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Journal Cover Science
  [SJR: 12.465]   [H-I: 801]   [2416 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
   Published by American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Homepage  [5 journals]
  • [Association Affairs] Call for nomination of 2016 fellows
    • PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.459-a
  • [Association Affairs] Results of the 2015 election of AAAS officers
    • Abstract: Following are the results of the 2015 election. Terms begin on 16 February 2016.
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.459-b
  • [Perspective] Avian supergenes
    • Authors: Scott Taylor
      Abstract: As the extravagant displays of birds of paradise remind us, many birds go to great lengths to pass their genes on to the next generation. Recent papers explore the genetic basis of the reproductive strategies in two bird species: the ruff (Philomachus pugnax) (1, 2) and the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) (3). In each species, striking variation in both plumage and behavior is controlled in concert via the inheritance of coadapted gene complexes (supergenes) in large chromosomal inversions. The similar ways in which these independently evolved supergenes influence morphology and behavior elucidate how complex phenotypes evolve and are maintained.
      Authors : Scott Taylor, Leonardo Campagna
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aae0389
  • [Perspective] How ecosystems change
    • Authors: Anne E. Magurran
      Abstract: Human impacts on the planet, including anthropogenic climate change, are reshaping ecosystems in unprecedented ways. To meet the challenge of conserving biodiversity in this rapidly changing world, we must understand how ecological assemblages respond to novel conditions (1). However, species in ecosystems are not fixed entities, even without human-induced change. All ecosystems experience natural turnover in species presence and abundance. Taking account of this baseline turnover in conservation planning could play an important role in protecting biodiversity. Author: Anne E. Magurran
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad6758
  • [Book Review] Life on the edge
    • Authors: Michaela Hynie
      Abstract: Millions of refugees have fled the conflict in Syria since 2010. But the urgency of the situation only captured the full attention of the media, governments, and the public once refugees began entering Europe in large numbers in 2015. Yet, even as our attention finally shifts to refugees fleeing Syria, it shifts further away from the hundreds of thousands who continue to struggle for existence in semi-permanent encampments around the world. In City of Thorns, Ben Rawlence describes life in the Dadaab refugee camps in Kenya, the world's largest and oldest refugee settlement. Weaving the underlying history and politics into the stories of individual residents, he renders the uncertainty, poverty, hunger, and powerlessness experienced by the refugees concrete, immediate, and moving. Author: Michaela Hynie
      Keywords: Displaced Populations
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad8525
  • [Feature] Tibet's primeval ice
    • Authors: Jane Qiu
      Abstract: High on the western edge of the Tibetan Plateau, scientists last fall retrieved what may be the oldest ice on the planet. Ice cores drilled at the Guliya ice cap hold a record of ancient climate on the plateau that could stretch back nearly a million years. Guliya is thought to be the best record of midlatitude climate during the last ice age, and its ice may well turn out to be a Rosetta Stone for interpreting how Asia responds to a changing climate. The stakes are enormous: The Tibetan Plateau is the engine that drives the Indian monsoon and it gives rise to major rivers that are the lifeblood of more than 1.4 billion people. Author: Jane Qiu
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.436
  • [Feature] A cancer legacy
    • Authors: Jennifer Couzin-Frankel
      Abstract: An adult with cancer may have spent decades accumulating genetic abnormalities and suffering the effects of poor diet, smoking, and other environmental factors. But many people thought childhood cancers were freak events. In the last couple years, however, hundreds of youngsters with cancer have had the DNA in their noncancerous cells sequenced. These efforts are now turning up evidence that a sizable subset of childhood cancers are rooted in inherited genes, or mutations so soon after conception that they pervade every cell. The findings raise hopes that some cancers, either in children who survive their first bout or in their siblings and parents, could be prevented or caught early. But they also raise complicated questions about what to tell families, whether to screen other family members for certain mutations, and what to do if those relatives share them. Author: Jennifer Couzin-Frankel
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.440
  • [Letter] Tenure's tenure
    • Keywords: Online Buzz
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.457-c
  • [Association Affairs] U.S. and Cuban researchers begin neuroscience
    • Authors: Becky Ham
      Abstract: The projects reflect a decades-long commitment by AAAS to foster partnerships with Cuban scientists Author: Becky Ham
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.458
  • [Report] Simultaneous covalent and noncovalent hybrid polymerizations
    • Authors: Zhilin Yu
      Abstract: Covalent and supramolecular polymers are two distinct forms of soft matter, composed of long chains of covalently and noncovalently linked structural units, respectively. We report a hybrid system formed by simultaneous covalent and supramolecular polymerizations of monomers. The process yields cylindrical fibers of uniform diameter that contain covalent and supramolecular compartments, a morphology not observed when the two polymers are formed independently. The covalent polymer has a rigid aromatic imine backbone with helicoidal conformation, and its alkylated peptide side chains are structurally identical to the monomer molecules of supramolecular polymers. In the hybrid system, covalent chains grow to higher average molar mass relative to chains formed via the same polymerization in the absence of a supramolecular compartment. The supramolecular compartments can be reversibly removed and re-formed to reconstitute the hybrid structure, suggesting soft materials with novel delivery or repair functions.
      Authors : Zhilin Yu, Faifan Tantakitti, Tao Yu, Liam C. Palmer, George C. Schatz, Samuel I. Stupp
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad4091
  • [Report] Periodic slow slip triggers megathrust zone earthquakes in
           northeastern Japan
    • Authors: Naoki Uchida
      Abstract: Both aseismic and seismic slip accommodate relative motion across partially coupled plate-boundary faults. In northeastern Japan, aseismic slip occurs in the form of decelerating afterslip after large interplate earthquakes and as relatively steady slip on uncoupled areas of the subduction thrust. Here we report on a previously unrecognized quasi-periodic slow-slip behavior that is widespread in the megathrust zone. The repeat intervals of the slow slip range from 1 to 6 years and often coincide with or precede clusters of large [magnitude (M) ≥ 5] earthquakes, including the 2011 M 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake. These results suggest that inherently periodic slow-slip events result in periodic stress perturbations and modulate the occurrence time of larger earthquakes. The periodicity in the slow-slip rate has the potential to help refine time-dependent earthquake forecasts.
      Authors : Naoki Uchida, Takeshi Iinuma, Robert M. Nadeau, Roland Bürgmann, Ryota Hino
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad3108
  • [Report] Oxygen isotopic evidence for vigorous mixing during the
           Moon-forming giant impact
    • Authors: Edward D. Young
      Abstract: Earth and the Moon are shown here to have indistinguishable oxygen isotope ratios, with a difference in Δ′17O of −1 ± 5 parts per million (2 standard error). On the basis of these data and our new planet formation simulations that include a realistic model for primordial oxygen isotopic reservoirs, our results favor vigorous mixing during the giant impact and therefore a high-energy, high-angular-momentum impact. The results indicate that the late veneer impactors had an average Δ′17O within approximately 1 per mil of the terrestrial value, limiting possible sources for this late addition of mass to the Earth-Moon system.
      Authors : Edward D. Young, Issaku E. Kohl, Paul H. Warren, David C. Rubie, Seth A. Jacobson, Alessandro Morbidelli
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad0525
  • [Report] Emergence of superconductivity in the canonical heavy-electron
           metal YbRh2Si2
    • Authors: Erwin Schuberth
      Abstract: The smooth disappearance of antiferromagnetic order in strongly correlated metals commonly furnishes the development of unconventional superconductivity. The canonical heavy-electron compound YbRh2Si2 seems to represent an apparent exception from this quantum critical paradigm in that it is not a superconductor at temperature T ≥ 10 millikelvin (mK). Here we report magnetic and calorimetric measurements on YbRh2Si2, down to temperatures as low as T ≈ 1 mK. The data reveal the development of nuclear antiferromagnetic order slightly above 2 mK and of heavy-electron superconductivity almost concomitantly with this order. Our results demonstrate that superconductivity in the vicinity of quantum criticality is a general phenomenon.
      Authors : Erwin Schuberth, Marc Tippmann, Lucia Steinke, Stefan Lausberg, Alexander Steppke, Manuel Brando, Cornelius Krellner, Christoph Geibel, Rong Yu, Qimiao Si, Frank Steglich
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa9733
  • [Report] Enhanced East Pacific Rise hydrothermal activity during the last
           two glacial terminations
    • Authors: D. C. Lund
      Abstract: Mid-ocean ridge magmatism is driven by seafloor spreading and decompression melting of the upper mantle. Melt production is apparently modulated by glacial-interglacial changes in sea level, raising the possibility that magmatic flux acts as a negative feedback on ice-sheet size. The timing of melt variability is poorly constrained, however, precluding a clear link between ridge magmatism and Pleistocene climate transitions. Here we present well-dated sedimentary records from the East Pacific Rise that show evidence of enhanced hydrothermal activity during the last two glacial terminations. We suggest that glacial maxima and lowering of sea level caused anomalous melting in the upper mantle and that the subsequent magmatic anomalies promoted deglaciation through the release of mantle heat and carbon at mid-ocean ridges.
      Authors : D. C. Lund, P. D. Asimow, K. A. Farley, T. O. Rooney, E. Seeley, E. W. Jackson, Z. M. Durham
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad4296
  • [Report] Ancient Babylonian astronomers calculated Jupiter’s
           position from the area under a time-velocity graph
    • Authors: Mathieu Ossendrijver
      Abstract: The idea of computing a body’s displacement as an area in time-velocity space is usually traced back to 14th-century Europe. I show that in four ancient Babylonian cuneiform tablets, Jupiter’s displacement along the ecliptic is computed as the area of a trapezoidal figure obtained by drawing its daily displacement against time. This interpretation is prompted by a newly discovered tablet on which the same computation is presented in an equivalent arithmetical formulation. The tablets date from 350 to 50 BCE. The trapezoid procedures offer the first evidence for the use of geometrical methods in Babylonian mathematical astronomy, which was thus far viewed as operating exclusively with arithmetical concepts. Author: Mathieu Ossendrijver
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad8085
  • [Report] Activation of Cu(111) surface by decomposition into nanoclusters
           driven by CO adsorption
    • Authors: Baran Eren
      Abstract: The (111) surface of copper (Cu), its most compact and lowest energy surface, became unstable when exposed to carbon monoxide (CO) gas. Scanning tunneling microscopy revealed that at room temperature in the pressure range 0.1 to 100 Torr, the surface decomposed into clusters decorated by CO molecules attached to edge atoms. Between 0.2 and a few Torr CO, the clusters became mobile in the scale of minutes. Density functional theory showed that the energy gain from CO binding to low-coordinated Cu atoms and the weakening of binding of Cu to neighboring atoms help drive this process. Particularly for softer metals, the optimal balance of these two effects occurs near reaction conditions. Cluster formation activated the surface for water dissociation, an important step in the water-gas shift reaction.
      Authors : Baran Eren, Danylo Zherebetskyy, Laerte L. Patera, Cheng Hao Wu, Hendrik Bluhm, Cristina Africh, Lin-Wang Wang, Gabor A. Somorjai, Miquel Salmeron
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad8868
  • [Research Article] The 3.8 Å structure of the U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP:
           Insights into spliceosome assembly and catalysis
    • Authors: Ruixue Wan
      Abstract: Splicing of precursor messenger RNA is accomplished by a dynamic megacomplex known as the spliceosome. Assembly of a functional spliceosome requires a preassembled U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP complex, which comprises the U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP), the U4 and U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) duplex, and a number of protein factors. Here we report the three-dimensional structure of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP at an overall resolution of 3.8 angstroms by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy. The local resolution for the core regions of the tri-snRNP reaches 3.0 to 3.5 angstroms, allowing construction of a refined atomic model. Our structure contains U5 snRNA, the extensively base-paired U4/U6 snRNA, and 30 proteins including Prp8 and Snu114, which amount to 8495 amino acids and 263 nucleotides with a combined molecular mass of ~1 megadalton. The catalytic nucleotide U80 from U6 snRNA exists in an inactive conformation, stabilized by its base-pairing interactions with U4 snRNA and protected by Prp3. Pre-messenger RNA is bound in the tri-snRNP through base-pairing interactions with U6 snRNA and loop I of U5 snRNA. This structure, together with that of the spliceosome, reveals the molecular choreography of the snRNAs in the activation process of the spliceosomal ribozyme.
      Authors : Ruixue Wan, Chuangye Yan, Rui Bai, Lin Wang, Min Huang, Catherine C. L. Wong, Yigong Shi
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad6466
  • [Research Article] A zebrafish melanoma model reveals emergence of neural
           crest identity during melanoma initiation
    • Authors: Charles K. Kaufman
      Abstract: The “cancerized field” concept posits that cancer-prone cells in a given tissue share an oncogenic mutation, but only discreet clones within the field initiate tumors. Most benign nevi carry oncogenic BRAFV600E mutations but rarely become melanoma. The zebrafish crestin gene is expressed embryonically in neural crest progenitors (NCPs) and specifically reexpressed in melanoma. Live imaging of transgenic zebrafish crestin reporters shows that within a cancerized field (BRAFV600E-mutant; p53-deficient), a single melanocyte reactivates the NCP state, revealing a fate change at melanoma initiation in this model. NCP transcription factors, including sox10, regulate crestin expression. Forced sox10 overexpression in melanocytes accelerated melanoma formation, which is consistent with activation of NCP genes and super-enhancers leading to melanoma. Our work highlights NCP state reemergence as a key event in melanoma initiation.
      Authors : Charles K. Kaufman, Christian Mosimann, Zi Peng Fan, Song Yang, Andrew J. Thomas, Julien Ablain, Justin L. Tan, Rachel D. Fogley, Ellen van Rooijen, Elliott J. Hagedorn, Christie Ciarlo, Richard M. White, Dominick A. Matos, Ann-Christin Puller, Cristina Santoriello, Eric C. Liao, Richard A. Young, Leonard I. Zon
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad2197
  • [Editors' Choice] Saving water—but at what cost?
    • Authors: Nicholas S. Wigginton
      Abstract: Author: Nicholas S. Wigginton
      Keywords: Green Infrastructure
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.462-a
  • [Editors' Choice] Flipping for higher exam scores
    • Authors: Melissa McCartney
      Abstract: Author: Melissa McCartney
      Keywords: Education
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.462-b
  • [Editors' Choice] A double-drug approach for chronic pain
    • Authors: Peter Stern
      Abstract: Author: Peter Stern
      Keywords: Pain
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.462-c
  • [Editors' Choice] Bandages to aid diabetic wound healing
    • Authors: Marc S. Lavine
      Abstract: Author: Marc S. Lavine
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.462-d
  • [Editors' Choice] Our varied methylome
    • Authors: Laura M. Zahn
      Abstract: Author: Laura M. Zahn
      Keywords: Epigenomics
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.462-e
  • [Editors' Choice] Dendritic cells have two ways to tango
    • Authors: Stella M. Hurtley
      Abstract: Author: Stella M. Hurtley
      Keywords: Cell Migration
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.462-f
  • [Editors' Choice] Engineering a bacterial “Deadman” walking
    • Authors: Valda Vinson
      Abstract: Author: Valda Vinson
      Keywords: Synthetic Biology
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.462-g
  • [Research Article] Translation from the 5′ untranslated region
           shapes the integrated stress response
    • Authors: Shelley R. Starck
      Abstract: Translated regions distinct from annotated coding sequences have emerged as essential elements of the proteome. This includes upstream open reading frames (uORFs) present in mRNAs controlled by the integrated stress response (ISR) that show “privileged” translation despite inhibited eukaryotic initiation factor 2–guanosine triphosphate–initiator methionyl transfer RNA (eIF2·GTP·Met-tRNAiMet). We developed tracing translation by T cells to directly measure the translation products of uORFs during the ISR. We identified signature translation events from uORFs in the 5′ untranslated region of binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) mRNA (also called heat shock 70-kilodalton protein 5 mRNA) that were not initiated at the start codon AUG. BiP expression during the ISR required both the alternative initiation factor eIF2A and non–AUG-initiated uORFs. We propose that persistent uORF translation, for a variety of chaperones, shelters select mRNAs from the ISR, while simultaneously generating peptides that could serve as major histocompatibility complex class I ligands, marking cells for recognition by the adaptive immune system.
      Authors : Shelley R. Starck, Jordan C. Tsai, Keling Chen, Michael Shodiya, Lei Wang, Kinnosuke Yahiro, Manuela Martins-Green, Nilabh Shastri, Peter Walter
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad3867
  • [This Week in Science] Structure of a key spliceosomal complex
    • Authors: Valda Vinson
      Abstract: Author: Valda Vinson
      Keywords: Structural Biology
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.461-m
  • [This Week in Science] Nanoclusters just by adding CO
    • Authors: Phil Szuromi
      Abstract: Author: Phil Szuromi
      Keywords: Surface Science
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.461-n
  • [This Week in Science] Searching sediment for climate signals
    • Authors: Brent Grocholski
      Abstract: Author: Brent Grocholski
      Keywords: Oceanography
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.461-o
  • [This Week in Science] A special way to make T
    • Authors: Guy Riddihough
      Abstract: Author: Guy Riddihough
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.461-p
  • [This Week in Science] Patterns of biodiversity change
    • Authors: Julia Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink
      Abstract: Author: Julia Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink
      Keywords: Conservation
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.461-q
  • [This Week in Science] Genetics of bird mating systems
    • Authors: Julia Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink
      Abstract: Author: Julia Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.461-r
  • [This Week in Science] Environmental changes bridge evolutionary valleys
    • Authors: Philip Yeagle
      Abstract: Author: Philip Yeagle
      Keywords: Molecular Evolution
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.461-s
  • [This Week in Science] Antisense now makes sense
    • Authors: Megan Frisk
      Abstract: Author: Megan Frisk
      Keywords: Metabolism
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.461-h
  • [This Week in Science] A MEK threshold in the placenta
    • Authors: Nancy R. Gough
      Abstract: Author: Nancy R. Gough
      Keywords: Developmental Biology
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.461-i
  • [This Week in Science] Visualizing the beginnings of melanoma
    • Authors: Beverly A. Purnell
      Abstract: Author: Beverly A. Purnell
      Keywords: Melanoma Initiation
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.461-j
  • [This Week in Science] Doubling down on polymerization
    • Authors: Phil Szuromi
      Abstract: Author: Phil Szuromi
      Keywords: Polymers
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.461-k
  • [This Week in Science] How cells keep going in the face of adversity
    • Authors: Stella M. Hurtley
      Abstract: Author: Stella M. Hurtley
      Keywords: Stress Response
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.461-l
  • [This Week in Science] Babylonian astronomers tracked Jupiter
    • Authors: Keith T. Smith
      Abstract: Author: Keith T. Smith
      Keywords: History of Science
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.461-b
  • [This Week in Science] Going to extremes to find superconductivity
    • Authors: Jelena Stajic
      Abstract: Author: Jelena Stajic
      Keywords: Superconductivity
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.461-c
  • [This Week in Science] Airway infections put to an acid test
    • Authors: Paula A. Kiberstis
      Abstract: Author: Paula A. Kiberstis
      Keywords: Cystic Fibrosis
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.461-d
  • [This Week in Science] All T cells can remember
    • Authors: Kristen L. Mueller
      Abstract: Author: Kristen L. Mueller
      Keywords: Immunology
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.461-e
  • [This Week in Science] Replacing the Y chromosome
    • Authors: Beverly A. Purnell
      Abstract: Author: Beverly A. Purnell
      Keywords: Sex Chromosome
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.461-f
  • [This Week in Science] Rehomogenizing the Earth-Moon system
    • Authors: Brent Grocholski
      Abstract: Author: Brent Grocholski
      Keywords: Lunar Formation
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.461-g
  • [This Week in Science] A silent and periodic earthquake trigger
    • Authors: Brent Grocholski
      Abstract: Author: Brent Grocholski
      Keywords: Geophysics
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.461-a
  • [Technical Response] Response to Comment on “Worldwide evidence of a
           unimodal relationship between productivity and plant species
    • Authors: Jason Pither
      Abstract: Tredennick et al. criticize one of our statistical analyses and emphasize the low explanatory power of models relating productivity to diversity. These criticisms do not detract from our key findings, including evidence consistent with the unimodal constraint relationship predicted by the humped-back model and evidence of scale sensitivities in the form and strength of the relationship.
      Authors : Jason Pither, Lauchlan H. Fraser, Anke Jentsch, Marcelo Sternberg, Martin Zobel, James Cahill, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Sándor Bartha, Jonathan A. Bennett, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Leslie R. Brown, Marcelo Cabido, Giandiego Campetella, Cameron N. Carlyle, Stefano Chelli, Anna Mária Csergő, Sandra Diaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Alessandra Fidelis, Heath W. Garris, Hugh A. L. Henry, Maria Höhn, John Klironomos, Kadri Koorem, Rachael Lawrence-Lodge, Peter Manning, Randall J. Mitchell, Mari Moora, Valério D. Pillar, Gisela C. Stotz, Shu-ichi Sugiyama, Szilárd Szentes, Radnaakhand Tungalag, Sainbileg Undrakhbold, Camilla Wellstein, Talita Zupo
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad8019
  • [Letter] A necrogenomic registry's potential
    • Authors: Paula L. Hedley
      Authors : Paula L. Hedley, Michael Christiansen
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.456-a
  • [Letter] Tropical dams: To build or not to build?
    • Authors: Philip M. Fearnside
      Abstract: Author: Philip M. Fearnside
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.456-b
  • [Technical Comment] Comment on “Worldwide evidence of a unimodal
           relationship between productivity and plant species richness”
    • Authors: Andrew T. Tredennick
      Abstract: Fraser et al. (Reports, 17 July 2015, p. 302) report a unimodal relationship between productivity and species richness at regional and global scales, which they contrast with the results of Adler et al. (Reports, 23 September 2011, p. 1750). However, both data sets, when analyzed correctly, show clearly and consistently that productivity is a poor predictor of local species richness.
      Authors : Andrew T. Tredennick, Peter B. Adler, James B. Grace, W. Stanley Harpole, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, T. Michael Anderson, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori A. Biederman, Cynthia S. Brown, Yvonne M. Buckley, Chengjin Chu, Scott L. Collins, Michael J. Crawley, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Daniel S. Gruner, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Andy Hector, Helmut Hillebrand, Kevin Kirkman, Johannes M. H. Knops, Ramesh Laungani, Eric M. Lind, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Charles E. Mitchell, Joslin L Moore, John W. Morgan, John L. Orrock, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Anita C. Risch, Martin Schütz, Karina L. Speziale, Rachel J. Standish, Lauren L. Sullivan, Glenda M. Wardle, Ryan J. Williams, Louie H. Yang
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad6236
  • [Report] Two genes substitute for the mouse Y chromosome for
           spermatogenesis and reproduction
    • Authors: Yasuhiro Yamauchi
      Abstract: The mammalian Y chromosome is considered a symbol of maleness, as it encodes a gene driving male sex determination, Sry, as well as a battery of other genes important for male reproduction. We previously demonstrated in the mouse that successful assisted reproduction can be achieved when the Y gene contribution is limited to only two genes, Sry and spermatogonial proliferation factor Eif2s3y. Here, we replaced Sry by transgenic activation of its downstream target Sox9, and Eif2s3y, by transgenic overexpression of its X chromosome–encoded homolog Eif2s3x. The resulting males with no Y chromosome genes produced haploid male gametes and sired offspring after assisted reproduction. Our findings support the existence of functional redundancy between the Y chromosome genes and their homologs encoded on other chromosomes.
      Authors : Yasuhiro Yamauchi, Jonathan M. Riel, Victor A. Ruthig, Eglė A. Ortega, Michael J. Mitchell, Monika A. Ward
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad1795
  • [New Products] New Products
    • Abstract: A weekly roundup of information on newly offered instrumentation, apparatus, and laboratory materials of potential interest to researchers.
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.517
  • [Working Life] Battling the bureaucracy hydra
    • Abstract: Author: Jörgen Johansson
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.530
  • [Report] An unprecedented mechanism of nucleotide methylation in organisms
           containing thyX
    • Authors: Tatiana V. Mishanina
      Abstract: In several human pathogens, thyX-encoded flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase (FDTS) catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of thymidylate, one of the four DNA nucleotides. ThyX is absent in humans, rendering FDTS an attractive antibiotic target; however, the lack of mechanistic understanding prohibits mechanism-based drug design. Here, we report trapping and characterization of two consecutive intermediates, which together with previous crystal structures indicate that the enzyme’s reduced flavin relays a methylene from the folate carrier to the nucleotide acceptor. Furthermore, these results corroborate an unprecedented activation of the nucleotide that involves no covalent modification but only electrostatic polarization by the enzyme’s active site. These findings indicate a mechanism that is very different from thymidylate biosynthesis in humans, underscoring the promise of FDTS as an antibiotic target.
      Authors : Tatiana V. Mishanina, Liping Yu, Kalani Karunaratne, Dibyendu Mondal, John M. Corcoran, Michael A. Choi, Amnon Kohen
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad0300
  • [Report] Most microbe-specific naïve CD4+ T cells produce memory
           cells during infection
    • Authors: Noah J. Tubo
      Abstract: Infection elicits CD4+ memory T lymphocytes that participate in protective immunity. Although memory cells are the progeny of naïve T cells, it is unclear that all naïve cells from a polyclonal repertoire have memory cell potential. Using a single-cell adoptive transfer and spleen biopsy method, we found that in mice, essentially all microbe-specific naïve cells produced memory cells during infection. Different clonal memory cell populations had different B cell or macrophage helper compositions that matched effector cell populations generated much earlier in the response. Thus, each microbe-specific naïve CD4+ T cell produces a distinctive ratio of effector cell types early in the immune response that is maintained as some cells in the clonal population become memory cells.
      Authors : Noah J. Tubo, Brian T. Fife, Antonio J. Pagan, Dmitri I. Kotov, Michael F. Goldberg, Marc K. Jenkins
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad0483
  • [Perspective] Tracking the origins of tumorigenesis
    • Authors: Soufiane Boumahdi
      Abstract: Cancer arises through mutations that transform normal cells into cells that proliferate in an uncontrolled manner, form a tumor, invade the underlying tissue, and then metastasize to distant organs (1). Although the genetic events required to induce tumor formation are relatively well known (2), the additional early downstream molecular events that are required to reprogram normal cells into cancer cells are still poorly understood. On page 464 of this issue, Kaufman et al. report the development of an elegant transgenic reporter system that allows the early steps of tumor initiation to be tracked in situ. They find that oncogene-expressing melanocytes are reprogrammed into neural crest–like progenitors before progressing into invasive tumors (3).
      Authors : Soufiane Boumahdi, Cédric Blanpain
      Keywords: Cancer
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad9670
  • [Report] Airway acidification initiates host defense abnormalities in
           cystic fibrosis mice
    • Authors: Viral S. Shah
      Abstract: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. In humans and pigs, the loss of CFTR impairs respiratory host defenses, causing airway infection. But CF mice are spared. We found that in all three species, CFTR secreted bicarbonate into airway surface liquid. In humans and pigs lacking CFTR, unchecked H+ secretion by the nongastric H+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATP12A) acidified airway surface liquid, which impaired airway host defenses. In contrast, mouse airways expressed little ATP12A and secreted minimal H+; consequently, airway surface liquid in CF and non-CF mice had similar pH. Inhibiting ATP12A reversed host defense abnormalities in human and pig airways. Conversely, expressing ATP12A in CF mouse airways acidified airway surface liquid, impaired defenses, and increased airway bacteria. These findings help explain why CF mice are protected from infection and nominate ATP12A as a potential therapeutic target for CF.
      Authors : Viral S. Shah, David K. Meyerholz, Xiao Xiao Tang, Leah Reznikov, Mahmoud Abou Alaiwa, Sarah E. Ernst, Philip H. Karp, Christine L. Wohlford-Lenane, Kristopher P. Heilmann, Mariah R. Leidinger, Patrick D. Allen, Joseph Zabner, Paul B. McCray, Lynda S. Ostedgaard, David A. Stoltz, Christoph O. Randak, Michael J. Welsh
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad5589
  • [In Depth] Ancient Babylonians took first steps to calculus
    • Authors: Ron Cowen
      Abstract: Ancient Babylonian astronomers used their observations plus simple arithmetic to predict the positions of celestial bodies. Now, new evidence reported on p. 482 reveals that these astronomers, working several centuries B.C.E., also employed sophisticated geometric methods that foreshadow the development of calculus, more than 1400 years earlier than expected. Astroarchaeologist Mathieu Ossendrijver of Humboldt University in Berlin based his findings on a re-examination of clay tablets, one of them unknown until recently, dating from 350 B.C.E. to 50 B.C.E. He discovered that the ancient astronomers charted the movements of Jupiter, the planet equated with Babylonian's chief god, and used a forerunner of calculus to do it: They calculated the area under a curve—a basic operation in calculus—in a graph of Jupiter's velocity versus time. And they did it more than 2000 years ago. Author: Ron Cowen
      Keywords: Archaeology
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.435
  • [In Depth] A fish back from the dead
    • Authors: Elizabeth Pennisi
      Abstract: Deprive a human of oxygen for 5 minutes or more and she will turn blue, pass out, and may die. Suffocate the embryo of a Venezuelan annual killifish, however, and it survives for months, emerging unscathed to complete its development. At a recent meeting, researchers offered a look at the killifish's bag of tricks, assessing the interplay between temperature and oxygen levels in determining whether this fish's embryos enter a state of dormancy to survive their ephemeral ponds drying up, and, more recently, cataloging the RNAs involved in this decision and the embryo's survival. By exploring the extremes of vertebrate physiology, these physiologists are hoping for clues to potential treatments for stroke, heart attack, or trauma, which can starve tissues of oxygen. Author: Elizabeth Pennisi
      Keywords: Physiology
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.433
  • [In Depth] Researchers claim to find HIV sanctuaries
    • Authors: Jon Cohen
      Abstract: A new study stirs a longstanding debate and suggests that the way to cure HIV infections may be to make drugs that better reach "sanctuary sites" like the lymph node. Antiretroviral (ARV) drugs routinely knock HIV down so effectively that standard tests can't detect the virus. But most everyone who stops ARVs soon sees the virus come roaring back because it persists in a latent form inside of human chromosomes. So many researchers believe ARVs are doing all they can do and they focus on ridding the body of the "reservoirs" of latently infected cells, which are long-lived. A paper published online in the 27 January issue of Nature shows that people on ARVs who appear to completely suppress the virus in their blood have new HIV being made in their lymph node cells—which may be refilling the reservoir. Author: Jon Cohen
      Keywords: Infectious Disease
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.434
  • [In Depth] Rare isotopes offer clues to the chemistry of the planet
    • Authors: Eric Hand
      Abstract: For decades, geochemists had to be content to measure one isotope at a time. Now, however, formidable new lab instruments are enabling them to detect some of the rarest isotopic variants in nature, molecules containing two or more rare isotopes. In carbon dioxide, for example, these multiple isotopes are found more often than expected—a phenomenon called clumping—which leads to a powerful tool for measuring the temperatures at which the molecules formed, now and in the ancient past. Work on methane is close to yielding a tool for distinguishing gas made by microbes from "abiotic" methane made from mineral reactions deep in Earth. And work on nitrogen could reveal which of two pathways is most important in removing biologically fixed nitrogen from oceans. Some geochemists even hope that, as techniques improve, there could be applications in diagnosing diseases and measuring the efficacy of drugs on individuals. Author: Eric Hand
      Keywords: Geochemistry
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.431
  • [In Depth] Can Germany engineer a coal exit?
    • Authors: Christopher Schrader
      Abstract: Germany's coal-fired power plants, which provide nearly half of the nation's electricity, are posing a major challenge to its plans for an Energiewende—a shift to an energy system that will cut national greenhouse gas emissions by 80% to 95% by 2050. Many experts say achieving that goal will require the nation to phase out its coal plants—but the question of how and when that might happen has been contentious. Now, in the wake of the Paris climate pact, the debate is heating up. A prominent think tank has released a report concluding that Germany could abandon coal by 2040, and Germany's environment minister says that she will soon unveil a plan for reaching the 2050 emissions goal. Many observers expect it to include a coal exit timeline. But Germany's vice chancellor, as well as major labor and industry groups, are pushing back, fearing job losses and energy market disruptions—and predicting that a solo German move could simply shift emissions to other nations. Author: Christopher Schrader
      Keywords: Climate Policy
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.430
  • [Multimedia] Cover stories: Making the Babylonian tablet cover
    • PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf3211
  • [Editorial] Global science engagement
    • Authors: Geraldine Richmond
      Abstract: In rural Laos, more than 50% of newborns will be stunted by age 2 due to chronic malnourishment. Worldwide, 161 million children under the age of 5, many of them in Africa and Asia, suffered irreversible stunting as of 2013. The developed world is not immune. As recently as 2010, stunting affected 8 to 9% of babies enrolled in U.S. federal food-subsidy programs. Next week in Washington, DC, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS is the publisher of Science) will convene its annual meeting (11 to 15 February), where world leaders will discuss food security and other major challenges that lie ahead in both the science and international policy arenas. Author: Geraldine Richmond
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf2869
  • [In Brief] News at a glance
    • Abstract: In science news around the world, a consortium of marine scientists announces a new plan to monitor the world's oceans, an editorial on clinical trial data sharing in The New England Journal of Medicine sparks a heated debate on social media, two GlaxoSmithKline scientists are accused of transferring trade secrets to China, 17th century Spanish missions in New Mexico may have helped disseminate disease among the Pueblo, and more. Also, outgoing Australian chief scientist Ian Chubb talks to Science about his parting advice for the country's researchers. And a cycling artist teams up with a microbial ecologist to map soil microbes across Eurasia using bike tracks.
      Keywords: SCI COMMUN
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.351.6272.428
  • [Errata] Erratum for the Research Article “Gating of hippocampal
           activity, plasticity, and memory by entorhinal cortex long-range
           inhibition” by J. Basu, J. D. Zaremba, S. K. Cheung, F. L. Hitti, B.
           V. Zemelman, A. Losonczy, S. A. Siegelbaum
    • PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf2878
  • [Perspective] Prescription drugs obscure microbiome analyses
    • Authors: Suzanne Devkota
      Abstract: Although observations linking members of the gut microbiome to human disease have been plentiful, some are fraught with complex and confounding variables, emphasizing the need for vetting such associations with greater computational and mechanistic rigor. A recent study by Forslund et al. (1) adds another dimension for consideration by illustrating how medications may adversely affect the microbiome—an interaction often overlooked in post hoc analyses of disease-microbe relationships. Author: Suzanne Devkota
      Keywords: Microbiome
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf1353
  • [Policy Forum] How can higher-yield farming help to spare nature?
    • Authors: Ben Phalan
      Abstract: Expansion of land area used for agriculture is a leading cause of biodiversity loss and greenhouse gas emissions, particularly in the tropics. One potential way to reduce these impacts is to increase food production per unit area (yield) on existing farmland, so as to minimize farmland area and to spare land for habitat conservation or restoration. There is now widespread evidence that such a strategy could benefit a large proportion of wild species, provided that spared land is conserved as natural habitat (1). However, the scope for yield growth to spare land by lowering food prices and, hence, incentives for clearance (“passive” land sparing) can be undermined if lower prices stimulate demand and if higher yields raise profits, encouraging agricultural expansion and increasing the opportunity cost of conservation (2, 3). We offer a first description of four categories of “active” land-sparing mechanisms that could overcome these rebound effects by linking yield increases with habitat protection or restoration (table S1). The effectiveness, limitations, and potential for unintended consequences of these mechanisms have yet to be systematically tested, but in each case, we describe real-world interventions that illustrate how intentional links between yield increases and land sparing might be developed.
      Authors : Ben Phalan, Rhys E. Green, Lynn V. Dicks, Graziela Dotta, Claire Feniuk, Anthony Lamb, Bernardo B. N. Strassburg, David R. Williams, Erasmus K. H. J. zu Ermgassen, Andrew Balmford
      Keywords: Conservation Ecology
      PubDate: 2016-01-29
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad0055
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