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Journal Cover Science
  [SJR: 13.217]   [H-I: 915]   [3888 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
   Published by AAAS Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Better performance under stress
    • Authors: Osborne I. S.
      Pages: 749
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Engineering
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.748-i
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Comment on "Maxima in the thermodynamic response and correlation functions
           of deeply supercooled water"
    • Authors: Caupin, F; Holten, V, Qiu, C, Guillerm, E, Wilke, M, Frenz, M, Teixeira, J, Soper, A. K.
      Abstract: Kim et al. recently measured the structure factor of deeply supercooled water droplets (Reports, 22 December 2017, p. 1589). We raise several concerns about their data analysis and interpretation. In our opinion, the reported data do not lead to clear conclusions about the origins of water’s anomalies.
      Keywords: Physics, Applied
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat1634
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Response to Comment on "Maxima in the thermodynamic response and
           correlation functions of deeply supercooled water"
    • Authors: Kim, K. H; Späh, A, Pathak, H, Perakis, F, Mariedahl, D, Amann-Winkel, K, Sellberg, J. A, Lee, J. H, Kim, S, Park, J, Nam, K. H, Katayama, T, Nilsson, A.
      Abstract: Caupin et al. have raised several issues regarding our recent paper on maxima in thermodynamic response and correlation functions in deeply supercooled water. We show that these issues can be addressed without affecting the conclusion of the paper.
      Keywords: Physics, Applied
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat1729
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • NextGen postdocs
    • Authors: Costello T. J.
      Pages: 689 - 689
      Keywords: Editorials
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau1303
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • News at a glance
    • Pages: 690 - 692
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.690
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Drilling threatens ancient Chaco landscape
    • Authors: Reese A.
      Pages: 693 - 694
      Keywords: Anthropology, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.693
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Vaccine trial launched to stop Ebola
    • Authors: Cohen J.
      Pages: 694 - 695
      Keywords: Epidemiology, Medicine, Diseases, Virology
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.694
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • U.S. lawmakers float plan to regulate cultured meat
    • Authors: Servick K.
      Pages: 695 - 695
      Keywords: Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.695
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • High altitude may have driven short stature in Peruvians
    • Authors: Pennisi E.
      Pages: 696 - 696
      Keywords: Anthropology, Genetics, Latin American News
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.696
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Neutron stars' quark matter not so strange
    • Authors: Cho A.
      Pages: 697 - 697
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.697
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • China's moon mission is set to probe cosmic dark ages
    • Authors: Clery D.
      Pages: 698 - 698
      Keywords: Astronomy, Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.698
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Boycott highlights AI's publishing rebellion
    • Authors: Hutson M.
      Pages: 699 - 699
      Keywords: Engineering, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.699
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Hadza on the brink
    • Authors: Gibbons A.
      Pages: 700 - 704
      Keywords: Evolution, Sociology
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.700
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Little is lost
    • Authors: Eichler A.
      Pages: 706 - 707
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat1983
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Chemical storage of renewable energy
    • Authors: Ager, J. W; Lapkin, A. A.
      Pages: 707 - 708
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat7918
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Mapping kidney cellular complexity
    • Authors: Humphreys B. D.
      Pages: 709 - 710
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat7271
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Ribosomes on the night shift
    • Authors: Nofal, M; Rabinowitz, J. D.
      Pages: 710 - 711
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat7121
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • How to achieve a successful biaxial marriage
    • Authors: Poulin P.
      Pages: 712 - 713
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat7399
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • BRD4 and MYC--clarifying regulatory specificity
    • Authors: Sabo, A; Amati, B.
      Pages: 713 - 714
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat6664
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Narrowing pathways to a sustainable future
    • Authors: Midgley G.
      Pages: 714 - 715
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat6671
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Improving support for young biomedical scientists
    • Authors: Alberts, B; Hyman, T, Pickett, C. L, Tilghman, S, Varmus, H.
      Pages: 716 - 718
      Keywords: Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar8405
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • The rise and fall of Theranos
    • Authors: Couzin-Frankel J.
      Pages: 720 - 720
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat7771
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Einstein goes east
    • Authors: Robinson A.
      Pages: 722 - 722
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat4718
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Beware silent waning of shark protection
    • Authors: Cramp, J. E; Simpfendorfer, C. A, Pressey, R. L.
      Pages: 723 - 723
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat3089
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Marine protected areas: Just for show'
    • Authors: Magris, R. A; Pressey, R. L.
      Pages: 723 - 724
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat6215
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Sharing chemistry with Maori students
    • Authors: Roxburgh M.
      Pages: 724 - 724
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat6040
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Meeting resistance
    • Authors: Ash C.
      Pages: 726 - 727
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.726
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Wicked evolution: Can we address the sociobiological dilemma of pesticide
           resistance'
    • Authors: Gould, F; Brown, Z. S, Kuzma, J.
      Pages: 728 - 732
      Abstract: Resistance to insecticides and herbicides has cost billions of U.S. dollars in the agricultural sector and could result in millions of lives lost to insect-vectored diseases. We mostly continue to use pesticides as if resistance is a temporary issue that will be addressed by commercialization of new pesticides with novel modes of action. However, current evidence suggests that insect and weed evolution may outstrip our ability to replace outmoded chemicals and other control mechanisms. To avoid this outcome, we must address the mix of ecological, genetic, economic, and sociopolitical factors that prevent implementation of sustainable pest management practices. We offer an ambitious proposition.
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar3780
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Genomic insights into the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant
           bacterial pathogens
    • Authors: Baker, S; Thomson, N, Weill, F.-X, Holt, K. E.
      Pages: 733 - 738
      Abstract: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has been vital for revealing the rapid temporal and spatial evolution of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacterial pathogens. Some antimicrobial-resistant pathogens have outpaced us, with untreatable infections appearing in hospitals and the community. However, WGS has additionally provided us with enough knowledge to initiate countermeasures. Although we cannot stop bacterial adaptation, the predictability of many evolutionary processes in AMR bacteria offers us an opportunity to channel them using new control strategies. Furthermore, by using WGS for coordinating surveillance and to create a more fundamental understanding of the outcome of antimicrobial treatment and AMR mechanisms, we can use current and future antimicrobials more effectively and aim to extend their longevity.
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar3777
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Worldwide emergence of resistance to antifungal drugs challenges human
           health and food security
    • Authors: Fisher, M. C; Hawkins, N. J, Sanglard, D, Gurr, S. J.
      Pages: 739 - 742
      Abstract: The recent rate of emergence of pathogenic fungi that are resistant to the limited number of commonly used antifungal agents is unprecedented. The azoles, for example, are used not only for human and animal health care and crop protection but also in antifouling coatings and timber preservation. The ubiquity and multiple uses of azoles have hastened the independent evolution of resistance in many environments. One consequence is an increasing risk in human health care from naturally occurring opportunistic fungal pathogens that have acquired resistance to this broad class of chemicals. To avoid a global collapse in our ability to control fungal infections and to avoid critical failures in medicine and food security, we must improve our stewardship of extant chemicals, promote new antifungal discovery, and leverage emerging technologies for alternative solutions.
      Keywords: Botany, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aap7999
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Prospects for harnessing biocide resistance for bioremediation and
           detoxification
    • Authors: Atashgahi, S; Sanchez-Andrea, I, Heipieper, H. J, van der Meer, J. R, Stams, A. J. M, Smidt, H.
      Pages: 743 - 746
      Abstract: Prokaryotes in natural environments respond rapidly to high concentrations of chemicals and physical stresses. Exposure to anthropogenic toxic substances—such as oil, chlorinated solvents, or antibiotics—favors the evolution of resistant phenotypes, some of which can use contaminants as an exclusive carbon source or as electron donors and acceptors. Microorganisms similarly adapt to extreme pH, metal, or osmotic stress. The metabolic plasticity of prokaryotes can thus be harnessed for bioremediation and can be exploited in a variety of ways, ranging from stimulated natural attenuation to bioaugmentation and from wastewater treatment to habitat restoration.
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar3778
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Protected yet pressured
    • Authors: Vignieri S.
      Pages: 748 - 748
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.748-a
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Mycobacteria and metabolism
    • Authors: Fogg C. N.
      Pages: 748 - 748
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.748-b
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • SnSe doped a different way
    • Authors: Grocholski B.
      Pages: 748 - 748
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.748-c
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • A very basic pathway from CO2 to ethylene
    • Authors: Yeston J.
      Pages: 748 - 748
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.748-d
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • One and a half degrees on biodiversity
    • Authors: Sugden A. M.
      Pages: 748 - 749
      Keywords: Atmospheric Science, Ecology
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.748-e
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Benign colonization of the gut
    • Authors: Ash C.
      Pages: 748 - 749
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.748-f
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Profiling transcription--a SLAM dunk
    • Authors: Kiberstis P. A.
      Pages: 748 - 749
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.748-g
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Incentives drive disclosure
    • Authors: Benson P. J.
      Pages: 748 - 749
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.748-h
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Touring the kidney, cell by cell
    • Authors: Kiberstis P. A.
      Pages: 748 - 750
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.748-j
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • A selective autophagy receptor identified
    • Authors: Mao S.
      Pages: 748 - 750
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.748-k
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Finding order in twos
    • Authors: Lavine M. S.
      Pages: 748 - 750
      Keywords: Materials Science, Physics
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.748-l
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Plastic in the dark
    • Authors: Szuromi P.
      Pages: 748 - 750
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.748-m
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Fat, microRNAs, and liver disease
    • Authors: Ferrarelli L. K.
      Pages: 748 - 750
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.748-n
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Stroke therapy goes local
    • Authors: Maroso M.
      Pages: 748 - 750
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.748-o
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Taking the temperature of hot electrons
    • Authors: Stajic J.
      Pages: 748 - 750
      Keywords: Physics, Applied
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.748-p
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Plants work out which way is up
    • Authors: Hines P. J.
      Pages: 749 - 749
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.749-a
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Timing metabolism in human muscle
    • Authors: Purnell B. A.
      Pages: 749 - 750
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.749-b
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Access to oxygen minimum zones
    • Authors: Ash C.
      Pages: 749 - 750
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.749-c
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Tunable on-chip optical beam splitter
    • Authors: Osborne I. S.
      Pages: 749 - 750
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.749-d
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Watching magnetic atoms thermalize
    • Authors: Stajic J.
      Pages: 749 - 750
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.749-e
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • A pause in progress on air pollution
    • Authors: Smith H. J.
      Pages: 749 - 750
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.749-f
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Heating up suppresses appetite
    • Authors: Alderton G.
      Pages: 749 - 750
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.749-g
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • NUFIP1 is a ribosome receptor for starvation-induced ribophagy
    • Authors: Wyant, G. A; Abu-Remaileh, M, Frenkel, E. M, Laqtom, N. N, Dharamdasani, V, Lewis, C. A, Chan, S. H, Heinze, I, Ori, A, Sabatini, D. M.
      Pages: 751 - 758
      Abstract: The lysosome degrades and recycles macromolecules, signals to the master growth regulator mTORC1 [mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1], and is associated with human disease. We performed quantitative proteomic analyses of rapidly isolated lysosomes and found that nutrient levels and mTOR dynamically modulate the lysosomal proteome. Upon mTORC1 inhibition, NUFIP1 (nuclear fragile X mental retardation–interacting protein 1) redistributes from the nucleus to autophagosomes and lysosomes. Upon these conditions, NUFIP1 interacts with ribosomes and delivers them to autophagosomes by directly binding to microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3B). The starvation-induced degradation of ribosomes via autophagy (ribophagy) depends on the capacity of NUFIP1 to bind LC3B and promotes cell survival. We propose that NUFIP1 is a receptor for the selective autophagy of ribosomes.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar2663
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Single-cell transcriptomics of the mouse kidney reveals potential cellular
           targets of kidney disease
    • Authors: Park, J; Shrestha, R, Qiu, C, Kondo, A, Huang, S, Werth, M, Li, M, Barasch, J, Susztak, K.
      Pages: 758 - 763
      Abstract: Our understanding of kidney disease pathogenesis is limited by an incomplete molecular characterization of the cell types responsible for the organ’s multiple homeostatic functions. To help fill this knowledge gap, we characterized 57,979 cells from healthy mouse kidneys by using unbiased single-cell RNA sequencing. On the basis of gene expression patterns, we infer that inherited kidney diseases that arise from distinct genetic mutations but share the same phenotypic manifestation originate from the same differentiated cell type. We also found that the collecting duct in kidneys of adult mice generates a spectrum of cell types through a newly identified transitional cell. Computational cell trajectory analysis and in vivo lineage tracing revealed that intercalated cells and principal cells undergo transitions mediated by the Notch signaling pathway. In mouse and human kidney disease, these transitions were shifted toward a principal cell fate and were associated with metabolic acidosis.
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar2131
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Elastic strain engineering for ultralow mechanical dissipation
    • Authors: Ghadimi, A. H; Fedorov, S. A, Engelsen, N. J, Bereyhi, M. J, Schilling, R, Wilson, D. J, Kippenberg, T. J.
      Pages: 764 - 768
      Abstract: Extreme stresses can be produced in nanoscale structures; this feature has been used to realize enhanced materials properties, such as the high mobility of silicon in modern transistors. We show how nanoscale stress can be used to realize exceptionally low mechanical dissipation when combined with "soft-clamping"—a form of phononic engineering. Specifically, using a nonuniform phononic crystal pattern, we colocalize the strain and flexural motion of a free-standing silicon nitride nanobeam. Ringdown measurements at room temperature reveal string-like vibrational modes with quality (Q) factors as high as 800 million and Q x frequency exceeding 1015 hertz. These results illustrate a promising route for engineering ultracoherent nanomechanical devices.
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Engineering
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar6939
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Hybrid molecular-colloidal liquid crystals
    • Authors: Mundoor, H; Park, S, Senyuk, B, Wensink, H. H, Smalyukh, I. I.
      Pages: 768 - 771
      Abstract: Order and fluidity often coexist, with examples ranging from biological membranes to liquid crystals, but the symmetry of these soft-matter systems is typically higher than that of the constituent building blocks. We dispersed micrometer-long inorganic colloidal rods in a nematic liquid crystalline fluid of molecular rods. Both types of uniaxial building blocks, while freely diffusing, interact to form an orthorhombic nematic fluid, in which like-sized rods are roughly parallel to each other and the molecular ordering direction is orthogonal to that of colloidal rods. A coarse-grained model explains the experimental temperature-concentration phase diagram with one biaxial and two uniaxial nematic phases, as well as the orientational distributions of rods. Displaying properties of biaxial optical crystals, these hybrid molecular-colloidal fluids can be switched by electric and magnetic fields.
      Keywords: Materials Science, Physics
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aap9359
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Extraordinary plasticity of an inorganic semiconductor in darkness
    • Authors: Oshima, Y; Nakamura, A, Matsunaga, K.
      Pages: 772 - 774
      Abstract: Inorganic semiconductors generally tend to fail in a brittle manner. Here, we report that extraordinary "plasticity" can take place in an inorganic semiconductor if the deformation is carried out "in complete darkness." Room-temperature deformation tests of zinc sulfide (ZnS) were performed under varying light conditions. ZnS crystals immediately fractured when they deformed under light irradiation. In contrast, it was found that ZnS crystals can be plastically deformed up to a deformation strain of t = 45% in complete darkness. In addition, the optical bandgap of the deformed ZnS crystals was distinctly decreased after deformation. These results suggest that dislocations in ZnS become mobile in complete darkness and that multiplied dislocations can affect the optical bandgap over the whole crystal. Inorganic semiconductors are not necessarily intrinsically brittle.
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar6035
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Imaging of nonlocal hot-electron energy dissipation via shot noise
    • Authors: Weng, Q; Komiyama, S, Yang, L, An, Z, Chen, P, Biehs, S.-A, Kajihara, Y, Lu, W.
      Pages: 775 - 778
      Abstract: In modern microelectronic devices, hot electrons accelerate, scatter, and dissipate energy in nanoscale dimensions. Despite recent progress in nanothermometry, direct real-space mapping of hot-electron energy dissipation is challenging because existing techniques are restricted to probing the lattice rather than the electrons. We realize electronic nanothermometry by measuring local current fluctuations, or shot noise, associated with ultrafast hot-electron kinetic processes (~21 terahertz). Exploiting a scanning and contact-free tungsten tip as a local noise probe, we directly visualize hot-electron distributions before their thermal equilibration with the host gallium arsenide/aluminium gallium arsenide crystal lattice. With nanoconstriction devices, we reveal unexpected nonlocal energy dissipation at room temperature, which is reminiscent of ballistic transport of low-temperature quantum conductors.
      Keywords: Physics, Applied
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam9991
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • 3D charge and 2D phonon transports leading to high out-of-plane ZT in
           n-type SnSe crystals
    • Authors: Chang, C; Wu, M, He, D, Pei, Y, Wu, C.-F, Wu, X, Yu, H, Zhu, F, Wang, K, Chen, Y, Huang, L, Li, J.-F, He, J, Zhao, L.-D.
      Pages: 778 - 783
      Abstract: Thermoelectric technology enables the harvest of waste heat and its direct conversion into electricity. The conversion efficiency is determined by the materials figure of merit ZT. Here we show a maximum ZT of ~2.8 ± 0.5 at 773 kelvin in n-type tin selenide (SnSe) crystals out of plane. The thermal conductivity in layered SnSe crystals is the lowest in the out-of-plane direction [two-dimensional (2D) phonon transport]. We doped SnSe with bromine to make n-type SnSe crystals with the overlapping interlayer charge density (3D charge transport). A continuous phase transition increases the symmetry and diverges two converged conduction bands. These two factors improve carrier mobility, while preserving a large Seebeck coefficient. Our findings can be applied in 2D layered materials and provide a new strategy to enhance out-of-plane electrical transport properties without degrading thermal properties.
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaq1479
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • CO2 electroreduction to ethylene via hydroxide-mediated copper catalysis
           at an abrupt interface
    • Authors: Dinh, C.-T; Burdyny, T, Kibria, M. G, Seifitokaldani, A, Gabardo, C. M, Garcia de Arquer, F. P, Kiani, A, Edwards, J. P, De Luna, P, Bushuyev, O. S, Zou, C, Quintero-Bermudez, R, Pang, Y, Sinton, D, Sargent, E. H.
      Pages: 783 - 787
      Abstract: Carbon dioxide (CO2) electroreduction could provide a useful source of ethylene, but low conversion efficiency, low production rates, and low catalyst stability limit current systems. Here we report that a copper electrocatalyst at an abrupt reaction interface in an alkaline electrolyte reduces CO2 to ethylene with 70% faradaic efficiency at a potential of –0.55 volts versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). Hydroxide ions on or near the copper surface lower the CO2 reduction and carbon monoxide (CO)–CO coupling activation energy barriers; as a result, onset of ethylene evolution at –0.165 volts versus an RHE in 10 molar potassium hydroxide occurs almost simultaneously with CO production. Operational stability was enhanced via the introduction of a polymer-based gas diffusion layer that sandwiches the reaction interface between separate hydrophobic and conductive supports, providing constant ethylene selectivity for an initial 150 operating hours.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aas9100
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • One-third of global protected land is under intense human pressure
    • Authors: Jones, K. R; Venter, O, Fuller, R. A, Allan, J. R, Maxwell, S. L, Negret, P. J, Watson, J. E. M.
      Pages: 788 - 791
      Abstract: In an era of massive biodiversity loss, the greatest conservation success story has been the growth of protected land globally. Protected areas are the primary defense against biodiversity loss, but extensive human activity within their boundaries can undermine this. Using the most comprehensive global map of human pressure, we show that 6 million square kilometers (32.8%) of protected land is under intense human pressure. For protected areas designated before the Convention on Biological Diversity was ratified in 1992, 55% have since experienced human pressure increases. These increases were lowest in large, strict protected areas, showing that they are potentially effective, at least in some nations. Transparent reporting on human pressure within protected areas is now critical, as are global targets aimed at efforts required to halt biodiversity loss.
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aap9565
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • The projected effect on insects, vertebrates, and plants of limiting
           global warming to 1.5{degrees}C rather than 2{degrees}C
    • Authors: Warren, R; Price, J, Graham, E, Forstenhaeusler, N, VanDerWal, J.
      Pages: 791 - 795
      Abstract: In the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, the United Nations is pursuing efforts to limit global warming to 1.5°C, whereas earlier aspirations focused on a 2°C limit. With current pledges, corresponding to ~3.2°C warming, climatically determined geographic range losses of >50% are projected in ~49% of insects, 44% of plants, and 26% of vertebrates. At 2°C, this falls to 18% of insects, 16% of plants, and 8% of vertebrates and at 1.5°C, to 6% of insects, 8% of plants, and 4% of vertebrates. When warming is limited to 1.5°C as compared with 2°C, numbers of species projected to lose >50% of their range are reduced by ~66% in insects and by ~50% in plants and vertebrates.
      Keywords: Atmospheric Science, Ecology
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar3646
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • Gut microbiota utilize immunoglobulin A for mucosal colonization
    • Authors: Donaldson, G. P; Ladinsky, M. S, Yu, K. B, Sanders, J. G, Yoo, B. B, Chou, W.- C, Conner, M. E, Earl, A. M, Knight, R, Bjorkman, P. J, Mazmanian, S. K.
      Pages: 795 - 800
      Abstract: The immune system responds vigorously to microbial infection while permitting lifelong colonization by the microbiome. Mechanisms that facilitate the establishment and stability of the gut microbiota remain poorly described. We found that a regulatory system in the prominent human commensal Bacteroides fragilis modulates its surface architecture to invite binding of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in mice. Specific immune recognition facilitated bacterial adherence to cultured intestinal epithelial cells and intimate association with the gut mucosal surface in vivo. The IgA response was required for B. fragilis (and other commensal species) to occupy a defined mucosal niche that mediates stable colonization of the gut through exclusion of exogenous competitors. Therefore, in addition to its role in pathogen clearance, we propose that IgA responses can be co-opted by the microbiome to engender robust host-microbial symbiosis.
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaq0926
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • SLAM-seq defines direct gene-regulatory functions of the BRD4-MYC axis
    • Authors: Muhar, M; Ebert, A, Neumann, T, Umkehrer, C, Jude, J, Wieshofer, C, Rescheneder, P, Lipp, J. J, Herzog, V. A, Reichholf, B, Cisneros, D. A, Hoffmann, T, Schlapansky, M. F, Bhat, P, von Haeseler, A, Köcher, T, Obenauf, A. C, Popow, J, Ameres, S. L, Zuber, J.
      Pages: 800 - 805
      Abstract: Defining direct targets of transcription factors and regulatory pathways is key to understanding their roles in physiology and disease. We combined SLAM-seq [thiol(SH)–linked alkylation for the metabolic sequencing of RNA], a method for direct quantification of newly synthesized messenger RNAs (mRNAs), with pharmacological and chemical-genetic perturbation in order to define regulatory functions of two transcriptional hubs in cancer, BRD4 and MYC, and to interrogate direct responses to BET bromodomain inhibitors (BETis). We found that BRD4 acts as general coactivator of RNA polymerase II–dependent transcription, which is broadly repressed upon high-dose BETi treatment. At doses triggering selective effects in leukemia, BETis deregulate a small set of hypersensitive targets including MYC. In contrast to BRD4, MYC primarily acts as a selective transcriptional activator controlling metabolic processes such as ribosome biogenesis and de novo purine synthesis. Our study establishes a simple and scalable strategy to identify direct transcriptional targets of any gene or pathway.
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao2793
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • New Products
    • Pages: 806 - 806
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.806
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
  • There's no shame in leaving
    • Authors: Wanchisen B. A.
      Pages: 826 - 826
      PubDate: 2018-05-17T10:39:12-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6390.826
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6390 (2018)
       
 
 
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