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Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 7.049
Citation Impact (citeScore): 10
Number of Followers: 206  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1364-6613
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3206 journals]
  • Leadership and Status in Mammalian Societies: Context Matters
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Jennifer E. Smith, Mark van Vugt
       
  • Digital Emotion Contagion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Amit Goldenberg, James J. GrossPeople spend considerable time on digital media, and are thus often exposed to expressions of emotion by other people. This exposure can lead their own emotion expressions becoming more similar to those of others, a process we refer to as ‘digital emotion contagion’. This article reviews the growing literature on digital emotion contagion. After defining emotion contagion, we suggest that one unique feature of digital emotion contagion is that it is mediated by digital media platforms that are motivated to upregulate user emotions. We then turn to measurement, and consider the challenges of demonstrating that digital emotion contagion has occurred, and how these challenges have been addressed. Finally, we call for a greater focus on understanding when emotion contagion effects are likely to be strong versus weak or nonexistent.
       
  • Why Social Status Is Essential (But Sometimes Insufficient) for Leadership
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Joey T. Cheng, Jessica L. Tracy
       
  • Why Are Self-Report and Behavioral Measures Weakly Correlated'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Junhua Dang, Kevin M. King, Michael InzlichtAccumulating evidence indicates weak correlations between self-report and behavioral measures of the same construct. We suggest that these weak correlations result from the poor reliability of many behavioral measures and the distinct response processes involved in the two measurement types. We also describe how researchers can benefit from appropriate use of these measures.
       
  • Subscription and Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 3Author(s):
       
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 3Author(s):
       
  • Learning to Perceive and Perceiving to Learn
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Clare Press, Peter Kok, Daniel Yon
       
  • Predicting to Perceive and Learning When to Learn
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Philip Corlett
       
  • Overarching States of Mind
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Noa Herz, Shira Baror, Moshe BarWe all have our varying mental emphases, inclinations, and biases. These individual dispositions are dynamic in that they can change over time and context. We propose that these changing states of mind (SoMs) are holistic in that they exert all-encompassing and coordinated effects simultaneously on our perception, attention, thought, affect, and behavior. Given the breadth of their reach, understanding how SoMs operate is essential. We provide evidence and a framework for the concept of SoM, and we propose a unifying principle for the underlying cortical mechanism whereby SoM is determined by the balance between top-down (TD) and bottom-up (BU) processing. This novel global account gives rise to unique hypotheses and opens new horizons for understanding the human mind.
       
  • Theta Oscillations in Human Memory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Nora A. Herweg, Ethan A. Solomon, Michael J. KahanaTheta frequency (4–8 Hz) fluctuations of the local field potential have long been implicated in learning and memory. Human studies of episodic memory, however, have provided mixed evidence for theta’s role in successful learning and remembering. Re-evaluating these conflicting findings leads us to conclude that: (i) successful memory is associated both with increased narrow-band theta oscillations and a broad-band tilt of the power spectrum; (ii) theta oscillations specifically support associative memory, whereas the spectral tilt reflects a general index of activation; and (iii) different cognitive contrasts (generalized versus specific to memory), recording techniques (invasive versus noninvasive), and referencing schemes (local versus global) alter the balance between the two phenomena to make one or the other more easily detectable.
       
  • Space, Time, and Fear: Survival Computations along Defensive Circuits
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Dean Mobbs, Drew B. Headley, Weilun Ding, Peter DayanNaturalistic observations show that decisions to avoid or escape predators occur at different spatiotemporal scales and that they are supported by different computations and neural circuits. At their extremes, proximal threats are addressed by a limited repertoire of reflexive and myopic actions, reflecting reduced decision and state spaces and model-free (MF) architectures. Conversely, distal threats allow increased information processing supported by model-based (MB) operations, including affective prospection, replay, and planning. However, MF and MB computations are often intertwined, and under conditions of safety the foundations for future effective reactive execution can be laid through MB instruction of MF control. Together, these computations are associated with distinct population codes embedded within a distributed defensive circuitry whose goal is to determine and realize the best policy.
       
  • Subscription and Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2Author(s):
       
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2Author(s):
       
  • Reevaluating the Role of Persistent Neural Activity in Short-Term Memory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Nicolas Y. Masse, Matthew C. Rosen, David J. FreedmanA traditional view of short-term working memory (STM) is that task-relevant information is maintained ‘online’ in persistent spiking activity. However, recent experimental and modeling studies have begun to question this long-held belief. In this review, we discuss new evidence demonstrating that information can be ‘silently’ maintained via short-term synaptic plasticity (STSP) without the need for persistent activity. We discuss how the neural mechanisms underlying STM are inextricably linked with the cognitive demands of the task, such that the passive maintenance and the active manipulation of information are subserved differently in the brain. Together, these recent findings point towards a more nuanced view of STM in which multiple substrates work in concert to support our ability to temporarily maintain and manipulate information.
       
  • The Fundamental Problem with No-Cognition Paradigms
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Ian Phillips, Jorge Morales
       
  • Finessing the Bored Monkey Problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Ned Block
       
  • Space: A Missing Piece of the Dynamic Puzzle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Armin Iraji, Robyn Miller, Tulay Adali, Vince D. CalhounThere has been growing interest in studying the temporal reconfiguration of brain functional connectivity to understand the role of dynamic interaction (e.g., integration and segregation) among neuronal populations in cognitive functions. However, it is crucial to differentiate between various dynamic properties because nearly all existing dynamic connectivity studies are presented as spatiotemporally dynamic, even though they fall into different categories. As a result, variation in the spatial patterns of functional structures are not well characterized. Here, we present the concepts of spatially, temporally, and spatiotemporally dynamics and use this terminology to categorize existing approaches. We review current spatially dynamic connectivity work, emphasizing that explicit incorporation of space into dynamic analyses can expand our understanding of brain function and disorder.
       
  • Near-Death Experience as a Probe to Explore (Disconnected) Consciousness
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Charlotte Martial, Héléna Cassol, Steven Laureys, Olivia GosseriesForty-five years ago, the first evidence of near-death experience (NDE) during comatose state was provided, setting the stage for a new paradigm for studying the neural basis of consciousness in unresponsive states. At present, the state of consciousness associated with NDEs remains an open question. In the common view, consciousness is said to disappear in a coma with the brain shutting down, but this is an oversimplification. We argue that a novel framework distinguishing awareness, wakefulness, and connectedness is needed to comprehend the phenomenon. Classical NDEs correspond to internal awareness experienced in unresponsive conditions, thereby corresponding to an episode of disconnected consciousness. Our proposal suggests new directions for NDE research, and more broadly, consciousness science.
       
  • Studying Gender Diversity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Jennifer D. Rubin, S. Atwood, Kristina R. OlsonGender identity is a core feature of human experience, yet our understanding of gender identity is shifting with broader societal changes in recognizing and understanding gender diversity. Here we discuss recent trends and upcoming directions for this burgeoning subfield.
       
  • The Hippocampal Cognitive Map: One Space or Many'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Hugo J. SpiersNew evidence reported by Solomon et al. that hippocampal activity tracks distance in semantic space during recall supports the growing consensus of a domain-general cognitive map. Nevertheless, are all inputs equally processed into a ‘universal map’, or are there input constraints (e.g., space, semantics) that lead to differentiated multiple maps across the hippocampus that have distinct properties'
       
  • Learning During Sleep: A Dream Comes True'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Simon Ruch, Katharina HenkeCan information that is processed during sleep influence awake behavior' Recent research demonstrates that learning during sleep is possible, but that sleep-learning invariably produces memory traces that are consciously inaccessible in the awake state. Thus, sleep-learning can likely exert implicit, but not explicit, influences on awake behavior.
       
  • Avoid Cohen’s ‘Small’, ‘Medium’, and ‘Large’ for Power
           Analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Joshua Correll, Christopher Mellinger, Gary H. McClelland, Charles M. JuddOne of the most difficult and important decisions in power analysis involves specifying an effect size. Researchers frequently employ definitions of small, medium, and large that were proposed by Jacob Cohen. These definitions are problematic for two reasons. First, they are arbitrary, based on non-scientific criteria. Second, they are inconsistent, changing dramatically and illogically as a function of the statistical test a researcher plans to use (e.g., t-test versus regression). These problems may be unknown to many researchers, but they have a huge impact on power analyses. Estimates of the required n may be inappropriately doubled or cut in half. For power analyses to have any meaning, these definitions of effect size should be avoided.
       
  • Semantic Search as Pattern Completion across a Concept
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Sarah H. Solomon, Anna C. SchapiroWhat role does the hippocampus play in semantic memory' In a recent paper, Cutler et al. use a vector space model of semantics to characterize semantic search deficits in hippocampal amnesia. We relate their findings to properties of the hippocampal neural code and to controversies regarding hippocampal contributions to cognition.
       
  • The Psychology of Motivated versus Rational Impression Updating
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Minjae Kim, BoKyung Park, Liane YoungPeople’s beliefs about others are often impervious to new evidence: we continue to cooperate with ingroup defectors and refuse to see outgroup enemies as rehabilitated. Resistance to updating beliefs with new information has historically been interpreted as reflecting bias or motivated cognition, but recent work in Bayesian inference suggests that belief maintenance can be compatible with procedural rationality. We propose a mentalizing account of belief maintenance, which holds that protecting strong priors by generating alternative explanations for surprising information involves more mentalizing about the target than nonrational discounting. We review the neuroscientific evidence supporting this approach, and discuss how both types of processing can lead to fitness benefits.
       
  • Switching Tracks' Towards a Multidimensional Model of Utilitarian
           Psychology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Jim A.C. Everett, Guy KahaneSacrificial moral dilemmas are widely used to investigate when, how, and why people make judgments that are consistent with utilitarianism. However, to what extent can responses to sacrificial dilemmas shed light on utilitarian decision making' We consider two key questions. First, how meaningful is the relationship between responses to sacrificial dilemmas, and what is distinctive about a utilitarian approach to morality' Second, to what extent do findings about sacrificial dilemmas generalize to other moral contexts where there is tension between utilitarianism and common-sense intuitions' We argue that sacrificial dilemmas only capture one point of conflict between utilitarianism and common-sense morality, and new paradigms will be necessary to investigate other key aspects of utilitarianism, such as its radical impartiality.
       
  • Is Preregistration Worthwhile'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Aba Szollosi, David Kellen, Danielle J. Navarro, Richard Shiffrin, Iris van Rooij, Trisha Van Zandt, Chris Donkin
       
  • Learning to Be Conscious
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Axel Cleeremans, Dalila Achoui, Arnaud Beauny, Lars Keuninckx, Jean-Remy Martin, Santiago Muñoz-Moldes, Laurène Vuillaume, Adélaïde de HeeringConsciousness remains a formidable challenge. Different theories of consciousness have proposed vastly different mechanisms to account for phenomenal experience. Here, appealing to aspects of global workspace theory, higher-order theories, social theories, and predictive processing, we introduce a novel framework: the self-organizing metarerpresentational account (SOMA), in which consciousness is viewed as something that the brain learns to do. By this account, the brain continuously and unconsciously learns to redescribe its own activity to itself, so developing systems of metarepresentations that qualify target first-order representations. Thus, experiences only occur in experiencers that have learned to know they possess certain first-order states and that have learned to care more about certain states than about others. In this sense, consciousness is the brain’s (unconscious, embodied, enactive, nonconceptual) theory about itself.
       
  • Ecological Sex Ratios and Human Mating
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Jon K. Maner, Joshua M. AckermanThe ratio of men to women in a given ecology can have profound influences on a range of interpersonal processes, from marriage and divorce rates to risk-taking and violent crime. Here, we organize such processes into two categories – intersexual choice and intrasexual competition – representing focal effects of imbalanced sex ratios.
       
  • Research Culture and Reproducibility
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Marcus R. Munafò, Christopher D. Chambers, Alexandra M. Collins, Laura Fortunato, Malcolm R. MacleodThere is ongoing debate regarding the robustness and credibility of published scientific research. We argue that these issues stem from two broad causal mechanisms: the cognitive biases of researchers and the incentive structures within which researchers operate. The UK Reproducibility Network (UKRN) is working with researchers, institutions, funders, publishers, and other stakeholders to address these issues.
       
  • Oscillatory Control over Representational States in Working Memory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Ingmar E.J. de Vries, Heleen A. Slagter, Christian N.L. OliversIn the visual world, attention is guided by perceptual goals activated in visual working memory (VWM). However, planning multiple-task sequences also requires VWM to store representations for future goals. These future goals need to be prevented from interfering with the current perceptual task. Recent findings have implicated neural oscillations as a control mechanism serving the implementation and switching of different states of prioritization of VWM representations. We review recent evidence that posterior alpha-band oscillations underlie the flexible activation and deactivation of VWM representations and that frontal delta-to-theta-band oscillations play a role in the executive control of this process. That is, frontal delta-to-theta appears to orchestrate posterior alpha through long-range oscillatory networks to flexibly set up and change VWM states during multitask sequences.
       
 
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