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Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 14.142
Citation Impact (citeScore): 16
Number of Followers: 4900  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
Published by AAAS Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Flux-induced topological superconductivity in full-shell nanowires
    • Authors: Vaitiekenas, S; Winkler, G. W, van Heck, B, Karzig, T, Deng, M.- T, Flensberg, K, Glazman, L. I, Nayak, C, Krogstrup, P, Lutchyn, R. M, Marcus, C. M.
      Abstract: Hybrid semiconductor-superconductor nanowires have emerged as a promising platform for realizing topological superconductivity (TSC). Here, we present a route to TSC using magnetic flux applied to a full superconducting shell surrounding a semiconducting nanowire core. Tunneling into the core reveals a hard induced gap near zero applied flux, corresponding to zero phase winding, and a gapped region with a discrete zero-energy state around one applied flux quantum, corresponding to 2 phase winding. Theoretical analysis indicates that the winding of the superconducting phase can induce a transition to a topological phase supporting Majorana zero modes. Measured Coulomb blockade peak spacing around one flux quantum shows a length dependence that is consistent with the existence of Majorana modes at the ends of the nanowire.
      Keywords: Online Only, Physics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav3392
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Last Interglacial Iberian Neandertals as fisher-hunter-gatherers
    • Authors: Zilhao, J; Angelucci, D. E, Igreja, M. A, Arnold, L. J, Badal, E, Callapez, P, Cardoso, J. L, dErrico, F, Daura, J, Demuro, M, Deschamps, M, Dupont, C, Gabriel, S, Hoffmann, D. L, Legoinha, P, Matias, H, Monge Soares, A. M, Nabais, M, Portela, P, Queffelec, A, Rodrigues, F, Souto, P.
      Abstract: Marine food–reliant subsistence systems such as those in the African Middle Stone Age (MSA) were not thought to exist in Europe until the much later Mesolithic. Whether this apparent lag reflects taphonomic biases or behavioral distinctions between archaic and modern humans remains much debated. Figueira Brava cave, in the Arrábida range (Portugal), provides an exceptionally well preserved record of Neandertal coastal resource exploitation on a comparable scale to the MSA and dated to ~86 to 106 thousand years ago. The breadth of the subsistence base—pine nuts, marine invertebrates, fish, marine birds and mammals, tortoises, waterfowl, and hoofed game—exceeds that of regional early Holocene sites. Fisher-hunter-gatherer economies are not the preserve of anatomically modern people; by the Last Interglacial, they were in place across the Old World in the appropriate settings.
      Keywords: Anthropology, Online Only
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz7943
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • The historical roots of economic development
    • Authors: Nunn; N.
      Abstract: This article reviews an emerging area of research within economics that seeks to better understand contemporary economic outcomes by taking a historical perspective. The field has established that many of the contemporary differences in comparative economic development have their roots in the distant past. The insights gained from this literature are not only of academic importance but also useful for thinking about policies that help to address global development moving forward. I provide examples of recent studies that have begun to take on this important next step in the literature by using insights gleaned from historical analyses to better understand policy and its optimal design.
      Keywords: Economics, Online Only
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz9986
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Knocking down neurodegeneration
    • Authors: Alderton; G.
      Pages: 1440
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1438-i
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Underpromise, overdeliver
    • Authors: Thorp; H. H.
      Pages: 1405 - 1405
      Keywords: Editorials
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb8492
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • COVID-19 needs a Manhattan Project
    • Authors: Berkley; S.
      Pages: 1407 - 1407
      Keywords: Editorials
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb8654
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • News at a glance
    • Pages: 1408 - 1410
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1408
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Race to find COVID-19 treatments accelerates
    • Authors: Kupferschmidt, K; Cohen, J.
      Pages: 1412 - 1413
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1412
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Fauci's straight talk
    • Authors: Cohen; J.
      Pages: 1414 - 1414
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1414-a
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • With COVID-19, modeling takes on life and death importance
    • Authors: Enserink, M; Kupferschmidt, K.
      Pages: 1414 - 1415
      Keywords: Epidemiology, Medicine, Diseases, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1414-b
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • New mercury compound spotted in mass poisoning
    • Authors: Sokol; J.
      Pages: 1415 - 1416
      Keywords: Asia/Pacific News, Pharmacology, Toxicology, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1415
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Can 'sentinel trees warn of devastating pests'
    • Authors: Popkin; G.
      Pages: 1417 - 1417
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1417
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • The bias detective
    • Authors: Starr; D.
      Pages: 1418 - 1421
      Keywords: Scientific Community, Sociology
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1418
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Neanderthal surf and turf
    • Authors: Will; M.
      Pages: 1422 - 1423
      Keywords: Anthropology
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb3568
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Deciphering cancer clues from blood
    • Authors: Ma, N; Jeffrey, S. S.
      Pages: 1424 - 1425
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb0736
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Surprises for climate stability
    • Authors: Stocker; T. F.
      Pages: 1425 - 1426
      Keywords: Oceanography
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb3569
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Quantifying mutations in healthy blood
    • Authors: Curtis; C.
      Pages: 1426 - 1427
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba9891
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Antisense oligonucleotides for neurodegeneration
    • Authors: Leavitt, B. R; Tabrizi, S. J.
      Pages: 1428 - 1429
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba4624
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Leadership to change a culture of sexual harassment
    • Authors: Cordova; F.
      Pages: 1430 - 1431
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb5791
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Evolution gets personal
    • Authors: Goldman; M. A.
      Pages: 1432 - 1432
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba6134
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Reversing the rise in midlife mortality
    • Authors: Canning; D.
      Pages: 1433 - 1433
      Keywords: Economics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba3036
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Misguided drug advice for COVID-19
    • Authors: FitzGerald; G. A.
      Pages: 1434 - 1434
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb8034
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Permanently ban wildlife consumption
    • Authors: Yang, N; Liu, P, Li, W, Zhang, L.
      Pages: 1434 - 1434
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb1938
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Wildlife consumption ban is insufficient
    • Authors: Wang, H; Shao, J, Luo, X, Chuai, Z, Xu, S, Geng, M, Gao, Z.
      Pages: 1435 - 1435
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb6463
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • COVID-19 drives new threat to bats in China
    • Authors: Zhao; H.
      Pages: 1436 - 1436
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb3088
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Travel restrictions violate international law
    • Authors: Meier, B. M; Habibi, R, Yang, Y. T.
      Pages: 1436 - 1436
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb6950
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Steps needed to keep immigrant scientists welcome
    • Authors: Ham; B.
      Pages: 1437 - 1437
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1437
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Not a big deal after all
    • Authors: Smith; H. J.
      Pages: 1438 - 1438
      Keywords: Atmospheric Science, Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1438-a
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Fruit abscission in response to drought
    • Authors: Hines; P. J.
      Pages: 1438 - 1438
      Keywords: Botany, Ecology
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1438-b
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • X-ray data constrain dark matter decay
    • Authors: Smith; K. T.
      Pages: 1438 - 1438
      Keywords: Astronomy, Physics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1438-c
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • How SARS-CoV-2 binds to human cells
    • Authors: Vinson; V.
      Pages: 1438 - 1439
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1438-d
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Capturing the transformation
    • Authors: Stajic; J.
      Pages: 1438 - 1439
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1438-e
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Glassy metal-organic frameworks
    • Authors: Szuromi; P.
      Pages: 1438 - 1439
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1438-f
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Metastasis: A matter of translation'
    • Authors: Kiberstis; P. A.
      Pages: 1438 - 1439
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1438-g
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Priming NK cells for tumor destruction
    • Authors: Williams; I.
      Pages: 1438 - 1439
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1438-h
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Deep origins of modern inequality
    • Authors: Rai; T. S.
      Pages: 1438 - 1440
      Keywords: Economics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1438-j
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • A possible Majorana sighting
    • Authors: Stajic; J.
      Pages: 1438 - 1440
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1438-k
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Fruits of the sea
    • Authors: Sugden; A. M.
      Pages: 1438 - 1440
      Keywords: Anthropology
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1438-l
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Evolutionary dynamics in hematopoiesis
    • Authors: Zahn; L. M.
      Pages: 1438 - 1440
      Keywords: Evolution, Genetics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1438-m
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • A resilient superconductor
    • Authors: Stajic; J.
      Pages: 1438 - 1440
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1438-n
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Precision spectroscopy with single ions
    • Authors: Osborne; I. S.
      Pages: 1438 - 1440
      Keywords: Chemistry, Physics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1438-o
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Disrupting deep circulation
    • Authors: Smith; H. J.
      Pages: 1438 - 1440
      Keywords: Atmospheric Science, Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1438-p
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Salting neutrophils' game
    • Authors: Pujanandez; L.
      Pages: 1438 - 1440
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1438-q
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Inflamed by TLR4 internalization
    • Authors: Foley; J. F.
      Pages: 1438 - 1440
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1438-r
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • It's in the air
    • Authors: Smith; H. J.
      Pages: 1439 - 1440
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1439-f
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • A strange strange metal
    • Authors: Stajic; J.
      Pages: 1439 - 1440
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1439-g
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • A mitotic error code
    • Authors: Hurtley; S. M.
      Pages: 1439 - 1439
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1439-a
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • In search of a male contraceptive
    • Authors: Purnell; B. A.
      Pages: 1439 - 1440
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1439-b
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • A silver lining for hurricanes
    • Authors: Sugden; A. M.
      Pages: 1439 - 1440
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1439-c
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Feed the dog
    • Authors: Vignieri; S.
      Pages: 1439 - 1440
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1439-d
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Determining odd from even
    • Authors: Osborne; I. S.
      Pages: 1439 - 1440
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1439-e
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Structural basis for the recognition of SARS-CoV-2 by full-length human
           ACE2
    • Authors: Yan, R; Zhang, Y, Li, Y, Xia, L, Guo, Y, Zhou, Q.
      Pages: 1444 - 1448
      Abstract: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cellular receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that is causing the serious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. Here, we present cryo–electron microscopy structures of full-length human ACE2 in the presence of the neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1 with or without the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the surface spike glycoprotein (S protein) of SARS-CoV-2, both at an overall resolution of 2.9 angstroms, with a local resolution of 3.5 angstroms at the ACE2-RBD interface. The ACE2-B0AT1 complex is assembled as a dimer of heterodimers, with the collectrin-like domain of ACE2 mediating homodimerization. The RBD is recognized by the extracellular peptidase domain of ACE2 mainly through polar residues. These findings provide important insights into the molecular basis for coronavirus recognition and infection.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb2762
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • The evolutionary dynamics and fitness landscape of clonal hematopoiesis
    • Authors: Watson, C. J; Papula, A. L, Poon, G. Y. P, Wong, W. H, Young, A. L, Druley, T. E, Fisher, D. S, Blundell, J. R.
      Pages: 1449 - 1454
      Abstract: Somatic mutations acquired in healthy tissues as we age are major determinants of cancer risk. Whether variants confer a fitness advantage or rise to detectable frequencies by chance remains largely unknown. Blood sequencing data from ~50,000 individuals reveal how mutation, genetic drift, and fitness shape the genetic diversity of healthy blood (clonal hematopoiesis). We show that positive selection, not drift, is the major force shaping clonal hematopoiesis, provide bounds on the number of hematopoietic stem cells, and quantify the fitness advantages of key pathogenic variants, at single-nucleotide resolution, as well as the distribution of fitness effects (fitness landscape) within commonly mutated driver genes. These data are consistent with clonal hematopoiesis being driven by a continuing risk of mutations and clonal expansions that become increasingly detectable with age.
      Keywords: Evolution, Genetics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay9333
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Type-II Ising pairing in few-layer stanene
    • Authors: Falson, J; Xu, Y, Liao, M, Zang, Y, Zhu, K, Wang, C, Zhang, Z, Liu, H, Duan, W, He, K, Liu, H, Smet, J. H, Zhang, D, Xue, Q.-K.
      Pages: 1454 - 1457
      Abstract: Spin-orbit coupling has proven indispensable in the realization of topological materials and, more recently, Ising pairing in two-dimensional superconductors. This pairing mechanism relies on inversion symmetry–breaking and sustains anomalously large in-plane polarizing magnetic fields whose upper limit is predicted to diverge at low temperatures. Here, we show that the recently discovered superconductor few-layer stanene, epitaxially strained gray tin (α-Sn), exhibits a distinct type of Ising pairing between carriers residing in bands with different orbital indices near the -point. The bands are split as a result of spin-orbit locking without the participation of inversion symmetry–breaking. The in-plane upper critical field is strongly enhanced at ultralow temperature and reveals the predicted upturn.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax3873
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Frequency-comb spectroscopy on pure quantum states of a single molecular
           ion
    • Authors: Chou, C. W; Collopy, A. L, Kurz, C, Lin, Y, Harding, M. E, Plessow, P. N, Fortier, T, Diddams, S, Leibfried, D, Leibrandt, D. R.
      Pages: 1458 - 1461
      Abstract: Spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying molecules and is commonly performed on large thermal molecular ensembles that are perturbed by motional shifts and interactions with the environment and one another, resulting in convoluted spectra and limited resolution. Here, we use quantum-logic techniques to prepare a trapped molecular ion in a single quantum state, drive terahertz rotational transitions with an optical frequency comb, and read out the final state nondestructively, leaving the molecule ready for further manipulation. We can resolve rotational transitions to 11 significant digits and derive the rotational constant of 40CaH+ to be BR = 142 501 777.9(1.7) kilohertz. Our approach is suited for a wide range of molecular ions, including polyatomics and species relevant for tests of fundamental physics, chemistry, and astrophysics.
      Keywords: Chemistry, Physics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba3628
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Observation of dynamical fermionization
    • Authors: Wilson, J. M; Malvania, N, Le, Y, Zhang, Y, Rigol, M, Weiss, D. S.
      Pages: 1461 - 1464
      Abstract: The wave function of a Tonks-Girardeau (T-G) gas of strongly interacting bosons in one dimension maps onto the absolute value of the wave function of a noninteracting Fermi gas. Although this fermionization makes many aspects of the two gases identical, their equilibrium momentum distributions are quite different. We observed dynamical fermionization, where the momentum distribution of a T-G gas evolves from bosonic to fermionic after its axial confinement is removed. The asymptotic momentum distribution after expansion in one dimension is the distribution of rapidities, which are the conserved quantities associated with many-body integrable systems. Our measurements agree well with T-G gas theory. We also studied momentum evolution after the trap depth is suddenly changed to a new nonzero value, and we observed the theoretically predicted bosonic-fermionic oscillations.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz0242
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • The dark matter interpretation of the 3.5-keV line is inconsistent with
           blank-sky observations
    • Authors: Dessert, C; Rodd, N. L, Safdi, B. R.
      Pages: 1465 - 1467
      Abstract: Observations of nearby galaxies and galaxy clusters have reported an unexpected x-ray emission line around 3.5 kilo–electron volts (keV). Proposals to explain this line include decaying dark matter—in particular, that the decay of sterile neutrinos with a mass around 7 keV could match the available data. If this interpretation is correct, the 3.5-keV line should also be emitted by dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way. We used more than 30 megaseconds of XMM-Newton (X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission) blank-sky observations to test this hypothesis, finding no evidence of the 3.5-keV line emission from the Milky Way halo. We set an upper limit on the decay rate of dark matter in this mass range, which is inconsistent with the possibility that the 3.5-keV line originates from dark matter decay.
      Keywords: Astronomy, Physics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw3772
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Deregulation of ribosomal protein expression and translation promotes
           breast cancer metastasis
    • Authors: Ebright, R. Y; Lee, S, Wittner, B. S, Niederhoffer, K. L, Nicholson, B. T, Bardia, A, Truesdell, S, Wiley, D. F, Wesley, B, Li, S, Mai, A, Aceto, N, Vincent-Jordan, N, Szabolcs, A, Chirn, B, Kreuzer, J, Comaills, V, Kalinich, M, Haas, W, Ting, D. T, Toner, M, Vasudevan, S, Haber, D. A, Maheswaran, S, Micalizzi, D. S.
      Pages: 1468 - 1473
      Abstract: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are shed into the bloodstream from primary tumors, but only a small subset of these cells generates metastases. We conducted an in vivo genome-wide CRISPR activation screen in CTCs from breast cancer patients to identify genes that promote distant metastasis in mice. Genes coding for ribosomal proteins and regulators of translation were enriched in this screen. Overexpression of RPL15, which encodes a component of the large ribosomal subunit, increased metastatic growth in multiple organs and selectively enhanced translation of other ribosomal proteins and cell cycle regulators. RNA sequencing of freshly isolated CTCs from breast cancer patients revealed a subset with strong ribosome and protein synthesis signatures; these CTCs expressed proliferation and epithelial markers and correlated with poor clinical outcome. Therapies targeting this aggressive subset of CTCs may merit exploration as potential suppressors of metastatic progression.
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay0939
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Ultrahigh-field 67Zn NMR reveals short-range disorder in zeolitic
           imidazolate framework glasses
    • Authors: Madsen, R. S. K; Qiao, A, Sen, J, Hung, I, Chen, K, Gan, Z, Sen, S, Yue, Y.
      Pages: 1473 - 1476
      Abstract: The structure of melt-quenched zeolitic imidazole framework (ZIF) glasses can provide insights into their glass-formation mechanism. We directly detected short-range disorder in ZIF glasses using ultrahigh-field zinc-67 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Two distinct Zn sites characteristic of the parent crystals transformed upon melting into a single tetrahedral site with a broad distribution of structural parameters. Moreover, the ligand chemistry in ZIFs appeared to have no controlling effect on the short-range disorder, although the former affected their phase-transition behavior. These findings reveal structure-property relations and could help design metal-organic framework glasses.
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz0251
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • No consistent ENSO response to volcanic forcing over the last millennium
    • Authors: Dee, S. G; Cobb, K. M, Emile-Geay, J, Ault, T. R, Edwards, R. L, Cheng, H, Charles, C. D.
      Pages: 1477 - 1481
      Abstract: The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) shapes global climate patterns yet its sensitivity to external climate forcing remains uncertain. Modeling studies suggest that ENSO is sensitive to sulfate aerosol forcing associated with explosive volcanism but observational support for this effect remains ambiguous. Here, we used absolutely dated fossil corals from the central tropical Pacific to gauge ENSO’s response to large volcanic eruptions of the last millennium. Superposed epoch analysis reveals a weak tendency for an El Niño–like response in the year after an eruption, but this response is not statistically significant, nor does it appear after the outsized 1257 Samalas eruption. Our results suggest that those models showing a strong ENSO response to volcanic forcing may overestimate the size of the forced response relative to natural ENSO variability.
      Keywords: Atmospheric Science, Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax2000
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Peptide signaling for drought-induced tomato flower drop
    • Authors: Reichardt, S; Piepho, H.- P, Stintzi, A, Schaller, A.
      Pages: 1482 - 1485
      Abstract: The premature abscission of flowers and fruits limits crop yield under environmental stress. Drought-induced flower drop in tomato plants was found to be regulated by phytosulfokine (PSK), a peptide hormone previously known for its growth-promoting and immune-modulating activities. PSK formation in response to drought stress depends on phytaspase 2, a subtilisin-like protease of the phytaspase subtype that generates the peptide hormone by aspartate-specific processing of the PSK precursor in the tomato flower pedicel. The mature peptide acts in the abscission zone where it induces expression of cell wall hydrolases that execute the abscission process. Our results provide insight into the molecular control of abscission as regulated by proteolytic processing to generate a small plant peptide hormone.
      Keywords: Botany, Ecology
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz5641
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Interglacial instability of North Atlantic Deep Water ventilation
    • Authors: Galaasen, E. V; Ninnemann, U. S, Kessler, A, Irvalı, N, Rosenthal, Y, Tjiputra, J, Bouttes, N, Roche, D. M, Kleiven, H. F, Hodell, D. A.
      Pages: 1485 - 1489
      Abstract: Disrupting North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) ventilation is a key concern in climate projections. We use (sub)centennially resolved bottom water 13C records that span the interglacials of the last 0.5 million years to assess the frequency of and the climatic backgrounds capable of triggering large NADW reductions. Episodes of reduced NADW in the deep Atlantic, similar in magnitude to glacial events, have been relatively common and occasionally long-lasting features of interglacials. NADW reductions were triggered across the range of recent interglacial climate backgrounds, which demonstrates that catastrophic freshwater outburst floods were not a prerequisite for large perturbations. Our results argue that large NADW disruptions are more easily achieved than previously appreciated and that they occurred in past climate conditions similar to those we may soon face.
      Keywords: Atmospheric Science, Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay6381
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
  • Stepping up to leadership
    • Authors: Palladino; M.
      Pages: 1494 - 1494
      PubDate: 2020-03-26T10:40:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1494
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6485 (2020)
       
 
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