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Autism
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.739
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 325  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 10 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 1362-3613 - ISSN (Online) 1461-7005
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1084 journals]
  • Neural dynamics of executive function in cognitively able kindergarteners
           with autism spectrum disorders as predictors of concurrent academic
           achievement
    • Authors: So Hyun Kim, George Buzzell, Susan Faja, Yeo Bi Choi, Hannah R Thomas, Natalie Hiromi Brito, Lauren C Shuffrey, William P Fifer, Frederick D Morrison, Catherine Lord, Nathan Fox
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Although electrophysiological (electroencephalography) measures of executive functions (e.g. error monitoring) have been used to predict academic achievement in typically developing children, work investigating a link between error monitoring and academic skills in children with autism spectrum disorder is limited. In this study, we employed traditional electrophysiological and advanced time–frequency methods, combined with principal component analyses, to extract neural activity related to error monitoring and tested their relations to academic achievement in cognitively able kindergarteners with autism spectrum disorder. In total, 35 cognitively able kindergarteners with autism spectrum disorder completed academic assessments and the child-friendly “Zoo Game” Go/No-go task at school entry. The Go/No-go task successfully elicited an error-related negativity and error positivity in children with autism spectrum disorder as young as 5 years at fronto-central and posterior electrode sites, respectively. We also observed increased response-related theta power during errors relative to correct trials at fronto-central sites. Both larger error positivity and theta power significantly predicted concurrent academic achievement after controlling for behavioral performance on the Zoo Game and intelligence quotient. These results suggest that the use of time–frequency electroencephalography analyses, combined with traditional event-related potential measures, may provide new opportunities to investigate neurobiological mechanisms of executive function and academic achievement in young children with autism spectrum disorder.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T01:46:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319874920
       
  • The feasibility of low-intensity psychological therapy for depression
           co-occurring with autism in adults: The Autism Depression Trial study –
           a pilot randomised controlled trial
    • Authors: Ailsa Russell, Daisy M Gaunt, Kate Cooper, Stephen Barton, Jeremy Horwood, David Kessler, Chris Metcalfe, Ian Ensum, Barry Ingham, Jeremy R Parr, Dheeraj Rai, Nicola Wiles
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Low-intensity cognitive behaviour therapy including behavioural activation is an evidence-based treatment for depression, a condition frequently co-occurring with autism. The feasibility of adapting low-intensity cognitive behaviour therapy for depression to meet the needs of autistic adults via a randomised controlled trial was investigated. The adapted intervention (guided self-help) comprised materials for nine individual sessions with a low-intensity psychological therapist. Autistic adults (n = 70) with depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ⩾10) recruited from National Health Service adult autism services and research cohorts were randomly allocated to guided self-help or treatment as usual. Outcomes at 10-, 16- and 24-weeks post-randomisation were blind to treatment group. Rates of retention in the study differed by treatment group with more participants attending follow-up in the guided self-help group than treatment as usual. The adapted intervention was well-received, 86% (n = 30/35) of participants attended the pre-defined ‘dose’ of five sessions of treatment and 71% (25/35) attended all treatment sessions. The findings of this pilot randomised controlled trial indicate that low-intensity cognitive behaviour therapy informed by behavioural activation can be successfully adapted to meet the needs of autistic people. Evaluation of the effectiveness of this intervention in a full scale randomised controlled trial is now warranted.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-11-29T01:47:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319889272
       
  • The effect of motor and physical activity intervention on motor outcomes
           of children with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review
    • Authors: Anneliese Ruggeri, Alina Dancel, Robert Johnson, Barbara Sargent
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Difficulty performing age-appropriate motor skills affects up to 83% of children with autism spectrum disorder. This systematic review examined the effect of motor and physical activity intervention on motor outcomes of children with autism spectrum disorder and the effect of motor learning strategies on motor skill acquisition, retention, and transfer. Six databases were searched from 2000 to 2019. Forty-one studies were included: 34 intervention studies and 7 motor learning studies. The overall quality of the evidence was low. Participants included 1173 children with autism spectrum disorder ranging from 3 to 19 years. Results from level II and III intervention studies supported that participation outcomes improved with a physical education intervention; activity outcomes improved with aquatic, motor activity, motor skill, and simulated horse riding interventions; and body structure and function outcomes improved with aquatic, exergaming, motor activity, motor skill, and simulated horse riding interventions. Results from level II and III motor learning studies supported that motor skill acquisition improved with visual, versus verbal, instructions but was not influenced by differences in instructional personnel. More rigorous research on motor intervention is needed with well-controlled study designs, adequate sample sizes, and manualized protocols. In addition, research on motor learning strategies is warranted as it generalizes across motor interventions.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-11-29T01:46:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319885215
       
  • A cross-task comparison on visuospatial processing in autism spectrum
           disorders
    • Authors: Ramona Cardillo, Silvia Lanfranchi, Irene C Mammarella
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to draw a cross-task comparison on visuospatial processing in autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability. Participants with autism spectrum disorder were matched with typically developing individuals on general intelligence and perceptual reasoning index. The two groups were subsequently compared on visuospatial processing speed, visuo-perceptual, visuo-constructive, and visuospatial working memory tasks. Our results revealed similar performances between autism spectrum disorder and typically developing individuals on measures of visuospatial processing speed and visuospatial working memory. The autism spectrum disorder group showed slower reaction times than the typically developing group in the visuo-perceptual task, when stimuli were characterized by a minimum level of perceptual cohesiveness, revealing weaker spatial integration abilities. Concerning the visuo-constructive domain, no differences between the autism spectrum disorder and the typically developing group emerged for the unsegmented condition, revealing that our participants with autism spectrum disorder were similar to the typically developing group in the local analysis of the stimuli. The discussion takes into account the role of individual differences on visuospatial intelligence, task requirements, and cognitive domains to clarify the visuospatial processing skills of individuals with autism spectrum disorder.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-11-28T01:44:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319888341
       
  • Prevalence of physical and mental health conditions in Medicare-enrolled,
           autistic older adults

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Brittany N Hand, Amber M Angell, Lauren Harris, Laura Arnstein Carpenter
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      While there is emerging evidence on the prevalence of physical and mental health conditions among autistic adults, less is known about this population’s needs during older adulthood (aged 65+). We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective cohort study of 2016–2017 Medicare data to compare the prevalence of physical and mental health conditions in a national sample of autistic older adults (N = 4685) to a matched population comparison (N = 46,850) cohort. Autistic older adults had significantly greater odds of nearly all physical health conditions including epilepsy (odds ratio = 18.9; 95% confidence interval = 17.2–20.7), Parkinson’s disease (odds ratio = 6.1; 95% confidence interval = 5.3–7.0), and gastrointestinal conditions (odds ratio = 5.2; 95% confidence interval = 4.9–5.5). Most mental health conditions were more common among autistic older adults, including schizophrenia and psychotic disorders (odds ratio = 25.3; 95% confidence interval = 22.4–28.7), attention deficit disorders (odds ratio = 24.4; 95% confidence interval = 16.2–31.0), personality disorders (odds ratio = 24.1; 95% confidence interval = 17.8–32.5), and suicidality or self-inflicted injury (odds ratio = 11.1; 95% confidence interval = 8.9–13.8). Health conditions commonly associated with advanced age in the general population (e.g. osteoporosis, cognitive disorders, heart disease, cancer, cerebrovascular disease, osteoarthritis) were also significantly more common among autistic older adults. By highlighting the significant physical and mental health needs for which autistic older adults require care, our findings can inform healthcare systems, healthcare providers, and public health initiatives seeking to promote well-being in this growing population.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-11-27T10:39:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319890793
       
  • Is disclosing an autism spectrum disorder in school associated with
           reduced stigmatization'

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Rhianna White, Manuela Barreto, Jean Harrington, Steven K Kapp, Jennie Hayes, Ginny Russell
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Evidence suggests disclosing an autism diagnosis is associated with reduced stigmatization for autistic adults. However, it is unknown whether this is true for autistic adolescents. We used a vignette-and-questionnaire design to study stigmatizing attitudes with adolescents (aged 11–12 and 14–16 years, total N = 250) in a UK school. We investigated the effect of disclosing that a fictional adolescent had an autism diagnosis on stigmatizing attitudes of peers by testing the effect of disclosure of diagnosis on the social and emotional distance pupils wanted to maintain from the autistic adolescent. We also tested the effect of disclosure on peers’ assessment of the adolescent’s responsibility for their own behaviour. We checked to see if the effects were moderated by gender and age-group. Disclosing autism did not affect the social and emotional distance peers wanted to maintain from the autistic adolescent, but was associated with significant reduction in personal responsibility attributed to the adolescent’s behaviour. Boys attributed more personal responsibility to the autistic adolescent than girls, but this gender effect was reduced when autism was disclosed. These findings suggest that disclosing autism to other pupils may be of limited use in reducing stigmatization by peers in UK schools.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-11-27T10:36:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319887625
       
  • Instructions to attend to an observed action increase imitation in
           autistic adults

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Emma Gowen, Andrius Vabalas, Alexander J Casson, Ellen Poliakoff
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated whether reduced visual attention to an observed action might account for altered imitation in autistic adults. A total of 22 autistic and 22 non-autistic adults observed and then imitated videos of a hand producing sequences of movements that differed in vertical elevation while their hand and eye movements were recorded. Participants first performed a block of imitation trials with general instructions to imitate the action. They then performed a second block with explicit instructions to attend closely to the characteristics of the movement. Imitation was quantified according to how much participants modulated their movement between the different heights of the observed movements. In the general instruction condition, the autistic group modulated their movements significantly less compared to the non-autistic group. However, following instructions to attend to the movement, the autistic group showed equivalent imitation modulation to the non-autistic group. Eye movement recording showed that the autistic group spent significantly less time looking at the hand movement for both instruction conditions. These findings show that visual attention contributes to altered voluntary imitation in autistic individuals and have implications for therapies involving imitation as well as for autistic people’s ability to understand the actions of others.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-11-22T09:04:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319882810
       
  • A multiple-method review of accommodations to gross motor assessments
           commonly used with children and adolescents on the autism spectrum
    • Authors: Andrew M Colombo-Dougovito, Martin E Block, Xiaoxia Zhang, Ildiko Strehli
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study is to understand the common accommodations used during standardized motor assessment of children on the autism spectrum. This study was completed in three parts: (1) a narrative review of the literature; (2) an open-ended survey sent to the first authors of the identified articles; and (3) a descriptive analysis of responses. Results revealed that 56.7% of the identified articles did not report enough information of assessment procedures, 18.9% followed the assessment manual, 16.9% provided accommodations on a needs basis, and 7.5% used a consistent modified protocol. Individual responses showed that extra demonstrations (n = 5) were the most frequent accommodation, followed by extra breaks (n = 3), picture cards (n = 2), and hand-over-hand assistance (n = 1); some respondents stated that they did not provide accommodations. The findings indicate that a clear set of accommodation for motor skill assessments does not exist, though some commonalities were reported. Further research is necessary to understand the impact of accommodations in the assessment process, as well as which accommodations are needed and/or effective.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:05:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319884400
       
  • Quality of high school programs for students with autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Bonnie R Kraemer, Samuel L Odom, Brianne Tomaszewski, Laura J Hall, Leann Dawalt, Kara A Hume, Jessica R Steinbrenner, Katherine Szidon, Christopher Brum
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of the study was to examine the quality of high school programs for students with autism spectrum disorder in the United States. The Autism Program Environment Rating Scale–Middle/High School was used to rate the quality of programs for students with autism spectrum disorder in 60 high schools located in three geographic locations in the United States (CA, NC, and WI). Findings indicated that the total quality rating across schools was slightly above the adequate criterion. Higher quality ratings occurred for program environment, learning climate, family participation, and teaming domains. However, quality ratings for intervention domains related to the characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (e.g. communication, social, independence, functional behavior, and transition) were below the adequate quality rating level. Also, quality ratings for transition were significantly higher for modified (primarily self-contained) programs than standard diploma (primarily served in general education) programs. School urbanicity was a significant predictor of program quality, with suburban schools having higher quality ratings than urban or rural schools, controlling for race, school enrollment size, and Title 1 eligibility status. Implications for working with teachers and school teams that support high school students with autism spectrum disorder should include a targeted focus on transition programming that includes a breadth of work-based learning experiences and activities that support social-communication domains.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:02:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319887280
       
  • Outcomes and moderators of Early Start Denver Model intervention in young
           children with autism spectrum disorder delivered in a mixed individual and
           group setting
    • Authors: Annarita Contaldo, Costanza Colombi, Caterina Pierotti, Patrizia Masoni, Filippo Muratori
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Several studies have shown the efficacy and effectiveness of the Early Start Denver Model, both in university and in community-based settings. However, a limited number of studies have investigated predictors of outcomes. In this study, we examined outcomes in 32 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder after 1 year of community-based Early Start Denver Model intervention, with the aim to identify predictors of treatment objectives acquisition, as measured by the Early Start Denver Model Curriculum Checklist. At a group level, the participants demonstrated improvement in their communication as well as adaptive functioning skills, while they showed a decrease in symptom severity. The large heterogeneity in outcomes identified was related to the pre-treatment non-verbal abilities, symptom severity, action and gesture repertoire, and lexical comprehension. We discussed our results in terms of implications for developing “personalized” interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:02:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319888344
       
  • The parenting experiences and needs of Asian primary caregivers of
           children with autism: A meta-synthesis
    • Authors: Shefaly Shorey, Esperanza D Ng, Gørill Haugan, Evelyn Law
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Parents of children with autism are faced with higher risks of unemployment, divorce, and poorer mental health than parents of children with other disorders. Such parenting stress can be further exacerbated by cultural and environmental factors such as the more conservative and collectivistic Asian values. Therefore, this review identifies and synthesizes literature on the parenting experiences and needs of Asian primary caregivers of children with autism using a critical interpretive method. A qualitative meta-summary was conducted. Seven electronic databases (CINAHL, Embase, ProQuest, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) were searched from each database’s date of inception to November 2018. In total, 44 studies were included in this review. Thirteen studies examined Asian immigrant parents’ experiences, and 31 studies were done among Asia-based parents. Six domains were identified: “personal parenting journey”; “adaptation and coping strategies”; “family, community, and social support”; “experiences with healthcare, education, and social services”; “future hopes and recommendations”; and “unique experiences of immigrants.” The distinctive influence of religious beliefs, cultural values, and environmental factors on Asian parenting experiences were discussed, and recommendations were proposed to better meet the needs of parents with autistic children.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-11-13T01:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319886513
       
  • Autism and depression are connected: A report of two complimentary network
           studies

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Barbara FC van Heijst, Marie K Deserno, Didi Rhebergen, Hilde M Geurts
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Autism and depression often co-occur. Through network analysis, we seek to gain a better understanding of this co-occurrence by investigating whether (1) autism and depression share overlapping groups of symptoms and/or (2) are connected through a bridge of mastery or worry symptoms. This is addressed in two complimentary studies: (1) Study 1 focusing on depressed (N = 258) and non-depressed adults (N = 117), aged 60–90 years; (2) Study 2 focusing on autistic (N = 173) and non-autistic adults (N = 70), aged 31–89 years. Self-report questionnaire data were collected on autistic traits (AQ-28), depression symptoms (Study 1: Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self Report; Study 2: Symptom Checklist 90–Revised depression subscale), worry (Worry Scale-R) and mastery (the Pearlin Mastery Scale). For both studies, data were analysed by creating glasso networks and subsequent centrality analyses to identify the most influential variables in the respective networks. Both depressed and autistic adults are highly similar in the perceived amount of worries and lack of control. While caution is needed when interpreting the pattern of findings given the bootstrapping results, findings from both studies indicate that overlapping symptoms do not fully explain the co-occurrence of autism and depression and the perception of having control over your life, that is, mastery seems a relevant factor in connecting autism and depression.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-11-11T06:39:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319872373
       
  • Oculomotor behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders
    • Authors: Simona Caldani, Sarah Steg, Aline Lefebvre, Paola Atzori, Hugo Peyre, Richard Delorme, Maria Pia Bucci
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      To identify quantitative indicators of social communication dysfunctions, we explored the oculomotor performances in subjects with autism spectrum disorders. Discordant findings in the literature have been reported for oculomotor behavior in subjects with autism spectrum disorders. This study aimed to explore reflexive and voluntary saccadic performance in a group of 32 children with autism spectrum disorders (mean age: 12.1 ± 0.5 years) compared to 32 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched typically developing children (control group). We used different types of reflexive and voluntary saccades: gap, step, overlap, and anti-saccades. Eye movements were recorded using an eye tracker (Mobile EBT®) and we measured latency, percentage of anticipatory and express saccades, errors of anti-saccades and gain. Children with autism spectrum disorders reported similar latency values with respect to typically developing children for reflexive and voluntary saccades; in contrast, they made more express and anticipatory saccades overall, as shown in paradigm testing (gap, step, overlap, and anti-saccades). Our findings support previous evidence of the atypicality of the cortical network, which is involved in saccade triggering and attentional processes in children with autism spectrum disorders.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-11-02T10:32:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319882861
       
  • Autism and empathy: What are the real links'
    • Authors: Sue Fletcher-Watson, Geoffrey Bird
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T12:05:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319883506
       
  • “I wouldn’t know where to start”: Perspectives from clinicians,
           agency leaders, and autistic adults on improving community mental health
           services for autistic adults
    • Authors: Brenna B Maddox, Samantha Crabbe, Rinad S Beidas, Lauren Brookman-Frazee, Carolyn C Cannuscio, Judith S Miller, Christina Nicolaidis, David S Mandell
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Most autistic adults struggle with mental health problems, and traditional mental health services generally do not meet their needs. This study used qualitative methods to identify ways to improve community mental health services for autistic adults for treatment of their co-occurring psychiatric conditions. We conducted semistructured, open-ended interviews with 22 autistic adults with mental healthcare experience, 44 community mental health clinicians, and 11 community mental health agency leaders in the United States. The participants identified clinician-, client-, and systems-level barriers and facilitators to providing quality mental healthcare to autistic adults. Across all three stakeholder groups, most of the reported barriers involved clinicians’ limited knowledge, lack of experience, poor competence, and low confidence working with autistic adults. All three groups also discussed the disconnect between the community mental health and developmental disabilities systems, which can result in autistic adults being turned away from services when they contact the mental health division and disclose their autism diagnosis during the intake process. Further efforts are needed to train clinicians to work more effectively with autistic adults and to increase coordination between the mental health and developmental disabilities systems.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T12:03:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319882227
       
  • Identifying prognostic markers in autism spectrum disorder using eye
           tracking
    • Authors: Elizabeth C Bacon, Adrienne Moore, Quimby Lee, Cynthia Carter Barnes, Eric Courchesne, Karen Pierce
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      While many children with autism spectrum disorder are now detected at young ages given the rise in screening and general awareness, little is known regarding the prognosis of early detected children. The brain is shaped by experience-dependent mechanisms; thus, what a child pays attention to plays a pivotal role in shaping brain development. Eye tracking can provide an index of a child’s visual attention and, as such, holds promise as a technology for revealing prognostic markers. In this, 49 children aged 1–3 years with autism spectrum disorder participated in an eye-tracking test, the GeoPref Test, that revealed preference for social versus nonsocial images. Next, children participated in a comprehensive test battery 5–9 years following the initial GeoPref Test. Statistical tests examined whether early age eye tracking predicted later school-age outcomes in symptom severity, social functioning, adaptive behavior, joint attention, and IQ. Results indicated that toddlers with higher preference for geometric images demonstrated greater symptom severity and fewer gaze shifts at school age. This relationship was not found in relation to IQ or adaptive behavior. Overall, the GeoPref Test holds promise as a symptom severity prognostic tool; further development of eye-tracking paradigms may enhance prognostic power and prove valuable in validating treatment progress.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-10-24T12:42:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319878578
       
  • The contribution of maternal executive functions and active coping to
           dyadic affective dynamics: Children with autism spectrum disorder and
           their mothers
    • Authors: Anat Zaidman-Zait
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Parenting is a cognitive, emotional, and behavioral endeavor, where parents’ control capacities, including executive functions and active control coping, help parents to guide and regulate interactions with their children; yet limited research investigates how these capacities are associated with parent–child affective regulation processes during parent–child interactions. This study examined whether maternal executive functions (sustained attention, interference inhibitory control, working memory) and active engaged coping were related to dyadic affective flexibility and positive mutual affective interactions between mothers and their young children with autism spectrum disorders (N = 40). Dyadic flexibility and mutual positive affect were measured using dynamic systems-based modeling of second-by-second affective patterns during a mother–child interaction. The results showed that higher levels of maternal sustained attention and inhibitory control were related to increased dyadic affective flexibility. In addition, higher levels of maternal sustained attention and higher use of engaged coping were related to dyadic mutual positive affect. The findings highlight the importance of maternal cognitive control capacity in promoting adaptive parent–child dyadic regulatory processes.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-10-24T12:41:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319854653
       
  • ECHO Autism Transition: Enhancing healthcare for adolescents and young
           adults with autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Micah O Mazurek, Gary Stobbe, Rachel Loftin, Beth A Malow, Mavara M Agrawal, Mark Tapia, Amy Hess, Justin Farmer, Nancy Cheak-Zamora, Karen Kuhlthau, Kristin Sohl
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Transition-age youth and young adults with autism spectrum disorder have complex healthcare needs, yet the current healthcare system is not equipped to adequately meet the needs of this growing population. Primary care providers lack training and confidence in caring for youth and young adults with autism spectrum disorder. The current study developed and tested an adaptation of the Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes model to train and mentor primary care providers (n = 16) in best-practice care for transition-age youth and young adults with autism spectrum disorder. The Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes Autism Transition program consisted of 12 weekly 1-h sessions connecting primary care providers to an interdisciplinary expert team via multipoint videoconferencing. Sessions included brief didactics, case-based learning, and guided practice. Measures of primary care provider self-efficacy, knowledge, and practice were administered pre- and post-training. Participants demonstrated significant improvements in self-efficacy regarding caring for youth/young adults with autism spectrum disorder and reported high satisfaction and changes in practice as a result of participation. By contrast, no significant improvements in knowledge or perceived barriers were observed. Overall, the results indicate that the model holds promise for improving primary care providers’ confidence and interest in working with transition-age youth and young adults with autism spectrum disorder. However, further refinements may be helpful for enhancing scope and impact on practice.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-10-04T06:13:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319879616
       
  • Project ImPACT for Toddlers: Pilot outcomes of a community adaptation of
           an intervention for autism risk
    • Authors: Aubyn C Stahmer, Sarah R Rieth, Kelsey S Dickson, Josh Feder, Marilee Burgeson, Karyn Searcy, Lauren Brookman-Frazee
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      This study reports child and family outcomes from a community-based, quasi-experimental pilot trial of Project ImPACT for Toddlers that is a parent-mediated, naturalistic, developmental behavioral intervention for children with or at-risk for autism spectrum disorder developed through a research–community partnership. Community early interventionists delivered either Project ImPACT for Toddlers (n = 10) or Usual Care (n = 9) to families based on Part C assigned provider. Twenty-five families participated, with children averaging 22.76 months old (SD = 5.06). Family and child measures were collected at intake, after 3 months of service, and after a 3-month follow-up. Results indicate significantly greater improvements in positive parent–child interactions for Project ImPACT for Toddlers than usual care families, as well as large, but non-significant, effect sizes for Project ImPACT for Toddlers families in children’s social and communication skills.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-09-30T06:46:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319878080
       
  • Self-determination in young adults with autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Nancy C Cheak-Zamora, Anna Maurer-Batjer, Beth A Malow, Ann Coleman
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined rates of and contributing factors to self-determination among young adults with autism spectrum disorder. Caregivers of young adults with autism spectrum disorder, 16–25 years, from five Autism Treatment Network sites completed surveys about their young adults’ transition experiences including the American Institutes for Research Self-Determination measure. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis. Caregivers (n = 479) reported their young adults with autism spectrum disorder as having moderate overall self-determination (x = 38; standard deviation = 9.04) with low capacity (x = 15.3; standard deviation = 5.67) and high opportunities at home (x = 23.1; standard deviation = 4.59). Young adults with autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability or severe autism spectrum disorder symptomology experience significant disparities in overall self-determination compared to those without intellectual disability and less frequent symptom expression and severity. Barring severity indicators, there were few significant predictors of self-determination. Findings show a breakdown in self-determination skill-building. Young adults with autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability or severe symptomology experienced significant disparities in self-determination. These findings show that current promotion of self-determination is not meeting the needs of young adults with autism spectrum disorder. Future interventions must identify what supports young adults with autism spectrum disorder need to capitalize on these opportunities to be independent and exert autonomy in their daily lives.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-09-28T06:54:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319877329
       
  • Prevalence and determinants of motor stereotypies in autism spectrum
           disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Cláudia Melo, Luís Ruano, Joana Jorge, Tiago Pinto Ribeiro, Guiomar Oliveira, Luís Azevedo, Teresa Temudo
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Stereotypies are frequently reported in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but remain one of the less explained phenomena. We aimed to describe, through a systematic review and a meta-analysis, the prevalence of motor stereotypies in ASD and study the factors that influence this prevalence. Our literature search included MEDLINE, Scopus, and PsycINFO databases. Quality and risk of bias were assessed. Thirty-seven studies were included and the median prevalence of motor stereotypies in ASD was 51.8%, ranging from 21.9% to 97.5%. The most frequent determinants associated with a higher number of stereotypies in ASD were a younger age, lower intelligence quotient, and a greater severity of ASD. Moreover, gender did not seem to influence the prevalence of stereotypies. Meta-analytic analysis showed that lower IQ and autism diagnosis (independent of IQ) are associated with a higher prevalence of motor stereotypies (odds ratio = 2.5 and 4.7, respectively). Limitations of the reviewed literature include the use of convenience samples, with small sizes and heterogeneous inclusion criteria, and the predominance of high-functioning autism individuals.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-09-25T09:12:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319869118
       
  • Emotional functioning and the development of internalizing and
           externalizing problems in young boys with and without autism spectrum
           disorder

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Boya Li, Marieke GN Bos, Lex Stockmann, Carolien Rieffe
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Children with autism spectrum disorder are at risk of developing internalizing and externalizing problems. However, information on early development of behavior problems and the contributing role of emotional functioning in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder is scarce. This study collected data of boys with and without autism spectrum disorder (N = 156; age: 2–6 years) over three consecutive years (three waves), about their internalizing and externalizing symptoms and emotional functioning (i.e. emotion control, recognition, and vocabulary), using parent-report questionnaires. No age effect was found on internalizing or externalizing problems for boys with and without autism spectrum disorder. Boys with autism spectrum disorder displayed more behavior problems than their typically developing peers and showed lower levels of emotional functioning. Better emotion control and improved emotion recognition were associated with a decrease in problem behaviors for boys with and without autism spectrum disorder, whereas improved emotion vocabulary was uniquely related to a decrease in externalizing problems in boys with autism spectrum disorder. Our findings suggest that boys with and without autism spectrum disorder showed similar developmental courses of internalizing and externalizing problems. However, lower levels of emotional functioning were already more pronounced in boys with autism spectrum disorder at a young age. This contributes to higher levels of behavior problems.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-09-24T01:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319874644
       
  • Pivotal response treatment: A study into the relationship between
           therapist characteristics and fidelity of implementation

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Rianne Verschuur, Bibi Huskens, Hubert Korzilius, Leonhard Bakker, Michelle Snijder, Robert Didden
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we investigated the relationship between fidelity of pivotal response treatment implementation and therapist characteristics, such as therapist personality, therapist–child relationship, therapist attitude toward evidence-based practices, and therapist experience. We also explored whether child age and autism symptom severity were related to pivotal response treatment fidelity. Participants were 41 level III certified pivotal response treatment therapists who recorded three 10-min pivotal response treatment sessions and completed four questionnaires to measure therapist characteristics. Results indicated that therapists’ attitude toward evidence-based practices, specifically openness to innovation, and therapists’ experience with pivotal response treatment significantly predicted fidelity of pivotal response treatment implementation. Cross-validation methods largely confirmed these findings. Therapist personality, therapist–child relationship, and child characteristics were not significantly related to pivotal response treatment fidelity. Implications for clinical practice and directions for future research are discussed.Lay abstractPivotal response treatment is a naturalistic behavioral intervention that teaches pivotal skills to children with autism spectrum disorder to produce widespread gains in other skills. Although most children with autism spectrum disorder benefit from pivotal response treatment, intervention outcomes vary considerably among children. Fidelity of intervention implementation (i.e. the extent to which an intervention is implemented as intended) may affect intervention outcomes. In this study, we studied the relationship between fidelity of pivotal response treatment implementation and therapist characteristics, such as therapist personality, therapist–child relationship, therapist attitude toward evidence-based practices, and therapist experience. We also explored whether a child’s age and autism symptom severity were related to pivotal response treatment fidelity. Participants were 41 pivotal response treatment therapists who videotaped three pivotal response treatment sessions and completed four questionnaires to measure therapist characteristics. This study found that therapists’ openness to innovation and their experience with pivotal response treatment predicted fidelity of implementation. Therapist personality, therapist–child relationship, and child characteristics were not related to pivotal response treatment fidelity. The results of this study emphasize that it is important (1) to target therapists’ attitudes toward innovation prior to or during training in pivotal response treatment and (2) to provide therapists with ongoing supervision and feedback after training to increase fidelity of implementation and thus to improve intervention outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorder.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-09-20T01:22:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319876213
       
  • Examining parent use of specific intervention techniques during a 12-week
           training program based on the Early Start Denver Model
    • Authors: Hannah Waddington, Larah van der Meer, Jeff Sigafoos, Andrew Whitehouse
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Contemporary parent-implemented early intervention programs for children with autism spectrum disorder usually incorporate a range of techniques with different theoretical underpinnings. While research suggests that parents often learn to implement interventions with an acceptable degree of overall fidelity, there is limited research into parent use of individual intervention techniques. This study included five mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder who participated in a 12-week parent training program based on the Early Start Denver Model. Ten-minute play samples were coded for the mothers’ use of 18 specific Early Start Denver Model techniques before, during, and 1 month after the training program. The correlation between the mothers’ use of each Early Start Denver Model technique and their child’s level of engagement and expressive language was also calculated. Results suggest that all mothers increased the number of techniques that they were using from baseline to parent training. Some Early Start Denver Model techniques were moderately or strongly correlated with both child engagement and expressive language. There was considerable variation in outcomes across all mother–child dyads. These preliminary results have implications for how parents are trained/coached to implement interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder.Lay abstractParents of young children with autism are often taught to deliver interventions which involve several different types of strategies. Research suggests that parents can usually learn to deliver these interventions but not much is known about their use of each specific intervention strategy. This study included five mothers of young children with autism who participated in a 12-week parent training program based on the Early Start Denver Model. We measured their use of 18 different ESDM strategies before, during, and 1 month after the training program. We found that parents increased the number of strategies that they used during the training program. There were differences between mothers in terms of the ESDM strategies that they used the most during the training. We also found that some of the strategies were more closely related to children’s levels of engagement and language than others. This suggests that parent training should be adapted to suit each parent’s needs.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319876495
       
  • Coming to understand the child has autism: A process illustrating
           parents’ evolving readiness for engaging in care

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Stephen J Gentles, David B Nicholas, Susan M Jack, K Ann McKibbon, Peter Szatmari
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      We report results from a large qualitative study regarding the process of parents coming to understand the child has autism starting from the time of initial developmental concerns. Specifically, we present findings relevant to understanding how parents become motivated and prepared for engaging in care at this early stage. The study included primary data from 45 intensive interviews with 32 mothers and 9 expert professionals from urban and rural regions of Ontario, Canada. Grounded theory methods were used to guide data collection and analysis. Parents’ readiness (motivation and capacity) for engagement develops progressively at different rates as they follow individual paths of meaning making. Four optional steps account for their varied trajectories: forming an image of difference, starting to question the signs, knowing something is wrong, and being convinced it’s autism. Both the nature of the information and professional help parents seek, and the urgency with which they seek them, evolve in predictable ways depending on how far they have progressed in understanding their child has autism. Results indicate the need for sensitivity to parents’ varying awareness and readiness for involvement when engaging with them in early care, tailoring parent support interventions, and otherwise planning family-centered care pathways.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-09-11T01:29:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319874647
       
  • Visual supports at home and in the community for individuals with autism
           spectrum disorders: A scoping review
    • Authors: Marion Rutherford, Julie Baxter, Zoe Grayson, Lorna Johnston, Anne O’Hare
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Visual supports are recommended in autism spectrum disorder clinical guidelines. They can reduce anxiety, increase predictability, support communication and improve participation. They are implemented regularly in schools, but evidence about home visual supports is limited. This article reports results of a scoping literature review, alongside qualitative evaluation with parents and professionals. We report findings from 34 studies, identifying four categories of visual support and heterogeneity in participant characteristics, intervention methods, environments and outcome measures. Qualitative data from questionnaires (n = 101) and focus groups generated key themes about home visual supports, through thematic analysis: (1) Accessibility, (2) Participation-focussed (3) Individualisation, (4) Teaching Methods, (5) Consistency, and (6) Information and Training. We propose consensus with terminology and implications for practice and research.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-08-27T06:19:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319871756
       
  • A systematic review of screening tools for the detection of autism
           spectrum disorder in mainland China and surrounding regions
    • Authors: Ji Wang, Darren Hedley, Simon M Bury, Josephine Barbaro
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Screening for autism spectrum disorder is the first step toward early detection and diagnosis, thereby impacting the likelihood of children accessing early intervention and, importantly, improving long-term outcomes. This systematic review aimed to (a) establish a clear baseline of autism spectrum disorder screening tools currently used throughout mainland China and surrounding regions, (b) identify the strengths and limitations of these instruments, and (c) develop specific recommendations regarding screening for autism spectrum disorder throughout Chinese-speaking countries. Databases were searched for recent (2015–2018) articles published in Chinese or English languages. Twenty-two studies (13 Chinese, 9 English) met inclusion criteria; two from Taiwan and the remainder from mainland China. Studies varied greatly in the extent of psychometric analyses and reported autism spectrum disorder prevalence. The majority of diagnoses were based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. (DSM-IV) or 5th ed. (DSM-5)) criteria, although a small number of studies utilized gold-standard diagnostic assessment instruments. It is recommended that a systematic, multi-tiered, screening network be established to improve the identification of autism spectrum disorder in China and surrounding regions. Assessment and diagnosis need to be culturally appropriate, and amenable to low-resource settings. In addition, increased public awareness programs to reduce stigma will be important in improving outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorder.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-08-21T06:22:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319871174
       
  • Exploratory factor analysis of the Adapted Skillstreaming Checklist for
           children with autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Christopher Lopata, James P Donnelly, Marcus L Thomeer, Jonathan D Rodgers, Martin A Volker, Adam J Booth
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      The Adapted Skillstreaming Checklist measures social/social-communication skills and behavioral flexibility/regulation of children with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability. Prior studies provided support for the reliability and criterion-related validity of the Adapted Skillstreaming Checklist total score for these children; however, no studies have examined the Adapted Skillstreaming Checklist factor structure. This exploratory factor analysis examined the factor structure and internal consistency of parent ratings on the Adapted Skillstreaming Checklist for a sample of 331 children, ages 6–12 years, with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability. Results yielded a correlated three-factor solution. The individual factors and total score demonstrated very good internal consistency reliability. Findings supported the presence and interpretability of three subscales, as well as derivation of a total composite reflecting overall prosocial and adaptive skills and behaviors. Implications for assessment and research are discussed.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-08-21T06:21:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319868639
       
  • Effectiveness of the Stepping Stones Triple P group parenting program in
           reducing comorbid behavioral problems in children with autism
    • Authors: Daria Kasperzack, Bastian Schrott, Tanja Mingebach, Katja Becker, Roland Burghardt, Inge Kamp-Becker
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Children with autism spectrum disorders often exhibit comorbid behavioral problems. These problems have an impact on the severity of the core symptoms, the progression of the disorder as well as on the families’ quality of life. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Stepping Stones Triple P group parent training program as a supplementary intervention in the treatment of children with autism spectrum disorder. Therefore, we employed a single group repeated measures design and assessed child variables via parents’ and teachers’ judgments at four successive time points. The participants were parents of 24 children with autism spectrum disorder aged between 3.6 and 12 years. We found a significant reduction of comorbid behavioral problems in the children, primarily in the parents’ judgment at follow-up. Furthermore, a reduction of the autism spectrum disorder core symptoms emerged. The teachers’ judgment particularly revealed an improvement in children’s social relationships. Effect sizes were large (ƞ2 ranging from 0.14 to 0.23). The findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the Stepping Stones Triple P as a supplementary intervention for reducing comorbid behavioral problems in the treatment of children with autism spectrum disorder. Higher parental self-efficacy and parental attributions, including parents’ ability to influence child problem behaviors, are discussed as important factors for the effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-08-21T06:21:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319866063
       
  • Understanding anxiety in adults on the autism spectrum: An investigation
           of its relationship with intolerance of uncertainty, sensory sensitivities
           and repetitive behaviours
    • Authors: Ye In (Jane) Hwang, Samuel Arnold, Preeyaporn Srasuebkul, Julian Trollor
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Anxiety is present in high rates in both children and adults on the autism spectrum. An increasing number of studies have highlighted the potentially important role that intolerance of uncertainty may have in anxiety for those on the spectrum, as well as their interrelationships with sensory sensitivities and repetitive behaviours. In response to a lack of studies involving adults, this study examined self-report survey data regarding intolerance of uncertainty, sensory sensitivities, repetitive behaviours and anxiety in a sample of 176 adults on the autism spectrum (mean age = 42). Intolerance of uncertainty and anxiety were both found to be elevated relative to non-autistic adults (N = 116) and significant, positive correlations were found between intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety, repetitive behaviours and sensory sensitivities in those on the spectrum. Intolerance of uncertainty was found to be a significant mediator between sensory sensitivities and anxiety, as well as between anxiety and insistence on sameness behaviours. These results were not sensitive to age. Intolerance of uncertainty is an important factor to be considered in the conceptualisation and management of elevated rates of anxiety for adults on the autism spectrum.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-08-16T05:20:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319868907
       
  • Beta-adrenergic antagonism alters functional connectivity during
           associative processing in a preliminary study of individuals with and
           without autism
    • Authors: John P Hegarty, Rachel M Zamzow, Bradley J Ferguson, Shawn E Christ, Eric C Porges, Jeffrey D Johnson, David Q Beversdorf
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Beta-adrenergic antagonism (e.g. propranolol) has been associated with cognitive/behavioral benefits following stress-induced impairments and for some cognitive/behavioral domains in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. In this preliminary investigation, we examined whether the benefits of propranolol are associated with functional properties in the brain. Adolescents/adults (mean age = 22.54 years) with (n = 13) and without autism spectrum disorder (n = 13) attended three sessions in which propranolol, nadolol (beta-adrenergic antagonist that does not cross the blood–brain barrier), or placebo was administered before a semantic fluency task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Autonomic nervous system measures and functional connectivity between language/associative processing regions and within the fronto-parietal control, dorsal attention, and default mode networks were examined. Propranolol was associated with improved semantic fluency performance, which was correlated with the baseline resting heart rate. Propranolol also altered network efficiency of regions associated with semantic processing and in an exploratory analysis reduced functional differences in the fronto-parietal control network in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Thus, the cognitive benefits from beta-adrenergic antagonism may be generally associated with improved information processing in the brain in domain-specific networks, but individuals with autism spectrum disorder may also benefit from additional improvements in domain-general networks. The benefits from propranolol may also be able to be predicted from baseline autonomic nervous system measures, which warrants further investigation.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-08-16T05:19:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319868633
       
  • Anxiety in 3- to 7-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder seeking
           treatment for disruptive behavior
    • Authors: Denis G Sukhodolsky, Luc Lecavalier, Cynthia Johnson, Tristram Smith, Naomi Swiezy, Karen Bearss, Carla B Kalvin, Lawrence Scahill
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Anxiety is a common and impairing problem in children with autism spectrum disorder, but little is known about it in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder. This article reports on the characteristics of anxiety symptoms in young children with autism spectrum disorder using a parent-completed rating scale. One hundred and eighty children (age 3–7 years) participated in a clinical trial of parent training for disruptive behaviors. Anxiety was measured as part of pre-treatment subject characterization with 16 items from the Early Childhood Inventory, a parent-completed scale on child psychiatric symptoms. Parents also completed other measures of behavioral problems. Sixty-seven percent of children were rated by their parents as having two or more clinically significant symptoms of anxiety. There were no differences in the Early Childhood Inventory anxiety severity scores of children with IQ 
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-08-08T06:47:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319866561
       
  • Obesity, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors in adolescents with
           autism spectrum disorder compared with typically developing peers
    • Authors: Stephanie M McCoy, Kristen Morgan
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Decreased engagement in beneficial physical activity and increased levels of sedentary behavior and unhealthy weight are a continued public health concern in adolescents. Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder may be at an increased risk compared with their typically developing peers. Weekly physical activity, sedentary behavior, and body mass index classification were compared among adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder. Analyses included 33,865 adolescents (autism spectrum disorder, n = 1036) from the 2016–2017 National Survey of Children’s Health (United States). After adjustment for covariates, adolescents with autism spectrum disorder were found to engage in less physical activity and were more likely to be overweight and obese compared with their typically developing peers (p’s < 0.05). As parent-reported autism spectrum disorder severity increased, the adjusted odds of being overweight and obese significantly increased and physical activity participation decreased (p-for-trends < 0.001). The findings suggest there is a need for targeted programs to decrease unhealthy weight status and support physical activity opportunities for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder across the severity spectrum.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-07-31T09:40:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319861579
       
  • Scanpath similarity measure reveals not only a decreased social
           preference, but also an increased nonsocial preference in individuals with
           autism
    • Authors: Magdalena Ewa Król, Michał Król
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      We compared scanpath similarity in response to repeated presentations of social and nonsocial images representing natural scenes in a sample of 30 participants with autism spectrum disorder and 32 matched typically developing individuals. We used scanpath similarity (calculated using ScanMatch) as a novel measure of attentional bias or preference, which constrains eye-movement patterns by directing attention to specific visual or semantic features of the image. We found that, compared with the control group, scanpath similarity of participants with autism was significantly higher in response to nonsocial images, and significantly lower in response to social images. Moreover, scanpaths of participants with autism were more similar to scanpaths of other participants with autism in response to nonsocial images, and less similar in response to social images. Finally, we also found that in response to nonsocial images, scanpath similarity of participants with autism did not decline with stimulus repetition to the same extent as in the control group, which suggests more perseverative attention in the autism spectrum disorder group. These results show a preferential fixation on certain elements of social stimuli in typically developing individuals compared with individuals with autism, and on certain elements of nonsocial stimuli in the autism spectrum disorder group, compared with the typically developing group.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-07-27T09:14:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319865809
       
  • Psychosocial deficits across autism and schizotypal spectra are
           interactively modulated by excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission
    • Authors: Talitha C Ford, David P Crewther, Ahmad Abu-Akel
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Continued human and animal research has strengthened evidence for aberrant excitatory–inhibitory neural processes underlying autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorder psychopathology, particularly psychosocial functioning, in clinical and nonclinical populations. We investigated the extent to which autistic traits and schizotypal dimensions were modulated by the interactive relationship between excitatory glutamate and inhibitory GABA neurotransmitter concentrations in the social processing area of the superior temporal cortex using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In total, 38 non-clinical participants (20 females; age range = 18–35 years, mean (standard deviation) = 23.22 (5.52)) completed the autism spectrum quotient and schizotypal personality questionnaire, and underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify glutamate and GABA concentrations in the right and left superior temporal cortex. Regression analyses revealed that glutamate and GABA interactively modulated autistic social skills and schizotypal interpersonal features (pcorr < 0.05), such that those with high right superior temporal cortex glutamate but low GABA concentrations exhibited poorer social and interpersonal skills. These findings evidence an excitation–inhibition imbalance that is specific to psychosocial features across the autism and schizophrenia spectra.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-07-24T03:36:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319866030
       
  • Gender differences in self-reported camouflaging in autistic and
           non-autistic adults
    • Authors: Laura Hull, Meng-Chuan Lai, Simon Baron-Cohen, Carrie Allison, Paula Smith, K V Petrides, William Mandy
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Social camouflaging describes the use of strategies to compensate for and mask autistic characteristics during social interactions. A newly developed self-reported measure of camouflaging (Camouflaging Autistic Traits Questionnaire) was used in an online survey to measure gender differences in autistic (n = 306) and non-autistic adults (n = 472) without intellectual disability for the first time. Controlling for age and autistic-like traits, an interaction between gender and diagnostic status was found: autistic females demonstrated higher total camouflaging scores than autistic males (partial η2 = 0.08), but there was no camouflaging gender difference for non-autistic people. Autistic females scored higher than males on two of three Camouflaging Autistic Traits Questionnaire subscales: Masking (partial η2 = 0.05) and Assimilation (partial η2 = 0.06), but not on the Compensation subscale. No differences were found between non-autistic males and females on any subscale. No differences were found between non-binary individuals and other genders in either autistic or non-autistic groups, although samples were underpowered. These findings support previous observations of greater camouflaging in autistic females than males and demonstrate for the first time no self-reported gender difference in non-autistic adults.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-07-19T05:00:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319864804
       
  • Defining the core components of Family Navigation for autism spectrum
           disorder
    • Authors: Sarabeth Broder-Fingert, Nicole A Stadnick, Emily Hickey, Julia Goupil, Yaminette Diaz Lindhart, Emily Feinberg
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to define the core components of Family Navigation for autism spectrum disorder, a promising intervention to reduce disparities in care for this population. Teams from four trials of Family Navigation for autism spectrum disorder completed the Template for Intervention Description and Replication checklist to outline intervention components. Through intervention component analysis and qualitative synthesis, we identified 11 core components across three domains: Training and Supervision, Navigator Tools, and Navigator Activities. We discuss the importance of identifying these core components and implications for future research and practice.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-07-17T05:08:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319864079
       
  • Varied treatment response in young children with autism: A relative
           comparison of structured and naturalistic behavioral approaches
    • Authors: Allison Jobin
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Heterogeneity of treatment response is common in children with autism spectrum disorder. Thus, many providers vary the intervention used based on child characteristics and learning domain. An improved understanding of how to match treatments to different children and domain areas may enhance efforts to individualize treatment and improve treatment response. This study evaluated the relative efficacy of discrete trial training and pivotal response training for teaching young children at risk for autism spectrum disorder receptive and expressive language, play, and imitation skills. Using a single-subject adapted alternating treatments design, children received both the treatments for 12 weeks. Data were collected during treatment and at 3-month follow-up. All participants acquired target skills in both treatments and demonstrated some generalization, maintenance, and spontaneous skill use. Pivotal response training and discrete trial training were each more effective for some children and domains. The results suggest that early rates of learning may be predictive of longer-term treatment response and useful in informing treatment decisions.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-07-17T05:06:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319859726
       
  • A cross-sectional descriptive analysis of portrayal of autism spectrum
           disorders in YouTube videos: A short report
    • Authors: Monica L Bellon-Harn, Vinaya Manchaiah, Lekeitha R Morris
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Professionals have expressed concerns about the quality of autism-related information available from Internet-based sources. The purpose of this study was to examine the source, content, usability, and actionability of autism spectrum disorder–related information contained in 100 different videos directed to families of children with autism spectrum disorder uploaded to YouTube. Upload sources were identified, and video content was coded. Understandability and actionability of the videos were examined using Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool for Audiovisual Materials. The collective number of views of the videos was almost 100 million. The length of videos was 691.17 min (i.e. 11.5 h) with the shortest video being 30 s and the longest video being 37.36 min. The YouTube videos related to autism spectrum disorder covered a range of issues, although much of the content was focused on signs and symptoms. No difference in content reporting was noted based on sources for most categories, although differences were noted in some categories (e.g. professionals mentioned diagnosis and resources more frequently). Poor understandability and actionability scores (i.e. below 70%) were reported for all videos regardless of video source. However, the videos generated by the professionals were superior in terms of understandability. Study implications and recommendations for further research are discussed.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-07-13T07:03:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319864222
       
  • Parent couples’ participation in speech-language therapy for school-age
           children with autism spectrum disorder in the United States
    • Authors: Michelle Flippin, Debbie L Hahs-Vaughn
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined parent couples’ participation in and satisfaction with speech-language therapy for school-age children with autism spectrum disorder in the United States. Responses from 40 father–mother couples (n = 80 parents) were examined across therapy components (i.e. parent–therapist communication, assessment, planning, and intervention). Descriptive frequencies, chi-square tests, intraclass correlations, and dyadic multilevel modeling were used to examine participation across fathers and mothers and within parent couples. Compared to mothers, fathers communicated less with therapists and participated less in assessment and planning. Fathers also had lower satisfaction than mothers with parent–therapist communication and planning. Although few parents participated in school-based therapy sessions, 40% of fathers and 50% of mothers participated in homework. However, few parents received homework support from therapists. Results are discussed in terms of clinical implications for interventionists to more effectively engage both fathers and mothers in family-centered speech-language therapy for school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-07-10T06:09:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319862113
       
  • What are we targeting when we treat autism spectrum disorder' A
           systematic review of 406 clinical trials
    • Authors: Umberto Provenzani, Laura Fusar-Poli, Natascia Brondino, Stefano Damiani, Marco Vercesi, Nicholas Meyer, Matteo Rocchetti, Pierluigi Politi
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      The number of trials aimed at evaluating treatments for autism spectrum disorder has been increasing progressively. However, it is not clear which outcome measures should be used to assess their efficacy, especially for treatments which target core symptoms. The present review aimed to provide a comprehensive overview regarding the outcome measures used in clinical trials for people with autism spectrum disorder. We systematically searched the Web of KnowledgeSM database between 1980 and 2016 to identify published controlled trials investigating the efficacy of interventions in autism spectrum disorder. We included 406 trials in the final database, from which a total of 327 outcome measures were identified. Only seven scales were used in more than 5% of the studies, among which only three measured core symptoms (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and Social Responsiveness Scale). Of note, 69% of the tools were used in the literature only once. Our systematic review has shown that the evaluation of efficacy in intervention trials for autism spectrum disorder relies on heterogeneous and often non-specific tools for this condition. The fragmentation of tools may significantly hamper the comparisons between studies and thus the discovery of effective treatments for autism spectrum disorder. Greater consensus regarding the choice of these measures should be reached.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-07-04T06:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319854641
       
  • Self-reported motivations for offending by autistic sexual offenders
    • Authors: Katy-Louise Payne, Katie Maras, Ailsa J Russell, Mark J Brosnan
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder estimated to have elevated prevalence in forensic populations (approximately 4.5%). It has been suggested that offenders with autism spectrum disorder engage more frequently in crimes against the person and sexual offences than other types of offences such as property, driving and drug offences. To date little is empirically known about the reasons why autistic individuals engage in sexual offences, yet understanding the motivation(s) for offending are key to developing and implementing effective interventions to help reduce both initial offending and also re-offending. In this study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine autistic sexual offenders in prisons and probation services across England and Wales. Thematic analyses revealed five main themes (social difficulties, misunderstanding, sex and relationship deficits, inadequate control and disequilibrium). Analyses indicated that social skills difficulties, lack of perspective/weak central coherence, misunderstanding the seriousness of their behaviours and a lack of appropriate relationships were the main reasons for offending reported by this group of autistic sexual offenders. Findings highlight a need to develop sex and relationship education interventions which are tailored to the needs of autistic individuals, to address both their reported reasons for offending and their reported lack of sexual knowledge and awareness.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-06-28T09:27:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319858860
       
  • Acting on observed social exclusion and pro-social behaviour in autism
           spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Catarina Silva, Chloé Jover, David Da Fonseca, Francisco Esteves, Christine Deruelle
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Humans are commonly motivated towards cooperation and prosociality. In this study, we examined this motivational predisposition in autistic individuals. Using an adaptation of the Cyberball paradigm, we investigated subsequent pro-social behaviour after witnessing social exclusion. Participants witnessed and played a series of Cyberball games, rated their affective state and valued emotional faces with respect to their approachability. Results showed that participants from both groups were aware of the social exclusion. However, while neurotypically developing participants engaged in pro-social behaviour in reaction to the exclusion, autistic participants showed less alterations, in terms of either behaviour or affective state. The current findings suggest a distinct motivational drive and processing of social reward stimuli in autism, which may result in behavioural responses divergent from typical development when engaging in the social world.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-06-26T06:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319857578
       
  • Self-reported social impairments predict depressive disorder in adults
           with autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Talena C Day, Kathryn A McNaughton, Adam J Naples, James C McPartland
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      In adults with autism spectrum disorder, co-occurring psychiatric conditions are prevalent, and depression is one of the most common co-occurring disorders. This study examined the relationship between depression and cognitive ability, autism symptom severity, and self-reported social impairments in autism spectrum disorder. A total of 33 adults with autism spectrum disorder and 28 adults with typical development completed a standardized psychiatric interview, cognitive test, measure of clinician-rated autism symptom severity, and self-report of social impairments. Nine participants with autism spectrum disorder (27%) met the criteria for a depressive disorder (autism spectrum disorder + depressive disorder). Relatively more females with autism spectrum disorder had a co-occurring depressive disorder. The typical development group had a higher intelligence quotient than the autism spectrum disorder group, but the autism spectrum disorder + depressive disorder group did not differ from the typical development or autism spectrum disorder group. While the autism spectrum disorder + depressive disorder group had lower clinician-rated autism symptom severity than the autism spectrum disorder group, the autism spectrum disorder + depressive disorder group reported more social impairments than the autism spectrum disorder group. Self-reported social impairments predicted depression in adults with autism spectrum disorder when accounting for symptom severity and cognitive ability. These findings suggest that more self-perceived social impairments are related to depressive disorders in autism spectrum disorder, and may help clinicians identify individuals who are vulnerable in developing a co-occurring depressive disorder. Future directions include follow-up studies with larger cohorts and longitudinal designs to support inferences regarding directionality of these relationships.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-06-26T06:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319857375
       
  • Complex facial emotion recognition and atypical gaze patterns in autistic
           adults
    • Authors: Melissa H Black, Nigel TM Chen, Ottmar V Lipp, Sven Bölte, Sonya Girdler
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      While altered gaze behaviour during facial emotion recognition has been observed in autistic individuals, there remains marked inconsistency in findings, with the majority of previous research focused towards the processing of basic emotional expressions. There is a need to examine whether atypical gaze during facial emotion recognition extends to more complex emotional expressions, which are experienced as part of everyday social functioning. The eye gaze of 20 autistic and 20 IQ-matched neurotypical adults was examined during a facial emotion recognition task of complex, dynamic emotion displays. Autistic adults fixated longer on the mouth region when viewing complex emotions compared to neurotypical adults, indicating that altered prioritization of visual information may contribute to facial emotion recognition impairment. Results confirm the need for more ecologically valid stimuli for the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying facial emotion recognition difficulty in autistic individuals.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-06-20T06:56:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319856969
       
  • What works and how: Adult learner perspectives on an autism intervention
           training program in India
    • Authors: Chetna Duggal, Bakul Dua, Ritika Chokhani, Koyeli Sengupta
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      A significant treatment gap exists in low and middle income countries such as India for children with autism spectrum disorder. The Autism Intervention Training Program, a comprehensive 6-month program for training professionals in transdisciplinary evidence-based practices to address concerns associated with autism spectrum disorder, was piloted in India to address this gap. This study attempted to capture the perspectives of trainees on the effectiveness of andragogical approaches adopted in the Autism Intervention Training Program and the impact of this training on their work. An exploratory qualitative study was conceptualized, and in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 Autism Intervention Training Program trainees. Trainees highlighted the benefits of a blended training format, peer learning, and a responsive, reflective, experiential, and respectful approach to teaching and supervision. The impact of the program was perceived through an increase in trainees’ knowledge and skills, impact on their organizations, and positive outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorder and their families. There is a need to develop and document comprehensive, contextualized, and evidence-based training programs for autism spectrum disorder professionals in low and middle income countries. Focusing on andragogical frameworks while conceptualizing and delivering these training programs is underscored, as approaches that promote self-efficacy in learners and enable transformative learning can lead to a cascading impact in resource-constrained settings.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-06-19T06:34:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319856955
       
  • Predictors and outcomes associated with therapeutic alliance in cognitive
           behaviour therapy for children with autism
    • Authors: Carly Albaum, Paula Tablon, Flora Roudbarani, Jonathan A Weiss
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Therapeutic alliance is often an important aspect of psychotherapy, though it is rarely examined in clients with autism. This study aims to determine the child pre-treatment variables and treatment outcomes associated with early and late alliance in cognitive behaviour therapy targeting emotion regulation for children with autism. Data were collected from 48 children with autism who participated in a larger randomized-controlled trial. Pre-treatment child characteristics included child, parent, and clinician report of child emotional and behavioural functioning. Primary outcome measures included child and parent-reported emotion regulation. Therapeutic alliance (bond and task-collaboration) was measured using observational coding of early and late therapy sessions. Pre-treatment levels of child-reported emotion inhibition were associated with subsequent early and late bond. Pre-treatment levels of parent and child-reported emotion regulation were related to early and late task-collaboration. Late task-collaboration was also associated with pre-treatment levels of behavioural and emotional symptom severity. Task-collaboration in later sessions predicted improvements in parent-reported emotion regulation from pre- to post-therapy. Future research is needed to further examine the role of task-collaboration as a mechanism of treatment change in therapies for children with autism.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-06-19T06:33:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319849985
       
  • The misnomer of ‘high functioning autism’: Intelligence is an
           imprecise predictor of functional abilities at diagnosis
    • Authors: Gail A Alvares, Keely Bebbington, Dominique Cleary, Kiah Evans, Emma J Glasson, Murray T Maybery, Sarah Pillar, Mirko Uljarević, Kandice Varcin, John Wray, Andrew JO Whitehouse
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      ‘High functioning autism’ is a term often used for individuals with autism spectrum disorder without an intellectual disability. Over time, this term has become synonymous with expectations of greater functional skills and better long-term outcomes, despite contradictory clinical observations. This study investigated the relationship between adaptive behaviour, cognitive estimates (intelligence quotient) and age at diagnosis in autism spectrum disorder. Participants (n = 2225, 1–18 years of age) were notified at diagnosis to a prospective register and grouped by presence (n = 1041) or absence (n = 1184) of intellectual disability. Functional abilities were reported using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales. Regression models suggested that intelligence quotient was a weak predictor of Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales after controlling for sex. Whereas the intellectual disability group’s adaptive behaviour estimates were close to reported intelligence quotients, Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales scores fell significantly below intelligence quotients for children without intellectual disability. The gap between intelligence quotient and Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales scores remained large with increasing age at diagnosis for all children. These data indicate that estimates from intelligence quotient alone are an imprecise proxy for functional abilities when diagnosing autism spectrum disorder, particularly for those without intellectual disability. We argue that ‘high functioning autism’ is an inaccurate clinical descriptor when based solely on intelligence quotient demarcations and this term should be abandoned in research and clinical practice.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-06-19T02:30:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319852831
       
  • Screening and treatment of trauma-related symptoms in youth with autism
           spectrum disorder among community providers in the United States
    • Authors: Connor M Kerns, Steven J Berkowitz, Lauren J Moskowitz, Amy Drahota, Matthew D Lerner, Craig J Newschaffer
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Using a cross-sectional survey of 673 multidisciplinary autism spectrum disorder providers recruited from five different sites in the United States, we examined the frequency with which community-based providers inquire about, screen, and treat trauma-related symptoms in their patients/students and assessed their perceptions regarding the need for and barriers to providing these services. Univariate and bivariate frequencies of self-reported trauma service provision, training needs, and barriers were estimated. Multivariable logistic regressions identified provider and patient-related factors associated with trauma-related symptoms screening and treatment. Over 50% of providers reported some screening and treatment of trauma-related symptoms in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Over 70% informally inquired about trauma-related symptoms; only 10% universally screened. Screening and treatment varied by provider discipline, setting, amount of interaction, and years of experience with autism spectrum disorder, as well as by patient/student sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Most providers agreed that trauma screening is a needed service impeded by inadequate provider training in trauma identification and treatment. The findings indicate that community providers in the United States of varied disciplines are assessing and treating trauma-related symptoms in youth with autism spectrum disorder, and that evidence-based approaches are needed to inform and maximize these efforts.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-06-15T06:48:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319847908
       
  • Adapted cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder
           with co-occurring autism spectrum disorder: A clinical effectiveness study
           
    • Authors: Oskar Flygare, Erik Andersson, Helene Ringberg, Anna-Clara Hellstadius, Johan Edbacken, Jesper Enander, Matti Dahl, Kristina Aspvall, Indra Windh, Ailsa Russell, David Mataix-Cols, Christian Rück
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Obsessive–compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorder commonly co-occur. Adapted cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder in adults with autism spectrum disorder has not previously been evaluated outside the United Kingdom. In this study, 19 adults with obsessive–compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorder were treated using an adapted cognitive behavior therapy protocol that consisted of 20 sessions focused on exposure with response prevention. The primary outcome was the clinician-rated Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale. Participants were assessed up to 3 months after treatment. There were significant reductions on the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale at post-treatment (d = 1.5), and improvements were sustained at follow-up (d = 1.2). Self-rated obsessive–compulsive disorder and depressive symptoms showed statistically significant reductions. Improvements in general functioning and quality of life were statistically non-significant. Three participants (16%) were responders at post-treatment and four (21%) were in remission from obsessive–compulsive disorder. At follow-up, three participants (16%) were responders and one (5%) was in full remission. Adapted cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder in adults with co-occurring autism spectrum disorder is associated with reductions in obsessive–compulsive symptoms and depressive symptoms. However, outcomes are modest; few patients were completely symptom free, and treatment engagement was low with few completed exposures and low adherence to homework assignments. We identify and discuss the need for further treatment refinement for this vulnerable group.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-06-12T10:48:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319856974
       
  • Parent–Child Interaction Therapy for children with autism spectrum
           disorder and a matched case-control sample
    • Authors: Meaghan V Parladé, Allison Weinstein, Dainelys Garcia, Amelia M Rowley, Nicole C Ginn, Jason F Jent
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      Parent–Child Interaction Therapy is an empirically based, behavioral parent training program for young children exhibiting disruptive behaviors. Parent–Child Interaction Therapy shows promise for treating disruptive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder. Treatment processes (i.e. treatment length and homework compliance), parenting skills, parenting stress, and behavioral outcomes (i.e. disruptive and externalizing behaviors and executive functioning) were compared in 16 children with autism spectrum disorder and 16 children without autism spectrum disorder matched on gender, age, and initial intensity of disruptive behaviors. Samples were statistically similar in terms of child receptive language, child race and ethnicity, parent age, gender and education, and number of two-parent families in treatment. Families received standard, mastery-based Parent–Child Interaction Therapy. Both groups demonstrated significant and clinically meaningful improvements in child disruptive and externalizing behavior and executive functioning, parenting skills, and parenting stress. Length of treatment, homework compliance, and parent and child outcomes did not differ significantly between groups. A subset of children with autism spectrum disorder also showed significant improvements in social responsiveness, adaptive skills, and restricted/repetitive behaviors. This study replicates and extends prior research by demonstrating that children with and without autism spectrum disorder experience similar benefits following Parent–Child Interaction Therapy. Findings may expand the availability and dissemination of time-limited, evidence-based interventions for autism spectrum disorder and comorbid disruptive behaviors.
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-06-12T10:47:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319855851
       
  • In-hospital mortality among adults with autism spectrum disorder in the
           United States: A retrospective analysis of US hospital discharge data
    • Authors: Ilhom Akobirshoev, Monika Mitra, Robbie Dembo, Emily Lauer
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.
      A retrospective data analysis using 2004–2014 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample was conducted to examine in-hospital mortality among adults with autism spectrum disorders in the United States compared to individuals in the general population. We modeled logistic regressions to compare inpatient hospital mortality between adults with autism spectrum disorders (n = 34,237) and age-matched and sex-matched controls (n = 102,711) in a 1:3 ratio. Adults with autism spectrum disorders had higher odds for inpatient hospital mortality than controls (odds ratio = 1.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.29–1.61, p 
      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-06-12T10:47:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319855795
       
  • Feasibility study of the National Autistic Society EarlyBird parent
           support programme
    • Authors: Melanie Palmer, Antonia San José Cáceres, Joanne Tarver, Patricia Howlin, Vicky Slonims, Elizabeth Pellicano, Tony Charman
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-06-05T11:05:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319851422
       
  • ‘I was exhausted trying to figure it out’: The experiences of females
           receiving an autism diagnosis in middle to late adulthood
    • Authors: Alexandra Leedham, Andrew Thompson, Richard Smith, Megan Freeth
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-05-30T11:48:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319853442
       
  • Differentiating between sensory sensitivity and sensory reactivity in
           relation to restricted interests and repetitive behaviours
    • Authors: Samantha E Schulz, Ryan A Stevenson
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-05-28T06:14:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319850402
       
  • Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, parenting, and externalizing behavior in
           children with autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Jason K Baker, Rachel M Fenning, Stephen A Erath, Brian R Baucom, Daniel S Messinger, Jacquelyn Moffitt, Alexander Kaeppler, Alyssa Bailey
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-05-24T05:30:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319848525
       
  • Increasing autism acceptance: The impact of the Sesame Street “See
           Amazing in All Children” initiative
    • Authors: Bruno J Anthony, Hillary A Robertson, Alyssa Verbalis, Yetta Myrick, Mary Troxel, Sydney Seese, Laura Gutermuth Anthony
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-05-22T07:26:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319847927
       
  • Child-rearing routines among Mexican-heritage children with autism
           spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Shana R Cohen, Jessica Miguel, Alison Wishard Guerra
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-05-17T07:56:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319849244
       
  • Feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a parent-mediated sexual education
           curriculum for youth with autism spectrum disorders
    • Authors: Cara E Pugliese, Allison B Ratto, Yael Granader, Katerina M Dudley, Amanda Bowen, Cynthia Baker, Laura Gutermuth Anthony
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-05-17T07:54:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319842978
       
  • Adapting and pre-testing the World Health Organization’s Caregiver
           Skills Training programme for autism and other developmental disorders in
           a very low-resource setting: Findings from Ethiopia

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Bethlehem Tekola, Fikirte Girma, Mersha Kinfe, Rehana Abdurahman, Markos Tesfaye, Zemi Yenus, Erica Salomone, Laura Pacione, Abebaw Fekadu, Chiara Servili, Charlotte Hanlon, Rosa A Hoekstra
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-05-16T09:34:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319848532
       
  • Psychopathology in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder: A
           systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence
    • Authors: Alexandra Schnabel, George J Youssef, David J Hallford, Eliza J Hartley, Jane A McGillivray, Michelle Stewart, David Forbes, David W Austin
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-05-09T11:09:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319844636
       
  • Parent Education and Training for autism spectrum disorders: Scoping the
           evidence
    • Authors: John-Joe Dawson-Squibb, Eugene L Davids, Ashley Harrison-Johnson, Maggie A Molony, Petrus J de Vries
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-05-09T11:02:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319841739
       
  • Toddlers to teenagers: Long-term follow-up study of outcomes in autism
           spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Esther Ben-Itzchak, Ditza A Zachor
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-05-06T08:14:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319840226
       
  • Social camouflaging in autism: Is it time to lose the mask'
    • Authors: Will Mandy
      First page: 1879
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-09-25T09:13:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319878559
       
  • Assuming ability of youth with autism: Synthesis of methods capturing the
           first-person perspectives of children and youth with disabilities

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Rackeb Tesfaye, Valerie Courchesne, Afiqah Yusuf, Tal Savion-Lemieux, Ilina Singh, Keiko Shikako-Thomas, Pat Mirenda, Charlotte Waddell, Isabel M Smith, David Nicholas, Peter Szatmari, Terry Bennett, Eric Duku, Stelios Georgiades, Connor Kerns, Tracy Vaillancourt, Anat Zaidman-Zait, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Mayada Elsabbagh
      First page: 1882
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-03-27T09:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319831487
       
  • UK parents’ experiences of their child receiving a diagnosis of autism
           spectrum disorder: A systematic review of the qualitative evidence
    • Authors: Hannah Legg, Anna Tickle
      First page: 1897
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-04-17T05:03:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319841488
       
  • Longitudinal stability of reading profiles in individuals with higher
           functioning autism
    • Authors: Emily J Solari, Ryan P Grimm, Nancy S McIntyre, Matthew Zajic, Peter C Mundy
      First page: 1911
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-03-14T06:40:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361318812423
       
  • Assessment of racial and ethnic bias in autism spectrum disorder
           prevalence estimates from a US surveillance system
    • Authors: Pamela Imm, Tiffany White, Maureen S Durkin
      First page: 1927
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-03-20T05:39:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319827510
       
  • Needs, strain, coping, and mental health among caregivers of individuals
           with autism spectrum disorder: A moderated mediation analysis
    • Authors: Gloria K Lee, Katarina Krizova, Carolyn M Shivers
      First page: 1936
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-03-20T05:38:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319833678
       
  • Familial confounding on the ability to read minds: A co-twin control study
    • Authors: Johan Isaksson, Mark J Taylor, Karl Lundin, Janina Neufeld, Sven Bölte
      First page: 1948
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-03-21T10:29:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319836380
       
  • Leadership profiles associated with the implementation of behavioral
           health evidence-based practices for autism spectrum disorder in schools
    • Authors: Nicole A Stadnick, Rosemary D Meza, Jessica Suhrheinrich, Gregory A Aarons, Lauren Brookman-Frazee, Aaron R Lyon, David S Mandell, Jill Locke
      First page: 1957
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-03-27T09:52:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319834398
       
  • Parents’ views and experiences of talking about autism with their
           children
    • Authors: Laura Crane, Lydia Jones, Rachel Prosser, Morvarid Taghrizi, Elizabeth Pellicano
      First page: 1969
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-03-27T09:53:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319836257
       
  • Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder: Another name for the Broad
           Autism Phenotype'
    • Authors: Judy Flax, Christine Gwin, Sherri Wilson, Yuli Fradkin, Steve Buyske, Linda Brzustowicz
      First page: 1982
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-04-01T10:47:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361318822503
       
  • Factors underlying cross-cultural differences in stigma toward autism
           among college students in Lebanon and the United States
    • Authors: Kristen Gillespie-Lynch, Nidal Daou, Maria-Jose Sanchez-Ruiz, Steven K Kapp, Rita Obeid, Patricia J Brooks, Fumio Someki, Nava Silton, Rudy Abi-Habib
      First page: 1993
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-04-03T07:17:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361318823550
       
  • The AASPIRE practice-based guidelines for the inclusion of autistic adults
           in research as co-researchers and study participants
    • Authors: Christina Nicolaidis, Dora Raymaker, Steven K Kapp, Amelia Baggs, E Ashkenazy, Katherine McDonald, Michael Weiner, Joelle Maslak, Morrigan Hunter, Andrea Joyce
      First page: 2007
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-04-03T07:19:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319830523
       
  • Use, costs, and predictors of psychiatric healthcare services following an
           autism spectrum diagnosis: Population-based cohort study
    • Authors: Caroline Croteau, Laurent Mottron, Marc Dorais, Jean-Eric Tarride, Sylvie Perreault
      First page: 2020
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-04-04T08:49:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319840229
       
  • The therapeutic alliance in cognitive-behavioral therapy for school-aged
           children with autism and clinical anxiety
    • Authors: Sami M Klebanoff, Kashia A Rosenau, Jeffrey J Wood
      First page: 2031
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T11:27:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319841197
       
  • International comparisons of autism spectrum disorder behaviors in
           preschoolers rated by parents and caregivers/teachers
    • Authors: Leslie A Rescorla, Courtney Given, Siobhan Glynn, Masha Y Ivanova, Thomas M Achenbach
      First page: 2043
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-04-17T05:01:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319839151
       
  • Altered bodily self-consciousness and peripersonal space in autism
    • Authors: Cari-lène Mul, Flavia Cardini, Steven D Stagg, Shabnam Sadeghi Esfahlani, Dimitrios Kiourtsoglou, Pasquale Cardellicchio, Jane Elizabeth Aspell
      First page: 2055
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-04-04T12:01:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319838950
       
  • Broader autism phenotype and couple interactions in parents of children
           with autism
    • Authors: Sigan L Hartley, Emily J Hickey, Leann DaWalt, Geovanna Rodriguez
      First page: 2068
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-04-17T05:02:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319841312
       
  • Meta-analysis of naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions for
           young children with autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Gabrielle Tiede, Katherine M. Walton
      First page: 2080
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-04-25T06:19:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319836371
       
  • Efficacy and safety of memantine in children with autism spectrum
           disorder: Results from three phase 2 multicenter studies

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Antonio Y Hardan, Robert L Hendren, Michael G Aman, Adelaide Robb, Raun D Melmed, Kristen A Andersen, Rachel Luchini, Rezwanur Rahman, Sanjida Ali, X Daniel Jia, Madhuja Mallick, Jordan E Lateiner, Robert H Palmer, Stephen M Graham
      First page: 2096
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-04-27T05:31:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361318824103
       
  • Parent/caregiver perspectives of functioning in autism spectrum disorders:
           A comparative study in Sweden and South Africa
    • Authors: Marisa Viljoen, Soheil Mahdi, David Griessel, Sven Bölte, Petrus J de Vries
      First page: 2112
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-05-02T11:59:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319829868
       
  • Do minimally verbal and verbally fluent individuals with autism spectrum
           disorder differ in their viewing patterns of dynamic social scenes'
    • Authors: Daniela Plesa Skwerer, Briana Brukilacchio, Andrea Chu, Brady Eggleston, Steven Meyer, Helen Tager-Flusberg
      First page: 2131
      Abstract: Autism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Autism
      PubDate: 2019-05-09T08:13:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1362361319845563
       
 
 
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