in the construction industry in Canada and the Netherlands are analysed to explore why business cartels sometimes do and sometimes do not involve organised crime. By combining concepts from both organised crime and organisational crime, an integrated understanding of the organisation of serious crimes for gain is applied. Across time and space, businesses in the construction industry are known to fix prices, use collusive tendering and divide market shares in illegal cartel agreements. In order to stabilise cartels, participants need to ward off new competitors and prevent cheating within the cartel. The question why we see a system of collusion involving organised crime and violence in Canada as opposed to the Netherlands is answered through analysing two comparable cases. This article finds two systems of bid rigging emerge under different cultural conditions: inclusive and exclusive collusion. The exclusive system makes use of the violent reputation provided by criminal groups and distinguishes from the inclusive system that uses sophisticated administration of mutual claims in shadow bookkeeping.
      PubDate: 2018-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-018-9350-y
       
  • Working for free illegal employment practices, ‘off the books’ work
           and the continuum of legality within the service economy
    • Authors: Anthony Lloyd
      Abstract: Much of the literature on illegal labour focuses on the exploitation of illegal migrants and, by extension, the trafficking and smuggling networks that transport them to destination countries. Using evidence from two projects that investigated working conditions in the formal service economy, the paper presents evidence of ‘off the books’ work, illegal employment practices such as denial of benefits and the minimum wage, as well as work trials where labour is exploited for free. By considering political economic imperatives, this paper argues that employees in both the formal and informal economy are dispossessed of rights, pay, benefits and security in order for employers to profit by surplus value and the circulation of capital. The real ‘organised crime’ of illegal labour is neoliberal political economy and its decimation of employment protection.
      PubDate: 2018-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12117-018-9351-x
       
 
 
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