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Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 7.049
Citation Impact (citeScore): 10
Number of Followers: 189  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1364-6613
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3181 journals]
  • Combinatorial Oxytocin Neuropharmacology in Social Cognition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Siqi Fan, Hannah Weinberg-Wolf, Matthew Piva, Olga Dal Monte, Steve W.C. ChangThe efficacy and reliability of using intranasal oxytocin (OT) to clinically enhance social functions remains undependable. We discuss the potential benefit of concurrent administration of OT and naloxone (NAL) to robustly modulate social behavior. We further suggest that combinatorial neuropharmacology approaches should exploit the interactions between OT and serotonin to regulate social functions.
       
  • Discovering the Computational Relevance of Brain Network Organization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Takuya Ito, Luke Hearne, Ravi Mill, Carrisa Cocuzza, Michael W. ColeUnderstanding neurocognitive computations will require not just localizing cognitive information distributed throughout the brain but also determining how that information got there. We review recent advances in linking empirical and simulated brain network organization with cognitive information processing. Building on these advances, we offer a new framework for understanding the role of connectivity in cognition: network coding (encoding/decoding) models. These models utilize connectivity to specify the transfer of information via neural activity flow processes, successfully predicting the formation of cognitive representations in empirical neural data. The success of these models supports the possibility that localized neural functions mechanistically emerge (are computed) from distributed activity flow processes that are specified primarily by connectivity patterns.
       
  • How Curiosity Enhances Hippocampus-Dependent Memory: The Prediction,
           Appraisal, Curiosity, and Exploration (PACE) Framework
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Matthias J. Gruber, Charan RanganathCuriosity plays a fundamental role for learning and memory, but the neural mechanisms that stimulate curiosity and its effect on memory are poorly understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that curiosity states are related to modulations in activity in the dopaminergic circuit and that these modulations impact memory encoding and consolidation for both targets of curiosity and incidental information encountered during curiosity states. To account for this evidence, we propose the Prediction, Appraisal, Curiosity, and Exploration (PACE) framework, which attempts to explain curiosity and memory in terms of cognitive processes, neural circuits, behavior, and subjective experience. The PACE framework generates testable predictions that can stimulate future investigation of the mechanisms underlying curiosity-related memory enhancements.
       
  • Rapid Cortical Plasticity Supports Long-Term Memory Formation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Melissa Hebscher, Erik Wing, Jennifer Ryan, Asaf GilboaThe standard systems consolidation account posits that recently formed memories are initially dependent on the hippocampus and only gradually become instantiated in neocortical networks over a period of weeks to years. However, recent animal and human research has identified rapid formation of cortical engrams at the time of learning that can support hippocampal-independent memories within hours or days. Conditions that promote rapid cortical learning include relatedness to prior knowledge, activation of knowledge in the service of action selection or active discovery, and repeated retrieval. Here, we propose that cortical hubs can support rapid learning through synchronous activation of sensorimotor representational cortices. Candidate neurobiological mechanisms include unmasking of latent synaptic connections and rapid synaptic remodeling driven by disinhibitory processes.
       
  • Belief Representation in Great Apes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Alia MartinA new study by Kano and colleagues shows that great apes use their own visual experience to attribute perceptions and beliefs to another agent. Their results suggest that the way apes understand behavior is more similar to human understanding than was previously thought, and may be driven by representations of mental states.
       
  • Exercise, Dopamine, and Cognition in Older Age
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Eric J. Juarez, Gregory R. Samanez-LarkinJonasson et al. investigated whether individual differences in human dopamine receptors (D2R) were related to cognitive performance before and after a 6-month aerobic exercise intervention (compared with active control). While D2R decreased (perhaps counterintuitively) with exercise, there was no relationship between D2R and working memory at baseline or following exercise.
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 11Author(s):
       
  • Subscription and Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 11Author(s):
       
  • Track It to Crack It: Dissecting Processing Stages with Finger Tracking
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Dror Dotan, Pedro Pinheiro-Chagas, Fosca Al Roumi, Stanislas DehaeneA central goal in cognitive science is to parse the series of processing stages underlying a cognitive task. A powerful yet simple behavioral method that can resolve this problem is finger trajectory tracking: by continuously tracking the finger position and speed as a participant chooses a response, and by analyzing which stimulus features affect the trajectory at each time point during the trial, we can estimate the absolute timing and order of each processing stage, and detect transient effects, changes of mind, serial versus parallel processing, and real-time fluctuations in subjective confidence. We suggest that trajectory tracking, which provides considerably more information than mere response times, may provide a comprehensive understanding of the fast temporal dynamics of cognitive operations.
       
  • How We Know What Not To Think
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Jonathan Phillips, Adam Morris, Fiery CushmanHumans often represent and reason about unrealized possible actions – the vast infinity of things that were not (or have not yet been) chosen. This capacity is central to the most impressive of human abilities: causal reasoning, planning, linguistic communication, moral judgment, etc. Nevertheless, how do we select possible actions that are worth considering from the infinity of unrealized actions that are better left ignored' We review research across the cognitive sciences, and find that the possible actions considered by default are those that are both likely to occur and generally valuable. We then offer a unified theory of why. We propose that (i) across diverse cognitive tasks, the possible actions we consider are biased towards those of general practical utility, and (ii) a plausible primary function for this mechanism resides in decision making.
       
  • What Is Wrong with the No-Report Paradigm and How to Fix It
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Ned BlockIs consciousness based in prefrontal circuits involved in cognitive processes like thought, reasoning, and memory or is it based in sensory areas in the back of the neocortex' The no-report paradigm has been crucial to this debate because it aims to separate the neural basis of the cognitive processes underlying post-perceptual decision and report from the neural basis of conscious perception itself. However, the no-report paradigm is problematic because, even in the absence of report, subjects might engage in post-perceptual cognitive processing. Therefore, to isolate the neural basis of consciousness, a no-cognition paradigm is needed. Here, I describe a no-cognition approach to binocular rivalry and outline how this approach can help to resolve debates about the neural basis of consciousness.
       
  • A Neural Chronometry of Memory Recall
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Bernhard P. Staresina, Maria WimberEpisodic memory allows us to mentally travel through time. How does the brain convert a simple reminder cue into a full-blown memory of past events and experiences' In this review, we integrate recent developments in the cognitive neuroscience of human memory retrieval, pinpointing the neural chronometry underlying successful recall. Electrophysiological recordings suggest that sensory cues proceed into the medial temporal lobe within the first 500 ms. At this point, a hippocampal process sets in, geared toward internal pattern completion and coordination of cortical memory reinstatement between 500 and 1500 ms. We further highlight the dynamic principles governing the recall process, which include a reversal of perceptual information flows, temporal compression, and theta clocking.
       
  • From Knowing to Remembering: The Semantic–Episodic Distinction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Louis Renoult, Muireann Irish, Morris Moscovitch, Michael D. RuggThe distinction between episodic and semantic memory was first proposed in 1972 by Endel Tulving and is still of central importance in cognitive neuroscience. However, data obtained over the past 30 years or so support the idea that the frontiers between perception and knowledge and between episodic and semantic memory are not as clear cut as previously thought, prompting a rethink of the episodic–semantic distinction. Here, we review recent research on episodic and semantic memory, highlighting similarities between the two systems. Taken together, current behavioral, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging data are compatible with the idea that episodic and semantic memory are inextricably intertwined, yet retain a measure of distinctiveness, despite the fact that their neural correlates demonstrate considerable overlap.
       
  • Computational Models of Retrieval Processes in Sentence Processing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Shravan Vasishth, Bruno Nicenboim, Felix Engelmann, Frank BurchertSentence comprehension requires that the comprehender work out who did what to whom. This process has been characterized as retrieval from memory. This review summarizes the quantitative predictions and empirical coverage of the two existing computational models of retrieval and shows how the predictive performance of these two competing models can be tested against a benchmark data-set. We also show how computational modeling can help us better understand sources of variability in both unimpaired and impaired sentence comprehension.
       
  • N-Best Evaluation for Academic Hiring and Promotion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Michael C. FrankCurrent evaluations for scientists create perverse incentives. To avoid this issue, I propose an N-best policy: Hiring and promotion committees should solicit a few research products as the primary locus of evaluation. This policy aligns evaluation with the goal of selecting scientists who produce high-quality work.
       
  • Gamma Oscillations Shape Pain in Animals and Humans
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Markus Ploner, Joachim Gross
       
  • Weber’s Law: A Mechanistic Foundation after Two Centuries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Jeroen Brus, Joseph A. Heng, Rafael PolaníaWeber’s law appears to be a universal principle describing how we discriminate between physical magnitudes. However, this law remained purely descriptive for nearly two centuries. A study by Pardo-Vazquez et al. finally provides a mechanistic explanation, revealing how both accuracy and reaction-time performance lawfully emerge during sensory discrimination tasks.
       
  • A Dual Model of Leadership and Hierarchy: Evolutionary Synthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Mark Van Vugt, Jennifer E. SmithFrom the popularity of authoritarian political leaders to the under-representation of women in boardrooms, leadership is an important theme in current human social affairs. Leadership is also a prominent research topic in the biological, social, and cognitive sciences. However, these active literatures have evolved somewhat independently and there is a need for synthesis. A comparative-evolutionary approach can integrate seemingly divergent perspectives by making a distinction between two leadership styles, prestige and dominance, that have contrasting expressions, functions, histories, and neural and developmental pathways. The distinction may help to resolve various scientific puzzles, such as: (i) opposing views on the different functions and expressions of leadership; (ii) the appeal of dominance-style leaders; and (iii) sex biases in leadership emergence in modern society.
       
  • How Efficiency Shapes Human Language
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Edward Gibson, Richard Futrell, Steven T. Piantadosi, Isabelle Dautriche, Kyle Mahowald, Leon Bergen, Roger Levy
       
  • Neural Entrainment and Attentional Selection in the Listening Brain
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Jonas Obleser, Christoph KayserThe streams of sounds we typically attend to abound in acoustic regularities. Neural entrainment is seen as an important mechanism that the listening brain exploits to attune to these regularities and to enhance the representation of attended sounds. We delineate the neurophysiology underlying this mechanism and review entrainment alongside its more pragmatic signature, often called ‘speech tracking’. The latter has become a popular analytical approach to trace the reflection of acoustic and linguistic information at different levels of granularity, from neurophysiology to neuroimaging. As we discuss, the concept of entrainment offers both a putative neurophysiological mechanism for selective listening and a versatile window onto the neural basis of hearing and speech comprehension.
       
  • Cracking Down on Complexity in the Evolving Brain
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Jessica C. Burkhart, Sarah R. HeilbronnerLouail et al. analyzed the brains of five primate species to determine factors driving size differences. In addition to analyzing the volume of the whole brain, they considered specific brain regions. In doing so, they linked the size of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex with foraging complexity across species.
       
  • Mnemonic Similarity Task: A Tool for Assessing Hippocampal Integrity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Shauna M. Stark, C. Brock Kirwan, Craig E.L. StarkThe hippocampus is critical for learning and memory, relying in part on pattern separation processes supported by the dentate gyrus (DG) to prevent interference from overlapping memory representations. In 2007, we designed the Mnemonic Similarity Task (MST), a modified object recognition memory task, to be highly sensitive to hippocampal function by placing strong demands on pattern separation. The MST is now a widely used behavioral task, repeatedly shown to be sensitive to age-related memory decline, hippocampal connectivity, and hippocampal function, with specificity to the DG. Here, we review the utility of the MST, its relationship to hippocampal function, its utility in detecting hippocampal-based memory alterations across the lifespan, and impairments associated with clinical pathology from a variety of disorders.
       
  • Subscription and Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 10Author(s):
       
  • Experience-Driven Auditory Attention
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Douglas A. Addleman, Yuhong V. JiangIn addition to conscious goals and stimulus salience, an observer’s prior experience also influences selective attention. Early studies demonstrated experience-driven effects on attention mainly in the visual modality, but increasing evidence shows that experience drives auditory selection as well. We review evidence for a multiple-levels framework of auditory attention, in which experience-driven attention relies on mechanisms that acquire control settings and mechanisms that guide attention towards selected stimuli. Mechanisms of acquisition include cue–target associative learning, reward learning, and sensitivity to prior selection history. Once acquired, implementation of these biases can occur either consciously or unconsciously. Future research should more fully characterize the sources of experience-driven auditory attention and investigate the neural mechanisms used to acquire and implement experience-driven auditory attention.
       
  • Where Does Value Come From'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Keno Juechems, Christopher SummerfieldThe computational framework of reinforcement learning (RL) has allowed us to both understand biological brains and build successful artificial agents. However, in this opinion, we highlight open challenges for RL as a model of animal behaviour in natural environments. We ask how the external reward function is designed for biological systems, and how we can account for the context sensitivity of valuation. We summarise both old and new theories proposing that animals track current and desired internal states and seek to minimise the distance to a goal across multiple value dimensions. We suggest that this framework readily accounts for canonical phenomena observed in the fields of psychology, behavioural ecology, and economics, and recent findings from brain-imaging studies of value-guided decision-making.
       
  • When Do Growth Mindset Interventions Work'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): David I. MillerCan teaching students about brain plasticity improve their grades' A recent large, national experiment (Yeager et al.) found that a brief growth mindset intervention improved lower-achieving adolescents’ grades by 0.10 points. Debate about interpreting the study’s findings illustrates the need to consider effect heterogeneity and contextual factors when evaluating effect sizes.
       
  • The Climate Crisis Needs Attention from Cognitive Scientists
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Adam R. AronTo prevent the devastating consequences of anthropogenic global heating, immediate collective action is needed to reduce fossil fuel emissions. Cognitive scientists are in a special position to facilitate collective action by researching the factors underlying belief and action, and by teaching students how to think about the biggest problem of their lives.
       
  • Individual Representation in a Community of Knowledge
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Nathaniel Rabb, Philip M. Fernbach, Steven A. SlomanAn individual’s knowledge is collective in at least two senses: it often comes from other people’s testimony, and its deployment in reasoning and action requires accuracy underwritten by other people’s knowledge. What must one know to participate in a collective knowledge system' Here, we marshal evidence that individuals retain detailed causal information for a few domains and coarse causal models embedding markers indicating that these details are available elsewhere (others’ heads or the physical world) for most domains. This framework yields further questions about metacognition, source credibility, and individual computation that are theoretically and practically important. Belief polarization depends on the web of epistemic dependence and is greatest for those who know the least, plausibly due to extreme conflation of others’ knowledge with one’s own.
       
  • Eye Movements and Comprehension Are Important to Reading
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Elizabeth R. Schotter, Brennan R. Payne
       
  • You Can’t Recognize Two Words Simultaneously
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Alex L. White, Geoffrey M. Boynton, Jason D. Yeatman
       
  • Consciousness Is Not Key in the Serial-versus-Parallel Debate
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Joshua Snell, Jonathan Grainger
       
  • Awake Reactivation of Prior Experiences Consolidates Memories and Biases
           Cognition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Arielle Tambini, Lila DavachiAfter experiences are encoded into memory, post-encoding reactivation mechanisms have been proposed to mediate long-term memory stabilization and transformation. Spontaneous reactivation of hippocampal representations, together with hippocampal–cortical interactions, are leading candidate mechanisms for promoting systems-level memory strengthening and reorganization. While the replay of spatial representations has been extensively studied in rodents, here we review recent fMRI work that provides evidence for spontaneous reactivation of nonspatial, episodic event representations in the human hippocampus and cortex, as well as for experience-dependent alterations in systems-level hippocampal connectivity. We focus on reactivation during awake post-encoding periods, relationships between reactivation and subsequent behavior, how reactivation is modulated by factors that influence consolidation, and the implications of persistent reactivation for biasing ongoing perception and cognition.
       
  • Ontogenetic Origins of Human Integer Representations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Susan Carey, David BarnerDo children learn number words by associating them with perceptual magnitudes' Recent studies argue that approximate numerical magnitudes play a foundational role in the development of integer concepts. Against this, we argue that approximate number representations fail both empirically and in principle to provide the content required of integer concepts. Instead, we suggest that children’s understanding of integer concepts proceeds in two phases. In the first phase, children learn small exact number word meanings by associating words with small sets. In the second phase, children learn the meanings of larger number words by mastering the logic of exact counting algorithms, which implement the successor function and Hume’s principle (that one-to-one correspondence guarantees exact equality). In neither phase do approximate number representations play a foundational role.
       
  • The Misestimation of Uncertainty in Affective Disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Erdem Pulcu, Michael BrowningOur knowledge about the state of the world is often incomplete, making it difficult to select the best course of action. One strategy that can be used to improve our ability to make decisions is to identify the causes of our ignorance (i.e., why an unexpected event might have occurred) and use estimates of the uncertainty induced by these causes to guide our learning. Here, we explain the logic behind this process and describe the evidence that human learners use estimates of uncertainty to sculpt their learning. Finally, we describe recent work suggesting that misestimation of uncertainty is involved in the development of anxiety and depression and describe how these ideas may be advanced.
       
  • The Default Mode Network’s Role in Discrete Emotion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Ajay B. Satpute, Kristen A. LindquistEmotions are often assumed to manifest in subcortical limbic and brainstem structures. While these areas are clearly important for representing affect (e.g., valence and arousal), we propose that the default mode network (DMN) is additionally important for constructing discrete emotional experiences (of anger, fear, disgust, etc.). Findings from neuroimaging studies, invasive electrical stimulation studies, and lesion studies support this proposal. Importantly, our framework builds on a constructionist theory of emotion to explain how instances involving diverse physiological and behavioral patterns can be conceptualized as belonging to the same emotion category. We argue that this ability requires abstraction (from concrete features to broad mental categories), which the DMN is well positioned to support, and we make novel predictions from our proposed framework.
       
  • What Underlies Political Polarization' A Manifesto for Computational
           Political Psychology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Max Rollwage, Leor Zmigrod, Lee de-Wit, Raymond J. Dolan, Stephen M. FlemingPolarization is one of the biggest societal challenges of our time, yet its drivers are poorly understood. Here we propose a novel approach – computational political psychology – which uses behavioral tasks in combination with formal computational models to identify candidate cognitive processes underpinning susceptibility to polarized beliefs about political and societal issues.
       
  • Preregistration Is Hard, And Worthwhile
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Brian A. Nosek, Emorie D. Beck, Lorne Campbell, Jessica K. Flake, Tom E. Hardwicke, David T. Mellor, Anna E. van ’t Veer, Simine VazirePreregistration clarifies the distinction between planned and unplanned research by reducing unnoticed flexibility. This improves credibility of findings and calibration of uncertainty. However, making decisions before conducting analyses requires practice. During report writing, respecting both what was planned and what actually happened requires good judgment and humility in making claims.
       
  • A Modeling Approach that Integrates Individual Behavior, Social Networks,
           and Cross-Cultural Variation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Paul E. SmaldinoHow do psychological traits shape social networks' How does this relationship influence the spread of behavior' In a recent paper, Muthukrishna and Schaller (Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev., 2019) use a modeling approach to explore these questions. In doing so, they illustrate the value of using a multilevel approach to study human behavior.
       
 
 
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