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The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Journal Prestige (SJR): 9.963
Citation Impact (citeScore): 7
Number of Followers: 209  
 
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ISSN (Print) 1473-3099
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3184 journals]
  • Essential metrics for high-quality reporting of neonatal sepsis research
           in low-resource settings
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Helena Rabie, Mark Cotton, Angela Dramowski
       
  • Scarlet fever changes its spots
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Stephan Brouwer, Jake A Lacey, Yuanhai You, Mark R Davies, Mark J Walker
       
  • Containing Contagion: The Politics of Disease Outbreaks in Southeast Asia,
           Sara E Davies. Johns Hopkins University Press (2019), 224, £18·88, ISBN:
           978-1421427393
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Tony Barnett
       
  • Do the right thing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Marco De Ambrogi
       
  • Correction to Lancet Infect Dis 2019; published online Aug 28.
           https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30421-9
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s):
       
  • WHO international standard for anti-rubella: learning from its application
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Sarah L Kempster, Neil Almond, Wayne Dimech, Liliane Grangeot-Keros, Daniela Huzly, Joseph Icenogle, Haja Sittana El Mubarak, Mick N Mulders, C Micha NüblingSummaryThe WHO international standard for anti-rubella was first established in the 1960s when clinical diagnostics were in their infancy. Since the endorsement of the first international standard for anti-rubella IgG (RUBI-1-94), new rubella vaccines have been developed and global coverage of rubella vaccination has increased. Methods used to measure concentrations of anti-rubella IgG have also evolved to rapid, high-throughput binding assays, which have replaced often cumbersome and highly technical functional assays. During this timeframe, the protective concentration of antibody was set at 10 IU/mL by extrapolation of functional assay correlates; however, the subpopulation of antibodies within a polyclonal serum that confer protection remained undefined. Anti-rubella assays have variable formats, including antigens used, such that the same clinical sample tested on different assays can report different values with potentially devastating consequences, such as recommending to terminate pregnancy. WHO convened a meeting of experts in the rubella field to discuss the use of RUBI-1-94 and the potential future role of this international standard. The main conclusions of this meeting questioned the appropriateness of 10 IU/mL as the cutoff for protection and acknowledged the continuing role of RUBI-1-94 as a reference preparation to address analytical sensitivity and assay variation.
       
  • Increased mortality in survivors of Ebola virus disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Hugues Fausther-Bovendo, Gary Kobinger
       
  • The Perfect Predator: A Scientist's Race to Save Her Husband from a Deadly
           Superbug: A Memoir, Steffanie Strathdee, Thomas Patterson, Teresa Baker.
           Hachette Books (2019), 352, £20, ISBN: 978-0316418089
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Robert Stirrups
       
  • Phase 3 trial of treating gonorrhoea with solithromycin
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 9Author(s): Prabhavathi Fernandes, J Carl Craft
       
  • Pronounced larva migrans with secondary MRSA infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 9Author(s): Astrid-Helene Ravn Jørgensen, Kian Zarchi
       
  • The evolving research agenda for paediatric tuberculosis infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 9Author(s): James A Seddon, Elizabeth Whittaker, Beate Kampmann, Deborah A Lewinsohn, Muhammad Osman, Anneke C Hesseling, Roxana Rustomjee, Farhana AmanullahSummaryFollowing exposure to tuberculosis and subsequent infection, children often progress to tuberculosis disease more rapidly than adults. And yet the natural history of tuberculosis in children, as a continuum from exposure to infection and then to disease, is poorly understood. Children are rarely diagnosed with tuberculosis infection in routine care in international settings and few receive tuberculosis infection treatment. In this Personal View, we review the most up-to-date knowledge in three areas of childhood tuberculosis infection—namely, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. We then outline what is missing in each of these three areas to generate a priority research agenda. Finally, we suggest potential study designs that might answer these questions. Understanding of pathophysiology could be improved through animal models, laboratory studies assessing the immunological responses of blood or respiratory samples to Mycobacterium spp in vitro, as well as investigating immune responses in children exposed to tuberculosis. Identification of children with sub-clinical disease and at high risk of progression to clinically overt disease, would allow treatment to be targeted at those most likely to benefit. Optimisation and discovery of novel treatments for tuberculosis infection in children should account for mechanisms of action of tuberculosis drugs, as well as child-specific factors including pharmacokinetics and appropriate formulations. To conduct these studies, a change in mindset is required, with a recognition that the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis infection in children is a necessary component in addressing the overall tuberculosis epidemic. Collaboration between stakeholders will be required and funding will need to increase, both for research and implementation. The consequences of inaction, however, will lead to further decades of children suffering from what should increasingly be recognised as a preventable disease.
       
  • Menstrual toxic shock syndrome: case report and systematic review of the
           literature
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 9Author(s): Selina Berger, Anika Kunerl, Stefan Wasmuth, Philip Tierno, Karoline Wagner, Jan BrüggerSummaryMenstrual toxic shock syndrome (mTSS) is a life-threatening disease caused by superantigen-producing Staphylococcus aureus. Incidence ranges from 0·03 to 0·50 cases per 100 000 people, with overall mortality around 8%. In this Grand Round, we present the case of a previously healthy 23-year-old menstruating woman who was diagnosed with mTSS after she presented at our hospital with a septic condition for the second time. The diagnosis was confirmed by fulfilment of the clinical criteria outlined by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; fever, rash, desquamation, hypotension, and multi-system involvement) as well as a nasal swab positive for the S aureus strain and presence of the gene encoding for toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). In the early 1980s, when mTSS was first described, use of tampons was considered the main risk factor. Today, the complex interplay between pathogenic factors of S aureus, immunological mechanisms of the host, and changes in the vaginal ecosystem during menstruation has broadened current understanding of the disease, and the CDC criteria have appreciable limitations in everyday clinical practice.
       
  • The effect of global change on mosquito-borne disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 9Author(s): Lydia H V Franklinos, Kate E Jones, David W Redding, Ibrahim AbubakarSummaryMore than 80% of the global population is at risk of a vector-borne disease, with mosquito-borne diseases being the largest contributor to human vector-borne disease burden. Although many global processes, such as land-use and socioeconomic change, are thought to affect mosquito-borne disease dynamics, research to date has strongly focused on the role of climate change. Here, we show, through a review of contemporary modelling studies, that no consensus on how future changes in climatic conditions will impact mosquito-borne diseases exists, possibly due to interacting effects of other global change processes, which are often excluded from analyses. We conclude that research should not focus solely on the role of climate change but instead consider growing evidence for additional factors that modulate disease risk. Furthermore, future research should adopt new technologies, including developments in remote sensing and system dynamics modelling techniques, to enable a better understanding and mitigation of mosquito-borne diseases in a changing world.
       
  • Johan Willem Mouton
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 9Author(s): Talha Burki
       
  • Research brief
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 9Author(s): Sean Cleghorn
       
  • Infectious disease surveillance update
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 9Author(s): Ruth Zwizwai
       
  • Dolutegravir becomes first choice for HIV
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 9Author(s): Susan Rahimi
       
  • 15 years of the ECDC
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 9Author(s): Talha Burki
       
  • Should use of online photographs be exempt from ethical guidelines'
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 9Author(s): Jenell Stewart, Peter DiCampo
       
  • Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae with low chlorhexidine
           susceptibility
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 9Author(s): Claudia Stein, Szilvia Vincze, Frank Kipp, Oliwia Makarewicz, Sascha Al Dahouk, Mathias W Pletz
       
  • Bloodstream infections and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in
           South Korea
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 9Author(s): Eun-Jeong Yoon, Dokyun Kim, Seok Hoon Jeong
       
  • Value of observational data for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 9Author(s): Carly A Rodriguez, Carole D Mitnick, Molly F Franke
       
  • Typhoid Vi-conjugate vaccine for outbreak control in Zimbabwe
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 9Author(s): Ioana D Olaru, Sekesai Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Nicholas Feasey, Rashida A Ferrand, Katharina Kranzer
       
  • Culture-negative cryptococcal meningitis
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 9Author(s): Kenneth Ssebambulidde, Caleb Skipper, Joshua Rhein
       
  • Efficacy of live oral rotavirus vaccines
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 9Author(s): Bo Zhou, Wenquan Niu
       
  • More medicines alone cannot ensure the treatment of neglected tropical
           diseases
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 9Author(s): Goylette F Chami, Donald A P BundySummaryNeglected tropical diseases afflict more than 1 billion of the world's poorest people. Pharmaceutical donations of preventive chemotherapy for neglected tropical diseases enable the largest en masse treatment campaigns globally with respect to the number of people targeted for treatment. However, the blanket distribution of medicines at no cost to individuals in need of treatment does not guarantee that those individuals are treated. In this Personal View, we aim to examine the next steps that need to be taken towards ensuring equitable treatment access, including health system integration and the role of endemic countries in ensuring medicines are delivered to patients. We argue that the expansion of medicine donation programmes and the development of new medicines are not the primary solutions to sustaining and expanding the growth of neglected tropical disease programmes. Treatment is often not verified by a medical professional, independent surveyor, or national programme officer. Additionally, access to medicines might not be equitable across at-risk populations, and treatment targets for disease control remain largely unmet within many endemic countries. To enable equitable access and efficient use of existing medicines, research is needed now on how best to integrate the treatment of neglected tropical diseases into local health systems. A comprehensive approach should be used, which combines mass drug administration with on-demand access to treatment. Increased commitment by endemic countries, when possible, around the ownership of treatment campaigns is essential to improve access to medicines for neglected tropical diseases.
       
  • Scrutinising Lyme disease in the UK
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 9Author(s): The Lancet Infectious Diseases
       
  • Pulmonary cryptococcosis mimicking lung cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 9Author(s): Masaya Taniwaki, Masahiro Yamasaki, Nobuhisa Ishikawa, Kazuma Kawamoto, Noboru Hattori
       
  • Enriching the antibiotic armamentarium for acute bacterial skin and skin
           structure infections
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Matteo Bassetti, Elda Righi
       
  • Disseminated sporotrichosis following iatrogenic immunosuppression for
           suspected pyoderma gangrenosum
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Marissa White, La'Tonzia Adams, Casey Phan, Gulsun Erdag, Marissa Totten, Richard Lee, Xuelian Lu, Seema Mehta, Lloyd S Miller, Sean X ZhangSummarySporotrichosis is an infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii and related species that often arises from traumatic inoculation of inhabited soil and organic debris into skin. The infection is usually limited to the skin in immunocompetent patients, usually as lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis. Accurate diagnosis rests on clinical data and culture, and might be facilitated by biopsy identification of suppurative and granulomatous inflammation with fungal elements. In this Grand Round, we present a dramatic case of cutaneous sporotrichosis initially presented with an atypical large ulcer without associated lymphocutaneous spread, clinically mimicking pyoderma gangrenosum, and subsequently progressed to disseminated sporotrichosis in the setting of iatrogenic immunosuppression. We further review the clinical features, risk factors, and treatment of these disseminated sporotrichosis cases, and discuss the need for improved awareness of this fungus' potential link to cause disseminated and invasive fungal infections.
       
  • Effectiveness of pre-entry active tuberculosis and post-entry latent
           tuberculosis screening in new entrants to the UK: a retrospective,
           population-based cohort study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Luis C Berrocal-Almanza, Ross Harris, Maeve K Lalor, Morris C Muzyamba, John Were, Anne-Marie O'Connell, Adil Mirza, Onn-Min Kon, Ajit Lalvani, Dominik ZennerSummaryBackgroundEvaluating interventions that might lead to a reduction in tuberculosis in high-income countries with a low incidence of the disease is key to accelerate progress towards its elimination. In such countries, migrants are known to contribute a large proportion of tuberculosis cases to the burden. We assessed the effectiveness of screening for active tuberculosis before entry to the UK and for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) post-entry for reduction of tuberculosis in new-entrant migrants to the UK. Additionally, we investigated the effect of access to primary care on tuberculosis incidence in this population.MethodsWe did a retrospective, population-based cohort study of migrants from 66 countries who were negative for active tuberculosis at pre-entry screening between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2014, and eligible for LTBI screening. We used record linkage to track their first contact with primary care, uptake of LTBI screening, and development of active tuberculosis in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. To assess the effectiveness of the pre-entry screening programme, we identified a control group of migrants who were not screened for active tuberculosis using the specific code for new entrants to the UK registering in primary care within the National Health Service patient registration data system. Our primary outcome was development of active tuberculosis notified to the National Enhanced Tuberculosis Surveillance System.FindingsOur cohort comprised 224 234 migrants who were screened for active tuberculosis before entry to the UK and a control group of 118 738 migrants who were not. 103 990 (50%) migrants who were screened for active tuberculosis registered in primary care; all individuals in the control group were registered in primary care. 1828 tuberculosis cases were identified during the cohort time, of which 31 were prevalent. There were 26 incident active tuberculosis cases in migrants with no evidence of primary care registration, and 1771 cases in the entire cohort of migrants who registered in primary care (n=222 728), giving an incidence rate of 174 (95% CI 166–182) per 100 000 person-years. 672 (1%) of 103 990 migrants who were screened for active tuberculosis went on to develop tuberculosis compared with 1099 (1%) of 118 738 not screened for active tuberculosis (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1·49, 95% CI 1·33–1·67; p
       
  • Tuberculosis testing and migrant health
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Martin Gulliford, Aphra Garner-Purkis
       
  • Correction to Lancet Infect Dis 2019; published online Aug 6.
           https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30310-X
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s):
       
  • Non-inferiority versus superiority trial design for new antibiotics in an
           era of high antimicrobial resistance: the case for post-marketing,
           adaptive randomised controlled trials
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Simone Lanini, John P A Ioannidis, Francesco Vairo, Michel Pletschette, Gina Portella, Virginia Di Bari, Alessia Mammone, Raffaella Pisapia, Stefano Merler, Boniface Nguhuni, Martin Langer, Antonino Di Caro, Sarah J L Edwards, Nicola Petrosillo, Alimuddin Zumla, Giuseppe IppolitoSummaryAntimicrobial resistance is one of the most important threats to global health security. A range of Gram-negative bacteria associated with high morbidity and mortality are now resistant to almost all available antibiotics. In this context of urgency to develop novel drugs, new antibiotics for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (namely, ceftazidime-avibactam, plazomicin, and meropenem-vaborbactam) have been approved by regulatory authorities based on non-inferiority trials that provided no direct evidence of their efficacy against multidrug-resistant bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Burkholderia cepacia, and Acinetobacter baumannii. The use of non-inferiority and superiority trials, and selection of appropriate and optimal study designs, remains a major challenge in the development, registration, and post-marketing implementation of new antibiotics. Using an example of the development process of ceftazidime-avibactam, we propose a strategy for a new research framework based on adaptive randomised clinical trials. The operational research strategy has the aim of assessing the efficacy of new antibiotics in special groups of patients, such as those infected with multidrug-resistant bacteria, who were not included in earlier phase studies, and for whom it is important to establish an appropriate standard of care.
       
  • Simplified control measures for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriacae'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Jean-Christophe Lucet, Jean-Ralph Zahar
       
  • Contact precautions in single-bed or multiple-bed rooms for patients with
           extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Dutch
           hospitals: a cluster-randomised, crossover, non-inferiority study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Marjolein F Q Kluytmans-van den Bergh, Patricia C J Bruijning-Verhagen, Christina M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Els I G B de Brauwer, Anton G M Buiting, Bram M Diederen, Erika P M van Elzakker, Alex W Friedrich, Joost Hopman, Nashwan al Naiemi, John W A Rossen, Gijs J H M Ruijs, Paul H M Savelkoul, Carlo Verhulst, Margreet C Vos, Andreas Voss, Marc J M Bonten, Jan A J W Kluytmans, Marc Bonten, Martin BootsmaSummaryBackgroundUse of single-bed rooms for control of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae is under debate; the added value when applying contact precautions has not been shown. We aimed to assess whether an isolation strategy of contact precautions in a multiple-bed room was non-inferior to a strategy of contact precautions in a single-bed room for preventing transmission of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae.MethodsWe did a cluster-randomised, crossover, non-inferiority study on medical and surgical wards of 16 Dutch hospitals. During two consecutive study periods, either contact precautions in a single-bed room or contact precautions in a multiple-bed room were applied as the preferred isolation strategy for patients with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae cultured from a routine clinical sample (index patients). Eligible index patients were aged 18 years or older, had no strict indication for barrier precautions in a single-bed room, had a culture result reported within 7 days of culture and before discharge, and had no wardmate known to be colonised or infected with an ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolate of the same bacterial species with a similar antibiogram. Hospitals were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio by computer to one of two sequences of isolation strategies, stratified by university or non-university hospital. Allocation was masked for laboratory technicians who assessed the outcomes but not for patients, treating doctors, and infection-control practitioners enrolling index patients. The primary outcome was transmission of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae to wardmates, which was defined as rectal carriage of an ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolate that was clonally related to the index patient's isolate in at least one wardmate. The primary analysis was done in the per-protocol population, which included patients who were adherent to the assigned room type. A 10% non-inferiority margin for the risk difference was used to assess non-inferiority. This study is registered with Nederlands Trialregister, NTR2799.Findings16 hospitals were randomised, eight to each sequence of isolation strategies. All hospitals randomised to the sequence single-bed room then multiple-bed room and five of eight hospitals randomised to the sequence multiple-bed room then single-bed room completed both study periods and were analysed. From April 24, 2011, to Feb 27, 2014, 1652 index patients and 12 875 wardmates were assessed for eligibility. Of those, 693 index patients and 9527 wardmates were enrolled and 463 index patients and 7093 wardmates were included in the per-protocol population. Transmission of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae to at least one wardmate was identified for 11 (4%) of 275 index patients during the single-bed room strategy period and for 14 (7%) of 188 index patients during the multiple-bed room strategy period (crude risk difference 3·4%, 90% CI −0·3 to 7·1).InterpretationFor patients with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae cultured from a routine clinical sample, an isolation strategy of contact precautions in a multiple-bed room was non-inferior to a strategy of contact precautions in a single-bed room for preventing transmission of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Non-inferiority of the multiple-bed room strategy might change the current single-bed room preference for isolation of patients with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and, thus, broaden infection-control options for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in daily clinical practice.FundingNetherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development.
       
  • Improving the cascade of global tuberculosis care: moving from the
           “what” to the “how” of quality improvement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Bruce D Agins, Daniel J Ikeda, Michael J A Reid, Eric Goosby, Madhukar Pai, Adithya CattamanchiSummaryTuberculosis is preventable, treatable, and curable, yet it has the highest mortality rate of infectious diseases worldwide. Over the past decade, services to prevent, screen, diagnose, and treat tuberculosis have been developed and scaled up globally, but progress to end the disease as a public health threat has been slow, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. In these settings, low-quality tuberculosis prevention, diagnostic, and treatment services frustrate efforts to translate use of existing tools, approaches, and treatment regimens into improved individual and public health outcomes. Increasingly sophisticated methods have been used to identify gaps in quality of tuberculosis care, but inadequate work has been done to apply these findings to activities that generate population-level improvements. In this Personal View, we contend that shifting the focus from the “what” to the “how” of quality improvement will require National Tuberculosis Programmes to change the way they organise, use data, implement, and respond to the needs and preferences of people with tuberculosis and at-risk communities.
       
  • Sales reps in India push unnecessary antibiotics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Madlen Davies, Rahul Meesaraganda, Ben Stockton
       
  • Improving the estimation of the global burden of antimicrobial resistant
           infections
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Direk Limmathurotsakul, Susanna Dunachie, Keiji Fukuda, Nicholas A Feasey, Iruka N Okeke, Alison H Holmes, Catrin E Moore, Christiane Dolecek, H Rogier van Doorn, Nandini Shetty, Alan D Lopez, Sharon J Peacock, Surveillance and Epidemiology of Drug Resistant Infections Consortium (SEDRIC)SummaryEstimating the global burden of disease from infections caused by pathogens that have acquired antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is essential for resource allocation and to inform AMR action plans at national and global levels. However, the scarcity of robust and accepted methods to determine burden is widely acknowledged. In this Personal View, we discuss the underlying assumptions, characteristics, limitations, and comparability of the approaches used to quantify mortality from AMR bacterial infections. We show that the global burdens of AMR estimated in previous studies are not comparable because of their different methodological approaches, assumptions, and data used to generate the estimates. The analytical frameworks from previous studies are inadequate, and we conclude that a new approach to the estimation of deaths caused by AMR infection is needed. The innovation of a new approach will require the development of mechanisms to systematically collect a clinical dataset of substantial breadth and quality to support the accurate assessment of burden, combined with decision-making and resource allocation for interventions against AMR. We define key actions required and call for innovative thinking and solutions to address these problems.
       
  • Correction to Lancet Infect Dis 2019; 19: 802–03
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s):
       
  • Intravenous ceftriaxone at home versus intravenous flucloxacillin in
           hospital for children with cellulitis: a cost-effectiveness analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Laila F Ibrahim, Li Huang, Sandy M Hopper, Kim Dalziel, Franz E Babl, Penelope A BryantSummaryBackgroundOutpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy after hospital admission is increasingly popular, but its use to avoid admission to hospital altogether by treating patients wholly as outpatients remains uncommon in children. One reason for the low use of treatment at home is the scarcity of evidence of its cost-effectiveness. In this planned follow-up analysis of the Cellulitis at Home or Inpatient in Children from the Emergency Department (CHOICE) trial, we aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of an admission avoidance pathway, in which children were treated at home, compared with standard hospital care for the intravenous treatment of moderate or severe cellulitis.MethodsWe did a cost-effectiveness analysis to compare home treatment with intravenous ceftriaxone versus hospital treatment with intravenous flucloxacillin in children aged 6 months to 18 years who had presented to the emergency department at The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, with moderate or severe uncomplicated cellulitis. We included costs from two sources: institutional costs at a patient level and expenses incurred by families. We measured effectiveness with quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), which we derived from the Child Health Utility 9D questionnaire, and a clinical outcome of treatment failure, which was the primary outcome of the CHOICE trial. We planned to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, defined as the difference between groups in total cost divided by the difference between groups in effectiveness. The CHOICE trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02334124.FindingsWe included 180 children who comprised the per-protocol population in the CHOICE trial: 89 children in the home group and 91 children in the hospital group. The institutional cost per patient per episode was significantly lower in the home group than in the hospital group (AUS$1965 vs $3775; p
       
  • Cost-effectiveness of outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy for
           children with cellulitis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Raymond Oppong, Shahela Kodabuckus
       
  • Under the Big Tree: Extraordinary Stories from the Movement to End
           Neglected Tropical Diseases, Ellen Agler, Mojie Crigler. Johns Hopkins
           University Press (2019), 240, £20·50, ISBN: 978-1421427232
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Chris Wortley
       
  • Unspeakable: the truth about HIV-tainted blood in Canada
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Márcia Martinho Costa
       
  • First genital chlamydia vaccine enters in-human clinical trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Taylor B Poston, Toni Darville
       
  • Ebola in eastern DRC
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Pierre E Rollin
       
  • Herpes zoster in people who are immunocompromised: what are the options
           for prevention'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Charlotte Warren-Gash, Judith Breuer
       
  • Correction to Lancet Infect Dis 2019; 19: 812
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s):
       
  • Varicella zoster virus vaccine in patients with haematological
           malignancies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Per Ljungman
       
  • Modelling the importation risk of measles during the Hajj
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 8Author(s): Eduard Massad, Annika B Wilder-Smith, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Ziad A Memish
       
  • Herpes simplex virus infection presenting as stroke-like symptoms with
           atypical MRI findings
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 8Author(s): Camilla N Clark, Nader Khandanpour, Anthony C Pereira
       
  • Standing on the shoulders of giants: two centuries of struggle against
           meningococcal disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 8Author(s): Pere Domingo, Virginia Pomar, Albert Mauri, Nicolau BarquetSummaryMeningococcal disease was first clinically characterised by Gaspard Vieusseux in 1805, and its causative agent was identified by Anton Weichselbaum in 1887, who named it Diplococcus intracellularis menigitidis. From the beginning, the disease was dreaded because of its epidemic nature, predilection for previously healthy children and adolescents, and high mortality. In the last decade of the 19th century, the concept of serum therapy for toxin-related bacterial diseases was identified. This concept was applied to meningococcal disease therapy, in an independent way, by Wilhelm Kolle, August von Wasserman, and Georg Jochmann in Germany, and Simon Flexner in the USA, resulting in the first successful approach for the treatment of meningococcal disease. During the first three decades of the 20th century, serum therapy was the standard treatment for meningococcal disease. With the advent of sulphamides first and then antibiotics, serum therapy was abandoned. The great challenges that infectious diseases medicine is facing and the awaiting menaces in the future in terms of increasing antibiotic resistance, emergence of new pathogens, and re-emergence of old ones without effective therapy, make passive immunotherapy a promising tool. Acknowledging the achievements of our predecessors might teach us some lessons to bring light to our future.
       
  • Microbial evolutionary medicine: from theory to clinical practice
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 8Author(s): Sandra B Andersen, B Jesse Shapiro, Christina Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Marjon G J de VosSummaryMedicine and clinical microbiology have traditionally attempted to identify and eliminate the agents that cause disease. However, this traditional approach is becoming inadequate for dealing with a changing disease landscape. Major challenges to human health are non-communicable chronic diseases, often driven by altered immunity and inflammation, and communicable infections from agents which harbour antibiotic resistance. This Review focuses on the so-called evolutionary medicine framework, to study how microbial communities influence human health. The evolutionary medicine framework aims to predict and manipulate microbial effects on human health by integrating ecology, evolutionary biology, microbiology, bioinformatics, and clinical expertise. We focus on the potential of evolutionary medicine to address three key challenges: detecting microbial transmission, predicting antimicrobial resistance, and understanding microbe–microbe and human–microbe interactions in health and disease, in the context of the microbiome.
       
  • Chlorhexidine for prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract
           infections: the totality of evidence – Authors' reply
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 8Author(s): Brett G Mitchell, Allen C Cheng, Oyebola Fasugba, Anne Gardner, Nicholas Graves, Jane Koerner, Peter Collignon
       
  • Chlorhexidine for prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract
           infections: the totality of evidence
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 8Author(s): Patompong Ungprasert, Visanu Thamlikitkul
       
  • Risk factors associated with revision for prosthetic joint infection after
           knee replacement – Authors' reply
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 8Author(s): Erik Lenguerrand, Michael R Whitehouse, Ashley W Blom
       
  • Risk factors associated with revision for prosthetic joint infection after
           knee replacement
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 8Author(s): Ze-Yu Luo, Duan Wang, Ze-Yu Huang, Hao-Yang Wang, Ling-Li Li, Zong-Ke Zhou
       
  • The UK's pandemic influenza research portfolio: a model for future
           research on emerging infections
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 8Author(s): Colin R Simpson, Dan Beever, Kirsty Challen, Daniela De Angelis, Ellen Fragaszy, Steve Goodacre, Andrew Hayward, Wei Shen Lim, G James Rubin, Malcolm G Semple, Marian Knight, NIHR hibernated influenza studies collaborative groupSummaryThe 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic was responsible for considerable global morbidity and mortality. In 2009, several research studies in the UK were rapidly funded and activated for clinical and public health actions. However, some studies were too late for their results to have an early and substantial effect on clinical care, because of the time required to call for research proposals, assess, fund, and set up the projects. In recognition of these inherent delays, a portfolio of projects was funded by the National Institute for Health Research in 2012. These studies have now been set up (ie, with relevant permissions and arrangements made for data collection) and pilot tested where relevant. All studies are now on standby awaiting activation in the event of a pandemic being declared. In this Personal View, we describe the projects that were set up, the challenges of putting these projects into a maintenance-only state, and ongoing activities to maintain readiness for activation, and discuss how to plan research for a range of major incidents.
       
  • A pragmatic trial in bone and joint infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 8Author(s): Markus Zeitlinger
       
  • A new point-of-care test to diagnose tuberculosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 8Author(s): Paul K Drain, Karen A Heichman, Douglas Wilson
       
  • HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: ongoing challenges and new
           opportunities
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 8Author(s): Mark W Tenforde, Joseph N Jarvis
       
  • Rinderpest, smallpox, and the imperative of destruction
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 8Author(s): The Lancet Infectious Diseases
       
  • Listeria endophthalmitis in a patient receiving immunomodulatory therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 19, Issue 8Author(s): Chuen-Yen Lau, Seble G Kassaye
       
  • Devising a strategy for prevention of malaria in pregnant women in the
           Asia Pacific
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): R Matthew Chico, Jorge Cano
       
  • First clinical trial of a MERS coronavirus DNA vaccine
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): In-Kyu Yoon, Jerome H Kim
       
  • Accelerated evolution and spread of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium
           falciparum takes down the latest first-line antimalarial drug in southeast
           Asia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Didier Ménard, David A Fidock
       
  • Epidemic Malaria and Hunger in Colonial Punjab: Weakened by Want, Sheila
           Zurbrigg. Routledge, India (2018), 470, £115·00, ISBN: 978-0815385110
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 July 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Sanjeet Bagcchi
       
  • The unanticipated benefits of protecting young children from malaria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Lauren M Cohee, Miriam K Laufer
       
  • Use of reverse genetics to inform Ebola outbreak responses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Robert W Cross, Thomas W Geisbert
       
  • Malaria vaccination and rebound malaria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Alassane Dicko, Brian Greenwood
       
  • Reducing the melioidosis burden: public health, chronic disease
           prevention, or improved case management'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Katherine B Gibney, Allen C Cheng
       
  • Emergence of human monkeypox in west Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Giovanni Rezza
       
  • The burden of latent multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Alberto L Garcia-Basteiro, Helen E Jenkins, Moleboleng Rangaka
       
  • Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever: test early with ROTEM'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Ecaterina Scarlatescu, Marcus D Lance
       
  • Ebola in your living room
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): George Pappas
       
  • Anal cancer risk: HPV-based cervical screening programmes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Ulrike Wieland, Alexander Kreuter
       
  • Solithromycin for the treatment of drug-resistant gonorrhoea
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2019Source: The Lancet Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Henry J C de Vries, Maarten F Schim-van der Loeff
       
 
 
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