Journal Cover The Electronic Library
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0264-0473
   Published by Emerald Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Editorial
    • Pages: 190 - 192
      Abstract: The Electronic Library, Volume 36, Issue 2, Page 190-192, April 2018.

      Citation: The Electronic Library
      PubDate: 2018-04-09T01:21:51Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EL-01-2018-0010
  • E-readiness assessment of academic libraries: a case study in Iran
    • Pages: 193 - 207
      Abstract: The Electronic Library, Volume 36, Issue 2, Page 193-207, April 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess the e-readiness status of libraries in the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in terms of four dimensions – human resources, electronical infrastructure, network services and programs and enhancers of the networked world. Design/methodology/approach The study population consists of 11 libraries of the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, including the central library and 10 faculty libraries. The data collection instrument is a questionnaire prepared by the researchers that has been designed on the basis of the “e-readiness assessment of Iranian academic libraries model”. Depending on the respondents there are three parts to the questionnaire: questionnaire for managers, staff and information and communication technology (ICT) officials. Their reliability and validity have been proved. Findings The libraries of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences had an average to high status in terms of “human resources” with a score of 2.32, “electronic infrastructure” with a score of 2.48, “network services and programs” with a score of 2.09 and “networked world enhancers” with a score of 2.37 out of 4. In total, these libraries had an average to high status in terms of e-readiness, with a score of 2.29. Originality/value The findings of this study can help the library administrators and officials of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences to plan improvements to the situation of ICT.
      Citation: The Electronic Library
      PubDate: 2018-04-09T01:21:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EL-11-2016-0254
  • Are electronic theses and dissertations (still) grey literature in the
           digital age' A FAIR debate
    • Pages: 208 - 219
      Abstract: The Electronic Library, Volume 36, Issue 2, Page 208-219, April 2018.
      Purpose While distribution channels of theses and dissertations have changed significantly in the digital age, they are generally still considered grey literature. This paper aims to argue the applicability of the concept of grey to electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs). Design/methodology/approach The paper is presented as a debate between two contradictory opinions on the application of the grey literature concept to ETDs. Findings The paper provides a definition of grey literature and then discusses its application to electronic dissertations and theses. In particular, it assesses the aspects of acquisition, quality, access and preservation. Some arguments highlight the “grey nature” of ETDs, such as the limited access via institutional and other repositories. Other arguments (e.g. the development of ETD infrastructures and the quality of ETDs) question this grey approach to ETDs. The paper concludes that “greyness” remains a challenge for ETDs, a problem waiting for solution on the way to open science through the application of the FAIR (findability, accessibility, interoperability reusability) principles. Research limitations implications Library and information science (LIS) professionals and scientists should be careful about using the concept of grey literature. The debate will help academic librarians and LIS researchers to better understand the nature of grey literature and its coverage, here in the field of ETDs. Originality/value Some definitions from the print age may not be applicable to the digital age. The contradictory character of the debate helps clarify the similitudes and differences of grey literature and ETDs and highlights the challenge of ETDs, in particular, their accessibility and findability.
      Citation: The Electronic Library
      PubDate: 2018-04-09T01:22:20Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EL-02-2017-0039
  • Considering social information in constructing research topic maps
    • Pages: 220 - 236
      Abstract: The Electronic Library, Volume 36, Issue 2, Page 220-236, April 2018.
      Purpose In academic work, it is important to identify a specific domain of research. Many researchers may look to conference issues to determine interesting or new topics. Furthermore, conference issues can help researchers identify current research trends in their field and learn about cutting-edge developments in their area of specialization. However, so much conference information is published online that it can be difficult to navigate and analyze in a meaningful or productive way. Hence, the use of knowledge management (KM) could be a way to resolve these issues. In KM, ontology is widely adopted, but most ontology construction methods do not consider social information between target users. Therefore, this study aims to propose a novel method of constructing research topic maps using an open directory project (ODP) and social information. Design/methodology/approach The approach is to incorporate conference information (i.e. title, keywords and abstract) as sources and to consider the ways in which social information automatically produces research topic maps. The methodology can be divided into four modules: data collection, element extraction, social information analysis and visualization. The data collection module collects the required conference data from the internet and performs pre-processing. Then, the element extraction module extracts topics, associations and other basic elements of topic maps while considering social information. Finally, the results will be shown in the visualization module for researchers to browse and search. Findings The results of this study propose three main findings. First, creating topic maps with the ODP category information can help capture a richer set of classification associations. Second, social information should be considered when constructing topic maps. This study includes the relationship among different authors and topics to support information in social networks. By considering social information, such as co-authorship/collaborator, this method helps researchers find research topics that are unfamiliar but interesting or potential cooperative opportunities in the future. Third, this study presents topic maps that show a clear and simple pathway in interested domain knowledge. Research limitations implications First, this study analyzes and collects conference information, including the titles, keywords and abstracts of conference papers, so the data set must include all of the abovementioned information. Second, social information only analyzes co-authorship associations (collabship associations); other social information could be extracted in the future study. Third, this study only analyzes the associations between topics. The intensity of associations is not discussed in the study. Originality/value The study will have a great impact on learned societies because it bridges the gap between theory and practice. The study is useful for researchers who want to know which conferences are related to their research. Moreover, social networks can help researchers expand and diversify their research.
      Citation: The Electronic Library
      PubDate: 2018-04-09T01:21:53Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EL-10-2016-0230
  • Instructor and peer influence on college student use and perceptions of
    • Pages: 237 - 257
      Abstract: The Electronic Library, Volume 36, Issue 2, Page 237-257, April 2018.
      Purpose This study aims to investigate how undergraduate students are influenced by instructors and peers in the ways that they use and think about Wikipedia for academic work. It examines the positive (encouraging the use of Wikipedia) and negative (discouraging the use of Wikipedia) influences of others and how these affect student behavior and attitudes. Design/methodology/approach Sixteen undergraduates participated in two meetings each with the principal investigator, each meeting consisting of a structured interview and a brief survey. Recorded interviews were analyzed by the investigator for patterns to compare participants’ responses. Findings Participants were more frequently and strongly influenced by instructors than by peers about Wikipedia, and this influence was for the most part perceived to be negative. However, the ways in which student behaviors and attitudes changed in response to this influence varied. Three categories or “influence types” emerged in the ways influence was manifested: receptive, independent and conflicted. Practical implications The findings of this study will aid instructors of undergraduate students by describing the likely reactions of those students to various ways of talking about Wikipedia. This information can help inform methods for teaching different kinds of students about the website. Originality/value Previous studies have shown how students use Wikipedia, as well as the attitudes of faculty toward Wikipedia. This study serves to bridge the gap between these areas, providing insight into how faculty and classmates’ attitudes influence student use of Wikipedia.
      Citation: The Electronic Library
      PubDate: 2018-04-09T01:22:01Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EL-02-2017-0034
  • An infodemiology study on breast cancer in Iran
    • Pages: 258 - 269
      Abstract: The Electronic Library, Volume 36, Issue 2, Page 258-269, April 2018.
      Purpose According to the studies conducted in Iran, the breast cancer is the most frequent type of cancer among women. This study aimed to explore the state of health information supply and demand on breast cancer among Iranian medical researchers and Iranian Web users from 2011 to 2015. Design/methodology/approach A mixed method research is conducted in this study. In qualitative part, a focus group interview is applied to the users to identify their selected keywords searched for breast cancer in Google. The collected data are analyzed using Open Code software. In quantitative part, data are synthesized using the R software in two parts. First, users’ internet information-seeking behavior (ISB) is analyzed using the Google Trends outputs from 2011 to 2015. Second, the scientific publication behavior of Iranian breast cancer specialists are surveyed using PubMed during the period of the study. Findings The results show that the search volume index of preferred keywords on breast cancer has increased from 4,119 in 2011 to 4,772 in 2015. Also, the findings reveal that Iranian scholars had 873 scientific papers on breast cancer in PubMed from 2011 to 2015. There was a significant and positive relationship between Iranian ISB in the Google Trends and SPB of Iranian scholars on breast cancer in PubMed. Research limitations/implications This study investigates only the state of health information supply and demand in PubMed and Google Trends and not additional databases often used for medical studies and treatment. Originality/value This study provides a road map for health policymakers in Iran to direct the breast cancer studies.
      Citation: The Electronic Library
      PubDate: 2018-04-09T01:21:58Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EL-03-2017-0062
  • Measurement and analysis of collaboration ability
    • Pages: 270 - 285
      Abstract: The Electronic Library, Volume 36, Issue 2, Page 270-285, April 2018.
      Purpose Collaboration is an important way for scientific research. It attracts a large number of researchers, and forms a series of measurement evaluation indicators. The purpose of this study further enriches the evaluation system of collaboration and provides new indicators to measure collaboration ability at author level in order to identify the most appropriate potential partners. Design/methodology/approach The papers published during the period 2006-2015 and collected from Web of Science Core Collection in library and information science (LIS) are regarded as data source. And it defines and measures the collaborative rate, collaborative breadth and collaborative depth at author level. Findings The authors’ research shows that collaboration is an important way in the scientific research activities in LIS. Unfortunately, most author’s collaborative breadth and the collaborative depth are lower than mean. Therefore, the author’s scope and stability of collaboration is further strengthened in future.
      Authors can identify the most appropriate potential partners according to author’s research purpose and the region of the collaborative breadth – the collaborative depth. Originality/value It further enriches the evaluation system of collaboration and provides new indicators to evaluate collaboration ability at author level.
      Authors can identify the most appropriate potential partners according to author’s collaboration ability.
      Citation: The Electronic Library
      PubDate: 2018-04-09T01:22:00Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EL-10-2016-0229
  • Use of hashtags to retrieve information on the web
    • Pages: 286 - 304
      Abstract: The Electronic Library, Volume 36, Issue 2, Page 286-304, April 2018.
      Purpose This paper aims to find out how people use hashtags as a medium of information retrieval and dissemination, and how they are used in social media tools, such as Instagram. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative question estimated the participants’ use of the hashtags during the workshop. Statistical data of the participants and their posts were collected from social network analysis tools. The posts that included the workshop’s designated hashtags were retrieved, recorded, coded and analysed to collect qualitative data. Findings In total, 74 (46 per cent) participants used the workshop’s hashtags to share posts, the retrieval of the hashtags declined by time and Google search engine retrieved the maximum results. It was found that a hashtag would be common when associated with descriptors, and that its use depends on its popularity, followers and its survival time. Finally, hashtags connect people, allow them to express their enthusiasm to reveal common interests and networks them through social media tools such as Instagram. Research limitations/implications The research limitations were in relation to the participants’ demographic information, the non-identification of their gender and hashtags being misspelt. Practical implications The research project summarises the experiences that social media has made connecting easier through the right use of hashtags by providing 24/7 free feedback, the possibility to exchange ideas and by their involvement in promoting and organising events. It also indicates interaction among people sharing the same interest by retrieving subject-based hashtags. Originality/value When retrieving information related to hashtags, it is recommended that multi-retrieval systems, social media tools and search engines should be consulted and not depend on a solo system or tool. Future research is recommended in search for a multi-retrieval social media and search engine tool that standardises the use of hashtags and will retrieve information from different platforms.
      Citation: The Electronic Library
      PubDate: 2018-04-09T01:21:36Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EL-01-2017-0011
  • Networking women translators in Spain (1868-1936) and their presence in
           the Mnemosyne digital library
    • Pages: 305 - 318
      Abstract: The Electronic Library, Volume 36, Issue 2, Page 305-318, April 2018.
      Purpose Studies of Spanish literature during the late nineteenth century and the first one-third of the twentieth century are evolving from research on canonical writers to the study of “odd and forgotten” authors, themes and genres during what is now called the Other Silver Age. This paper aims to focus on the work undertaken in the field of literary translation by the women writers of this period. Design/methodology/approach Mnemosyne is an open-access digital library that allows data modeling for specific collections (women translators, science fiction, etc.) in support of research and teaching on Silver Age Spain. The first version of the library is stored on the server at the Universidad Complutense Library, and it is linked to the collections of the digital library HathiTrust and Biblioteca Nacional de España. Behind the scenes of Mnemosyne’s public presence online, the project is developing with the aid of the tool Clavy which is a rich internet application that is able to import, preserve and edit information from big data collections of digital objects so as to build bridges between institutional and digital repositories and create collections of enriched digital content. See: Findings The Collection Women Translators in Spain (1868-1936) inside Mnemosyne selects, categorizes and makes visible in digital format women translators and literary translations that belong to a forgotten repertoire to allow the historical review of the period. The digital collection of Spanish Women Translators pretends to be a field of international experimentation for the creation of interoperable semantic networks through which a large group of scholars could generate innovative research and theoretical reading models for literary texts. See: Research limitations/implications Clavy also provides a basic system of data visualization, edition and navigation. There are plans to integrate @Note, a collaborative annotation application, into Clavy. These two computational tools were developed by the software languages research group ILSA[] at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Practical implications Its been followed NEWW Women Writers’ categories concerning biographical categories as successful standard for ensuring interoperability in the near future: children, marital status, social class, religion, profession and other activities, financial aspects, memberships. See:'documento=208369 Social implications These women also showed their interest in the writings of contemporary women by translating their works into Spanish or glossing foreign ideas about how the modern woman should be, think or behave. This digital collection shows the first steps of the intellectual women in the South of Europe. Originality/value To incorporate specially tailored metadata for the women translators’ collection into Mnemosyne, it will be necessary to use of Clavy’s extensibility to account for the particularities of the women translators’ collection. This is where prior knowledge of this literature’s historical and cultural context proves indispensable. In particular, the specific metadata model for the women translators’ collection incorporates elements that reflect the literary, historical and cultural characteristics of the collections.
      Citation: The Electronic Library
      PubDate: 2018-04-09T01:21:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EL-02-2017-0026
  • An author co-citation analysis of 37 years of iMetrics
    • Pages: 319 - 337
      Abstract: The Electronic Library, Volume 36, Issue 2, Page 319-337, April 2018.
      Purpose This research aims to examine the intellectual structure of iMetrics through author co-citation analysis. Design/methodology/approach This research uses common techniques in bibliometrics and social network analysis. It analyses 5,944 records from the Web of Science in the field of iMetrics that are published between 1978 and 2014. Findings Findings indicated that researchers including “Garfield”, “Egghe”, “Glanzel”, “Leydesdorff” and “Price” have received many co-citations. The author co-citation analysis in iMetrics resulted in eight thematic clusters, including “theoretical foundations and citation analysis”, “sociology of science”, “science mapping and visualization”, “network analysis”, “classic laws of bibliometrics”, “webometrics”, “technometrics” and “miscellaneous”. “Theoretical foundations and citation analysis” is the biggest cluster which comprises 59 authors. The results suggest the crucial role of price medallists in shaping the intellectual structure of knowledge in iMetrics. Originality/value Extracting the patterns embedded in the knowledge structure of iMetrics studies provides beneficial information for both researchers and policymakers. This research study is valuable that used an appropriate set of records regarding both recall and precision. Furthermore, this study helps us better understand the characteristics of iMetrics, its subject areas, and the prominent authors in those areas.
      Citation: The Electronic Library
      PubDate: 2018-04-09T01:21:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EL-09-2016-0191
  • Self-reliance of the Koha acquisition module for managing procurement of
           printed books
    • Pages: 338 - 349
      Abstract: The Electronic Library, Volume 36, Issue 2, Page 338-349, April 2018.
      Purpose The automation of library acquisition is a balancing act which involves dealing with institutional procurement policies, administration, vendors, finance, books, internal audit, reporting and, above all, tracking. Few studies have dealt with the operational difficulties of the transition from manual to automated acquisition using Koha. The objective of this paper is to investigate the self-reliance of Koha in handling all stages of procurement, starting from suggestions to receiving an ordered title, and to discuss the constraints and difficulties faced during the process. Design/methodology/approach Based on internal documentation spanning a period of four years, the paper provides a first-hand account of the experience of the transition from manual to automated acquisition using Koha at the Indian Institute for Human Settlements (IIHS) Library, Bangalore. Findings The study reveals that Koha is partially self-reliant in an academic setup where acquisition is dynamic in nature; however, customizations can be made to make Koha self-reliant to a certain extent. Research limitations/implications The study is limited to the procurement of printed books using the acquisition module of Koha. Practical implications The paper provides an insight into the acquisition module of Koha and also explores how acquisition workflows and functions are interconnected and interdependent, which could help acquisition librarians to setup a basic framework and policies before transitioning from manual acquisition to Koha acquisition module. Originality/value Automated workflow cannot be tested in a short period of time. This case study is an output of observations of about four years, along with possible limitations, features and customization capabilities of Koha for acquiring printed books. This will help the librarian to better understand the Koha acquisition module workflow.
      Citation: The Electronic Library
      PubDate: 2018-04-09T01:21:47Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EL-12-2016-0263
  • Analysis and optimization of PDF-to-EPUB in the digital publishing process
    • Pages: 350 - 368
      Abstract: The Electronic Library, Volume 36, Issue 2, Page 350-368, April 2018.
      Purpose This paper aims to provide an optimization method of workflow for publishing houses and electronic book (e-book) studies in the field of digital publishing. Design/methodology/approach Based on the studies of publishing houses in Beijing, the present conversion workflow is illustrated using a functional modeling methodology. Then, the workflow is analyzed using 5W1H (why, who, what, where, when, how) methodology and optimized using ECRSI (eliminate, combine, rearrange, simplify and increase) principles. To validate the optimization effect, the workflow before and after optimization are generated and implemented by the ExtendSim® simulation software. Findings The simulation results show that under similar circumstances, both quantity and quality of the products are improved after optimization, which indicate that the optimization method is effective. Practical implications Electronic PUBlication (EPUB) has significant requirements to satisfy the needs of the mobile reading market and to earn increased profits, whereas some e-books are still preserved in a portable document format (PDF). This study results in the enhanced EPUB quality and production efficiency of the PDF-to-EPUB format conversion workflow in publishing houses. Publishing houses around the world can refer to this study to make a similar optimization when handling PDF-to-EPUB. Originality/value This research introduces the traditional industrial engineering analytical techniques to the workflow optimization of e-book conversion. Compared with the most of other methods used to optimize workflow, this method is simpler, more efficient and more suitable for e-book format conversion.
      Citation: The Electronic Library
      PubDate: 2018-04-09T01:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EL-11-2016-0247
  • Research on the application of SNS in university libraries
    • Pages: 369 - 386
      Abstract: The Electronic Library, Volume 36, Issue 2, Page 369-386, April 2018.
      Purpose This study aims to analyse the basic status of application of social networking sites (SNSs) in Chinese university libraries and explore the relationship between microblog and the output of scientific research achievements in universities. This study suggests methods for improving the efficiency of SNS use in university libraries and promotes scientific research achievements and social services in universities. Design/methodology/approach Online survey and statistical analysis were conducted to collect the number and types of SNSs used by 112 libraries in Chinese universities under the “211 project”. This study used microblog as an example and analysed the distribution of SNS use in different types of university libraries. Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to analyse the factors related to microblogs, such as number of followings, followers, posts and published articles. Findings SNSs changed the information utilization behaviour of users. Survey results show that an increasing number of university libraries are using SNSs. These sites are mainly microblogs and WeChat. The proportion of the number of SNSs applied by comprehensive universities and science and technology universities was higher than that of other types of universities. Results of multiple regression analysis using microblogs showed that the number of followers has a significantly positive effect on the number of published articles of the university. Research limitations/implications This study has three main limitations. First, data collection is incomplete, which easily causes the error of analysis results. Second, the overall status of SNS use in libraries is lacking in accurate understanding, which indicates limitations in terms of the analysis and conclusion. Finally, the research scope was narrow and only studied the situation of libraries using microblogs. Future research should focus on the data collection and sorting, make comparative studies of different periods of data, conduct cultural studies on the user usage perspective and conduct research on the application of different social network platforms in libraries. Practical implications The use of SNSs has brought new challenges and opportunities to university libraries because of rapid development of the internet and the scale of expansion microblogs. Moreover, microblogs have become an important platform of university libraries for self-promotion and marketing. This study proposes methods and measures for promoting the SNS popularity of university libraries, enhancing their content and increasing the role of SNSs in their interaction. Originality/value Statistical analysis was conducted to analyse the status of SNS use in university libraries and the data of SNS use in different types of universities. Effective measures were offered to address the issues found in the study. The results confirmed that the number of followers has a significantly positive effect on the number of published articles of the university, which could improve the enthusiasm of university libraries in using SNS, enhance the efficiency of information service and strengthen the use awareness of the teachers and students.
      Citation: The Electronic Library
      PubDate: 2018-04-09T01:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EL-05-2016-0120
  • Access to Scientific Research: Challenges Facing Communication in STM
    • Pages: 387 - 390
      Abstract: The Electronic Library, Volume 36, Issue 2, Page 387-390, April 2018.

      Citation: The Electronic Library
      PubDate: 2018-04-09T01:22:26Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EL-01-2018-0004
  • Factors affecting student use of Web-based services
    • Abstract: The Electronic Library, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The delivery of information services in higher education is increasingly relying on Web-based systems. The low adoption and underutilization of information systems have been major problems for developing countries such as Pakistan in terms of realizing their full benefits. This study aims to investigate factors affecting student use of Allama Iqbal Open University’s (AIOU) Web-based services by using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) from the perspective of Pakistani distance education. Design/methodology/approach This study has adopted quantitative research design with the UTAUT model as a theoretical framework. A self-completion structured questionnaire-based survey has been administered to 388 master’s level students, selected through systematic sampling from the target population. The response rate was 82 per cent (318). All statistical tests have been performed using IBM SPSS (version 20.0) and Process macro for SPSS. Findings Findings of the model’s hypotheses reveal that performance expectancy, effort expectancy and social influence are significant predictors of student behavioural intention to use AIOU Web-based services, whereas actual student use is dependent on facilitating conditions and student behavioural intention to use. The impact of moderating variables with respect to age, gender and experience did not influence the actual use of the Web services. However, the research model significantly measured (62.1 per cent) the actual use of AIOU Web-based services by the students. Research limitations/implications This study is delimited to the UTAUT model to investigate the phenomena. Besides this, the context of the study is the voluntary instead of mandatory usage of Web services. A study conducted in mandatory settings, in which students are bound to use Web services, may have different results. Originality/value This is the first attempt to apply the UTAUT model to investigate the factors affecting student use of Web-based services from the perspective of distance education and the findings prove strong support for the model.
      Citation: The Electronic Library
      PubDate: 2018-05-14T01:34:15Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EL-06-2016-0129
  • Geographical visualization of research collaborations of library science
           in China
    • Abstract: The Electronic Library, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to visualize the collaboration network among regions in library science (LS) in China. Using various methods and tools of social network analysis and geographical visualization, results were obtained, showing the structure and patterns of research collaborations in topological and geographical views, as well as the geographical distributions of contribution. Design/methodology/approach The sample includes all studies published in the top journal in library science in China from 2006 to 2015. First, co-occurrence data representing collaborations among regions was extracted from author affiliations. Second, the topological network of collaboration was generated by applying social network analysis tools and descriptive statistics, network indicators of the collaboration network and research communities were calculated. Third, the topological network was projected into a geographical map with corresponding coordinates and distances using geographical tools. Finally, the topological network maps and the geographical maps were produced for visualization. Findings The levels of contribution are very unbalanced between regions, and overall research collaboration is low. Beijing, Hubei and several other areas are central and significant regions in China; other regions are mostly connected with central ones through direct collaborations. Research collaborations in LS research in China are mostly distributed in the east and south of China, being centralized in the “Beijing–Hubei–Shanghai” triangle zone, as well as within the triangle’s extending zones. Finally, there are three distinct research communities that connect closely within themselves and loosely between them. The Beijing community is relatively centralized in geography, while other communities are scattered. Originality/value This study applied various methods and tools of social network analysis and geographical mapping analysis to reveal the collaboration structure and patterns among regions in LS research in China. Visualized maps in topological and geographical views help shed new light on research efforts.
      Citation: The Electronic Library
      PubDate: 2018-05-14T01:30:36Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EL-12-2016-0266
  • Barriers to digitization in university libraries of Pakistan: a developing
           country‚Äôs perspective
    • Abstract: The Electronic Library, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify barriers that are hindering digitization initiatives in university libraries of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach The study opted a mixed-methods research design based on quantitative (QUAN) and qualitative (QUAL) strands by using a survey research method. The subjects of the study were central libraries of the universities (both public and private sector) of Pakistan. A self-administered structured questionnaire was used for QUAN data collection in the QUAN strand. In the QUAL phase, in-depth interviews of purposely selected 25 library experts from different parts of the country were conducted. Findings Meta-inferences were drawn from the findings of both QUAN and QUAL strands. Both of the research designs provided the requisite data to answer research questions of the study. The finding revealed the barriers which were hindering the digitization activities in university libraries of Pakistan. Originality/value The findings of the study are helpful for funding bodies, university libraries and university administration. The findings are also helpful for other developing countries with similar economic and/or social landscapes.
      Citation: The Electronic Library
      PubDate: 2018-05-14T01:29:21Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EL-01-2017-0012
  • Domain-specific readability measures to improve information retrieval in
           the Persian language
    • Abstract: The Electronic Library, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The degree to which a text is considered readable depends on the capability of the reader. This assumption puts different information retrieval systems at the risk of retrieving unreadable or hard-to-be-read yet relevant documents for their users. This paper aims to examine the potential use of concept-based readability measures along with classic measures for re-ranking search results in information retrieval systems, specifically in the Persian language. Design/methodology/approach Flesch–Dayani as a classic readability measure along with document scope (DS) and document cohesion (DC) as domain-specific measures have been applied for scoring the retrieved documents from Google (181 documents) and the RICeST database (215 documents) in the field of computer science and information technology (IT). The re-ranked result has been compared with the ranking of potential users regarding their readability. Findings The results show that there is a difference among subcategories of the computer science and IT field according to their readability and understandability. This study also shows that it is possible to develop a hybrid score based on DS and DC measures and, among all four applied scores in re-ranking the documents, the re-ranked list of documents based on the DSDC score shows correlation with re-ranking of the participants in both groups. Practical implications The findings of this study would foster a new option in re-ranking search results based on their difficulty for experts and non-experts in different fields. Originality/value The findings and the two-mode re-ranking model proposed in this paper along with its primary focus on domain-specific readability in the Persian language would help Web search engines and online databases in further refining the search results in pursuit of retrieving useful texts for users with differing expertise.
      Citation: The Electronic Library
      PubDate: 2018-05-14T01:28:22Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EL-01-2017-0007
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