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Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Journal Prestige (SJR): 8.634
Citation Impact (citeScore): 10
Number of Followers: 298  
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ISSN (Print) 0169-5347
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3206 journals]
  • The Role of Evolution in Shaping Ecological Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2020Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Simon T. Segar, Tom M. Fayle, Diane S. Srivastava, Thomas M. Lewinsohn, Owen T. Lewis, Vojtech Novotny, Roger L. Kitching, Sarah C. MaunsellThe structure of ecological networks reflects the evolutionary history of their biotic components, and their dynamics are strongly driven by ecoevolutionary processes. Here, we present an appraisal of recent relevant research, in which the pervasive role of evolution within ecological networks is manifest. Although evolutionary processes are most evident at macroevolutionary scales, they are also important drivers of local network structure and dynamics. We propose components of a blueprint for further research, emphasising process-based models, experimental evolution, and phenotypic variation, across a range of distinct spatial and temporal scales. Evolutionary dimensions are required to advance our understanding of foundational properties of community assembly and to enhance our capability of predicting how networks will respond to impending changes.
  • Towards a Probabilistic Understanding About the Context-Dependency of
           Species Interactions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2020Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Chuliang Song, Sarah Von Ahn, Rudolf P. Rohr, Serguei SaavedraObservational and experimental studies have shown that an interaction class between two species (be it mutualistic, competitive, antagonistic, or neutral) may switch to a different class, depending on the biotic and abiotic factors within which species are observed. This complexity arising from the evidence of context-dependencies has underscored a difficulty in establishing a systematic analysis about the extent to which species interactions are expected to switch in nature and experiments. Here, we propose an overarching theoretical framework, by integrating probabilistic and structural approaches, to establish null expectations about switches of interaction classes across environmental contexts. This integration provides a systematic platform upon which it is possible to establish new hypotheses, clear predictions, and quantifiable expectations about the context-dependency of species interactions.
  • Embryo Selection and Mate Choice: Can ‘Honest Signals’ Be
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Dakota E. McCoy, David HaigWhen a measure becomes a target, it often ceases to be a good measure – an effect familiar from the declining usefulness of standardized testing in schools. This economic principle also applies to mate choice and, perhaps surprisingly, pregnancy. Just as females screen potential mates under many metrics, human mothers unconsciously screen embryos for quality. ‘Examinees’ are under intense selection to improve test performance by exaggerating formerly ‘honest’ signals of quality. Examiners must change their screening criteria to maintain useful information (but cannot abandon old criteria unilaterally). By the resulting ‘proxy treadmill’, new honest indicators arise while old degraded indicators linger, resulting in trait elaboration and exaggeration. Hormone signals during pregnancy show extreme evolutionary escalation (akin to elaborate mating displays).
  • Trait-Based Assessments of Climate-Change Impacts on Interacting Species
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Matthias Schleuning, Eike Lena Neuschulz, Jörg Albrecht, Irene M.A. Bender, Diana E. Bowler, D. Matthias Dehling, Susanne A. Fritz, Christian Hof, Thomas Mueller, Larissa Nowak, Marjorie C. Sorensen, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, W. Daniel KisslingPlant–animal interactions are fundamentally important in ecosystems, but have often been ignored by studies of climate-change impacts on biodiversity. Here, we present a trait-based framework for predicting the responses of interacting plants and animals to climate change. We distinguish three pathways along which climate change can impact interacting species in ecological communities: (i) spatial and temporal mismatches in the occurrence and abundance of species, (ii) the formation of novel interactions and secondary extinctions, and (iii) alterations of the dispersal ability of plants. These pathways are mediated by three kinds of functional traits: response traits, matching traits, and dispersal traits. We propose that incorporating these traits into predictive models will improve assessments of the responses of interacting species to climate change.
  • Subscription and Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 35, Issue 2Author(s):
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 35, Issue 2Author(s):
  • Coloration in Mammals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Tim Caro, Ricardo MallarinoMammalian colors and color patterns are some of the most diverse and conspicuous traits found in nature and have been widely studied from genetic/developmental and evolutionary perspectives. In this review we first discuss the proximate causes underlying variation in pigment type (i.e., color) and pigment distribution (i.e., color pattern) and highlight both processes as having a distinct developmental basis. Then, using multiple examples, we discuss ultimate factors that have driven the evolution of coloration differences in mammals, which include background matching, intra- and interspecific signaling, and physiological influences. Throughout, we outline bridges between developmental and functional investigatory approaches that help broaden knowledge of mammals’ memorable external appearances, and we point out areas for future interdisciplinary research.
  • Mixed Models Offer No Freedom from Degrees of Freedom
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Göran ArnqvistStatistics matter greatly in biology, whether we like it or not. As a discipline with an empirical inclination, we are faced with data every day and we rely on inferential statistical models to make sense of it and to provide us with novel insights. Much of the time, the growing level of complexity and sophistication of the models we put to use in ecology and evolution have led to more appropriate analyses of our data. However, this is not always the case. Here, I draw attention to a classic flaw in inferential statistics that has resurfaced in a new flavor as a result of increased reliance on complex linear mixed models – the multifaceted and disturbingly persistent problem of pseudoreplication.
  • Density Dependence, Senescence, and Williams’ Hypothesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Troy Day, Peter A. Abrams
  • The Evolution of Paleoecology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Joseph D. Napier, Guillaume de Lafontaine, Melissa L. ChipmanWhile the interplay between migration and adaptation dictates species response to climate change, technological limitations have obfuscated explicit tests on past adaptive responses. However, a surge in technology-driven advances in paleoecological methods coincides with breakthroughs in processing ancient DNA, providing the first opportunity to assess adaptation to past climate shifts.
  • Climate Change and Edaphic Specialists: Irresistible Force Meets Immovable
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Richard T. Corlett, Kyle W. TomlinsonSpecies exposed to anthropogenic climate change can acclimate, adapt, move, or be extirpated. It is often assumed that movement will be the dominant response, with populations tracking their climate envelopes in space, but the numerous species restricted to specialized substrates cannot easily move. In warmer regions of the world, such edaphic specialists appear to have accumulated in situ over millions of years, persisting despite climate change by local movements, plastic responses, and genetic adaptation. However, past climates were usually cooler than today and rates of warming slower, while edaphic islands are now exposed to multiple additional threats, including mining. Modeling studies that ignore edaphic constraints on climate change responses may therefore give misleading results for a significant proportion of all taxa.
  • Museum Epigenomics: Charting the Future by Unlocking the Past
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Erin E. Hahn, Alicia Grealy, Marina Alexander, Clare E. HolleleyEpigenomic state preserved in museum specimens could be leveraged to provide unique insights into gene regulation trends associated with accelerating environmental change during the Anthropocene. We address the challenges facing museum epigenomics and propose a collaborative framework for researchers and curators to explore this new field.
  • Dispersal: The Eighth Fire Seasonality Effect on Plants
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2020Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): David A. Keith, Bianca Dunker, Don A. Driscoll
  • A Plea for Standardized Nuclear Markers in Metazoan DNA Taxonomy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2020Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Jonas Eberle, Dirk Ahrens, Christoph Mayer, Oliver Niehuis, Bernhard MisofThe ease of sequencing DNA barcodes promoted a species identification system universally applicable across animal phyla. However, relying on a single mitochondrial DNA fragment has a number of drawbacks that can mislead species delimitation and identification. Implementation of multiple nuclear markers would mitigate the limits of the current barcoding system if these markers are universally applicable across species, carry sufficient information to discriminate between closely related species, and if sequencing and analyzing these markers can be automatized. As sequencing costs continue to fall, we believe that the time is right to extend DNA barcoding. Here we argue that nearly universal single-copy nuclear protein-coding genes deliver the desired characteristics and could be used to reliably delimit and identify animal species.
  • Fire Seasonality Effect on Post-Fire Wind Dispersal: Response to Keith,
           Dunker, and Driscoll
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2020Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Russell G. Miller, Ryan Tangney, Neal J. Enright, Joseph B. Fontaine, David J. Merritt, Mark K.J. Ooi, Katinka X. Ruthrof, Ben P. Miller
  • The Reproductive Microbiome: An Emerging Driver of Sexual Selection,
           Sexual Conflict, Mating Systems, and Reproductive Isolation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2020Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Melissah Rowe, Liisa Veerus, Pål Trosvik, Angus Buckling, Tommaso PizzariAll multicellular organisms host microbial communities in and on their bodies, and these microbiomes can have major influences on host biology. Most research has focussed on the oral, skin, and gut microbiomes, whereas relatively little is known about the reproductive microbiome. Here, we review empirical evidence to show that reproductive microbiomes can have significant effects on the reproductive function and performance of males and females. We then discuss the likely repercussions of these effects for evolutionary processes related to sexual selection and sexual conflict, as well as mating systems and reproductive isolation. We argue that knowledge of the reproductive microbiome is fundamental to our understanding of the evolutionary ecology of reproductive strategies and sexual dynamics of host organisms.
  • A Horizon Scan of Emerging Global Biological Conservation Issues for 2020
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 35, Issue 1Author(s): William J. Sutherland, Maria P. Dias, Lynn V. Dicks, Helen Doran, Abigail C. Entwistle, Erica Fleishman, David W. Gibbons, Rosie Hails, Alice C. Hughes, Jonathan Hughes, Ruth Kelman, Xavier Le Roux, Becky LeAnstey, Fiona A. Lickorish, Luke Maggs, James W. Pearce-Higgins, Lloyd S. Peck, Nathalie Pettorelli, Jules Pretty, Mark D. SpaldingIn this horizon scan, we highlight 15 emerging issues of potential relevance to global conservation in 2020. Seven relate to potentially extensive changes in vegetation or ecological systems. These changes are either relatively new, for example, conversion of kelp forests to simpler macroalgal systems, or may occur in the future, for example, as a result of the derivation of nanocelluose from wood or the rapid expansion of small hydropower schemes. Other topics highlight potential changes in national legislation that may have global effect on international agreements. Our panel of 23 scientists and practitioners selected these issues using a modified version of the Delphi technique from a long-list of 89 potential topics.
  • Subscription and Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 35, Issue 1Author(s):
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 35, Issue 1Author(s):
  • Reply to Mupepele and Dormann ‘Evidence Ranking Needs to Reflect
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 December 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Z. Burivalova, D. Miteva, N. Salafsky, R.A. Butler, D.S. Wilcove
  • The Role of Individual Heterogeneity in Collective Animal Behaviour
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Jolle W. Jolles, Andrew J. King, Shaun S. KillenSocial grouping is omnipresent in the animal kingdom. Considerable research has focused on understanding how animal groups form and function, including how collective behaviour emerges via self-organising mechanisms and how phenotypic variation drives the behaviour and functioning of animal groups. However, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of the role of phenotypic variation in collective animal behaviour. Here we present a common framework to quantify individual heterogeneity and synthesise the literature to systematically explain and predict its role in collective behaviour across species, contexts, and traits. We show that individual heterogeneity provides a key intermediary mechanism with broad consequences for sociality (e.g., group structure, functioning), ecology (e.g., response to environmental change), and evolution. We also outline a roadmap for future research.
  • Towards a New Generation of Trait-Flexible Vegetation Models
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Fabio Berzaghi, Ian J. Wright, Koen Kramer, Sylvie Oddou-Muratorio, Friedrich J. Bohn, Christopher P.O. Reyer, Santiago Sabaté, Tanja G.M. Sanders, Florian HartigPlant trait variability, emerging from eco-evolutionary dynamics that range from alleles to macroecological scales, is one of the most elusive, but possibly most consequential, aspects of biodiversity. Plasticity, epigenetics, and genetic diversity are major determinants of how plants will respond to climate change, yet these processes are rarely represented in current vegetation models. Here, we provide an overview of the challenges associated with understanding the causes and consequences of plant trait variability, and review current developments to include plasticity and evolutionary mechanisms in vegetation models. We also present a roadmap of research priorities to develop a next generation of vegetation models with flexible traits. Including trait variability in vegetation models is necessary to better represent biosphere responses to global change.
  • How ‘Blue’ Is ‘Green’ Energy'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Andrew J. Wright, Claryana Araújo-Wang, John Y. Wang, Peter S. Ross, Jakob Tougaard, Robin Winkler, Melissa C. Márquez, Frances C. Robertson, Kayleigh Fawcett Williams, Randall R. ReevesOften perceived as environmentally benign, ‘green’ renewable energy technologies have ecological costs that are often overlooked, especially those occurring below the waterline. After briefly discussing the impacts of hydropower on freshwater and marine organisms, we focus this review on the impacts of marine renewable energy devices (MREDs) on underwater marine organisms, particularly offshore wind farms and marine energy converters (e.g., tidal turbines). We consider both cumulative impacts and synergistic interactions with other anthropogenic pressures, using offshore wind farms and the Taiwanese white dolphin (Sousa chinensis taiwanensis) as an example. While MREDs undoubtedly can help mitigate climate change, variability in the sensitivity of different species and ecosystems means that rigorous case-by-case assessments are needed to fully comprehend the consequences of MRED use.
  • It’s Not about Him: Mismeasuring ‘Good Genes’ in Sexual
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Angela M. Achorn, Gil G. RosenthalWhat explains preferences for elaborate ornamentation in animals' The default answer remains that the prettiest males have the best genes. If mating signals predict good genes, mating preferences evolve because attractive mates yield additive genetic benefits through offspring viability, thereby maximizing chooser fitness. Across disciplines, studies claim ‘good genes’ without measuring mating preferences, measuring offspring viability, distinguishing between additive and nonadditive benefits, or controlling for manipulation of chooser investment. Crucially, studies continue to assert benefits to choosers purely based on signal costs to signalers. A focus on fitness outcomes for choosers suggests that ‘good genes’ are insufficient to explain the evolution of mate choice or of sexual ornamentation.
  • Ecosystem-Based Tsunami Mitigation for Tropical Biodiversity Hotspots
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Thomas Cherico Wanger, Nur Ainun, Barry W. Brook, Daniel A. Friess, Rachel R.Y. Oh, Andi Rusdin, Scott Smithers, Aiyen TjoaInclusion of ecosystem-based approaches in the governmental masterplan for tsunami mitigation in Palu, Indonesia may make the city a rare case study for ecological disaster risk reduction in tropical biodiversity hotspots. Such case studies are a key pillar of the United Nations (UN) Sendai Framework to protect coastal societies globally.
  • Echoing the Need to Quantify Carrion Biomass Production
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Joseph K. Bump, Philip S. Barton, Maldwyn J. Evans, Claire N. Foster, Jennifer L. Pechal, M.-Martina Quaggiotto, M. Eric Benbow
  • The History of Farm Foxes Undermines the Animal Domestication Syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Kathryn A. Lord, Greger Larson, Raymond P. Coppinger, Elinor K. KarlssonThe Russian Farm-Fox Experiment is the best known experimental study in animal domestication. By subjecting a population of foxes to selection for tameness alone, Dimitry Belyaev generated foxes that possessed a suite of characteristics that mimicked those found across domesticated species. This ‘domestication syndrome’ has been a central focus of research into the biological pathways modified during domestication. Here, we chart the origins of Belyaev’s foxes in eastern Canada and critically assess the appearance of domestication syndrome traits across animal domesticates. Our results suggest that both the conclusions of the Farm-Fox Experiment and the ubiquity of domestication syndrome have been overstated. To understand the process of domestication requires a more comprehensive approach focused on essential adaptations to human-modified environments.
  • Considering Complexity: Animal Social Networks and Behavioural Contagions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Josh A. FirthThe spread of behaviours through animal social networks have often been considered as ‘simple contagions’. However, research across other disciplines now provides substantial grounding for the ‘complex contagion’ of behaviours. The study of animal behaviour could benefit greatly from generally expanding to incorporate these new insights.
  • Using Haplotype Information for Conservation Genomics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Maeva Leitwein, Maud Duranton, Quentin Rougemont, Pierre-Alexandre Gagnaire, Louis BernatchezThe particular combinations of alleles that define haplotypes along individual chromosomes can be determined with increasing ease and accuracy by using current sequencing technologies. Beyond allele frequencies, haplotype data collected in population samples contain information about the history of allelic associations in gene genealogies, and this is of tremendous potential for conservation genomics. We provide an overview of how haplotype information can be used to assess historical demography, gene flow, selection, and the evolutionary outcomes of hybridization across different timescales relevant to conservation issues. We address technical aspects of applying such approaches to nonmodel species. We conclude that there is much to be gained by integrating haplotype-based analyses in future conservation genomics studies.
  • Authorship Protocols Must Change to Credit Citizen Scientists
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Georgia Ward-Fear, Gregory B. Pauly, Jann E. Vendetti, Richard ShineThe sociopolitical nature of research is changing and so must our protocols for authorship. Citizen scientists are often excluded from authorship because they cannot meet rigid journal criteria. To address this, we propose a new concept: allowing nonprofessional scientists to be credited as authors under a collective identity (‘group coauthorship’).
  • Gene Expression and Diet Breadth in Plant-Feeding Insects: Summarizing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Stephanie S.L. Birnbaum, Patrick AbbotTranscriptomic studies lend insights into the role of transcriptional plasticity in adaptation and specialization. Recently, there has been growing interest in understanding the relationship between variation in herbivorous insect gene expression and the evolution of diet breadth. We review the studies that have emerged on insect gene expression and host plant use, and outline the questions and approaches in the field. Many candidate genes underlying herbivory and specialization have been identified, and a few key studies demonstrate increased transcriptional plasticity associated with generalist compared with specialist species. Addressing the roles that transcriptional variation plays in insect diet breadth will have important implications for our understanding of the evolution of specialization and the genetic and environmental factors that govern insect–plant interactions.
  • Evidence Ranking Needs to Reflect Causality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Anne-Christine Mupepele, Carsten F. Dormann
  • Post-Anthropocene Conservation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Maggie J. Watson, David M. WatsonConditions capable of supporting multicellular life are predicted to continue for another billion years, but humans will inevitably become extinct within several million years. We explore the paradox of a habitable planet devoid of people, and consider how to prioritise our actions to maximise life after we are gone.
  • Transgenerational Plasticity in Human-Altered Environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Sarah C. Donelan, Jennifer K. Hellmann, Alison M. Bell, Barney Luttbeg, John L. Orrock, Michael J. Sheriff, Andrew SihOur ability to predict how species will respond to human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC) may depend upon our understanding of transgenerational plasticity (TGP), which occurs when environments experienced by previous generations influence phenotypes of subsequent generations. TGP evolved to help organisms cope with environmental stressors when parental environments are highly predictive of offspring environments. HIREC can alter conditions that favored TGP in historical environments by reducing parents’ ability to detect environmental conditions, disrupting previous correlations between parental and offspring environments, and interfering with the transmission of parental cues to offspring. Because of the propensity to produce errors in these processes, TGP will likely generate negative fitness outcomes in response to HIREC, though beneficial fitness outcomes may occur in some cases.
  • Understanding Admixture: Haplodiploidy to the Rescue
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Pierre Nouhaud, Alexandre Blanckaert, Claudia Bank, Jonna KulmuniHybridization has broad evolutionary consequences, from fueling or counteracting speciation to facilitating adaptation to novel environments. Hybridization and subsequent introgression appear widespread along the tree of life. However, our understanding of how distinct evolutionary forces shape admixed genomes and the fate of introgressed genetic variants remains scarce. Most admixture research in animals has focused on diploid organisms. We propose that haplodiploid organisms can help resolve open questions about the genomic consequences of hybridization in natural populations. The ploidy difference between haploid males and diploid females, the availability of genome-wide male haplotypes, and ongoing cases of admixture make haplodiploid organisms promising models to improve our knowledge with regards to the evolution of hybrid genomes.
  • Environmental Predictability as a Cause and Consequence of Animal Movement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Louise Riotte-Lambert, Jason MatthiopoulosThe impacts of environmental predictability on the ecology and evolution of animal movement have been the subject of vigorous speculation for several decades. Recently, the swell of new biologging technologies has further stimulated their investigation. This advancing research frontier, however, still lacks conceptual unification and has so far focused little on converse effects. Populations of moving animals have ubiquitous effects on processes such as nutrient cycling and seed dispersal and may therefore shape patterns of environmental predictability. Here, we synthesise the main strands of the literature on the feedbacks between environmental predictability and animal movement and discuss how they may react to anthropogenic disruption, leading to unexpected threats for wildlife and the environment.
  • Social Barriers in Ecological Landscapes: The Social Resistance Hypothesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Nicolette C. Armansin, Adam J. Stow, Mauricio Cantor, Stephan T. Leu, James A. Klarevas-Irby, Anthony A. Chariton, Damien R. FarineAcross animal societies, individuals invest time and energy in social interactions. The social landscape that emerges from these interactions can then generate barriers that limit the ability of individuals to disperse to, and reproduce in, groups or populations. Therefore, social barriers can contribute to the difference between the physical capacity for movement through the habitat and subsequent gene flow. We call this contributing effect ‘social resistance’. We propose that social resistance can act as an agent of selection on key life-history strategies and promote the evolution of social strategies that facilitate effective dispersal. By linking landscape genetics and social behaviour, the social resistance hypothesis generates predictions integrating dispersal, connectivity, and life-history evolution.
  • Predicting Landscape Configuration Effects on Agricultural Pest
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Nathan L. Haan, Yajun Zhang, Douglas A. LandisArthropod predators and parasitoids attack crop pests, providing a valuable ecosystem service. The amount of noncrop habitat surrounding crop fields influences pest suppression, but synthesis of new studies suggests that the spatial configuration of crops and other habitats is similarly important. Natural enemies are often more abundant in fine-grained agricultural landscapes comprising smaller patches and can increase or decrease with the connectivity of crop fields to other habitats. Partitioning organisms by traits has emerged as a promising way to predict the strength and direction of these effects. Furthermore, our ability to predict configurational effects will depend on understanding the potential for indirect effects among trophic levels and the relationship between arthropod dispersal capability and the spatial scale of underlying landscape structure.
  • Conservation Genomics in a Changing Arctic
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Jocelyn P. Colella, Sandra L. Talbot, Christian Brochmann, Eric B. Taylor, Eric P. Hoberg, Joseph A. CookAlthough logistically challenging to study, the Arctic is a bellwether for global change and is becoming a model for questions pertinent to the persistence of biodiversity. Disruption of Arctic ecosystems is accelerating, with impacts ranging from mixing of biotic communities to individual behavioral responses. Understanding these changes is crucial for conservation and sustainable economic development. Genomic approaches are providing transformative insights into biotic responses to environmental change, but have seen limited application in the Arctic due to a series of limitations. To meet the promise of genome analyses, we urge rigorous development of biorepositories from high latitudes to provide essential libraries to improve the conservation, monitoring, and management of Arctic ecosystems through genomic approaches.
  • 3D Imaging Insights into Forests and Coral Reefs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Kim Calders, Stuart Phinn, Renata Ferrari, Javier Leon, John Armston, Gregory P. Asner, Mathias DisneyForests and coral reefs are structurally complex ecosystems threatened by climate change. In situ 3D imaging measurements provide unprecedented, quantitative, and detailed structural information that allows testing of hypotheses relating form to function. This affords new insights into both individual organisms and their relationship to their surroundings and neighbours.
  • The Components and Spatiotemporal Dimension of Carrion Biomass
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Marcos Moleón, Nuria Selva, José A. Sánchez-Zapata
  • Data Integration for Large-Scale Models of Species Distributions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Nick J.B. Isaac, Marta A. Jarzyna, Petr Keil, Lea I. Dambly, Philipp H. Boersch-Supan, Ella Browning, Stephen N. Freeman, Nick Golding, Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita, Peter A. Henrys, Susan Jarvis, José Lahoz-Monfort, Jörn Pagel, Oliver L. Pescott, Reto Schmucki, Emily G. Simmonds, Robert B. O’HaraWith the expansion in the quantity and types of biodiversity data being collected, there is a need to find ways to combine these different sources to provide cohesive summaries of species’ potential and realized distributions in space and time. Recently, model-based data integration has emerged as a means to achieve this by combining datasets in ways that retain the strengths of each. We describe a flexible approach to data integration using point process models, which provide a convenient way to translate across ecological currencies. We highlight recent examples of large-scale ecological models based on data integration and outline the conceptual and technical challenges and opportunities that arise.
  • Sexual Dimorphism and Species Diversity: from Clades to Sites
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Kaoru Tsuji, Tadashi FukamiA variety of relationships have been observed between sexual dimorphism and species diversity, from positive to negative and nonsignificant. Although many hypotheses have been proposed to explain these relationships, it has proven difficult to understand why patterns are so variable. Most studies on this topic have used clades as phylogenetically independent replicates for pattern analysis, but a few recent studies took an alternative approach, using sites as spatially independent replicates. We discuss how the new, site-based studies complement the traditional, clade-based studies and argue that the combined use of the two approaches will be more powerful than either alone in understanding environmental factors that produce variation in sexual dimorphism–species diversity relationships.
  • Funding Conservation through an Emerging Social Movement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Benjamin S. Freeling, Sean D. ConnellPeople will pay to protect our environment. To encourage donations, it is fundamental to understand the values that motivate people. Here, we identify a new opportunity to attract donations from an emerging social movement to deliver benefits to the natural world.
  • The New Tree of Eukaryotes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Fabien Burki, Andrew J. Roger, Matthew W. Brown, Alastair G.B. SimpsonFor 15 years, the eukaryote Tree of Life (eToL) has been divided into five to eight major groupings, known as ‘supergroups’. However, the tree has been profoundly rearranged during this time. The new eToL results from the widespread application of phylogenomics and numerous discoveries of major lineages of eukaryotes, mostly free-living heterotrophic protists. The evidence that supports the tree has transitioned from a synthesis of molecular phylogenetics and biological characters to purely molecular phylogenetics. Most current supergroups lack defining morphological or cell-biological characteristics, making the supergroup label even more arbitrary than before. Going forward, the combination of traditional culturing with maturing culture-free approaches and phylogenomics should accelerate the process of completing and resolving the eToL at its deepest levels.
  • Starving the Enemy' Feeding Behavior Shapes Host-Parasite Interactions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Jessica L. Hite, Alaina C. Pfenning, Clayton E. CresslerThe loss of appetite that typically accompanies infection or mere exposure to parasites is traditionally considered a negative byproduct of infection, benefitting neither the host nor the parasite. Numerous medical and veterinary practices directly or indirectly subvert this ‘illness-mediated anorexia’. However, the ecological factors that influence it, its effects on disease outcomes, and why it evolved remain poorly resolved. We explore how hosts use anorexia to defend against infection and how parasites manipulate anorexia to enhance transmission. Then, we use a coevolutionary model to illustrate how shifts in the magnitude of anorexia (e.g., via drugs) affect disease dynamics and virulence evolution. Anorexia could be exploited to improve disease management; we propose an interdisciplinary approach to minimize unintended consequences.
  • The Past and Future of Experimental Speciation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Nathan J. White, Rhonda R. Snook, Isobel EyresSpeciation is the result of evolutionary processes that generate barriers to gene flow between populations, facilitating reproductive isolation. Speciation is typically studied via theoretical models and snapshot tests in natural populations. Experimental speciation enables real-time direct tests of speciation theory and has been long touted as a critical complement to other approaches. We argue that, despite its promise to elucidate the evolution of reproductive isolation, experimental speciation has been underutilised and lags behind other contributions to speciation research. We review recent experiments and outline a framework for how experimental speciation can be implemented to address current outstanding questions that are otherwise challenging to answer. Greater uptake of this approach is necessary to rapidly advance understanding of speciation.
  • The Evolution of Variance Control
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Trends in Ecology & EvolutionAuthor(s): Marjolein Bruijning, C. Jessica E. Metcalf, Eelke Jongejans, Julien F. AyrolesGenetically identical individuals can be phenotypically variable, even in constant environmental conditions. The ubiquity of this phenomenon, known as ‘intra-genotypic variability’, is increasingly evident and the relevant mechanistic underpinnings are beginning to be understood. In parallel, theory has delineated a number of formal expectations for contexts in which such a feature would be adaptive. Here, we review empirical evidence across biological systems and theoretical expectations, including nonlinear averaging and bet hedging. We synthesize existing results to illustrate the dependence of selection outcomes both on trait characteristics, features of environmental variability, and species’ demographic context. We conclude by discussing ways to bridge the gap between empirical evidence of intra-genotypic variability, studies demonstrating its genetic component, and evidence that it is adaptive.
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Heriot-Watt University
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