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Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 14.142
Citation Impact (citeScore): 16
Number of Followers: 4516  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
Published by AAAS Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Response to Comment on "Earth and Moon impact flux increased at the end of
           the Paleozoic"
    • Authors: Mazrouei, S; Ghent, R. R, Bottke, W. F, Parker, A. H, Gernon, T. M.
      Abstract: Hergarten et al. interpret our results in terms of erosion and uncertain calibration, rather than requiring an increase in impact flux. Geologic constraints indicate low long-term erosion rates on stable cratons where most craters with diameters of ≥20 kilometers occur. We statistically test their proposed recalibration of the lunar crater ages and find that it is disfavored relative to our original calibration.
      Keywords: Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T13:13:07-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw9895
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Early suckler'
    • Authors: Vignieri S.
      Pages: 246
      Keywords: Evolution, Paleontology
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.245-i
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • IRE1{alpha}-XBP1 signaling in leukocytes controls prostaglandin
           biosynthesis and pain
    • Authors: Chopra, S; Giovanelli, P, Alvarado-Vazquez, P. A, Alonso, S, Song, M, Sandoval, T. A, Chae, C.-S, Tan, C, Fonseca, M. M, Gutierrez, S, Jimenez, L, Subbaramaiah, K, Iwawaki, T, Kingsley, P. J, Marnett, L. J, Kossenkov, A. V, Crespo, M. S, Dannenberg, A. J, Glimcher, L. H, Romero-Sandoval, E. A, Cubillos-Ruiz, J. R.
      Abstract: Inositol-requiring enzyme 1[α] (IRE1[α])–X-box binding protein spliced (XBP1) signaling maintains endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis while controlling immunometabolic processes. Yet, the physiological consequences of IRE1α–XBP1 activation in leukocytes remain unexplored. We found that induction of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (Ptgs2/Cox-2) and prostaglandin E synthase (Ptges/mPGES-1) was compromised in IRE1α-deficient myeloid cells undergoing ER stress or stimulated through pattern recognition receptors. Inducible biosynthesis of prostaglandins, including the pro-algesic mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), was decreased in myeloid cells that lack IRE1α or XBP1 but not other ER stress sensors. Functional XBP1 transactivated the human PTGS2 and PTGES genes to enable optimal PGE2 production. Mice that lack IRE1α–XBP1 in leukocytes, or that were treated with IRE1α inhibitors, demonstrated reduced pain behaviors in PGE2-dependent models of pain. Thus, IRE1α–XBP1 is a mediator of prostaglandin biosynthesis and a potential target to control pain.
      Keywords: Immunology, Online Only
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau6499
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Conservation, acquisition, and functional impact of sex-biased gene
           expression in mammals
    • Authors: Naqvi, S; Godfrey, A. K, Hughes, J. F, Goodheart, M. L, Mitchell, R. N, Page, D. C.
      Abstract: Sex differences abound in human health and disease, as they do in other mammals used as models. The extent to which sex differences are conserved at the molecular level across species and tissues is unknown. We surveyed sex differences in gene expression in human, macaque, mouse, rat, and dog, across 12 tissues. In each tissue, we identified hundreds of genes with conserved sex-biased expression—findings that, combined with genomic analyses of human height, explain ~12% of the difference in height between females and males. We surmise that conserved sex biases in expression of genes otherwise operating equivalently in females and males contribute to sex differences in traits. However, most sex-biased expression arose during the mammalian radiation, which suggests that careful attention to interspecies divergence is needed when modeling human sex differences.
      Keywords: Engineering, Genetics, Online Only
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw7317
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Comment on "Earth and Moon impact flux increased at the end of the
           Paleozoic"
    • Authors: Hergarten, S; Wulf, G, Kenkmann, T.
      Abstract: Mazrouei et al. (Reports, 18 January 2019, p. 253) found a nonuniform distribution of crater ages on Earth and the Moon, concluding that the impact flux increased about 290 million years ago. We show that the apparent increase on Earth can be explained by erosion, whereas that on the Moon may be an artifact of their calibration method.
      Keywords: Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw7471
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Amyloid {beta} oligomers constrict human capillaries in Alzheimers disease
           via signaling to pericytes
    • Authors: Nortley, R; Korte, N, Izquierdo, P, Hirunpattarasilp, C, Mishra, A, Jaunmuktane, Z, Kyrargyri, V, Pfeiffer, T, Khennouf, L, Madry, C, Gong, H, Richard-Loendt, A, Huang, W, Saito, T, Saido, T. C, Brandner, S, Sethi, H, Attwell, D.
      Abstract: Cerebral blood flow is reduced early in the onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Because most of the vascular resistance within the brain is in capillaries, this could reflect dysfunction of contractile pericytes on capillary walls. We used live and rapidly fixed biopsied human tissue to establish disease relevance, and rodent experiments to define mechanism. We found that in humans with cognitive decline, amyloid β (Aβ) constricts brain capillaries at pericyte locations. This was caused by Aβ generating reactive oxygen species, which evoked the release of endothelin-1 (ET) that activated pericyte ETA receptors. Capillary, but not arteriole, constriction also occurred in vivo in a mouse model of AD. Thus, inhibiting the capillary constriction caused by Aβ could potentially reduce energy lack and neurodegeneration in AD.
      Keywords: Neuroscience, Online Only
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav9518
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • A child of Apollo
    • Authors: Berg J.
      Pages: 203 - 203
      Keywords: Editorials
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay6770
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • News at a glance
    • Pages: 204 - 206
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.204
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Banana fungus puts Latin America on alert
    • Authors: Stokstad E.
      Pages: 207 - 208
      Keywords: Botany, Latin American News
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.207
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • University of Alaska braces for draconian budget cuts
    • Authors: Price M.
      Pages: 208 - 208
      Keywords: Scientific Community, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.208
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Pinpoint brain stimulation probes perception
    • Authors: Servick K.
      Pages: 209 - 209
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.209
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Genomics guides help for dwindling species
    • Authors: Pennisi E.
      Pages: 210 - 210
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.210
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Census citizenship question is dropped, but challenges linger
    • Authors: Mervis J.
      Pages: 211 - 211
      Keywords: Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.211
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • A painful legacy
    • Authors: Curry A.
      Pages: 212 - 215
      Keywords: Development, Evolution, Genetics
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.212
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • How to make interlocked nanocarbons
    • Authors: Van Raden, J. M; Jasti, R.
      Pages: 216 - 217
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay2861
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Polarons leave a trace
    • Authors: Schauss P.
      Pages: 218 - 218
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax6486
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • An attractive, reshapable material
    • Authors: Dreyfus R.
      Pages: 219 - 219
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax8979
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Making precision medicine personal for cystic fibrosis
    • Authors: Manfredi, C; Tindall, J. M, Hong, J. S, Sorscher, E. J.
      Pages: 220 - 221
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw0553
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Tongues untied
    • Authors: Hoffmann, S; Krause, D. W.
      Pages: 222 - 223
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay2061
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • The vascular side of Alzheimer's disease
    • Authors: Liesz A.
      Pages: 223 - 224
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay2720
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Stress signaling in pain control
    • Authors: Avril, T; Chevet, E.
      Pages: 224 - 225
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay2721
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Apollo, in context
    • Authors: Siddiqi A.
      Pages: 226 - 227
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay4380
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • The ethics of opioids
    • Authors: Buchman D. Z.
      Pages: 228 - 228
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax8555
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Fighting plant pathogens together
    • Authors: Hong C.
      Pages: 229 - 229
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay4514
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • States lack endangered species reporting
    • Authors: Bennett, C; Schwartz, M. W.
      Pages: 229 - 230
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay4403
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Replicable data for digit ratio differences
    • Authors: Breedlove S. M.
      Pages: 230 - 230
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay3385
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Shooting for the Moon
    • Authors: Smith K. T.
      Pages: 232 - 233
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay6006
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Moon gazing
    • Authors: Clery D.
      Pages: 234 - 237
      Keywords: Astronomy, Planetary Science, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.234
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Chinas present and future lunar exploration program
    • Authors: Li, C; Wang, C, Wei, Y, Lin, Y.
      Pages: 238 - 239
      Abstract: Since the beginning of the 21st century, the pace of lunar exploration has accelerated, with more than a dozen probes having undertaken scientific exploration of the Moon. Prominent among these have been the robotic "Chang’E" (CE) missions of the China Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP). We discuss technological and scientific goals and achievements for the four completed, and four planned, CE missions, and longer-term goals and plans of the CLEP beyond the CE missions. The exploration plan is flexible and iterative, with an emphasis on international cooperation.
      Keywords: Planetary Science, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax9908
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Analysis of lunar samples: Implications for planet formation and evolution
    • Authors: Carlson R. W.
      Pages: 240 - 243
      Abstract: The analysis of lunar samples returned to Earth by the Apollo and Luna missions changed our view of the processes involved in planet formation. The data obtained on lunar samples brought to light the importance during planet growth of highly energetic collisions that lead to global-scale melting. This violent birth determines the initial structure and long-term evolution of planets. Once past its formative era, the lunar surface has served as a recorder of more than 4 billion years of interaction with the space environment. The chronologic record of lunar cratering determined from the returned samples underpins age estimates for planetary surfaces throughout the inner Solar System and provides evidence of the dynamic nature of the Solar System during the planet-forming era.
      Keywords: Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw7580
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Building a safer CMV vector
    • Authors: Pujanandez L.
      Pages: 245 - 246
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.245-g
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Carbon catenation
    • Authors: Yeston J.
      Pages: 245 - 246
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.245-h
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • A "sUPR" target for pain management'
    • Authors: Scanlon S. T.
      Pages: 245 - 247
      Keywords: Immunology
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.245-j
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • The genetics of sexual dimorphism
    • Authors: Zahn L. M.
      Pages: 245 - 247
      Keywords: Engineering, Genetics
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.245-k
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Pericytes put the squeeze on cognition
    • Authors: Hurtley S. M.
      Pages: 245 - 247
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.245-l
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Liquid reconfigurable ferromagnetic materials
    • Authors: Lavine M. S.
      Pages: 245 - 247
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.245-m
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Looking for patterns in an optical lattice
    • Authors: Stajic J.
      Pages: 245 - 247
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.245-n
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Broadening targeted therapy in cystic fibrosis
    • Authors: Alderton G.
      Pages: 245 - 247
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.245-o
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Doesn't matter if it's fair...as long as you win
    • Authors: Clauset A.
      Pages: 245 - 247
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.245-p
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • An Achilles' heel for KRAS mutant tumors
    • Authors: Ferrarelli L. K.
      Pages: 245 - 247
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.245-q
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Millennial magma reserves
    • Authors: Grocholski B.
      Pages: 245 - 245
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.245-a
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • A dynamic metasurface in the mix
    • Authors: Osborne I. S.
      Pages: 245 - 245
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.245-b
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Targeted tumor immunotherapy
    • Authors: Balasubramani A.
      Pages: 245 - 245
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.245-c
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • A quantum breakdown
    • Authors: Stajic J.
      Pages: 245 - 245
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.245-d
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Predicting marine futures
    • Authors: Smith H. J.
      Pages: 245 - 246
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.245-e
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Growing independently
    • Authors: Vinson V.
      Pages: 245 - 246
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Chemistry
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.245-f
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Glimpsing growing nanotubes
    • Authors: Szuromi P.
      Pages: 246 - 246
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.246-a
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Confronting bias before it happens
    • Authors: McCartney M.
      Pages: 246 - 247
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.246-b
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • A is for antimicrobial
    • Authors: Scanlon S. T.
      Pages: 246 - 247
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.246-c
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Inhibition by misdirection
    • Authors: Hurtley S. M.
      Pages: 246 - 247
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.246-d
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Body cameras and police misconduct
    • Authors: Rai T. S.
      Pages: 246 - 247
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.246-e
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Thermal intolerance
    • Authors: Ash C.
      Pages: 246 - 247
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.246-f
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Re-skilling the brain
    • Authors: Stern P.
      Pages: 246 - 247
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.246-g
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • String patterns in the doped Hubbard model
    • Authors: Chiu, C. S; Ji, G, Bohrdt, A, Xu, M, Knap, M, Demler, E, Grusdt, F, Greiner, M, Greif, D.
      Pages: 251 - 256
      Abstract: Understanding strongly correlated quantum many-body states is one of the most difficult challenges in modern physics. For example, there remain fundamental open questions on the phase diagram of the Hubbard model, which describes strongly correlated electrons in solids. In this work, we realize the Hubbard Hamiltonian and search for specific patterns within the individual images of many realizations of strongly correlated ultracold fermions in an optical lattice. Upon doping a cold-atom antiferromagnet, we find consistency with geometric strings, entities that may explain the relationship between hole motion and spin order, in both pattern-based and conventional observables. Our results demonstrate the potential for pattern recognition to provide key insights into cold-atom quantum many-body systems.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav3587
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Temporal color mixing and dynamic beam shaping with silicon metasurfaces
    • Authors: Holsteen, A. L; Cihan, A. F, Brongersma, M. L.
      Pages: 257 - 260
      Abstract: Metasurfaces offer the possibility to shape optical wavefronts with an ultracompact, planar form factor. However, most metasurfaces are static, and their optical functions are fixed after the fabrication process. Many modern optical systems require dynamic manipulation of light, and this is now driving the development of electrically reconfigurable metasurfaces. We can realize metasurfaces with fast (>105 hertz), electrically tunable pixels that offer complete (0- to 2) phase control and large amplitude modulation of scattered waves through the microelectromechanical movement of silicon antenna arrays created in standard silicon-on-insulator technology. Our approach can be used to realize a platform technology that enables low-voltage operation of pixels for temporal color mixing and continuous, dynamic beam steering and light focusing.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax5961
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Millennial storage of near-Moho magma
    • Authors: Mutch, E. J. F; Maclennan, J, Holland, T. J. B, Buisman, I.
      Pages: 260 - 264
      Abstract: The lower crust plays a critical role in the processing of mantle melts and the triggering of volcanic eruptions by supply of magma from greater depth. Our understanding of the deeper parts of magmatic systems is obscured by overprinting of deep signals by shallow processes. We provide a direct estimate of magma residence time in basaltic systems of the deep crust by studying ultramafic nodules from the Borgarhraun eruption in Iceland. Modeling of chromium–aluminum interdiffusion in spinel crystals provides a record of long-term magmatic storage on the order of 1000 years. This places firm constraints on the total crustal residence time of mantle-derived magmas and has important implications for modeling the growth and evolution of transcrustal magmatic systems.
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax4092
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Reconfigurable ferromagnetic liquid droplets
    • Authors: Liu, X; Kent, N, Ceballos, A, Streubel, R, Jiang, Y, Chai, Y, Kim, P. Y, Forth, J, Hellman, F, Shi, S, Wang, D, Helms, B. A, Ashby, P. D, Fischer, P, Russell, T. P.
      Pages: 264 - 267
      Abstract: Solid ferromagnetic materials are rigid in shape and cannot be reconfigured. Ferrofluids, although reconfigurable, are paramagnetic at room temperature and lose their magnetization when the applied magnetic field is removed. Here, we show a reversible paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic transformation of ferrofluid droplets by the jamming of a monolayer of magnetic nanoparticles assembled at the water-oil interface. These ferromagnetic liquid droplets exhibit a finite coercivity and remanent magnetization. They can be easily reconfigured into different shapes while preserving the magnetic properties of solid ferromagnets with classic north-south dipole interactions. Their translational and rotational motions can be actuated remotely and precisely by an external magnetic field, inspiring studies on active matter, energy-dissipative assemblies, and programmable liquid constructs.
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw8719
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Quantum scale anomaly and spatial coherence in a 2D Fermi superfluid
    • Authors: Murthy, P. A; Defenu, N, Bayha, L, Holten, M, Preiss, P. M, Enss, T, Jochim, S.
      Pages: 268 - 272
      Abstract: Quantum anomalies are violations of classical scaling symmetries caused by divergences that appear in the quantization of certain classical theories. Although they play a prominent role in the quantum field theoretical description of many-body systems, their influence on experimental observables is difficult to discern. In this study, we discovered a distinctive manifestation of a quantum anomaly in the momentum-space dynamics of a two-dimensional (2D) Fermi superfluid of ultracold atoms. The measured pair momentum distributions of the superfluid during a breathing mode cycle exhibit a scaling violation in the strongly interacting regime. We found that the power-law exponents that characterize long-range phase correlations in the system are modified by the quantum anomaly, emphasizing the influence of this effect on the critical properties of 2D superfluids.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau4402
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Topological molecular nanocarbons: All-benzene catenane and trefoil knot
    • Authors: Segawa, Y; Kuwayama, M, Hijikata, Y, Fushimi, M, Nishihara, T, Pirillo, J, Shirasaki, J, Kubota, N, Itami, K.
      Pages: 272 - 276
      Abstract: The generation of topologically complex nanocarbons can spur developments in science and technology. However, conventional synthetic routes to interlocked molecules require heteroatoms. We report the synthesis of catenanes and a molecular trefoil knot consisting solely of para-connected benzene rings. Characteristic fluorescence of a heterocatenane associated with fast energy transfer between two rings was observed, and the topological chirality of the all-benzene knot was confirmed by enantiomer separation and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The seemingly rigid all-benzene knot has rapid vortex-like motion in solution even at –95°C, resulting in averaged nuclear magnetic resonance signals for all hydrogen atoms. This interesting dynamic behavior of the knot was theoretically predicted and could stimulate deeper understanding and applications of these previously untapped classes of topological molecular nanocarbons.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav5021
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • New Jurassic mammaliaform sheds light on early evolution of mammal-like
           hyoid bones
    • Authors: Zhou, C.-F; Bhullar, B.-A. S, Neander, A. I, Martin, T, Luo, Z.-X.
      Pages: 276 - 279
      Abstract: We report a new Jurassic docodontan mammaliaform found in China that is preserved with the hyoid bones. Its basihyal, ceratohyal, epihyal, and thyrohyal bones have mobile joints and are arranged in a saddle-shaped configuration, as in the mobile linkage of the hyoid apparatus of extant mammals. These are fundamentally different from the simple hyoid rods of nonmammaliaform cynodonts, which were likely associated with a wide, nonmuscularized throat, as seen in extant reptiles. The hyoid apparatus provides a framework for the larynx and for the constricted, muscularized esophagus, crucial for transport and powered swallowing of the masticated food and liquid in extant mammals. These derived structural components of hyoids evolved among early diverging mammaliaforms, before the disconnection of the middle ear from the mandible in crown mammals.
      Keywords: Evolution, Paleontology
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau9345
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Use of a scaffold peptide in the biosynthesis of amino acid-derived
           natural products
    • Authors: Ting, C. P; Funk, M. A, Halaby, S. L, Zhang, Z, Gonen, T, van der Donk, W. A.
      Pages: 280 - 284
      Abstract: Genome sequencing of environmental bacteria allows identification of biosynthetic gene clusters encoding unusual combinations of enzymes that produce unknown natural products. We identified a pathway in which a ribosomally synthesized small peptide serves as a scaffold for nonribosomal peptide extension and chemical modification. Amino acids are transferred to the carboxyl terminus of the peptide through adenosine triphosphate and amino acyl-tRNA–dependent chemistry that is independent of the ribosome. Oxidative rearrangement, carboxymethylation, and proteolysis of a terminal cysteine yields an amino acid–derived small molecule. Microcrystal electron diffraction demonstrates that the resulting product is isosteric to glutamate. We show that a similar peptide extension is used during the biosynthesis of the ammosamides, which are cytotoxic pyrroloquinoline alkaloids. These results suggest an alternative paradigm for biosynthesis of amino acid–derived natural products.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Chemistry
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau6232
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Seasonal to multiannual marine ecosystem prediction with a global Earth
           system model
    • Authors: Park, J.-Y; Stock, C. A, Dunne, J. P, Yang, X, Rosati, A.
      Pages: 284 - 288
      Abstract: Climate variations have a profound impact on marine ecosystems and the communities that depend upon them. Anticipating ecosystem shifts using global Earth system models (ESMs) could enable communities to adapt to climate fluctuations and contribute to long-term ecosystem resilience. We show that newly developed ESM-based marine biogeochemical predictions can skillfully predict satellite-derived seasonal to multiannual chlorophyll fluctuations in many regions. Prediction skill arises primarily from successfully simulating the chlorophyll response to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation and capturing the winter reemergence of subsurface nutrient anomalies in the extratropics, which subsequently affect spring and summer chlorophyll concentrations. Further investigations suggest that interannual fish-catch variations in selected large marine ecosystems can be anticipated from predicted chlorophyll and sea surface temperature anomalies. This result, together with high predictability for other marine-resource–relevant biogeochemical properties (e.g., oxygen, primary production), suggests a role for ESM-based marine biogeochemical predictions in dynamic marine resource management efforts.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav6634
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • New Products
    • Pages: 290 - 290
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.290
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
  • Livestreaming science
    • Authors: Ather S. H.
      Pages: 294 - 294
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T10:32:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6450.294
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6450 (2019)
       
 
 
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