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The Leadership Quarterly
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.13
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 468  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1048-9843
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Call for papers - Yearly Review 2020
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 5Author(s):
  • Call for papers - Special Issue on 21st Century Leadership Development:
           Bridging Science and Practice
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 5Author(s):
  • Call for papers - Special Issue on Strategic Leadership and Strategic
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 5Author(s):
  • Making sense of pragmatic and charismatic leadership stories: Effects on
           vision formation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Logan L. Watts, Logan M. Steele, Michael D. MumfordAbstractFor some time, it has been argued that stories articulated by leaders are an important vehicle for exercising influence, but stories of leadership might also serve as a means for developing leadership potential. One critical activity involved in leadership is vision formation, which involves constructing and communicating a future state that guides followers in “making sense” of complex organizational events. Like leader visions, analyzing stories also, by nature, evokes sensemaking processes. As a result, analyzing stories of leadership may provide a natural means for practicing the art of sensemaking. In the present investigation, undergraduates were asked to read six short stories about incidents of either pragmatic or charismatic leadership in business settings. After reading each story, questions were asked to encourage sensemaking of story events, causes, and emotions. Participants were subsequently asked to formulate visions for leading a secondary school –– a transfer task. It was found that stronger visions were produced when participants were asked to analyze both story events and the causes of these events. The implications of these findings for the use of leadership stories in leader development initiatives are discussed.
  • Whatever it takes: Leaders' perceptions of abusive supervision
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Trevor Watkins, Ryan Fehr, Wei HeAbstractIn this paper we examine how leaders' perceptions of the instrumental benefits of abusive supervision shape their tendencies to abuse their employees. We posit that leaders who believe abuse has a positive impact on employee performance will engage in more abusive supervision than their peers, with downstream implications for employees' counterproductive work behaviors. Furthermore, we position leader empathic concern as a boundary condition, whereby empathic concern mitigates the effects of leaders' perceptions of abusive supervision's instrumentality. Data from two studies employing both experimental and field survey designs offer convergent support for our hypotheses. Overall, our findings challenge the prevailing view that abusive supervision is primarily motivated by a desire to aggress, instead demonstrating that leaders sometimes abuse their employees in the pursuit of more pro-organizational goals.
  • Tightening the leash after a threat: A multi-level event study on
           leadership behavior following the financial crisis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Janka I. Stoker, Harry Garretsen, Dimitrios SoudisAbstractThis paper presents the results of a multi-level event study of the effects of the 2008 financial crisis on leadership behavior. Following assumptions from the threat-rigidity hypothesis, we expect that across firms and countries, this crisis led to an increase in directive leadership. In line with this hypothesis, we also anticipate that this change is context-specific. The impact of the 2008 financial crisis on the change in directive leadership is analyzed for over 20,000 managers in 980 organizations across 36 countries. We find that the financial crisis went along with a significant increase in directive leadership, and that this effect was stronger in the manufacturing sector, and in countries with a high degree of power distance. Our results support the threat-rigidity hypothesis, and contribute to leadership research by showing that the context is not only a moderator but actually shapes leadership behavior. This opens up a new avenue of leadership research where context is an antecedent of leadership behavior more generally, and where the methodological set-up allows for causal inference.
  • Tempering agency with communion increases women's leadership emergence in
           all-women groups: Evidence for role congruity theory in a field setting
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Anne-Kathrin Schock, Freya M. Gruber, Thomas Scherndl, Tuulia M. OrtnerAbstractWhich characteristics predict leadership emergence in women after they work on group tasks in all-women groups' Role congruity theory suggests that women need to temper their agency with communion in order to emerge as leaders. We investigated how ascriptions of agentic and communal characteristics were related to leadership emergence by analyzing data collected from women's leadership contests in 2 consecutive years. Participants worked in groups on assessment-center-like tasks (Study 1: N = 184). After each task, they identified individuals with leadership potential and described these individuals' characteristics. Raters categorized these characteristics as agentic or communal. Response surface analyses showed curvilinear effects of perceived agency and perceived communion on leadership emergence, indicating that women who tempered their agency with communion were most likely to emerge as leaders. Analyses were replicated in a second data set (Study 2: N = 185) with similar results.
  • A review of the effectiveness of empowering leadership
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Minyoung Cheong, Francis J. Yammarino, Shelley D. Dionne, Seth M. Spain, Chou-Yu TsaiAbstractBased on a review of empirical literature on empowering leadership, given incongruent and mixed results, the current work suggests reconsidering the effectiveness of empowering leadership. We propose a framework for examining the effectiveness of empowering leadership that considers: 1) feasibility of non-linear main effects of empowering leadership on work-related outcomes, 2) possibility of reverse causation between empowering leadership and work-related outcomes, 3) potential contradictory mediating mechanisms through which empowering leadership influences work-related outcomes, 4) consideration of boundary conditions which could alter the relationships between empowering leadership and work-related outcomes, and 5) consideration of levels-of-analysis and multilevel issues in empowering leadership. Our framework considers the multifaceted nature of empowering leadership and offers a guiding tool for advancing future research in this area.
  • Jack of all, master of all' CEO generalist experience and firm
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Mingxiang Li, Pankaj C. PatelAbstractAlthough more generalist CEOs command a significant pay premium and are known for initiating a variety of strategic changes, whether their sought-after experience is associated with higher firm performance remains unexplored. Drawing on instrumental leadership and domain expertise frameworks, we propose a negative association between more generalist CEO experience (across different industries or firms) and firm performance, but one that is alleviated by longer tenure. Based on a sample of 16,158 CEO-firm-year observations from 2243 firms, we find support for a negative association between more generalist CEO experience and firm performance, which is alleviated with longer CEO tenure. These preliminary results have implications for the increasingly common practice of seeking to hire more generalist CEOs in an effort to improve firm performance.
  • Leader-member exchange as a linking pin in the idiosyncratic deals -
           Performance relationship in workgroups
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Smriti Anand, Jia Hu, Prajya Vidyarthi, Robert C. LidenAbstractIn the current investigation, idiosyncratic deals (i-deals; individualized work arrangements) are modeled as differentiated resources that shape leader-member exchange (LMX) relationships in workgroups. We integrate literature on leader-member exchange (LMX) with research on i-deals to argue that employee evaluations of i-deals received from the grantor –typically the leader- enhance employee perceptions of LMX, which in turn become instrumental in generating positive performance outcomes. Furthermore, because workgroup characteristics have potential implications on the relationship between a deal grantor and the deal recipient, drawing upon social identity theory of leadership, we reason that the i-deals-LMX relationship is affected by the overall value congruence among the group members. Cross-level moderated mediation analyses on multi source data obtained from 289 employees nested in 60 workgroups showed that the mediational role of LMX in the i-deals to performance outcomes relationship was weaker in high value congruence groups.
  • Charismatic, ideological, & pragmatic (CIP) model of leadership: A
           critical review and agenda for future research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Jeffrey B. Lovelace, Brett H. Neely, Julian B. Allen, Samuel T. HunterAbstractCriticisms of the dominant leadership perspectives in the literature are increasing and, as such, a growing number of scholars are calling for more complex and conceptually sound theories of leadership. With a multi-faceted perspective on effective leadership, detailed conceptual underpinnings, and increasing body of empirical support, the Charismatic, Ideological, and Pragmatic (CIP) model of leadership has the potential to address many of these concerns and substantively contribute to our understanding of effective leadership. Despite such advantages, however, wide scale proliferation of the model remains elusive. As such, this effort provides the first comprehensive review of the CIP model to analyze its potential to expand our understanding of leadership in science and practice. In doing so this review frames and organizes the existing CIP literature, identifies key strengths of the model, addresses key limitations of the model, and outlines future research opportunities that would benefit from adopting a CIP perspective.
  • Strategic Shared Leadership and Organizational Dynamic Capabilities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Christos N. Pitelis, Joachim D. WagnerAbstractWe propose that the purposeful sharing of strategic decisions and the process of making and taking those between the dominant coalition of an organization (Strategic Shared Leadership or SSL thereafter), initiated and supported by a focal strategic leader or small team, engenders Organizational Dynamic Capabilities (ODCs) though the transfer of individually-residing DCs within the SSL team, the transformation -co-creation of novel ones and their embeddedness-institutionalization within the organization. It also enhances organizational cognition which mediates the relationship by enriching co-created ODCs and their capacity to deliver reliably change through sensing, seizing and reconfiguring. Accordingly, SSL serves as a co-creator and key predictor of the emergence of ODCs. This helps address the challenges of DCs to marry stability with change, be predictable and to be capable of predicting.
  • Servant leadership: A systematic review and call for future research: The
           leadership quarterly yearly review for 2019
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Nathan Eva, Mulyadi Robin, Sen Sendjaya, Dirk van Dierendonck, Robert C. LidenAbstractNotwithstanding the proliferation of servant leadership studies with over 100 articles published in the last four years alone, a lack of coherence and clarity around the construct has impeded its theory development. We provide an integrative and comprehensive review of the 285 articles on servant leadership spanning 20 years (1998–2018), and in so doing extend the field in four different ways. First, we provide a conceptual clarity of servant leadership vis-à-vis other value-based leadership approaches and offer a new definition of servant leadership. Second, we evaluate 16 existing measures of servant leadership in light of their respective rigor of scale construction and validation. Third, we map the theoretical and nomological network of servant leadership in relation to its antecedents, outcomes, moderators, mediators. We finally conclude by presenting a detailed future research agenda to bring the field forward encompassing both theoretical and empirical advancement. All in all, our review paints a holistic picture of where the literature has been and where it should go into the future.
  • Putting emergence back in leadership emergence: A dynamic, multilevel,
           process-oriented framework
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Bryan P. Acton, Roseanne J. Foti, Robert G. Lord, Jessica A. GladfelterAbstractThe study of leadership emergence has increased substantially over the past few decades. However, due to a lack of integrative theory, we believe limited advancement has been made regarding the full process of leadership emergence. To address this concern, first, we conceptualize the leadership emergence process from a complexity perspective and define emergence as a dynamic, interactive process grounded in three principles of emergent phenomena. Second, we review how previous research has modeled leadership emergence by focusing on the content areas of the lower-level elements, the mechanisms that facilitate their emergence, and the dynamism of the process once it has emerged. Third, based on the findings from the review, we introduce a process-oriented framework of leadership emergence. Fourth, we offer propositions to guide developing and testing emergent leadership processes, and we conclude with recommendations for future leadership process research. Our hope is that by realigning the study of leadership emergence with complexity and multilevel theory, we can reorient this area to focusing more on the process mechanisms within emergence, connecting back to research progress made over 60 years ago.
  • Am I a leader or a friend' How leaders deal with pre-existing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Kerrie L. Unsworth, Darja Kragt, Amber Johnston-BillingsAbstractWe studied employees who were promoted into a leadership role from within their workgroup and explored how they dealt, psychologically, with being both a leader and a friend of their subordinates. In an inductive, qualitative study of 33 individuals from across three organizations (two mining companies and one childcare organization) we found that these people experienced psychological conflict that resulted in them feeling vulnerable to being exploited or being afraid to use their power over subordinate-friends. We identified five strategies that were used, namely abdicating responsibility, ending the friendship, establishing the divide, overlapping the roles, and using friendship to lead. We developed a model whereby the type of psychological conflict and the person's leader identity (either “the boss”, just a role, or a weak or non-existent leader identity) leads to the choice of resolution strategy. This exploration into understanding pre-existing friendships demonstrates the ongoing need to consider those in a leadership role as “people” and not just “leaders”.
  • Call for papers - Yearly Review 2020
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 4Author(s):
  • Call for Papers - Leader Power: Rigorous Insights on its Causes and
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 4Author(s):
  • In the eye of the beholder' An eye-tracking experiment on emergent
           leadership in team interactions
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 4Author(s): Fabiola H. Gerpott, Nale Lehmann-Willenbrock, Jeroen D. Silvis, Mark Van VugtAbstractIntegrating evolutionary signaling theory with a social attention approach, we argue that individuals possess a fast, automated mechanism for detecting leadership signals in fellow humans that is reflected in higher visual attention toward emergent leaders compared to non-leaders. To test this notion, we first videotaped meetings of project teams and collected leadership ratings for the team members from three rating sources. Second, we provided 18 naïve observers with 42 brief, muted video clips of the team meetings and analyzed their eye gazing patterns. Observers gazed at emergent leaders more often, and for an average longer duration, than at non-leaders. Gender effects occurred such that male emergent leaders received a higher number of fixations than female emergent leaders. Non-verbal behavior analysis indicated that emergent leaders showed a higher amount of active gestures and less passive facial expressions than non-leaders. We discuss theoretical and methodological directions for emergent leadership research in teams.
  • Implicit theories of leadership: Stability and change over two decades
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 4Author(s): Lynn R. Offermann, Meredith R. CoatsAbstractMuch has changed in the last 20 years, but have people's naïve conceptions of leaders changed as well' Paralleling Offermann et al.'s (1994) study of the content of implicit leadership theories with new samples, the present study investigates ILT stability and change across a 20-year period. Results indicate that, as in 1994, Sensitivity, Dedication, Tyranny, Charisma, Strength, Masculinity, and Intelligence were confirmed as ILT factors. Analyses revealed a new factor, Creativity, and the rearranging of some characteristics across factors. The nine-factor, 46-item scale was confirmed with an independent sample, yielding superior fit indices to the eight-factor solution. This supports the view of ILTs as having both remarkably stable elements despite organizational and societal changes as well as contextually-sensitive elements. Open-ended characteristics had no references to females despite reference to males, as in 1994; thus, “think leader, think male” appears to persist in terms of naïve conceptions of leadership.
  • Leader negative feedback-seeking and leader effectiveness in
           leader-subordinate relationships: The paradoxical role of subordinate
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 4Author(s): Jae Uk Chun, Dongseop Lee, John J. SosikAbstractFrom a motivational perspective of feedback-seeking behavior, we examined the mediating role of leaders' negative feedback-seeking from subordinates in the relationship between the quality of leader-member exchange (LMX) and subordinates' evaluation of leader effectiveness, along with the moderating role of subordinate expertise in the mediated relationship. Using 151 unique matched sets of leader and subordinate reports obtained from 5 large Korean companies, we found that the positive relationship between LMX and leader effectiveness was mediated by leaders' negative feedback-seeking. Additionally, the positive relationship between LMX and leader negative feedback-seeking was stronger when perceived subordinate expertise was lower. Lastly, the indirect effect of LMX on leader effectiveness through leader negative feedback-seeking was stronger when perceived subordinate expertise was lower. These findings were obtained after controlling for leaders' power distance and goal orientations that might influence their motives to seek or avoid feedback. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
  • Leader-member exchange and organizational citizenship behaviors:
           Contextual effects of leader power distance and group task interdependence
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 4Author(s): Smriti Anand, Prajya Vidyarthi, Sandra RolnickiAbstractIn this paper we explore the context of the relationship between leader-member exchange and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). We maintain that workgroup leader's power distance and the extent of task interdependence in the group exert cross-level effects on the LMX-OCB relationship. We assert that leader power distance attenuates the relationship between LMX and OCB, and this effect is stronger in workgroups with high degree of task interdependence. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analysis of data gathered from 245 employees nested in 54 workgroups supported our hypotheses. LMX-OCB relationship was weaker in workgroups led by high power distance leaders. Further, the three-way cross-level interaction between LMX, leader power distance and group task interdependence demonstrated that the tendency for LMX to have a stronger positive effect on OCB when leader power distance was low rather than high was more pronounced in high task interdependence teams.
  • Call for papers - Special Registered Report Issue on Replication and
           Rigorous Retesting of Leadership Models
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 4Author(s):
  • Call for papers - Special Issue on Strategic Leadership and Strategic
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 4Author(s):
  • Do we measure leadership effectively' Articulating and evaluating
           scale development psychometrics for best practice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Joseph A. Crawford, Jo-Anne KelderAbstractLeadership assessment has been a particular point of difficulty for contemporary scholarship, with many practitioners rejecting academically-driven leadership instruments and scales and preferring their own, less rigorous, scales. We believe that current conceptualizations and measurements of leadership are problematic, indicated by contemporary challenges that can be widely understood as failures of leadership (e.g. the Australian Banking Royal Commission and Volkswagen's ‘Dieselgate’). Also, how effective leadership is measured needs to change. This paper presents a systematic review of 17 leadership scales developed in the new millennium. The majority of scales lack some degree of rigor. Our response has been to conduct eighteen critical checks over four stages of scale development: theory generation, item development, content validity, and empirical evaluation. On the premise that understanding past practices, with their limitations, can be used to drive forward a suite of more effective organizational tools, we provide best practice recommendations using contemporary psychometric research.
  • Shaping emotional reactions to ethical behaviors: Proactive personality as
           a substitute for ethical leadership
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Maria João Velez, Pedro NevesAbstractDue to ethical lapses of leaders, interest in ethical leadership has grown, raising important questions about the responsibility of leaders in ensuring moral and ethical conduct. However, research on ethical leadership has failed to examine the active role that followers' attributes play in enhancing or minimizing the influence of ethical leadership in organizational outcomes. We applied the substitutes for leadership approach (Kerr & Jermier, 1978) to ethical leadership and predicted that proactive personality acts as substitute in the relationship between ethical leadership, workplace emotions and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). Data from two distinct samples offered strong support for the hypotheses. Specifically, we found that ethical leadership was significantly and negatively related to negative workplace emotions when subordinate proactive personality was low, but not when it was high, with consequences for OCBs. These findings suggest that proactive personality constitutes an important moderator on the impact of low ethical leadership on workplace emotions, with consequences for OCBs.
  • How feedback about leadership potential impacts ambition, organizational
           commitment, and performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Niklas K. Steffens, Miguel A. Fonseca, Michelle K. Ryan, Floor A. Rink, Janka I. Stoker, Anne Nederveen PieterseAbstractIn the present research we report results from two experimental studies that examine how feedback about leadership potential impacts leadership ambition, organizational commitment, and performance. Study 1 used an experimental vignette methodology that controls for prior performance. Results show that individuals who receive feedback that they have low potential to be a future leader have lower ambition and organizational commitment relative to those who receive feedback that they have high potential to be a future leader. Study 2 provides evidence of the causal behavioral effects of feedback about leadership potential using a real task effort environment. Results show that participants informed to be unlikely future leaders display lower performance in a subsequent task than participants informed to be likely future leaders. The findings from the two studies demonstrate that information about leadership potential affects subsequent ambition to become leaders as well as performance. We discuss the implications of these findings for the importance of followership, talent management, and leadership succession.
  • Benevolence-dominant, authoritarianism-dominant, and classical
           paternalistic leadership: Testing their relationships with subordinate
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): An-Chih Wang, Chou-Yu Tsai, Shelley D. Dionne, Francis J. Yammarino, Seth M. Spain, Hsiao-Chi Ling, Min-Ping Huang, Li-Fang Chou, Bor-Shiuan ChengAbstractWe propose a new typology of paternalistic leadership styles based on how leaders demonstrate authoritarianism and benevolence, the two essential components of this type of leadership. Benevolence-dominant paternalistic leadership refers to leaders' sole dependence on the use of benevolence without their strong assertion of authority, whereas authoritarianism-dominant paternalistic leadership is based mainly on authoritarianism itself; classical paternalistic leadership, which best fits early observations of paternalistic leaders, refers to the salient combination of both leadership components. We used two distinct samples and methods to test this typology and the association with subordinate performance. Across the two studies, a field investigation with Taiwanese military supervisor-subordinate dyads and a hypothetical scenario experiment with U.S. working adults, we found a positive relationship between classical paternalistic leadership and subordinate performance as strong as that between benevolence-dominant paternalistic leadership and performance. Our findings echo the phenomenon that paternalistic leaders tend to combine benevolence with authoritarianism to affect subordinate performance.
  • Motivational or dispositional' The type of inference shapes the
           effectiveness of leader anger expressions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Bo Shao, Lu Wang, Herman H.M. TseAbstractExisting leadership research has presented conflicting views on the effects of leader anger expressions. The present research aims to reconcile these findings by proposing that the type of inferences followers make (i.e., motivation-focused inference or trait-focused inference) is a key factor determining the outcomes of leader anger expressions. Through one survey study (Study 1) and two experimental studies (Studies 2 and 3), the present research indicates that the effectiveness of leader anger expressions is associated with the type of inferences followers draw from the anger. In general, we found support for the negative relationship between trait-focused inferences and leader effectiveness, but were unable to properly test the positive relationship between motivation-focused inferences and leader effectiveness due to the lack of appropriate instrumental variables. We also investigated whether followers' implicit theories of personality (i.e., entity versus incremental theory) would moderate the effect of leader anger expressions on the type of inferences made by followers, which in turn shapes leader effectiveness. The results of Study 3 provide evidence of the moderating role of implicit theories of personality. Theoretical contributions and practical implications of the present research are discussed.
  • A reconceptualization of authentic leadership: Leader legitimation via
           follower-centered assessment of the moral dimension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Yusuf M. Sidani, W. Glenn RoweAbstractWe explore some challenges that face authentic leadership scholarship including problems related to how the construct is understood and measured. We present a model of authentic leadership that looks at it, not as a leadership style, but as an outcome of a legitimation process. Authentic leadership represents legitimated follower perceptions of a leader's authenticity which are activated by moral judgments. We explain how a follower-centered assessment of the moral component helps explain leadership dynamics in situations involving ethical relativism, thus alleviating concerns regarding the presumed moral component of the construct. The overlap between leaders' and followers' value systems leads to impressions of authenticity, even in cases in which there are no clear universal moral standards. An authentic person's behavior cannot be labeled as “leadership” unless it is embraced by a follower who grants moral legitimacy to the leader. We then discuss the implications of our study for scholars and practitioners.
  • Inequality rules: Resource distribution and the evolution of dominance-
           and prestige-based leadership
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 May 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Richard Ronay, William W. Maddux, William von HippelAbstractBallooning levels of societal inequality have led to a resurgence of interest in the economic causes and consequences of wealth disparity. What has drawn less attention in the scientific literature is how different levels of resource inequality influence what types of individuals emerge as leaders. In the current paper we take a distal approach to understanding the psychological consequences of inequality and the associated implications for leadership. We describe how the distribution of resources in contrasting animal and small-scale human societies incentivizes dominance-oriented versus prestige-oriented leadership strategies, and we use this framework to tease out a number of implications for modern organizational environments. In particular, we suggest that higher levels of inequality attract and favor dominance-oriented rather than prestige-oriented leaders, and that inequality incentivizes leaders to favor their own self-interest over the interests of the organizations they lead. We describe the features of modern organizations that might facilitate the emergence of dominance-oriented leadership and discuss the downstream consequences for organizations. Finally, we explore the contextual and cultural moderators of inequality's relationship with leader/follower dynamics.
  • How leader role identity influences the process of leader emergence: A
           social network analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Navio Kwok, Samuel Hanig, Douglas J. Brown, Winny ShenAbstractContemporary theories on leadership development emphasize the importance of having a leader identity in building leadership skills and functioning effectively as leaders. We build on this approach by unpacking the role leader identity plays in the leader emergence process. Taking the perspective that leadership is a dynamic social process between group members, we propose a social network-based process model whereby leader role identity predicts network centrality (i.e., betweenness and indegree), which then contributes to leader emergence. We test our model using a sample of 88 cadets participating in a leadership development training course. In support of our model, cadets who possess a stronger leader role identity at the beginning of the course were more likely to emerge as leaders. However this relationship was only mediated by one form of network centrality, indegree centrality, reflecting one's ability to build relationships within one's group. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
  • Paradox versus dilemma mindset: A theory of how women leaders navigate the
           tensions between agency and communion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Wei Zheng, Ronit Kark, Alyson L. MeisterAbstractA wealth of literature documents that women leaders can face simultaneous and yet conflictual demands for both agency and communion, due to the incongruence of their leader role and gender role demands. However, we still know little about why some women cope with the tensions between agency and communion better than others and what implications are involved. Using a paradox perspective, we develop a theoretical model to explain how women leaders experience and respond to agency-communion tensions, which impacts their intrapersonal and interpersonal outcomes. Specifically, we propose that in response to experiencing tensions fueled by the dual demands for agency and communion, women leaders can adopt a paradox mindset that simultaneously embraces agency and communion, or a dilemma mindset that dichotomizes agency and communion. The paradox mindset helps women leaders build psychological resilience, identity coexistence, and leadership effectiveness, whereas those who adopt a dilemma mindset experience depleted resilience, identity separation, and lowered leadership effectiveness. Further, our model highlights individual, interpersonal, and organizational conditions that shape women's experience and stimulate a paradox mindset versus a dilemma mindset. We conclude by discussing theoretical and practical implications of our model.
  • The queen bee: A myth' The effect of top-level female leadership on
           subordinate females
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Paulo Roberto Arvate, Gisele Walczak Galilea, Isabela TodescatAbstractWe investigate the effect of female leadership on gender differences in public and private organizations. Female leadership impact was constructed using a quasi-experiment involving mayoral elections, and our research used a sample of 8.3 million organizations distributed over 5600 Brazilian municipalities. Our main results show that when municipalities in which a woman was elected leader (treatment group) are compared with municipalities in which a male was elected leader (control group) there was an increase in the number of top and middle female managers in public organizations. Two aspects contribute to the results: time and command/role model. The time effect is important because our results are obtained with reelected women – in their second term – and the command/role model (the queen bee phenomenon is either small, or non-existent) is important because of the institutional characteristics of public organizations: female leaders (mayor) have much asymmetrical power and decision-making discretion, i.e., she chooses the top managers. These top managers then choose middle managers influenced by female leadership (a role model). We obtained no significant results for private organizations. Our work contributes to the literature on leadership by addressing some specific issues: an empirical investigation with a causal effect between the variables (regression-discontinuity design – a non-parametric estimation), the importance of role models, and how the observed effects are time-dependent. Insofar as public organizations are concerned, the evidence from our large-scale study suggests that the queen bee phenomenon may be a myth; instead, of keeping subordinate women at bay, our results show that women leaders who are afforded much managerial discretion behave in a benevolent manner toward subordinate women. The term “Regal Leader” instead of “Queen Bee” is thus a more appropriate characterization of women in top positions of power.
  • Team incentives, task assignment, and performance: A field experiment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Josse Delfgaauw, Robert Dur, Michiel SouverijnAbstractThe performance of a work team commonly depends on the effort exerted by the team members as well as on the division of tasks among them. However, when leaders assign tasks to team members, performance is usually not the only consideration. Favouritism, employees' seniority, employees' preferences over tasks, and fairness considerations often play a role as well. Team incentives have the potential to curtail the role of these factors in favor of performance — in particular when the incentive plan includes both the leader and the team members. This paper presents the results of a field experiment designed to study the effects of such team incentives on task assignment and performance. We introduce team incentives in a random subsets of 108 stores of a Dutch retail chain. We find no effect of the incentive, neither on task assignment nor on performance.
  • The effects of leadership change on team escalation of commitment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Hanna Kalmanovich-Cohen, Matthew J. Pearsall, Jessica Siegel ChristianAbstractAlthough teams benefit from developing plans and processes that boost efficiency and reduce uncertainty, they may become too attached to these plans and escalate commitment when an alternative response is needed. Drawing on theories of team leadership, team processes and escalation of commitment, we propose that a change in leadership can help the team reduce commitment to outdated plans and avoid further escalation over time. Across two studies, we tested and found support for our hypotheses and provide evidence that leadership change can break the cycle of escalation by enhancing leader-driven team reflection and refocusing the team on error correction instead of additional investment. We discuss how the results of these studies extend existing theory and add to our understanding of the important role leaders play in enhancing team adaptation and preventing team escalation.
  • Leadership, creativity, and innovation: A critical review and practical
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): David J. Hughes, Allan Lee, Amy Wei Tian, Alex Newman, Alison LegoodAbstractLeadership is a key predictor of employee, team, and organizational creativity and innovation. Research in this area holds great promise for the development of intriguing theory and impactful policy implications, but only if empirical studies are conducted rigorously. In the current paper, we report a comprehensive review of a large number of empirical studies (N = 195) exploring leadership and workplace creativity and innovation. Using this article cache, we conducted a number of systematic analyses and built narrative arguments documenting observed trends in five areas. First, we review and offer improved definitions of creativity and innovation. Second, we conduct a systematic review of the main effects of leadership upon creativity and innovation and the variables assumed to moderate these effects. Third, we conduct a systematic review of mediating variables. Fourth, we examine whether the study designs commonly employed are suitable to estimate the causal models central to the field. Fifth, we conduct a critical review of the creativity and innovation measures used, noting that most are sub-optimal. Within these sections, we present a number of taxonomies that organize extant research, highlight understudied areas, and serve as a guide for future variable selection. We conclude by highlighting key suggestions for future research that we hope will reorient the field and improve the rigour of future research such that we can build more reliable and useful theories and policy recommendations.
  • Do voters get it right' A test of the ascription-actuality trait
           theory of leadership with political elites
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Madeleine Wyatt, Jo SilvesterAbstractAre the traits preferred by voters also associated with success in political office' Drawing on the ascription-actuality trait theory of leadership the present study examines whether traits ascribed to politicians predict leadership outcomes differently to the actual traits they possess. We collected self-ratings of politicians' personality (N = 138) using the NEO-PI-R (actual traits) and observer ratings of politicians' facial appearance (ascribed traits) to examine their relationship with (a) leadership emergence, measured using share of vote in election, and (b) in-role leadership effectiveness, rated anonymously by political and local authority colleagues. Facial appearance predicted leadership emergence but not effectiveness. Personality had a more nuanced relationship with leadership outcomes. Conscientiousness predicted effectiveness but not emergence, and Agreeableness revealed a trait paradox, positively predicting emergence and negatively predicting effectiveness. These findings suggest a need to understand the contested nature of political leadership and qualities required for different aspects of political roles.
  • Ethical leadership and employee success: Examining the roles of
           psychological empowerment and emotional exhaustion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Scott B. Dust, Christian J. Resick, Jaclyn A. Margolis, Mary B. Mawritz, Rebecca L. GreenbaumAbstractThe current study aims to advance ethical leadership theory and research in two ways. First, we propose that psychological empowerment is a comprehensive motivational mechanism linking ethical leadership with employee current in-role success and future success potential. Second, we propose that employee emotional exhaustion is a disruptive psychological state that dampens the empowering effects of ethical leaders. Findings from two field studies illustrate that emotional exhaustion impairs the motivational efforts of ethical leaders by attenuating the direct effects on psychological empowerment and the indirect effects on employees' current success and success potential. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
  • Assassination of political leaders: The role of social conflict
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Andra Serban, Francis J. Yammarino, Kristin Lee Sotak, Juliet Banoeng-Yakubo, Alexander B.R. Mushore, Chanyu Hao, Kristie A. McHugh, Michael D. MumfordAbstractGiven human aggression and warfare are often described as the most pressing behavioral problems of our time, we focus on a related phenomenon, with large-scale social, political, and economic consequences: assassination of political leaders. We explore the role of social conflict as a predictor of political assassination and use historiometric methods and an extensive archival dataset to identify and code for contextual factors associated with social conflict and political homicide. Our results indicate an increase in social conflict increases the likelihood of assassination; moreover, environmental constraints and traditional culture predict leader assassination through social conflict. We discuss implications of these findings and suggest future research on contextual factors, assassination of political leaders, and their collective-level impact.
  • Core self-evaluations mediate the association between leaders' facial
           appearance and their professional success: Adults' and children's
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Erik Dietl, Nicholas Rule, Gerhard BlickleAbstractAlthough the link between facial appearance and success is well established, the mechanisms responsible for this association have remained elusive. Evolutionary theory suggests that perceived leadership characteristics should be important for men's self-concept. Drawing on implicit leadership theory and evolutionary perspectives, we therefore examined the associations between first impressions based on facial appearance, core self-evaluations (CSEs), leadership role occupancy, and career success among a sample of working men. In Study 1, we found that CSEs mediated the relationship between individuals' facial appearance and measures of their success as leaders. In Study 2, we replicated these results using children's ratings of facial appearance, thus suggesting that basic properties of the targets' faces communicated their leadership ability more than the perceivers' life experience or acquired knowledge. These results suggest that people may use facial appearance as a diagnostic tool to determine the leadership ability of others.
  • Righting a wrong: Retaliation on a voodoo doll symbolizing an abusive
           supervisor restores justice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Lindie H. Liang, Douglas J. Brown, Huiwen Lian, Samuel Hanig, D. Lance Ferris, Lisa M. KeepingAbstractWhen a subordinate receives abusive treatment from a supervisor, a natural response is to retaliate against the supervisor. Although retaliation is dysfunctional and should be discouraged, we examine the potential functional role retaliation plays in terms of alleviating the negative consequences of abusive supervision on subordinate justice perceptions. Based on the notion that retaliation following mistreatment can restore justice for victims, we propose a model whereby retaliation following abusive supervision alleviates the negative effect of abusive supervision on subordinate justice perceptions. In two experimental studies (Study 1 and 2), whereby we manipulated abusive supervision and subordinate symbolic retaliation—in particular, harming a voodoo doll that represents the abusive supervisor—we found general support for our predictions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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