Journal Cover Science
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   ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
   Published by AAAS Homepage  [6 journals]
  • Taking HIV to the gut
    • Authors: Balasubramani A.
      Pages: 713
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.712-i
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Cover stories: Visualizing scientist migrations
    • Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan6494
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Three-dimensional Ca2+ imaging advances understanding of astrocyte biology
    • Authors: Bindocci, E; Savtchouk, I, Liaudet, N, Becker, D, Carriero, G, Volterra, A.
      Abstract: Astrocyte communication is typically studied by two-dimensional calcium ion (Ca2+) imaging, but this method has not yielded conclusive data on the role of astrocytes in synaptic and vascular function. We developed a three-dimensional two-photon imaging approach and studied Ca2+ dynamics in entire astrocyte volumes, including during axon-astrocyte interactions. In both awake mice and brain slices, we found that Ca2+ activity in an individual astrocyte is scattered throughout the cell, largely compartmented between regions, preponderantly local within regions, and heterogeneously distributed regionally and locally. Processes and endfeet displayed frequent fast activity, whereas the soma was infrequently active. In awake mice, activity was higher than in brain slices, particularly in endfeet and processes, and displayed occasional multifocal cellwide events. Astrocytes responded locally to minimal axonal firing with time-correlated Ca2+ spots.
      Keywords: Neuroscience, Online Only
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aai8185
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Ephrin B1-mediated repulsion and signaling control germinal center T cell
           territoriality and function
    • Authors: Lu, P; Shih, C, Qi, H.
      Abstract: Follicular T helper (TFH) cells orchestrate the germinal center (GC) reaction locally. Local mechanisms regulating their dynamics and helper functions are not well defined. Here we found that GC-expressed ephrin B1 (EFNB1) repulsively inhibited T cell to B cell adhesion and GC TFH retention by signaling through TFH-expressed EPHB6 receptor. At the same time, EFNB1 promoted interleukin-21 production from GC TFH cells by signaling predominantly through EPHB4. Consequently, EFNB1-null GCs were associated with defective production of plasma cells despite harboring excessive TFH cells. In a competitive GC reaction, EFNB1-deficient B cells more efficiently interacted with TFH cells and produced more bone-marrow plasma cells, likely as a result of gaining more contact-dependent help. Our results reveal a contact-dependent repulsive guidance system that controls GC TFH dynamics and effector functions locally.
      Keywords: Immunology, Online Only
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aai9264
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Migration--the choices we face
    • Authors: Hassan; M. H. A.
      Pages: 667 - 667
      Keywords: Editorials
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan5965
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • News at a glance
    • Pages: 668 - 669
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.668
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Plot to redefine the kilogram nears climax
    • Authors: Cho A.
      Pages: 670 - 671
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.670
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Sea trash traps face doubts
    • Authors: Stokstad E.
      Pages: 671 - 671
      Keywords: Engineering, Oceanography
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.671
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Paolo Macchiarini's academic afterlife in Russia ends
    • Authors: Astakhova A.
      Pages: 672 - 673
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.672
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Genome writing project confronts technology hurdles
    • Authors: Servick K.
      Pages: 673 - 674
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Genetics
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.673
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Island extinctions weren't inevitable
    • Authors: Reese A.
      Pages: 674 - 675
      Keywords: Anthropology, Paleontology
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.674
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • People on the move
    • Authors: Culotta E.
      Pages: 676 - 677
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.676
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Busting myths of origin
    • Authors: Gibbons A.
      Pages: 678 - 681
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.678
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • The pain of exile
    • Authors: Underwood E.
      Pages: 682 - 685
      Keywords: Asia/Pacific News, Neuroscience, Psychology, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.682
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Battling bias
    • Authors: Couzin-Frankel J.
      Pages: 686 - 689
      Keywords: Psychology, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.686
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Restless minds
    • Authors: Bohannon J.
      Pages: 690 - 692
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.690
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Introducing ORCID
    • Authors: Bohannon, J; Doran, K.
      Pages: 691 - 692
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.691
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Crossing borders along an endless frontier
    • Authors: Wible B.
      Pages: 694 - 694
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.694-a
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • A mobility boost for research
    • Authors: Scellato, G; Franzoni, C, Stephan, P.
      Pages: 694 - 694
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan4052
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Private strategy, public policy
    • Authors: Kerr W.
      Pages: 695 - 695
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan1521
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Countering European brain drain
    • Authors: Veugelers R.
      Pages: 695 - 696
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan3920
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Mismatched supply and demand
    • Authors: Doran K. B.
      Pages: 696 - 696
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan1229
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Migration of ideas: China and U.S.
    • Authors: Freeman R.
      Pages: 696 - 697
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan5197
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Immigrant patents boost growth
    • Authors: Hunt J.
      Pages: 697 - 697
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan2468
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Reservoir of foreign talent
    • Authors: Bound, J; Khanna, G, Morales, N.
      Pages: 697 - 697
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan2956
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Migration today: Displaced scientists
    • Authors: Name withheld; Mustafa, R.
      Pages: 698 - 699
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan6283
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Giving refugees a chance
    • Authors: Bachmann C.
      Pages: 699 - 699
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan1449
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Nitrogen pollution knows no bounds
    • Authors: Boyle E.
      Pages: 700 - 701
      Keywords: Oceanography
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan3242
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • ATP controls the crowd
    • Authors: Rice, A. M; Rosen, M. K.
      Pages: 701 - 702
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan4223
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Repulsive behavior in germinal centers
    • Authors: Moschovakis, G. L; Förster, R.
      Pages: 703 - 704
      Keywords: Immunology
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan5222
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Multiscale measurements for materials modeling
    • Authors: Suter R.
      Pages: 704 - 705
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan2544
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Rightsizing carbon dioxide removal
    • Authors: Field, C. B; Mach, K. J.
      Pages: 706 - 707
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam9726
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Defining the topography of a planetary body
    • Authors: Burr D.
      Pages: 708 - 708
      Keywords: Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan2719
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • The next energy economy
    • Authors: Hopkins A. S.
      Pages: 709 - 709
      Keywords: Economics
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam8696
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Chew on this
    • Authors: Beard K. C.
      Pages: 710 - 710
      Keywords: Anthropology
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan0845
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Risky in the tropics
    • Authors: Vignieri S.
      Pages: 712 - 712
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.712-a
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • ATP boosts protein solubility
    • Authors: Ray L. B.
      Pages: 712 - 712
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.712-b
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Drying natural gas efficiently
    • Authors: Szuromi P.
      Pages: 712 - 712
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.712-c
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • River systems reveal planetary tectonics
    • Authors: Smith K. T.
      Pages: 712 - 712
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.712-d
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Blocking somatic genes to make sperm
    • Authors: Purnell B. A.
      Pages: 712 - 713
      Keywords: Development
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.712-e
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • From air to shining sea
    • Authors: Smith H. J.
      Pages: 712 - 713
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.712-f
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • A brain region for social cognition
    • Authors: Stern P.
      Pages: 712 - 713
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.712-g
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Why antioxidants do not prevent preeclampsia
    • Authors: Wong W.
      Pages: 712 - 713
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.712-h
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Glial calcium dynamics in space and time
    • Authors: Stern P.
      Pages: 712 - 714
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.712-j
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Guiding immune cells to the center
    • Authors: Hurtley, S. M; Mueller, K. L.
      Pages: 712 - 714
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.712-k
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Watching defects in heated thin films
    • Authors: Grocholski B.
      Pages: 712 - 714
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.712-l
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Graphene takes light to a higher level
    • Authors: Osborne I. S.
      Pages: 712 - 714
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.712-m
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Embryo viability relies on placental repression
    • Authors: Purnell B. A.
      Pages: 712 - 714
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.712-n
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • No quick fix for climate solutions
    • Authors: Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink J.
      Pages: 712 - 714
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.712-o
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • A brainy treatment for heart failure
    • Authors: Nusinovich Y.
      Pages: 712 - 714
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.712-p
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Neural crest rules the gut
    • Authors: Hines P. J.
      Pages: 712 - 714
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.712-q
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Just one drop will do it
    • Authors: Lavine M. S.
      Pages: 713 - 713
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.713-a
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Mom tells virus what to do
    • Authors: Purnell B. A.
      Pages: 713 - 714
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.713-b
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Expanding toxic algal blooms
    • Authors: Griffin C.
      Pages: 713 - 714
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.713-c
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Genes and BMI conspire to make fatty liver
    • Authors: Kiberstis P. A.
      Pages: 713 - 714
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.713-d
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Mutualists endow certain appetites
    • Authors: Ash C.
      Pages: 713 - 714
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.713-e
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Research experience is not just for students
    • Authors: McCartney M.
      Pages: 713 - 714
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.713-f
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • A game of quantum catch
    • Authors: Osborne I. S.
      Pages: 713 - 714
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.713-g
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Blocking promiscuous activation at cryptic promoters directs cell
           type-specific gene expression
    • Authors: Kim, J; Lu, C, Srinivasan, S, Awe, S, Brehm, A, Fuller, M. T.
      Pages: 717 - 721
      Abstract: To selectively express cell type–specific transcripts during development, it is critical to maintain genes required for other lineages in a silent state. Here, we show in the Drosophila male germline stem cell lineage that a spermatocyte-specific zinc finger protein, Kumgang (Kmg), working with the chromatin remodeler dMi-2 prevents transcription of genes normally expressed only in somatic lineages. By blocking transcription from normally cryptic promoters, Kmg restricts activation by Aly, a component of the testis-meiotic arrest complex, to transcripts for male germ cell differentiation. Our results suggest that as new regions of the genome become open for transcription during terminal differentiation, blocking the action of a promiscuous activator on cryptic promoters is a critical mechanism for specifying precise gene activation.
      Keywords: Development
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aal3096
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Lineage-dependent spatial and functional organization of the mammalian
           enteric nervous system
    • Authors: Lasrado, R; Boesmans, W, Kleinjung, J, Pin, C, Bell, D, Bhaw, L, McCallum, S, Zong, H, Luo, L, Clevers, H, Vanden Berghe, P, Pachnis, V.
      Pages: 722 - 726
      Abstract: The enteric nervous system (ENS) is essential for digestive function and gut homeostasis. Here we show that the amorphous neuroglia networks of the mouse ENS are composed of overlapping clonal units founded by postmigratory neural crest–derived progenitors. The spatial configuration of ENS clones depends on proliferation-driven local interactions of ENS progenitors with lineally unrelated neuroectodermal cells, the ordered colonization of the serosa-mucosa axis by clonal descendants, and gut expansion. Single-cell transcriptomics and mutagenesis analysis delineated dynamic molecular states of ENS progenitors and identified RET as a regulator of neurogenic commitment. Clonally related enteric neurons exhibit synchronous activity in response to network stimulation. Thus, lineage relationships underpin the organization of the peripheral nervous system.
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam7511
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Global drainage patterns and the origins of topographic relief on Earth,
           Mars, and Titan
    • Authors: Black, B. A; Perron, J. T, Hemingway, D, Bailey, E, Nimmo, F, Zebker, H.
      Pages: 727 - 731
      Abstract: Rivers have eroded the topography of Mars, Titan, and Earth, creating diverse landscapes. However, the dominant processes that generated topography on Titan (and to some extent on early Mars) are not well known. We analyzed drainage patterns on all three bodies and found that large drainages, which record interactions between deformation and erosional modification, conform much better to long-wavelength topography on Titan and Mars than on Earth. We use a numerical landscape evolution model to demonstrate that short-wavelength deformation causes drainage directions to diverge from long-wavelength topography, as observed on Earth. We attribute the observed differences to ancient long-wavelength topography on Mars, recent or ongoing generation of long-wavelength relief on Titan, and the creation of short-wavelength relief by plate tectonics on Earth.
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aag0171
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Hydrolytically stable fluorinated metal-organic frameworks for
           energy-efficient dehydration
    • Authors: Cadiau, A; Belmabkhout, Y, Adil, K, Bhatt, P. M, Pillai, R. S, Shkurenko, A, Martineau-Corcos, C, Maurin, G, Eddaoudi, M.
      Pages: 731 - 735
      Abstract: Natural gas must be dehydrated before it can be transported and used, but conventional drying agents such as activated alumina or inorganic molecular sieves require an energy-intensive desiccant-regeneration step. We report a hydrolytically stable fluorinated metal-organic framework, AlFFIVE-1-Ni (KAUST-8), with a periodic array of open metal coordination sites and fluorine moieties within the contracted square-shaped one-dimensional channel. This material selectively removed water vapor from gas streams containing CO2, N2, CH4, and higher hydrocarbons typical of natural gas, as well as selectively removed both H2O and CO2 in N2-containing streams. The complete desorption of the adsorbed water molecules contained by the AlFFIVE-1-Ni sorbent requires relatively moderate temperature (~105°C) and about half the energy input for commonly used desiccants.
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam8310
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • High-harmonic generation in graphene enhanced by elliptically polarized
           light excitation
    • Authors: Yoshikawa, N; Tamaya, T, Tanaka, K.
      Pages: 736 - 738
      Abstract: The electronic properties of graphene can give rise to a range of nonlinear optical responses. One of the most desirable nonlinear optical processes is high-harmonic generation (HHG) originating from coherent electron motion induced by an intense light field. Here, we report on the observation of up to ninth-order harmonics in graphene excited by mid-infrared laser pulses at room temperature. The HHG in graphene is enhanced by an elliptically polarized laser excitation, and the resultant harmonic radiation has a particular polarization. The observed ellipticity dependence is reproduced by a fully quantum mechanical treatment of HHG in solids. The zero-gap nature causes the unique properties of HHG in graphene, and our findings open up the possibility of investigating strong-field and ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear behavior of massless Dirac fermions.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam8861
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Bragg coherent diffractive imaging of single-grain defect dynamics in
           polycrystalline films
    • Authors: Yau, A; Cha, W, Kanan, M. W, Stephenson, G. B, Ulvestad, A.
      Pages: 739 - 742
      Abstract: Polycrystalline material properties depend on the distribution and interactions of their crystalline grains. In particular, grain boundaries and defects are crucial in determining their response to external stimuli. A long-standing challenge is thus to observe individual grains, defects, and strain dynamics inside functional materials. Here we report a technique capable of revealing grain heterogeneity, including strain fields and individual dislocations, that can be used under operando conditions in reactive environments: grain Bragg coherent diffractive imaging (gBCDI). Using a polycrystalline gold thin film subjected to heating, we show how gBCDI resolves grain boundary and dislocation dynamics in individual grains in three-dimensional detail with 10-nanometer spatial and subangstrom displacement field resolution. These results pave the way for understanding polycrystalline material response under external stimuli and, ideally, engineering particular functions.
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam6168
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Higher predation risk for insect prey at low latitudes and elevations
    • Authors: Roslin, T; Hardwick, B, Novotny, V, Petry, W. K, Andrew, N. R, Asmus, A, Barrio, I. C, Basset, Y, Boesing, A. L, Bonebrake, T. C, Cameron, E. K, Dattilo, W, Donoso, D. A, Drozd, P, Gray, C. L, Hik, D. S, Hill, S. J, Hopkins, T, Huang, S, Koane, B, Laird-Hopkins, B, Laukkanen, L, Lewis, O. T, Milne, S, Mwesige, I, Nakamura, A, Nell, C. S, Nichols, E, Prokurat, A, Sam, K, Schmidt, N. M, Slade, A, Slade, V, Suchankova, A, Teder, T, van Nouhuys, S, Vandvik, V, Weissflog, A, Zhukovich, V, Slade, E. M.
      Pages: 742 - 744
      Abstract: Biotic interactions underlie ecosystem structure and function, but predicting interaction outcomes is difficult. We tested the hypothesis that biotic interaction strength increases toward the equator, using a global experiment with model caterpillars to measure predation risk. Across an 11,660-kilometer latitudinal gradient spanning six continents, we found increasing predation toward the equator, with a parallel pattern of increasing predation toward lower elevations. Patterns across both latitude and elevation were driven by arthropod predators, with no systematic trend in attack rates by birds or mammals. These matching gradients at global and regional scales suggest consistent drivers of biotic interaction strength, a finding that needs to be integrated into general theories of herbivory, community organization, and life-history evolution.
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaj1631
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • A dedicated network for social interaction processing in the primate brain
    • Authors: Sliwa, J; Freiwald, W. A.
      Pages: 745 - 749
      Abstract: Primate cognition requires interaction processing. Interactions can reveal otherwise hidden properties of intentional agents, such as thoughts and feelings, and of inanimate objects, such as mass and material. Where and how interaction analyses are implemented in the brain is unknown. Using whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys, we discovered a network centered in the medial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex that is exclusively engaged in social interaction analysis. Exclusivity of specialization was found for no other function anywhere in the brain. Two additional networks, a parieto-premotor and a temporal one, exhibited both social and physical interaction preference, which, in the temporal lobe, mapped onto a fine-grain pattern of object, body, and face selectivity. Extent and location of a dedicated system for social interaction analysis suggest that this function is an evolutionary forerunner of human mind-reading capabilities.
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam6383
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • 21st-century rise in anthropogenic nitrogen deposition on a remote coral
           reef
    • Authors: Ren, H; Chen, Y.-C, Wang, X. T, Wong, G. T. F, Cohen, A. L, DeCarlo, T. M, Weigand, M. A, Mii, H.-S, Sigman, D. M.
      Pages: 749 - 752
      Abstract: With the rapid rise in pollution-associated nitrogen inputs to the western Pacific, it has been suggested that even the open ocean has been affected. In a coral core from Dongsha Atoll, a remote coral reef ecosystem, we observe a decline in the 15N/14N of coral skeleton–bound organic matter, which signals increased deposition of anthropogenic atmospheric N on the open ocean and its incorporation into plankton and, in turn, the atoll corals. The first clear change occurred just before 2000 CE, decades later than predicted by other work. The amplitude of change suggests that, by 2010, anthropogenic atmospheric N deposition represented 20 ± 5% of the annual N input to the surface ocean in this region, which appears to be at the lower end of other estimates.
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aal3869
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • ATP as a biological hydrotrope
    • Authors: Patel, A; Malinovska, L, Saha, S, Wang, J, Alberti, S, Krishnan, Y, Hyman, A. A.
      Pages: 753 - 756
      Abstract: Hydrotropes are small molecules that solubilize hydrophobic molecules in aqueous solutions. Typically, hydrotropes are amphiphilic molecules and differ from classical surfactants in that they have low cooperativity of aggregation and work at molar concentrations. Here, we show that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has properties of a biological hydrotrope. It can both prevent the formation of and dissolve previously formed protein aggregates. This chemical property is manifested at physiological concentrations between 5 and 10 millimolar. Therefore, in addition to being an energy source for biological reactions, for which micromolar concentrations are sufficient, we propose that millimolar concentrations of ATP may act to keep proteins soluble. This may in part explain why ATP is maintained in such high concentrations in cells.
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf6846
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • A placental growth factor is silenced in mouse embryos by the zinc finger
           protein ZFP568
    • Authors: Yang, P; Wang, Y, Hoang, D, Tinkham, M, Patel, A, Sun, M.-A, Wolf, G, Baker, M, Chien, H.-C, Lai, K.-Y. N, Cheng, X, Shen, C.-K. J, Macfarlan, T. S.
      Pages: 757 - 759
      Abstract: Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is the major fetal growth hormone in mammals. We identify zinc finger protein 568 (ZFP568), a member of the rapidly evolving Kruppel-associated box–zinc finger protein (KRAB-ZFP) family linked primarily to silencing of endogenous retroelements, as a direct repressor of a placental-specific Igf2 transcript (designated Igf2-P0) in mice. Loss of Zfp568, which causes gastrulation failure, or mutation of the ZFP568-binding site at the Igf2-P0 promoter causes inappropriate Igf2-P0 activation. Deletion of Igf2 can completely rescue Zfp568 gastrulation phenotypes through late gestation. Our data highlight the exquisite selectivity with which members of the KRAB-ZFP family repress their targets and identify an additional layer of transcriptional control of a key growth factor regulating fetal and placental development.
      Keywords: Development
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aah6895
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • Mining microbes: Creating genomic tools to fight disease
    • Authors: Dance A.
      Pages: 761 - 763
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.761
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • New Products
    • Pages: 764 - 764
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.764-a
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
  • The journey of a scientist mother
    • Authors: de Tezanos Pinto P.
      Pages: 774 - 774
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:28:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6339.774
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6339 (2017)
       
 
 
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