Journal Cover Science
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   ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
   Published by AAAS Homepage  [5 journals]
  • [Book Review] Big data meets human health
    • Authors: Conor Farrington
      Abstract: There is a "veritable explosion" in the number of people using digital and wearable devices to record, analyze, and reflect upon data created by their own bodies and behaviors. In their new book, Self-Tracking, Gina Neff and Dawn Nafus tread carefully between the twin pitfalls of techno-utopianism and techno-dystopianism to develop a nuanced position that acknowledges both the opportunities and the challenges raised by this trend. Elad Yom-Tov's Crowdsourced Health discusses a different field of digital health, in which data are generated not through the use of wearable devices but from queries entered in search engines. Based on the premise that these searches mirror our offline behavior and that the Internet offers greater privacy and accessibility than many other possible sources of information, he shows how these data could reveal information about health that would be difficult or impossible to gather in other ways. The question that has yet to be answered is what should ultimately be done with all of these data—and by whom. Author: Conor Farrington
      Keywords: Health Analytics
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8769
  • [Policy Forum] Crisis informatics—New data for extraordinary times
    • Authors: Leysia Palen
      Abstract: Crisis informatics is a multidisciplinary field combining computing and social science knowledge of disasters; its central tenet is that people use personal information and communication technology to respond to disaster in creative ways to cope with uncertainty. We study and develop computational support for collection and sociobehavioral analysis of online participation (i.e., tweets and Facebook posts) to address challenges in disaster warning, response, and recovery. Because such data are rarely tidy, we offer lessons—learned the hard way, as we have made every mistake described below—with respect to the opportunities and limitations of social media research on crisis events.
      Authors : Leysia Palen, Kenneth M. Anderson
      Keywords: Social Media Research
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aag2579
  • [Book Review] A toxic timeline
    • Authors: Jacob Darwin Hamblin
      Abstract: In the 1970s, residents of a Niagara Falls neighborhood realized that chemicals from a toxic waste dump had leached into their homes, parks, and neighborhood school. Their cancers, miscarriages, and myriad chronic ailments told the tale, and in 1978 they organized, filed lawsuits, and demanded intervention. The federal government eventually complied, evacuating the residents and creating the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), also known as the Superfund Act, which provides a framework for cleaning up such sites. In his new book, Love Canal: A Toxic History from Colonial Times to the Present, Richard S. Newman urges us to see the Love Canal disaster stretched out in time, rooted in the long history of the Niagara Falls area. The crisis itself, he says, was an outcome of patterns established generations earlier that pitted developmental pressures against environmental and human health and created a "cycle of disposable land use that had long dominated area politics and economics." Author: Jacob Darwin Hamblin
      Keywords: Environmental Policy
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aag0454
  • [Perspective] Thinking abstractly like a duck(ling)
    • Authors: Edward A. Wasserman
      Abstract: In the film O Brother, Where Art Thou?, when one of a trio of bungling prison escapees angrily asks another, “Who elected you leader of this outfit?” his buddy smugly quips, “I figured it should be the one with the capacity for abstract thought.” Indeed, abstract conceptual thought is held to be so central to being human that the idea of someone being incapable of this kind of thinking is a subject for (sometimes rather cruel) humor. Interest in understanding the capacity for abstract thought has been a matter of serious consideration that dates back at least three centuries to the famous English philosopher John Locke. Locke confidently contended that “brutes abstract not” (1) and insisted that exhibiting abstract thought definitively divided humans from all other animals. However, no science then existed to confirm or refute Locke's contention. On page 286 of this issue, Martinho and Kacelnik (2) put the claim that animals are incapable of abstract thought to a strong behavioral test. Author: Edward A. Wasserman
      Keywords: Cognition
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aag3088
  • [Perspective] How much biodiversity loss is too much?
    • Authors: Tom H. Oliver
      Abstract: How much of something do we need to keep people safe and well? This question is frequently asked by those working in risk management. Across diverse sectors from flood protection to health care, practitioners assess risk as the product of the impact of a given event and the probability of its occurrence. Although these estimates are often uncertain, policy-makers must ultimately make spending decisions aimed at averting these risks, because the costs of inaction to society can be substantial. Biodiversity loss is a similarly critical, yet uncertain, issue. On page 288 of this issue, Newbold et al. (1) quantify global biodiversity losses, providing much-needed information on the encroachment of proposed “safe limits.” Author: Tom H. Oliver
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aag1712
  • [Perspective] Ferroelectric chalcogenides—materials at the edge
    • Authors: Bart J. Kooi
      Abstract: A ferroelectric material possesses an intrinsic electric dipole (polarization) whose direction can be reversed with an applied field. Applications of ferroelectrics include nonvolatile memories and sensors, but for high-density electronic devices or nanoscale devices, a limitation has been that as a ferroelectric film gets thinner, the maximum temperature for retaining the dipole—the Curie temperature Tc—decreases (often well below room temperature). On page 274 of this issue, Chang et al. (1) show that ultrathin layers of tin telluride (SnTe) can display robust, room-temperature, ferroelectric properties with higher Tc than that of the bulk material.
      Authors : Bart J. Kooi, Beatriz Noheda
      Keywords: Ferroelectrics
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf9081
  • [Perspective] Butterfly communities under threat
    • Authors: Jeremy A. Thomas
      Abstract: Butterflies are better documented and monitored worldwide than any other nonpest taxon of insects (1). In the United Kingdom alone, volunteer recorders have sampled more than 750,000 km of repeat transects since 1976, equivalent to walking to the Moon and back counting butterflies (2). Such programs are revealing regional extinctions and population declines that began before 1900 (3, 4). In a recent study, Habel et al. report a similar story based on inventories of butterflies and burnet moths since 1840 in a protected area in Bavaria, Germany (5). The results reveal severe species losses: Scarce, specialized butterflies have largely disappeared, leaving ecosystems dominated by common generalist ones. Similar trends are seen across Europe (6) and beyond, with protected areas failing to conserve many species for which they were once famed. Author: Jeremy A. Thomas
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8838
  • [Perspective] Chromatin controls behavior
    • Authors: J. David Sweatt
      Abstract: Chromatin structure stabilizes and compacts the genome to package it within the nucleus. This structure also serves as a dynamic regulator of gene expression, silencing or activating transcription depending on molecular signals impinging upon it. It has been understood for the past two decades that chromatin stabilizes gene readout after cell-fate determination, establishing and perpetuating the precise pattern of genes transcribed in a given cell to maintain its phenotype (1, 2). But what about dynamic regulation of chromatin structure and its biological role? On page 300 of this issue, Yang et al. (3) describe how dynamic regulation of chromatin remodeling controls cerebellar circuit development, function, and cerebellum-dependent learning and memory, and challenge prevailing epigenetics dogma in the central nervous system. Author: J. David Sweatt
      Keywords: Gene Expression
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aah4055
  • [Feature] The Avenger
    • Authors: Jennifer Couzin-Frankel
      Abstract: David Fajgenbaum was in his third year of medical school at the University of Pennsylvania (UPenn) 6 years ago, on an obstetrics-gynecology rotation, when he was first hit by night sweats, fatigue, and weight loss. His eventual diagnosis: a deadly form of Castleman disease, a rare immune disorder for which knowledge was in depressingly short supply. So Fajgenbaum decided to dedicate himself to taking down this disease. He abandoned plans to become an oncologist, skipped medical residency, and enrolled in business school instead—building a powerhouse network of hundreds of physicians, researchers, and drug company employees around the world to help him decipher Castleman. He co-authored papers with his doctor, wrote a case study about himself, proposed a new model of the disease, and currently coordinates a dozen Castleman studies from his small office at UPenn, where he is an assistant professor. Author: Jennifer Couzin-Frankel
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.212
  • [In Depth] Brain scans are prone to false positives, study says
    • Authors: Greg Miller
      Abstract: A new study suggests that common settings used in software for analyzing brain scans may lead to false positive results. Researchers led by Anders Eklund, an electrical engineer at Linköping University in Sweden, analyzed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from several public databases. Certain software settings, the team found, could give rise to a false positive result up to 70% of the time. In the context of a typical fMRI experiment, that could lead researchers to wrongly conclude that activity in a certain area of the brain plays a role in a cognitive function such as perception or memory. Author: Greg Miller
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.208
  • [In Depth] A time capsule from Bronze Age Britain
    • Authors: Erik Stokstad
      Abstract: Reconstructing daily life in the Bronze Age has been difficult in northern Europe. Most houses were poorly preserved, traced out by postholes or barren remains of hearths, and offer up only meager fragments of pottery. A major excavation near Peterborough, U.K., promises to fill in the picture. Archaeologists have dug up 3000-year-old roundhouses that were perched on stilts above a river, perhaps for defense or facilitating trade. The building materials and much of the contents are well-preserved because the five houses were quickly abandoned during a fire and then collapsed into a river. The rich array of artifacts includes textiles, wooden objects, metal tools, and complete sets of pottery. The arrangement of artifacts could indicate how various sections of the houses were used and perhaps new details about diet. The fact that all the buildings burned down, apparently at the same time, and the belongings were left behind, suggests the fires may have been part of an attack. Author: Erik Stokstad
      Keywords: Archaeology
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.210
  • [In Depth] Cyclists' favorite drug falls flat in trial
    • Authors: Martin Enserink
      Abstract: In June, Dutch scientists finished the largest study yet to find out whether erythropoietin (EPO), a drug popular among professional cyclists, really enhances athletic performance. The researchers recruited 48 trained amateur cyclists and gave them either EPO or a placebo for 8 weeks. Participants were subjected to seven endurance tests, culminating in a race up the Mont Ventoux in France, one of cycling's legendary ascents. The researchers are still analyzing results but have already shared one key outcome: Riders on EPO weren't faster than those on placebo. Other researchers find it hard to believe that EPO would do nothing, based on previous studies and athletes' stories. But they applaud the team for subjecting EPO to a large randomized controlled trial, the gold standard in medicine. Author: Martin Enserink
      Keywords: Doping
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.206
  • [Editorial] Hazards without disasters
    • Authors: Marcia McNutt
      Abstract: A natural hazard need not become a human disaster if society learns and applies lessons in preparation and resilience. Earthquake history speaks well to this—engineered structures need to stand up to strong shaking. Chile learned this lesson before its 2010 earthquake of magnitude 8.8. Because it had already enforced seismic provisions of building codes, there was little loss of life due to damage to buildings. Engineered structures also performed very well during the giant 2011 Tohoku earthquake in northeast Japan; however, approximately 20,000 lives were lost to the ensuing tsunami. What survival strategies are available for communities at risk for tsunamis? Author: Marcia McNutt
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aah4247
  • [In Brief] News at a glance
    • Abstract: In science news around the world, the United States sets final safety regulations for oil and gas drilling in its Arctic waters, Australian researchers announce that the AIDS epidemic in the country is over—but caution that too many people are still being infected with HIV, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration halts a trial of a cancer drug following the deaths of three young adults with leukemia, French researchers sharply criticize the nomination of a policy expert rather than a scientist as the next head of the country's agricultural research institute, and more. Also, an Italian judge clears bird flu expert Ilaria Capua of a series of criminal charges brought against her 2 years ago. And the world's largest population of chinstrap penguins may be in peril because of an erupting volcano on their remote south Atlantic island.
      Keywords: SCI COMMUN
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.202
  • [In Depth] First farmers' motley roots
    • Authors: Ann Gibbons
      Abstract: Farming was such a good idea when it was invented 10,000 to 12,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent that it was quickly adopted by several different groups of people. According to three teams who used new techniques to gain glimpses of the nuclear DNA of the world's very first farmers, farming was adopted by at least three genetically distinct groups scattered across the Middle East and Anatolia. The research found that early farmers of Israel and Jordan were genetically distinct from those in the Zagros Mountains, and that both populations were distinct from the western Anatolians. This shows that farming wasn't spread initially by just one group of people, but that it was invented more than once—or was an idea that spread rapidly between groups. Author: Ann Gibbons
      Keywords: Ancient DNA
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.207
  • [Letter] Mining undermining Brazil's environment
    • Authors: Hani Rocha El Bizri
      Authors : Hani Rocha El Bizri, Jonathan Christopher Bausch Macedo, Adriano Pereira Paglia, Thaís Queiroz Morcatty
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aag1111
  • [Letter] Brazil's Amazon conservation in peril
    • Authors: Rafael M. Almeida
      Authors : Rafael M. Almeida, Thomas E. Lovejoy, Fábio Roland
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aag2510
  • [Letter] NextGen Voices: Submit Now
    • PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.228-c
  • [Letter] Brazil's Amazonian fish at risk by decree
    • Abstract:
      Authors : R. M. Tófoli, G. H. Z. Alves, R. M. Dias, L. C. Gomes
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aag2922
  • [Technical Comment] Comment on “Sensitivity of seafloor bathymetry
           to climate-driven fluctuations in mid-ocean ridge magma supply”
    • Authors: Maya Tolstoy
      Abstract: Olive et al. (Reports, 16 October 2015, p. 310) and Goff (Technical Comment, 4 September 2015, p. 1065) raise important concerns with respect to recent findings of Milankovitch cycles in seafloor bathymetry. However, their results inherently support that the Southern East Pacific Rise is the optimum place to look for such signals and, in fact, models match those observations quite closely. Author: Maya Tolstoy
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf0625
  • [Technical Response] Response to Comment on “Sensitivity of seafloor
           bathymetry to climate-driven fluctuations in mid-ocean ridge magma
    • Authors: J.-A. Olive
      Abstract: Tolstoy reports the existence of a characteristic 100 thousand year (ky) period in the bathymetry of fast-spreading seafloor but does not argue that sea level change is a first-order control on seafloor morphology worldwide. Upon evaluating the overlap between tectonic and Milankovitch periodicities across spreading rates, we reemphasize that fast-spreading ridges are the best potential recorders of a sea level signature in seafloor bathymetry.
      Authors : J.-A. Olive, M. D. Behn, G. Ito, W. R. Buck, J. Escartín, S. Howell
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf2022
  • [Introduction to Special Issue] Nature's Fury
    • Authors: Brent Grocholski
      Authors : Brent Grocholski, Robert Coontz
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.230
  • [Special Issue News] Thinking the Unthinkable
    • Authors: Julia Rosen
      Abstract: What are the greatest threats to humanity and human civilization? Scholars think a self-induced catastrophe such as nuclear war or a bioengineered pandemic is most likely to do us in. But extreme natural hazards—including threats from space and geologic upheavals here on Earth—could also do the job. Although common, moderately severe disasters such as earthquakes attract far more funding and attention than low-probability apocalyptic ones, a handful of researchers persists in thinking the unthinkable. With knowledge and planning, they say, it's possible to prepare for—or in some cases prevent—rare but devastating natural disasters such as blasts of particles from the sun, collisions with near-Earth asteroids like the one that wiped out the dinosaurs, and supervolcanoes that dwarf any eruptions in recorded history. Author: Julia Rosen
      Keywords: Natural Hazards
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.232
  • [Special Issue News] Doomsday Machines
    • Authors: Warren Cornwall
      Abstract: In San Diego, California, a six-story tower riddled with strain gauges and accelerometers rises from the platform of one of the world's biggest earthquake machines. This device—a sort of bull ride for buildings—is one in a network built around the United States to advance natural disaster science with more realistic and sophisticated tests. The National Science Foundation initiative has helped scientists simulate some of the most powerful and destructive forces on Earth, including earthquakes, tsunamis, and landslides. The work has led to new building standards and better ways to build or retrofit everything from wharves to older concrete buildings. Now, in a new $62 million, 5-year program, the network of doomsday machines is expanding to simulate hurricanes and tornadoes and is joining forces with computer modeling to study how things too big for a physical test—such as nuclear reactors or even an entire city—will weather what Mother Nature throws at them. Author: Warren Cornwall
      Keywords: Natural Hazards
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.238
  • [Special Issue Review] Human influence on tropical cyclone intensity
    • Authors: Adam H. Sobel
      Abstract: Recent assessments agree that tropical cyclone intensity should increase as the climate warms. Less agreement exists on the detection of recent historical trends in tropical cyclone intensity. We interpret future and recent historical trends by using the theory of potential intensity, which predicts the maximum intensity achievable by a tropical cyclone in a given local environment. Although greenhouse gas–driven warming increases potential intensity, climate model simulations suggest that aerosol cooling has largely canceled that effect over the historical record. Large natural variability complicates analysis of trends, as do poleward shifts in the latitude of maximum intensity. In the absence of strong reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, future greenhouse gas forcing of potential intensity will increasingly dominate over aerosol forcing, leading to substantially larger increases in tropical cyclone intensities.
      Authors : Adam H. Sobel, Suzana J. Camargo, Timothy M. Hall, Chia-Ying Lee, Michael K. Tippett, Allison A. Wing
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf6574
  • [Special Issue Review] Global trends in satellite-based emergency mapping
    • Authors: Stefan Voigt
      Abstract: Over the past 15 years, scientists and disaster responders have increasingly used satellite-based Earth observations for global rapid assessment of disaster situations. We review global trends in satellite rapid response and emergency mapping from 2000 to 2014, analyzing more than 1000 incidents in which satellite monitoring was used for assessing major disaster situations. We provide a synthesis of spatial patterns and temporal trends in global satellite emergency mapping efforts and show that satellite-based emergency mapping is most intensively deployed in Asia and Europe and follows well the geographic, physical, and temporal distributions of global natural disasters. We present an outlook on the future use of Earth observation technology for disaster response and mitigation by putting past and current developments into context and perspective.
      Authors : Stefan Voigt, Fabio Giulio-Tonolo, Josh Lyons, Jan Kučera, Brenda Jones, Tobias Schneiderhan, Gabriel Platzeck, Kazuya Kaku, Manzul Kumar Hazarika, Lorant Czaran, Suju Li, Wendi Pedersen, Godstime Kadiri James, Catherine Proy, Denis Macharia Muthike, Jerome Bequignon, Debarati Guha-Sapir
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad8728
  • [Special Issue Review] Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes
    • Authors: Kazushige Obara
      Abstract: Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes.
      Authors : Kazushige Obara, Aitaro Kato
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf1512
  • [This Week in Science] Driven to collapse
    • Authors: Brent Grocholski
      Abstract: Author: Brent Grocholski
      Keywords: Volcanology
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.258-a
  • [This Week in Science] Making the forbidden allowed
    • Authors: Ian S. Osborne
      Abstract: Author: Ian S. Osborne
      Keywords: Optics
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.258-b
  • [This Week in Science] The innate wisdom of ducklings
    • Authors: Sacha Vignieri
      Abstract: Author: Sacha Vignieri
      Keywords: Evolutionary Cognition
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.258-c
  • [This Week in Science] Adaptors conduct the EGFR symphony
    • Authors: Leslie K. Ferrarelli
      Abstract: Author: Leslie K. Ferrarelli
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.258-d
  • [This Week in Science] Sending neural stem cells back to the garage
    • Authors: Pamela J. Hines
      Abstract: Author: Pamela J. Hines
      Keywords: Neurodevelopment
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.258-e
  • [This Week in Science] Transmitting signals across the synapse
    • Authors: Valda Vinson
      Abstract: Author: Valda Vinson
      Keywords: Structural Biology
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.258-f
  • [This Week in Science] The heat is on
    • Authors: H. Jesse Smith
      Abstract: Author: H. Jesse Smith
      Keywords: Glaciers
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.258-g
  • [This Week in Science] Carbon nanotubes boost battery storage
    • Authors: Zakya H. Kafafi
      Abstract: Author: Zakya H. Kafafi
      Keywords: Lithium Ion Batteries
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.258-h
  • [This Week in Science] A light approach to C-N bond formation
    • Authors: Jake Yeston
      Abstract: Author: Jake Yeston
      Keywords: Organic Chemistry
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.258-i
  • [This Week in Science] How the ER manages mitochondrial division
    • Authors: Stella M. Hurtley
      Abstract: Author: Stella M. Hurtley
      Keywords: Mitochondria
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.258-j
  • [This Week in Science] Thinning a ferroelectric makes it better
    • Authors: Jelena Stajic
      Abstract: Author: Jelena Stajic
      Keywords: Ferroelectricity
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.258-k
  • [This Week in Science] Crossing “safe” limits for biodiversity
    • Authors: Andrew M. Sugden
      Abstract: Author: Andrew M. Sugden
      Keywords: Biodiversity
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.258-l
  • [This Week in Science] Epigenetic regulation in the brain
    • Authors: L. Bryan Ray
      Abstract: Author: L. Bryan Ray
      Keywords: Neurobiology
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.258-m
  • [This Week in Science] This is no time to be a butterfly
    • Authors: Julia Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink
      Abstract: Author: Julia Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.258-n
  • [This Week in Science] C9ORF72, a suppressor of autoimmunity?
    • Authors: Orla M. Smith
      Abstract: Author: Orla M. Smith
      Keywords: Neurodegeneration
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.258-o
  • [This Week in Science] Turning the corner
    • Authors: H. Jesse Smith
      Abstract: Author: H. Jesse Smith
      Keywords: Ozone Hole
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.258-p
  • [Editors' Choice] Smashing bits to show asteroid strength
    • Authors: Keith T. Smith
      Abstract: Author: Keith T. Smith
      Keywords: Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.259-a
  • [Editors' Choice] Why pay more for medicine in some places?
    • Authors: Brad Wible
      Abstract: Author: Brad Wible
      Keywords: Health Economics
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.259-b
  • [Editors' Choice] A less personal cancer therapy?
    • Authors: Paula A. Kiberstis
      Abstract: Author: Paula A. Kiberstis
      Keywords: Tumor Immunology
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.259-c
  • [Editors' Choice] Immigration and admixture in Europe
    • Authors: Andrew M. Sugden
      Abstract: Author: Andrew M. Sugden
      Keywords: Paleogenomics
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.259-d
  • [Editors' Choice] Shaping the interaction potential
    • Authors: Jelena Stajic
      Abstract: Author: Jelena Stajic
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.259-e
  • [Editors' Choice] Poor predictors
    • Authors: Sacha Vignieri
      Abstract: Author: Sacha Vignieri
      Keywords: Anthropology
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.259-f
  • [Editors' Choice] Modeling pancreas development with CRISPR
    • Authors: Beverly A. Purnell
      Abstract: Author: Beverly A. Purnell
      Keywords: Organ Development
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.259-g
  • [Research Article] ER-mitochondria contacts couple mtDNA synthesis with
           mitochondrial division in human cells
    • Authors: Samantha C. Lewis
      Abstract: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes RNAs and proteins critical for cell function. In human cells, hundreds to thousands of mtDNA copies are replicated asynchronously, packaged into protein-DNA nucleoids, and distributed within a dynamic mitochondrial network. The mechanisms that govern how nucleoids are chosen for replication and distribution are not understood. Mitochondrial distribution depends on division, which occurs at endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–mitochondria contact sites. These sites were spatially linked to a subset of nucleoids selectively marked by mtDNA polymerase and engaged in mtDNA synthesis—events that occurred upstream of mitochondrial constriction and division machine assembly. Our data suggest that ER tubules proximal to nucleoids are necessary but not sufficient for mtDNA synthesis. Thus, ER-mitochondria contacts coordinate licensing of mtDNA synthesis with division to distribute newly replicated nucleoids to daughter mitochondria.
      Authors : Samantha C. Lewis, Lauren F. Uchiyama, Jodi Nunnari
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf5549
  • [Research Article] Gradual caldera collapse at Bárdarbunga volcano,
           Iceland, regulated by lateral magma outflow
    • Abstract: Large volcanic eruptions on Earth commonly occur with a collapse of the roof of a crustal magma reservoir, forming a caldera. Only a few such collapses occur per century, and the lack of detailed observations has obscured insight into the mechanical interplay between collapse and eruption. We use multiparameter geophysical and geochemical data to show that the 110-square-kilometer and 65-meter-deep collapse of Bárdarbunga caldera in 2014–2015 was initiated through withdrawal of magma, and lateral migration through a 48-kilometers-long dike, from a 12-kilometers deep reservoir. Interaction between the pressure exerted by the subsiding reservoir roof and the physical properties of the subsurface flow path explain the gradual, near-exponential decline of both collapse rate and the intensity of the 180-day-long eruption.
      Authors : Magnús T. Gudmundsson, Kristín Jónsdóttir, Andrew Hooper, Eoghan P. Holohan, Sæmundur A. Halldórsson, Benedikt G. Ófeigsson, Simone Cesca, Kristín S. Vogfjörd, Freysteinn Sigmundsson, Thórdís Högnadóttir, Páll Einarsson, Olgeir Sigmarsson, Alexander H. Jarosch, Kristján Jónasson, Eyjólfur Magnússon, Sigrún Hreinsdóttir, Marco Bagnardi, Michelle M. Parks, Vala Hjörleifsdóttir, Finnur Pálsson, Thomas R. Walter, Martin P. J. Schöpfer, Sebastian Heimann, Hannah I. Reynolds, Stéphanie Dumont, Eniko Bali, Gudmundur H. Gudfinnsson, Torsten Dahm, Matthew J. Roberts, Martin Hensch, Joaquín M. C. Belart, Karsten Spaans, Sigurdur Jakobsson, Gunnar B. Gudmundsson, Hildur M. Fridriksdóttir, Vincent Drouin, Tobias Dürig, Guðfinna Aðalgeirsdóttir, Morten S. Riishuus, Gro B. M. Pedersen, Tayo van Boeckel, Björn Oddsson, Melissa A. Pfeffer, Sara Barsotti, Baldur Bergsson, Amy Donovan, Mike R. Burton, Alessandro Aiuppa
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8988
  • [Research Article] Shrinking light to allow forbidden transitions on the
           atomic scale
    • Authors: Nicholas Rivera
      Abstract: The diversity of light-matter interactions accessible to a system is limited by the small size of an atom relative to the wavelength of the light it emits, as well as by the small value of the fine-structure constant. We developed a general theory of light-matter interactions with two-dimensional systems supporting plasmons. These plasmons effectively make the fine-structure constant larger and bridge the size gap between atom and light. This theory reveals that conventionally forbidden light-matter interactions—such as extremely high-order multipolar transitions, two-plasmon spontaneous emission, and singlet-triplet phosphorescence processes—can occur on very short time scales comparable to those of conventionally fast transitions. Our findings may lead to new platforms for spectroscopy, sensing, and broadband light generation, a potential testing ground for quantum electrodynamics (QED) in the ultrastrong coupling regime, and the ability to take advantage of the full electronic spectrum of an emitter.
      Authors : Nicholas Rivera, Ido Kaminer, Bo Zhen, John D. Joannopoulos, Marin Soljačić
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf6308
  • [Research Article] Emergence of healing in the Antarctic ozone layer
    • Authors: Susan Solomon
      Abstract: Industrial chlorofluorocarbons that cause ozone depletion have been phased out under the Montreal Protocol. A chemically driven increase in polar ozone (or “healing”) is expected in response to this historic agreement. Observations and model calculations together indicate that healing of the Antarctic ozone layer has now begun to occur during the month of September. Fingerprints of September healing since 2000 include (i) increases in ozone column amounts, (ii) changes in the vertical profile of ozone concentration, and (iii) decreases in the areal extent of the ozone hole. Along with chemistry, dynamical and temperature changes have contributed to the healing but could represent feedbacks to chemistry. Volcanic eruptions have episodically interfered with healing, particularly during 2015, when a record October ozone hole occurred after the Calbuco eruption.
      Authors : Susan Solomon, Diane J. Ivy, Doug Kinnison, Michael J. Mills, Ryan R. Neely, Anja Schmidt
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aae0061
  • [Report] Discovery of robust in-plane ferroelectricity in atomic-thick
    • Authors: Kai Chang
      Abstract: Stable ferroelectricity with high transition temperature in nanostructures is needed for miniaturizing ferroelectric devices. Here, we report the discovery of the stable in-plane spontaneous polarization in atomic-thick tin telluride (SnTe), down to a 1–unit cell (UC) limit. The ferroelectric transition temperature Tc of 1-UC SnTe film is greatly enhanced from the bulk value of 98 kelvin and reaches as high as 270 kelvin. Moreover, 2- to 4-UC SnTe films show robust ferroelectricity at room temperature. The interplay between semiconducting properties and ferroelectricity in this two-dimensional material may enable a wide range of applications in nonvolatile high-density memories, nanosensors, and electronics.
      Authors : Kai Chang, Junwei Liu, Haicheng Lin, Na Wang, Kun Zhao, Anmin Zhang, Feng Jin, Yong Zhong, Xiaopeng Hu, Wenhui Duan, Qingming Zhang, Liang Fu, Qi-Kun Xue, Xi Chen, Shuai-Hua Ji
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad8609
  • [Report] Aryl amination using ligand-free Ni(II) salts and photoredox
    • Authors: Emily B. Corcoran
      Abstract: Over the past two decades, there have been major developments in transition metal–catalyzed aminations of aryl halides to form anilines, a common structure found in drug agents, natural product isolates, and fine chemicals. Many of these approaches have enabled highly efficient and selective coupling through the design of specialized ligands, which facilitate reductive elimination from a destabilized metal center. We postulated that a general and complementary method for carbon–nitrogen bond formation could be developed through the destabilization of a metal amido complex via photoredox catalysis, thus providing an alternative approach to the use of structurally complex ligand systems. Here, we report the development of a distinct mechanistic paradigm for aryl amination using ligand-free nickel(II) salts, in which facile reductive elimination from the nickel metal center is induced via a photoredox-catalyzed electron-transfer event.
      Authors : Emily B. Corcoran, Michael T. Pirnot, Shishi Lin, Spencer D. Dreher, Daniel A. DiRocco, Ian W. Davies, Stephen L. Buchwald, David W. C. MacMillan
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aag0209
  • [Report] Ocean forcing of glacier retreat in the western Antarctic
    • Authors: A. J. Cook
      Abstract: In recent decades, hundreds of glaciers draining the Antarctic Peninsula (63° to 70°S) have undergone systematic and progressive change. These changes are widely attributed to rapid increases in regional surface air temperature, but it is now clear that this cannot be the sole driver. Here, we identify a strong correspondence between mid-depth ocean temperatures and glacier-front changes along the ~1000-kilometer western coastline. In the south, glaciers that terminate in warm Circumpolar Deep Water have undergone considerable retreat, whereas those in the far northwest, which terminate in cooler waters, have not. Furthermore, a mid-ocean warming since the 1990s in the south is coincident with widespread acceleration of glacier retreat. We conclude that changes in ocean-induced melting are the primary cause of retreat for glaciers in this region.
      Authors : A. J. Cook, P. R. Holland, M. P. Meredith, T. Murray, A. Luckman, D. G. Vaughan
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aae0017
  • [Report] Ducklings imprint on the relational concept of “same or
    • Authors: Antone Martinho
      Abstract: The ability to identify and retain logical relations between stimuli and apply them to novel stimuli is known as relational concept learning. This has been demonstrated in a few animal species after extensive reinforcement training, and it reveals the brain’s ability to deal with abstract properties. Here we describe relational concept learning in newborn ducklings without reinforced training. Newly hatched domesticated mallards that were briefly exposed to a pair of objects that were either the same or different in shape or color later preferred to follow pairs of new objects exhibiting the imprinted relation. Thus, even in a seemingly rigid and very rapid form of learning such as filial imprinting, the brain operates with abstract conceptual reasoning, a faculty often assumed to be reserved to highly intelligent organisms.
      Authors : Antone Martinho, Alex Kacelnik
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf4247
  • [Report] Has land use pushed terrestrial biodiversity beyond the planetary
           boundary? A global assessment
    • Authors: Tim Newbold
      Abstract: Land use and related pressures have reduced local terrestrial biodiversity, but it is unclear how the magnitude of change relates to the recently proposed planetary boundary (“safe limit”). We estimate that land use and related pressures have already reduced local biodiversity intactness—the average proportion of natural biodiversity remaining in local ecosystems—beyond its recently proposed planetary boundary across 58.1% of the world’s land surface, where 71.4% of the human population live. Biodiversity intactness within most biomes (especially grassland biomes), most biodiversity hotspots, and even some wilderness areas is inferred to be beyond the boundary. Such widespread transgression of safe limits suggests that biodiversity loss, if unchecked, will undermine efforts toward long-term sustainable development.
      Authors : Tim Newbold, Lawrence N. Hudson, Andrew P. Arnell, Sara Contu, Adriana De Palma, Simon Ferrier, Samantha L. L. Hill, Andrew J. Hoskins, Igor Lysenko, Helen R. P. Phillips, Victoria J. Burton, Charlotte W. T. Chng, Susan Emerson, Di Gao, Gwilym Pask-Hale, Jon Hutton, Martin Jung, Katia Sanchez-Ortiz, Benno I. Simmons, Sarah Whitmee, Hanbin Zhang, Jörn P. W. Scharlemann, Andy Purvis
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf2201
  • [Report] Return to quiescence of mouse neural stem cells by degradation of
           a proactivation protein
    • Abstract: Quiescence is essential for long-term maintenance of adult stem cells. Niche signals regulate the transit of stem cells from dormant to activated states. Here, we show that the E3-ubiquitin ligase Huwe1 (HECT, UBA, and WWE domain–containing 1) is required for proliferating stem cells of the adult mouse hippocampus to return to quiescence. Huwe1 destabilizes proactivation protein Ascl1 (achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 1) in proliferating hippocampal stem cells, which prevents accumulation of cyclin Ds and promotes the return to a resting state. When stem cells fail to return to quiescence, the proliferative stem cell pool becomes depleted. Thus, long-term maintenance of hippocampal neurogenesis depends on the return of stem cells to a transient quiescent state through the rapid degradation of a key proactivation factor.
      Authors : Noelia Urbán, Debbie L. C. van den Berg, Antoine Forget, Jimena Andersen, Jeroen A. A. Demmers, Charles Hunt, Olivier Ayrault, François Guillemot
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf4802
  • [Report] Structural basis for integration of GluD receptors within
           synaptic organizer complexes
    • Authors: Jonathan Elegheert
      Abstract: Ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) family members are integrated into supramolecular complexes that modulate their location and function at excitatory synapses. However, a lack of structural information beyond isolated receptors or fragments thereof currently limits the mechanistic understanding of physiological iGluR signaling. Here, we report structural and functional analyses of the prototypical molecular bridge linking postsynaptic iGluR δ2 (GluD2) and presynaptic β-neurexin 1 (β-NRX1) via Cbln1, a C1q-like synaptic organizer. We show how Cbln1 hexamers “anchor” GluD2 amino-terminal domain dimers to monomeric β-NRX1. This arrangement promotes synaptogenesis and is essential for d-serine–dependent GluD2 signaling in vivo, which underlies long-term depression of cerebellar parallel fiber–Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapses and motor coordination in developing mice. These results lead to a model where protein and small-molecule ligands synergistically control synaptic iGluR function.
      Authors : Jonathan Elegheert, Wataru Kakegawa, Jordan E. Clay, Natalie F. Shanks, Ester Behiels, Keiko Matsuda, Kazuhisa Kohda, Eriko Miura, Maxim Rossmann, Nikolaos Mitakidis, Junko Motohashi, Veronica T. Chang, Christian Siebold, Ingo H. Greger, Terunaga Nakagawa, Michisuke Yuzaki, A. Radu Aricescu
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aae0104
  • [Report] Chromatin remodeling inactivates activity genes and regulates
           neural coding
    • Authors: Yue Yang
      Abstract: Activity-dependent transcription influences neuronal connectivity, but the roles and mechanisms of inactivation of activity-dependent genes have remained poorly understood. Genome-wide analyses in the mouse cerebellum revealed that the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex deposits the histone variant H2A.z at promoters of activity-dependent genes, thereby triggering their inactivation. Purification of translating messenger RNAs from synchronously developing granule neurons (Sync-TRAP) showed that conditional knockout of the core NuRD subunit Chd4 impairs inactivation of activity-dependent genes when neurons undergo dendrite pruning. Chd4 knockout or expression of NuRD-regulated activity genes impairs dendrite pruning. Imaging of behaving mice revealed hyperresponsivity of granule neurons to sensorimotor stimuli upon Chd4 knockout. Our findings define an epigenetic mechanism that inactivates activity-dependent transcription and regulates dendrite patterning and sensorimotor encoding in the brain.
      Authors : Yue Yang, Tomoko Yamada, Kelly K. Hill, Martin Hemberg, Naveen C. Reddy, Ha Y. Cho, Arden N. Guthrie, Anna Oldenborg, Shane A. Heiney, Shogo Ohmae, Javier F. Medina, Timothy E. Holy, Azad Bonni
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad4225
  • [Business Office Feature] Structural biology shapes up
    • Authors: Alan Dove
      Abstract: Despite advances in the field of proteomics, protein folding still remains a mystery. Yet innovations in X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy, and data analysis (think robots and Google) are yielding answers about protein structures faster than ever before.Read the Feature (Full-Text HTML)Read the Feature (PDF)Read New Products (PDF) Author: Alan Dove
      Keywords: Business Office Feature
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.306
  • [New Products] New Products
    • Abstract: A weekly roundup of information on newly offered instrumentation, apparatus, and laboratory materials of potential interest to researchers.
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.309
  • [Working Life] Wearing my disability with pride
    • Authors: Zachary S. Wiersma
      Abstract: Author: Zachary S. Wiersma
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.1126/science.353.6296.318
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