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The Leadership Quarterly
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.13
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 521  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1048-9843
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Tell us about your leadership style: A structured interview approach for
           assessing leadership behavior constructs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Anna Luca Heimann, Pia V. Ingold, Martin KleinmannAbstractIt is widely recognized that leadership behaviors drive leaders' success. But despite the importance of assessing leadership behavior for selection and development, current measurement practices are limited. This study contributes to the literature by examining the structured interview method as a potential approach to assess leadership behavior. To this end, we developed a structured interview measuring constructs from Yukl's (2012) leadership taxonomy. Supervisors in diverse positions participated in the interview as part of a leadership assessment program. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the assumption that leadership constructs could be assessed as distinct interview dimensions. Results further showed that interview ratings predicted a variety of leadership outcomes (supervisors' annual income, ratings of situational leader effectiveness, subordinates' well-being and affective organizational commitment) beyond other relevant predictors. Findings offer implications on how to identify leaders who have a positive impact on their subordinates, and they inform us about conceptual differences between leadership measures.
  • Leading day-to-day: A review of the daily causes and consequences of
           leadership behaviors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Thomas K. Kelemen, Samuel H. Matthews, Kimberley BreevaartAbstractA recent trend in leadership research is to explore the daily causes and consequences of leadership behaviors. As this type of research has grown dramatically in the past several years, we seek to provide a systematic review of existing empirical research that has used a daily ESM study design to examine the leadership process. In this review, we reflect on the unique and important benefits a daily perspective on leadership provides for leadership research. We also provide a systematic review of the existing research on daily leadership, discuss the methodological and theoretical aspects of the studies identified in the review, and highlight the important findings of this research. Finally, we conclude by drawing upon the reviewed articles to provide recommendations for future scholarly work. Specifically, we give recommendations that will both broaden scholars' understanding of the daily leadership process as well as deepen understanding.
  • The diversity gap in leadership: What are we missing in current
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Terrance W. Fitzsimmons, Victor J. CallanAbstractRelational models of organizational inequalities offer numerous insights around the role of micro, meso and macro processes that drive differential progress of diverse individuals into senior leadership roles. We propose that the Bourdieusian relational framework of capital, habitus and field, and Bourdieu's conception of symbolic violence, provide a powerful explanatory lens for understanding the continuing lack of diversity among our corporate leaders. In applying this framework, we highlight critical shortcomings in current conceptions of leadership development and significant implications for leadership theory. We highlight the ways in which gendered and racialized structures are created and reinforced preventing access to opportunities for corporate leadership to diverse individuals. Future leadership theorizing needs to place greater attention upon the context in which development occurs, how valuable capital comes to be prescribed, as well as the forces at work in generating structures that perpetuate differential access to the capital necessary to progress as leaders.
  • Nurturing overconfidence: The relationship between leader power,
           overconfidence and firm performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Ivana VitanovaAbstractThis paper analyzes the relationship between leader power and overconfidence in the corporate context. Building on psychology research, we postulate that by activating self-serving cognition and illusion of control, the amount of power allocated to the leader of an organization positively influences the probability that he/she will exhibit overconfident beliefs. Using various measures of both formal and symbolic leader power we provide corroborating evidence for such endogeneous - power-based - origin of leader overconfidence. Then, we develop an empirical framework that allows to test the endogeneity-free effects of leader overconfidence on firm performance. Namely, we use a propensity score matching technique to construct a sample of reasonable counterfactuals (i.e., leaders in similar power-allocation conditions who do not exhibit overconfidence). As a result, we provide dissenting evidence about the effects of overconfidence, showing an economically and statistically significant positive influence of overconfidence on firm performance.
  • From competency to conversation: A multi-perspective approach to
           collective leadership development
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Nathan Eva, Julie Wolfram Cox, Herman H.M. Tse, Kevin B. LoweAbstractCollective leadership involves the participation of multiple entities in the leadership process. This body of research is informed by a variety of theoretical perspectives, including person-centered, social network, social-relational, sociomaterial, and institutional views. Despite multiple calls for leadership development to move beyond individual leadership, collective leadership development remains focused on coaching and competency development, extending rather than reconsidering the person-centered perspective. We argue that it is necessary and timely to align the practice-based literature on leadership development with theoretical and empirically-based perspectives on collective leadership. We provide a multi-perspective framework of collective leadership development by 1) introducing a wider disciplinary range of theoretical perspectives on collective leadership development; 2) integrating these perspectives with leadership development approaches for different forms of collective leadership; 3) illustrating how the multiple perspectives on collective leadership development can be applied to specific work contexts; and 4) identifying directions for future research.
  • Hierarchical leadership versus self-management in teams: Goal orientation
           diversity as moderator of their relative effectiveness
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Anne Nederveen Pieterse, John R. Hollenbeck, Daan van Knippenberg, Matthias Spitzmüller, Nikos Dimotakis, Elizabeth P. Karam, Dustin J. SleesmanAbstractWithin team leadership literature much attention has been given to the role of authority differentiation (the degree to which responsibility for decision-making is vested in a limited number of team members). However, contingencies associated with its effectiveness remain largely unclear. Building on authority differentiation, substitutes for leadership, and social hierarchy literatures, we propose that teams low in authority differentiation (self-managing teams) require that team members are aligned in their goal orientations. Otherwise, goal orientation diversity leads team members to spend valuable cognitive resources on aligning team member efforts instead of information elaboration. Goal orientation homogeneity, however, serves as a substitute for leadership in these teams. By contrast, teams high in authority differentiation (hierarchical leadership teams) function more effectively with diverse goal orientations. In support of our arguments, we show experimentally that low authority differentiation is beneficial for teams homogeneous in goal orientations and detrimental for teams diverse in goal orientations.
  • When are women willing to lead' The effect of team gender composition
           and gendered tasks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Jingnan Chen, Daniel HouserAbstractIt is a well-documented phenomenon that a group's gender composition can impact group performance. Understanding why and how this phenomenon happens is a prominent puzzle in the literature. To shed light on this puzzle, we propose and experimentally test one novel theory: through the salience of gender stereotype, a group's gender composition affects a person's willingness to lead a group, thereby impacting the group's overall performance. By randomly assigning people to groups with varying gender compositions, we find that women in mixed-gender groups are twice as likely as women in single-gender groups to suffer from the gender stereotype effect, by shying away from leadership in areas that are gender-incongruent. Further, we provide evidence that the gender stereotype effect persists even for women in single-gender groups. Importantly, however, we find that public feedback about a capable woman's performance significantly increases her willingness to lead. This result holds even in male-stereotyped environments.
  • Follower transformation as the linchpin of transformational leadership
           theory: A systematic review and future research agenda
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Nathapon Siangchokyoo, Ryan L. Klinger, Emily D. CampionAbstractTransformational leadership theory represents a cornerstone in leadership research. Despite an impressive empirical record highlighted by both the breadth of its nomological network and magnitudes of effects, scholars raise serious construct and content validity concerns. In this article, we address a remarkable oversight in the transformational leadership literature. Few studies have assessed the theory assumption that the positive individual, group, and organizational effects of transformational leadership are due to the transformation of followers in specific and enduring ways. We offer a systematic review of empirical evidence related to follower transformation as the conceptual foundation of transformational leadership theory. Findings from this review highlight the radical leap in the evolution of transformational leadership theory from nascent phenomena to mature paradigm. Calling for a return to nascent and intermediary phases of theory development, we conclude with a research agenda aimed at creating a stronger theory, better measures, and more actionable leadership models.
  • In the eye of a leader: Eye-directed gazing shapes perceptions of leaders'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Thomas Maran, Marco Furtner, Simon Liegl, Sascha Kraus, Pierre SachseAbstractCharismatic leadership improves organizational performance. Charisma itself can be defined as a repertoire of behaviors designed to communicate, however its constituents remain elusive. We hypothesized leaders' eye-directed gaze to be one such behavior, and therefore linked to their charisma. Using eye-tracking, we monitored gaze during a simulated leadership scenario, in which subjects attempted to influence followers towards a common goal. In two studies, we found subjects' impressions of their own charisma to predict the frequency and duration of gaze directed at their followers' eyes. In addition, longer and more frequent eye-directed gazing led leaders to appear both more charismatic and prototypical of their position in the eyes of their audience. Our findings provide first evidence that leaders' gazing towards the eyes of an audience is linked to their charisma. By investigating a leader's charisma through the lens of the signaling approach, we offer insight into the behaviors constituting charismatic leadership.
  • A systematic review and critique of research on “healthy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Cort W. Rudolph, Lauren D. Murphy, Hannes ZacherAbstractEmployee health and wellbeing are important concerns for organizations, and it has long been known that social support from leaders has a salutogenic influence on their followers. Over the past decade, several models of “healthy leadership” have been introduced, with the aim of theoretically integrating leadership research with scholarship on occupational health and wellbeing. We present a systematic review and critique of the literature on these models of “healthy leadership” and associated evidence from empirical studies (k = 35). In addition, we compare various models of “healthy leadership” and critically evaluate evidence for their incremental predictive validity above and beyond established leadership constructs (e.g., individualized consideration). We conclude with a discussion of problems in the “healthy leadership” literature (e.g., construct proliferation, confounding of leader behavior and its desired outcomes) and outline a “new agenda” of prescriptive recommendations for “healthy leadership” theory (re)development, research, and practice.
  • Call for Proposals: The Leadership Quarterly Yearly Review (LQYR) for 2021
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 30, Issue 5Author(s):
  • Leadership in the Digital Era: Social Media, Big Data, Virtual Reality,
           Computational Methods, and Deep Learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 30, Issue 5Author(s):
  • Publisher's Note
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 30, Issue 5Author(s):
  • Social Identity and Leadership
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 30, Issue 5Author(s):
  • Viva la evolution: Using dual-strategies theory to explain leadership in
           modern organizations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Kaylene J. McClanahanAbstractResearch from multiple fields suggests that throughout human history, leaders ascended the hierarchy through one of two strategies—dominance (using force or coercion to gain control) or prestige (demonstrating competence and generosity so others follow of their own volition). The dual-strategies theory of social rank suggests that these two strategies are still inherent in human psychology, and that consideration of dominance and prestige can help explain hierarchy and leadership in modern social groups. Thus far, research on dual-strategies theory has developed without significant cross-fertilization from the literature on leadership within organizational settings. In this review, I provide the first examination of dual-strategies theory within the context of broader leadership research, highlighting a) the unique contributions of dual-strategies theory, b) current workforce trends that make dual-strategies theory particularly applicable to modern organizations, and c) key limitations of dual-strategies theory that could be addressed by integrating leadership theory.
  • We don't need more leaders – We need more good leaders. Advancing a
           virtues-based approach to leader(ship) development
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Toby Newstead, Sarah Dawkins, Rob Macklin, Angela MartinAbstractThis conceptual article advances a virtues-based approach to developing good leaders and good leadership. Virtue and discrete virtues are gaining traction within leadership scholarship, but there remains a lack of clarity regarding exactly what virtue is and precisely how virtues inform leadership. To address this, we articulate a clear conceptualization of how virtue informs good leadership in multiple domains. We also elucidate five synergisms of virtues-based leadership development, including how a virtues approach accounts for leadership effectiveness and ethics; how virtue and leadership are both learnable; the relationship between virtues, character, and leadership; the unity and universality of virtue; and how virtue serves as the linchpin between the individual and the common good. Three trajectories for virtues-based leadership development are described. This article has implications for the study and practice of developing good leaders(hip). Limitations and future research directions are discussed.
  • Exploring women's leadership labyrinth: Effects of hiring and
           developmental opportunities on gender stratification
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Hannah L. Samuelson, Benjamin R. Levine, Sara E. Barth, Jennifer L. Wessel, James A. GrandAbstractMany factors have been proposed as potential causes for the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions. The present research leverages computational modeling and simulation to examine the impacts of external hiring and developmental opportunities, which may have consequences at different junctures in women's leadership labyrinth. Two agent-based simulations examined 1) the emergence of gender stratification in gender-balanced organizations and 2) the impact of reducing bias in external hiring and developmental opportunities in gender-stratified organizations. Results revealed that gender differences in external hiring heightened women's sense of tokenism and their turnover rates and that bias in developmental opportunities increased women's turnover rates due to a lack of promotions - a “sticky floor” effect. Further, improving women's leadership representation in gender-stratified organizations may be a rocky road – positive impacts were preceded by elevated turnover for women. Implications for organizational interventions are discussed. All code and datasets are available at
  • The state of higher education leadership development program evaluation: A
           meta-analysis, critical review, and recommendations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Denise L. Reyes, Julie Dinh, Christina N. Lacerenza, Shannon L. Marlow, Dana L. Joseph, Eduardo SalasAbstractThere is a widespread use of leadership development (LD) for students in higher education; however, less is known about the effectiveness of such practices. We provide a summative and meta-analytic review to identify the state of LD programs for students in higher education (i.e., undergraduate and graduate students). The overall objective is to demonstrate whether LD programs are implementing the most effective strategies with any discrepancy revealing a gap between management science and higher education practice. Our results suggest that LD programs within higher education work, but evaluation studies need to more effectively address endogeneity concerns. As a way moving forward, we provide recommendations for conducting a LD program evaluation study and for conducting a meta-analysis on evaluation studies. This meta-analysis can be used as a starting point for the discussion on these issues. We hope that our findings can guide the future development of LD programs.
  • What explains cultural differences in leadership styles' On the
           agricultural origins of participative and directive leadership
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Sirio LonatiAbstractWhy do we observe either participative or directive leadership in organizations' I test an evolutionary-informed theory suggesting that organizational leadership is currently less participative (i.e., close supervision, rare delegation) among societies that used intensive forms of agriculture in the past. Intensification caused increased social complexity and skewed power distribution, promoting the emergence of directive leaders and eventually shaping followers' preferences for and perceptions of leadership. Combining evidence, secondary data, and methods developed in economics, anthropology, and applied psychology, I document a negative relationship between traditional agricultural intensity and followers' participative leadership prototypes. I then study the link between traditional agriculture and reliance on delegation to subordinates across firms. I discuss competing hypotheses, explore the interplay between traditional agriculture and organizational-level factors, and show that traditional agricultural intensity does not predict most other leadership prototypes and management practices. Implications for leadership theory–with a focus on evolutionary approaches–are finally discussed.
  • State-of-the-science review of leader-follower dyads research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Jayoung Kim, Francis J. Yammarino, Shelley D. Dionne, Rory Eckardt, Minyoung Cheong, Chou-Yu Tsai, Jie Guo, Jin Won ParkAbstractDespite its importance in multilevel research, the dyad level of analysis has been known as the most poorly understood level. Suggestions have been made recently in terms of levels alignment issues and methodologies to enhance the understanding of dyadic phenomena. Given recent remedies for dyads research and that the leader-follower dyad is generally considered the key dyad in organizations, we conducted a comprehensive review of the current state of leader-follower dyads research to assess what we know and how much we know about leader-follower dyads research conducted at the dyad level. Specifically, we summarized empirical studies that focused on leader-follower dyads that used data collected on the same variables from both dyadic partners. This review involved coding studies of these “pure” leader-follower dyads based on several dyadic theories (e.g., vertical dyad linkage, individualized leadership, leader-member exchange, leader-follower congruence) and multiple analytic methods (e.g., multilevel modeling, polynomial regression, WABA) that dealt with leader-follower dyads directly. Based on the results, this review generated a nomological network of constructs for understanding leader-follower dyads and to provide suggestions for future leader-follower dyads research.
  • Statesmen or cheerleaders' Using topic modeling to examine gendered
           messages in narrative developmental feedback for leaders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Elena Doldor, Madeleine Wyatt, Jo SilvesterAbstractThis inductive study extends scholarship on gender, feedback and leadership by drawing on a large naturalistic data set of 1057 narrative developmental feedback comments to 146 political leaders in the UK. We used automated topic modeling, a novel methodology, to identify 12 underlying topics within developmental feedback, and complemented this with an in-depth qualitative analyses of feedback content for male and female political leaders across the topics. This resulted in four aggregate theoretical dimensions: 1) strategic focus 2) political influence 3) confidence and 4) agency and communion. Our findings chart novel dimensions of gender bias that go beyond the widely theorized tension posed by agency [male] and communion [female]. These new dimensions are pertinent to developmental, rather than performance feedback processes, and provide male and female leaders with different developmental roadmaps. We outline the value of our novel methodology to leadership scholarship and discuss implications for future research and practice.
  • From sovereign to subject: Applying Foucault's conceptualization of power
           to leading and studying power within leadership
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Donna Ladkin, Joana ProbertAbstractThis article uses Michel Foucault's conceptualization of power to rethink how power operates within leadership relations. Foucault (1980:220) defines power as a “a structure of actions, bearing on the actions of those who are free.” This idea is explored, noting how it differs from much leadership theorizing which defines power in terms of a leader's position or personal characteristics. Foucault's assertions that “power is everywhere” (1988, 12), that it is relationally based and is best perceived through its effects are examined. We identify implications for researching power from this perspective, including the appropriateness of methods capable of mapping social, historical, and institutional dynamics. We offer four analytic strategies: beginning from power's outcomes, investigating points of resistance, proactively identifying hidden dynamics and attending to networked alliances. Insights generated from this approach highlight the contingent, ephemeral nature of power and help explain the indeterminacy leaders often experience when wielding it in practice.
  • Female directors and managerial opportunism: Monitoring versus advisory
           female directors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Alaa Mansour Zalata, Collins G. Ntim, Taufiq Choudhry, Ahmed Hassanein, Hany ElzaharAbstractGoing beyond the mere participation of female directors within boardrooms, we investigate which of the two major boards of directors' roles (advisory versus monitoring) is best played by female directors in order to make a difference to shareholders. More specifically, we investigate the impact that advisory and monitoring female directors have on managerial opportunism with a specific focus on earnings management. Using sample of US firms, we find evidence suggesting that female directors holding monitoring roles mitigate managerial opportunism, as measured by discretionary accruals. In contrast to the current argument that advisory directors in general are better able to sustain and improve earnings quality, we find no evidence that suggests that advisory female directors are significantly associated with lower managerial opportunism. Overall, the results remain robust after controlling for potential endogeneity problems, corporate governance, and external auditor quality.
  • Complexity theory and leadership practice: A review, a critique, and some
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Jonathan Rosenhead, L. Alberto Franco, Keith Grint, Barton FriedlandAbstractThere is an extensive literature on complexity theory authored by natural scientists writing about research fields in which they are themselves active. There is also a growing literature that draws on this work to address leadership concerns and practices, but whose authors are experienced in leadership education rather than in the substantive scientific fields whose findings they report and interpret. We shall refer to this arena as complexity leadership. The initial burst of enthusiasm for complexity management and leadership in the 1990s, as a conceptual framework for informing organisational practice, has not been sustained at its early intensity. However, the field continues to attract interest. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a discussion of the validity and significance of these ideas for the leadership of organisations. We enable this through a review of the literature, a critique, and some recommendations. The type of questions which we will be raising are: (1) What failings in current leadership theory or practice are claimed to be corrected' (2) How novel, and how plausible, are the leadership prescriptions which are derived from complexity theory' (3) Does complexity theory provide scientific authority for these prescriptions' We find a paradox in the complexity leadership message which, on the one hand, claims to be rooted in complexity theory, but at the same time, rejects key denominators of the hard sciences. Finally, we offer suggestions on how to constructively handle the apparent paradox.
  • Leadership change and corporate social performance: The context of
           financial distress makes all the difference
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Shih-Chi (Sana) Chiu, Judith L. WallsAbstractChange in strategic leadership has important implications for corporate social performance (CSP) and sustainability. As new CEOs have a strong incentive to attend to a broad set of stakeholders to build their trust and reputation within the firm, our study draws on stakeholder salience theory to examine a boundary condition, the presence of financial distress, that might challenge a new CEO's ability to perform such a task. We examine the differential impacts between externally recruited CEOs (outsiders) and internally promoted CEOs (insiders) on CSP under the condition of financial distress. We argue that when firms experience financial distress, outsider CEOs can more quickly shift their attention and prioritize the interests of shareholders over other stakeholders than insider CEOs. Our study contributes to the strategic leadership and CSP literatures by offering new insights into how corporate leadership turnover and firm context may jointly shape new CEO's decision-making in CSP engagement.
  • Call for Proposals: The Leadership Quarterly Yearly Review (LQYR) for 2021
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 30, Issue 4Author(s):
  • Leadership in the Digital Era: Social Media, Big Data, Virtual Reality,
           Computational Methods, and Deep Learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 30, Issue 4Author(s):
  • Social Identity and Leadership
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 30, Issue 4Author(s):
  • How often do dictators have positive economic effects' Global
           evidence, 1858–2010
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 July 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Stephanie M. Rizio, Ahmed SkaliAbstractSupposedly well-intentioned dictators are often cited as drivers of economic growth. We examine this claim in a panel of 133 countries from 1858 to 2010. Using annual data on economic growth, political regimes, and political leaders, we document a robust asymmetric pattern: growth-positive autocrats (autocrats whose countries experience larger-than-average growth) are found only as frequently as would be predicted by chance. In contrast, growth-negative autocrats are found significantly more frequently. Implementing regression discontinuity designs (RDD), we also examine local trends in the neighbourhood of the entry into power of growth-positive autocrats. We find that growth under supposedly growth-positive autocrats does not significantly differ from previous realizations of growth, suggesting that even the infrequent growth-positive autocrats largely “ride the wave” of previous success. On the other hand, our estimates reject the null hypothesis that growth-negative rulers have no effects. Taken together, our results cast serious doubt on the benevolent autocrat hypothesis.
  • The impact of government integrity and culture on corporate leadership
           practices: Evidence from the field and the laboratory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Amon Chizema, Ganna PogrebnaAbstractTo understand what drives corporate leaders to choose certain corporate governance practices there is need to look beyond the individual traits of the leader, examining the effect of the elements of the institutional environment on managerial decisions. Drawing on the contextual approach to leadership and insights from institutional theory, this study examines the impact of government integrity on corporate governance practices. From the field study, we find that government integrity has a positive causal effect on corporate leaders' corporate governance decisions and choices. The positive impact of government integrity on corporate leaders' actions is also confirmed using a laboratory study, showing that a social norm of promoting leadership integrity, positively impacts on corporate responsibility especially in contexts where the government lacks credibility. Specifically, we find that corruption and bribery by corporate leaders is low in contexts that are transparent and high in contexts with low government integrity.
  • Why are right-wing voters attracted to dominant leaders' Assessing
           competing theories of psychological mechanisms
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Lasse Laustsen, Michael Bang PetersenAbstractResearch shows that conservative and right-wing individuals are more likely than liberal and left-wing individuals to prefer dominant leaders. According to adaptive followership theory, this reflects psychological mechanisms that tag dominant individuals as more competent under situations of conflict. Conservatives tend to view the world as dangerous and ridden with intergroup conflict and, hence, have heightened preferences for dominant leaders (the competence explanation). Yet, an alternative mechanism is possible, where people stereotypically associate dominant-looking leaders with conservativism such that conservatives perceive these leaders as more similar to themselves (the similarity explanation). Hence, the effects of dominance might not be a matter of perceived competence but of perceived policy agreement. This article pits these explanations about the underlying psychological mechanisms against each other. Using nationally representative survey experiments, we find support for the competence explanation by demonstrating that right-wing individuals prefer dominant candidates even if they are clearly politically closer to non-dominant candidates. This preference for dominant candidates only fades when the dominant candidates are from entirely different political parties than the right-wing individuals themselves.
  • What do the followers want': The core functions of leadership
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): M. Ghufran Ahmad, Christoph Loch
  • The evolution of leadership: Leadership and followership as a solution to
           the problem of creating and executing successful coordination and
           cooperation enterprises
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): David PietraszewskiAbstractThis paper proposes that leadership and followership are not just evolved solutions to the problem of coordinating what to do once a group exists. Rather, leadership and followership also solve the problem of creating a group in the first place. Creating a group is a problem of meta-coordination: coordinating with others about what to coordinate about. Of all possible bases for coordinating or cooperating, only a tiny fraction will be embraced by others, and smaller fraction still will be successfully implemented and executed. No one individual has enough information to solve this problem on one's own. Leadership and followership solve this problem by creating a social marketplace, in which leaders propose possible coordination and cooperation enterprises, and followers evaluate and choose among these offered possibilities. This marketplace—in which different individuals propose and evaluate different coordination and cooperation enterprises—solves the problem of meta-coordination by exposing possible enterprises to the broader social market, which serves as a selective or culling regime. Leadership and followership are evolved information-processing roles within this social marketplace. Consequently, understanding the evolutionary psychology of leadership and followership requires understanding the challenges and opportunities inherent in this market dynamic. The present paper analyzes the tasks that must be carried out to successfully navigate this dynamic. This task analysis predicts a number of novel information-processing functions for the roles of leadership and followership, and suggests that leadership and followership are a broader set of phenomena than currently conceptualized. This broadened conceptualization has a number of important implications for future research, and suggests that leadership and followership may have played a more central role in the evolution of human coordination and cooperation than has been appreciated.
  • Women directors, firm performance, and firm risk: A causal perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Philip Yang, Jan Riepe, Katharina Moser, Kerstin Pull, Siri TerjesenAbstractNorway was the first of ten countries to legislate gender quotas for boards of publicly traded firms. There is considerable debate and mixed evidence concerning the implications of female board representation. In this paper, we explain the main sources of biases in the existing literature on the effects of women directors on firm performance and review methods to account for these biases. We address the endogeneity problem by using a difference-in-differences approach to study the effects of women directors on firm performance with specific consideration of the common trend assumption, and we explicitly distinguish between accounting-based (i.e., operating income divided by assets, return on assets) and market-based (i.e., market-to-book ratio and Tobin's Q) performance measures in the Norwegian setting. The control group are firms from Finland, Sweden, and Denmark. We further extend the analysis of causal effects of women directors to firm risk. Our results imply a negative effect of mandated female representation on firm performance and on firm risk.
  • Finding the right fuel for the analytical engine: Expanding the leader
           trait paradigm through machine learning'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Brian R. Spisak, Paul A. van der Laken, Brian M. DoornenbalAbstractUsing self-report personality data and 360-degree performance evaluations of 973 managers across various contexts, we investigated the leader trait paradigm using a range of machine learning methods. We found that a relatively simple linear ordinary least squares model incorporating direct effects of traits and context performed equally as well as our best performing complex machine learning alternatives (e.g., lasso and random forests) at predicting leader effectiveness under low-dimension conditions (i.e., a small number of predictors). We then increased dimensionality and found that newer machine learning methods excelled. Overall, our computationally intensive approach supports the argument that (a) direct effects (not interactions) of traits and context are important predictors of leader effectiveness and (b) appropriately matching combinations of methods, models, and data (from simple and conventional to complex and novel) creates a powerful machine learning engine for investigating leadership. We end with opportunities for future research, discuss practical implications, and provide a list of resources for those interested in learning more about this analytical future.
  • Evolutionary leadership theory and economic voting: Warmth and competence
           impressions mediate the effect of economic perceptions on vote
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Alexander BorAbstractLeaders' persona and the state of the economy are among the two most salient topics during election campaigns. Existing scholarship treats these as two independent or even competing factors. Economic perceptions are overlooked as cues for leader evaluations, while leader evaluations rarely enter considerations of the economic vote. This article builds on evolutionary leadership theory to bridge these distant literatures. It proposes that evaluating leaders' performance based on the resources available to group members may have improved followers' fitness ancestrally. Accordingly, it predicts that the effect of economic perceptions on vote choice is mediated by leaders' warmth and competence impressions in modern democracies. To test these predictions, the article first analyzes representative survey data from seventeen elections in three countries (USA, Australia and Denmark). Second, it relies on two original, well-powered manipulation-of-process experiments to test the validity of the causal claims.
  • Leadership succession in different types of organizations: What business
           and political successions may learn from each other
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Bassam Farah, Rida Elias, Cristine De Clercy, Glenn RoweAbstractWe systematically review the recent impactful leadership succession literature in three types of organizations/contexts, namely publicly-traded, privately-owned (mostly family businesses), and political organizations. We compare and contrast these literatures, and argue that business and political leadership succession researchers and practitioners can learn from each other. The purpose of the review is fourfold. First, to take stock of the existing leadership succession research in these three related literatures – that examine the same essential phenomenon – but that have evolved separately. Previous reviews have focused mostly on CEO succession (not the broader phenomenon of leadership succession) mainly in publicly-traded firms; and to our knowledge no (recent) comprehensive literature reviews on the important topics of privately-owned and political organization leadership succession exist yet. Second, to develop an overarching integrative conceptual framework (ICF) that structures the overall leadership succession literature and shows the potential areas of integration and difference among the three literatures. Third, to develop three organizational frameworks – one for each organization type – that review what we know and what we should know about leadership succession in each type. Fourth, to critically compare the ICF, the three organizational frameworks, and the three literatures to better understand the similarities and differences among these literatures. By doing so and using a multidisciplinary approach we aim to contribute to the field in the following ways. Firstly, we seek to synthesize the field of leadership succession to identify important research questions that are ripe for study in the near future in the business and political science disciplines. Secondly, we strive to uncover what succession researchers and practitioners across these disciplines may learn from each other.
  • Making ‘my’ problem ‘our’ problem: Warfare as collective action,
           and the role of leader manipulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Anthony C. LopezAbstractWarfare is a collective action problem, and groups often stand to benefit from the quick and coordinated action that leaders can provide. This basic principle is as true in modern political contexts as it has been across our evolutionary history, and there is growing evidence that leadership has evolved, in part, to solve such collective action problems. Despite the material and reproductive benefits of leadership for groups, leaders may also seek private gains at the expense of group interests. Drawing upon insights from social and evolutionary psychology, I explain how leaders solve collective action problems in warfare, but also how leaders manipulate audience preferences when their own interests do not align with group interests. Specifically, when leaders anticipate great private gain from foreign aggression while facing steep public resistance at home, leaders will misframe the conflict as defensive rather than offensive in nature. I provide an evolutionary analysis that explains why leaders exploit this framing specifically, and I identify the specific aspects of conflict framing that are most likely to be exploited toward this end.
  • Observing leadership as behavior in teams and herds – An ethological
           approach to shared leadership research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Alexandra (Sasha) Cook, Alexander Zill, Bertolt MeyerAbstractBoth Shared Leadership Theory and evolutionary theories of leadership emphasize the role of team-level patterns of influence on team or group success. Yet, most of the empirical work on the effects of shared leadership assesses the concept through patterns of subjective perceptions of leadership and behavior. Although these studies give us important insights, subjective perceptions of leadership are prone to biases. In this paper, we draw on evolutionary theories of the development of leadership in groups and argue that group-level patterns of observable behavior have a direct effect on team outcomes above and beyond patterns of leadership and behavior perceptions. On the basis of a brief review of ethological assessment methods of leadership in animal groups, we derive implications for team leadership research methods to test hypotheses on team-level influence patterns and performance. Emphasizing the role of influence in terms of interpersonal behavior we formulate implications for the assessment and analysis of verbal and nonverbal behavior in teams. Finally, we discuss how technological advances may be utilized to promote behavioral observations in team leadership research.
  • Investigating evolutionary models of leadership among recently settled
           Ethiopian hunter-gatherers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Zachary H. Garfield, Edward H. HagenAbstractHumans are thought to have evolved in small, egalitarian hunter-gatherer societies. Evolutionary theories of leadership, which draw heavily on studies of contemporary hunter-gatherer and other small-scale societies, have proposed numerous traits that putatively characterize leaders in domains of sociality, productivity, reproduction, dominance, and cognition. We investigated many such traits among the Chabu, an Ethiopian population of former hunter-gatherers who now subsist on hunting, gathering, horticulture, and cash crops.There were strong positive correlations among most traits across domains, which, in turn, were positively associated with elected leader status among both women and men. Measures of prestige and dominance were largely independent, and although both predicted leader status, prestige was more important. Biased social learning was a modest predictor of leader status but a stronger predictor of respect. Revised evolutionary theories of leadership must account for the importance of women leaders and the strong covariation of traits.
  • The role of leaders in inducing and maintaining cooperation: The CC
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Michael KosfeldAbstractI discuss recent findings from behavioral economic experiments in the lab and in the field on the role of leaders in human cooperation. Three implications for leadership are derived, which are summarized under the notion CC strategy. Firstly, leaders need to trust to not demotivate the motivated. Secondly, leaders need to punish to motivate the non-motivated. Finally, leaders shall (and can) attract motivated types. The discussion is embedded in a more general attempt to promote and stimulate interdisciplinary exchange of both methods and ideas in leadership research.
  • Warning for excessive positivity: Authentic leadership and other traps in
           leadership studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Mats Alvesson, Katja EinolaAbstractWe study authentic leadership as a prominent but problematic example of positive leadership that we use as a more general “warning” against the current fashion of excessive positivity in leadership studies. Without trying to cover “everything”, we critically examine the principal tenets of mainstream authentic leadership theory and reveal a number of fundamental flaws: shaky philosophical and theoretical foundations, tautological reasoning, weak empirical studies, nonsensical measurement tools, unsupported knowledge claims and a generally simplistic and out of date view of corporate life. Even though our study focuses on authentic leadership, much of our criticism is also applicable to other popular positive leadership theories, such as transformational, servant, ethical and spiritual leadership.
  • Does power corrupt the mind' The influence of power on moral reasoning
           and self-interested behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Laura M. Giurge, Marius van Dijke, Michelle Xue Zheng, David De CremerAbstractWe test whether leaders' power shapes their reasoning about moral issues and whether such moral reasoning subsequently influences leaders' display of self-interested behavior. We use an incentivized experiment to manipulate two components of leader power: power over more versus fewer followers and power to enforce one's will by having discretion over more versus fewer payout options to allocate between oneself and one's followers. We find that having power over more followers decreased leaders' principled moral reasoning, whereas having higher power to enforce one's will enabled leaders to engage in self-interested behavior. We also find suggestive evidence that power over increases self-interested behavior by decreasing principled moral reasoning; the effect of power to was not mediated by moral reasoning. These results illustrate that power activates self-interest within and outside the context in which power is held. They also show that moral reasoning is not a stable cognitive process, but that it might represent an additional path via which power affects self-interested behavior.
  • Positive and negative emotional tone convergence: An empirical examination
           of associations with leader and follower LMX
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Janaki Gooty, Jane Shumski Thomas, Francis J. Yammarino, Jayoung Kim, Melissa Medaugh
  • Supervisor-subordinate proactive personality congruence and psychological
           safety: A signaling theory approach to employee voice behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Minya Xu, Xin Qin, Scott B. Dust, Marco S. DiRenzoAbstractBuilding on person-supervisor fit and signaling theory, this study explores the joint effects (i.e., congruence) of supervisor and subordinate proactive personality on subordinate voice behavior through subordinate perceived psychological safety. We examined our hypotheses using cross-level polynomial regressions and response surface analyses. The results indicated that supervisor-subordinate congruence in proactive personality led to higher levels of subordinate perceived psychological safety. Additionally, subordinates in the congruent dyads with high proactive personalities perceived higher levels of psychological safety than those in the congruent dyads with low proactive personalities. Furthermore, supervisor-subordinate congruence in proactive personality had an indirect effect on voice via subordinate perceived psychological safety. Theoretical implications for proactive personality, voice, and person-supervisor fit literatures are discussed. This study highlights that organizations should focus more on creating conditions, perhaps through supervisor-focused changes, that engender psychological safety as opposed to focusing attention exclusively on proactive traits exhibited by employees.
  • From problems to progress: A dialogue on prevailing issues in leadership
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2019Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Susan J. Ashford, Sim B. SitkinAbstractThis paper presents a dialogue between two scholars who have come to contribute to the leadership literature rather late in their careers and, as such, embody a combined insider/outsider perspective. From this perspective, they raise and discuss various observations about the current state of the leadership literature and where that literature might profitably go in the future. The hope is that this dialogue will stimulate other dialogues and, ultimately, foster progress in the leadership literature.
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