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Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 14.142
Citation Impact (citeScore): 16
Number of Followers: 4980  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
Published by AAAS Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Correcting blindness
    • Authors: Alderton G.
      Pages: 842
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.840-i
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Horizontal gene transfer of Fhb7 from fungus underlies Fusarium head
           blight resistance in wheat
    • Authors: Wang, H; Sun, S, Ge, W, Zhao, L, Hou, B, Wang, K, Lyu, Z, Chen, L, Xu, S, Guo, J, Li, M, Su, P, Li, X, Wang, G, Bo, C, Fang, X, Zhuang, W, Cheng, X, Wu, J, Dong, L, Chen, W, Li, W, Xiao, G, Zhao, J, Hao, Y, Xu, Y, Gao, Y, Liu, W, Liu, Y, Yin, H, Li, J, Li, X, Zhao, Y, Wang, X, Ni, F, Ma, X, Li, A, Xu, S. S, Bai, G, Nevo, E, Gao, C, Ohm, H, Kong, L.
      Abstract: Fusarium head blight (FHB), a fungal disease caused by Fusarium species that produce food toxins, currently devastates wheat production worldwide, yet few resistance resources have been discovered in wheat germplasm. Here, we cloned the FHB resistance gene Fhb7 by assembling the genome of Thinopyrum elongatum, a species used in wheat distant hybridization breeding. Fhb7 encodes a glutathione S-transferase (GST) and confers broad resistance to Fusarium species by detoxifying trichothecenes through de-epoxidation. Fhb7 GST homologs are absent in plants, and our evidence supports that Th. elongatum has gained Fhb7 through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from an endophytic Epichloë species. Fhb7 introgressions in wheat confers resistance to both FHB and crown rot in diverse wheat backgrounds without yield penalty, providing a solution for Fusarium resistance breeding.
      Keywords: Botany, Genetics, Online Only
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba5435
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Social determinants of health and survival in humans and other animals
    • Authors: Snyder-Mackler, N; Burger, J. R, Gaydosh, L, Belsky, D. W, Noppert, G. A, Campos, F. A, Bartolomucci, A, Yang, Y. C, Aiello, A. E, ORand, A, Harris, K. M, Shively, C. A, Alberts, S. C, Tung, J.
      Abstract: The social environment, both in early life and adulthood, is one of the strongest predictors of morbidity and mortality risk in humans. Evidence from long-term studies of other social mammals indicates that this relationship is similar across many species. In addition, experimental studies show that social interactions can causally alter animal physiology, disease risk, and life span itself. These findings highlight the importance of the social environment to health and mortality as well as Darwinian fitness—outcomes of interest to social scientists and biologists alike. They thus emphasize the utility of cross-species analysis for understanding the predictors of, and mechanisms underlying, social gradients in health.
      Keywords: Evolution, Online Only, Sociology
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax9553
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Suspend tests and rankings
    • Authors: Thorp H. H.
      Pages: 797 - 797
      Keywords: Editorials
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abc8654
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • News at a glance
    • Pages: 804 - 806
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.804
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Long-acting drug acts like a short-term AIDS vaccine
    • Authors: Cohen J.
      Pages: 807 - 807
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.807
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Case clustering emerges as key pandemic puzzle
    • Authors: Kupferschmidt K.
      Pages: 808 - 809
      Keywords: Epidemiology, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.808
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • T cells found in coronavirus patients 'bode well for long-term immunity
    • Authors: Leslie M.
      Pages: 809 - 810
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.809
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • AI systems aim to sniff out coronavirus outbreaks
    • Authors: Cho A.
      Pages: 810 - 811
      Keywords: Computers, Mathematics, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.810
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Crewed launch deepens ties between NASA and SpaceX
    • Authors: Mann A.
      Pages: 811 - 812
      Keywords: Astronomy
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.811
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Tropical forests store carbon despite warming
    • Authors: Pennisi E.
      Pages: 813 - 813
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.813
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Hard lessons
    • Authors: Mervis, J; Stellino, M.
      Pages: 814 - 817
      Keywords: Education, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.814
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Global solutions to a silent poison
    • Authors: Zheng Y.
      Pages: 818 - 819
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb9746
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Tracking both ultrafast electrons and nuclei
    • Authors: Domcke, W; Sobolewski, A. L.
      Pages: 820 - 821
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb9937
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Solitons and topological waves
    • Authors: Ablowitz, M. J; Cole, J. T.
      Pages: 821 - 822
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb5162
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Breeding a fungal gene into wheat
    • Authors: Wulff, B. B. H; Jones, J. D. G.
      Pages: 822 - 823
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb9991
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • The secret lives of bees as horticulturists'
    • Authors: Chittka L.
      Pages: 824 - 825
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abc2451
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Synchronized to an optical atomic clock
    • Authors: Curtis E. A.
      Pages: 825 - 826
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb8629
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Restoring vision to the blind
    • Authors: Dowling J. E.
      Pages: 827 - 828
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba2623
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Rapid repurposing of drugs for COVID-19
    • Authors: Guy, R. K; DiPaola, R. S, Romanelli, F, Dutch, R. E.
      Pages: 829 - 830
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb9332
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • John Horton Conway (1937-2020)
    • Authors: Baker M.
      Pages: 831 - 831
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abc5331
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Ethics of controlled human infection to address COVID-19
    • Authors: Shah, S. K; Miller, F. G, Darton, T. C, Duenas, D, Emerson, C, Lynch, H. F, Jamrozik, E, Jecker, N. S, Kamuya, D, Kapulu, M, Kimmelman, J, MacKay, D, Memoli, M. J, Murphy, S. C, Palacios, R, Richie, T. L, Roestenberg, M, Saxena, A, Saylor, K, Selgelid, M. J, Vaswani, V, Rid, A.
      Pages: 832 - 834
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abc1076
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Butterflies and the people who love them
    • Authors: Agrawal A. A.
      Pages: 835 - 835
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb3531
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Diversity and the dinner plate
    • Authors: Newman L.
      Pages: 836 - 836
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb8580
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • China's wild turtles at risk of extinction
    • Authors: Wu, J; Wu, Y, Rao, D, Zhou, T, Gong, S.
      Pages: 838 - 838
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abc0997
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • COVID-19 recovery can benefit biodiversity
    • Authors: Pearson, R. M; Sievers, M, McClure, E. C, Turschwell, M. P, Connolly, R. M.
      Pages: 838 - 839
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abc1430
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • COVID-19 spotlights medical diagnostics
    • Authors: Jankowski, M; Mozdziak, P, Kempisty, B.
      Pages: 839 - 839
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb8952
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Thermal sensitivity of tropical trees
    • Authors: Sugden A. M.
      Pages: 840 - 840
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.840-a
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Bacteria maintain motile reserves
    • Authors: VanHook A. M.
      Pages: 840 - 840
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.840-b
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Aligning dense carbon nanotube arrays
    • Authors: Szuromi P.
      Pages: 840 - 840
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.840-c
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Supramolecular attack particles
    • Authors: Hurtley S. M.
      Pages: 840 - 841
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Immunology
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.840-d
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Transport dependent on context
    • Authors: Funk M. A.
      Pages: 840 - 841
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.840-e
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Stepping down resident memory lane
    • Authors: Balasubramani A.
      Pages: 840 - 841
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.840-f
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • What happens next'
    • Authors: Ash C.
      Pages: 840 - 841
      Keywords: Epidemiology, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.840-g
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Social animals need connection
    • Authors: Vignieri S.
      Pages: 840 - 842
      Keywords: Evolution, Sociology
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.840-h
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Drug repurposing
    • Authors: Alderton G.
      Pages: 840 - 842
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.840-j
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Fungal disease meets its match
    • Authors: Hines P. J.
      Pages: 840 - 842
      Keywords: Botany, Genetics
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.840-k
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Dowsing for danger
    • Authors: Funk M. A.
      Pages: 840 - 842
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.840-l
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Topological insulators go nonlinear
    • Authors: Osborne I. S.
      Pages: 840 - 842
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.840-m
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Good timing for microwave technology
    • Authors: Osborne I. S.
      Pages: 840 - 842
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Physics
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.840-n
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • DNA bricks build nanotube transistors
    • Authors: Szuromi P.
      Pages: 840 - 842
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.840-o
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Electronic and nuclear dynamics in one
    • Authors: Suleymanov Y.
      Pages: 840 - 842
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.840-p
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Bumble bee gardeners
    • Authors: Vignieri S.
      Pages: 840 - 842
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.840-q
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Screening for side-effect susceptibility
    • Authors: Czajka C.
      Pages: 840 - 842
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.840-r
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Continuity in a gap year
    • Authors: Smith H. J.
      Pages: 841 - 841
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.841-a
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • HLA genetics and COVID-19
    • Authors: Zahn L. M.
      Pages: 841 - 841
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.841-b
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Rehydrating peatland microbiomes
    • Authors: Hines P. J.
      Pages: 841 - 842
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.841-c
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Vaccine potential of dendritic cells
    • Authors: Kelly P. N.
      Pages: 841 - 842
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.841-d
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Diffuse density determination
    • Authors: Grocholski B.
      Pages: 841 - 842
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.841-e
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • The coolest of vibrations
    • Authors: Osborne I. S.
      Pages: 841 - 842
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.841-f
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Atlas of gastrulation
    • Authors: Purnell B. A.
      Pages: 841 - 842
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.841-g
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Global threat of arsenic in groundwater
    • Authors: Podgorski, J; Berg, M.
      Pages: 845 - 850
      Abstract: Naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater affects millions of people worldwide. We created a global prediction map of groundwater arsenic exceeding 10 micrograms per liter using a random forest machine-learning model based on 11 geospatial environmental parameters and more than 50,000 aggregated data points of measured groundwater arsenic concentration. Our global prediction map includes known arsenic-affected areas and previously undocumented areas of concern. By combining the global arsenic prediction model with household groundwater-usage statistics, we estimate that 94 million to 220 million people are potentially exposed to high arsenic concentrations in groundwater, the vast majority (94%) being in Asia. Because groundwater is increasingly used to support growing populations and buffer against water scarcity due to changing climate, this work is important to raise awareness, identify areas for safe wells, and help prioritize testing.
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba1510
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Aligned, high-density semiconducting carbon nanotube arrays for
           high-performance electronics
    • Authors: Liu, L; Han, J, Xu, L, Zhou, J, Zhao, C, Ding, S, Shi, H, Xiao, M, Ding, L, Ma, Z, Jin, C, Zhang, Z, Peng, L.-M.
      Pages: 850 - 856
      Abstract: Single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may enable the fabrication of integrated circuits smaller than 10 nanometers, but this would require scalable production of dense and electronically pure semiconducting nanotube arrays on wafers. We developed a multiple dispersion and sorting process that resulted in extremely high semiconducting purity and a dimension-limited self-alignment (DLSA) procedure for preparing well-aligned CNT arrays (within alignment of 9 degrees) with a tunable density of 100 to 200 CNTs per micrometer on a 10-centimeter silicon wafer. Top-gate field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated on the CNT array show better performance than that of commercial silicon metal oxide–semiconductor FETs with similar gate length, in particular an on-state current of 1.3 milliamperes per micrometer and a recorded transconductance of 0.9 millisiemens per micrometer for a power supply of 1 volt, while maintaining a low room-temperature subthreshold swing of 8 gigahertz.
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba5980
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Observation of Floquet solitons in a topological bandgap
    • Authors: Mukherjee, S; Rechtsman, M. C.
      Pages: 856 - 859
      Abstract: Topological protection is a universal phenomenon that applies to electronic, photonic, ultracold atomic, mechanical, and other systems. The vast majority of research in these systems has explored the linear domain, where interparticle interactions are negligible. We experimentally observed solitons—waves that propagate without changing shape as a result of nonlinearity—in a photonic Floquet topological insulator. These solitons exhibited distinct behavior in that they executed cyclotron-like orbits associated with the underlying topology. Specifically, we used a waveguide array with periodic variations along the waveguide axis, giving rise to nonzero winding number, and the nonlinearity arose from the optical Kerr effect. This result applies to a range of bosonic systems because it is described by the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation (equivalently, the attractive Gross-Pitaevskii equation).
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba8725
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Projecting the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 through the
           postpandemic period
    • Authors: Kissler, S. M; Tedijanto, C, Goldstein, E, Grad, Y. H, Lipsitch, M.
      Pages: 860 - 868
      Abstract: It is urgent to understand the future of severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. We used estimates of seasonality, immunity, and cross-immunity for human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) and HCoV-HKU1 using time-series data from the United States to inform a model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We projected that recurrent wintertime outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 will probably occur after the initial, most severe pandemic wave. Absent other interventions, a key metric for the success of social distancing is whether critical care capacities are exceeded. To avoid this, prolonged or intermittent social distancing may be necessary into 2022. Additional interventions, including expanded critical care capacity and an effective therapeutic, would improve the success of intermittent distancing and hasten the acquisition of herd immunity. Longitudinal serological studies are urgently needed to determine the extent and duration of immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Even in the event of apparent elimination, SARS-CoV-2 surveillance should be maintained because a resurgence in contagion could be possible as late as 2024.
      Keywords: Epidemiology, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb5793
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Long-term thermal sensitivity of Earths tropical forests
    • Authors: Sullivan, M. J. P; Lewis, S. L, Affum-Baffoe, K, Castilho, C, Costa, F, Sanchez, A. C, Ewango, C. E. N, Hubau, W, Marimon, B, Monteagudo-Mendoza, A, Qie, L, Sonke, B, Martinez, R. V, Baker, T. R, Brienen, R. J. W, Feldpausch, T. R, Galbraith, D, Gloor, M, Malhi, Y, Aiba, S.-I, Alexiades, M. N, Almeida, E. C, de Oliveira, E. A, Davila, E. A, Loayza, P. A, Andrade, A, Vieira, S. A, Aragao, L. E. O. C, Araujo-Murakami, A, Arets, E. J. M. M, Arroyo, L, Ashton, P, Aymard C, G, Baccaro, F. B, Banin, L. F, Baraloto, C, Camargo, P. B, Barlow, J, Barroso, J, Bastin, J.-F, Batterman, S. A, Beeckman, H, Begne, S. K, Bennett, A. C, Berenguer, E, Berry, N, Blanc, L, Boeckx, P, Bogaert, J, Bonal, D, Bongers, F, Bradford, M, Brearley, F. Q, Brncic, T, Brown, F, Burban, B, Camargo, J. L, Castro, W, Ceron, C, Ribeiro, S. C, Moscoso, V. C, Chave, J, Chezeaux, E, Clark, C. J, de Souza, F. C, Collins, M, Comiskey, J. A, Valverde, F. C, Medina, M. C, da Costa, L, Dancak, M, Dargie, G. C, Davies, S, Cardozo, N. D, de Haulleville, T, de Medeiros, M. B, del Aguila Pasquel, J, Derroire, G, Di Fiore, A, Doucet, J.-L, Dourdain, A, Droissant, V, Duque, L. F, Ekoungoulou, R, Elias, F, Erwin, T, Esquivel-Muelbert, A, Fauset, S, Ferreira, J, Llampazo, G. F, Foli, E, Ford, A, Gilpin, M, Hall, J. S, Hamer, K. C, Hamilton, A. C, Harris, D. J, Hart, T. B, Hedl, R, Herault, B, Herrera, R, Higuchi, N, Hladik, A, Coronado, E. H, Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, I, Huasco, W. H, Jeffery, K. J, Jimenez-Rojas, E, Kalamandeen, M, Djuikouo, M. N. K, Kearsley, E, Umetsu, R. K, Kho, L. K, Killeen, T, Kitayama, K, Klitgaard, B, Koch, A, Labriere, N, Laurance, W, Laurance, S, Leal, M. E, Levesley, A, Lima, A. J. N, Lisingo, J, Lopes, A. P, Lopez-Gonzalez, G, Lovejoy, T, Lovett, J. C, Lowe, R, Magnusson, W. E, Malumbres-Olarte, J, Manzatto, A. G, Marimon, B. H, Marshall, A. R, Marthews, T, de Almeida Reis, S. M, Maycock, C, Melgaco, K, Mendoza, C, Metali, F, Mihindou, V, Milliken, W, Mitchard, E. T. A, Morandi, P. S, Mossman, H. L, Nagy, L, Nascimento, H, Neill, D, Nilus, R, Vargas, P. N, Palacios, W, Camacho, N. P, Peacock, J, Pendry, C, Penuela Mora, M. C, Pickavance, G. C, Pipoly, J, Pitman, N, Playfair, M, Poorter, L, Poulsen, J. R, Poulsen, A. D, Preziosi, R, Prieto, A, Primack, R. B, Ramirez-Angulo, H, Reitsma, J, Rejou-Mechain, M, Correa, Z. R, de Sousa, T. R, Bayona, L. R, Roopsind, A, Rudas, A, Rutishauser, E, Abu Salim, K, Salomao, R. P, Schietti, J, Sheil, D, Silva, R. C, Espejo, J. S, Valeria, C. S, Silveira, M, Simo-Droissart, M, Simon, M. F, Singh, J, Soto Shareva, Y. C, Stahl, C, Stropp, J, Sukri, R, Sunderland, T, Svatek, M, Swaine, M. D, Swamy, V, Taedoumg, H, Talbot, J, Taplin, J, Taylor, D, ter Steege, H, Terborgh, J, Thomas, R, Thomas, S. C, Torres-Lezama, A, Umunay, P, Gamarra, L. V, van der Heijden, G, van der Hout, P, van der Meer, P, van Nieuwstadt, M, Verbeeck, H, Vernimmen, R, Vicentini, A, Vieira, I. C. G, Torre, E. V, Vleminckx, J, Vos, V, Wang, O, White, L. J. T, Willcock, S, Woods, J. T, Wortel, V, Young, K, Zagt, R, Zemagho, L, Zuidema, P. A, Zwerts, J. A, Phillips, O. L.
      Pages: 869 - 874
      Abstract: The sensitivity of tropical forest carbon to climate is a key uncertainty in predicting global climate change. Although short-term drying and warming are known to affect forests, it is unknown if such effects translate into long-term responses. Here, we analyze 590 permanent plots measured across the tropics to derive the equilibrium climate controls on forest carbon. Maximum temperature is the most important predictor of aboveground biomass (–9.1 megagrams of carbon per hectare per degree Celsius), primarily by reducing woody productivity, and has a greater impact per °C in the hottest forests (>32.2°C). Our results nevertheless reveal greater thermal resilience than observations of short-term variation imply. To realize the long-term climate adaptation potential of tropical forests requires both protecting them and stabilizing Earth’s climate.
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw7578
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Precise pitch-scaling of carbon nanotube arrays within three-dimensional
           DNA nanotrenches
    • Authors: Sun, W; Shen, J, Zhao, Z, Arellano, N, Rettner, C, Tang, J, Cao, T, Zhou, Z, Ta, T, Streit, J. K, Fagan, J. A, Schaus, T, Zheng, M, Han, S.-J, Shih, W. M, Maune, H. T, Yin, P.
      Pages: 874 - 877
      Abstract: Precise fabrication of semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into densely aligned evenly spaced arrays is required for ultrascaled technology nodes. We report the precise scaling of inter-CNT pitch using a supramolecular assembly method called spatially hindered integration of nanotube electronics. Specifically, by using DNA brick crystal-based nanotrenches to align DNA-wrapped CNTs through DNA hybridization, we constructed parallel CNT arrays with a uniform pitch as small as 10.4 nanometers, at an angular deviation 95%.
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz7440
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • DNA-directed nanofabrication of high-performance carbon nanotube
           field-effect transistors
    • Authors: Zhao, M; Chen, Y, Wang, K, Zhang, Z, Streit, J. K, Fagan, J. A, Tang, J, Zheng, M, Yang, C, Zhu, Z, Sun, W.
      Pages: 878 - 881
      Abstract: Biofabricated semiconductor arrays exhibit smaller channel pitches than those created using existing lithographic methods. However, the metal ions within biolattices and the submicrometer dimensions of typical biotemplates result in both poor transport performance and a lack of large-area array uniformity. Using DNA-templated parallel carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays as model systems, we developed a rinsing-after-fixing approach to improve the key transport performance metrics by more than a factor of 10 compared with those of previous biotemplated field-effect transistors. We also used spatially confined placement of assembled CNT arrays within polymethyl methacrylate cavities to demonstrate centimeter-scale alignment. At the interface of high-performance electronics and biomolecular self-assembly, such approaches may enable the production of scalable biotemplated electronics that are sensitive to local biological environments.
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz7435
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Bumble bees damage plant leaves and accelerate flower production when
           pollen is scarce
    • Authors: Pashalidou, F. G; Lambert, H, Peybernes, T, Mescher, M. C, De Moraes, C. M.
      Pages: 881 - 884
      Abstract: Maintaining phenological synchrony with flowers is a key ecological challenge for pollinators that may be exacerbated by ongoing environmental change. Here, we show that bumble bee workers facing pollen scarcity damage leaves of flowerless plants and thereby accelerate flower production. Laboratory studies revealed that leaf-damaging behavior is strongly influenced by pollen availability and that bee-damaged plants flower significantly earlier than undamaged or mechanically damaged controls. Subsequent outdoor experiments showed that the intensity of damage inflicted varies with local flower availability; furthermore, workers from wild colonies of two additional bumble bee species were also observed to damage plant leaves. These findings elucidate a feature of bumble bee worker behavior that can influence the local availability of floral resources.
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay0496
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Simultaneous observation of nuclear and electronic dynamics by ultrafast
           electron diffraction
    • Authors: Yang, J; Zhu, X, F. Nunes, J. P, Yu, J. K, Parrish, R. M, Wolf, T. J. A, Centurion, M, Gühr, M, Li, R, Liu, Y, Moore, B, Niebuhr, M, Park, S, Shen, X, Weathersby, S, Weinacht, T, Martinez, T. J, Wang, X.
      Pages: 885 - 889
      Abstract: Simultaneous observation of nuclear and electronic motion is crucial for a complete understanding of molecular dynamics in excited electronic states. It is challenging for a single experiment to independently follow both electronic and nuclear dynamics at the same time. Here we show that ultrafast electron diffraction can be used to simultaneously record both electronic and nuclear dynamics in isolated pyridine molecules, naturally disentangling the two components. Electronic state changes (S1->S0 internal conversion) were reflected by a strong transient signal in small-angle inelastic scattering, and nuclear structural changes (ring puckering) were monitored by large-angle elastic diffraction. Supported by ab initio nonadiabatic molecular dynamics and diffraction simulations, our experiment provides a clear view of the interplay between electronic and nuclear dynamics of the photoexcited pyridine molecule.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb2235
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Coherent optical clock down-conversion for microwave frequencies with
           10-18 instability
    • Authors: Nakamura, T; Davila-Rodriguez, J, Leopardi, H, Sherman, J. A, Fortier, T. M, Xie, X, Campbell, J. C, McGrew, W. F, Zhang, X, Hassan, Y. S, Nicolodi, D, Beloy, K, Ludlow, A. D, Diddams, S. A, Quinlan, F.
      Pages: 889 - 892
      Abstract: Optical atomic clocks are poised to redefine the Système International (SI) second, thanks to stability and accuracy more than 100 times better than the current microwave atomic clock standard. However, the best optical clocks have not seen their performance transferred to the electronic domain, where radar, navigation, communications, and fundamental research rely on less stable microwave sources. By comparing two independent optical-to-electronic signal generators, we demonstrate a 10-gigahertz microwave signal with phase that exactly tracks that of the optical clock phase from which it is derived, yielding an absolute fractional frequency instability of 1 x 10–18 in the electronic domain. Such faithful reproduction of the optical clock phase expands the opportunities for optical clocks both technologically and scientifically for time dissemination, navigation, and long-baseline interferometric imaging.
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Physics
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb2473
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Ion transport and regulation in a synaptic vesicle glutamate transporter
    • Authors: Li, F; Eriksen, J, Finer-Moore, J, Chang, R, Nguyen, P, Bowen, A, Myasnikov, A, Yu, Z, Bulkley, D, Cheng, Y, Edwards, R. H, Stroud, R. M.
      Pages: 893 - 897
      Abstract: Synaptic vesicles accumulate neurotransmitters, enabling the quantal release by exocytosis that underlies synaptic transmission. Specific neurotransmitter transporters are responsible for this activity and therefore are essential for brain function. The vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) concentrate the principal excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate into synaptic vesicles, driven by membrane potential. However, the mechanism by which they do so remains poorly understood owing to a lack of structural information. We report the cryo–electron microscopy structure of rat VGLUT2 at 3.8-angstrom resolution and propose structure-based mechanisms for substrate recognition and allosteric activation by low pH and chloride. A potential permeation pathway for chloride intersects with the glutamate binding site. These results demonstrate how the activity of VGLUTs can be coordinated with large shifts in proton and chloride concentrations during the synaptic vesicle cycle to ensure normal synaptic transmission.
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba9202
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • Supramolecular attack particles are autonomous killing entities released
           from cytotoxic T cells
    • Authors: Balint, S; Müller, S, Fischer, R, Kessler, B. M, Harkiolaki, M, Valitutti, S, Dustin, M. L.
      Pages: 897 - 901
      Abstract: Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) kill infected and cancerous cells. We detected transfer of cytotoxic multiprotein complexes, called supramolecular attack particles (SMAPs), from CTLs to target cells. SMAPs were rapidly released from CTLs and were autonomously cytotoxic. Mass spectrometry, immunochemical analysis, and CRISPR editing identified a carboxyl-terminal fragment of thrombospondin-1 as an unexpected SMAP component that contributed to target killing. Direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy resolved a cytotoxic core surrounded by a thrombospondin-1 shell of ~120 nanometer diameter. Cryo-soft x-ray tomography analysis revealed that SMAPs had a carbon-dense shell and were stored in multicore granules. We propose that SMAPs are autonomous extracellular killing entities that deliver cytotoxic cargo targeted by the specificity of shell components.
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Immunology
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay9207
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
  • An end and a beginning
    • Authors: Brenner L.
      Pages: 906 - 906
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:38:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.368.6493.906
      Issue No: Vol. 368, No. 6493 (2020)
       
 
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