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Journal Cover   Science
  [SJR: 12.465]   [H-I: 801]   [2347 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
   Published by American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Homepage  [5 journals]
  • [Association Affairs] Climate Science Milestones Leading To 1965 PCAST
    • PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1046
  • [Association Affairs] AAAS Members Elected as Fellows
    • PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1047
  • [Association Affairs] AAAS Kavli Science Journalism Award winners named
    • Authors: Earl Lane
      Abstract: This year's winners included stories on the health impacts of urban violence, local signs of global climate change, and West Africa's Ebola epidemic Author: Earl Lane
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1050
  • [Letter] Brazilian aquatic biodiversity in peril
    • Authors: Hudson T. Pinheiro
      Authors : Hudson T. Pinheiro, Fabio Di Dario, Leopoldo C. Gerhardinger, Marcelo R. S. de Melo, Rodrigo L. de Moura, Roberto E. Reis, Fábio Vieira, Jansen Zuanon, Luiz A. Rocha
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1043-a
  • [Letter] Waste not, want not: Recycled science art
    • Authors: Rana Dajani
      Abstract: Author: Rana Dajani
      Keywords: Life in Science
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1043-b
  • [Letter] Nurturing the microbiome field
    • Authors: Patrick Schloss
      Abstract: Author: Patrick Schloss
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1044
  • [Association Affairs] Fifty years after U.S. climate warning, scientists
           confront communication barriers
    • Authors: Gavin Stern
      Abstract: At the AAAS symposium, researchers searched for new avenues of public engagement to address the gap in climate change beliefs Author: Gavin Stern
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1045
  • [Feature] After Paris: The rocky road ahead
    • Authors: Eli Kintisch
      Abstract: Officials call the Paris climate talks a beginning, but what's the destination? In a series of informational graphics, Science explores the implications of three possible scenarios for global greenhouse gas emissions until 2100. One is a "business as usual" scenario that results in massive warming by the end of the century, and then many meters of sea level rise that would unfold over centuries. Another is a scenario that assumes nations meet the pledges they make in Paris, causing global emissions to dip, but then take no further action, causing emissions to rise again as population and economic growth swamp any gains. The final scenario explores what it will take to hold global warming below the 2°C of warming many researchers deem safe. For each scenario, graphics illustrate the possible range of outcomes for sea level rise, warming, and atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, and provide insight to choices about energy sources that will shape future emissions. Author: Eli Kintisch
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1018
  • [Perspective] Optical meta-atoms: Going nonlinear
    • Authors: Natalia M. Litchinitser
      Abstract: Nonlinear optics investigates the light-matter interactions in media, in which the dielectric polarization of the medium responds nonlinearly to the electric and/or magnetic field of the light. Materials with the potential for a large, fast, and broadband nonlinear response have been explored for decades; if realized, these would revolutionize nonlinear optics, leading to low-power, compact, and ultrafast applications. However, the materials now available are limited, either by relatively low nonlinear susceptibilities for ultrafast nonlinear processes or by slow response times attributable to photorefractive effect and thermal nonlinear phenomena. Moreover, growing demand for integration of multiple optoelectronic functionalities on a chip calls for nonlinear materials that are compatible with standard fabrication approaches, such as complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology. Metamaterials have been predicted to enable a plethora of novel light-matter interactions, including magnetic nonlinear response, backward phase-matching, and the nonlinear mirror (1–3). Linear optical properties such as dielectric permittivity, magnetic permeability, and refractive index can be designed to be positive, negative, or even zero by properly tailoring various properties of meta-atoms (the unit cells of metamaterials). Engineering nonlinear properties of metamaterials beyond those available in nature may be feasible by judiciously designing their quantum, geometric, and topological properties (4).
      Authors : Natalia M. Litchinitser, Jingbo Sun
      Keywords: Applied Optics
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad7212
  • [Perspective] Could microbial therapy boost cancer immunotherapy?
    • Authors: Alexandra Snyder
      Abstract: Immunotherapies known as checkpoint blockades are rapidly changing standard treatment and outcomes for patients with advanced malignancies, as they lead to long-term disease control in a subset of patients (1). On pages 1084 and 1079 of this issue, Sivan et al. (2) and Vétizou et al. (3), respectively, illustrate an important role for the gut microbiome in modulating the efficacy of this treatment.
      Authors : Alexandra Snyder, Eric Pamer, Jedd Wolchok
      Keywords: Immunotherapy
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad7706
  • [Feature] Climate crossroads
    • Authors: Eli Kintisch
      Abstract: Hope and caution surround the upcoming Paris climate talks. More than 2 decades have passed since nations met in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to create the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Since then, a succession of international meetings under the framework—most notably in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997 and Copenhagen in 2009—have done little to alter our planet's worrisome trajectory. Annual global emissions of carbon dioxide have risen steadily from 21 billion tons in 1992 to 32 billion tons in 2012. And the dismal track record of global climate talks inspires little confidence that nations can agree to make the huge changes required to stop treating the atmosphere like a carbon sewer. Still, negotiators are convinced the Paris talks will be different. In Kyoto, nations attempted to create a legally binding agreement, which subsequently failed to deliver results in part because the United States would not ratify the treaty. This time, nations—164 as Science went to press—have each prepared pledges, called Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs), which detail their promised emissions cuts and other actions through 2030. Negotiators hope the bottom-up INDC approach will prevail where the top-down Kyoto strategy failed. Author: Eli Kintisch
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1016
  • [Feature] Clean revolution
    • Authors: Robert F. Service
      Abstract: Denmark—a small, resource-poor country of 5.5 million people—has set the most ambitious climate goal in the world: to become a carbon neutral economy by 2050. And as delegates gather in Paris to hammer out a global agreement to slow climate change, many are looking to Denmark to understand how their nations might also rapidly transform their energy systems. "The Denmark model is really important," says Dan Kammen, an energy policy expert at the University of California, Berkeley. "It's an illustration of what can be done." But Denmark is also helping highlight the potential technical and political obstacles to going green. The nation has struggled to align its bold emissions goal with tax and economic policies, and some aspects of the carbon neutral push have become politically contentious. The experience, says Lars Aagaard, managing director of the Danish Energy Association in Copenhagen, "is certainly not a walk in the park." Author: Robert F. Service
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1020
  • [Feature] Can India keep its promises?
    • Authors: Priyanka Pulla
      Abstract: India, a nation with Earth's third largest coal reserves, has been on course to eventually vie with China as the world's top greenhouse gas emitter. And it has long resisted calls to cap its future emissions, arguing that it has not historically contributed much to climate change, and will need "carbon space" in the future to grow its economy and lift hundreds of millions of people from poverty. At the Paris talks, however, India has pledged to take steps that would keep its per capita emissions well below China's for the foreseeable future. Those steps include deriving 40% of electric power capacity from fossil fuel–free sources by 2030, reducing its emissions intensity by 33% to 35% by 2030, and expanding forests to create a carbon sink capable of absorbing 2.5 billion to 3 billion tons of carbon from the atmosphere. But analysts say some of these goals will be a stretch to achieve, and they also have helped spark a domestic debate over how these goals will improve life for India's citizens. Indeed, some critics argue that some of India's climate commitments could actually threaten equity, inclusiveness, and quality of life. Author: Priyanka Pulla
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1024
  • [In Brief] News at a glance
    • Abstract: In science news around the world, the current El Niño is shaping up to be among the three biggest on record, U.S. and Cuban science agencies team up to manage and study marine protected areas, a letter signed by 26 wildlife scientists urges the U.S. Department of the Interior to take gray wolves off the endangered species list, Europe's first Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton is being prepped to go on display next month in Berlin, and more. Also, Nobel laureate in medicine Elizabeth Blackburn has been named the new head of the Salk Institute for Biological Sciences, and President Obama awards research mathematician and space pioneer Katherine Johnson the Presidential Medal of Freedom. And a dance-off between competing interests over water resources wins Science's 2015 Dance Your Ph.D. contest.
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1008
  • [Editorial] Turning the focus to solutions
    • Authors: Hoesung Lee
      Abstract: Next week, the United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP21, will be held in Paris. The goal is to achieve an international agreement to stem climate change—in particular, an agreement on how to keep global warming below a 2°C rise, or less, over preindustrial levels. As the newly elected chair of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), I am hopeful that an agreement will be reached that builds a more sustainable, prosperous world. Author: Hoesung Lee
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad8954
  • [Errata] Erratum for the Report “14-Step Synthesis of (+)-Ingenol
           from (+)-3-Carene” by L. Jørgensen, S. J. McKerrall, C. A.
           Kuttruff, F. Ungeheuer, J. Felding, P. S. Baran
    • PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad8935
  • [Perspective] A quick look at how photoelectrodes work
    • Authors: Ole Hansen
      Abstract: It is appealing to harvest solar energy directly into chemical bonds with photo-electrochemical (PEC) cells—for example, by splitting water into hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2), as first demonstrated by Fujishima and Honda (1). Achieving the highest possible efficiency requires rapid transfer of the charge carriers generated by semiconductor photoabsorbers (2) to the catalysts for H2 and O2 evolution. Long-term stability requires protection layers for the semiconductors against strong acid or base. Direct experimental observation of charge carrier dynamics at these complex interfaces, which is critical for optimization, has been a major challenge. On page 1061 of this issue, Y. Yang et al. (3) show how transient photoreflectance spectroscopy can reveal information about the carrier dynamics and the electric field near the semiconductor surface.
      Authors : Ole Hansen, Brian Seger, Peter C. K. Vesborg, Ib Chorkendorff
      Keywords: Solar Fuels
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad6060
  • [In Depth] China pursues fraudsters in science publishing
    • Authors: Mara Hvistendahl
      Abstract: China's main basic research agency is cracking down on scientists who used fake peer reviews to publish papers in international journals, demanding that many return research funding. A separate Chinese scientific organization released the results of an investigation revealing the role of China's many unscrupulous paper brokers, which peddle ghostwritten or fraudulent papers, in the peer-review scandal. In some cases brokers suggested reviewers for their clients' papers, provided email addresses to accounts they controlled, and then reviewed the authors' work themselves. The National Natural Science Foundation is now revoking funding from authors found to have committed egregious offenses. But critics say the measures don't go far enough to stave off fraud. Author: Mara Hvistendahl
      Keywords: Academic Misconduct
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1015
  • [In Depth] Gene drive turns mosquitoes into malaria fighters
    • Authors: Elizabeth Pennisi
      Abstract: The war against malaria has a new ally: a controversial technology for spreading genes throughout a population of animals. In the laboratory, researchers have harnessed a so-called gene drive to efficiently endow mosquitoes with genes that make them immune to the malaria parasite—and unable to spread it. If successfully applied in the wild, the approach could help wipe out the disease, at least in some corners of the world. But testing that promise in the field may have to wait until a wider debate over gene drives is resolved. A firestorm has erupted over the risks of experimenting with gene drives, nevermind applying them in the field, and there is a strong push to get the public involved in regulating this technology early on in the development of specific gene drive uses. Author: Elizabeth Pennisi
      Keywords: Science and Society
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1014
  • [In Depth] An end to U.S. chimp research
    • Authors: Jocelyn Kaiser
      Abstract: Last week, the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced that it is ending its support for invasive research on chimpanzees. NIH Director Francis Collins said that a colony of 50 chimps it had planned to keep in reserve for research—after retiring the rest—is no longer needed. NIH also made clear that it will no longer fund invasive studies on any other chimps. The move pleased groups that have pushed to end the use of chimpanzees in biomedical research. But some researchers expressed disappointment, noting that the colony was intended to be available in case chimps were needed as a research model in the future. Author: Jocelyn Kaiser
      Keywords: Biomedical Research
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1013
  • [In Depth] An obscure mosquito-borne disease goes global
    • Authors: Martin Enserink
      Abstract: A little-known virus called Zika has caused outbreaks in Pacific Ocean islands the past few years and has arrived in South America this year. Scientists predict it will spread far and wide in the Western Hemisphere, and perhaps in southern Europe as well, because the Aedes mosquitoes that transmit the virus are so widespread. Scientifically speaking, Zika virus is still largely terra incognita. Its symptoms, including rash, fatigue, headaches, muscle pains, and swollen and painful joints, appear to be generally mild, but during an outbreak in French Polynesia that started in 2013, some patients developed a serious neurological condition named Guillain-Barré syndrome. Although it is primarily spread by mosquitoes, some evidence suggests sexual transmission is possible as well. Author: Martin Enserink
      Keywords: Infectious Diseases
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1012
  • [Perspective] The indispensable genome
    • Authors: Charles Boone
      Abstract: Game-changing moments in functional genomics often reflect the development and application of powerful new reagents and methods to provide new phenotypic insight on a global scale. Three independent studies describe systematic, genome-scale approaches to defining human genes that are indispensable for viability, which collectively form the essential gene set. On pages 1092 and 1096 of this issue, Blomen et al. (1) and Wang et al. (2), respectively, report a consistent set of ∼2000 genes that are indispensable for viability in human cells. Moreover, very similar results were obtained by Hart et al. (3). For the first time, we now have a firm handle on the core set of essential genes that are required for human cell division. This opens the door to studying the roles of essential genes, how gene essentiality depends on genetic and tissue contexts, and how essential genes evolve.
      Authors : Charles Boone, Brenda J. Andrews
      Keywords: Human Genome
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad7925
  • [In Depth] More delays for ITER fusion project
    • Authors: Daniel Clery
      Abstract: Managers of the troubled ITER fusion project have announced a new schedule that is likely to push the estimated date of completion back by 6 years, to 2025, and add roughly €2 billion to the project's ballooning cost. The changes, presented at a meeting of ITER's governing council, resulted from a comprehensive review that ITER's director-general ordered earlier this year. In response, the project's international partners—China, the European Union, India, Japan, Russia, South Korea, and the United States—said they plan to carry out an independent review, looking for ways to tighten the schedule and costing, and have put off approving the baseline until the next council meeting in 6 months. Author: Daniel Clery
      Keywords: Fusion Energy
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1011
  • [Book Review] Thing Explainer
    • Abstract: In Thing Explainer, xkcd creator Randall Munroe sets out to demystify a wide range of complex systems and natural phenomena using only the thousand most common words in the English language.
      Keywords: Popular Science
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad7700
  • [Books et al.] Books Received
    • Abstract: A listing of books received at Science during the week ending 20 November 2015.
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1042-c
  • [Book Review] Intimate details
    • Authors: Laura Stark
      Abstract: Database of Dreams tells the story of the enormous effort and expense that went into creating a once popular, but now long-forgotten archive of social science data. Tracing the archive's origins and evolution, reviewer Laura Stark describes how the archive's greatest virtue was also, ultimately, it's fatal flaw. Praising the book as "humane, hilarious, and smart," Stark distills lessons that are relevant to many of today's "big data" initiatives. Author: Laura Stark
      Keywords: Big Data
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad2423
  • [Perspective] Christopher Marshall (1949–2015)
    • Authors: Richard Marais
      Abstract: Christopher Marshall was a titan of cancer research. On 8 August he died of the very disease that he strived to understand. This was only 3 months after the unexpected death of his longtime friend and colleague, Alan Hall. Author: Richard Marais
      Keywords: Retrospective
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad8404
  • [Book Review] Humanity 2.0
    • Authors: Giovanni Frazzetto
      Abstract: HUMAN+, a new, ambitious, and sharply curated exhibition at the Centre for Contemporary Culture in Barcelona, delves into the contemporary meaning of being human. Hosting more than 50 works created by artists and scientists, the collection explores the technological strategies that we might use to transcend bodily and mental limits, our place in nature, and our social interactions, as well as redefinitions of birth and death. In this review, Giovanni Frazzetto highlights some of the exhibition's challenging and provocative exhibits. Author: Giovanni Frazzetto
      Keywords: Exhibition
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad3754
  • [Perspective] How Victoria's fishes were knocked from their perch
    • Authors: Geerat Vermeij
      Abstract: Intuition can be a powerful force in science, but more often proves to be an unreliable guide to reality. This point is beautifully brought home in the report by McGee et al. (1) on page 1077 of this issue. The study concerns evolutionary innovations that enable members of an evolving lineage to exploit resources in ways inaccessible to their ancestors. Most biologists view such innovations as opening the evolutionary door to species proliferation and the longer persistence of lineages with the novel traits. This expectation is often realized. But, as McGee et al. show in their study of cichlid fishes in East Africa's Lake Victoria, this is not always the case. Author: Geerat Vermeij
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad7032
  • [Perspective] Alan Hall (1952–2015)
    • Authors: Catherine Nobes
      Abstract: Alan Hall, a remarkable cell and cancer biologist, died suddenly on 3 May in New York City. He was an outstanding researcher, teacher, and colleague. In the 1980s, in his early career, Alan was one of a small group of molecular biologists who first revealed how genetic changes could cause cancer. Alan and his colleagues undertook pioneering work that revealed the mechanisms through which the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) regulate the cytoskeleton and thus how cells control their shapes and movement. He became one of the world's leading cell biologists and was a committed mentor to generations of young scientists.
      Authors : Catherine Nobes, Alison Lloyd, Mark Marsh
      Keywords: Retrospective
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad8407
  • [Perspective] Learning from Africa's herbivores
    • Authors: Jacquelyn L. Gill
      Abstract: Earth's animals are downsizing. Since the end of the last ice age about 12,000 years ago, the largest animals on the planet have been hit disproportionately hard by what may have been the beginnings of the sixth mass extinction (1). We are only just beginning to appreciate the ecological impacts of this “trophic downgrading” (2): Both modern and paleoecological analyses are providing growing evidence that the extinction of Earth's largest animals has cascading ecological impacts across the globe (3). On page 1056 of this issue, Hempson et al. (4) provide a new tool for elucidating the ecological role of large herbivores at continental scales. Author: Jacquelyn L. Gill
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad6760
  • [Policy Forum] Understanding China's non–fossil energy targets
    • Authors: Joanna I. Lewis
      Abstract: More than 130 countries have targets for increasing their share of renewable or nonfossil energy (1). These shares and targets are often reported without clear articulation of which energy accounting method was used to convert nonfossil electricity into units that allow comparison with other energy sources (2–4). Three commonly used conversion methods are well documented by organizations dealing in energy statistics, but often, the method is not clearly stated when countries translate national targets into international pledges or when organizations track and compare targets across nations. China—the world's largest energy producer, energy consumer, and emitter of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2)—uses a distinct fourth method that is unique, not well documented in the literature, and not transparent in policy documents. A single, standardized, and transparent methodology for any targets that are pledged as part of an international agreement is essential.
      Authors : Joanna I. Lewis, David G. Fridley, Lynn K. Price, Hongyou Lu, John P. Romankiewicz
      Keywords: Energy and Environment
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad1084
  • [This Week in Science] Evolutionary routes to blue
    • Authors: Robert L. Last
      Abstract: Author: Robert L. Last
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1051-a
  • [This Week in Science] Gut microbes affect immunotherapy
    • Authors: Kristen L. Mueller
      Abstract: Author: Kristen L. Mueller
      Keywords: Cancer Immunotherapy
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1051-b
  • [This Week in Science] How herbivores affect ecosystems
    • Authors: Sacha Vignieri
      Abstract: Author: Sacha Vignieri
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1051-c
  • [This Week in Science] Salted away no longer?
    • Authors: Brent Grocholski
      Abstract: Author: Brent Grocholski
      Keywords: Geology
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1051-d
  • [This Week in Science] Virally cleansing the pig genome
    • Authors: Guy Riddihough
      Abstract: Author: Guy Riddihough
      Keywords: Genome Editing
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1051-e
  • [This Week in Science] How malaria parasites infect the liver
    • Authors: Stella M. Hurtley
      Abstract: Author: Stella M. Hurtley
      Keywords: Malaria
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1051-f
  • [This Week in Science] Predicting unmeasurable wealth
    • Authors: Gilbert Chin
      Abstract: Author: Gilbert Chin
      Keywords: Economics
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1051-g
  • [This Week in Science] Brighter molybdenum layers
    • Authors: Phil Szuromi
      Abstract: Author: Phil Szuromi
      Keywords: Nanomaterials
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1051-h
  • [This Week in Science] Charge separation viewed in reflection
    • Authors: Jake Yeston
      Abstract: Author: Jake Yeston
      Keywords: Photophysics
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1051-i
  • [This Week in Science] Tweaking T regulatory affairs
    • Authors: Angela Colmone
      Abstract: Author: Angela Colmone
      Keywords: Diabetes Immunotherapy
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1051-j
  • [This Week in Science] Imaging with molecular vibrations
    • Authors: Phil Szuromi
      Abstract: Author: Phil Szuromi
      Keywords: Bioimaging
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1051-k
  • [This Week in Science] A census of neocortical neurons
    • Authors: Peter Stern
      Abstract: Author: Peter Stern
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1051-l
  • [This Week in Science] Proteins shape up in the ribosome
    • Authors: Guy Riddihough
      Abstract: Author: Guy Riddihough
      Keywords: Protein Folding
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1051-m
  • [This Week in Science] The downside of innovation
    • Authors: Sacha Vignieri
      Abstract: Author: Sacha Vignieri
      Keywords: Evolutionary Biology
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1051-n
  • [This Week in Science] Zeroing in on essential human genes
    • Authors: L. Bryan Ray
      Abstract: Author: L. Bryan Ray
      Keywords: Genomics
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1051-o
  • [This Week in Science] Antidepressants suppress DNA methylation
    • Authors: Leslie K. Ferrarelli
      Abstract: Author: Leslie K. Ferrarelli
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1051-p
  • [Editors' Choice] More neurons mean less need for sleep
    • Authors: Peter Stern
      Abstract: Author: Peter Stern
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1052-a
  • [Editors' Choice] Diversity through ADVANCEment
    • Authors: Melissa McCartney
      Abstract: Author: Melissa McCartney
      Keywords: Workforce Diversity
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1052-b
  • [Editors' Choice] Cell size matters to meristems
    • Authors: Pamela J. Hines
      Abstract: Author: Pamela J. Hines
      Keywords: Plant Science
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1052-c
  • [Editors' Choice] A shifting wet girdle around the tropics
    • Authors: H. Jesse Smith
      Abstract: Author: H. Jesse Smith
      Keywords: Paleoclimate
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1052-d
  • [Editors' Choice] Committing to memory
    • Authors: Lisa D. Chong
      Abstract: Author: Lisa D. Chong
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1052-e
  • [Editors' Choice] Mitochondrial quality control
    • Authors: Stella M. Hurtley
      Abstract: Author: Stella M. Hurtley
      Keywords: Mitochondria
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1052-f
  • [Editors' Choice] Crystal structure of a rhodium carbene
    • Authors: Jake Yeston
      Abstract: Author: Jake Yeston
      Keywords: Carbene Chemistry
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1052-g
  • [Review] Vibrational spectroscopic imaging of living systems: An emerging
           platform for biology and medicine
    • Authors: Ji-Xin Cheng
      Abstract: Vibrational spectroscopy has been extensively applied to the study of molecules in gas phase, in condensed phase, and at interfaces. The transition from spectroscopy to spectroscopic imaging of living systems, which allows the spectrum of biomolecules to act as natural contrast, is opening new opportunities to reveal cellular machinery and to enable molecule-based diagnosis. Such a transition, however, involves more than a simple combination of spectrometry and microscopy. We review recent efforts that have pushed the boundary of the vibrational spectroscopic imaging field in terms of spectral acquisition speed, detection sensitivity, spatial resolution, and imaging depth. We further highlight recent applications in functional analysis of single cells and in label-free detection of diseases.
      Authors : Ji-Xin Cheng, X. Sunney Xie
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa8870
  • [Research Article] Principles of connectivity among morphologically
           defined cell types in adult neocortex
    • Authors: Xiaolong Jiang
      Abstract: Since the work of Ramón y Cajal in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, neuroscientists have speculated that a complete understanding of neuronal cell types and their connections is key to explaining complex brain functions. However, a complete census of the constituent cell types and their wiring diagram in mature neocortex remains elusive. By combining octuple whole-cell recordings with an optimized avidin-biotin-peroxidase staining technique, we carried out a morphological and electrophysiological census of neuronal types in layers 1, 2/3, and 5 of mature neocortex and mapped the connectivity between more than 11,000 pairs of identified neurons. We categorized 15 types of interneurons, and each exhibited a characteristic pattern of connectivity with other interneuron types and pyramidal cells. The essential connectivity structure of the neocortical microcircuit could be captured by only a few connectivity motifs.
      Authors : Xiaolong Jiang, Shan Shen, Cathryn R. Cadwell, Philipp Berens, Fabian Sinz, Alexander S. Ecker, Saumil Patel, Andreas S. Tolias
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aac9462
  • [Research Article] A continent-wide assessment of the form and intensity
           of large mammal herbivory in Africa
    • Authors: Gareth P. Hempson
      Abstract: Megafaunal extinctions and a lack of suitable remote sensing technology impede our understanding of both the ecological legacy and current impacts of large mammal herbivores in the Earth system. To address this, we reconstructed the form and intensity of herbivory pressure across sub-Saharan Africa ~1000 years ago. Specifically, we modeled and mapped species-level biomass for 92 large mammal herbivores using census data, species distributions, and environmental covariates. Trait-based classifications of these species into herbivore functional types, and analyses of their biomass surfaces, reveal four ecologically distinct continental-scale herbivory regimes, characterized by internally similar forms and intensities of herbivory pressure. Associations between herbivory regimes, fire prevalence, soil nutrient status, and rainfall provide important insights into African ecology and pave the way for integrating herbivores into global-scale studies.
      Authors : Gareth P. Hempson, Sally Archibald, William J. Bond
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aac7978
  • [Report] Semiconductor interfacial carrier dynamics via photoinduced
           electric fields
    • Authors: Ye Yang
      Abstract: Solar photoconversion in semiconductors is driven by charge separation at the interface of the semiconductor and contacting layers. Here we demonstrate that time-resolved photoinduced reflectance from a semiconductor captures interfacial carrier dynamics. We applied this transient photoreflectance method to study charge transfer at p-type gallium-indium phosphide (p-GaInP2) interfaces critically important to solar-driven water splitting. We monitored the formation and decay of transient electric fields that form upon photoexcitation within bare p-GaInP2, p-GaInP2/platinum (Pt), and p-GaInP2/amorphous titania (TiO2) interfaces. The data show that a field at both the p-GaInP2/Pt and p-GaInP2/TiO2 interfaces drives charge separation. Additionally, the charge recombination rate at the p-GaInP2/TiO2 interface is greatly reduced owing to its p-n nature, compared with the Schottky nature of the p-GaInP2/Pt interface.
      Authors : Ye Yang, Jing Gu, James L. Young, Elisa M. Miller, John A. Turner, Nathan R. Neale, Matthew C. Beard
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad3459
  • [Report] Near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield in MoS2
    • Authors: Matin Amani
      Abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides have emerged as a promising material system for optoelectronic applications, but their primary figure of merit, the room-temperature photoluminescence quantum yield (QY), is extremely low. The prototypical 2D material molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is reported to have a maximum QY of 0.6%, which indicates a considerable defect density. Here we report on an air-stable, solution-based chemical treatment by an organic superacid, which uniformly enhances the photoluminescence and minority carrier lifetime of MoS2 monolayers by more than two orders of magnitude. The treatment eliminates defect-mediated nonradiative recombination, thus resulting in a final QY of more than 95%, with a longest-observed lifetime of 10.8 ± 0.6 nanoseconds. Our ability to obtain optoelectronic monolayers with near-perfect properties opens the door for the development of highly efficient light-emitting diodes, lasers, and solar cells based on 2D materials.
      Authors : Matin Amani, Der-Hsien Lien, Daisuke Kiriya, Jun Xiao, Angelica Azcatl, Jiyoung Noh, Surabhi R. Madhvapathy, Rafik Addou, Santosh KC, Madan Dubey, Kyeongjae Cho, Robert M. Wallace, Si-Chen Lee, Jr-Hau He, Joel W. Ager, Xiang Zhang, Eli Yablonovitch, Ali Javey
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad2114
  • [Report] Deformation-assisted fluid percolation in rock salt
    • Authors: Soheil Ghanbarzadeh
      Abstract: Deep geological storage sites for nuclear waste are commonly located in rock salt to ensure hydrological isolation from groundwater. The low permeability of static rock salt is due to a percolation threshold. However, deformation may be able to overcome this threshold and allow fluid flow. We confirm the percolation threshold in static experiments on synthetic salt samples with x-ray microtomography. We then analyze wells penetrating salt deposits in the Gulf of Mexico. The observed hydrocarbon distributions in rock salt require that percolation occurred at porosities considerably below the static threshold due to deformation-assisted percolation. Therefore, the design of nuclear waste repositories in salt should guard against deformation-driven fluid percolation. In general, static percolation thresholds may not always limit fluid flow in deforming environments.
      Authors : Soheil Ghanbarzadeh, Marc A. Hesse, Maša Prodanović, James E. Gardner
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aac8747
  • [Report] Predicting poverty and wealth from mobile phone metadata
    • Authors: Joshua Blumenstock
      Abstract: Accurate and timely estimates of population characteristics are a critical input to social and economic research and policy. In industrialized economies, novel sources of data are enabling new approaches to demographic profiling, but in developing countries, fewer sources of big data exist. We show that an individual’s past history of mobile phone use can be used to infer his or her socioeconomic status. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the predicted attributes of millions of individuals can, in turn, accurately reconstruct the distribution of wealth of an entire nation or to infer the asset distribution of microregions composed of just a few households. In resource-constrained environments where censuses and household surveys are rare, this approach creates an option for gathering localized and timely information at a fraction of the cost of traditional methods.
      Authors : Joshua Blumenstock, Gabriel Cadamuro, Robert On
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aac4420
  • [Report] A pharyngeal jaw evolutionary innovation facilitated extinction
           in Lake Victoria cichlids
    • Authors: Matthew D. McGee
      Abstract: Evolutionary innovations, traits that give species access to previously unoccupied niches, may promote speciation and adaptive radiation. Here, we show that such innovations can also result in competitive inferiority and extinction. We present evidence that the modified pharyngeal jaws of cichlid fishes and several marine fish lineages, a classic example of evolutionary innovation, are not universally beneficial. A large-scale analysis of dietary evolution across marine fish lineages reveals that the innovation compromises access to energy-rich predator niches. We show that this competitive inferiority shaped the adaptive radiation of cichlids in Lake Tanganyika and played a pivotal and previously unrecognized role in the mass extinction of cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria after Nile perch invasion.
      Authors : Matthew D. McGee, Samuel R. Borstein, Russell Y. Neches, Heinz H. Buescher, Ole Seehausen, Peter C. Wainwright
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aab0800
  • [Report] Anticancer immunotherapy by CTLA-4 blockade relies on the gut
    • Abstract: Antibodies targeting CTLA-4 have been successfully used as cancer immunotherapy. We find that the antitumor effects of CTLA-4 blockade depend on distinct Bacteroides species. In mice and patients, T cell responses specific for B. thetaiotaomicron or B. fragilis were associated with the efficacy of CTLA-4 blockade. Tumors in antibiotic-treated or germ-free mice did not respond to CTLA blockade. This defect was overcome by gavage with B. fragilis, by immunization with B. fragilis polysaccharides, or by adoptive transfer of B. fragilis–specific T cells. Fecal microbial transplantation from humans to mice confirmed that treatment of melanoma patients with antibodies against CTLA-4 favored the outgrowth of B. fragilis with anticancer properties. This study reveals a key role for Bacteroidales in the immunostimulatory effects of CTLA-4 blockade.
      Authors : Marie Vétizou, Jonathan M. Pitt, Romain Daillère, Patricia Lepage, Nadine Waldschmitt, Caroline Flament, Sylvie Rusakiewicz, Bertrand Routy, Maria P. Roberti, Connie P. M. Duong, Vichnou Poirier-Colame, Antoine Roux, Sonia Becharef, Silvia Formenti, Encouse Golden, Sascha Cording, Gerard Eberl, Andreas Schlitzer, Florent Ginhoux, Sridhar Mani, Takahiro Yamazaki, Nicolas Jacquelot, David P. Enot, Marion Bérard, Jérôme Nigou, Paule Opolon, Alexander Eggermont, Paul-Louis Woerther, Elisabeth Chachaty, Nathalie Chaput, Caroline Robert, Christina Mateus, Guido Kroemer, Didier Raoult, Ivo Gomperts Boneca, Franck Carbonnel, Mathias Chamaillard, Laurence Zitvogel
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad1329
  • [Report] Commensal Bifidobacterium promotes antitumor immunity and
           facilitates anti–PD-L1 efficacy
    • Authors: Ayelet Sivan
      Abstract: T cell infiltration of solid tumors is associated with favorable patient outcomes, yet the mechanisms underlying variable immune responses between individuals are not well understood. One possible modulator could be the intestinal microbiota. We compared melanoma growth in mice harboring distinct commensal microbiota and observed differences in spontaneous antitumor immunity, which were eliminated upon cohousing or after fecal transfer. Sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA identified Bifidobacterium as associated with the antitumor effects. Oral administration of Bifidobacterium alone improved tumor control to the same degree as programmed cell death protein 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1)–specific antibody therapy (checkpoint blockade), and combination treatment nearly abolished tumor outgrowth. Augmented dendritic cell function leading to enhanced CD8+ T cell priming and accumulation in the tumor microenvironment mediated the effect. Our data suggest that manipulating the microbiota may modulate cancer immunotherapy.
      Authors : Ayelet Sivan, Leticia Corrales, Nathaniel Hubert, Jason B. Williams, Keston Aquino-Michaels, Zachary M. Earley, Franco W. Benyamin, Yuk Man Lei, Bana Jabri, Maria-Luisa Alegre, Eugene B. Chang, Thomas F. Gajewski
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aac4255
  • [Report] Malaria parasites target the hepatocyte receptor EphA2 for
           successful host infection
    • Authors: Alexis Kaushansky
      Abstract: The invasion of a suitable host hepatocyte by mosquito-transmitted Plasmodium sporozoites is an essential early step in successful malaria parasite infection. Yet precisely how sporozoites target their host cell and facilitate productive infection remains largely unknown. We found that the hepatocyte EphA2 receptor was critical for establishing a permissive intracellular replication compartment, the parasitophorous vacuole. Sporozoites productively infected hepatocytes with high EphA2 expression, and the deletion of EphA2 protected mice from liver infection. Lack of host EphA2 phenocopied the lack of the sporozoite proteins P52 and P36. Our data suggest that P36 engages EphA2, which is likely to be a key step in establishing the permissive replication compartment.
      Authors : Alexis Kaushansky, Alyse N. Douglass, Nadia Arang, Vladimir Vigdorovich, Nicholas Dambrauskas, Heather S. Kain, Laura S. Austin, D. Noah Sather, Stefan H.I. Kappe
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad3318
  • [Report] Gene essentiality and synthetic lethality in haploid human cells
    • Authors: Vincent A. Blomen
      Abstract: Although the genes essential for life have been identified in less complex model organisms, their elucidation in human cells has been hindered by technical barriers. We used extensive mutagenesis in haploid human cells to identify approximately 2000 genes required for optimal fitness under culture conditions. To study the principles of genetic interactions in human cells, we created a synthetic lethality network focused on the secretory pathway based exclusively on mutations. This revealed a genetic cross-talk governing Golgi homeostasis, an additional subunit of the human oligosaccharyltransferase complex, and a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase β adaptor hijacked by viruses. The synthetic lethality map parallels observations made in yeast and projects a route forward to reveal genetic networks in diverse aspects of human cell biology.
      Authors : Vincent A. Blomen, Peter Májek, Lucas T. Jae, Johannes W. Bigenzahn, Joppe Nieuwenhuis, Jacqueline Staring, Roberto Sacco, Ferdy R. van Diemen, Nadine Olk, Alexey Stukalov, Caleb Marceau, Hans Janssen, Jan E. Carette, Keiryn L. Bennett, Jacques Colinge, Giulio Superti-Furga, Thijn R. Brummelkamp
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aac7557
  • [Report] Identification and characterization of essential genes in the
           human genome
    • Authors: Tim Wang
      Abstract: Large-scale genetic analysis of lethal phenotypes has elucidated the molecular underpinnings of many biological processes. Using the bacterial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system, we constructed a genome-wide single-guide RNA library to screen for genes required for proliferation and survival in a human cancer cell line. Our screen revealed the set of cell-essential genes, which was validated with an orthogonal gene-trap–based screen and comparison with yeast gene knockouts. This set is enriched for genes that encode components of fundamental pathways, are expressed at high levels, and contain few inactivating polymorphisms in the human population. We also uncovered a large group of uncharacterized genes involved in RNA processing, a number of whose products localize to the nucleolus. Last, screens in additional cell lines showed a high degree of overlap in gene essentiality but also revealed differences specific to each cell line and cancer type that reflect the developmental origin, oncogenic drivers, paralogous gene expression pattern, and chromosomal structure of each line. These results demonstrate the power of CRISPR-based screens and suggest a general strategy for identifying liabilities in cancer cells.
      Authors : Tim Wang, Kıvanç Birsoy, Nicholas W. Hughes, Kevin M. Krupczak, Yorick Post, Jenny J. Wei, Eric S. Lander, David M. Sabatini
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aac7041
  • [Report] Genome-wide inactivation of porcine endogenous retroviruses
    • Authors: Luhan Yang
      Abstract: The shortage of organs for transplantation is a major barrier to the treatment of organ failure. Although porcine organs are considered promising, their use has been checked by concerns about the transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) to humans. Here we describe the eradication of all PERVs in a porcine kidney epithelial cell line (PK15). We first determined the PK15 PERV copy number to be 62. Using CRISPR-Cas9, we disrupted all copies of the PERV pol gene and demonstrated a >1000-fold reduction in PERV transmission to human cells, using our engineered cells. Our study shows that CRISPR-Cas9 multiplexability can be as high as 62 and demonstrates the possibility that PERVs can be inactivated for clinical application of porcine-to-human xenotransplantation.
      Authors : Luhan Yang, Marc Güell, Dong Niu, Haydy George, Emal Lesha, Dennis Grishin, John Aach, Ellen Shrock, Weihong Xu, Jürgen Poci, Rebeca Cortazio, Robert A. Wilkinson, Jay A. Fishman, George Church
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad1191
  • [Report] Cotranslational protein folding on the ribosome monitored in real
    • Authors: Wolf Holtkamp
      Abstract: Protein domains can fold into stable tertiary structures while they are synthesized on the ribosome. We used a high-performance, reconstituted in vitro translation system to investigate the folding of a small five-helix protein domain—the N-terminal domain of Escherichia coli N5-glutamine methyltransferase HemK—in real time. Our observations show that cotranslational folding of the protein, which folds autonomously and rapidly in solution, proceeds through a compact, non-native conformation that forms within the peptide tunnel of the ribosome. The compact state rearranges into a native-like structure immediately after the full domain sequence has emerged from the ribosome. Both folding transitions are rate-limited by translation, allowing for quasi-equilibrium sampling of the conformational space restricted by the ribosome. Cotranslational folding may be typical of small, intrinsically rapidly folding protein domains.
      Authors : Wolf Holtkamp, Goran Kokic, Marcus Jäger, Joerg Mittelstaet, Anton A. Komar, Marina V. Rodnina
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad0344
  • [New Products] New Products
    • Abstract: A weekly roundup of information on newly offered instrumentation, apparatus, and laboratory materials of potential interest to researchers.
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1108-a
  • [Podcast] Science Podcast: 27 November Show
    • Abstract: On this week's show: Bioengineering vocal cords and a roundup of daily news stories.
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1108-b
  • [Working Life] The best decision I ever made
    • Authors: Kamal J. K. Gandhi
      Abstract: Author: Kamal J. K. Gandhi
      PubDate: 2015-11-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6264.1122
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