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Journal Cover
Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 14.142
Citation Impact (citeScore): 16
Number of Followers: 4241  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
Published by AAAS Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Cap-specific terminal N6-methylation of RNA by an RNA polymerase
           II-associated methyltransferase
    • Authors: Akichika, S; Hirano, S, Shichino, Y, Suzuki, T, Nishimasu, H, Ishitani, R, Sugita, A, Hirose, Y, Iwasaki, S, Nureki, O, Suzuki, T.
      Abstract: N6-methyladenosine (m6A), a major modification of messenger RNAs (mRNAs), plays critical roles in RNA metabolism and function. In addition to the internal m6A, N6, 2'-O-dimethyladenosine (m6Am) is present at the transcription start nucleotide of capped mRNAs in vertebrates. However, its biogenesis and functional role remain elusive. Using a reverse genetics approach, we identified PCIF1, a factor that interacts with the serine-5–phosphorylated carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, as a cap-specific adenosine methyltransferase (CAPAM) responsible for N6-methylation of m6Am. The crystal structure of CAPAM in complex with substrates revealed the molecular basis of cap-specific m6A formation. A transcriptome-wide analysis revealed that N6-methylation of m6Am promotes the translation of capped mRNAs. Thus, a cap-specific m6A writer promotes translation of mRNAs starting from m6Am.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Online Only
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav0080
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • A step toward preventing overdose
    • Authors: Czajka C.
      Pages: 138
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-i
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • T cells need nuclear F-actin
    • Authors: Fogg C. N.
      Pages: 139
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-v
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Response to Comment on "Tropical forests are a net carbon source based on
           aboveground measurements of gain and loss"
    • Authors: Baccini, A; Walker, W, Carvalho, L, Farina, M, Houghton, R. A.
      Abstract: The Hansen et al. critique centers on the lack of spatial agreement between two very different datasets. Nonetheless, properly constructed comparisons designed to reconcile the two datasets yield up to 90% agreement (e.g., in South America).
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat1205
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Organic synthesis in a modular robotic system driven by a chemical
           programming language
    • Authors: Steiner, S; Wolf, J, Glatzel, S, Andreou, A, Granda, J. M, Keenan, G, Hinkley, T, Aragon-Camarasa, G, Kitson, P. J, Angelone, D, Cronin, L.
      Abstract: The synthesis of complex organic compounds is largely a manual process that is often incompletely documented. To address these shortcomings, we developed an abstraction that maps commonly reported methodological instructions into discrete steps amenable to automation. These unit operations were implemented in a modular robotic platform by using a chemical programming language that formalizes and controls the assembly of the molecules. We validated the concept by directing the automated system to synthesize three pharmaceutical compounds, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, rufinamide, and sildenafil, without any human intervention. Yields and purities of products and intermediates were comparable to or better than those achieved manually. The syntheses are captured as digital code that can be published, versioned, and transferred flexibly between platforms with no modification, thereby greatly enhancing reproducibility and reliable access to complex molecules.
      Keywords: Chemistry, Online Only
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav2211
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Comment on "Tropical forests are a net carbon source based on aboveground
           measurements of gain and loss"
    • Authors: Hansen, M. C; Potapov, P, Tyukavina, A.
      Abstract: Baccini et al. (Reports, 13 October 2017, p. 230) report MODIS-derived pantropical forest carbon change, with spatial patterns of carbon loss that do not correspond to higher-resolution Landsat-derived tree cover loss. The assumption that map results are unbiased and free of commission and omission errors is not supported. The application of passive moderate-resolution optical data to monitor forest carbon change overstates our current capabilities.
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar3629
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • An evolutionary perspective on immunometabolism
    • Authors: Wang, A; Luan, H. H, Medzhitov, R.
      Abstract: Metabolism is at the core of all biological functions. Anabolic metabolism uses building blocks that are either derived from nutrients or synthesized de novo to produce the biological infrastructure, whereas catabolic metabolism generates energy to fuel all biological processes. Distinct metabolic programs are required to support different biological functions. Thus, recent studies have revealed how signals regulating cell quiescence, proliferation, and differentiation also induce the appropriate metabolic programs. In particular, a wealth of new studies in the field of immunometabolism has unveiled many examples of the connection among metabolism, cell fate decisions, and organismal physiology. We discuss these findings under a unifying framework derived from the evolutionary and ecological principles of life history theory.
      Keywords: Evolution, Immunology, Online Only, Physiology
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar3932
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Secreted amyloid-{beta} precursor protein functions as a GABABR1a ligand
           to modulate synaptic transmission
    • Authors: Rice, H. C; de Malmazet, D, Schreurs, A, Frere, S, Van Molle, I, Volkov, A. N, Creemers, E, Vertkin, I, Nys, J, Ranaivoson, F. M, Comoletti, D, Savas, J. N, Remaut, H, Balschun, D, Wierda, K. D, Slutsky, I, Farrow, K, De Strooper, B, de Wit, J.
      Abstract: Amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) is central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, yet its physiological function remains unresolved. Accumulating evidence suggests that APP has a synaptic function mediated by an unidentified receptor for secreted APP (sAPP). Here we show that the sAPP extension domain directly bound the sushi 1 domain specific to the -aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1a (GABABR1a). sAPP-GABABR1a binding suppressed synaptic transmission and enhanced short-term facilitation in mouse hippocampal synapses via inhibition of synaptic vesicle release. A 17–amino acid peptide corresponding to the GABABR1a binding region within APP suppressed in vivo spontaneous neuronal activity in the hippocampus of anesthetized Thy1-GCaMP6s mice. Our findings identify GABABR1a as a synaptic receptor for sAPP and reveal a physiological role for sAPP in regulating GABABR1a function to modulate synaptic transmission.
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Neuroscience, Online Only
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao4827
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Chronic TLR7 and TLR9 signaling drives anemia via differentiation of
           specialized hemophagocytes
    • Authors: Akilesh, H. M; Buechler, M. B, Duggan, J. M, Hahn, W. O, Matta, B, Sun, X, Gessay, G, Whalen, E, Mason, M, Presnell, S. R, Elkon, K. B, Lacy-Hulbert, A, Barnes, B. J, Pepper, M, Hamerman, J. A.
      Abstract: Cytopenias are an important clinical problem associated with inflammatory disease and infection. We show that specialized phagocytes that internalize red blood cells develop in Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7)–driven inflammation. TLR7 signaling caused the development of inflammatory hemophagocytes (iHPCs), which resemble splenic red pulp macrophages but are a distinct population derived from Ly6Chi monocytes. iHPCs were responsible for anemia and thrombocytopenia in TLR7-overexpressing mice, which have a macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)–like disease. Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), associated with MAS, participated in TLR7-driven iHPC differentiation. We also found iHPCs during experimental malarial anemia, in which they required endosomal TLR and MyD88 signaling for differentiation. Our findings uncover a mechanism by which TLR7 and TLR9 specify monocyte fate and identify a specialized population of phagocytes responsible for anemia and thrombocytopenia associated with inflammation and infection.
      Keywords: Immunology, Online Only
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao5213
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Erratum for the Editorial "Examining author gender data" by J. Berg
    • PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw5839
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Comment on "Impacts of species richness on productivity in a large-scale
           subtropical forest experiment"
    • Authors: Yang, H; Guo, Z, Chu, X, Man, R, Chen, J, Liu, C, Tao, J, Jiang, Y.
      Abstract: Huang et al. (Reports, 5 October 2018, p. 80) report significant increases in forest productivity from monocultures to multispecies mixtures in subtropical China. However, their estimated productivity decrease due to a 10% tree species loss seems high. We propose that including species richness distribution of the study forests would provide more meaningful estimates of forest-scale responses.
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav9117
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Response to Comment on "Impacts of species richness on productivity in a
           large-scale subtropical forest experiment"
    • Authors: Bruelheide, H; Chen, Y, Huang, Y, Ma, K, Niklaus, P. A, Schmid, B.
      Abstract: Yang et al. have raised criticism that the results reported by us would not be relevant for natural forests. We argue that productivity is positively related to species richness also in subtropical natural forests, and that both the species pools and the range of tree species richness used in our experiment are representative of many natural forests of this biome.
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav9863
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • A fresh look at nuclear energy
    • Authors: Parsons, J; Buongiorno, J, Corradini, M, Petti, D.
      Pages: 105 - 105
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw5304
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • News at a glance
    • Pages: 106 - 108
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.106
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Shutdown starts to take a bite out of science
    • Authors: Malakoff D.
      Pages: 109 - 110
      Keywords: Scientific Community, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.109
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Japan's exit from whaling group may benefit whales
    • Authors: Normile D.
      Pages: 110 - 111
      Keywords: Asia/Pacific News, Oceanography
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.110
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • How to shine in Indonesian science' Game the system
    • Authors: Rochmyaningsih D.
      Pages: 111 - 112
      Keywords: Asia/Pacific News, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.111
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Ships banned from throwing unwanted fish overboard
    • Authors: Stokstad E.
      Pages: 112 - 113
      Keywords: Ecology, European News, Oceanography
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.112
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Researchers object to census privacy measure
    • Authors: Mervis J.
      Pages: 114 - 114
      Keywords: Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.114
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • New Horizons inspects a distant time capsule
    • Authors: Voosen P.
      Pages: 115 - 115
      Keywords: Astronomy, Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.115
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Seeing the dawn
    • Authors: Service R. F.
      Pages: 116 - 119
      Keywords: Anatomy, Morphology, Biomechanics, Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.116
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Are clever males preferred as mates'
    • Authors: Striedter, G. F; Burley, N. T.
      Pages: 120 - 121
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw1811
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Democratizing synthesis by automation
    • Authors: Milo A.
      Pages: 122 - 123
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav8816
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Neuronal function of Alzheimer's protein
    • Authors: Korte M.
      Pages: 123 - 124
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw0636
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Many paths to preserve the body clock
    • Authors: Green C. B.
      Pages: 124 - 125
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav9706
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Assembling human brain organoids
    • Authors: Pasca S. P.
      Pages: 126 - 127
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau5729
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • How fast are the oceans warming'
    • Authors: Cheng, L; Abraham, J, Hausfather, Z, Trenberth, K. E.
      Pages: 128 - 129
      Keywords: Atmospheric Science, Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav7619
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • The MOOC pivot
    • Authors: Reich, J; Ruiperez-Valiente, J. A.
      Pages: 130 - 131
      Keywords: Sociology
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav7958
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Cheap oil vs. climate change
    • Authors: Aczel M. R.
      Pages: 132 - 132
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav7012
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • The future is fiber
    • Authors: Mayer-Schönberger V.
      Pages: 133 - 133
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav7139
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Integrated data could augment resilience
    • Authors: Vahedifard, F; Ermagun, A, Mortezaei, K, AghaKouchak, A.
      Pages: 134 - 134
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw2236
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Wildfires: Opportunity for restoration'
    • Authors: Leverkus, A. B; Murillo, P. G, Dona, V. J, Pausas, J. G.
      Pages: 134 - 135
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw2134
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Protect Catalonia's corals despite politics
    • Authors: Arafeh-Dalmau, N; Linares, C, Hereu, B, Caceres-Escobar, H, Biggs, D, Possingham, H.
      Pages: 135 - 136
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav8710
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Advancing 3D imaging of organs
    • Authors: Benson P. J.
      Pages: 137 - 137
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-a
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Only the water may pass
    • Authors: Lavine M. S.
      Pages: 137 - 137
      Keywords: Materials Science, Physics
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-b
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • A photonic Weyl system by design
    • Authors: Osborne I. S.
      Pages: 137 - 137
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-c
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Broken on impact
    • Authors: Szuromi P.
      Pages: 137 - 137
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-d
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Mating disks and rods into an ordered phase
    • Authors: Lavine M. S.
      Pages: 137 - 138
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-e
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Forest termites mitigate the effects of drought
    • Authors: Sugden A. M.
      Pages: 137 - 138
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-f
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Who's a clever boy then'
    • Authors: Vignieri S.
      Pages: 137 - 138
      Keywords: Ecology, Evolution
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-g
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Astrocytes can drive the master clock in the brain
    • Authors: Ray L. B.
      Pages: 137 - 138
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-h
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Metabolism as a driver of immune response
    • Authors: Kelly P. N.
      Pages: 137 - 139
      Keywords: Evolution, Immunology, Physiology
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-j
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • A cap-specific m6A writer
    • Authors: Mao S.
      Pages: 137 - 139
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-k
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Unmasking an agent of inflammatory anemia
    • Authors: Scanlon S. T.
      Pages: 137 - 139
      Keywords: Immunology
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-l
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • A physiological function for sAPP'
    • Authors: Hurtley S. M.
      Pages: 137 - 139
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-m
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Clear directions for a robotic platform
    • Authors: Yeston J.
      Pages: 137 - 139
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-n
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Toward nanotubes with periodic gaps
    • Authors: Yeston J.
      Pages: 137 - 139
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-o
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Climbing vibrational levels
    • Authors: Szuromi P.
      Pages: 137 - 139
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-p
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Memory capabilities develop with age
    • Authors: Stern P.
      Pages: 137 - 139
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-q
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Ancient changes in the African tropics
    • Authors: Sugden A. M.
      Pages: 137 - 139
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-r
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Switching ON resistance
    • Authors: Ash C.
      Pages: 137 - 139
      Keywords: Evolution, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-s
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Getting warmer, faster
    • Authors: Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink J.
      Pages: 137 - 139
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-t
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Combining organoids to assemble brain regions
    • Authors: Alderton G.
      Pages: 137 - 139
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-u
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Manganese mobilizes microglial exosomes
    • Authors: Williams E.
      Pages: 137 - 139
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.137-w
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • The meteorological future is here
    • Authors: Smith H. J.
      Pages: 138 - 139
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.138-a
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Chronic short sleep and neurodegeneration
    • Authors: Stern P.
      Pages: 138 - 138
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.138-b
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • More tricks up its sleeve
    • Authors: Hurtley S. M.
      Pages: 138 - 138
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.138-c
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Fungi affect gut-lung cross-talk
    • Authors: Scanlon S. T.
      Pages: 138 - 139
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.138-d
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Water-speed-record geckos
    • Authors: Ash C.
      Pages: 138 - 139
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.138-e
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Getting your timing right
    • Authors: Osborne I. S.
      Pages: 138 - 139
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.138-f
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • A functional materials map
    • Authors: Grocholski B.
      Pages: 138 - 139
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.138-g
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Complete steric exclusion of ions and proton transport through confined
           monolayer water
    • Authors: Gopinadhan, K; Hu, S, Esfandiar, A, Lozada-Hidalgo, M, Wang, F. C, Yang, Q, Tyurnina, A. V, Keerthi, A, Radha, B, Geim, A. K.
      Pages: 145 - 148
      Abstract: It has long been an aspirational goal to create artificial structures that allow fast permeation of water but reject even the smallest hydrated ions, replicating the feat achieved by nature in protein channels (e.g., aquaporins). Despite recent progress in creating nanoscale pores and capillaries, these structures still remain distinctly larger than protein channels. We report capillaries made by effectively extracting one atomic plane from bulk crystals, which leaves a two-dimensional slit of a few angstroms in height. Water moves through these capillaries with little resistance, whereas no permeation could be detected even for such small ions as Na+ and Cl–. Only protons (H+) can diffuse through monolayer water inside the capillaries. These observations improve our understanding of molecular transport at the atomic scale.
      Keywords: Materials Science, Physics
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau6771
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Observation of chiral zero mode in inhomogeneous three-dimensional Weyl
           metamaterials
    • Authors: Jia, H; Zhang, R, Gao, W, Guo, Q, Yang, B, Hu, J, Bi, Y, Xiang, Y, Liu, C, Zhang, S.
      Pages: 148 - 151
      Abstract: Owing to the chirality of Weyl nodes, the Weyl systems can support one-way chiral zero modes under a strong magnetic field, which leads to nonconservation of chiral currents—the so-called chiral anomaly. Although promising for robust transport of optical information, the zero chiral bulk modes have not been observed in photonics. Here we design an inhomogeneous Weyl metamaterial in which a gauge field is generated for the Weyl nodes by engineering the individual unit cells. We experimentally confirm the presence of the gauge field and observe the zero-order chiral Landau level with one-way propagation. Without breaking the time-reversal symmetry, our system provides a route for designing an artificial magnetic field in three-dimensional photonic Weyl systems and may have potential for device applications in photonics.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau7707
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Finite phenine nanotubes with periodic vacancy defects
    • Authors: Sun, Z; Ikemoto, K, Fukunaga, T. M, Koretsune, T, Arita, R, Sato, S, Isobe, H.
      Pages: 151 - 155
      Abstract: Discrete graphitic carbon compounds serve as tunable models for the properties of extended macromolecular structures such as nanotubes. Here, we report synthesis and characterization of a cylindrical C304H264 molecule composed of 40 benzene (phenine) units mutually bonded at the 1, 3, and 5 positions. The concise nine-step synthesis featuring successive borylations and couplings proceeded with an average yield for each benzene-benzene bond formation of 91%. The molecular structure of the nanometer-sized cylinder with periodic vacancy defects was confirmed spectroscopically and crystallographically. The nanoporous nature of the compound further enabled inclusion of multiple fullerene guests. Computations suggest that fusing many such cylinders could produce carbon nanotubes with electronic properties modulated by the periodic vacancy defects.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau5441
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Site-specific reactivity of molecules with surface defects--the case of H2
           dissociation on Pt
    • Authors: van Lent, R; Auras, S. V, Cao, K, Walsh, A. J, Gleeson, M. A, Juurlink, L. B. F.
      Pages: 155 - 157
      Abstract: The classic system that describes weakly activated dissociation in heterogeneous catalysis has been explained by two dynamical models that are fundamentally at odds. Whereas one model for hydrogen dissociation on platinum(111) invokes a preequilibrium and diffusion toward defects, the other is based on direct and local reaction. We resolve this dispute by quantifying site-specific reactivity using a curved platinum single-crystal surface. Reactivity is step-type dependent and varies linearly with step density. Only the model that relies on localized dissociation is consistent with our results. Our approach provides absolute, site-specific reaction cross sections.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau6716
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • The Sommerfeld ground-wave limit for a molecule adsorbed at a surface
    • Authors: Chen, L; Lau, J. A, Schwarzer, D, Meyer, J, Verma, V. B, Wodtke, A. M.
      Pages: 158 - 161
      Abstract: Using a mid-infrared emission spectrometer based on a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector, we observed the dynamics of vibrational energy pooling of carbon monoxide (CO) adsorbed at the surface of a sodium chloride (NaCl) crystal. After exciting a majority of the CO molecules to their first vibrationally excited state (v = 1), we observed infrared emission from states up to v = 27. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations showed that vibrational energy collects in a few CO molecules at the expense of those up to eight lattice sites away by selective excitation of NaCl’s transverse phonons. The vibrating CO molecules behave like classical oscillating dipoles, losing their energy to NaCl lattice vibrations via the electromagnetic near-field. This is analogous to Sommerfeld’s description of radio transmission along Earth’s surface by ground waves.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav4278
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Nematic-to-columnar mesophase transition by in situ supramolecular
           polymerization
    • Authors: Yano, K; Itoh, Y, Araoka, F, Watanabe, G, Hikima, T, Aida, T.
      Pages: 161 - 165
      Abstract: Disk- and rod-shaped molecules are incompatible in coassembly, as the former tend to stack one-dimensionally whereas the latter tend to align in parallel. Because this type of incompatibility can be more pronounced in condensed phases, different-shaped molecules generally exclude one another. We report that supramolecular polymerization of a disk-shaped chiral monomer in nematic liquid crystals comprising rod-shaped molecules results in order-increasing mesophase transition into a single mesophase with a core-shell columnar geometry. This liquid crystalline material responds quickly to an applied electric field, resulting in unidirectional columnar ordering. Moreover, it can be modularly customized to be optoelectrically responsive simply by using a photoisomerizable rod-shaped module. The modular strategy allows for cooperative integration of different functions into elaborate dynamic architectures.
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan1019
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Problem-solving males become more attractive to female budgerigars
    • Authors: Chen, J; Zou, Y, Sun, Y.-H, ten Cate, C.
      Pages: 166 - 167
      Abstract: Darwin proposed that mate choice might contribute to the evolution of cognitive abilities. An open question is whether observing the cognitive skills of an individual makes it more attractive as a mate. In this study, we demonstrated that initially less-preferred budgerigar males became preferred after females observed that these males, but not the initially preferred ones, were able to solve extractive foraging problems. This preference shift did not occur in control experiments in which females observed males with free access to food or in which females observed female demonstrators solving these extractive foraging problems. Our results suggest that direct observation of problem-solving skills increases male attractiveness and that this could contribute to the evolution of the cognitive abilities underlying such skills.
      Keywords: Ecology, Evolution
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau8181
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Emergence of preconfigured and plastic time-compressed sequences in early
           postnatal development
    • Authors: Farooq, U; Dragoi, G.
      Pages: 168 - 173
      Abstract: When and how hippocampal neuronal ensembles first organize to support encoding and consolidation of memory episodes, a critical cognitive function of the brain, are unknown. We recorded electrophysiological activity from large ensembles of hippocampal neurons starting on the first day after eye opening as naïve rats navigated linear environments and slept. We found a gradual age-dependent, navigational experience–independent assembly of preconfigured trajectory-like sequences from persistent, location-depicting ensembles during postnatal week 3. Adult-like compressed binding of adjacent locations into trajectories during navigation and their navigational experience–dependent replay during sleep emerged in concert from spontaneous preconfigured sequences only during early postnatal week 4. Our findings reveal ethologically relevant distinct phases in the development of hippocampal preconfigured and experience-dependent sequential patterns thought to be important for episodic memory formation.
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav0502
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Termites mitigate the effects of drought in tropical rainforest
    • Authors: Ashton, L. A; Griffiths, H. M, Parr, C. L, Evans, T. A, Didham, R. K, Hasan, F, Teh, Y. A, Tin, H. S, Vairappan, C. S, Eggleton, P.
      Pages: 174 - 177
      Abstract: Termites perform key ecological functions in tropical ecosystems, are strongly affected by variation in rainfall, and respond negatively to habitat disturbance. However, it is not known how the projected increase in frequency and severity of droughts in tropical rainforests will alter termite communities and the maintenance of ecosystem processes. Using a large-scale termite suppression experiment, we found that termite activity and abundance increased during drought in a Bornean forest. This increase resulted in accelerated litter decomposition, elevated soil moisture, greater soil nutrient heterogeneity, and higher seedling survival rates during the extreme El Niño drought of 2015–2016. Our work shows how an invertebrate group enhances ecosystem resistance to drought, providing evidence that the dual stressors of climate change and anthropogenic shifts in biotic communities will have various negative consequences for the maintenance of rainforest ecosystems.
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau9565
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • A 90,000-year record of Afromontane forest responses to climate change
    • Authors: Lezine, A.-M; Izumi, K, Kageyama, M, Achoundong, G.
      Pages: 177 - 181
      Abstract: Pollen records from African highlands are scarce; hence, the paleoecology of the Afromontane forest and its responses to glacial cycles are poorly known. Lake Bambili (Cameroon) provides a record of vegetation changes in the tropical mountains of Africa over the past 90,000 years, with high temporal resolution. Pollen data and biome reconstructions show a diverging response of forests to climate changes; the upper tree line was extremely unstable, shifting substantially in response to glacial-interglacial climate alternation, whereas the transition between the montane and lowland forests remained remarkably stable. Such ecological instability may have had a critical influence on species richness in the Afromontane forests.
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav6821
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Invertible promoters mediate bacterial phase variation, antibiotic
           resistance, and host adaptation in the gut
    • Authors: Jiang, X; Hall, A. B, Arthur, T. D, Plichta, D. R, Covington, C. T, Poyet, M, Crothers, J, Moses, P. L, Tolonen, A. C, Vlamakis, H, Alm, E. J, Xavier, R. J.
      Pages: 181 - 187
      Abstract: Phase variation, the reversible alternation between genetic states, enables infection by pathogens and colonization by commensals. However, the diversity of phase variation remains underexplored. We developed the PhaseFinder algorithm to quantify DNA inversion–mediated phase variation. A systematic search of 54,875 bacterial genomes identified 4686 intergenic invertible DNA regions (invertons), revealing an enrichment in host-associated bacteria. Invertons containing promoters often regulate extracellular products, underscoring the importance of surface diversity for gut colonization. We found invertons containing promoters regulating antibiotic resistance genes that shift to the ON orientation after antibiotic treatment in human metagenomic data and in vitro, thereby mitigating the cost of antibiotic resistance. We observed that the orientations of some invertons diverge after fecal microbiota transplant, potentially as a result of individual-specific selective forces.
      Keywords: Evolution, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau5238
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • Cell-autonomous clock of astrocytes drives circadian behavior in mammals
    • Authors: Brancaccio, M; Edwards, M. D, Patton, A. P, Smyllie, N. J, Chesham, J. E, Maywood, E. S, Hastings, M. H.
      Pages: 187 - 192
      Abstract: Circadian (~24-hour) rhythms depend on intracellular transcription-translation negative feedback loops (TTFLs). How these self-sustained cellular clocks achieve multicellular integration and thereby direct daily rhythms of behavior in animals is largely obscure. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the fulcrum of this pathway from gene to cell to circuit to behavior in mammals. We describe cell type–specific, functionally distinct TTFLs in neurons and astrocytes of the SCN and show that, in the absence of other cellular clocks, the cell-autonomous astrocytic TTFL alone can drive molecular oscillations in the SCN and circadian behavior in mice. Astrocytic clocks achieve this by reinstating clock gene expression and circadian function of SCN neurons via glutamatergic signals. Our results demonstrate that astrocytes can autonomously initiate and sustain complex mammalian behavior.
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat4104
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • New Products
    • Pages: 193 - 193
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.193
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
  • The scars we bear
    • Authors: Schick R. S.
      Pages: 198 - 198
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T10:37:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.198
      Issue No: Vol. 363, No. 6423 (2019)
       
 
 
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