Journal Cover
Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 14.142
Citation Impact (citeScore): 16
Number of Followers: 4143  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
Published by AAAS Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Lung cancer search and destroy
    • Authors: Nusinovich Y.
      Pages: 789
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.788-i
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • In vivo modeling of human neuron dynamics and Down syndrome
    • Authors: Real, R; Peter, M, Trabalza, A, Khan, S, Smith, M. A, Dopp, J, Barnes, S. J, Momoh, A, Strano, A, Volpi, E, Knott, G, Livesey, F. J, De Paola, V.
      Abstract: Harnessing the potential of human stem cells for modeling the physiology and diseases of cortical circuitry requires monitoring cellular dynamics in vivo. We show that human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)–derived cortical neurons transplanted into the adult mouse cortex consistently organized into large (up to ~100 mm3) vascularized neuron-glia territories with complex cytoarchitecture. Longitudinal imaging of >4000 grafted developing human neurons revealed that neuronal arbors refined via branch-specific retraction; human synaptic networks substantially restructured over 4 months, with balanced rates of synapse formation and elimination; and oscillatory population activity mirrored the patterns of fetal neural networks. Lastly, we found increased synaptic stability and reduced oscillations in transplants from two individuals with Down syndrome, demonstrating the potential of in vivo imaging in human tissue grafts for patient-specific modeling of cortical development, physiology, and pathogenesis.
      Keywords: Neuroscience, Online Only
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau1810
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Molecular, spatial, and functional single-cell profiling of the
           hypothalamic preoptic region
    • Authors: Moffitt, J. R; Bambah-Mukku, D, Eichhorn, S. W, Vaughn, E, Shekhar, K, Perez, J. D, Rubinstein, N. D, Hao, J, Regev, A, Dulac, C, Zhuang, X.
      Abstract: The hypothalamus controls essential social behaviors and homeostatic functions. However, the cellular architecture of hypothalamic nuclei—including the molecular identity, spatial organization, and function of distinct cell types—is poorly understood. Here, we developed an imaging-based in situ cell-type identification and mapping method and combined it with single-cell RNA-sequencing to create a molecularly annotated and spatially resolved cell atlas of the mouse hypothalamic preoptic region. We profiled ~1 million cells, identified ~70 neuronal populations characterized by distinct neuromodulatory signatures and spatial organizations, and defined specific neuronal populations activated during social behaviors in male and female mice, providing a high-resolution framework for mechanistic investigation of behavior circuits. The approach described opens a new avenue for the construction of cell atlases in diverse tissues and organisms.
      Keywords: Neuroscience, Online Only
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau5324
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Comment on "Predicting reaction performance in C-N cross-coupling using
           machine learning"
    • Authors: Chuang, K. V; Keiser, M. J.
      Abstract: Ahneman et al. (Reports, 13 April 2018) applied machine learning models to predict C–N cross-coupling reaction yields. The models use atomic, electronic, and vibrational descriptors as input features. However, the experimental design is insufficient to distinguish models trained on chemical features from those trained solely on random-valued features in retrospective and prospective test scenarios, thus failing classical controls in machine learning.
      Keywords: Chemistry, Computers, Mathematics
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat8603
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Response to Comment on "Predicting reaction performance in C-N
           cross-coupling using machine learning"
    • Authors: Estrada, J. G; Ahneman, D. T, Sheridan, R. P, Dreher, S. D, Doyle, A. G.
      Abstract: We demonstrate that the chemical-feature model described in our original paper is distinguishable from the nongeneralizable models introduced by Chuang and Keiser. Furthermore, the chemical-feature model significantly outperforms these models in out-of-sample predictions, justifying the use of chemical featurization from which machine learning models can extract meaningful patterns in the dataset, as originally described.
      Keywords: Chemistry, Computers, Mathematics
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat8763
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • SFXN1 is a mitochondrial serine transporter required for one-carbon
           metabolism
    • Authors: Kory, N; Wyant, G. A, Prakash, G, uit de Bos, J, Bottanelli, F, Pacold, M. E, Chan, S. H, Lewis, C. A, Wang, T, Keys, H. R, Guo, Y. E, Sabatini, D. M.
      Abstract: One-carbon metabolism generates the one-carbon units required to synthesize many critical metabolites, including nucleotides. The pathway has cytosolic and mitochondrial branches, and a key step is the entry, through an unknown mechanism, of serine into mitochondria, where it is converted into glycine and formate. In a CRISPR-based genetic screen in human cells for genes of the mitochondrial pathway, we found sideroflexin 1 (SFXN1), a multipass inner mitochondrial membrane protein of unclear function. Like cells missing mitochondrial components of one-carbon metabolism, those null for SFXN1 are defective in glycine and purine synthesis. Cells lacking SFXN1 and one of its four homologs, SFXN3, have more severe defects, including being auxotrophic for glycine. Purified SFXN1 transports serine in vitro. Thus, SFXN1 functions as a mitochondrial serine transporter in one-carbon metabolism.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Online Only
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat9528
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Reform and cooperation in China
    • Authors: Horvat M.
      Pages: 727 - 727
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav9737
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • News at a glance
    • Pages: 728 - 730
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.728
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Vote heralds fresh start for science panel
    • Authors: Mervis J.
      Pages: 731 - 732
      Keywords: Scientific Community, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.731
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Eruption made 536 'the worst year to be alive
    • Authors: Gibbons A.
      Pages: 733 - 734
      Keywords: Anthropology, Atmospheric Science, Sociology
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.733
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Obesity gives unexpected boost to anticancer drugs
    • Authors: Kaiser J.
      Pages: 734 - 734
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.734
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Fresh fights roil evidence-based medicine group
    • Authors: Vogel G.
      Pages: 735 - 735
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.735
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Reprogrammed cells could tackle brain damage
    • Authors: Servick K.
      Pages: 736 - 737
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.736
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Large galaxy found lurking on the Milky Way's far side
    • Authors: Mann A.
      Pages: 737 - 737
      Keywords: Astronomy
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.737
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Ice age impact
    • Authors: Voosen P.
      Pages: 738 - 742
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.738
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Lighting up the nighttime
    • Authors: Gaston K. J.
      Pages: 744 - 746
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau8226
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Endothelial cell transitions
    • Authors: Dejana, E; Lampugnani, M. G.
      Pages: 746 - 747
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aas9432
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • A target to suppress inflammation
    • Authors: Samson L. D.
      Pages: 748 - 749
      Keywords: Immunology
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav4744
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Cell types behaving in their natural habitat
    • Authors: Tasic, B; Nicovich, P. R.
      Pages: 749 - 750
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav4841
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Polarimetry enabled by nanophotonics
    • Authors: Martinez A.
      Pages: 750 - 751
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Physics
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau7494
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Paul G. Allen (1953-2018)
    • Authors: Horwitz, R; Jones, A, Daniel, T.
      Pages: 752 - 752
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav8254
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Preventing chemical weapons as sciences converge
    • Authors: Crowley, M; Shang, L, Dando, M.
      Pages: 753 - 755
      Keywords: Chemistry, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav5129
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Approaching the singularity
    • Authors: Schnittman J.
      Pages: 756 - 756
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav2003
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • A physicist's final reflections
    • Authors: Robinson A.
      Pages: 757 - 757
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav7499
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Climate change drives tree mortality
    • Authors: Klein, T; Hartmann, H.
      Pages: 758 - 758
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav6508
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Halt speculation on U.S. embassy in Cuba
    • Authors: Valdes-Sosa, M. J; Foster, K. R.
      Pages: 758 - 759
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav5485
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Standardizing return of participant results
    • Authors: Botkin, J. R; Appelbaum, P. S, Bakken, S, Brown, C, Burke, W, Fabsitz, R, Gamble, V. N, Gonsalves, G, Kost, R, Leonard, D. G. B, McGuire, A, Nichols, J. H, Patrick-Lake, B, Wilkins, C. H, Zikmund-Fisher, B. J.
      Pages: 759 - 760
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav8095
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • NextGen VOICES: Transition challenges
    • Pages: 760 - 760
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.760
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Optimizing the diet
    • Authors: Ray L. B.
      Pages: 762 - 763
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav9415
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Dietary fat: From foe to friend'
    • Authors: Ludwig, D. S; Willett, W. C, Volek, J. S, Neuhouser, M. L.
      Pages: 764 - 770
      Abstract: For decades, dietary advice was based on the premise that high intakes of fat cause obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and possibly cancer. Recently, evidence for the adverse metabolic effects of processed carbohydrate has led to a resurgence in interest in lower-carbohydrate and ketogenic diets with high fat content. However, some argue that the relative quantity of dietary fat and carbohydrate has little relevance to health and that focus should instead be placed on which particular fat or carbohydrate sources are consumed. This review, by nutrition scientists with widely varying perspectives, summarizes existing evidence to identify areas of broad consensus amid ongoing controversy regarding macronutrients and chronic disease.
      Keywords: Physiology
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau2096
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • A time to fast
    • Authors: Di Francesco, A; Di Germanio, C, Bernier, M, de Cabo, R.
      Pages: 770 - 775
      Abstract: Nutrient composition and caloric intake have traditionally been used to devise optimized diets for various phases of life. Adjustment of meal size and frequency have emerged as powerful tools to ameliorate and postpone the onset of disease and delay aging, whereas periods of fasting, with or without reduced energy intake, can have profound health benefits. The underlying physiological processes involve periodic shifts of metabolic fuel sources, promotion of repair mechanisms, and the optimization of energy utilization for cellular and organismal health. Future research endeavors should be directed to the integration of a balanced nutritious diet with controlled meal size and patterns and periods of fasting to develop better strategies to prevent, postpone, and treat the socioeconomical burden of chronic diseases associated with aging.
      Keywords: Physiology
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau2095
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • The gut microbiota at the intersection of diet and human health
    • Authors: Gentile, C. L; Weir, T. L.
      Pages: 776 - 780
      Abstract: Diet affects multiple facets of human health and is inextricably linked to chronic metabolic conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Dietary nutrients are essential not only for human health but also for the health and survival of the trillions of microbes that reside within the human intestines. Diet is a key component of the relationship between humans and their microbial residents; gut microbes use ingested nutrients for fundamental biological processes, and the metabolic outputs of those processes may have important impacts on human physiology. Studies in humans and animal models are beginning to unravel the underpinnings of this relationship, and increasing evidence suggests that it may underlie some of the broader effects of diet on human health and disease.
      Keywords: Physiology
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau5812
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Swifter, higher, stronger: Whats on the menu'
    • Authors: Burke, L. M; Hawley, J. A.
      Pages: 781 - 787
      Abstract: The exploits of elite athletes delight, frustrate, and confound us as they strive to reach their physiological, psychological, and biomechanical limits. We dissect nutritional approaches to optimal performance, showcasing the contribution of modern sports science to gold medals and world titles. Despite an enduring belief in a single, superior "athletic diet," diversity in sports nutrition practices among successful athletes arises from the specificity of the metabolic demands of different sports and the periodization of training and competition goals. Pragmatic implementation of nutrition strategies in real-world scenarios and the prioritization of important strategies when nutrition themes are in conflict add to this variation. Lastly, differences in athlete practices both promote and reflect areas of controversy and disagreement among sports nutrition experts.
      Keywords: Physiology
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau2093
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Warm water and big winds
    • Authors: Smith H. J.
      Pages: 788 - 788
      Keywords: Atmospheric Science, Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.788-a
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • The science of art advancement
    • Authors: Jasny B. R.
      Pages: 788 - 788
      Keywords: Computers, Mathematics
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.788-b
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Innovating to be nondisruptive
    • Authors: Vinson V.
      Pages: 788 - 788
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.788-c
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • A programmable type of CRISPR system
    • Authors: Mao S.
      Pages: 788 - 788
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.788-d
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Patterned fiber formation
    • Authors: Lavine M. S.
      Pages: 788 - 789
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.788-e
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • DNA binding as an anti-inflammatory
    • Authors: Scanlon S. T.
      Pages: 788 - 789
      Keywords: Chemistry, Immunology
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.788-f
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Chemically reversible hydrogels
    • Authors: Szuromi P.
      Pages: 788 - 789
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.788-g
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Impact crater under ice
    • Authors: Benson P. J.
      Pages: 788 - 789
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.788-h
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Mitochondrial serine transporter identified
    • Authors: Mao S.
      Pages: 788 - 790
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.788-j
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Mapping the brain, one neuron at a time
    • Authors: Zahn L. M.
      Pages: 788 - 790
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.788-k
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Development of human brain neurons
    • Authors: Hines P. J.
      Pages: 788 - 790
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.788-l
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Heterocycles meet and marry on phosphorus
    • Authors: Yeston J.
      Pages: 788 - 790
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.788-m
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Light-powered cell factories
    • Authors: Funk M. A.
      Pages: 788 - 790
      Keywords: Materials Science, Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.788-n
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Wafer-scale hBN crystalline films
    • Authors: Szuromi P.
      Pages: 788 - 790
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.788-o
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Physics and chemistry in concert
    • Authors: Stajic J.
      Pages: 788 - 790
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.788-p
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Cell transitions in pathology
    • Authors: Alderton G.
      Pages: 788 - 790
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.788-q
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Impacts of outdoor artificial light
    • Authors: Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink J.
      Pages: 788 - 790
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.788-r
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Breaking mitochondria and hearts
    • Authors: Wong W.
      Pages: 788 - 790
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.788-s
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Fine-tuning CD8+ T cell responses
    • Authors: Williams I.
      Pages: 788 - 790
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.788-t
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Big dwarfs have little dwarfs
    • Authors: Smith K. T.
      Pages: 789 - 789
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.789-a
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • A new immune syndrome identified
    • Authors: Kelly P. N.
      Pages: 789 - 790
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.789-b
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Hybrid history
    • Authors: Vignieri S.
      Pages: 789 - 790
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.789-c
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Controls for a synthetic RNA circuit
    • Authors: Vinson V.
      Pages: 789 - 790
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.789-d
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Declining wood in disturbed forest
    • Authors: Sugden A. M.
      Pages: 789 - 790
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.789-e
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Roadblocks removed by rapid evolution
    • Authors: Funk M. A.
      Pages: 789 - 790
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.789-f
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • A radical approach to asymmetric amines
    • Authors: Yeston J.
      Pages: 789 - 790
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.789-g
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Dominant effect of relative tropical Atlantic warming on major hurricane
           occurrence
    • Authors: Murakami, H; Levin, E, Delworth, T. L, Gudgel, R, Hsu, P.- C.
      Pages: 794 - 799
      Abstract: Here we explore factors potentially linked to the enhanced major hurricane activity in the Atlantic Ocean during 2017. Using a suite of high-resolution model experiments, we show that the increase in 2017 major hurricanes was not primarily caused by La Niña conditions in the Pacific Ocean but rather triggered mainly by pronounced warm sea surface conditions in the tropical North Atlantic. Further, we superimpose a similar pattern of North Atlantic surface warming on data for long-term increasing sea surface temperature (a product of increases in greenhouse gas concentrations and decreases in aerosols) to show that this warming trend will likely lead to even higher numbers of major hurricanes in the future. The key factor controlling Atlantic major hurricane activity appears to be the degree to which the tropical Atlantic warms relative to the rest of the global ocean.
      Keywords: Atmospheric Science, Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat6711
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Heterobiaryl synthesis by contractive C-C coupling via P(V) intermediates
    • Authors: Hilton, M. C; Zhang, X, Boyle, B. T, Alegre-Requena, J. V, Paton, R. S, McNally, A.
      Pages: 799 - 804
      Abstract: Heterobiaryls composed of pyridine and diazine rings are key components of pharmaceuticals and are often central to pharmacological function. We present an alternative approach to metal-catalyzed cross-coupling to make heterobiaryls using contractive phosphorus C–C couplings, also termed phosphorus ligand coupling reactions. The process starts by regioselective phosphorus substitution of the C–H bonds para to nitrogen in two successive heterocycles; ligand coupling is then triggered via acidic alcohol solutions to form the heterobiaryl bond. Mechanistic studies imply that ligand coupling is an asynchronous process involving migration of one heterocycle to the ipso position of the other around a central pentacoordinate P(V) atom. The strategy can be applied to complex drug-like molecules containing multiple reactive sites and polar functional groups, and also enables convergent coupling of drug fragments and late-stage heteroarylation of pharmaceuticals.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aas8961
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Templated nanofiber synthesis via chemical vapor polymerization into
           liquid crystalline films
    • Authors: Cheng, K. C. K; Bedolla-Pantoja, M. A, Kim, Y.-K, Gregory, J. V, Xie, F, de France, A, Hussal, C, Sun, K, Abbott, N. L, Lahann, J.
      Pages: 804 - 808
      Abstract: Extrusion, electrospinning, and microdrawing are widely used to create fibrous polymer mats, but these approaches offer limited access to oriented arrays of nanometer-scale fibers with controlled size, shape, and lateral organization. We show that chemical vapor polymerization can be performed on surfaces coated with thin films of liquid crystals to synthesize organized assemblies of end-attached polymer nanofibers. The process uses low concentrations of radical monomers formed initially in the vapor phase and then diffused into the liquid-crystal template. This minimizes monomer-induced changes to the liquid-crystal phase and enables access to nanofiber arrays with complex yet precisely defined structures and compositions. The nanofiber arrays permit tailoring of a wide range of functional properties, including adhesion that depends on nanofiber chirality.
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar8449
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Reversible self-assembly of superstructured networks
    • Authors: Freeman, R; Han, M, Alvarez, Z, Lewis, J. A, Wester, J. R, Stephanopoulos, N, McClendon, M. T, Lynsky, C, Godbe, J. M, Sangji, H, Luijten, E, Stupp, S. I.
      Pages: 808 - 813
      Abstract: Soft structures in nature, such as protein assemblies, can organize reversibly into functional and often hierarchical architectures through noncovalent interactions. Molecularly encoding this dynamic capability in synthetic materials has remained an elusive goal. We report on hydrogels of peptide-DNA conjugates and peptides that organize into superstructures of intertwined filaments that disassemble upon the addition of molecules or changes in charge density. Experiments and simulations demonstrate that this response requires large-scale spatial redistribution of molecules directed by strong noncovalent interactions among them. Simulations also suggest that the chemically reversible structures can only occur within a limited range of supramolecular cohesive energies. Storage moduli of the hydrogels change reversibly as superstructures form and disappear, as does the phenotype of neural cells in contact with these materials.
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat6141
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Light-driven fine chemical production in yeast biohybrids
    • Authors: Guo, J; Suastegui, M, Sakimoto, K. K, Moody, V. M, Xiao, G, Nocera, D. G, Joshi, N. S.
      Pages: 813 - 816
      Abstract: Inorganic-biological hybrid systems have potential to be sustainable, efficient, and versatile chemical synthesis platforms by integrating the light-harvesting properties of semiconductors with the synthetic potential of biological cells. We have developed a modular bioinorganic hybrid platform that consists of highly efficient light-harvesting indium phosphide nanoparticles and genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a workhorse microorganism in biomanufacturing. The yeast harvests photogenerated electrons from the illuminated nanoparticles and uses them for the cytosolic regeneration of redox cofactors. This process enables the decoupling of biosynthesis and cofactor regeneration, facilitating a carbon- and energy-efficient production of the metabolite shikimic acid, a common precursor for several drugs and fine chemicals. Our work provides a platform for the rational design of biohybrids for efficient biomanufacturing processes with higher complexity and functionality.
      Keywords: Materials Science, Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat9777
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Wafer-scale single-crystal hexagonal boron nitride film via
           self-collimated grain formation
    • Authors: Lee, J. S; Choi, S. H, Yun, S. J, Kim, Y. I, Boandoh, S, Park, J.-H, Shin, B. G, Ko, H, Lee, S. H, Kim, Y.-M, Lee, Y. H, Kim, K. K, Kim, S. M.
      Pages: 817 - 821
      Abstract: Although polycrystalline hexagonal boron nitride (PC-hBN) has been realized, defects and grain boundaries still cause charge scatterings and trap sites, impeding high-performance electronics. Here, we report a method of synthesizing wafer-scale single-crystalline hBN (SC-hBN) monolayer films by chemical vapor deposition. The limited solubility of boron (B) and nitrogen (N) atoms in liquid gold promotes high diffusion of adatoms on the surface of liquid at high temperature to provoke the circular hBN grains. These further evolve into closely packed unimodal grains by means of self-collimation of B and N edges inherited by electrostatic interaction between grains, eventually forming an SC-hBN film on a wafer scale. This SC-hBN film also allows for the synthesis of wafer-scale graphene/hBN heterostructure and single-crystalline tungsten disulfide.
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau2132
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Beyond the molecular movie: Dynamics of bands and bonds during a
           photoinduced phase transition
    • Authors: Nicholson, C. W; Lücke, A, Schmidt, W. G, Puppin, M, Rettig, L, Ernstorfer, R, Wolf, M.
      Pages: 821 - 825
      Abstract: Ultrafast nonequilibrium dynamics offer a route to study the microscopic interactions that govern macroscopic behavior. In particular, photoinduced phase transitions (PIPTs) in solids provide a test case for how forces, and the resulting atomic motion along a reaction coordinate, originate from a nonequilibrium population of excited electronic states. Using femtosecond photoemission, we obtain access to the transient electronic structure during an ultrafast PIPT in a model system: indium nanowires on a silicon(111) surface. We uncover a detailed reaction pathway, allowing a direct comparison with the dynamics predicted by ab initio simulations. This further reveals the crucial role played by localized photoholes in shaping the potential energy landscape and enables a combined momentum- and real-space description of PIPTs, including the ultrafast formation of chemical bonds.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar4183
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Quantifying reputation and success in art
    • Authors: Fraiberger, S. P; Sinatra, R, Resch, M, Riedl, C, Barabasi, A.-L.
      Pages: 825 - 829
      Abstract: In areas of human activity where performance is difficult to quantify in an objective fashion, reputation and networks of influence play a key role in determining access to resources and rewards. To understand the role of these factors, we reconstructed the exhibition history of half a million artists, mapping out the coexhibition network that captures the movement of art between institutions. Centrality within this network captured institutional prestige, allowing us to explore the career trajectory of individual artists in terms of access to coveted institutions. Early access to prestigious central institutions offered life-long access to high-prestige venues and reduced dropout rate. By contrast, starting at the network periphery resulted in a high dropout rate, limiting access to central institutions. A Markov model predicts the career trajectory of individual artists and documents the strong path and history dependence of valuation in art.
      Keywords: Computers, Mathematics
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau7224
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Protein assemblies ejected directly from native membranes yield complexes
           for mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Chorev, D. S; Baker, L. A, Wu, D, Beilsten-Edmands, V, Rouse, S. L, Zeev-Ben-Mordehai, T, Jiko, C, Samsudin, F, Gerle, C, Khalid, S, Stewart, A. G, Matthews, S. J, Grünewald, K, Robinson, C. V.
      Pages: 829 - 834
      Abstract: Membrane proteins reside in lipid bilayers and are typically extracted from this environment for study, which often compromises their integrity. In this work, we ejected intact assemblies from membranes, without chemical disruption, and used mass spectrometry to define their composition. From Escherichia coli outer membranes, we identified a chaperone-porin association and lipid interactions in the β-barrel assembly machinery. We observed efflux pumps bridging inner and outer membranes, and from inner membranes we identified a pentameric pore of TonB, as well as the protein-conducting channel SecYEG in association with F1FO adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase. Intact mitochondrial membranes from Bos taurus yielded respiratory complexes and fatty acid–bound dimers of the ADP (adenosine diphosphate)/ATP translocase (ANT-1). These results highlight the importance of native membrane environments for retaining small-molecule binding, subunit interactions, and associated chaperones of the membrane proteome.
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau0976
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Small-molecule inhibitor of OGG1 suppresses proinflammatory gene
           expression and inflammation
    • Authors: Visnes, T; Cazares-Körner, A, Hao, W, Wallner, O, Masuyer, G, Loseva, O, Mortusewicz, O, Wiita, E, Sarno, A, Manoilov, A, Astorga-Wells, J, Jemth, A.-S, Pan, L, Sanjiv, K, Karsten, S, Gokturk, C, Grube, M, Homan, E. J, Hanna, B. M. F, Paulin, C. B. J, Pham, T, Rasti, A, Berglund, U. W, von Nicolai, C, Benitez-Buelga, C, Koolmeister, T, Ivanic, D, Iliev, P, Scobie, M, Krokan, H. E, Baranczewski, P, Artursson, P, Altun, M, Jensen, A. J, Kalderen, C, Ba, X, Zubarev, R. A, Stenmark, P, Boldogh, I, Helleday, T.
      Pages: 834 - 839
      Abstract: The onset of inflammation is associated with reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage to macromolecules like 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) in DNA. Because 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) binds 8-oxoG and because Ogg1-deficient mice are resistant to acute and systemic inflammation, we hypothesized that OGG1 inhibition may represent a strategy for the prevention and treatment of inflammation. We developed TH5487, a selective active-site inhibitor of OGG1, which hampers OGG1 binding to and repair of 8-oxoG and which is well tolerated by mice. TH5487 prevents tumor necrosis factor–α–induced OGG1-DNA interactions at guanine-rich promoters of proinflammatory genes. This, in turn, decreases DNA occupancy of nuclear factor B and proinflammatory gene expression, resulting in decreased immune cell recruitment to mouse lungs. Thus, we present a proof of concept that targeting oxidative DNA repair can alleviate inflammatory conditions in vivo.
      Keywords: Chemistry, Immunology
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar8048
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Programmed DNA destruction by miniature CRISPR-Cas14 enzymes
    • Authors: Harrington, L. B; Burstein, D, Chen, J. S, Paez-Espino, D, Ma, E, Witte, I. P, Cofsky, J. C, Kyrpides, N. C, Banfield, J. F, Doudna, J. A.
      Pages: 839 - 842
      Abstract: CRISPR-Cas systems provide microbes with adaptive immunity to infectious nucleic acids and are widely employed as genome editing tools. These tools use RNA-guided Cas proteins whose large size (950 to 1400 amino acids) has been considered essential to their specific DNA- or RNA-targeting activities. Here we present a set of CRISPR-Cas systems from uncultivated archaea that contain Cas14, a family of exceptionally compact RNA-guided nucleases (400 to 700 amino acids). Despite their small size, Cas14 proteins are capable of targeted single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) cleavage without restrictive sequence requirements. Moreover, target recognition by Cas14 triggers nonspecific cutting of ssDNA molecules, an activity that enables high-fidelity single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping (Cas14-DETECTR). Metagenomic data show that multiple CRISPR-Cas14 systems evolved independently and suggest a potential evolutionary origin of single-effector CRISPR-based adaptive immunity.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav4294
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • New Products
    • Pages: 846 - 846
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.846-a
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Technology Feature Protein expression, revisited
    • Authors: Smith C.
      Pages: 846 - 846
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.846-b
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
  • Climbing out of the bottle
    • Authors: Marchio E.
      Pages: 862 - 862
      PubDate: 2018-11-15T10:38:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.362.6416.862
      Issue No: Vol. 362, No. 6416 (2018)
       
 
 
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