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Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Journal Prestige (SJR): 8.634
Citation Impact (citeScore): 10
Number of Followers: 274  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0169-5347
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3184 journals]
  • The Pathobiome in Animal and Plant Diseases
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): David Bass, Grant D. Stentiford, Han-Ching Wang, Britt Koskella, Charles R. TylerA growing awareness of the diversity and ubiquity of microbes (eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses) associated with larger ‘host’ organisms has led to the realisation that many diseases thought to be caused by one primary agent are the result of interactions between multiple taxa and the host. Even where a primary agent can be identified, its effect is often moderated by other symbionts. Therefore, the one pathogen–one disease paradigm is shifting towards the pathobiome concept, integrating the interaction of multiple symbionts, host, and environment in a new understanding of disease aetiology. Taxonomically, pathobiomes are variable across host species, ecology, tissue type, and time. Therefore, a more functionally driven understanding of pathobiotic systems is necessary, based on gene expression, metabolic interactions, and ecological processes.
       
  • The Past and Future of Experimental Speciation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Nathan J. White, Rhonda R. Snook, Isobel EyresSpeciation is the result of evolutionary processes that generate barriers to gene flow between populations, facilitating reproductive isolation. Speciation is typically studied via theoretical models and snapshot tests in natural populations. Experimental speciation enables real-time direct tests of speciation theory and has been long touted as a critical complement to other approaches. We argue that, despite its promise to elucidate the evolution of reproductive isolation, experimental speciation has been underutilised and lags behind other contributions to speciation research. We review recent experiments and outline a framework for how experimental speciation can be implemented to address current outstanding questions that are otherwise challenging to answer. Greater uptake of this approach is necessary to rapidly advance understanding of speciation.
       
  • The Evolution of Variance Control
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Marjolein Bruijning, C. Jessica E. Metcalf, Eelke Jongejans, Julien F. AyrolesGenetically identical individuals can be phenotypically variable, even in constant environmental conditions. The ubiquity of this phenomenon, known as ‘intra-genotypic variability’, is increasingly evident and the relevant mechanistic underpinnings are beginning to be understood. In parallel, theory has delineated a number of formal expectations for contexts in which such a feature would be adaptive. Here, we review empirical evidence across biological systems and theoretical expectations, including nonlinear averaging and bet hedging. We synthesize existing results to illustrate the dependence of selection outcomes both on trait characteristics, features of environmental variability, and species’ demographic context. We conclude by discussing ways to bridge the gap between empirical evidence of intra-genotypic variability, studies demonstrating its genetic component, and evidence that it is adaptive.
       
  • The Trouble with Trees: Afforestation Plans for Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): William J. Bond, Nicola Stevens, Guy F. Midgley, Caroline E.R. LehmannExtensive tree planting is widely promoted for reducing atmospheric CO2. In Africa, 1 million km2, mostly of grassy biomes, have been targeted for ‘restoration’ by 2030. The target is based on the erroneous assumption that these biomes are deforested and degraded. We discuss the pros and cons of exporting fossil fuel emission problems to Africa.
       
  • Learning from Wild Honey Bees
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Fabrice Requier, Robin M. Crewe
       
  • Getting Back to Nature: Feralization in Animals and Plants
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Eben Gering, Darren Incorvaia, Rie Henriksen, Jeffrey Conner, Thomas Getty, Domminic WrightFormerly domesticated organisms and artificially selected genes often escape controlled cultivation, but their subsequent evolution is not well studied. In this review, we examine plant and animal feralization through an evolutionary lens, including how natural selection, artificial selection, and gene flow shape feral genomes, traits, and fitness. Available evidence shows that feralization is not a mere reversal of domestication. Instead, it is shaped by the varied and complex histories of feral populations, and by novel selection pressures. To stimulate further insight we outline several future directions. These include testing how ‘domestication genes’ act in wild settings, studying the brains and behaviors of feral animals, and comparative analyses of feral populations and taxa. This work offers feasible and exciting research opportunities with both theoretical and practical applications.
       
  • Greenbeard Genes: Theory and Reality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 September 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Philip G. Madgwick, Laurence J. Belcher, Jason B. WolfGreenbeard genes were proposed as a cartoonish thought experiment to explain why altruism can be a selfish strategy from the perspective of genes. The likelihood of finding a real greenbeard gene in nature was thought to be remote because they were believed to require a set of improbable properties. Yet, despite this expectation, there is an ongoing explosion in claimed discoveries of greenbeard genes. Bringing together the latest theory and experimental findings, we argue that there is a need to dispose of the cartoon presentation of a greenbeard to refocus their burgeoning empirical study on the more fundamental concept that the thought experiment was designed to illustrate.
       
  • Collaborative Projects: Unleashing Early Career Scientists’ Power
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Pascal Bodmer, Katrin Attermeyer, Ada Pastor, Núria CatalánCollaborative research projects exclusively targeted to early career researchers (ECRs) have been initiated in Europe. So far, the first two collaborative projects have united more than 80 ECRs. We describe the structure and benefits of such initiatives for the ECRs and highlight the positive influence on the whole scientific community.
       
  • Six Impossible Things before Breakfast: Assumptions, Models, and Belief in
           Molecular Dating: (Trends in Ecology & Evolution 34, 474–484, 2019)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Lindell Bromham
       
  • The Missing Angle: Ecosystem Consequences of Phenological Mismatch
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Karen H. Beard, Katharine C. Kelsey, A. Joshua Leffler, Jeffrey M. WelkerClimate change leads to unequal shifts in the phenology of interacting species, such as consumers and their resources, leading to potential phenological mismatches. While studies have investigated how phenological mismatch affects wild populations, we still lack studies and a framework for investigating how phenological mismatch affects ecosystems, particularly nutrient cycling.
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 34, Issue 9Author(s):
       
  • Subscription and Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 34, Issue 9Author(s):
       
  • Dissecting Trait Variation across Species Barriers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Carly V. Weiss, Rachel B. BremDissecting the basis of naturally occurring trait variation is one of the central goals of modern genetics. For eukaryotes, classic methods for this purpose rely on screens of recombinants from matings between distinct parents. These tools cannot be used in studies of species that cannot mate to form recombinant progeny in the first place. However, new approaches are coming online to shuffle the genomes of otherwise incompatible species. With them, geneticists can elucidate how evolution built a new trait, even if it happened millions of years ago, in a lineage that is now reproductively cutoff from its closest relatives.
       
  • IPBES Promotes Integration of Multiple Threats to Biodiversity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Nicolas Titeux, Lluís Brotons, Josef Settele
       
  • Climate Change Is Breaking Earth’s Beat
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Jérôme Sueur, Bernie Krause, Almo FarinaForests, deserts, rivers, and oceans are filled with animal vocalizations and geological sounds. We postulate that climate change is changing the Earth’s natural acoustic fabric. In particular, we identify shifts in acoustic structure that all sound-sensitive organisms, marine and terrestrial, may experience. Only upstream solutions might mitigate these acoustic changes.
       
  • An Ecological Loop: Host Microbiomes across Multitrophic Interactions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 August 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Hongwei Liu, Catriona A. Macdonald, James Cook, Ian C. Anderson, Brajesh K. SinghOur knowledge of host-associated microorganisms and their role in host functions is rapidly evolving. Stress-affected plants assemble beneficial microbes in their rhizosphere to maximize survival and growth. Similarly, insects have gut microbiomes that extend their functional repertoire in fighting stress. A strong microbial linkage between soil, plants, and pollinators is emerging and this can influence pollination services and overall ecosystem health. Yet, the nature of microbial interactions between different ecosystem components remains poorly understood. Here we highlight the acquisition pathways of beneficial microbes and their functions in protecting hosts against stress. By adopting a new ‘eco-holobiont’ approach, which explicitly incorporates biotic feedbacks, we can significantly expand our ecological understanding and better develop sustainable environmental management.
       
  • Linking Traits across Ecological Scales Determines Functional Resilience
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 August 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Rebecca V. Gladstone-Gallagher, Conrad A. Pilditch, Fabrice Stephenson, Simon F. ThrushUnder globally accelerating rates of ecosystem degradation, maintaining ecosystem function is a priority to avoid loss of valuable ecosystem services. Two factors are important: changes to the disturbance regime (stresses imposed) and resilience of biodiversity and ecosystem functions (the ecosystem’s capacity to respond to change). Various attributes at different scales of ecological organisation confer resilience (from individual species to communities at landscape scales), but it is critical to understand how these attributes interact to inform how ecosystem function changes with disturbances that vary in intensity, spatial extent, and frequency. Individual species attributes influence their resistance, while attributes at the landscape-scale influence recovery of communities and function. Understanding resilience to disturbances requires defining the characteristics of a resilient community at multiple scales.
       
  • Niche Modification, Human Cultural Evolution and the Anthropocene
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 August 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Felicia M. Low, Peter D. Gluckman, Mark A. HansonNiche-constructing organisms actively modify their environments with adaptive consequences, sustaining a new equilibrium. Modern humans are instead niche modifiers, continually changing their environments irrespective of adaptive pressures. The nature, scale, and speed of such modifications have potential ill effects that need to be addressed with multilevel societal initiatives.
       
  • The Cognitive Ecology of Stimulus Ambiguity: A Predator–Prey
           Perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Brian C. Leavell, Ximena E. BernalOrganisms face the cognitive challenge of making decisions based on imperfect information. Predators and prey, in particular, are confronted with ambiguous stimuli when foraging and avoiding attacks. These challenges are accentuated by variation imposed by environmental, physiological, and cognitive factors. While the cognitive factors influencing perceived ambiguity are often assumed to be fixed, contemporary findings reveal that perceived ambiguity is instead the dynamic outcome of interactive cognitive processes. Here, we present a framework that integrates recent advances in neurophysiology and sensory ecology with a classic decision-making model, signal detection theory (SDT), to understand the cognitive mechanisms that shape perceived stimulus ambiguity in predators and prey. Since stimulus ambiguity is pervasive, the framework discussed here provides insights that extend into nonforaging contexts.
       
  • Aquatic Predators Influence Micronutrients: Important but Understudied
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Alexander S. Flecker, Cornelia W. Twining, Oswald J. Schmitz, Steven J. Cooke, Neil Hammerschlag
       
  • Unifying Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives on Genomic Differentiation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Georgy A. Semenov, Rebecca J. Safran, Chris C.R. Smith, Sheela P. Turbek, Sean P. Mullen, Samuel M. FlaxmanDifferentiation is often heterogeneous across the genomes of diverging populations. Despite substantial recent progress, much work remains to improve our abilities to connect genomic patterns to underlying evolutionary processes. Crosstalk between theoretical and empirical research has shaped the field of evolutionary genetics since its foundation and needs to be greatly enhanced for modern datasets. We leverage recent insights from theoretical and empirical studies to identify existing gaps and suggest pathways across them. We stress the importance of reporting empirical data in standardized ways to enable meta-analyses and to facilitate parameterization of analyses and models. Additionally, a more comprehensive view of potential mechanisms – especially considering variable recombination rates and ubiquitous background selection – and their interactions should replace common, oversimplified assumptions.
       
  • Mechanisms of Fire Seasonality Effects on Plant Populations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Russell G. Miller, Ryan Tangney, Neal J. Enright, Joseph B. Fontaine, David J. Merritt, Mark K.J. Ooi, Katinka X. Ruthrof, Ben P. MillerAltered fire regimes resulting from climate change and human activity threaten many terrestrial ecosystems. However, we lack a holistic and detailed understanding of the effects of altering one key fire regime component – season of fire. Altered fire seasonality can strongly affect post-fire recovery of plant populations through interactions with plant phenology. We identify seven key mechanisms of fire seasonality effects under a conceptual demographic framework and review evidence for these. We reveal negative impacts of altered fire seasonality and identify research gaps for mechanisms and climate types for future analyses of fire seasonality effects within the identified demographic framework. This framework and these mechanisms can inform critical decisions for conservation, land management, and fire management policy development globally.
       
  • Is Aichi Target 11 Progress Correctly Measured for Developing
           Countries'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Pierre Failler, Grégoire Touron-Gardic, Marie-Suzanne TraoreDeveloping countries are struggling to meet Aichi Target 11, which calls for 10% of national marine area under protection. In addition, the official tool to measure their progress, the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA), tends to overestimate it. To reach this target, developing countries must set up large offshore Marine protected areas.
       
  • Powering Ocean Giants: The Energetics of Shark and Ray Megafauna
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Christopher L. Lawson, Lewis G. Halsey, Graeme C. Hays, Christine L. Dudgeon, Nicholas L. Payne, Michael B. Bennett, Craig R. White, Anthony J. RichardsonShark and ray megafauna have crucial roles as top predators in many marine ecosystems, but are currently among the most threatened vertebrates and, based on historical extinctions, may be highly susceptible to future environmental perturbations. However, our understanding of their energetics lags behind that of other taxa. Such knowledge is required to answer important ecological questions and predict their responses to ocean warming, which may be limited by expanding ocean deoxygenation and declining prey availability. To develop bioenergetics models for shark and ray megafauna, incremental improvements in respirometry systems are useful but unlikely to accommodate the largest species. Advances in biologging tools and modelling could help answer the most pressing ecological questions about these iconic species.
       
  • Trends in the Ecology and Evolution of Birds
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Oscar Gonzalez
       
  • Towards Integrating Evolution, Metabolism, and Climate Change Studies of
           Marine Ecosystems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Federico Baltar, Barbara Bayer, Nina Bednarsek, Stacy Deppeler, Ruben Escribano, Carolina E. Gonzalez, Roberta L. Hansman, Rajani Kanta Mishra, Mary Ann Moran, Daniel J. Repeta, Carol Robinson, Eva Sintes, Christian Tamburini, Luis E. Valentin, Gerhard J. HerndlGlobal environmental changes are challenging the structure and functioning of ecosystems. However, a mechanistic understanding of how global environmental changes will affect ecosystems is still lacking. The complex and interacting biological and physical processes spanning vast temporal and spatial scales that constitute an ecosystem make this a formidable problem. A unifying framework based on ecological theory, that considers fundamental and realized niches, combined with metabolic, evolutionary, and climate change studies, is needed to provide the mechanistic understanding required to evaluate and forecast the future of marine communities, ecosystems, and their services.
       
  • Subscription and Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 34, Issue 8Author(s):
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 34, Issue 8Author(s):
       
  • Measuring Terrestrial Area of Habitat (AOH) and Its Utility for the IUCN
           Red List
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 July 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Thomas M. Brooks, Stuart L. Pimm, H. Resit Akçakaya, Graeme M. Buchanan, Stuart H.M. Butchart, Wendy Foden, Craig Hilton-Taylor, Michael Hoffmann, Clinton N. Jenkins, Lucas Joppa, Binbin V. Li, Vivek Menon, Natalia Ocampo-Peñuela, Carlo RondininiThe International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species includes assessment of extinction risk for 98 512 species, plus documentation of their range, habitat, elevation, and other factors. These range, habitat and elevation data can be matched with terrestrial land cover and elevation datasets to map the species’ area of habitat (AOH; also known as extent of suitable habitat; ESH). This differs from the two spatial metrics used for assessing extinction risk in the IUCN Red List criteria: extent of occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO). AOH can guide conservation, for example, through targeting areas for field surveys, assessing proportions of species’ habitat within protected areas, and monitoring habitat loss and fragmentation. We recommend that IUCN Red List assessments document AOH wherever practical.
       
  • Let’s Train More Theoretical Ecologists – Here Is Why
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Axel G. Rossberg, György Barabás, Hugh P. Possingham, Mercedes Pascual, Pablo A. Marquet, Cang Hui, Matthew R. Evans, Géza MeszénaA tangled web of vicious circles, driven by cultural issues, has prevented ecology from growing strong theoretical roots. Now this hinders development of effective conservation policies. To overcome these barriers in view of urgent societal needs, we propose a global network of postgraduate theoretical training programs.
       
  • Transforming Protected Area Management in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Weihua Xu, Stuart L. Pimm, Ao Du, Yang Su, Xinyue Fan, Li An, Jianguo Liu, Zhiyun OuyangWe discuss institutional reforms to China’s protected area management. Currently (as elsewhere), protected areas suffer fragmented management, lack of a comprehensive classification, inadequate coverage of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and divided, inconsistent legislation. We recommend establishing a new system of protected area management that can address past difficulties by using ongoing institutional reforms as unprecedented opportunities.
       
  • Lamarck, the Father of Evolutionary Ecology'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Mats BjörklundLamarck realized life had evolved from simple to more complex forms, due to adaptation to a changing environment over time. Though he was wrong in many details, he got the overall picture right. Thus, he can be seen as the first evolutionary ecologist, connecting evolutionary change in organisms to their environment.
       
  • The Invasion Criterion: A Common Currency for Ecological Research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Tess Nahanni Grainger, Jonathan M. Levine, Benjamin GilbertAccording to the invasion criterion, stable coexistence requires that all species in a community increase in abundance when rare, which occurs when stabilizing mechanisms cause intraspecific competition to be stronger than interspecific competition. This simple principle has traditionally been applied to tests of local coexistence in a narrow range of ecological systems. However, new theory founded on the invasion criterion is emerging across ecological fields ranging from eco-evolutionary dynamics to global change to macroecology. Concurrently, straightforward methods for testing the invasion criterion have been proposed, but remain underused. Here, we identify the invasion criterion as a common thread linking emerging ecological theory, and we bring this theory together with the methods that can be used to test it.
       
  • The Exciting Potential and Remaining Uncertainties of Genetic Rescue
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Donovan A. Bell, Zachary L. Robinson, W. Chris Funk, Sarah W. Fitzpatrick, Fred W. Allendorf, David A. Tallmon, Andrew R. WhiteleyRestoring gene flow into small, isolated populations can alleviate genetic load and decrease extinction risk (i.e., genetic rescue), yet gene flow is rarely augmented as a conservation strategy. Due to this discrepancy between opportunity and action, ais rarely augmented as a conservation strategy. Due to this discrepancy between opportunity and action, a recent call was made for widespread genetic rescue attempts. However, several aspects of augmenting gene flow are poorly understood, including the magnitude and duration of beneficial effects and when deleterious effects are likely to occur. We discuss the remaining uncertainties of genetic rescue in order to promote and direct future research and to hasten progress toward implementing this potentially powerful conservation strategy on a broader scale.
       
  • Epigenetic Aging Clocks in Ecology and Evolution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Benjamin B. Parrott, Emily M. BertucciThe development of ‘epigenetic clocks’ is changing how biomedical scientists approach age-associated disease and leads to new insights and questions of wider significance. We highlight recent findings concerning epigenetic aging and discuss their relevance to life history evolution and their potential for advancing the field of ecological and evolutionary aging.
       
  • The DNA around Us
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Philip Francis Thomsen
       
  • Evidence Is Key for Effective Biodiversity Communication
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Lindall R. Kidd, Sarah A. Bekessy, Georgia E. Garrard
       
  • Improving Environmental Interventions by Understanding Information Flows
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Emiel de Lange, E.J. Milner-Gulland, Aidan KeaneConservationists are increasingly interested in changing human behaviour. One understudied aspect of such interventions is information flow. Different patterns of interpersonal communication and social structures within communities influence the adoption of behavioural changes through social influence and social reinforcement. Understanding the structure of information flow in a group, using tools such as social network analysis, can therefore offer important insights for interventions. For example, communications may be targeted to highly connected opinion leaders to leverage their influence, or communication may be facilitated between distinct subgroups to promote peer learning. Incorporating these approaches into conservation interventions can promote more effective behaviour change. This review introduces conservation researchers and practitioners to key concepts underpinning information flows for interventions targeting networks of individuals.
       
  • How Evolution Modifies the Variability of Range Expansion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Jennifer L. Williams, Ruth A. Hufbauer, Tom E.X. MillerEco-evolutionary theory suggests that rapid evolution can accelerate range expansion speed. In addition to average speed, recent experimental studies reveal that evolution can also influence the amount of variability across replicates of spreading populations, but in contrasting ways. Here we develop a predictive framework, drawing on ideas from population genetics and spread theory, to understand when, why, and in what direction evolution will modify the variability of range expansion. Our framework revolves around the balance of variance-generating (drift) and variance-reducing (selective) evolutionary processes, and factors that may tip this balance, including population size at the leading edge and mating system. We suggest hypotheses to clarify contrasting experimental results and highlight a way forward for studying eco-evolutionary dynamics of range expansion.
       
  • Aquatic Predators Influence Flux of Essential Micronutrients
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Libor Závorka, Barbara Koeck, Shaun S. Killen, Martin J. Kainz
       
  • Bark Beetle Population Dynamics in the Anthropocene: Challenges and
           Solutions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Peter H.W. Biedermann, Jörg Müller, Jean-Claude Grégoire, Axel Gruppe, Jonas Hagge, Almuth Hammerbacher, Richard W. Hofstetter, Dineshkumar Kandasamy, Miroslav Kolarik, Martin Kostovcik, Paal Krokene, Aurélien Sallé, Diana L. Six, Tabea Turrini, Dan Vanderpool, Michael J. Wingfield, Claus BässlerTree-killing bark beetles are the most economically important insects in conifer forests worldwide. However, despite>200 years of research, the drivers of population eruptions and crashes are still not fully understood and the existing knowledge is thus insufficient to face the challenges posed by the Anthropocene. We critically analyze potential biotic and abiotic drivers of population dynamics of an exemplary species, the European spruce bark beetle (ESBB) (Ips typographus) and present a multivariate approach that integrates the many drivers governing this bark beetle system. We call for hypothesis-driven, large-scale collaborative research efforts to improve our understanding of the population dynamics of this and other bark beetle pests. Our approach can serve as a blueprint for tackling other eruptive forest insects.
       
  • Towards Quantifying Carrion Biomass in Ecosystems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Philip S. Barton, Maldwyn J. Evans, Claire N. Foster, Jennifer L. Pechal, Joseph K. Bump, M.-Martina Quaggiotto, M. Eric BenbowThe decomposition of animal biomass (carrion) contributes to the recycling of energy and nutrients through ecosystems. Whereas the role of plant decomposition in ecosystems is broadly recognised, the significance of carrion to ecosystem functioning remains poorly understood. Quantitative data on carrion biomass are lacking and there is no clear pathway towards improved knowledge in this area. Here, we present a framework to show how quantities derived from individual carcasses can be scaled up using population metrics, allowing for comparisons among ecosystems and other forms of biomass. Our framework facilitates the generation of new data that is critical to building a quantitative understanding of the contribution of carrion to trophic processes and ecosystem stocks and flows.
       
  • Biodiversity Conservation Requires Management of Feral Domestic Animals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Cristián Bonacic, Rocío Almuna, J. Tomás IbarraThe proliferation of feral domestic animals (FDAs) has been favored by human-induced landscape changes, a world population becoming increasingly urban, and by inappropriate management of domestic animals. Here, we describe the impact of FDAs and the opposing views in societies that affect the decision-making process and management actions. We provide general recommendations for the participatory management of this emerging threat to biodiversity and rural ecosystems.
       
  • Long-Distance Marine Connectivity: Poorly Understood but Potentially
           Important
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Stéphanie Manel, Nicolas Loiseau, Oscar Puebla
       
  • Untangling the Multiple Ecological Radiations of Early Mammals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): David M. Grossnickle, Stephanie M. Smith, Gregory P. WilsonThe ecological diversification of early mammals is one of the most globally transformative events in Earth’s history and the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution (KTR) and end-Cretaceous mass extinction are commonly hailed as catalysts. However, a confounding issue when examining this diversification is that it comprised nested radiations of mammalian subclades within the broader scope of mammalian evolution. In the past 200 million years, various independent groups experienced large-scale radiations, each involving ecological diversification from ancestral lineages of small insectivores; examples include Jurassic mammaliaforms, Late Cretaceous metatherians, and Cenozoic placentals. Here, we review these ecological radiations, highlighting the nuanced complexity of early mammal evolution, the value of ecomorphological fossil data, and the importance of phylogenetic context in macroevolutionary studies.
       
  • Temporal Instability of Evidence Base: A Threat to Policy Making'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Julia Koricheva, Elena KulinskayaA shift towards evidence-based conservation and environmental management over the last two decades has resulted in an increased use of systematic reviews and meta-analyses as tools to combine existing scientific evidence. However, to guide policy making decisions in conservation and management, the conclusions of meta-analyses need to remain stable for at least some years. Alarmingly, numerous recent studies indicate that the magnitude, statistical significance, and even the sign of the effects reported in the literature might change over relatively short time periods. We argue that such rapid temporal changes in cumulative evidence represent a real threat to policy making in conservation and environmental management and call for systematic monitoring of temporal changes in evidence and exploration of their causes.
       
  • Balancing the Benefits of Optimism and Pessimism in Conservation: a
           Response to Kidd, Bekessy, and Garrad
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Dominic McAfee, Sean D. Connell
       
  • Shell Loss in Cephalopods: Trigger for, or By-Product of, the Evolution of
           Intelligence' A Reply to Mollo et al.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Piero Amodio, Markus Boeckle, Alexandra K. Schnell, Ljerka Ostojic, Graziano Fiorito, Nicola S. Clayton
       
  • The Early Origin of Feathers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Michael J. Benton, Danielle Dhouailly, Baoyu Jiang, Maria McNamaraFeathers have long been regarded as the innovation that drove the success of birds. However, feathers have been reported from close dinosaurian relatives of birds, and now from ornithischian dinosaurs and pterosaurs, the cousins of dinosaurs. Incomplete preservation makes these reports controversial. If true, these findings shift the origin of feathers back 80 million years before the origin of birds. Gene regulatory networks show the deep homology of scales, feathers, and hairs. Hair and feathers likely evolved in the Early Triassic ancestors of mammals and birds, at a time when synapsids and archosaurs show independent evidence of higher metabolic rates (erect gait and endothermy), as part of a major resetting of terrestrial ecosystems following the devastating end-Permian mass extinction.
       
  • Can Environmental RNA Revolutionize Biodiversity Science'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Melania E. CristescuThe use of environmental RNA (eRNA) for species identification remains unexplored due to the observation that in vitro RNA is much less stable than DNA. However, recent lines of evidence suggest that RNA may be abundantly excreted by organisms and sufficiently persistent in the environment to reconstruct community composition and gene expression.
       
  • Connectivity Is Generally Not Important for Marine Reserve Planning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Mark J. Costello, David W. Connor
       
  • Using Network Theory to Understand and Predict Biological Invasions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Carol M. Frost, Warwick J. Allen, Franck Courchamp, Jonathan M. Jeschke, Wolf-Christian Saul, David A. WardleUnderstanding and predicting biological invasions is challenging because of the complexity of many interacting players. A holistic approach is needed with the potential to simultaneously consider all relevant effects and effectors. Using networks to describe the relevant anthropogenic and ecological factors, from community-level to global scales, promises advances in understanding aspects of invasion from propagule pressure, through establishment, spread, and ecological impact of invaders. These insights could lead to development of new tools for prevention and management of invasions that are based on species’ network characteristics and use of networks to predict the ecological effects of invaders. Here, we review the findings from network ecology that show the most promise for invasion biology and identify pressing needs for future research.
       
  • Making Evolutionary Sense of Gaia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): W. Ford DoolittleThe Gaia hypothesis in a strong and frequently criticized form assumes that global homeostatic mechanisms have evolved by natural selection favoring the maintenance of conditions suitable for life. Traditional neoDarwinists hold this to be impossible in theory. But the hypothesis does make sense if one treats the clade that comprises the biological component of Gaia as an individual and allows differential persistence – as well as differential reproduction – to be an outcome of evolution by natural selection. Recent developments in theoretical and experimental evolutionary biology may justify both maneuvers.
       
  • Epigenetics of Social Behaviour
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Frank Seebacher, Jens KrauseMany animals occur in groups, and the ecology and evolution of populations and species are intrinsically linked to group function and social behaviour. Here we summarise recent data showing that the biotic and abiotic environments can have far-reaching consequences for social behaviour via epigenetic mechanisms that modify physiological processes. The environment affects the physiology of individuals via epigenetic mechanisms and individual physiology influences conspecific interactions. At a higher level of organisation, these conspecific interactions can scale up to social states of groups and affect populations by altering dispersal and gene flow. Future research should focus on determining empirically the range of contexts within which epigenetic mechanisms can heritably alter social interactions and document their effects on populations.
       
  • Coevolution of Genome Architecture and Social Behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Dustin R. Rubenstein, J. Arvid Ågren, Lucia Carbone, Nels C. Elde, Hopi E. Hoekstra, Karen M. Kapheim, Laurent Keller, Corrie S. Moreau, Amy L. Toth, Sam Yeaman, Hans A. HofmannAlthough social behavior can have a strong genetic component, it can also result in selection on genome structure and function, thereby influencing the evolution of the genome itself. Here we explore the bidirectional links between social behavior and genome architecture by considering variation in social and/or mating behavior among populations (social polymorphisms) and across closely related species. We propose that social behavior can influence genome architecture via associated demographic changes due to social living. We establish guidelines to exploit emerging whole-genome sequences using analytical approaches that examine genome structure and function at different levels (regulatory vs structural variation) from the perspective of both molecular biology and population genetics in an ecological context.
       
  • Integrating Proximal and Horizon Threats to Biodiversity for Conservation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Timothy C. Bonebrake, Fengyi Guo, Caroline Dingle, David M. Baker, Roger L. Kitching, Louise A. AshtonGlobal conservation promotes solutions to different dimensions of threat and response: land-use change, climate change, pollution, and so forth. Countering each threat has its band of proponents who advocate for their cause as paramount, increasingly, given limited resources, by downplaying the relative importance of others. Not only does this encourage a compartmentalised view of the world, which is ecologically unsound, it allows politicians and others to cherry-pick responses in light of political expediency or local demands. We should instead aim to achieve win–win conservation strategies that address multiple threats to diversity acting at different timescales, as well as ‘horizon threats’, which occur at large scales and may be the most challenging conservation issues to address in both the present and the future.
       
  • Can Intelligence Gradually Evolve in a Shell'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Ernesto Mollo, Pietro Amodeo, Michael T. Ghiselin
       
  • The Role of Vegetated Coastal Wetlands for Marine Megafauna Conservation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Michael Sievers, Christopher J. Brown, Vivitskaia J.D. Tulloch, Ryan M. Pearson, Jodie A. Haig, Mischa P. Turschwell, Rod M. ConnollyHabitat loss is accelerating a global extinction crisis. Conservation requires understanding links between species and habitats. Emerging research is revealing important associations between vegetated coastal wetlands and marine megafauna, such as cetaceans, sea turtles, and sharks. But these links have not been reviewed and the importance of these globally declining habitats is undervalued. Here, we identify associations for 102 marine megafauna species that utilize these habitats, increasing the number of species with associations based on current International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) species assessments by 59% to 174, accounting for over 13% of all marine megafauna. We conclude that coastal wetlands require greater protection to support marine megafauna, and present a simple, effective framework to improve the inclusion of habitat associations within species assessments.
       
  • When Do Ecosystem Services Depend on Rare Species'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Laura E. Dee, Jane Cowles, Forest Isbell, Stephanie Pau, Steven D. Gaines, Peter B. ReichConservation aims to preserve species and ecosystem services. If rare species contribute little to ecosystem services, yet are those most in need of preservation, tradeoffs may exist for these contrasting objectives. However, little attention has focused on identifying how, when, and where rare species contribute to ecosystem services and at what scales. Here, we review distinct ways that ecosystem services can positively depend on the presence, abundance, disproportionate contribution or, counterintuitively, the scarcity of rare species. By contrast, ecosystem services are less likely to depend on rare species that do not have a unique role in any service or become abundant enough to contribute substantially. We propose a research agenda to identify when rare species may contribute significantly to services.
       
  • Ecology and Evolution: Haeckel’s Darwinian Paradigm
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Elizabeth Watts, Uwe Hoßfeld, Georgy S. LevitErnst Haeckel coined the term ecology in the process of Darwinizing our understanding of nature. His concept of ecology was part of a theoretical system embracing development, evolution, and environment. We outline Haeckel’s views on ecology as an evolutionary science and demonstrate their importance for current theoretical developments.
       
  • Genome Evolution of Coral Reef Symbionts as Intracellular Residents
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Raúl A. González-Pech, Debashish Bhattacharya, Mark A. Ragan, Cheong Xin ChanCoral reefs are sustained by symbioses between corals and symbiodiniacean dinoflagellates. These symbioses vary in the extent of their permanence in and specificity to the host. Although dinoflagellates are primarily free-living, Symbiodiniaceae diversified mainly as symbiotic lineages. Their genomes reveal conserved symbiosis-related gene functions and high sequence divergence. However, the evolutionary mechanisms that underpin the transition from the free-living lifestyle to symbiosis remain poorly understood. Here, we discuss the genome evolution of Symbiodiniaceae in diverse ecological niches across the broad spectrum of symbiotic associations, from free-living to putative obligate symbionts. We pose key questions regarding genome evolution vis-à-vis the transition of dinoflagellates from free-living to symbiotic and propose strategies for future research to better understand coral–dinoflagellate and other eukaryote–eukaryote symbioses.
       
  • Uncovering Ecological Patterns with Convolutional Neural Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Philip G. Brodrick, Andrew B. Davies, Gregory P. AsnerUsing remotely sensed imagery to identify biophysical components across landscapes is an important avenue of investigation for ecologists studying ecosystem dynamics. With high-resolution remotely sensed imagery, algorithmic utilization of image context is crucial for accurate identification of biophysical components at large scales. In recent years, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have become ubiquitous in image processing, and are rapidly becoming more common in ecology. Because the quantity of high-resolution remotely sensed imagery continues to rise, CNNs are increasingly essential tools for large-scale ecosystem analysis. We discuss here the conceptual advantages of CNNs, demonstrate how they can be used by ecologists through distinct examples of their application, and provide a walkthrough of how to use them for ecological applications.
       
  • Biocultural Hysteresis Inhibits Adaptation to Environmental Change
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): P.O’B. Lyver, P. Timoti, T. Davis, J.M. TylianakisIndigenous peoples and local communities (IPLC) often use natural resources as both a reason and mechanism for environmental management, yet a number of environmental, social, and economic drivers disrupt this relationship. Here, we argue that these drivers can also trigger a set of feedback mechanisms that further diminish the efficacy of local management. We call this process biocultural hysteresis. These feedbacks, which include knowledge loss and a breakdown of social hierarchies, prevent IPLC from adapting their management to change. Biocultural hysteresis worsens as IPLC spend an increasing amount of time outside their social–ecological context. Therefore, we argue for adaptive policies and processes that favour protecting and enabling IPLC engagement with their environment.
       
  • The Conservation of Native Honey Bees Is Crucial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Fabrice Requier, Lionel Garnery, Patrick L. Kohl, Henry K. Njovu, Christian W.W. Pirk, Robin M. Crewe, Ingolf Steffan-DewenterRecent studies have emphasized the role of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, as a managed agricultural species worldwide, but also as a potential threat to endangered wild pollinators. This has resulted in the suggestion that honey bees should be regulated in natural areas to conserve wild pollinators. We argue that this perspective fails to appreciate the multifaceted nature of honey bees as native or introduced species with either managed or wild colonies. Wild populations of A. mellifera are currently imperiled, and natural areas are critical for the conservation of local subspecies and genotypes. We propose that a differentiation between managed and wild populations is required and encourage integrated conservation planning for all endangered wild bees, including A. mellifera.
       
  • Experimental Evolution of Innovation and Novelty
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Rees KassenHow does novelty, a new, genetically based function, evolve' A compelling answer has been elusive because there are few model systems where both the genetic mechanisms generating novel functions and the ecological conditions that govern their origin and spread can be studied in detail. This review article considers what we have learned about the evolution of novelty from microbial selection experiments. This work reveals that the genetic routes to novelty can be more highly variable than standard models have led us to believe and underscores the importance of considering both genetics and ecology in this process.
       
  • Basic Principles of Temporal Dynamics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Masahiro Ryo, Carlos A. Aguilar-Trigueros, Liliana Pinek, Ludo A.H. Muller, Matthias C. RilligAll ecological disciplines consider temporal dynamics, although relevant concepts have been developed almost independently. We here introduce basic principles of temporal dynamics in ecology. We figured out essential features that describe temporal dynamics by finding similarities among about 60 ecological concepts and theories. We found that considering the hierarchically nested structure of complexity in temporal patterns (i.e. hierarchical complexity) can well describe the fundamental nature of temporal dynamics by expressing which patterns are observed at each scale. Across all ecological levels, driver–response relationships can be temporally variant and dependent on both short- and long-term past conditions. The framework can help with designing experiments, improving predictive power of statistics, and enhancing communications among ecological disciplines.
       
  • The Impact of Mutualisms on Species Richness
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Guillaume Chomicki, Marjorie Weber, Alexandre Antonelli, Jordi Bascompte, E. Toby KiersMutualisms – cooperative interactions among different species – are known to influence global biodiversity. Nevertheless, theoretical and empirical work has led to divergent hypotheses about how mutualisms modulate diversity. We ask here when and how mutualisms influence species richness. Our synthesis suggests that mutualisms can promote or restrict species richness depending on mutualist function, the level of partner dependence, and the specificity of the partnership. These characteristics, which themselves are influenced by environmental and geographic variables, regulate species richness at different scales by modulating speciation, extinction, and community coexistence. Understanding the relative impact of these mechanisms on species richness will require the integration of new phylogenetic comparative models as well as the manipulation and monitoring of experimental communities and their resulting interaction networks.
       
 
 
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