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Journal Cover Science
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   ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
   Published by AAAS Homepage  [5 journals]
  • [Letter] Reminder to deposit DNA sequences
    • Authors: Mark Blaxter
      Abstract:
      Authors : Mark Blaxter, Antoine Danchin, Babis Savakis, Kaoru Fukami-Kobayashi, Ken Kurokawa, Sumio Sugano, Richard J. Roberts, Steven L. Salzberg, Chung-I Wu
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf7672
       
  • [Letter] Crimea report leaves readers in the cold
    • Authors: Alexander Goushcha
      Abstract:
      Authors : Alexander Goushcha, Galina Z. Goloverda, Oleh Kotsyuba, Dmitrii F. Perepichka, Oksana Seumenicht, Alexey S. Ladokhin
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf9663
       
  • [Letter] Crimea report leaves readers in the cold—Response
    • Authors: Tim Appenzeller
      Abstract: Author: Tim Appenzeller
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.781-a
       
  • [Book Review] Waking dreams
    • Authors: Giovanni Frazzetto
      Abstract: Dead or alive, asleep or awake, focused or drifting. Consciousness switches on, flickers to the wanderings of the mind, rests, and extinguishes. The borders of sentience are the subject of a compact educational exhibition at the Wellcome Collection in London. Artists, psychologists, neuroscientists, and philosophers contribute artworks, objects, and knowledge to visualize topics that include synesthesia, somnambulism, dream, trauma, language, and memory. Author: Giovanni Frazzetto
      Keywords: Exhibition
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf6090
       
  • [Book Review] The stanchions of statistics
    • Authors: Howard Wainer
      Abstract: Statistics, the science of uncertainty, is young as sciences go. Too often, however, the field is looked upon as a set of arcane procedures that are implemented, without much thought, by computer algorithms. Such a myopic view of this most modern of the sciences deprives the viewer of the accumulated product of a great deal of beautiful and subtle thinking. Statistician Stephen Stigler's new book, The Seven Pillars of Statistical Wisdom, sets out to remedy this. Each of the seven pillars that Stigler, in his wisdom, has hewn from the past two centuries of statistical thought provides surprising insights. Author: Howard Wainer
      Keywords: Data Analysis
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf9115
       
  • [Report] Preservation of Earth-forming events in the tungsten isotopic
           composition of modern flood basalts
    • Authors: Hanika Rizo
      Abstract: How much of Earth's compositional variation dates to processes that occurred during planet formation remains an unanswered question. High-precision tungsten isotopic data from rocks from two large igneous provinces, the North Atlantic Igneous Province and the Ontong Java Plateau, reveal preservation to the Phanerozoic of tungsten isotopic heterogeneities in the mantle. These heterogeneities, caused by the decay of hafnium-182 in mantle domains with high hafnium/tungsten ratios, were created during the first ~50 million years of solar system history, indicating that portions of the mantle that formed during Earth’s primary accretionary period have survived to the present.
      Authors : Hanika Rizo, Richard J. Walker, Richard W. Carlson, Mary F. Horan, Sujoy Mukhopadhyay, Vicky Manthos, Don Francis, Matthew G. Jackson
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad8563
       
  • [Report] Causal evidence for the role of REM sleep theta rhythm in
           contextual memory consolidation
    • Authors: Richard Boyce
      Abstract: Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) has been linked with spatial and emotional memory consolidation. However, establishing direct causality between neural activity during REMS and memory consolidation has proven difficult because of the transient nature of REMS and significant caveats associated with REMS deprivation techniques. In mice, we optogenetically silenced medial septum γ-aminobutyric acid–releasing (MSGABA) neurons, allowing for temporally precise attenuation of the memory-associated theta rhythm during REMS without disturbing sleeping behavior. REMS-specific optogenetic silencing of MSGABA neurons selectively during a REMS critical window after learning erased subsequent novel object place recognition and impaired fear-conditioned contextual memory. Silencing MSGABA neurons for similar durations outside REMS episodes had no effect on memory. These results demonstrate that MSGABA neuronal activity specifically during REMS is required for normal memory consolidation.
      Authors : Richard Boyce, Stephen D. Glasgow, Sylvain Williams, Antoine Adamantidis
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad5252
       
  • [Policy Forum] Confronting stem cell hype
    • Authors: Timothy Caulfield
      Abstract: The way science is represented to the public can influence understanding and expectations, frame policy debates, and affect the implementation and use of emerging technologies. Inaccurate representations of research may, for example, lead to public confusion about the readiness of a technology for clinical application. As a result, the issue of science “hype”—in which the state of scientific progress, the degree of certainty in models or bench results, or the potential applications of research are exaggerated—is receiving increased attention from the popular press, the research community, and scientific societies (1). In newly issued guidelines on the ethical conduct of human pluripotent stem cell research and clinical translation (2), the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) explicitly recognizes and confronts the issue of science hype. By placing a clear obligation on researchers, the ISSCR hopes to make balance in public representations of research a norm associated with scientific integrity. The focus on public communication, which is new to this version of the guidelines, is the result of both specific concerns regarding how stem cell research has been portrayed in the public sphere and the growing recognition that researchers play an important role in the science communication process.
      Authors : Timothy Caulfield, Douglas Sipp, Charles E. Murry, George Q. Daley, Jonathan Kimmelman
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf4620
       
  • [Perspective] Living sentinels for climate change effects
    • Authors: Martin Wikelski
      Abstract: Humans have long used animals as sentinels for threats to their own well-being. Canaries in coal mines are a classic example. On a global scale, studies of birds were key to detecting environmental problems caused by the excessive use of pesticides (1, 2). The recent loss of up to 98% of some vulture populations highlights the widespread dangerous effects of diclofenac use in cattle (3). Bee populations, sentinels for global insect losses, are also declining owing to the combined stress from pesticides and other environmental changes caused by humans, resulting in a widespread loss of pollination services (4). On page 819 of this issue, van Gils et al. (5) highlight another global ecological warning sign, this time linked to Arctic warming. They show that long-term changes in the body architecture of Arctic wading birds can affect their survival in their tropical wintering range.
      Authors : Martin Wikelski, Grigori Tertitski
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf6544
       
  • [Perspective] Nanophotonics gets twisted
    • Authors: Gabriel Molina-Terriza
      Abstract: Nanophotonics investigates the processing of light at the nanoscale, with the promise of transforming the telecommunication, biomedical, and computation industries. Advances in nanophotonics have traditionally been boosted but also limited by our capabilities of fabricating complex structures at the nanoscale. On page 805 of this issue, Ren et al. (1) try to break free of these limitations with their experimental demonstration of a simple nanostructure that can separate and process complex light modes carrying angular momentum. Thus, instead of processing light fields with complex nanostructures, the idea is to use comparatively simpler structures and push the complexity to the light fields themselves. Author: Gabriel Molina-Terriza
      Keywords: Applied Physics
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf6388
       
  • [Perspective] REMembering what you learned
    • Authors: Bernat Kocsis
      Abstract: Which memories are retained, where, and in what form depends on a long afterlife of the acquired information in the brain. Initial steps of consolidation may be completed within a few hours during wakefulness, but other forms of postacquisition processing take longer, extending into sleep (1, 2). The relationship between brain activity during sleep and memory consolidation remains controversial and poorly understood. On page 812 of this issue, Boyce et al. (3) demonstrate that a distinct form of hippocampal neural activity, called theta oscillation, is critical for memory formation during the rapid eye movement (REM) phase of sleep. Author: Bernat Kocsis
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf9117
       
  • [Perspective] Refugee protection and resettlement problems
    • Authors: Elizabeth Cullen Dunn
      Abstract: In 2015, more than a million refugees and other migrants entered the European Union. They are just a small part of the world's rapidly burgeoning population of displaced people, which climbed by more than 37% between 2009 and 2015 to reach 59.5 million people. Humanitarian aid to these people has been dramatically insufficient, and many displaced people now lack adequate food, medical care, housing, or transportation. As a geographer, I spent 16 months between 2009 and 2013 conducting participant observation research in camps for displaced people in Georgia (see the photo), where I discovered serious shortfalls in the humanitarian aid system. Increasingly, humanitarian aid is a temporary solution to a permanent problem, a stopgap that not only does not help displaced people resettle but, instead, makes it more difficult for them to move on with their lives. Author: Elizabeth Cullen Dunn
      Keywords: Essay
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8962
       
  • [Report] A general alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling enabled by redox-active
           esters and alkylzinc reagents
    • Authors: Tian Qin
      Abstract: Alkyl carboxylic acids are ubiquitous in all facets of chemical science, from natural products to polymers, and represent an ideal starting material with which to forge new connections. This study demonstrates how the same activating principles used for decades to make simple C–N (amide) bonds from carboxylic acids with loss of water can be used to make C–C bonds through coupling with dialkylzinc reagents and loss of carbon dioxide. This disconnection strategy benefits from the use of a simple, inexpensive nickel catalyst and exhibits a remarkably broad scope across a range of substrates (>70 examples).
      Authors : Tian Qin, Josep Cornella, Chao Li, Lara R. Malins, Jacob T. Edwards, Shuhei Kawamura, Brad D. Maxwell, Martin D. Eastgate, Phil S. Baran
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf6123
       
  • [Report] On-chip noninterference angular momentum multiplexing of
           broadband light
    • Authors: Haoran Ren
      Abstract: Angular momentum division has emerged as a physically orthogonal multiplexing method in high-capacity optical information technologies. However, the typical bulky elements used for information retrieval from the overall diffracted field, based on the interference method, impose a fundamental limit toward realizing on-chip multiplexing. We demonstrate noninterference angular momentum multiplexing by using a mode-sorting nanoring aperture with a chip-scale footprint as small as 4.2 micrometers by 4.2 micrometers, where nanoring slits exhibit a distinctive outcoupling efficiency on tightly confined plasmonic modes. The nonresonant mode-sorting sensitivity and scalability of our approach enable on-chip parallel multiplexing over a bandwidth of 150 nanometers in the visible wavelength range. The results offer the possibility of ultrahigh-capacity and miniaturized nanophotonic devices harnessing angular momentum division.
      Authors : Haoran Ren, Xiangping Li, Qiming Zhang, Min Gu
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf1112
       
  • [Report] Photochemical route for synthesizing atomically dispersed
           palladium catalysts
    • Authors: Pengxin Liu
      Abstract: Atomically dispersed noble metal catalysts often exhibit high catalytic performances, but the metal loading density must be kept low (usually below 0.5%) to avoid the formation of metal nanoparticles through sintering. We report a photochemical strategy to fabricate a stable atomically dispersed palladium–titanium oxide catalyst (Pd1/TiO2) on ethylene glycolate (EG)–stabilized ultrathin TiO2 nanosheets containing Pd up to 1.5%. The Pd1/TiO2 catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity in hydrogenation of C=C bonds, exceeding that of surface Pd atoms on commercial Pd catalysts by a factor of 9. No decay in the activity was observed for 20 cycles. More important, the Pd1/TiO2-EG system could activate H2 in a heterolytic pathway, leading to a catalytic enhancement in hydrogenation of aldehydes by a factor of more than 55.
      Authors : Pengxin Liu, Yun Zhao, Ruixuan Qin, Shiguang Mo, Guangxu Chen, Lin Gu, Daniel M. Chevrier, Peng Zhang, Qing Guo, Dandan Zang, Binghui Wu, Gang Fu, Nanfeng Zheng
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf5251
       
  • [Report] Zika virus impairs growth in human neurospheres and brain
           organoids
    • Authors: Patricia P. Garcez
      Abstract: Since the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV), reports of microcephaly have increased considerably in Brazil; however, causality between the viral epidemic and malformations in fetal brains needs further confirmation. We examined the effects of ZIKV infection in human neural stem cells growing as neurospheres and brain organoids. Using immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, we showed that ZIKV targets human brain cells, reducing their viability and growth as neurospheres and brain organoids. These results suggest that ZIKV abrogates neurogenesis during human brain development.
      Authors : Patricia P. Garcez, Erick Correia Loiola, Rodrigo Madeiro da Costa, Luiza M. Higa, Pablo Trindade, Rodrigo Delvecchio, Juliana Minardi Nascimento, Rodrigo Brindeiro, Amilcar Tanuri, Stevens K. Rehen
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf6116
       
  • [Report] Body shrinkage due to Arctic warming reduces red knot fitness in
           tropical wintering range
    • Authors: Jan A. van Gils
      Abstract: Reductions in body size are increasingly being identified as a response to climate warming. Here we present evidence for a case of such body shrinkage, potentially due to malnutrition in early life. We show that an avian long-distance migrant (red knot, Calidris canutus canutus), which is experiencing globally unrivaled warming rates at its high-Arctic breeding grounds, produces smaller offspring with shorter bills during summers with early snowmelt. This has consequences half a world away at their tropical wintering grounds, where shorter-billed individuals have reduced survival rates. This is associated with these molluscivores eating fewer deeply buried bivalve prey and more shallowly buried seagrass rhizomes. We suggest that seasonal migrants can experience reduced fitness at one end of their range as a result of a changing climate at the other end.
      Authors : Jan A. van Gils, Simeon Lisovski, Tamar Lok, Włodzimierz Meissner, Agnieszka Ożarowska, Jimmy de Fouw, Eldar Rakhimberdiev, Mikhail Y. Soloviev, Theunis Piersma, Marcel Klaassen
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad6351
       
  • [Report] Radical SAM catalysis via an organometallic intermediate with an
           Fe–[5′-C]-deoxyadenosyl bond
    • Authors: Masaki Horitani
      Abstract: Radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes use a [4Fe-4S] cluster to cleave SAM to initiate diverse radical reactions. These reactions are thought to involve the 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical intermediate, which has not yet been detected. We used rapid freeze-quenching to trap a catalytically competent intermediate in the reaction catalyzed by the radical SAM enzyme pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme. Characterization of the intermediate by electron paramagnetic resonance and 13C, 57Fe electron nuclear double-resonance spectroscopies reveals that it contains an organometallic center in which the 5′ carbon of a SAM-derived deoxyadenosyl moiety forms a bond with the unique iron site of the [4Fe-4S] cluster. Discovery of this intermediate extends the list of enzymatic bioorganometallic centers to the radical SAM enzymes, the largest enzyme superfamily known, and reveals intriguing parallels to B12 radical enzymes.
      Authors : Masaki Horitani, Krista Shisler, William E. Broderick, Rachel U. Hutcheson, Kaitlin S. Duschene, Amy R. Marts, Brian M. Hoffman, Joan B. Broderick
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf5327
       
  • [Research Article] Reconciling after civil conflict increases social
           capital but decreases individual well-being
    • Authors: Jacobus Cilliers
      Abstract: Civil wars divide nations along social, economic, and political cleavages, often pitting one neighbor against another. To restore social cohesion, many countries undertake truth and reconciliation efforts. We examined the consequences of one such effort in Sierra Leone, designed and implemented by a Sierra Leonean nongovernmental organization called Fambul Tok. As a part of this effort, community-level forums are set up in which victims detail war atrocities, and perpetrators confess to war crimes. We used random assignment to study its impact across 200 villages, drawing on data from 2383 individuals. We found that reconciliation had both positive and negative consequences. It led to greater forgiveness of perpetrators and strengthened social capital: Social networks were larger, and people contributed more to public goods in treated villages. However, these benefits came at a substantial cost: The reconciliation treatment also worsened psychological health, increasing depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder in these same villages. For a subset of villages, we measured outcomes both 9 months and 31 months after the intervention. These results show that the effects, both positive and negative, persisted into the longer time horizon. Our findings suggest that policy-makers need to restructure reconciliation processes in ways that reduce their negative psychological costs while retaining their positive societal benefits.
      Authors : Jacobus Cilliers, Oeindrila Dube, Bilal Siddiqi
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad9682
       
  • [Report] Large optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide in its
           epsilon-near-zero region
    • Authors: M. Zahirul Alam
      Abstract: Nonlinear optical phenomena are crucial for a broad range of applications, such as microscopy, all-optical data processing, and quantum information. However, materials usually exhibit a weak optical nonlinearity even under intense coherent illumination. We report that indium tin oxide can acquire an ultrafast and large intensity-dependent refractive index in the region of the spectrum where the real part of its permittivity vanishes. We observe a change in the real part of the refractive index of 0.72 ± 0.025, corresponding to 170% of the linear refractive index. This change in refractive index is reversible with a recovery time of about 360 femtoseconds. Our results offer the possibility of designing material structures with large ultrafast nonlinearity for applications in nanophotonics.
      Authors : M. Zahirul Alam, Israel De Leon, Robert W. Boyd
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aae0330
       
  • [Editors' Choice] By air and by sea
    • Authors: H. Jesse Smith
      Abstract: Author: H. Jesse Smith
      Keywords: Climate Variability
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.784-f
       
  • [Editors' Choice] Can modern technology prevent extinction?
    • Authors: Laura M. Zahn
      Abstract: Author: Laura M. Zahn
      Keywords: Conservation Biology
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.784-g
       
  • [Research Article] IgA production requires B cell interaction with
           subepithelial dendritic cells in Peyer’s patches
    • Authors: Andrea Reboldi
      Abstract: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) induction primarily occurs in intestinal Peyer’s patches (PPs). However, the cellular interactions necessary for IgA class switching are poorly defined. Here we show that in mice, activated B cells use the chemokine receptor CCR6 to access the subepithelial dome (SED) of PPs. There, B cells undergo prolonged interactions with SED dendritic cells (DCs). PP IgA class switching requires innate lymphoid cells, which promote lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTβR)–dependent maintenance of DCs. PP DCs augment IgA production by integrin αvβ8-mediated activation of transforming growth factor–β (TGFβ). In mice where B cells cannot access the SED, IgA responses against oral antigen and gut commensals are impaired. These studies establish the PP SED as a niche supporting DC–B cell interactions needed for TGFβ activation and induction of mucosal IgA responses.
      Authors : Andrea Reboldi, Tal I. Arnon, Lauren B. Rodda, Amha Atakilit, Dean Sheppard, Jason G. Cyster
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf4822
       
  • [Editors' Choice] How monkeys see in 3D
    • Authors: Peter Stern
      Abstract: Author: Peter Stern
      Keywords: Visual Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.784-d
       
  • [Editors' Choice] Revealing buried hydrogen bonds
    • Authors: Phil Szuromi
      Abstract: Author: Phil Szuromi
      Keywords: Surface Science
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.784-e
       
  • [This Week in Science] Isotopes isolated after impact
    • Authors: Brent Grocholski
      Abstract: Author: Brent Grocholski
      Keywords: Geochemistry
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.783-s
       
  • [Editors' Choice] Reclaimed costs from reclaimed water
    • Authors: Nicholas S. Wigginton
      Abstract: Author: Nicholas S. Wigginton
      Keywords: Energy-Water Nexus
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.784-a
       
  • [Editors' Choice] Slowing down to a standstill
    • Authors: Stella M. Hurtley
      Abstract: Author: Stella M. Hurtley
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.784-b
       
  • [Editors' Choice] A view of pathogenic fibrils
    • Authors: Valda Vinson
      Abstract: Author: Valda Vinson
      Keywords: Parkinson's Disease
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.784-c
       
  • [Perspective] Toward a prospective molecular evolution
    • Authors: Xionglei He
      Abstract: The field of molecular evolution is concerned with evolutionary changes in genes and genomes and the underlying driving forces behind those changes. Current studies in molecular evolution are almost entirely retrospective, with a focus on the mutations that were fixed during evolution, and the conclusions are often explanatory, offering no predictive insights. Because only a tiny fraction of all mutations that have ever occurred during evolution have been fixed, the “successes” that we see today provide an incomplete or even biased understanding of the evolutionary process. One way to circumvent this problem is to obtain the whole fitness landscape of a gene to understand, prospectively, chance and necessity in evolution (see the figure). Two studies in this issue, by Li et al. on page 837 (1) and Puchta et al. on page 840 (2), each take on this challenge by characterizing the in vivo fitness landscape of two RNA genes.
      Authors : Xionglei He, Li Liu
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf7543
       
  • [Perspective] Identifying remnants of early Earth
    • Authors: Tais W. Dahl
      Abstract: The chemical composition of Earth's mantle can tell us how our planet formed and how subsequent mantle dynamics have since homogenized the mantle through convective processes. Most terrestrial rocks have a similar tungsten (W) isotope composition (1), but some rocks that have been dated at 2.8 Ga (billion years old) (2), 3.8 Ga (3), and 3.96 Ga (4) have elevated 182W/184W ratios. This is reported as µ182W, in parts per million (ppm) deviation from the bulk silicate Earth. Until now, the outliers have included only these ancient rock samples with a small µ182W excess (≤15 ppm) that can be attributed to the final ∼0.5% of Earth's mass that accreted late in its accretion history. On page 809 of this issue, Rizo et al. (5) report W isotope data from young mantle-derived rocks with µ182W excesses of 10 to 48 ppm. This result is spectacular because the range of µ182W values in mantle-derived rocks is larger than can be accommodated by late accretion; the implication is that remnants of Earth's earliest mantle have been preserved over the entirety of Earth's history. Author: Tais W. Dahl
      Keywords: Geochemistry
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf2482
       
  • [Perspective] Reconciliation in Sierra Leone
    • Authors: Katherine Casey
      Abstract: Since the end of World War II, there have been 259 armed conflicts in 159 locations (1). Sierra Leone's civil war began 25 years ago, at a time when roughly 25% of all countries worldwide were experiencing civil war (2). How can individuals and groups recover from such violent conflicts? On page 787 of this issue, Cilliers et al. (3) provide rigorous evidence on the efficacy of one postwar reconciliation strategy that was implemented in 100 communities in Sierra Leone (4).
      Authors : Katherine Casey, Rachel Glennerster
      Keywords: Conflict
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf7874
       
  • [This Week in Science] An antibody to block viral fusion
    • Authors: Kristen L. Mueller
      Abstract: Author: Kristen L. Mueller
      Keywords: HIV-1 Antibodies
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.783-o
       
  • [This Week in Science] Epistasis and mutational fitness landscape
    • Authors: Laura M. Zahn
      Abstract: Author: Laura M. Zahn
      Keywords: Molecular Evolution
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.783-p
       
  • [This Week in Science] An oncohistone deranges inhibitory chromatin
    • Authors: Guy Riddihough
      Abstract: Author: Guy Riddihough
      Keywords: Cancer
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.783-q
       
  • [This Week in Science] A role for PKCα in Alzheimer's disease
    • Authors: Leslie K. Ferrarelli
      Abstract: Author: Leslie K. Ferrarelli
      Keywords: Neurodegeneration
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.783-r
       
  • [This Week in Science] Lightly dispersed palladium
    • Authors: Phil Szuromi
      Abstract: Author: Phil Szuromi
      Keywords: Catalysis
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.783-l
       
  • [This Week in Science] A twist on optical multiplexing
    • Authors: Ian S. Osborne
      Abstract: Author: Ian S. Osborne
      Keywords: Applied Physics
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.783-m
       
  • [This Week in Science] Catching a radical in action
    • Authors: Nicholas S. Wigginton
      Abstract: Author: Nicholas S. Wigginton
      Keywords: Metalloproteins
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.783-n
       
  • [This Week in Science] The global sleep crisis
    • Authors: Julie A. Phillippi
      Abstract: Author: Julie A. Phillippi
      Keywords: Sleep
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.783-e
       
  • [This Week in Science] Carbon links without helpful neighbors
    • Authors: Jake Yeston
      Abstract: Author: Jake Yeston
      Keywords: Organic Chemistry
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.783-f
       
  • [This Week in Science] A window into Alzheimer's disease
    • Authors: Orla M. Smith
      Abstract: Author: Orla M. Smith
      Keywords: Neurodegeneration
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.783-g
       
  • [This Week in Science] Let sleeping mice remember
    • Authors: Peter Stern
      Abstract: Author: Peter Stern
      Keywords: Sleep Research
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.783-h
       
  • [This Week in Science] The psychological cost of reconciliation
    • Authors: Gilbert Chin
      Abstract: Author: Gilbert Chin
      Keywords: Psychology
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.783-i
       
  • [This Week in Science] A recipe for intestinal lgA
    • Authors: Gilbert Chin
      Abstract: Author: Gilbert Chin
      Keywords: Mucosal Immunology
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.783-j
       
  • [This Week in Science] Nonlinear optics: A surprise in store?
    • Authors: Ian S. Osborne
      Abstract: Author: Ian S. Osborne
      Keywords: Nonlinear Optics
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.783-k
       
  • [Feature] Resistance fighters
    • Authors: Kai Kupferschmidt
      Abstract: Evolutionary biologists have begun studying the rise of antibiotic resistance, one of the most urgent problems in public health. Their work suggests that old dogmas about the best way to prevent resistance may be wrong. Contrary to what most doctors think, for instance, using high doses of antibiotics may sometimes help spread resistance rather than prevent it. Combining antibiotics could backfire as well, and long treatments may sometimes do more harm than good. However, many researchers and clinicians are skeptical about these new ideas, which are difficult to test in humans because it might involve giving some patients a suboptimal dose of a life-saving drug. Author: Kai Kupferschmidt
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.758
       
  • [Feature] Museum drawers go digital
    • Authors: Nala Rogers
      Abstract: No one knows exactly how many natural history specimens exist in museums and other research institutions worldwide, but some calculate it's on the order of 3 billion. In most cases, the displays seen by visitors make up a tiny slice of this treasure; museum curators estimate that more than 99% is stored away from the public gaze. Researchers have for decades used museum specimens to answer questions about how species diverge, where they move around the globe, and how they respond to changing conditions. But they have traditionally had to travel from museum to museum in person, or else request that the specimens be mailed to them. Now, even as museums struggle with funding woes that limit their activities, many around the world are working to put specimen photographs and related data online where anyone can view them. Until recently, these efforts were slow and painstaking, barely chipping away at the staggering amount of data in collections. Now, technological advances and innovative workflows are allowing institutions to think bigger, ushering in a new age of mass digitization. A new conveyor belt system at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., will allow the digitization of 650,000 specimens within the period of a year, each one costing just $1. As digitization grows faster and cheaper, more governments and institutions are investing in it. Since 2011, the U.S. National Science Foundation has devoted $10 million per year to digitization efforts in nonfederal collections across the United States. But even with these new funding opportunities, museum officials and curators stress that there is still far too little money to make all specimens digital. Author: Nala Rogers
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.762
       
  • [Letter] New allies fight for China's environment
    • Authors: S. Lu
      Abstract:
      Authors : S. Lu, J. Zhou, F. Dubee
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8345
       
  • [This Week in Science] The effects of rainfall on rainfall
    • Authors: H. Jesse Smith
      Abstract: Author: H. Jesse Smith
      Keywords: Atmospheric Science
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.783-a
       
  • [This Week in Science] Zika virus tested in human brain organoids
    • Authors: Caroline Ash
      Abstract: Author: Caroline Ash
      Keywords: Zika Virus
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.783-b
       
  • [This Week in Science] Consequences conferred at a distance
    • Authors: Sacha Vignieri
      Abstract: Author: Sacha Vignieri
      Keywords: Climate Change
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.783-c
       
  • [This Week in Science] Making RNA in the prebiotic world
    • Authors: Guy Riddihough
      Abstract: Author: Guy Riddihough
      Keywords: Origin of Life
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.783-d
       
  • [In Depth] How the Venus flytrap acquired its taste for meat
    • Authors: Erik Stokstad
      Abstract: Carnivorous plants have remarkable adaptations to catch and digest invertebrates. These aggressive feeding habits allow the plants to survive in poor soil by giving them a new source of nitrogen and other nutrients. Many biologists suspect ancestors of carnivorous plants evolved by adapting mechanisms normally used to detect and defend against herbivores. Now, this hypothesis has gained support from a detailed genetic study of Venus flytraps (Dionaea muscipula). Patterns of gene expression confirmed that the flytrap and a noncarnivorous plant use the same signaling pathway to detect insects. Experiments showed that the flytrap digests its prey with the same kind digestive enzymes that other plants use to ward off insects. A few hours after catching prey, the flytrap turns on another set of familiar genes to absorb nutrients; many of these genes are expressed in the roots of other plants. Author: Erik Stokstad
      Keywords: Plant Science
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.756
       
  • [In Depth] NSF director unveils big ideas
    • Authors: Jeffrey Mervis
      Abstract: France Córdova, the director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) in Arlington, Virginia, has unveiled a research agenda intended to both shape the agency's next few decades and win over the next U.S. president and Congress. The nine "big ideas" she presented last week to the National Science Board are meant to illustrate how increased support for the type of basic research that NSF funds can help answer pressing societal problems. They range from how humans interact with technology to how climate change in the polar regions will impact the global economy, environment, and culture. Córdova admits that it's unusual for a federal agency to talk publicly about its long-range budget plans. But she is betting that touting the agency's capabilities during an election year will pay dividends after voters have chosen a successor to President Barack Obama. Author: Jeffrey Mervis
      Keywords: Science Policy
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.755
       
  • [In Depth] Unexpected revelations for study volunteer
    • Authors: Jennifer Couzin-Frankel
      Abstract: About 5 years ago, psychologist Rita Woidislawsky joined a research study studying people with naturally elevated high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, sometimes called "good" cholesterol. Like millions of volunteers who give blood and a few hours of their time to scientists, the project had barely registered on her radar recently. And then last month came a startling discovery. After a chance encounter with the lead scientist, she learned that the research group had published a paper in Science in which her case figured prominently (although only her age at the time of most data collection was listed). The news alarmed her: Researchers suspected that rather than being beneficial, the high HDL Woidislawsky had always been proud of might be deleterious. She had known nothing about the publication plans or her own results. The experience places Woidislawsky at the nexus of two distinct quandaries in clinical research: What health information do researchers owe the volunteers in their studies, especially when it's not clear what it means? And should researchers notify volunteers of publications in which their story appears, even if it's impossible for others to identify them? Author: Jennifer Couzin-Frankel
      Keywords: Clinical Trials
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.754
       
  • [In Depth] Animals show how Zika harms fetuses
    • Authors: Jon Cohen
      Abstract: Zika virus has frightened people the world over because of growing evidence that it can have severe effects on fetuses when it infects pregnant women. Although the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention last month declared that there was a "causal relationship" between the virus and harm to baby brains—most notably, small heads called microcephaly—many questions remain about how the damage happens from what was long considered a harmless virus. Three new papers published online this week describe different mouse models that infected pregnant dams with the virus, or, in one case, placed viral injections directly into the fetal brain. The studies all confirm that Zika virus harms the growth of the fetus, examining how the virus damages both placental cells and critical neural cells in the fetal brain. Two of the studies demonstrate, for the first time in an animal model, that Zika virus can cause microcephaly. Studies are also underway with Zika virus in pregnant monkeys, a model that much more closely resembles human pregnancy, and the community of primate researchers is going to unusual lengths to share their data openly in near real time. Author: Jon Cohen
      Keywords: Infectious Disease
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.752
       
  • [In Depth] New scrutiny for a slowing Atlantic conveyor
    • Authors: Eric Hand
      Abstract: Scientists are retrieving data from the largest effort yet to monitor the Atlantic conveyor belt, a set of powerful ocean currents with far-reaching effects on the global climate that has mysteriously slowed over the past decade. Five research cruises this spring and summer will fetch data from the 53 moorings in an array called Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP), which stretches from Labrador to Greenland to Scotland. The array's measurements of temperature, salinity, and current velocity will be key to understanding the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), and how it is affected by climate change. The AMOC currents include the Gulf Stream, which brings shallow warm waters north, nourishing fisheries and warming northwest Europe. The warm waters give up their heat in the bitterly cold regions monitored by OSNAP, become denser, and sink, forming ocean-bottom currents that return southward, hugging the perimeter of the ocean basins. Models suggest that climate change should weaken the AMOC as warmer Arctic temperatures, combined with buoyant freshwater from Greenland's melting ice cap, impede the formation of deep currents. But so far, limited ocean measurements show the AMOC to be far more capricious than the models have been able to capture. Author: Eric Hand
      Keywords: Oceanography
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.751
       
  • [Editorial] Pursuit of integral ecology
    • Abstract: Later this month (23 and 24 May), the United Nations will convene the first World Humanitarian Summit in Istanbul, where global and local leaders will commit to putting each and every person's safety, dignity, freedom, and right to thrive at the heart of decision-making. More than 125 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance, a level of suffering not seen since World War II. The social problems are wide and deep, from war and human trafficking to the gross inequality between the wealthy 1% and the poorest 3 billion of the population. Included in the summit's Agenda for Humanity are climate and natural disasters. Indeed, 1 year ago, Pope Francis emphasized, in the encyclical Laudato Si, that complex crises have both social and environmental dimensions. The bond between humans and the natural world means that we live in an “integral ecology,” and as such, an integrated approach to environmental and social justice is required.
      Authors : Marcelo Sánchez Sorondo, Veerabhadran Ramanathan
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aag0826
       
  • [In Brief] News at a glance
    • Abstract: In science news around the world, Louisiana's New Iberia Research Center announces it plans to release all 220 of its chimpanzees to a sanctuary, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration will regulate e-cigarettes, the Cayman Islands prepare to release genetically modified mosquitoes to combat the Zika virus, the United Kingdom's new polar research ship has an official name—and it isn't Boaty McBoatface—and Mercury's transit across the sun draws audiences to observatories around the world. Also, a new study of global adolescent health from 1990 to 2013 finds, among other results, that HIV/AIDS has replaced drowning as the leading cause of death in 10- to-14-year-olds. And a biotech startup uses genome editing to produce hornless cattle.
      Keywords: SCI COMMUN
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.748
       
  • [Report] Empirical evidence of contrasting soil
           moisture–precipitation feedbacks across the United States
    • Authors: Samuel Tuttle
      Abstract: Soil moisture influences fluxes of heat and moisture originating at the land surface, thus altering atmospheric humidity and temperature profiles. However, empirical and modeling studies disagree on how this affects the propensity for precipitation, mainly owing to the difficulty in establishing causality. We use Granger causality to estimate the relationship between soil moisture and occurrence of subsequent precipitation over the contiguous United States using remotely sensed soil moisture and gauge-based precipitation observations. After removing potential confounding effects of daily persistence, and seasonal and interannual variability in precipitation, we find that soil moisture anomalies significantly influence rainfall probabilities over 38% of the area with a median factor of 13%. The feedback is generally positive in the west and negative in the east, suggesting dependence on regional aridity.
      Authors : Samuel Tuttle, Guido Salvucci
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa7185
       
  • [Report] Fusion peptide of HIV-1 as a site of vulnerability to
           neutralizing antibody
    • Authors: Rui Kong
      Abstract: The HIV-1 fusion peptide, comprising 15 to 20 hydrophobic residues at the N terminus of the Env-gp41 subunit, is a critical component of the virus-cell entry machinery. Here, we report the identification of a neutralizing antibody, N123-VRC34.01, which targets the fusion peptide and blocks viral entry by inhibiting conformational changes in gp120 and gp41 subunits of Env required for entry. Crystal structures of N123-VRC34.01 liganded to the fusion peptide, and to the full Env trimer, revealed an epitope consisting of the N-terminal eight residues of the gp41 fusion peptide and glycan N88 of gp120, and molecular dynamics showed that the N-terminal portion of the fusion peptide can be solvent-exposed. These results reveal the fusion peptide to be a neutralizing antibody epitope and thus a target for vaccine design.
      Authors : Rui Kong, Kai Xu, Tongqing Zhou, Priyamvada Acharya, Thomas Lemmin, Kevin Liu, Gabriel Ozorowski, Cinque Soto, Justin D. Taft, Robert T. Bailer, Evan M. Cale, Lei Chen, Chang W. Choi, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Nicole A. Doria-Rose, Aliaksandr Druz, Ivelin S. Georgiev, Jason Gorman, Jinghe Huang, M. Gordon Joyce, Mark K. Louder, Xiaochu Ma, Krisha McKee, Sijy O’Dell, Marie Pancera, Yongping Yang, Scott C. Blanchard, Walther Mothes, Dennis R. Burton, Wayne C. Koff, Mark Connors, Andrew B. Ward, Peter D. Kwong, John R. Mascola
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aae0474
       
  • [Report] A high-yielding, strictly regioselective prebiotic purine
           nucleoside formation pathway
    • Authors: Sidney Becker
      Abstract: The origin of life is believed to have started with prebiotic molecules reacting along unidentified pathways to produce key molecules such as nucleosides. To date, a single prebiotic pathway to purine nucleosides had been proposed. It is considered to be inefficient due to missing regioselectivity and low yields. We report that the condensation of formamidopyrimidines (FaPys) with sugars provides the natural N-9 nucleosides with extreme regioselectivity and in good yields (60%). The FaPys are available from formic acid and aminopyrimidines, which are in turn available from prebiotic molecules that were also detected during the Rosetta comet mission. This nucleoside formation pathway can be fused to sugar-forming reactions to produce pentosides, providing a plausible scenario of how purine nucleosides may have formed under prebiotic conditions.
      Authors : Sidney Becker, Ines Thoma, Amrei Deutsch, Tim Gehrke, Peter Mayer, Hendrik Zipse, Thomas Carell
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad2808
       
  • [Report] The fitness landscape of a tRNA gene
    • Authors: Chuan Li
      Abstract: Fitness landscapes describe the genotype-fitness relationship and represent major determinants of evolutionary trajectories. However, the vast genotype space, coupled with the difficulty of measuring fitness, has hindered the empirical determination of fitness landscapes. Combining precise gene replacement and next-generation sequencing, we quantified Darwinian fitness under a high-temperature challenge for more than 65,000 yeast strains, each carrying a unique variant of the single-copy tRNACCUArg gene at its native genomic location. Approximately 1% of single point mutations in the gene were beneficial and 42% were deleterious. Almost half of all mutation pairs exhibited statistically significant epistasis, which had a strong negative bias, except when the mutations occurred at Watson-Crick paired sites. Fitness was broadly correlated with the predicted fraction of correctly folded transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, thereby revealing a biophysical basis of the fitness landscape.
      Authors : Chuan Li, Wenfeng Qian, Calum J. Maclean, Jianzhi Zhang
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aae0568
       
  • [Report] Network of epistatic interactions within a yeast snoRNA
    • Authors: Olga Puchta
      Abstract: Epistatic interactions play a fundamental role in molecular evolution, but little is known about the spatial distribution of these interactions within genes. To systematically survey a model landscape of intragenic epistasis, we quantified the fitness of ~60,000 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing randomly mutated variants of the 333-nucleotide-long U3 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA). The fitness effects of individual mutations were correlated with evolutionary conservation and structural stability. Many mutations had small individual effects but had large effects in the context of additional mutations, which indicated negative epistasis. Clusters of negative interactions were explained by local thermodynamic threshold effects, whereas positive interactions were enriched among large-effect sites and between base-paired nucleotides. We conclude that high-throughput mapping of intragenic epistasis can identify key structural and functional features of macromolecules.
      Authors : Olga Puchta, Botond Cseke, Hubert Czaja, David Tollervey, Guido Sanguinetti, Grzegorz Kudla
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf0965
       
  • [Report] Histone H3K36 mutations promote sarcomagenesis through altered
           histone methylation landscape
    • Authors: Chao Lu
      Abstract: Several types of pediatric cancers reportedly contain high-frequency missense mutations in histone H3, yet the underlying oncogenic mechanism remains poorly characterized. Here we report that the H3 lysine 36–to–methionine (H3K36M) mutation impairs the differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells and generates undifferentiated sarcoma in vivo. H3K36M mutant nucleosomes inhibit the enzymatic activities of several H3K36 methyltransferases. Depleting H3K36 methyltransferases, or expressing an H3K36I mutant that similarly inhibits H3K36 methylation, is sufficient to phenocopy the H3K36M mutation. After the loss of H3K36 methylation, a genome-wide gain in H3K27 methylation leads to a redistribution of polycomb repressive complex 1 and de-repression of its target genes known to block mesenchymal differentiation. Our findings are mirrored in human undifferentiated sarcomas in which novel K36M/I mutations in H3.1 are identified.
      Authors : Chao Lu, Siddhant U. Jain, Dominik Hoelper, Denise Bechet, Rosalynn C. Molden, Leili Ran, Devan Murphy, Sriram Venneti, Meera Hameed, Bruce R. Pawel, Jay S. Wunder, Brendan C. Dickson, Stefan M. Lundgren, Krupa S. Jani, Nicolas De Jay, Simon Papillon-Cavanagh, Irene L. Andrulis, Sarah L. Sawyer, David Grynspan, Robert E. Turcotte, Javad Nadaf, Somayyeh Fahiminiyah, Tom W. Muir, Jacek Majewski, Craig B. Thompson, Ping Chi, Benjamin A. Garcia, C. David Allis, Nada Jabado, Peter W. Lewis
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aac7272
       
  • [Business Office Feature] Superresolution microscopy
    • Authors: Jeffrey M. Perkel
      Abstract: From van Leeuwenhoek to the new millennium, microscopy was governed by one seemingly unbreakable principle: The ability to resolve two objects is constrained by the wavelength of the light used to view them. But in 2000, researchers showed this so-called diffraction limit could be broken, unveiling over the next decade an alphabet soup of superresolution techniques from GSDIM and PALM to SIM, STED, and STORM. The resulting images are both beautiful and revealing, documenting biological phenomena and structures that researchers never even knew they were missing.Read the Feature (Full-Text HTML)Read the Feature (PDF)Read New Products (PDF) Author: Jeffrey M. Perkel
      Keywords: Business Office Feature
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.850
       
  • [New Products] New Products
    • Abstract: A weekly roundup of information on newly offered instrumentation, apparatus, and laboratory materials of potential interest to researchers.
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.853
       
  • [Working Life] My seismic career shift
    • Authors: Julia MacDougall
      Abstract: Author: Julia MacDougall
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6287.862
       
 
 
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