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Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Journal Prestige (SJR): 8.634
Citation Impact (citeScore): 10
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ISSN (Print) 0169-5347
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3184 journals]
  • Long-Distance Marine Connectivity: Poorly Understood but Potentially
           Important
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Stéphanie Manel, Nicolas Loiseau, Oscar Puebla
       
  • Untangling the Multiple Ecological Radiations of Early Mammals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): David M. Grossnickle, Stephanie M. Smith, Gregory P. WilsonThe ecological diversification of early mammals is one of the most globally transformative events in Earth’s history and the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution (KTR) and end-Cretaceous mass extinction are commonly hailed as catalysts. However, a confounding issue when examining this diversification is that it comprised nested radiations of mammalian subclades within the broader scope of mammalian evolution. In the past 200 million years, various independent groups experienced large-scale radiations, each involving ecological diversification from ancestral lineages of small insectivores; examples include Jurassic mammaliaforms, Late Cretaceous metatherians, and Cenozoic placentals. Here, we review these ecological radiations, highlighting the nuanced complexity of early mammal evolution, the value of ecomorphological fossil data, and the importance of phylogenetic context in macroevolutionary studies.
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s):
       
  • Subscription page e-only
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s):
       
  • Temporal Instability of Evidence Base: A Threat to Policy Making'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Julia Koricheva, Elena KulinskayaA shift towards evidence-based conservation and environmental management over the last two decades has resulted in an increased use of systematic reviews and meta-analyses as tools to combine existing scientific evidence. However, to guide policy making decisions in conservation and management, the conclusions of meta-analyses need to remain stable for at least some years. Alarmingly, numerous recent studies indicate that the magnitude, statistical significance, and even the sign of the effects reported in the literature might change over relatively short time periods. We argue that such rapid temporal changes in cumulative evidence represent a real threat to policy making in conservation and environmental management and call for systematic monitoring of temporal changes in evidence and exploration of their causes.
       
  • Balancing the Benefits of Optimism and Pessimism in Conservation: a
           Response to Kidd, Bekessy, and Garrad
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Dominic McAfee, Sean D. Connell
       
  • Shell Loss in Cephalopods: Trigger for, or By-Product of, the Evolution of
           Intelligence' A Reply to Mollo et al.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Piero Amodio, Markus Boeckle, Alexandra K. Schnell, Ljerka Ostojic, Graziano Fiorito, Nicola S. Clayton
       
  • The Early Origin of Feathers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Michael J. Benton, Danielle Dhouailly, Baoyu Jiang, Maria McNamaraFeathers have long been regarded as the innovation that drove the success of birds. However, feathers have been reported from close dinosaurian relatives of birds, and now from ornithischian dinosaurs and pterosaurs, the cousins of dinosaurs. Incomplete preservation makes these reports controversial. If true, these findings shift the origin of feathers back 80 million years before the origin of birds. Gene regulatory networks show the deep homology of scales, feathers, and hairs. Hair and feathers likely evolved in the Early Triassic ancestors of mammals and birds, at a time when synapsids and archosaurs show independent evidence of higher metabolic rates (erect gait and endothermy), as part of a major resetting of terrestrial ecosystems following the devastating end-Permian mass extinction.
       
  • Can Environmental RNA Revolutionize Biodiversity Science'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Melania E. CristescuThe use of environmental RNA (eRNA) for species identification remains unexplored due to the observation that in vitro RNA is much less stable than DNA. However, recent lines of evidence suggest that RNA may be abundantly excreted by organisms and sufficiently persistent in the environment to reconstruct community composition and gene expression.
       
  • Connectivity Is Generally Not Important for Marine Reserve Planning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Mark J. Costello, David W. Connor
       
  • Using Network Theory to Understand and Predict Biological Invasions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Carol M. Frost, Warwick J. Allen, Franck Courchamp, Jonathan M. Jeschke, Wolf-Christian Saul, David A. WardleUnderstanding and predicting biological invasions is challenging because of the complexity of many interacting players. A holistic approach is needed with the potential to simultaneously consider all relevant effects and effectors. Using networks to describe the relevant anthropogenic and ecological factors, from community-level to global scales, promises advances in understanding aspects of invasion from propagule pressure, through establishment, spread, and ecological impact of invaders. These insights could lead to development of new tools for prevention and management of invasions that are based on species’ network characteristics and use of networks to predict the ecological effects of invaders. Here, we review the findings from network ecology that show the most promise for invasion biology and identify pressing needs for future research.
       
  • Making Evolutionary Sense of Gaia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): W. Ford DoolittleThe Gaia hypothesis in a strong and frequently criticized form assumes that global homeostatic mechanisms have evolved by natural selection favoring the maintenance of conditions suitable for life. Traditional neoDarwinists hold this to be impossible in theory. But the hypothesis does make sense if one treats the clade that comprises the biological component of Gaia as an individual and allows differential persistence – as well as differential reproduction – to be an outcome of evolution by natural selection. Recent developments in theoretical and experimental evolutionary biology may justify both maneuvers.
       
  • Epigenetics of Social Behaviour
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Frank Seebacher, Jens KrauseMany animals occur in groups, and the ecology and evolution of populations and species are intrinsically linked to group function and social behaviour. Here we summarise recent data showing that the biotic and abiotic environments can have far-reaching consequences for social behaviour via epigenetic mechanisms that modify physiological processes. The environment affects the physiology of individuals via epigenetic mechanisms and individual physiology influences conspecific interactions. At a higher level of organisation, these conspecific interactions can scale up to social states of groups and affect populations by altering dispersal and gene flow. Future research should focus on determining empirically the range of contexts within which epigenetic mechanisms can heritably alter social interactions and document their effects on populations.
       
  • Evolving Musicality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Andrea Ravignani, Marco Gamba
       
  • Coevolution of Genome Architecture and Social Behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Dustin R. Rubenstein, J. Arvid Ågren, Lucia Carbone, Nels C. Elde, Hopi E. Hoekstra, Karen M. Kapheim, Laurent Keller, Corrie S. Moreau, Amy L. Toth, Sam Yeaman, Hans A. HofmannAlthough social behavior can have a strong genetic component, it can also result in selection on genome structure and function, thereby influencing the evolution of the genome itself. Here we explore the bidirectional links between social behavior and genome architecture by considering variation in social and/or mating behavior among populations (social polymorphisms) and across closely related species. We propose that social behavior can influence genome architecture via associated demographic changes due to social living. We establish guidelines to exploit emerging whole-genome sequences using analytical approaches that examine genome structure and function at different levels (regulatory vs structural variation) from the perspective of both molecular biology and population genetics in an ecological context.
       
  • Integrating Proximal and Horizon Threats to Biodiversity for Conservation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Timothy C. Bonebrake, Fengyi Guo, Caroline Dingle, David M. Baker, Roger L. Kitching, Louise A. AshtonGlobal conservation promotes solutions to different dimensions of threat and response: land-use change, climate change, pollution, and so forth. Countering each threat has its band of proponents who advocate for their cause as paramount, increasingly, given limited resources, by downplaying the relative importance of others. Not only does this encourage a compartmentalised view of the world, which is ecologically unsound, it allows politicians and others to cherry-pick responses in light of political expediency or local demands. We should instead aim to achieve win–win conservation strategies that address multiple threats to diversity acting at different timescales, as well as ‘horizon threats’, which occur at large scales and may be the most challenging conservation issues to address in both the present and the future.
       
  • Can Intelligence Gradually Evolve in a Shell'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Ernesto Mollo, Pietro Amodeo, Michael T. Ghiselin
       
  • The Role of Vegetated Coastal Wetlands for Marine Megafauna Conservation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Michael Sievers, Christopher J. Brown, Vivitskaia J.D. Tulloch, Ryan M. Pearson, Jodie A. Haig, Mischa P. Turschwell, Rod M. ConnollyHabitat loss is accelerating a global extinction crisis. Conservation requires understanding links between species and habitats. Emerging research is revealing important associations between vegetated coastal wetlands and marine megafauna, such as cetaceans, sea turtles, and sharks. But these links have not been reviewed and the importance of these globally declining habitats is undervalued. Here, we identify associations for 102 marine megafauna species that utilize these habitats, increasing the number of species with associations based on current International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) species assessments by 59% to 174, accounting for over 13% of all marine megafauna. We conclude that coastal wetlands require greater protection to support marine megafauna, and present a simple, effective framework to improve the inclusion of habitat associations within species assessments.
       
  • Breaking the Habit(at)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Nicholas C. Coops, Michael A. WulderEarth Observation has revolutionised the mapping of species; however, habitat maps are often categorical, static representations of reality that result in issues relating to accurate change estimation and application to multiple species. We must break the habit of simplistic discrete classes of habitat and derive continuous, interval value, change-sensitive, habitat descriptions with an ability to drive hypotheses.
       
  • When Do Ecosystem Services Depend on Rare Species'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Laura E. Dee, Jane Cowles, Forest Isbell, Stephanie Pau, Steven D. Gaines, Peter B. ReichConservation aims to preserve species and ecosystem services. If rare species contribute little to ecosystem services, yet are those most in need of preservation, tradeoffs may exist for these contrasting objectives. However, little attention has focused on identifying how, when, and where rare species contribute to ecosystem services and at what scales. Here, we review distinct ways that ecosystem services can positively depend on the presence, abundance, disproportionate contribution or, counterintuitively, the scarcity of rare species. By contrast, ecosystem services are less likely to depend on rare species that do not have a unique role in any service or become abundant enough to contribute substantially. We propose a research agenda to identify when rare species may contribute significantly to services.
       
  • Ecology and Evolution: Haeckel’s Darwinian Paradigm
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Elizabeth Watts, Uwe Hoßfeld, Georgy S. LevitErnst Haeckel coined the term ecology in the process of Darwinizing our understanding of nature. His concept of ecology was part of a theoretical system embracing development, evolution, and environment. We outline Haeckel’s views on ecology as an evolutionary science and demonstrate their importance for current theoretical developments.
       
  • Genome Evolution of Coral Reef Symbionts as Intracellular Residents
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Raúl A. González-Pech, Debashish Bhattacharya, Mark A. Ragan, Cheong Xin ChanCoral reefs are sustained by symbioses between corals and symbiodiniacean dinoflagellates. These symbioses vary in the extent of their permanence in and specificity to the host. Although dinoflagellates are primarily free-living, Symbiodiniaceae diversified mainly as symbiotic lineages. Their genomes reveal conserved symbiosis-related gene functions and high sequence divergence. However, the evolutionary mechanisms that underpin the transition from the free-living lifestyle to symbiosis remain poorly understood. Here, we discuss the genome evolution of Symbiodiniaceae in diverse ecological niches across the broad spectrum of symbiotic associations, from free-living to putative obligate symbionts. We pose key questions regarding genome evolution vis-à-vis the transition of dinoflagellates from free-living to symbiotic and propose strategies for future research to better understand coral–dinoflagellate and other eukaryote–eukaryote symbioses.
       
  • Using Networks to Connect Individual-Level Reproductive Behavior to
           Population Patterns
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Rebecca J. Safran, Iris I. Levin, Bailey K. Fosdick, Molly T. McDermott, Georgy А. Semenov, Amanda K. Hund, Elizabeth S.C. Scordato, Sheela P. TurbekWe propose an application of network analysis to determine which traits and behaviors predict fertilizations within and between populations. This approach quantifies how reproductive behavior between individuals shapes patterns of selection and gene flow, filling an important gap in our understanding of the connection between evolutionary processes and emergent patterns.
       
  • An Ecological Framework for Modeling the Geography of Disease Transmission
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Erica E. Johnson, Luis E. Escobar, Carlos Zambrana-TorrelioEcological niche modeling (ENM) is widely employed in ecology to predict species’ potential geographic distributions in relation to their environmental constraints and is rapidly becoming the gold-standard method for disease risk mapping. However, given the biological complexity of disease systems, the traditional ENM framework requires reevaluation. We provide an overview of the application of ENM to disease systems and propose a theoretical framework based on the biological properties of both hosts and parasites to produce reliable outputs resembling disease system distributions. Additionally, we discuss the differences between biological considerations when implementing ENM for distributional ecology and epidemiology. This new framework will help the field of disease ecology and applications of biogeography in the epidemiology of infectious diseases.
       
  • Uncovering Ecological Patterns with Convolutional Neural Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Philip G. Brodrick, Andrew B. Davies, Gregory P. AsnerUsing remotely sensed imagery to identify biophysical components across landscapes is an important avenue of investigation for ecologists studying ecosystem dynamics. With high-resolution remotely sensed imagery, algorithmic utilization of image context is crucial for accurate identification of biophysical components at large scales. In recent years, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have become ubiquitous in image processing, and are rapidly becoming more common in ecology. Because the quantity of high-resolution remotely sensed imagery continues to rise, CNNs are increasingly essential tools for large-scale ecosystem analysis. We discuss here the conceptual advantages of CNNs, demonstrate how they can be used by ecologists through distinct examples of their application, and provide a walkthrough of how to use them for ecological applications.
       
  • Biocultural Hysteresis Inhibits Adaptation to Environmental Change
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): P.O’B. Lyver, P. Timoti, T. Davis, J.M. TylianakisIndigenous peoples and local communities (IPLC) often use natural resources as both a reason and mechanism for environmental management, yet a number of environmental, social, and economic drivers disrupt this relationship. Here, we argue that these drivers can also trigger a set of feedback mechanisms that further diminish the efficacy of local management. We call this process biocultural hysteresis. These feedbacks, which include knowledge loss and a breakdown of social hierarchies, prevent IPLC from adapting their management to change. Biocultural hysteresis worsens as IPLC spend an increasing amount of time outside their social–ecological context. Therefore, we argue for adaptive policies and processes that favour protecting and enabling IPLC engagement with their environment.
       
  • Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics of Sexual Dimorphism
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): David C. Fryxell, Doriane E. Weiler, Michael T. Kinnison, Eric P. PalkovacsSexual dimorphism is widespread, but we have a limited understanding of its significance for communities and ecosystems. Several new experiments demonstrate that sexual dimorphism can have far-reaching ecological effects. These results suggest that sexual dimorphism and sexual selection are potent, but largely overlooked components of eco-evolutionary dynamics.
       
  • The Conservation of Native Honey Bees Is Crucial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Fabrice Requier, Lionel Garnery, Patrick L. Kohl, Henry K. Njovu, Christian W.W. Pirk, Robin M. Crewe, Ingolf Steffan-DewenterRecent studies have emphasized the role of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, as a managed agricultural species worldwide, but also as a potential threat to endangered wild pollinators. This has resulted in the suggestion that honey bees should be regulated in natural areas to conserve wild pollinators. We argue that this perspective fails to appreciate the multifaceted nature of honey bees as native or introduced species with either managed or wild colonies. Wild populations of A. mellifera are currently imperiled, and natural areas are critical for the conservation of local subspecies and genotypes. We propose that a differentiation between managed and wild populations is required and encourage integrated conservation planning for all endangered wild bees, including A. mellifera.
       
  • Ecological Data Should Not Be So Hard to Find and Reuse
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Timothée Poisot, Anne Bruneau, Andrew Gonzalez, Dominique Gravel, Pedro Peres-NetoDrawing upon the data deposited in publicly shared archives has the potential to transform the way we conduct ecological research. For this transformation to happen, we argue that data need to be more interoperable and easier to discover. One way to achieve these goals is to adopt domain-specific data representations.
       
  • Better Model Transfers Require Knowledge of Mechanisms
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Phil J. Bouchet, A. Townsend Peterson, Damaris Zurell, Carsten F. Dormann, David Schoeman, Rebecca E. Ross, Paul Snelgrove, Ana M.M. Sequeira, Mark J. Whittingham, Lifei Wang, Giovanni Rapacciuolo, Steffen Oppel, Camille Mellin, Valentina Lauria, Periyadan K. Krishnakumar, Alice R. Jones, Stefan Heinänen, Risto K. Heikkinen, Edward J. Gregr, Alan H. Fielding
       
  • Call-to-Action: A Global Consortium for Tropical Cyclone Ecology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Jonathan N. Pruitt, Alexander G. Little, Sharanya J. Majumdar, Thomas W. Schoener, David N. FisherRigorously evaluating of the ecological impacts of cyclones is logistically challenging. Here we issue a call-to-action to organize a global collaboration initiative to advance cyclone ecology. If successful, this will allow the international community to pose some of the most exciting questions in ecology and provide definitive answers.
       
  • Evidence Types and Trends in Tropical Forest Conservation Literature
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Z. Burivalova, D. Miteva, N. Salafsky, R.A. Butler, D.S. WilcoveTo improve the likelihood of conservation success, donors, policy makers, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and researchers are increasingly interested in making conservation decisions based on scientific evidence. A major challenge in doing so has been the wide variability in the methodological rigor of existing studies. We present a simple framework to classify different types of conservation evidence, which can be used to understand the strengths, weaknesses, and biases in the conservation effectiveness literature. We then apply this framework to evaluate the evidence for the efficacy of four important strategies in tropical forest conservation. Even though there has been an increase in methodologically rigorous studies over time, countries that are globally important in terms of their biodiversity are still heavily under-represented by any type of conservation effectiveness evidence.
       
  • Experimental Evolution of Innovation and Novelty
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Rees KassenHow does novelty, a new, genetically based function, evolve' A compelling answer has been elusive because there are few model systems where both the genetic mechanisms generating novel functions and the ecological conditions that govern their origin and spread can be studied in detail. This review article considers what we have learned about the evolution of novelty from microbial selection experiments. This work reveals that the genetic routes to novelty can be more highly variable than standard models have led us to believe and underscores the importance of considering both genetics and ecology in this process.
       
  • Aposematism: Unpacking the Defences
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Tim Caro, Graeme RuxtonAposematic coloration is commonly considered to signal unpalatability, yet animals advertise malodour, spines, and weaponry as well as toxins, some of which can be seen at a distance whereas others are hidden from predators. Separating defences into overt and covert categories in this way and whether they act before, during contact, or following ingestion generates new insights into the evolution of aposematism. Signals drawing attention to overt defences are difficult to fake whereas signals advertising covert defences can deceive would-be predators, and those acting later in the predatory sequence are more likely to be dishonest. These two orthogonal defence categorizations help to frame where dishonest signalling occurs in nature, set limits on deception by dishonest Batesian mimics, and prompt new questions.
       
  • Basic Principles of Temporal Dynamics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Masahiro Ryo, Carlos A. Aguilar-Trigueros, Liliana Pinek, Ludo A.H. Muller, Matthias C. RilligAll ecological disciplines consider temporal dynamics, although relevant concepts have been developed almost independently. We here introduce basic principles of temporal dynamics in ecology. We figured out essential features that describe temporal dynamics by finding similarities among about 60 ecological concepts and theories. We found that considering the hierarchically nested structure of complexity in temporal patterns (i.e. hierarchical complexity) can well describe the fundamental nature of temporal dynamics by expressing which patterns are observed at each scale. Across all ecological levels, driver–response relationships can be temporally variant and dependent on both short- and long-term past conditions. The framework can help with designing experiments, improving predictive power of statistics, and enhancing communications among ecological disciplines.
       
  • Subscription and Copyright Info
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 34, Issue 5Author(s):
       
  • The Role of Mutation Bias in Adaptive Evolution
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 34, Issue 5Author(s): Erik I. Svensson, David BergerMutational input is the ultimate source of genetic variation, but mutations are not thought to affect the direction of adaptive evolution. Recently, critics of standard evolutionary theory have questioned the random and non-directional nature of mutations, claiming that the mutational process can be adaptive in its own right. We discuss here mutation bias in adaptive evolution. We find little support for mutation bias as an independent force in adaptive evolution, although it can interact with selection under conditions of small population size and when standing genetic variation is limited, entirely consistent with standard evolutionary theory. We further emphasize that natural selection can shape the phenotypic effects of mutations, giving the false impression that directed mutations are driving adaptive evolution.
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 34, Issue 5Author(s):
       
  • The Impact of Mutualisms on Species Richness
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Guillaume Chomicki, Marjorie Weber, Alexandre Antonelli, Jordi Bascompte, E. Toby KiersMutualisms – cooperative interactions among different species – are known to influence global biodiversity. Nevertheless, theoretical and empirical work has led to divergent hypotheses about how mutualisms modulate diversity. We ask here when and how mutualisms influence species richness. Our synthesis suggests that mutualisms can promote or restrict species richness depending on mutualist function, the level of partner dependence, and the specificity of the partnership. These characteristics, which themselves are influenced by environmental and geographic variables, regulate species richness at different scales by modulating speciation, extinction, and community coexistence. Understanding the relative impact of these mechanisms on species richness will require the integration of new phylogenetic comparative models as well as the manipulation and monitoring of experimental communities and their resulting interaction networks.
       
  • A User’s Guide to Metaphors In Ecology and Evolution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Mark E. Olson, Alfonso Arroyo-Santos, Francisco Vergara-SilvaBiologists energetically debate terminology in ecology and evolution, but rarely discuss general strategies for resolving these debates. We suggest focusing on metaphors, arguing that, rather than looking down on metaphors, biologists should embrace these terms as the powerful tools they are. Like any powerful tool, metaphors need to be used mindful of their limitations. We give guidance for recognizing metaphors and summarize their major limitations, which are hiding of important biological detail, ongoing vagueness rather than increasing precision, and seeming real rather than figurative. By keeping these limitations in mind, metaphors like adaptive radiation, adaptive landscape, biological invasion, and the ecological niche can be used to their full potential, powering scientific insight without driving research off the rails.
       
  • Integrated Approaches to Studying Male and Female Thermal Fertility Limits
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Benjamin S. Walsh, Steven R. Parratt, David Atkinson, Rhonda R. Snook, Amanda Bretman, Tom A.R. Price
       
  • The Adaptive Sex in Stressful Environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Benjamin Geffroy, Mathieu DouhardThe impact of early stress on juvenile development has intrigued scientists for decades, but the adaptive significance of such effects remains an ongoing debate. This debate has largely ignored some characteristics of the offspring, such as their sex, despite strong evolutionary and demographic implications of sex-ratio variation. We review recent studies that examine associations between glucocorticoids (GCs), the main class of stress hormones, and offspring sex. Whereas exposure to GCs at around the time of sex determination in fish consistently produces males, the extent and direction of sex-ratio bias in response to stress vary in reptiles, birds, and mammals. We propose proximate and ultimate explanations for most of these trends.
       
  • What Is Gender Equality in Science'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Katherine R. O’Brien, Milena Holmgren, Terrance Fitzsimmons, Margaret E. Crane, Paul Maxwell, Brian HeadWhy do inequalities persist between male and female scientists, when the causes are well-researched and widely condemned' In part, because equality has many dimensions. Presenting eight definitions of gender equality, we show each is important but incomplete. Rigid application of any single equality indicator can therefore have perverse outcomes.
       
  • Sex-Specific Differences in Thermal Fertility Limits
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Graziella IossaCritical thermal limits (CTLs) are established viability thresholds when studying the impact of climate change on natural populations. Novel thermal fertility limits (TFLs) of species have been proposed alongside CTLs, to better assess the sublethal effects of rising temperatures on species persistence. However, sex-specific sensitivity of fertility to temperature also needs consideration.
       
  • Six Impossible Things before Breakfast: Assumptions, Models, and Belief in
           Molecular Dating
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Lindell BromhamConfidence in molecular dating analyses has grown with the increasing sophistication of the methods. Some problematic cases where molecular dates disagreed with paleontological estimates appear to have been resolved with a growing agreement between molecules and fossils. But we cannot relax just yet. The growing analytical sophistication of many molecular dating methods relies on an increasingly large number of assumptions about evolutionary history and processes. Many of these assumptions are based on statistical tractability rather than being informed by improved understanding of molecular evolution, yet changing the assumptions can influence molecular dates. How can we tell if the answers we get are driven more by the assumptions we make than by the molecular data being analyzed'
       
  • Aquatic Landscape Genomics and Environmental Effects on Genetic Variation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Jared A. Grummer, Luciano B. Beheregaray, Louis Bernatchez, Brian K. Hand, Gordon Luikart, Shawn R. Narum, Eric B. TaylorAquatic species represent a vast diversity of metazoans, provide humans with the most abundant animal protein source, and are of increasing conservation concern, yet landscape genomics is dominated by research in terrestrial systems. We provide researchers with a roadmap to plan aquatic landscape genomics projects by aggregating spatial and software resources and offering recommendations from sampling to data production and analyses, while cautioning against analytical pitfalls. Given the unique properties of water, we discuss the importance of considering freshwater system structure and marine abiotic properties when assessing genetic diversity, population connectivity, and signals of natural selection. When possible, genomic datasets should be parsed into neutral, adaptive, and sex-linked datasets to generate the most accurate inferences of eco-evolutionary processes.
       
  • Dynamic Relationships between Information Transmission and Social
           Connections
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Ipek G. Kulahci, John L. QuinnUnderstanding the drivers of sociality is a major goal in biology. Individual differences in social connections determine the overall group structure and have consequences for a variety of processes, including if and when individuals acquire information from conspecifics. Effects in the opposite direction, where information acquisition and transmission have consequences for social connections, are also likely to be widespread. However, these effects are typically overlooked. We propose that individuals who successfully learn about their environment become valuable social partners and become highly connected, leading to feedback-based dynamic relationships between social connections and information transmission. These dynamics have the potential to change our understanding of social evolution, including how selection acts on behavior and how sociality influences population-level processes.
       
  • What Explains Latitudinal Diversity Gradients'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Matthew W. Pennell
       
  • Predator–Prey Interactions in the Anthropocene: Reconciling Multiple
           Aspects of Novelty
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Peter W. Guiden, Savannah L. Bartel, Nathan W. Byer, Amy A. Shipley, John L. OrrockEcological novelty, when conditions deviate from a historical baseline, is increasingly common as humans modify habitats and communities across the globe. Our ability to anticipate how novelty changes predator–prey interactions will likely hinge upon the explicit evaluation of multiple forms of novelty, rather than a focus on single forms of novelty (e.g., invasive predators or climate change). We provide a framework to assess how multiple forms of novelty can act, alone or in concert, on components shared by all predator–prey interactions (the predation sequence). Considering how novelty acts throughout the predation sequence could improve our understanding of predator–prey interactions in an increasingly novel world, identify important knowledge gaps, and guide conservation decisions in the Anthropocene.
       
  • How Does the Scientific ‘Circus’ Work'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Marten Winter
       
  • How Carefully Executed Network Theory Informs Invasion Ecology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Axel G. Rossberg, György Barabás
       
  • A Combinatorial View on Speciation and Adaptive Radiation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): David A. Marques, Joana I. Meier, Ole SeehausenSpeciation is often thought of as a slow process due to the waiting times for mutations that cause incompatibilities, and permit ecological differentiation or assortative mating. Cases of rapid speciation and particularly cases of rapid adaptive radiation into multiple sympatric species have remained somewhat mysterious. We review recent findings from speciation genomics that reveal an emerging commonality among such cases: reassembly of old genetic variation into new combinations facilitating rapid speciation and adaptive radiation. The polymorphisms in old variants frequently originated from hybridization at some point in the past. We discuss why old variants are particularly good fuel for rapid speciation, and hypothesize that variation in access to such old variants might contribute to the large variation in speciation rates observed in nature.
       
  • Beyond Migration: Causes and Consequences of Nomadic Animal Movements
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Claire S. Teitelbaum, Thomas MuellerRecent advances in animal tracking reveal that many species display irregular movements that do not fall into classical categories of movement patterns such as range residency or migration. Here, we develop a unifying framework that distinguishes these nomadic movements based on their patterns, drivers, and mechanisms. Though they occur in diverse taxa and geographic regions, nomadic movements are united by both their underlying environmental drivers, mainly environmental stochasticity, and the resulting irregular, far-ranging movement patterns. The framework further classifies types of nomadic movements, including full, seasonal, phase, irruptive, and partial nomadism. Nomadic movements can have unique effects on populations, communities, and ecosystems, most notably providing intermittent disturbances and novel introductions of propagules.
       
  • Translating Marine Animal Tracking Data into Conservation Policy and
           Management
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Graeme C. Hays, Helen Bailey, Steven J. Bograd, W. Don Bowen, Claudio Campagna, Ruth H. Carmichael, Paolo Casale, Andre Chiaradia, Daniel P. Costa, Eduardo Cuevas, P.J. Nico de Bruyn, Maria P. Dias, Carlos M. Duarte, Daniel C. Dunn, Peter H. Dutton, Nicole Esteban, Ari Friedlaender, Kimberly T. Goetz, Brendan J. Godley, Patrick N. HalpinThere have been efforts around the globe to track individuals of many marine species and assess their movements and distribution, with the putative goal of supporting their conservation and management. Determining whether, and how, tracking data have been successfully applied to address real-world conservation issues is, however, difficult. Here, we compile a broad range of case studies from diverse marine taxa to show how tracking data have helped inform conservation policy and management, including reductions in fisheries bycatch and vessel strikes, and the design and administration of marine protected areas and important habitats. Using these examples, we highlight pathways through which the past and future investment in collecting animal tracking data might be better used to achieve tangible conservation benefits.
       
  • Causes and Consequences of Phenotypic Plasticity in Complex Environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): David. F. Westneat, Leslie J. Potts, Katherine L. Sasser, James D. ShafferPhenotypic plasticity is a ubiquitous and necessary adaptation of organisms to variable environments, but most environments have multiple dimensions that vary. Many studies have documented plasticity of a trait with respect to variation in multiple environmental factors. Such multidimensional phenotypic plasticity (MDPP) exists at all levels of organismal organization, from the whole organism to within cells. This complexity in plasticity cannot be explained solely by scaling up ideas from models of unidimensional plasticity. MDPP generates new questions about the mechanism and function of plasticity and its role in speciation and population persistence. Here we review empirical and theoretical approaches to plasticity in response to multidimensional environments and we outline new opportunities along with some difficulties facing future research.
       
  • Shifting Paradigms for Studying Parasitism in Hybridising Hosts: Response
           to Theodosopoulos, Hund, and Taylor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Stuart J.E. Baird, Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq
       
  • Evolutionary Ecology of Senescence and a Reassessment of Williams’
           ‘Extrinsic Mortality’ Hypothesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Jacob Moorad, Daniel Promislow, Jonathan SilvertownThe evolutionary theory of senescence underpins research in life history evolution and the biology of aging. In 1957 G.C. Williams predicted that higher adult death rates select for earlier senescence and shorter length of life, but preadult mortality does not matter to the evolution of senescence. This was subsequently interpreted as predicting that senescence should be caused by ‘extrinsic’ sources of mortality. This idea still motivates empirical studies, although formal, mathematical theory shows it is wrong. It has nonetheless prospered because it offers an intuitive explanation for patterns observed in nature. We review the flaws in Williams’ model, explore alternative explanations for comparative patterns that are consistent with the evolutionary theory of senescence, and discuss how hypotheses based on it can be tested. We argue that focusing on how sources of mortality affect ages differently offers greater insight into evolutionary processes.
       
  • Community Physiological Ecology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Robin W. Warne, Sara G. Baer, Justin G. BoylesThe effects of animal homeostatic function on ecological interactions have not been well-integrated into community ecology. Animals mediate environmental change and stressors through homeostatic shifts in physiology and behavior, which likely shape ecological interactions and plant communities. Animal responses to stressors can alter their habitat use, selective foraging, and stoichiometry, which can in turn affect trophic interactions, plant growth, reproduction, and dispersal. Here, we describe a community physiological ecology framework that integrates classical ecological theory and emerging empirical approaches to test how animal homeostatic responses to environmental change mediate ecological interactions and shape communities. Interdisciplinary approaches could provide essential data to characterize and forecast community responses to rapid global environmental change.
       
  • Network Invasion as an Open Dynamical System: Response to Rossberg and
           Barabás
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Cang Hui, David M. Richardson
       
  • Appreciating the Multiple Processes Increasing Individual or Population
           Fitness
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Pim Edelaar, Daniel I. BolnickNatural selection results in adaptation for populations, not individuals. Yet environmental change can reduce the expected fitness of an individual. Selection will favor the evolution of traits that allow individuals to proactively compensate for such reduced fitness. Although several well-known processes can achieve this goal, they are still often neglected and often not clearly distinguished. To facilitate greater attention to the full range of processes by which individuals can increase their fitness, we present a classification scheme that integrates these: phenotypic change, selection of the environment, and adjustment of the environment. We outline how these individual-level processes relate to natural selection and population-level fitness. This framework may help to guide research (and teaching) about how individuals and populations may respond to environmental change.
       
  • Scientists Should Disclose Origin in Marine Gene Patents
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Robert Blasiak, Jean-Baptiste Jouffray, Colette C.C. Wabnitz, Henrik ÖsterblomUniversities are key players in the collection and commercialization of marine genetic resources. We argue that the research community can promote systematic disclosure of sample origin in patents, thereby taking a global responsibility for setting new norms of transparency that would influence ongoing policy processes and improve sharing of benefits.
       
  • Energy Flow in Growth and Production
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Andrew ClarkeGrowth involves two flows of energy: the chemical energy in the monomers used to construct the macromolecules that comprise tissue (proteins, nucleic acids, lipid membranes), and the metabolic energy used to build those macromolecules. The metabolic costs of synthesising the macromolecules necessary to build tissue are well defined, and we have a robust estimate of the overall cost of growth for an individual ectotherm. At the population level the cost of production appears to be much greater for endotherms than ectotherms, the reasons for which are not fully understood. These uncertainties are important to resolve if we wish to accurately model the flow of energy through populations or ecosystems because simply scaling up from individual energetics may produce misleading results.
       
  • Simulated Herbivory: The Key to Disentangling Plant Defence Responses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Jamie M. Waterman, Christopher I. Cazzonelli, Susan E. Hartley, Scott N. JohnsonPlants are subjected to a multitude of stimuli during insect herbivory, resulting in a complex and cumulative defence response. Breaking down the components of herbivory into specific stimuli and identifying the mechanisms of defence associated with them has thus far been challenging. Advances in our understanding of responses to inconspicuous stimuli, such as those induced by microbial symbionts in herbivore secretions and mechanical stimulation caused by insects, have illuminated the intricacies of herbivory. Here, we provide a synthesis of the interacting impacts of herbivory on plants and the consequential complexities associated with uncoupling defence responses. We propose that simulated herbivory should be used to complement true herbivory to decipher the mechanisms of insect herbivore-induced plant defence responses.
       
  • The Ecology of Nonecological Speciation and Nonadaptive Radiations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Jesse E. Czekanski-Moir, Rebecca J. RundellGrowing evidence for lineage diversification that occurs without strong ecological divergence (i.e., nonadaptive radiation) challenges assumptions about the buildup and maintenance of species in evolutionary radiations, particularly when ecologically similar and thus potentially competing species co-occur. Understanding nonadaptive radiations involves identifying conditions conducive to both the nonecological generation of species and the maintenance of co-occurring ecologically similar species. To borrow MacArthur’s [1] (Challenging Biological Problems 1972;253–259) form of inquiry, the ecology of nonadaptive radiations can be understood as follows: for species of type A, in environments of type B, nonadaptive radiations may emerge. We review purported cases of nonadaptive radiation and suggest properties of organisms, resources, and landscapes that might be conducive to their origin and maintenance. These properties include poor dispersal ability and the ephemerality and patchiness of resources.
       
  • A Critique of the Space-for-Time Substitution Practice in Community
           Ecology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Christian DamgaardThe space-for-time substitution assumption is often used implicitly for studying ecological processes in static spatial data sets. Since ecological processes occur in time, this practice is problematic, especially in nonstationary environments. More processes might lead to the same spatial pattern, and instead of testing hypotheses on ecological processes by analyzing spatial variation in static data, it is more judicious to report the observed spatial patterns and only discuss which ecological processes are in concordance with the observed spatial pattern. Alternatively, it might be feasible to combine relatively sparse time-series data or experimental data with spatial variation data and analyze such data types in a common statistical framework.
       
  • Transferability of Mechanistic Ecological Models Is About Emergence
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Viktoriia Radchuk, Stephanie Kramer-Schadt, Volker Grimm
       
 
 
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