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Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.722
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 193  
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ISSN (Print) 0021-9355 - ISSN (Online) 1535-1386
Published by Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery Homepage  [4 journals]
  • What’s New in Adult Reconstructive Knee Surgery
    • Authors: Taunton; Michael J.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Effects of Virtual Exercise Rehabilitation In-Home Therapy Compared with
           Traditional Care After Total Knee Arthroplasty: VERITAS, a Randomized
           Controlled Trial
    • Authors: Prvu Bettger; Janet; Green, Cynthia L.; Holmes, DaJuanicia N.; Chokshi, Anang; Mather, Richard C. III; Hoch, Bryan T.; de Leon, Arthur J.; Aluisio, Frank; Seyler, Thorsten M.; Del Gaizo, Daniel J.; Chiavetta, John; Webb, Laura; Miller, Vincent; Smith, Joseph M.; Peterson, Eric D.
      Abstract: imageBackground: Financial burden for patients, providers, and payers can reduce access to physical therapy (PT) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a virtual PT program on health-care costs and clinical outcomes as compared with traditional care after TKA.Methods: At least 10 days before unilateral TKA, patients from 4 clinical sites were enrolled and randomized 1:1 to the virtual PT program (involving an avatar [digitally simulated] coach, in-home 3-dimensional biometrics, and telerehabilitation with remote clinician oversight by a physical therapist) or to traditional PT care in the home or outpatient clinic. The primary outcome was total health-care costs for the 12-week post-hospital period. Secondary (noninferiority) outcomes included 6 and 12-week Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS); 6-week knee extension, knee flexion, and gait speed; and 12-week safety measures (patient-reported falls, pain, and hospital readmissions). All outcomes were analyzed on a modified intent-to-treat basis.Results: Of 306 patients (mean age, 65 years; 62.5% women) who were randomized from November 2016 to November 2017, 290 had TKA and 287 (including 143 in the virtual PT group and 144 in the usual care group) completed the trial. Virtual PT had lower costs at 12 weeks after discharge than usual care (median, $1,050 compared with $2,805; p < 0.001). Mean costs were $2,745 lower for virtual PT patients. Virtual PT patients had fewer rehospitalizations than the usual care group (12 compared with 30; p = 0.007). Virtual PT was noninferior to usual PT in terms of the KOOS at 6 weeks (difference, 0.77; 90% confidence interval [CI], −1.68 to 3.23) and 12 weeks (difference, −2.33; 90% CI, −4.98 to 0.31). Virtual PT was also noninferior to usual care at 6 weeks in terms of knee extension, knee flexion, and gait speed and at 12 weeks in terms of pain and hospital readmissions. Falls were reported by 19.4% of virtual PT patients and 14.6% of usual care patients (difference, 4.83%; 90% CI, −2.60 to 12.25).Conclusions: Relative to traditional home or clinic PT, virtual PT with telerehabilitation for skilled clinical oversight significantly lowered 3-month health-care costs after TKA while providing similar effectiveness. These findings have important implications for patients, health systems, and payers. Virtual PT with clinical oversight should be considered for patients managed with TKA.Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for
      Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • The Development of a Standardized Pathway for Outpatient Ambulatory
           Fracture Surgery: To Admit or Not to Admit
    • Authors: Wolfstadt; Jesse I.; Wayment, Lisa; Koyle, Martin A.; Backstein, David J.; Ward, Sarah E.
      Abstract: imageBackground: Increased scrutiny of health-care costs and inpatient length of stay has resulted in many orthopaedic procedures transitioning to outpatient settings. Recent studies have supported the safety and efficiency of outpatient fracture procedures. The aim of the present study was to reduce unnecessary inpatient hospitalizations for healthy patients awaiting surgical treatment of a fracture by 80% by June 30, 2017, with a focus on timely, efficient, and patient-centered care.Methods: The study design was a time series using statistical process control methodology. Baseline data from October 2014 to June 2016 were compared with the intervention period from July 2016 to December 2018. The Model for Improvement was used as the framework for developing and implementing interventions. The main interventions were a policy change to allow booking of outpatient urgent-room cases, education for patients and nurses, and the development of a standardized outpatient pathway.Results: One hundred and eighty-seven patients during the pre-intervention period and 308 patients during the intervention period were eligible for the ambulatory pathway. The percentage of patients managed as outpatients increased from 1.6% pre-intervention to 89.1% post-intervention. The length of stay was reduced from 2.8 to 0.2 days, a decrease of 94.0%. Patient satisfaction remained high, and there were no safety concerns while patients waited at home for the surgical procedure.Conclusions: The outpatient fracture pathway vastly improved the efficiency and timeliness of care and reduced health-care costs. A patient-centered culture and support from hospital administration were integral in producing sustainable improvement.Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for
      Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Conventional Versus Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Primary Total Knee
           Replacement: A Comparison of Revision Rates Using Data from the National
           Joint Registry for England, Wales, and Northern Ireland
    • Authors: Partridge; Thomas C.J.; Baker, Paul N.; Jameson, Simon S.; Mason, James; Reed, Mike R.; Deehan, David J.
      Abstract: imageBackground: There is evidence to support the use of highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. However, the benefits for those undergoing total knee arthroplasty are uncertain, with conflicting reports based on previous cohort analyses. The purpose of the present study was to compare the revision rates following primary total knee arthroplasty with use of HXLPE as compared with conventional polyethylene (CPE) using data from the National Joint Registry (NJR) for England, Wales and Northern Ireland.Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of primary total knee arthroplasties recorded in the NJR from 2003 to 2014. Cobalt-chromium (CoCr)-CPE and CoCr-HXLPE bearing surfaces were compared using all-cause revision, aseptic revision, and septic revision as end points. Survival analyses were conducted using rates per 100 years observed, Kaplan-Meier survival estimates, and Cox regression hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, body mass index (BMI), lead surgeon grade, and implant constraint. Secondary analyses compared the most commonly used HXLPEs (Zimmer Prolong, DePuy XLK, and Stryker X3) against CPE for the 3 most common total knee arthroplasty systems (NexGen, PFC Sigma, and Triathlon).Results: In the present study of 550,658 total knee arthroplasties, the unadjusted aseptic revision rates were significantly lower following procedures performed with CPE (n = 513,744) as compared with those performed with HXLPE total knee replacements (n = 36,914) (0.29 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.28 to 0.30] compared to 0.38 [95% CI, 0.35 to 0.42], p < 0.01). The 10-year HR associated with CPE was 0.4 (95% CI, 0.1 to 0.8, p = 0.03). There were no significant differences between the adjusted revision rates of HXPLE compared with CPE in individual analyses of the most common total knee arthroplasty systems. However, for the subset of patients who were both 35 kg/m2, the “second-generation” Stryker X3 HXLPE demonstrated significantly better survival than its respective CPE, with CPE having an HR of 2.6 (95% CI, 1.2 to 5.9) (p = 0.02).Conclusions: Alternative bearings are marketed as having improved wear properties over traditional CoCr-CPE. This registry-based analysis demonstrated no overall survival benefit of HXLPE after a maximum duration of follow-up of 12 years. Because of their increased cost, the routine use of HXLPE bearings may not be justified. However, they may have a role in specific “higher demand” groups such as patients 35 kg/m2.Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for
      Authors for a complete list of levels of evidence.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • An Ultra-Short Femoral Neck-Preserving Hip Prosthesis: A 2-Year Follow-up
           Study with Radiostereometric Analysis and Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry in a
           Stepwise Introduction
    • Authors: Christiansen; Janus D.; Ejaz, Ashir; Nielsen, Poul T.; Laursen, Mogens
      Abstract: imageBackground: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) with a diaphyseal stem may risk bone loss. In order to save proximal bone stock in young patients with a high activity level and a long life expectancy, the interest in short stems has evolved. The purpose of this prospective observational cohort study was to evaluate the fixation of, and bone remodeling around, the Primoris femoral neck-preserving hip implant.Methods: Fifty younger patients with end-stage osteoarthritis were managed with the Primoris hip implant. We evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and implant migration using radiostereometric analysis (RSA). A region-of-interest (ROI) protocol for 4 ROIs was applied to assess BMD. The association between BMD and migration was evaluated to determine the fixation of the Primoris implant and bone remodeling in the proximal part of the femur. Follow-up evaluation was performed at regular intervals from day 1 (baseline) until 24 months after surgery.Results: The major stem migrations were subsidence (Y axis; mean, 0.38 mm) at 6 weeks and varus tilt (rotation) (Z axis; mean, 0.93°) at 6 to 12 months. In ROI4 (the calcar area), a significant gain in bone was found with a mean difference of 4.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8% to 7.4%; p < 0.02) at 24 months postoperatively. Significant bone loss was found in ROI1 and ROI2, with a mean difference of −4.9% (95% CI, –7.4% to –2.4%; p = 0.0003) and −8.9% (95% CI, −11.5% to –6.2%; p = 0.0001), respectively. Linear regression and multivariate regression analysis showed a significant negative association between maximal total point motion and BMD (p = 0.02, R2 = 15%; and p < 0.05, R2 = 26%, respectively).Conclusions: The Primoris component showed satisfactory primary stability with promising results at the 24-month follow-up. DXA scans showed limited stress-shielding with the proximal loading pattern of the Primoris. Better bone quality was associated with less implant migration.Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for
      Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Anatomical Implications Regarding Femoral Nerve Palsy During a Direct
           Anterior Approach to Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Cadaveric Study
    • Authors: Yoshino; Kensuke; Nakamura, Junichi; Hagiwara, Shigeo; Suzuki, Takane; Kawasaki, Yohei; Ohtori, Seiji
      Abstract: imageBackground: Femoral nerve palsy is a serious neurological complication following total hip arthroplasty (THA) via a direct anterior approach. One hypothesis is that the nerve injury is caused by malpositioning of retractors over the anterior wall of the acetabulum. The purpose of this cadaveric study was to clarify the anatomical features of the femoral nerve around the anterior acetabular rim and the potential risk of nerve injury during a direct anterior approach to THA.Methods: We dissected 84 cadaveric hips from 44 formalin-embalmed cadavers. When the cadavers were supine, the iliopsoas muscle and the femoral nerve were exposed and the anterior joint capsule and labrum were resected. The measurement points were determined along the acetabular rim every 30°, and a reference line was drawn from the anterior superior iliac spine to the center of the acetabulum, with the intersection of the rim at 0°. The minimum distance to the femoral nerve margin was measured from 0° to 150° (6 points). Other anatomical structures were measured to determine their association with the distance of the shortest measurement points.Results: The mean minimum distances to the femoral nerve were 33.2 mm at 0°, 24.4 mm at 30°, 18.4 mm at 60°, 16.6 mm at 90°, 17.9 mm at 120°, and 23.2 mm at 150°, showing that the distance at 90° was the shortest (p < 0.001). The thickness of the iliopsoas muscle and the femoral length were positively associated with the distance to the femoral nerve at 90°.Conclusions: In this cadaveric study, the femoral nerve was within 16.6 to 33.2 mm of the acetabular rim at points from 0° to 150° of a line drawn from the anterior superior iliac spine. The nerve was closest to the rim at 90°, indicating that this is an area of high risk during retractor placement.Clinical Relevance: Retractor placement at 90° to the anterior acetabular rim should be avoided to reduce the risk of femoral nerve injury.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • The Lumbosacral Takeoff Angle Can Be Used to Predict the Postoperative
           Lumbar Cobb Angle Following Selective Thoracic Fusion in Patients with
           Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis
    • Authors: Bachmann; Keith R.; Lu, Edwin; Novicoff, Wendy M.; Newton, Peter O.; Abel, Mark F.; Buckland, Aaron; Samdani, Amer; Jain, Amit; Lonner, Baron; Yaszay, Burt; Reilly, Chris; Hedequist, Daniel; Clements, David; Miyanji, Firoz; Shufflebarger, Harry; Flynn, Jack; Asghar, Jahangir; Thiong, Jean Marc Mac; Pahys, Joshua; Harms, Juergen; Bachmann, Keith; Lenke, Larry; Glotzbecker, Michael; Kelly, Michael; Vitale, Michael; Marks, Michelle; Gupta, Munish; Fletcher, Nicholas; Cahill, Patrick; Sponseller, Paul; Gabos, Peter; Newton, Peter; Betz, Randal; Lehman, Ron; George, Stephen; Hwang, Steven; Shah, Suken; Errico, Tom; Upasani, Vidyadhar; on behalf of the Harms Study Group*
      Abstract: imageBackground: Selective fusion of double curves in patients with scoliosis is considered to spare fusion levels. In 2011, we studied the lumbosacral takeoff angle, defined as the angle between the center-sacral vertical line and a line through the centra of S1, L5, and L4. The lumbosacral takeoff angle was shown to moderately correlate with the lumbar Cobb angle, and a predictive equation was developed to predict the lumbar Cobb angle after selective fusions. The purposes of the present study were to validate that equation in a separate cohort and to assess differences in outcomes following selective and nonselective fusion.Methods: Patients with Lenke 1B, 1C, 3B, or 3C curve patterns undergoing fusion (both selective and nonselective) with pedicle screw constructs and a minimum of 2 years of follow-up were included. Selective fusion was defined as a lowest level of fixation cephalad to or at the apex of the lumbar curve. To validate the previously derived equation, we used this data set and analysis of variance to check for differences between the actual and calculated postoperative lumbar Cobb angles. Pearson correlation, multiple linear regression, and t tests were used to explore relationships and differences between the selective and nonselective fusion groups.Results: The mean calculated postoperative lumbar Cobb angle (and standard deviation) (22.35° ± 3.82°) was not significantly different from the actual postoperative lumbar Cobb angle (21.08° ± 7.75°), with an average model error of −1.268° (95% confidence interval, −2.649° to 0.112°). The preoperative lumbar Cobb angle was larger in patients with deformities that were chosen for nonselective fusion (50.2° versus 38.9°; p < 0.001). Performing selective fusion resulted in a 3.5° correction of the lumbosacral takeoff angle (p < 0.001), whereas nonselective fusion resulted in a 9.3° correction (p < 0.001).Conclusions: The lumbosacral takeoff angle can be used to predict the residual lumbar Cobb angle and may be used by surgeons to aid in the decision between selective and nonselective fusion. The change in the lumbosacral takeoff angle following selective fusion is small. Improvement in the lumbosacral takeoff angle and coronal balance is greater in association with nonselective fusion.Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for
      Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Extendable Endoprostheses in Skeletally Immature Patients: A Study of 124
           Children Surviving More Than 10 Years After Resection of Bone Sarcomas
    • Authors: Tsuda; Yusuke; Tsoi, Kim; Stevenson, Jonathan D.; Fujiwara, Tomohiro; Tillman, Roger; Abudu, Adesegun
      Abstract: imageBackground: Extendable endoprostheses are used to reconstruct segmental defects following resection of bone sarcomas in skeletally immature patients. However, there remains a paucity of studies with regard to long-term outcomes.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 124 skeletally immature children who underwent an extendable endoprosthetic replacement and survived more than 10 years after the surgical procedures. Anatomical sites included the distal part of the femur (n = 66), the proximal part of the femur (n = 13), the proximal part of the tibia (n = 29), and the proximal part of the humerus (n = 16). Complications and implant survival were classified according to the modified Henderson criteria.Results: The mean follow-up was 24 years (range, 10 to 36 years). The mean age at the time of the extendable endoprosthetic replacement was 9 years (range, 2 to 16 years). All patients had reached skeletal maturity at the last follow-up. The 10-year endoprosthetic failure-free survival rate was 28%. A total of 243 complications occurred in 90% of patients; these complications were most frequently related to soft-tissue problems (27% of complications). The incidence of and cumulative survival with respect to each failure mode varied between anatomical sites. Soft-tissue failures occurred most frequently in the proximal part of the femur (77%; p = 0.003), and the distal part of the femur was the most frequent site of aseptic loosening (52%; p = 0.014) and structural failure (55%; p = 0.001). Excluding lengthening procedures, 105 patients (85%) underwent an additional surgical procedure, with a mean of 2.7 surgical procedures per patient (range, 0 to 7 surgical procedures per patient). The mean limb-length discrepancy at the final follow-up was 1 cm (range, 0 to 9 cm). Limb salvage was achieved in 113 patients (91%). The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society functional score (the percentage of a total score of 30 points) was 82% (range, 40% to 100%) in 115 patients with available data at the last follow-up.Conclusions: Extendable endoprostheses are associated with a high complication rate and a need for additional surgical procedures over time. Despite this, successful limb salvage with reasonable function and small limb-length discrepancy is achievable in the long term. Our study provides benchmark data for individual anatomical sites for further improvements of outcomes.Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for
      Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • American Orthopaedic Association’s (AOA) Council of Orthopaedic
           Residency Directors (CORD) Summer 2018 Conference: Top Abstracts
    • Authors: Weistroffer; Joseph K.; Patt, Joshua C.; on behalf of the CORD/Academics Committee
      Abstract: This article is a continuation of the collaboration between the American Orthopaedic Association’s (AOA) Council of Orthopaedic Residency Directors (CORD) and JBJS to highlight selected abstracts presented at the CORD Conference held at the AOA’s annual national meeting in June 2018. These abstracts are representative in advancing CORD’s purpose and mission:“The American Orthopaedic Association Council of Orthopaedic Residency Directors (CORD) program strives to recognize best practices in orthopaedic residency education and fellowship education based on ACGME [Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education]-defined essential knowledge and skills in each of the residency education competency areas. CORD provides a forum for academic orthopaedic leaders to exchange ideas, discuss solutions to challenges, and find ways to effectively teach residents in orthopaedic programs.”
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Local Adjuvant Substances Following Curettage of Bone Tumors
    • Authors: Bickels; Jacob; Campanacci, Domenico A.
      Abstract: image»Benign and low-grade malignant tumors of bone that require intralesional excision by means of curettage are often also treated by a variety of local adjuvant substances for the destruction of any microscopic disease remaining within the tumoral cavity.»Concerns about the efficacy and associated morbidity of these adjuvants have often been raised, and the indication for their use is still being debated.»The superiority of a single adjuvant has not been documented.»Polymethylmethacrylate is not considered a local adjuvant to curettage but rather a mechanical reinforcement of the tumoral cavity.»Meticulous tumor curettage and high-speed burring through wide exposure of the tumoral cavity is apparently the key factor in efficacious local tumor control.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Evidence-Based Medicine: Boom or Bust in Orthopaedic Trauma'
    • Authors: Harvey; Edward J.; Martineau, Paul A.; Schemitsch, Emil; Nowak, Lauren L.; Agel, Julie
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Effectiveness of
           Cognitive Training for Anterior Approach Total Hip Arthroplasty
    • Authors: Logishetty; Kartik; Gofton, Wade T.; Rudran, Branavan; Beaulé, Paul E.; Gupte, Chinmay M.; Cobb, Justin P.
      Abstract: imageBackground: For total hip arthroplasty (THA), cognitive training prior to performing real surgery may be an effective adjunct alongside simulation to shorten the learning curve. This study sought to create a cognitive training tool (CTT) to perform anterior approach (AA)-THA, which was validated by expert surgeons, and test its use as a training tool compared with conventional material.Methods: We employed a modified Delphi method with 4 expert surgeons from 3 international centers of excellence. Surgeons were independently observed performing THA before undergoing semistructured cognitive task analysis (CTA) and before completing successive rounds of surveys until a consensus was reached. Thirty-six surgical residents (postgraduate year [PGY]-1 through PGY-4) were randomized to cognitive training or training with a standard operation manual with surgical videos before performing a simulated AA-THA.Results: The consensus CTA defined THA in 11 phases, in which were embedded 46 basic steps, 36 decision points, and 42 critical errors and linked strategies. This CTA was mapped onto an open-access web-based CTT. Surgeons who prepared with the CTT performed a simulated THA 35% more quickly (time, mean 28 versus 38 minutes) with 69% fewer errors in instrument selection (mean 29 versus 49 instances), and required 92% fewer prompts (mean 13 versus 25 instances). They were more accurate in acetabular cup orientation (inclination error, mean 8° versus 10°; anteversion error, mean 14° versus 22°).Conclusions: This validated CTT for arthroplasty provides structure for competency-based learning. It is more effective at preparing orthopaedic trainees for a complex procedure than conventional materials, as well as for learning sequence, instrumentation utilization, and motor skills.Clinical Relevance: Cognitive training combines education on decision-making, knowledge, and technical skill. It is an inexpensive technique to teach surgeons to perform hip arthroplasty and is more effective than current preparation methods.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Polyethylene in TKA: The Paths of Improvement: Commentary on an article by
           Thomas C.J. Partridge, MBBS, MRCS, et al.: “Conventional Versus Highly
           Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Primary Total Knee Replacement. A Comparison
           of Revision Rates Using Data from the National Joint Registry for England,
           Wales, and Northern Ireland”
    • Authors: Nizard; Rémy Simon
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Are Short-Stem Femoral Components a Viable Option in Total Hip
           Arthroplasty': Commentary on an article by Janus D. Christiansen, MD,
           PhD, et al.: “An Ultra-Short Femoral Neck-Preserving Hip Prosthesis. A
           2-Year Follow-up Study with Radiostereometric Analysis and Dual X-Ray
           Absorptiometry in a Stepwise Introduction”
    • Authors: Ries; Michael D.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
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