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Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 7.049
Citation Impact (citeScore): 10
Number of Followers: 186  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1364-6613
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3185 journals]
  • Subscription and Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 10Author(s):
  • Experience-Driven Auditory Attention
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Douglas A. Addleman, Yuhong V. JiangIn addition to conscious goals and stimulus salience, an observer’s prior experience also influences selective attention. Early studies demonstrated experience-driven effects on attention mainly in the visual modality, but increasing evidence shows that experience drives auditory selection as well. We review evidence for a multiple-levels framework of auditory attention, in which experience-driven attention relies on mechanisms that acquire control settings and mechanisms that guide attention towards selected stimuli. Mechanisms of acquisition include cue–target associative learning, reward learning, and sensitivity to prior selection history. Once acquired, implementation of these biases can occur either consciously or unconsciously. Future research should more fully characterize the sources of experience-driven auditory attention and investigate the neural mechanisms used to acquire and implement experience-driven auditory attention.
  • Where Does Value Come From'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Keno Juechems, Christopher SummerfieldThe computational framework of reinforcement learning (RL) has allowed us to both understand biological brains and build successful artificial agents. However, in this opinion, we highlight open challenges for RL as a model of animal behaviour in natural environments. We ask how the external reward function is designed for biological systems, and how we can account for the context sensitivity of valuation. We summarise both old and new theories proposing that animals track current and desired internal states and seek to minimise the distance to a goal across multiple value dimensions. We suggest that this framework readily accounts for canonical phenomena observed in the fields of psychology, behavioural ecology, and economics, and recent findings from brain-imaging studies of value-guided decision-making.
  • When Do Growth Mindset Interventions Work'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): David I. MillerCan teaching students about brain plasticity improve their grades' A recent large, national experiment (Yeager et al.) found that a brief growth mindset intervention improved lower-achieving adolescents’ grades by 0.10 points. Debate about interpreting the study’s findings illustrates the need to consider effect heterogeneity and contextual factors when evaluating effect sizes.
  • The Climate Crisis Needs Attention from Cognitive Scientists
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Adam R. AronTo prevent the devastating consequences of anthropogenic global heating, immediate collective action is needed to reduce fossil fuel emissions. Cognitive scientists are in a special position to facilitate collective action by researching the factors underlying belief and action, and by teaching students how to think about the biggest problem of their lives.
  • Individual Representation in a Community of Knowledge
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Nathaniel Rabb, Philip M. Fernbach, Steven A. SlomanAn individual’s knowledge is collective in at least two senses: it often comes from other people’s testimony, and its deployment in reasoning and action requires accuracy underwritten by other people’s knowledge. What must one know to participate in a collective knowledge system' Here, we marshal evidence that individuals retain detailed causal information for a few domains and coarse causal models embedding markers indicating that these details are available elsewhere (others’ heads or the physical world) for most domains. This framework yields further questions about metacognition, source credibility, and individual computation that are theoretically and practically important. Belief polarization depends on the web of epistemic dependence and is greatest for those who know the least, plausibly due to extreme conflation of others’ knowledge with one’s own.
  • Eye Movements and Comprehension Are Important to Reading
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Elizabeth R. Schotter, Brennan R. Payne
  • You Can’t Recognize Two Words Simultaneously
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Alex L. White, Geoffrey M. Boynton, Jason D. Yeatman
  • Consciousness Is Not Key in the Serial-versus-Parallel Debate
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Joshua Snell, Jonathan Grainger
  • Awake Reactivation of Prior Experiences Consolidates Memories and Biases
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Arielle Tambini, Lila DavachiAfter experiences are encoded into memory, post-encoding reactivation mechanisms have been proposed to mediate long-term memory stabilization and transformation. Spontaneous reactivation of hippocampal representations, together with hippocampal–cortical interactions, are leading candidate mechanisms for promoting systems-level memory strengthening and reorganization. While the replay of spatial representations has been extensively studied in rodents, here we review recent fMRI work that provides evidence for spontaneous reactivation of nonspatial, episodic event representations in the human hippocampus and cortex, as well as for experience-dependent alterations in systems-level hippocampal connectivity. We focus on reactivation during awake post-encoding periods, relationships between reactivation and subsequent behavior, how reactivation is modulated by factors that influence consolidation, and the implications of persistent reactivation for biasing ongoing perception and cognition.
  • Ontogenetic Origins of Human Integer Representations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Susan Carey, David BarnerDo children learn number words by associating them with perceptual magnitudes' Recent studies argue that approximate numerical magnitudes play a foundational role in the development of integer concepts. Against this, we argue that approximate number representations fail both empirically and in principle to provide the content required of integer concepts. Instead, we suggest that children’s understanding of integer concepts proceeds in two phases. In the first phase, children learn small exact number word meanings by associating words with small sets. In the second phase, children learn the meanings of larger number words by mastering the logic of exact counting algorithms, which implement the successor function and Hume’s principle (that one-to-one correspondence guarantees exact equality). In neither phase do approximate number representations play a foundational role.
  • The Misestimation of Uncertainty in Affective Disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Erdem Pulcu, Michael BrowningOur knowledge about the state of the world is often incomplete, making it difficult to select the best course of action. One strategy that can be used to improve our ability to make decisions is to identify the causes of our ignorance (i.e., why an unexpected event might have occurred) and use estimates of the uncertainty induced by these causes to guide our learning. Here, we explain the logic behind this process and describe the evidence that human learners use estimates of uncertainty to sculpt their learning. Finally, we describe recent work suggesting that misestimation of uncertainty is involved in the development of anxiety and depression and describe how these ideas may be advanced.
  • The Default Mode Network’s Role in Discrete Emotion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Ajay B. Satpute, Kristen A. LindquistEmotions are often assumed to manifest in subcortical limbic and brainstem structures. While these areas are clearly important for representing affect (e.g., valence and arousal), we propose that the default mode network (DMN) is additionally important for constructing discrete emotional experiences (of anger, fear, disgust, etc.). Findings from neuroimaging studies, invasive electrical stimulation studies, and lesion studies support this proposal. Importantly, our framework builds on a constructionist theory of emotion to explain how instances involving diverse physiological and behavioral patterns can be conceptualized as belonging to the same emotion category. We argue that this ability requires abstraction (from concrete features to broad mental categories), which the DMN is well positioned to support, and we make novel predictions from our proposed framework.
  • What Underlies Political Polarization' A Manifesto for Computational
           Political Psychology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Max Rollwage, Leor Zmigrod, Lee de-Wit, Raymond J. Dolan, Stephen M. FlemingPolarization is one of the biggest societal challenges of our time, yet its drivers are poorly understood. Here we propose a novel approach – computational political psychology – which uses behavioral tasks in combination with formal computational models to identify candidate cognitive processes underpinning susceptibility to polarized beliefs about political and societal issues.
  • Preregistration Is Hard, And Worthwhile
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Brian A. Nosek, Emorie D. Beck, Lorne Campbell, Jessica K. Flake, Tom E. Hardwicke, David T. Mellor, Anna E. van ’t Veer, Simine VazirePreregistration clarifies the distinction between planned and unplanned research by reducing unnoticed flexibility. This improves credibility of findings and calibration of uncertainty. However, making decisions before conducting analyses requires practice. During report writing, respecting both what was planned and what actually happened requires good judgment and humility in making claims.
  • Subscription and Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 9Author(s):
  • A Modeling Approach that Integrates Individual Behavior, Social Networks,
           and Cross-Cultural Variation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Paul E. SmaldinoHow do psychological traits shape social networks' How does this relationship influence the spread of behavior' In a recent paper, Muthukrishna and Schaller (Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev., 2019) use a modeling approach to explore these questions. In doing so, they illustrate the value of using a multilevel approach to study human behavior.
  • Understanding the Higher-Order Approach to Consciousness
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Richard Brown, Hakwan Lau, Joseph E. LeDouxThe higher-order theory (HOT) of consciousness has often been misunderstood by critics. Here, we clarify its position on several issues, and distinguish it from other views, such as the global workspace theory (GWT) and early sensory models (e.g., first-order local recurrency theories). For example, HOT has been criticized for overintellectualizing consciousness. We show that, while higher-order states are cognitively assembled, the requirements are in fact considerably less than often presumed. In this sense, HOT may be viewed as an intermediate position between GWT and early sensory views. We also clarify that most proponents of HOT do not stipulate consciousness as equivalent to metacognition or confidence. Furthermore, compared with other existing theories, HOT can arguably account better for complex everyday experiences, such as emotions and episodic memories. This makes HOT particularly useful as a framework for conceptualizing pathological mental states.
  • Moving Forward: On the Limits of Motor-Based Forward Models
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Myrthel Dogge, Ruud Custers, Henk AartsThe human ability to anticipate the consequences that result from action is an essential building block for cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. A dominant view is that this faculty is based on motor predictions, in which a forward model uses a copy of the motor command to predict imminent sensory action-consequences. Although this account was originally conceived to explain the processing of action-outcomes that are tightly coupled to bodily movements, it has been increasingly extrapolated to effects beyond the body. Here, we critically evaluate this generalization and argue that, although there is ample evidence for the role of predictions in the processing of environment-related action-outcomes, there is hitherto little reason to assume that these predictions result from motor-based forward models.
  • Nonmonotonic Plasticity: How Memory Retrieval Drives Learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Victoria J.H. Ritvo, Nicholas B. Turk-Browne, Kenneth A. NormanWhat are the principles that govern whether neural representations move apart (differentiate) or together (integrate) as a function of learning' According to supervised learning models that are trained to predict outcomes in the world, integration should occur when two stimuli predict the same outcome. Numerous findings support this, but – paradoxically – some recent fMRI studies have found that pairing different stimuli with the same associate causes differentiation, not integration. To explain these and related findings, we argue that supervised learning needs to be supplemented with unsupervised learning that is driven by spreading activation in a U-shaped way, such that inactive memories are not modified, moderate activation of memories causes weakening (leading to differentiation), and higher activation causes strengthening (leading to integration).
  • An Insect’s Sense of Number
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Martin GiurfaRecent studies revealed numerosity judgments in bees, which include the concept of zero, subtraction and addition, and matching symbols to numbers. Despite their distant origins, bees and vertebrates share similarities in their numeric competences, thus suggesting that numerosity is evolutionary conserved and can be implemented in miniature brains without neocortex.
  • Measuring Adaptive Control in Conflict Tasks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Senne Braem, Julie M. Bugg, James R. Schmidt, Matthew J.C. Crump, Daniel H. Weissman, Wim Notebaert, Tobias EgnerThe past two decades have witnessed an explosion of interest in the cognitive and neural mechanisms of adaptive control processes that operate in selective attention tasks. This has spawned not only a large empirical literature and several theories but also the recurring identification of potential confounds and corresponding adjustments in task design to create confound-minimized metrics of adaptive control. The resulting complexity of this literature can be difficult to navigate for new researchers entering the field, leading to suboptimal study designs. To remediate this problem, we present here a consensus view among opposing theorists that specifies how researchers can measure four hallmark indices of adaptive control (the congruency sequence effect, and list-wide, context-specific, and item-specific proportion congruency effects) while minimizing easy-to-overlook confounds.
  • Factors Determining Where Category-Selective Areas Emerge in Visual Cortex
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Hans P. Op de Beeck, Ineke Pillet, J. Brendan RitchieA hallmark of functional localization in the human brain is the presence of areas in visual cortex specialized for representing particular categories such as faces and words. Why do these areas appear where they do during development' Recent findings highlight several general factors to consider when answering this question. Experience-driven category selectivity arises in regions that have: (i) pre-existing selectivity for properties of the stimulus, (ii) are appropriately placed in the computational hierarchy of the visual system, and (iii) exhibit domain-specific patterns of connectivity to nonvisual regions. In other words, cortical location of category selectivity is constrained by what category will be represented, how it will be represented, and why the representation will be used.
  • Social Status and Gene Regulation: Conservation and Context Dependence in
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Noah D. Simons, Jenny TungCurrent models suggest that low social status affects immune function by increasing inflammation and compromising antiviral defense. While this pattern appears to be somewhat conserved, recent studies argue that the gene regulatory signature of social status also depends on the local environment and the nature of social hierarchies.
  • At the Heart of Cognitive Functioning in Aging
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Anders Wåhlin, Lars NybergSeveral neural and non-neural factors contribute to individual differences in cognitive performance. Here we outline a sequence of vascular events where excessive transfer of arterial-pressure pulsatility damages hippocampal capillaries. We argue that the vascular alterations decrease the ability to sustain neural activity and thereby contribute to episodic-memory impairment in aging.
  • Is Rehearsal an Effective Maintenance Strategy for Working Memory'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Klaus OberauerA common assumption in theories of working memory is that a maintenance process – broadly referred to as rehearsal – is involved in keeping novel information available. This review evaluates the effectiveness of three forms of rehearsal: articulatory rehearsal, attention-based refreshing, and elaborative rehearsal. Evidence for the effectiveness of these strategies is surprisingly weak. Experimental manipulations of articulatory rehearsal have yielded working memory benefits in children, but not in adults; experimentally induced refreshing prioritizes the refreshed information, but yields little benefit compared to a baseline without induced refreshing; and elaborative rehearsal improves episodic long-term memory but has little effect on working memory. Thus, although adults spontaneously use some of these strategies, rehearsal might not play a causal role in keeping information in working memory.
  • Children’s Sense of Fairness: Respect Isn’t Everything
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Katherine McAuliffe, Felix Warneken, Peter Blake
  • Respect Defended
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Jan M. Engelmann, Michael Tomasello
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
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