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Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 14.142
Citation Impact (citeScore): 16
Number of Followers: 4708  
 
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ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
Published by AAAS Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Universality and diversity in human song
    • Authors: Mehr, S. A; Singh, M, Knox, D, Ketter, D. M, Pickens-Jones, D, Atwood, S, Lucas, C, Jacoby, N, Egner, A. A, Hopkins, E. J, Howard, R. M, Hartshorne, J. K, Jennings, M. V, Simson, J, Bainbridge, C. M, Pinker, S, ODonnell, T. J, Krasnow, M. M, Glowacki, L.
      Abstract: What is universal about music, and what varies' We built a corpus of ethnographic text on musical behavior from a representative sample of the world’s societies, as well as a discography of audio recordings. The ethnographic corpus reveals that music (including songs with words) appears in every society observed; that music varies along three dimensions (formality, arousal, religiosity), more within societies than across them; and that music is associated with certain behavioral contexts such as infant care, healing, dance, and love. The discography—analyzed through machine summaries, amateur and expert listener ratings, and manual transcriptions—reveals that acoustic features of songs predict their primary behavioral context; that tonality is widespread, perhaps universal; that music varies in rhythmic and melodic complexity; and that elements of melodies and rhythms found worldwide follow power laws.
      Keywords: Online Only, Psychology
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax0868
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Thinking small to store more
    • Authors: Lavine; M. S.
      Pages: 968
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.966-i
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Energy storage: The future enabled by nanomaterials
    • Authors: Pomerantseva, E; Bonaccorso, F, Feng, X, Cui, Y, Gogotsi, Y.
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries, which power portable electronics, electric vehicles, and stationary storage, have been recognized with the 2019 Nobel Prize in chemistry. The development of nanomaterials and their related processing into electrodes and devices can improve the performance and/or development of the existing energy storage systems. We provide a perspective on recent progress in the application of nanomaterials in energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and batteries. The versatility of nanomaterials can lead to power sources for portable, flexible, foldable, and distributable electronics; electric transportation; and grid-scale storage, as well as integration in living environments and biomedical systems. To overcome limitations of nanomaterials related to high reactivity and chemical instability caused by their high surface area, nanoparticles with different functionalities should be combined in smart architectures on nano- and microscales. The integration of nanomaterials into functional architectures and devices requires the development of advanced manufacturing approaches. We discuss successful strategies and outline a roadmap for the exploitation of nanomaterials for enabling future energy storage applications, such as powering distributed sensor networks and flexible and wearable electronics.
      Keywords: Materials Science, Online Only
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan8285
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • The context of diversity
    • Authors: Laurencin; C. T.
      Pages: 929 - 929
      Keywords: Editorials
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba2319
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • News at a glance
    • Pages: 930 - 931
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.930
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Bold plan to retrieve Mars samples takes shape
    • Authors: Clery, D; Voosen, P.
      Pages: 932 - 933
      Keywords: Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.932
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • After 20 years, golden rice nears approval
    • Authors: Stokstad; E.
      Pages: 934 - 934
      Keywords: Ecology, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.934
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Hong Kong protests hit universities
    • Authors: Normile; D.
      Pages: 935 - 935
      Keywords: Asia/Pacific News, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.935
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Researchers sound alarm on European data law
    • Authors: Rabesandratana; T.
      Pages: 936 - 936
      Keywords: European News, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.936
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Australian blazes will 'reframe our understanding of bushfire
    • Authors: Pickrell; J.
      Pages: 937 - 937
      Keywords: Ecology, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.937
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • The landslide laboratory
    • Authors: Kornei; K.
      Pages: 938 - 940
      Keywords: Asia/Pacific News, Ecology, Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.938
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Double dip
    • Authors: Piller; C.
      Pages: 941 - 943
      Keywords: Scientific Community, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.941
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • The world in a song
    • Authors: Fitch, W. T; Popescu, T.
      Pages: 944 - 945
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay2214
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • The multistep morphing of beetle horns
    • Authors: Nijhout; H. F.
      Pages: 946 - 947
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz9010
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Compelled to drink: Why some cannot stop
    • Authors: Nixon, K; Mangieri, R. A.
      Pages: 947 - 948
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz7357
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • A catalytic one-two punch
    • Authors: Ovian, J. M; Jacobsen, E. N.
      Pages: 948 - 949
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz6166
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Unraveling the claims for (and against) green growth
    • Authors: Jackson, T; Victor, P. A.
      Pages: 950 - 951
      Keywords: Economics
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay0749
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Designer sense-response systems
    • Authors: Chica; R. A.
      Pages: 952 - 953
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz8085
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Turning lateral roots into nodules
    • Authors: Bishopp, A; Bennett, M. J.
      Pages: 953 - 954
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay8620
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Artificial intelligence for global health
    • Authors: Hosny, A; Aerts, H. J. W. L.
      Pages: 955 - 956
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay5189
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • How low should we go when warning for earthquakes'
    • Authors: Cochran, E. S; Husker, A. L.
      Pages: 957 - 958
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz6601
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Excavating Uruk
    • Authors: Robinson; A.
      Pages: 959 - 959
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz7969
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Trash, treasure, and everything in between
    • Authors: Dooley; K.
      Pages: 960 - 960
      Keywords: Economics
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz5198
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • EU Court: Science must justify future hunting
    • Authors: Epstein, Y; Lopez-Bao, J. V, Trouwborst, A, Chapron, G.
      Pages: 961 - 961
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz8424
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Time to ban lead hunting ammunition
    • Authors: Sonne, C; Alstrup, A. K. O, Ok, Y. S, Dietz, R, Kanstrup, N.
      Pages: 961 - 962
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz8150
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Beyond meat: Ecological functions of livestock
    • Authors: Proenca, V; Teixeira, C. M. G. L.
      Pages: 962 - 962
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz7084
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Three-dimensional genome structure of a single cell
    • Authors: Tan; L.
      Pages: 964 - 965
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz7774
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Of crows and tools
    • Authors: Klump; B. C.
      Pages: 965 - 965
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz7775
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • The neural regulation of cancer
    • Authors: Venkatesh; H. S.
      Pages: 965 - 965
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz7776
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Creating the protein version of DNA base pairing
    • Authors: Chen; Z.
      Pages: 965 - 965
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz7777
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Terrestrial record of recovery
    • Authors: Vignieri; S.
      Pages: 966 - 966
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Paleontology
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.966-a
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Cellular response to nutrient status
    • Authors: Ray; L. B.
      Pages: 966 - 966
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.966-b
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Common gene yields different structures
    • Authors: Hines; P. J.
      Pages: 966 - 966
      Keywords: Botany
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.966-c
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • A fresh look at glutamine targeting
    • Authors: Kelly; P. N.
      Pages: 966 - 966
      Keywords: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.966-d
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Making well-behaved algorithms
    • Authors: Stajic; J.
      Pages: 966 - 967
      Keywords: Computers, Mathematics
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.966-e
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Calling healing lesions
    • Authors: Charneski; C. A.
      Pages: 966 - 967
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.966-f
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Looking for a strange metal
    • Authors: Stajic; J.
      Pages: 966 - 967
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.966-g
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Mixed signals at tumor margins
    • Authors: Kiberstis; P. A.
      Pages: 966 - 967
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.966-h
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Stacking control
    • Authors: Stajic; J.
      Pages: 966 - 968
      Keywords: Materials Science, Physics
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.966-j
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Sense and respond
    • Authors: Vinson; V.
      Pages: 966 - 968
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.966-k
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • A tag team approach to forming C-N bonds
    • Authors: Yeston; J.
      Pages: 966 - 968
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.966-l
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Magnesium for Salmonella growth
    • Authors: Ash; C.
      Pages: 966 - 968
      Keywords: Immunology, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.966-m
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Where do horns come from'
    • Authors: Vignieri; S.
      Pages: 966 - 968
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.966-n
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • A brain circuit to control alcohol intake
    • Authors: Stern; P.
      Pages: 966 - 968
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.966-o
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • AI in resource-poor health care systems
    • Authors: Alderton; G.
      Pages: 966 - 968
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.966-p
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Putting mice on a keto diet
    • Authors: Balasubramani; A.
      Pages: 966 - 968
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.966-q
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Keeping a calcium sensor unSTIMulated
    • Authors: Wong; W.
      Pages: 966 - 968
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.966-r
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Cross-cultural analysis of song
    • Authors: Rai; T. S.
      Pages: 966 - 968
      Keywords: Psychology
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.966-s
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Shut the door on virus spread
    • Authors: Hines; P. J.
      Pages: 967 - 967
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.967-a
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Mechanical tissue matching
    • Authors: Alderton; G.
      Pages: 967 - 968
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.967-b
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Irrigation endangerment
    • Authors: Grocholski; B.
      Pages: 967 - 968
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.967-c
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • TRIIM trial to target thymus
    • Authors: Ray; L. B.
      Pages: 967 - 968
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.967-d
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • All is not lost within the genome
    • Authors: Zahn; L. M.
      Pages: 967 - 968
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.967-e
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Quantum light from a nanoantenna
    • Authors: Osborne; I. S.
      Pages: 967 - 968
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.967-f
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Impact acidification
    • Authors: Smith; H. J.
      Pages: 967 - 968
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.967-g
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Structural mechanism of a Rag GTPase activation checkpoint by the
           lysosomal folliculin complex
    • Authors: Lawrence, R. E; Fromm, S. A, Fu, Y, Yokom, A. L, Kim, D. J, Thelen, A. M, Young, L. N, Lim, C.-Y, Samelson, A. J, Hurley, J. H, Zoncu, R.
      Pages: 971 - 977
      Abstract: The tumor suppressor folliculin (FLCN) enables nutrient-dependent activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) protein kinase via its guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activating protein (GAP) activity toward the GTPase RagC. Concomitant with mTORC1 inactivation by starvation, FLCN relocalizes from the cytosol to lysosomes. To determine the lysosomal function of FLCN, we reconstituted the human lysosomal FLCN complex (LFC) containing FLCN, its partner FLCN-interacting protein 2 (FNIP2), and the RagAGDP:RagCGTP GTPases as they exist in the starved state with their lysosomal anchor Ragulator complex and determined its cryo–electron microscopy structure to 3.6 angstroms. The RagC-GAP activity of FLCN was inhibited within the LFC, owing to displacement of a catalytically required arginine in FLCN from the RagC nucleotide. Disassembly of the LFC and release of the RagC-GAP activity of FLCN enabled mTORC1-dependent regulation of the master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, transcription factor E3, implicating the LFC as a checkpoint in mTORC1 signaling.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax0364
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Exceptional continental record of biotic recovery after the
           Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction
    • Authors: Lyson, T. R; Miller, I. M, Bercovici, A. D, Weissenburger, K, Fuentes, A. J, Clyde, W. C, Hagadorn, J. W, Butrim, M. J, Johnson, K. R, Fleming, R. F, Barclay, R. S, Maccracken, S. A, Lloyd, B, Wilson, G. P, Krause, D. W, Chester, S. G. B.
      Pages: 977 - 983
      Abstract: We report a time-calibrated stratigraphic section in Colorado that contains unusually complete fossils of mammals, reptiles, and plants and elucidates the drivers and tempo of biotic recovery during the poorly known first million years after the Cretaceous–Paleogene mass extinction (KPgE). Within ~100 thousand years (ka) post-KPgE, mammalian taxonomic richness doubled, and maximum mammalian body mass increased to near pre-KPgE levels. A threefold increase in maximum mammalian body mass and dietary niche specialization occurred at ~300 ka post-KPgE, concomitant with increased megafloral standing species richness. The appearance of additional large mammals occurred by ~700 ka post-KPgE, coincident with the first appearance of Leguminosae (the bean family). These concurrent plant and mammal originations and body-mass shifts coincide with warming intervals, suggesting that climate influenced post-KPgE biotic recovery.
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Paleontology
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay2268
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Direct observation of van der Waals stacking-dependent interlayer
           magnetism
    • Authors: Chen, W; Sun, Z, Wang, Z, Gu, L, Xu, X, Wu, S, Gao, C.
      Pages: 983 - 987
      Abstract: Controlling the crystal structure is a powerful approach for manipulating the fundamental properties of solids. In van der Waals materials, this control can be achieved by modifying the stacking order through rotation and translation between the layers. Here, we observed stacking-dependent interlayer magnetism in the two-dimensional (2D) magnetic semiconductor chromium tribromide (CrBr3), which was enabled by the successful growth of its monolayer and bilayer through molecular beam epitaxy. Using in situ spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, we directly correlate the atomic lattice structure with the observed magnetic order. Although the individual monolayer CrBr3 is ferromagnetic, the interlayer coupling in bilayer depends on the stacking order and can be either ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic. Our observations pave the way for manipulating 2D magnetism with layer twist angle control.
      Keywords: Materials Science, Physics
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav1937
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Strange metallicity in the doped Hubbard model
    • Authors: Huang, E. W; Sheppard, R, Moritz, B, Devereaux, T. P.
      Pages: 987 - 990
      Abstract: Strange or bad metallic transport, defined by incompatibility with the conventional quasiparticle picture, is a theme common to many strongly correlated materials, including high-temperature superconductors. The Hubbard model represents a minimal starting point for modeling strongly correlated systems. Here we demonstrate strange metallic transport in the doped two-dimensional Hubbard model using determinantal quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Over a wide range of doping, we observe resistivities exceeding the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit with linear temperature dependence. The temperatures of our calculations extend to as low as 1/40 of the noninteracting bandwidth, placing our findings in the degenerate regime relevant to experimental observations of strange metallicity. Our results provide a foundation for connecting theories of strange metals to models of strongly correlated materials.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau7063
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Highly enantioselective carbene insertion into N-H bonds of aliphatic
           amines
    • Authors: Li, M.-L; Yu, J.-H, Li, Y.-H, Zhu, S.-F, Zhou, Q.-L.
      Pages: 990 - 994
      Abstract: Aliphatic amines strongly coordinate, and therefore easily inhibit, the activity of transition-metal catalysts, posing a marked challenge to nitrogen-hydrogen (N–H) insertion reactions. Here, we report highly enantioselective carbene insertion into N–H bonds of aliphatic amines using two catalysts in tandem: an achiral copper complex and chiral amino-thiourea. Coordination by a homoscorpionate ligand protects the copper center that activates the carbene precursor. The chiral amino-thiourea catalyst then promotes enantioselective proton transfer to generate the stereocenter of the insertion product. This reaction couples a wide variety of diazo esters and amines to produce chiral α-alkyl α–amino acid derivatives.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw9939
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Host resistance factor SLC11A1 restricts Salmonella growth through
           magnesium deprivation
    • Authors: Cunrath, O; Bumann, D.
      Pages: 995 - 999
      Abstract: The pleiotropic host resistance factor SLC11A1 (NRAMP1) defends against diverse intracellular pathogens in mammals by yet-unknown mechanisms. We compared Salmonella infection of coisogenic mice with different SLC11A1 alleles. SLC11A1 reduced Salmonella replication and triggered up-regulation of uptake systems for divalent metal cations but no other stress responses. SLC11A1 modestly diminished iron availability and acutely restricted Salmonella access to magnesium. Growth of Salmonella cells in the presence of SLC11A1 was highly heterogeneous and inversely correlated with expression of the crucial magnesium transporter gene mgtB. We observed superimposable single-cell patterns in mice lacking SLC11A1 when we restricted Salmonella access to magnesium by impairing its uptake. Together, these findings identify deprivation of the main group metal magnesium as the main resistance mechanism of SLC11A1 against Salmonella.
      Keywords: Immunology, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax7898
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Preventing undesirable behavior of intelligent machines
    • Authors: Thomas, P. S; Castro da Silva, B, Barto, A. G, Giguere, S, Brun, Y, Brunskill, E.
      Pages: 999 - 1004
      Abstract: Intelligent machines using machine learning algorithms are ubiquitous, ranging from simple data analysis and pattern recognition tools to complex systems that achieve superhuman performance on various tasks. Ensuring that they do not exhibit undesirable behavior—that they do not, for example, cause harm to humans—is therefore a pressing problem. We propose a general and flexible framework for designing machine learning algorithms. This framework simplifies the problem of specifying and regulating undesirable behavior. To show the viability of this framework, we used it to create machine learning algorithms that precluded the dangerous behavior caused by standard machine learning algorithms in our experiments. Our framework for designing machine learning algorithms simplifies the safe and responsible application of machine learning.
      Keywords: Computers, Mathematics
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aag3311
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Beetle horns evolved from wing serial homologs
    • Authors: Hu, Y; Linz, D. M, Moczek, A. P.
      Pages: 1004 - 1007
      Abstract: Understanding how novel complex traits originate is a foundational challenge in evolutionary biology. We investigated the origin of prothoracic horns in scarabaeine beetles, one of the most pronounced examples of secondary sexual traits in the animal kingdom. We show that prothoracic horns derive from bilateral source tissues; that diverse wing genes are functionally required for instructing this process; and that, in the absence of Hox input, prothoracic horn primordia transform to contribute to ectopic wings. Once induced, however, the transcriptional profile of prothoracic horns diverges markedly from that of wings and other wing serial homologs. Our results substantiate the serial homology between prothoracic horns and insects wings and suggest that other insect innovations may derive similarly from wing serial homologs and the concomitant establishment of structure-specific transcriptional landscapes.
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw2980
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • A cortical-brainstem circuit predicts and governs compulsive alcohol
           drinking
    • Authors: Siciliano, C. A; Noamany, H, Chang, C.-J, Brown, A. R, Chen, X, Leible, D, Lee, J. J, Wang, J, Vernon, A. N, Vander Weele, C. M, Kimchi, E. Y, Heiman, M, Tye, K. M.
      Pages: 1008 - 1012
      Abstract: What individual differences in neural activity predict the future escalation of alcohol drinking from casual to compulsive' The neurobiological mechanisms that gate the transition from moderate to compulsive drinking remain poorly understood. We longitudinally tracked the development of compulsive drinking across a binge-drinking experience in male mice. Binge drinking unmasked individual differences, revealing latent traits in alcohol consumption and compulsive drinking despite equal prior exposure to alcohol. Distinct neural activity signatures of cortical neurons projecting to the brainstem before binge drinking predicted the ultimate emergence of compulsivity. Mimicry of activity patterns that predicted drinking phenotypes was sufficient to bidirectionally modulate drinking. Our results provide a mechanistic explanation for individual variance in vulnerability to compulsive alcohol drinking.
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay1186
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Glutamine blockade induces divergent metabolic programs to overcome tumor
           immune evasion
    • Authors: Leone, R. D; Zhao, L, Englert, J. M, Sun, I.-M, Oh, M.-H, Sun, I.-H, Arwood, M. L, Bettencourt, I. A, Patel, C. H, Wen, J, Tam, A, Blosser, R. L, Prchalova, E, Alt, J, Rais, R, Slusher, B. S, Powell, J. D.
      Pages: 1013 - 1021
      Abstract: The metabolic characteristics of tumors present considerable hurdles to immune cell function and cancer immunotherapy. Using a glutamine antagonist, we metabolically dismantled the immunosuppressive microenvironment of tumors. We demonstrate that glutamine blockade in tumor-bearing mice suppresses oxidative and glycolytic metabolism of cancer cells, leading to decreased hypoxia, acidosis, and nutrient depletion. By contrast, effector T cells responded to glutamine antagonism by markedly up-regulating oxidative metabolism and adopting a long-lived, highly activated phenotype. These divergent changes in cellular metabolism and programming form the basis for potent antitumor responses. Glutamine antagonism therefore exposes a previously undefined difference in metabolic plasticity between cancer cells and effector T cells that can be exploited as a "metabolic checkpoint" for tumor immunotherapy.
      Keywords: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav2588
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • A shared gene drives lateral root development and root nodule symbiosis
           pathways in Lotus
    • Authors: Soyano, T; Shimoda, Y, Kawaguchi, M, Hayashi, M.
      Pages: 1021 - 1023
      Abstract: Legumes develop root nodules in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria. Rhizobia evoke cell division of differentiated cortical cells into root nodule primordia for accommodating bacterial symbionts. In this study, we show that NODULE INCEPTION (NIN), a transcription factor in Lotus japonicus that is essential for initiating cortical cell divisions during nodulation, regulates the gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES 2-LIKE 18/LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN 16a (ASL18/LBD16a). Orthologs of ASL18/LBD16a in nonlegume plants are required for lateral root development. Coexpression of ASL18a and the CCAAT box–binding protein Nuclear Factor-Y (NF-Y) subunits, which are also directly targeted by NIN, partially suppressed the nodulation-defective phenotype of L. japonicus daphne mutants, in which cortical expression of NIN was attenuated. Our results demonstrate that ASL18a and NF-Y together regulate nodule organogenesis. Thus, a lateral root developmental pathway is incorporated downstream of NIN to drive nodule symbiosis.
      Keywords: Botany
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax2153
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Computational design of a modular protein sense-response system
    • Authors: Glasgow, A. A; Huang, Y.-M, Mandell, D. J, Thompson, M, Ritterson, R, Loshbaugh, A. L, Pellegrino, J, Krivacic, C, Pache, R. A, Barlow, K. A, Ollikainen, N, Jeon, D, Kelly, M. J. S, Fraser, J. S, Kortemme, T.
      Pages: 1024 - 1028
      Abstract: Sensing and responding to signals is a fundamental ability of living systems, but despite substantial progress in the computational design of new protein structures, there is no general approach for engineering arbitrary new protein sensors. Here, we describe a generalizable computational strategy for designing sensor-actuator proteins by building binding sites de novo into heterodimeric protein-protein interfaces and coupling ligand sensing to modular actuation through split reporters. Using this approach, we designed protein sensors that respond to farnesyl pyrophosphate, a metabolic intermediate in the production of valuable compounds. The sensors are functional in vitro and in cells, and the crystal structure of the engineered binding site closely matches the design model. Our computational design strategy opens broad avenues to link biological outputs to new signals.
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax8780
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Peritumoral activation of the Hippo pathway effectors YAP and TAZ
           suppresses liver cancer in mice
    • Authors: Moya, I. M; Castaldo, S. A, Van den Mooter, L, Soheily, S, Sansores-Garcia, L, Jacobs, J, Mannaerts, I, Xie, J, Verboven, E, Hillen, H, Alguero-Nadal, A, Karaman, R, Van Haele, M, Kowalczyk, W, De Waegeneer, M, Verhulst, S, Karras, P, van Huffel, L, Zender, L, Marine, J.-C, Roskams, T, Johnson, R, Aerts, S, van Grunsven, L. A, Halder, G.
      Pages: 1029 - 1034
      Abstract: The Hippo signaling pathway and its two downstream effectors, the YAP and TAZ transcriptional coactivators, are drivers of tumor growth in experimental models. Studying mouse models, we show that YAP and TAZ can also exert a tumor-suppressive function. We found that normal hepatocytes surrounding liver tumors displayed activation of YAP and TAZ and that deletion of Yap and Taz in these peritumoral hepatocytes accelerated tumor growth. Conversely, experimental hyperactivation of YAP in peritumoral hepatocytes triggered regression of primary liver tumors and melanoma-derived liver metastases. Furthermore, whereas tumor cells growing in wild-type livers required YAP and TAZ for their survival, those surrounded by Yap- and Taz-deficient hepatocytes were not dependent on YAP and TAZ. Tumor cell survival thus depends on the relative activity of YAP and TAZ in tumor cells and their surrounding tissue, suggesting that YAP and TAZ act through a mechanism of cell competition to eliminate tumor cells.
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw9886
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • New Products
    • Pages: 1035 - 1035
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.1035
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
  • Sidestepping politics to teach climate
    • Authors: Kannan; R.
      Pages: 1042 - 1042
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T10:39:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.366.6468.1042
      Issue No: Vol. 366, No. 6468 (2019)
       
 
 
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