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The Leadership Quarterly
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.13
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 468  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1048-9843
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Shaping emotional reactions to ethical behaviors: Proactive personality as
           a substitute for ethical leadership
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Maria João Velez, Pedro Neves Due to ethical lapses of leaders, interest in ethical leadership has grown, raising important questions about the responsibility of leaders in ensuring moral and ethical conduct. However, research on ethical leadership has failed to examine the active role that followers' attributes play in enhancing or minimizing the influence of ethical leadership in organizational outcomes. We applied the substitutes for leadership approach (Kerr & Jermier, 1978) to ethical leadership and predicted that proactive personality acts as substitute in the relationship between ethical leadership, workplace emotions and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). Data from two distinct samples offered strong support for the hypotheses. Specifically, we found that ethical leadership was significantly and negatively related to negative workplace emotions when subordinate proactive personality was low, but not when it was high, with consequences for OCBs. These findings suggest that proactive personality constitutes an important moderator on the impact of low ethical leadership on workplace emotions, with consequences for OCBs.
  • How feedback about leadership potential impacts ambition, organizational
           commitment, and performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Niklas K. Steffens, Miguel A. Fonseca, Michelle K. Ryan, Floor A. Rink, Janka I. Stoker, Anne Nederveen Pieterse In the present research we report results from two experimental studies that examine how feedback about leadership potential impacts leadership ambition, organizational commitment, and performance. Study 1 used an experimental vignette methodology that controls for prior performance. Results show that individuals who receive feedback that they have low potential to be a future leader have lower ambition and organizational commitment relative to those who receive feedback that they have high potential to be a future leader. Study 2 provides evidence of the causal behavioral effects of feedback about leadership potential using a real task effort environment. Results show that participants informed to be unlikely future leaders display lower performance in a subsequent task than participants informed to be likely future leaders. The findings from the two studies demonstrate that information about leadership potential affects subsequent ambition to become leaders as well as performance. We discuss the implications of these findings for the importance of followership, talent management, and leadership succession.
  • Benevolence-dominant, authoritarianism-dominant, and classical
           paternalistic leadership: Testing their relationships with subordinate
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): An-Chih Wang, Chou-Yu Tsai, Shelley D. Dionne, Francis J. Yammarino, Seth M. Spain, Hsiao-Chi Ling, Min-Ping Huang, Li-Fang Chou, Bor-Shiuan Cheng We propose a new typology of paternalistic leadership styles based on how leaders demonstrate authoritarianism and benevolence, the two essential components of this type of leadership. Benevolence-dominant paternalistic leadership refers to leaders' sole dependence on the use of benevolence without their strong assertion of authority, whereas authoritarianism-dominant paternalistic leadership is based mainly on authoritarianism itself; classical paternalistic leadership, which best fits early observations of paternalistic leaders, refers to the salient combination of both leadership components. We used two distinct samples and methods to test this typology and the association with subordinate performance. Across the two studies, a field investigation with Taiwanese military supervisor-subordinate dyads and a hypothetical scenario experiment with U.S. working adults, we found a positive relationship between classical paternalistic leadership and subordinate performance as strong as that between benevolence-dominant paternalistic leadership and performance. Our findings echo the phenomenon that paternalistic leaders tend to combine benevolence with authoritarianism to affect subordinate performance.
  • Call for papers - Special Issue on Strategic Leadership and Strategic
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 3Author(s):
  • Investor response to appointment of female CEOs and CFOs
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 3Author(s): Eline Brinkhuis, Bert Scholtens We study the impact of appointing women to top executive positions from an investor perspective. We analyze whether shareholders value announcement of appointment of women to top positions differently than they do appointment of men. This study uses an international sample of 100 announcements of top executive appointments of women who replace men and investigates how shareholders respond to such appointments. This research combines an event study with a matched pair analysis to compare the response from investors regarding appointment of female versus male CEOs and CFOs. We establish that investors do not seem to value appointment of women significantly differently from that of men. This finding suggests that, from the investor perspective, there appears to be no business case for a particular gender when it comes to appointing a CEO or CFO.
  • Leader-employee congruence of expected contributions in the
           employee-organization relationship
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 3Author(s): Mieke Audenaert, Philippe Carette, Lynn M. Shore, Thomas Lange, Thomas Van Waeyenberg, Adelien Decramer Employees' expected contributions can be incongruent with those of their leader. We examine the congruence effect of leaders' and employees' expected contributions on job satisfaction. Results of cross-level polynomial regressions on 947 employees and 224 leaders support the congruence effect. When expected contributions are congruent, employees are more satisfied with their job. Our findings suggest that employees enjoy high challenges, as long as these challenges are in harmony with the expected contributions of their leaders. Employees are less satisfied with their jobs both when their expected contributions were higher than their leaders' and when their expected contributions were lower than those of their leaders. Beyond the relevance of having high expected contributions, the findings highlight the crucial role played by the congruence of expected contributions of leaders and employees.
  • A moderated mediation model of the relationship between abusive
           supervision and knowledge sharing
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 3Author(s): Soojin Lee, Seckyoung Loretta Kim, Seokhwa Yun This study uses the conservation of resources theory to examine the influence of a leader's destructive behaviors by investigating how emotional exhaustion resulting from abusive supervision affects employees' knowledge-sharing behaviors. Using a moderated mediation framework, this study suggests that organizational justice moderates the positive relationship between abusive supervision and employees' emotional exhaustion and attenuates the negative indirect effect of abusive supervision on employees' knowledge-sharing behaviors. The results of this study, drawn from a sample of 202 dyads comprising full-time employees and their immediate supervisors, support most of its hypotheses. The implications and limitations of the study, as well as directions for future research, are discussed.
  • We can do it! Inclusive leader language promotes voice behavior in
           multi-professional teams
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 3Author(s): Mona Weiss, Michaela Kolbe, Gudela Grote, Donat R. Spahn, Bastian Grande Although it is known that leaders can have a strong impact on whether employees voice work-related ideas or concerns, no research has investigated the impact of leader language on voice—particularly in professionally diverse contexts. Based on a social identity approach as well as on collectivistic leadership theories, we distinguish between implicit (i.e., First-Person Plural pronouns) and explicit (i.e., invitations and appreciations) inclusive leader language and test its effects on voice in multi-professional teams. We hypothesized that implicit inclusive leader language promotes voice especially among team members sharing the same professional group membership as the leader (in-group team members) while explicit inclusive leader language promotes voice especially among team members belonging to a different professional group (out-group team members). These hypotheses were tested in a field setting in which 126 health care professionals (i.e., nurses, resident and attending physicians), organized in 26 teams, managed medical emergencies. Behavioral coding and leader language analyses supported our hypotheses: Leaders' “WE”-references were more strongly related to residents' (in-group) and explicit invitations related more strongly to nurses' (out-group) voice behavior. We discuss how inclusive leader language promotes employee voice and explain why group membership functions as an important moderator in professionally diverse teams.
  • Capturing hearts and minds: The influence of relational identification
           with the leader on followers' mobilization and cardiovascular reactivity
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 3Author(s): Matthew J. Slater, Martin J. Turner, Andrew L. Evans, Marc V. Jones The influence of relational identification (RI) on leadership processes and the effects of social identity leadership on followers' responses to stress have received scant theoretical and research attention. The present research advances theoretical understanding by testing the assertion that high RI with the leader drives follower mobilization of effort and psychophysiological responses to stress. Two experimental scenario studies (Study 1 and Study 2) support the hypothesis that being led by an individual with whom followers perceive high RI increases follower intentional mobilization. Study 2 additionally showed that high (vs. low) RI increases follower resource appraisals and cognitive task performance. A laboratory experiment (Study 3) assessing cardiovascular (CV) reactivity showed that, compared to neutral (i.e., non-affiliated) leadership, being led by an individual with whom participants felt low RI elicited a maladaptive (i.e., threat) response to a pressurized task. In addition, relative to the low RI and neutral conditions, high RI with the leader did not engender greater challenge or threat reactivity. In conclusion, advancing social identity leadership and challenge and threat theory, findings suggest that leaders should be mindful of the deleterious effects (i.e., reduced mobilization and greater threat state) of low RI to optimize follower mobilization of effort and psychophysiological responses to stress.
  • Call for papers - Special Registered Report Issue on Replication and
           Rigorous Retesting of Leadership Models
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 3Author(s):
  • Call for papers - Yearly Review 2020
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 3Author(s):
  • Call for papers - Evolution and Biology of Leadership: A New Synthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 3Author(s):
  • Call for Papers - Leader Power: Rigorous Insights on its Causes and
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 3Author(s):
  • Motivational or dispositional' The type of inference shapes the
           effectiveness of leader anger expressions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Bo Shao, Lu Wang, Herman H.M. Tse Existing leadership research has presented conflicting views on the effects of leader anger expressions. The present research aims to reconcile these findings by proposing that the type of inferences followers make (i.e., motivation-focused inference or trait-focused inference) is a key factor determining the outcomes of leader anger expressions. Through one survey study (Study 1) and two experimental studies (Studies 2 and 3), the present research indicates that the effectiveness of leader anger expressions is associated with the type of inferences followers draw from the anger. In general, we found support for the negative relationship between trait-focused inferences and leader effectiveness, but were unable to properly test the positive relationship between motivation-focused inferences and leader effectiveness due to the lack of appropriate instrumental variables. We also investigated whether followers' implicit theories of personality (i.e., entity versus incremental theory) would moderate the effect of leader anger expressions on the type of inferences made by followers, which in turn shapes leader effectiveness. The results of Study 3 provide evidence of the moderating role of implicit theories of personality. Theoretical contributions and practical implications of the present research are discussed.
  • A reconceptualization of authentic leadership: Leader legitimation via
           follower-centered assessment of the moral dimension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Yusuf M. Sidani, W. Glenn Rowe We explore some challenges that face authentic leadership scholarship including problems related to how the construct is understood and measured. We present a model of authentic leadership that looks at it, not as a leadership style, but as an outcome of a legitimation process. Authentic leadership represents legitimated follower perceptions of a leader's authenticity which are activated by moral judgments. We explain how a follower-centered assessment of the moral component helps explain leadership dynamics in situations involving ethical relativism, thus alleviating concerns regarding the presumed moral component of the construct. The overlap between leaders' and followers' value systems leads to impressions of authenticity, even in cases in which there are no clear universal moral standards. An authentic person's behavior cannot be labeled as “leadership” unless it is embraced by a follower who grants moral legitimacy to the leader. We then discuss the implications of our study for scholars and practitioners.
  • Inequality rules: Resource distribution and the evolution of dominance-
           and prestige-based leadership
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 May 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Richard Ronay, William W. Maddux, William von Hippel Ballooning levels of societal inequality have led to a resurgence of interest in the economic causes and consequences of wealth disparity. What has drawn less attention in the scientific literature is how different levels of resource inequality influence what types of individuals emerge as leaders. In the current paper we take a distal approach to understanding the psychological consequences of inequality and the associated implications for leadership. We describe how the distribution of resources in contrasting animal and small-scale human societies incentivizes dominance-oriented versus prestige-oriented leadership strategies, and we use this framework to tease out a number of implications for modern organizational environments. In particular, we suggest that higher levels of inequality attract and favor dominance-oriented rather than prestige-oriented leaders, and that inequality incentivizes leaders to favor their own self-interest over the interests of the organizations they lead. We describe the features of modern organizations that might facilitate the emergence of dominance-oriented leadership and discuss the downstream consequences for organizations. Finally, we explore the contextual and cultural moderators of inequality's relationship with leader/follower dynamics.
  • How leader role identity influences the process of leader emergence: A
           social network analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Navio Kwok, Samuel Hanig, Douglas J. Brown, Winny Shen Contemporary theories on leadership development emphasize the importance of having a leader identity in building leadership skills and functioning effectively as leaders. We build on this approach by unpacking the role leader identity plays in the leader emergence process. Taking the perspective that leadership is a dynamic social process between group members, we propose a social network-based process model whereby leader role identity predicts network centrality (i.e., betweenness and indegree), which then contributes to leader emergence. We test our model using a sample of 88 cadets participating in a leadership development training course. In support of our model, cadets who possess a stronger leader role identity at the beginning of the course were more likely to emerge as leaders. However this relationship was only mediated by one form of network centrality, indegree centrality, reflecting one's ability to build relationships within one's group. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
  • Paradox versus dilemma mindset: A theory of how women leaders navigate the
           tensions between agency and communion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Wei Zheng, Ronit Kark, Alyson L. Meister A wealth of literature documents that women leaders can face simultaneous and yet conflictual demands for both agency and communion, due to the incongruence of their leader role and gender role demands. However, we still know little about why some women cope with the tensions between agency and communion better than others and what implications are involved. Using a paradox perspective, we develop a theoretical model to explain how women leaders experience and respond to agency-communion tensions, which impacts their intrapersonal and interpersonal outcomes. Specifically, we propose that in response to experiencing tensions fueled by the dual demands for agency and communion, women leaders can adopt a paradox mindset that simultaneously embraces agency and communion, or a dilemma mindset that dichotomizes agency and communion. The paradox mindset helps women leaders build psychological resilience, identity coexistence, and leadership effectiveness, whereas those who adopt a dilemma mindset experience depleted resilience, identity separation, and lowered leadership effectiveness. Further, our model highlights individual, interpersonal, and organizational conditions that shape women's experience and stimulate a paradox mindset versus a dilemma mindset. We conclude by discussing theoretical and practical implications of our model.
  • The queen bee: A myth' The effect of top-level female leadership on
           subordinate females
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Paulo Roberto Arvate, Gisele Walczak Galilea, Isabela Todescat We investigate the effect of female leadership on gender differences in public and private organizations. Female leadership impact was constructed using a quasi-experiment involving mayoral elections, and our research used a sample of 8.3 million organizations distributed over 5600 Brazilian municipalities. Our main results show that when municipalities in which a woman was elected leader (treatment group) are compared with municipalities in which a male was elected leader (control group) there was an increase in the number of top and middle female managers in public organizations. Two aspects contribute to the results: time and command/role model. The time effect is important because our results are obtained with reelected women – in their second term – and the command/role model (the queen bee phenomenon is either small, or non-existent) is important because of the institutional characteristics of public organizations: female leaders (mayor) have much asymmetrical power and decision-making discretion, i.e., she chooses the top managers. These top managers then choose middle managers influenced by female leadership (a role model). We obtained no significant results for private organizations. Our work contributes to the literature on leadership by addressing some specific issues: an empirical investigation with a causal effect between the variables (regression-discontinuity design – a non-parametric estimation), the importance of role models, and how the observed effects are time-dependent. Insofar as public organizations are concerned, the evidence from our large-scale study suggests that the queen bee phenomenon may be a myth; instead, of keeping subordinate women at bay, our results show that women leaders who are afforded much managerial discretion behave in a benevolent manner toward subordinate women. The term “Regal Leader” instead of “Queen Bee” is thus a more appropriate characterization of women in top positions of power.
  • Team incentives, task assignment, and performance: A field experiment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Josse Delfgaauw, Robert Dur, Michiel Souverijn The performance of a work team commonly depends on the effort exerted by the team members as well as on the division of tasks among them. However, when leaders assign tasks to team members, performance is usually not the only consideration. Favouritism, employees' seniority, employees' preferences over tasks, and fairness considerations often play a role as well. Team incentives have the potential to curtail the role of these factors in favor of performance — in particular when the incentive plan includes both the leader and the team members. This paper presents the results of a field experiment designed to study the effects of such team incentives on task assignment and performance. We introduce team incentives in a random subsets of 108 stores of a Dutch retail chain. We find no effect of the incentive, neither on task assignment nor on performance.
  • The effects of leadership change on team escalation of commitment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Hanna Kalmanovich-Cohen, Matthew J. Pearsall, Jessica Siegel Christian Although teams benefit from developing plans and processes that boost efficiency and reduce uncertainty, they may become too attached to these plans and escalate commitment when an alternative response is needed. Drawing on theories of team leadership, team processes and escalation of commitment, we propose that a change in leadership can help the team reduce commitment to outdated plans and avoid further escalation over time. Across two studies, we tested and found support for our hypotheses and provide evidence that leadership change can break the cycle of escalation by enhancing leader-driven team reflection and refocusing the team on error correction instead of additional investment. We discuss how the results of these studies extend existing theory and add to our understanding of the important role leaders play in enhancing team adaptation and preventing team escalation.
  • Call for papers - Special Issue on Strategic Leadership and Strategic
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 2Author(s):
  • Call for papers - Special Registered Report Issue on Replication and
           Rigorous Retesting of Leadership Models
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 2Author(s):
  • Call for papers - Evolution and Biology of Leadership: A New Synthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 2Author(s):
  • Call for papers - Leader Power: Rigorous Insights on its Causes and
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 2Author(s):
  • The gender composition of corporate boards: A review and research agenda
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 2Author(s): Anja Kirsch In recent years, the composition of boards and, particularly, the inclusion of women on boards has attracted significant scholarly interest and public debate. In this article, I comprehensively review the academic literature on board gender composition. Using the systematic review method, I ask whether women directors really are different from men on boards, what factors shape board gender composition, how board gender composition affects organizational outcomes, and finally, why board gender quotas and other forms of regulation are introduced and what outcomes can be expected. Based on my findings, I develop a conceptual framework that clarifies the causal processes underlying both women's access to boards and the effects of women's presence on boards. Finally, I offer a research agenda designed to enrich our understanding of board gender composition.
  • The servant leadership advantage: When perceiving low differentiation in
           leader-member relationship quality influences team cohesion, team task
           performance and service OCB
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 2Author(s): Myriam Chiniara, Kathleen Bentein How does servant leaders' unique ability to place each follower's needs above their own influence relationships between followers and impact their collective performance' In a study that integrates principles of servant leadership with the social comparison theoretical framework, we tested a group-level model to examine how servant leadership induces low perceived differentiation in leader-member relationship quality (perceived LMX differentiation) within a group, which strengthens team cohesion and in turn positively influences team task performance and service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors (service OCB). Our sample comprised 229 employees nested in 67 work teams. Structural equation modeling results indicate that servant leadership significantly predicts low perceived LMX differentiation; perceived LMX differentiation is strongly related to team cohesion such that the lower the perceived differentiation, the stronger the team's cohesiveness. And, team cohesion is also strongly related to both the team's task performance and service OCB. Perceived LMX differentiation and team cohesion mediate the effect of servant leadership on both team task performance and service OCB.
  • Ethical leadership and employee knowledge sharing: Exploring
           dual-mediation paths
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 2Author(s): Yuen Lam Bavik, Pok Man Tang, Ruodan Shao, Long Wai Lam Drawing on social learning and self-determination theories, this study investigates the mediating effects of controlled motivation for knowledge sharing and moral identity in the relationship between ethical leadership and employee knowledge sharing. We conducted a field study with 337 full-time employees to test our hypotheses. Results supported the mediating effects of both controlled motivation and moral identity in accounting for the relationship between ethical leadership and employee knowledge sharing. Our study is among the first to examine whether and why ethical leadership predicts employee knowledge sharing. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
  • Authentic leadership and leaders' mental well-being: An experience
           sampling study
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 2Author(s): Matthias Weiss, Stefan Razinskas, Julia Backmann, Martin Hoegl Research on authentic leadership has yielded important insights about its effects on subordinates. However, its consequences for the leaders themselves remain largely unexamined. This is problematic, as organizations require their leaders to provide guidance and leaders' mental well-being is a prerequisite for this. Drawing on the theories of ego-depletion and authentic leadership, we investigate the role of authentic leadership in predicting leaders' mental well-being. In an experience sampling study, we apply hierarchical linear modeling to analyze 396 observations from 44 executives. Our multilevel moderated mediation analyses reveal that authentic leadership reduces leaders' stress and increases their work engagement and that these effects are mediated by leader mental depletion. Moreover, we show that the indirect effects are contingent on the extent to which leaders interact with their subordinates: authentic leaders deplete less with increasing follower interaction, while inauthentic leaders deplete less with decreasing follower interaction.
  • Solving the crisis: When agency is the preferred leadership for
           implementing change
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 2Author(s): Clara Kulich, Vincenzo Iacoviello, Fabio Lorenzi-Cioldi Glass-cliff research shows that female leaders are preferentially selected in a crisis to signal change and not for their leadership qualifications. In parallel, the management literature urges for agentic “masculine” leadership to turn around organizations in crisis. We hypothesized that, regardless of their gender, agentic leaders should be preferred to communal leaders if leadership qualifications and actual change potential motivate leader selection. Three experimental studies demonstrated that agentic (vs. communal) candidates were perceived to match poorly-performing (vs. strongly-performing) companies. This effect was accounted for by perceptions of agentic candidates' higher suitability, higher task-orientation (versus person-orientation), and higher change potential. We discuss that women face ambiguity as to why they become leaders in crisis contexts: because they are perceived as signaling change, stereotypically linked to their gender, or for their perceived agentic qualities as leaders. In contrast, men become crisis leaders due to their perceived agentic change potential.
  • Learning from stories of leadership: How reading about personalized and
           socialized politicians impacts performance on an ethical decision-making
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 2Author(s): Logan L. Watts, Alisha M. Ness, Logan M. Steele, Michael D. Mumford Stories about notable, 20th-century politicians were investigated as a means by which reading stories of leadership influences subsequent ethical decision-making performance. Undergraduates read four short stories in which charismatic politicians exhibited a personalized, socialized, or neutral power orientation, followed by responding to four ethical dilemmas in the marketing domain—a distant transfer task. Results indicated that reading stories featuring personalized protagonists inhibited subsequent ethical decision-making processes. However, intensity of narrative processing, personal identification with the protagonist, and presence or absence of an ethical salience probe moderated these effects. Implications are discussed regarding the use of stories as a tool for ethical development and the importance of managing stories of leadership circulated throughout organizations and society.
  • Seeing eye to eye: A meta-analysis of self-other agreement of leadership
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 2Author(s): Angela Lee, Nichelle C. Carpenter The agreement between a leader's self-rating of leadership and ratings from the leader's subordinates, peers, and superiors (i.e., self-other agreement) is critical to understanding leadership, but questions remain regarding the extent to which leaders are aware of their behaviors. This meta-analysis investigates whether leader-observer agreement is influenced by type of observer and type of leadership. First, we examined the convergence (i.e., correlation) between leader- and observer-ratings along several dimensions of leadership (e.g., initiating structure, consideration, contingent reward, and transformational leadership). Our results indicated that leader-observer correlations were generally moderate and of similar magnitudes for task- and relation-oriented behaviors (with the exception of a strong correlation for contingent reward). Next, we compared leaders' and observers' mean-level ratings (i.e., Cohen's d), and found that leaders generally reported lower or similar levels of task-oriented behaviors but higher levels of relation-oriented behaviors. Last, several variables (e.g., sampling method and study purpose) moderated leader-observer convergence. Implications of these findings for research, theory, and practice are discussed.
  • Leadership, creativity, and innovation: A critical review and practical
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): David J. Hughes, Allan Lee, Amy Wei Tian, Alex Newman, Alison Legood Leadership is a key predictor of employee, team, and organizational creativity and innovation. Research in this area holds great promise for the development of intriguing theory and impactful policy implications, but only if empirical studies are conducted rigorously. In the current paper, we report a comprehensive review of a large number of empirical studies (N = 195) exploring leadership and workplace creativity and innovation. Using this article cache, we conducted a number of systematic analyses and built narrative arguments documenting observed trends in five areas. First, we review and offer improved definitions of creativity and innovation. Second, we conduct a systematic review of the main effects of leadership upon creativity and innovation and the variables assumed to moderate these effects. Third, we conduct a systematic review of mediating variables. Fourth, we examine whether the study designs commonly employed are suitable to estimate the causal models central to the field. Fifth, we conduct a critical review of the creativity and innovation measures used, noting that most are sub-optimal. Within these sections, we present a number of taxonomies that organize extant research, highlight understudied areas, and serve as a guide for future variable selection. We conclude by highlighting key suggestions for future research that we hope will reorient the field and improve the rigour of future research such that we can build more reliable and useful theories and policy recommendations.
  • Do voters get it right' A test of the ascription-actuality trait
           theory of leadership with political elites
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Madeleine Wyatt, Jo Silvester Are the traits preferred by voters also associated with success in political office' Drawing on the ascription-actuality trait theory of leadership the present study examines whether traits ascribed to politicians predict leadership outcomes differently to the actual traits they possess. We collected self-ratings of politicians' personality (N = 138) using the NEO-PI-R (actual traits) and observer ratings of politicians' facial appearance (ascribed traits) to examine their relationship with (a) leadership emergence, measured using share of vote in election, and (b) in-role leadership effectiveness, rated anonymously by political and local authority colleagues. Facial appearance predicted leadership emergence but not effectiveness. Personality had a more nuanced relationship with leadership outcomes. Conscientiousness predicted effectiveness but not emergence, and Agreeableness revealed a trait paradox, positively predicting emergence and negatively predicting effectiveness. These findings suggest a need to understand the contested nature of political leadership and qualities required for different aspects of political roles.
  • Ethical leadership and employee success: Examining the roles of
           psychological empowerment and emotional exhaustion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Scott B. Dust, Christian J. Resick, Jaclyn A. Margolis, Mary B. Mawritz, Rebecca L. Greenbaum The current study aims to advance ethical leadership theory and research in two ways. First, we propose that psychological empowerment is a comprehensive motivational mechanism linking ethical leadership with employee current in-role success and future success potential. Second, we propose that employee emotional exhaustion is a disruptive psychological state that dampens the empowering effects of ethical leaders. Findings from two field studies illustrate that emotional exhaustion impairs the motivational efforts of ethical leaders by attenuating the direct effects on psychological empowerment and the indirect effects on employees' current success and success potential. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
  • Assassination of political leaders: The role of social conflict
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Andra Serban, Francis J. Yammarino, Kristin Lee Sotak, Juliet Banoeng-Yakubo, Alexander B.R. Mushore, Chanyu Hao, Kristie A. McHugh, Michael D. Mumford Given human aggression and warfare are often described as the most pressing behavioral problems of our time, we focus on a related phenomenon, with large-scale social, political, and economic consequences: assassination of political leaders. We explore the role of social conflict as a predictor of political assassination and use historiometric methods and an extensive archival dataset to identify and code for contextual factors associated with social conflict and political homicide. Our results indicate an increase in social conflict increases the likelihood of assassination; moreover, environmental constraints and traditional culture predict leader assassination through social conflict. We discuss implications of these findings and suggest future research on contextual factors, assassination of political leaders, and their collective-level impact.
  • Core self-evaluations mediate the association between leaders' facial
           appearance and their professional success: Adults' and children's
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Erik Dietl, Nicholas Rule, Gerhard Blickle Although the link between facial appearance and success is well established, the mechanisms responsible for this association have remained elusive. Evolutionary theory suggests that perceived leadership characteristics should be important for men's self-concept. Drawing on implicit leadership theory and evolutionary perspectives, we therefore examined the associations between first impressions based on facial appearance, core self-evaluations (CSEs), leadership role occupancy, and career success among a sample of working men. In Study 1, we found that CSEs mediated the relationship between individuals' facial appearance and measures of their success as leaders. In Study 2, we replicated these results using children's ratings of facial appearance, thus suggesting that basic properties of the targets' faces communicated their leadership ability more than the perceivers' life experience or acquired knowledge. These results suggest that people may use facial appearance as a diagnostic tool to determine the leadership ability of others.
  • Righting a wrong: Retaliation on a voodoo doll symbolizing an abusive
           supervisor restores justice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018Source: The Leadership QuarterlyAuthor(s): Lindie H. Liang, Douglas J. Brown, Huiwen Lian, Samuel Hanig, D. Lance Ferris, Lisa M. Keeping When a subordinate receives abusive treatment from a supervisor, a natural response is to retaliate against the supervisor. Although retaliation is dysfunctional and should be discouraged, we examine the potential functional role retaliation plays in terms of alleviating the negative consequences of abusive supervision on subordinate justice perceptions. Based on the notion that retaliation following mistreatment can restore justice for victims, we propose a model whereby retaliation following abusive supervision alleviates the negative effect of abusive supervision on subordinate justice perceptions. In two experimental studies (Study 1 and 2), whereby we manipulated abusive supervision and subordinate symbolic retaliation—in particular, harming a voodoo doll that represents the abusive supervisor—we found general support for our predictions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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