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Journal Cover Science
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
   Published by AAAS Homepage  [6 journals]
  • Resident memory responses to cancer
    • Authors: Colmone; A.
      Pages: 281
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.280-i
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Stromal Gli2 activity coordinates a niche signaling program for mammary
           epithelial stem cells
    • Authors: Zhao, C; Cai, S, Shin, K, Lim, A, Kalisky, T, Lu, W.-J, Clarke, M. F, Beachy, P. A.
      Abstract: The stem cell niche is a complex local signaling microenvironment that sustains stem cell activity during organ maintenance and regeneration. The mammary gland niche must support its associated stem cells while also responding to systemic hormonal regulation that triggers pubertal changes. We find that Gli2, the major Hedgehog pathway transcriptional effector, acts within mouse mammary stromal cells to direct a hormone-responsive niche signaling program by activating expression of factors that regulate epithelial stem cells as well as receptors for the mammatrophic hormones estrogen and growth hormone. Whereas prior studies implicate stem cell defects in human disease, this work shows that niche dysfunction may also cause disease, with possible relevance for human disorders and in particular the breast growth pathogenesis associated with combined pituitary hormone deficiency.
      Keywords: Development, Online Only
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aal3485
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Single-cell RNA-seq reveals new types of human blood dendritic cells,
           monocytes, and progenitors
    • Authors: Villani, A.-C; Satija, R, Reynolds, G, Sarkizova, S, Shekhar, K, Fletcher, J, Griesbeck, M, Butler, A, Zheng, S, Lazo, S, Jardine, L, Dixon, D, Stephenson, E, Nilsson, E, Grundberg, I, McDonald, D, Filby, A, Li, W, De Jager, P. L, Rozenblatt-Rosen, O, Lane, A. A, Haniffa, M, Regev, A, Hacohen, N.
      Abstract: Dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes play a central role in pathogen sensing, phagocytosis, and antigen presentation and consist of multiple specialized subtypes. However, their identities and interrelationships are not fully understood. Using unbiased single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of ~2400 cells, we identified six human DCs and four monocyte subtypes in human blood. Our study reveals a new DC subset that shares properties with plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) but potently activates T cells, thus redefining pDCs; a new subdivision within the CD1C+ subset of DCs; the relationship between blastic plasmacytoid DC neoplasia cells and healthy DCs; and circulating progenitor of conventional DCs (cDCs). Our revised taxonomy will enable more accurate functional and developmental analyses as well as immune monitoring in health and disease.
      Keywords: Immunology, Online Only
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aah4573
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Why Earth Optimism?
    • Authors: Balmford, A; Knowlton, N.
      Pages: 225 - 225
      Keywords: Editorials
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan4082
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • News at a glance
    • Pages: 226 - 228
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.226
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • In familiar decays, a whiff of new physics
    • Authors: Cho; A.
      Pages: 229 - 230
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.229
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Early animal fossils at risk
    • Authors: McLaughlin; K.
      Pages: 230 - 231
      Keywords: Asia/Pacific News, Paleontology
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.230
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • A moonshot for chemistry
    • Authors: Service; R. F.
      Pages: 231 - 232
      Keywords: Chemistry, Molecular Biology, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.231
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • A new neglected crop: cannabis
    • Authors: Pennisi; E.
      Pages: 232 - 233
      Keywords: Botany, Genetics
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.232
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Society labels harassment as research misconduct
    • Authors: Kuo; M.
      Pages: 233 - 234
      Keywords: Scientific Community, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.233
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Scientists hope risky winter voyage yields icy rewards
    • Authors: Cornwall; W.
      Pages: 234 - 235
      Keywords: Oceanography
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.234
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Lord of the rings
    • Authors: Hand; E.
      Pages: 236 - 238
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Physics
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.236
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Sam Ting's last tease
    • Authors: Sokol; J.
      Pages: 240 - 241
      Keywords: Astronomy, Physics, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.240
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Facilitating conservation
    • Authors: Chakrabarty, P; Negi, S, Andres, R. M, Favaro, B, Singh, B, Hilleary, R, Arthur, P. K, Street, I. H, Cheung, M. K, Parsons, M, Easun, T, Cingl, L, Wang, L, Widge, A. S, Li, R, Zhou, K, Pinto, P. d. T, Yoho, R, Buschke, F.
      Pages: 242 - 244
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan4270
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Oxidation at the atomic scale
    • Authors: Cadavid, D; Cabot, A.
      Pages: 245 - 245
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan0979
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Lasers expose hidden electronic order
    • Authors: Dodge; J. S.
      Pages: 246 - 247
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam8369
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Biased inheritance protects older bacteria from harm
    • Authors: Barrett, T. C; Mok, W. W. K, Brynildsen, M. P.
      Pages: 247 - 248
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan0348
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Rewiring metabolism under oxygen deprivation
    • Authors: Storz, J. F; McClelland, G. B.
      Pages: 248 - 249
      Keywords: Physiology
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan1505
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Decoding hormones for a stem cell niche
    • Authors: Robertson; C.
      Pages: 250 - 250
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan1506
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Living by the lessons of the planet
    • Authors: Foley; J.
      Pages: 251 - 252
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aal4863
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Putting a value on injuries to natural assets: The BP oil spill
    • Authors: Bishop, R. C; Boyle, K. J, Carson, R. T, Chapman, D, Hanemann, W. M, Kanninen, B, Kopp, R. J, Krosnick, J. A, List, J, Meade, N, Paterson, R, Presser, S, Smith, V. K, Tourangeau, R, Welsh, M, Wooldridge, J. M, DeBell, M, Donovan, C, Konopka, M, Scherer, N.
      Pages: 253 - 254
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam8124
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Culture clash
    • Authors: Younker; J.
      Pages: 255 - 255
      Keywords: Anthropology
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam8993
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Dramatizing Deepwater Horizon
    • Authors: Rademacher; A.
      Pages: 256 - 256
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan0763
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Ecosystem Earth
    • Authors: Vignieri, S; Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink, J.
      Pages: 258 - 259
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.258
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • The interaction of human population, food production, and biodiversity
           protection
    • Authors: Crist, E; Mora, C, Engelman, R.
      Pages: 260 - 264
      Abstract: Research suggests that the scale of human population and the current pace of its growth contribute substantially to the loss of biological diversity. Although technological change and unequal consumption inextricably mingle with demographic impacts on the environment, the needs of all human beings—especially for food—imply that projected population growth will undermine protection of the natural world. Numerous solutions have been proposed to boost food production while protecting biodiversity, but alone these proposals are unlikely to staunch biodiversity loss. An important approach to sustaining biodiversity and human well-being is through actions that can slow and eventually reverse population growth: investing in universal access to reproductive health services and contraceptive technologies, advancing women’s education, and achieving gender equality.
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aal2011
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Ecosystem management as a wicked problem
    • Authors: DeFries, R; Nagendra, H.
      Pages: 265 - 270
      Abstract: Ecosystems are self-regulating systems that provide societies with food, water, timber, and other resources. As demands for resources increase, management decisions are replacing self-regulating properties. Counter to previous technical approaches that applied simple formulas to estimate sustainable yields of single species, current research recognizes the inherent complexity of ecosystems and the inability to foresee all consequences of interventions across different spatial, temporal, and administrative scales. Ecosystem management is thus more realistically seen as a "wicked problem" that has no clear-cut solution. Approaches for addressing such problems include multisector decision-making, institutions that enable management to span across administrative boundaries, adaptive management, markets that incorporate natural capital, and collaborative processes to engage diverse stakeholders and address inequalities. Ecosystem management must avoid two traps: falsely assuming a tame solution and inaction from overwhelming complexity. An incremental approach can help to avoid these traps.
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aal1950
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Biodiversity losses and conservation responses in the Anthropocene
    • Authors: Johnson, C. N; Balmford, A, Brook, B. W, Buettel, J. C, Galetti, M, Guangchun, L, Wilmshurst, J. M.
      Pages: 270 - 275
      Abstract: Biodiversity is essential to human well-being, but people have been reducing biodiversity throughout human history. Loss of species and degradation of ecosystems are likely to further accelerate in the coming years. Our understanding of this crisis is now clear, and world leaders have pledged to avert it. Nonetheless, global goals to reduce the rate of biodiversity loss have mostly not been achieved. However, many examples of conservation success show that losses can be halted and even reversed. Building on these lessons to turn the tide of biodiversity loss will require bold and innovative action to transform historical relationships between human populations and nature.
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam9317
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Beyond the roots of human inaction: Fostering collective effort toward
           ecosystem conservation
    • Authors: Amel, E; Manning, C, Scott, B, Koger, S.
      Pages: 275 - 279
      Abstract: The term "environmental problem" exposes a fundamental misconception: Disruptions of Earth’s ecosystems are at their root a human behavior problem. Psychology is a potent tool for understanding the external and internal drivers of human behavior that lead to unsustainable living. Psychologists already contribute to individual-level behavior-change campaigns in the service of sustainability, but attention is turning toward understanding and facilitating the role of individuals in collective and collaborative actions that will modify the environmentally damaging systems in which humans are embedded. Especially crucial in moving toward long-term human and environmental well-being are transformational individuals who step outside of the norm, embrace ecological principles, and inspire collective action. Particularly in developed countries, fostering legions of sustainability leaders rests upon a fundamental renewal of humans’ connection to the natural world.
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aal1931
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Losing its character
    • Authors: Smith; H. J.
      Pages: 280 - 280
      Keywords: Oceanography
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.280-a
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Capturing chemokines in chronic wounds
    • Authors: Czajka; C.
      Pages: 280 - 280
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.280-b
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Multiple images of a type Ia supernova
    • Authors: Smith; K. T.
      Pages: 280 - 280
      Keywords: Astronomy
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.280-c
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Low-temperature methane reactions
    • Authors: Szuromi; P.
      Pages: 280 - 280
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.280-d
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Gut anaerobes protect against pathogen invasion
    • Authors: Ash; C.
      Pages: 280 - 281
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.280-e
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Safe anaerobic metabolism
    • Authors: Vignieri; S.
      Pages: 280 - 281
      Keywords: Anatomy, Morphology, Biomechanics
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.280-f
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Ancestral legacy effects
    • Authors: Purnell; B. A.
      Pages: 280 - 281
      Keywords: Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.280-g
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Micromanaging muscle cell fusion
    • Authors: Kiberstis; P. A.
      Pages: 280 - 281
      Keywords: Development
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.280-h
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • What's in a drop of blood?
    • Authors: Zahn; L. M.
      Pages: 280 - 283
      Keywords: Immunology
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.280-j
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Acetylation keeps microtubules strong
    • Authors: Hurtley; S. M.
      Pages: 280 - 283
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.280-k
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Double duty for mammary stem cell niche
    • Authors: Purnell; B. A.
      Pages: 280 - 283
      Keywords: Development
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.280-l
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Watching nanomaterials transform in time
    • Authors: Lavine; M. S.
      Pages: 280 - 283
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.280-m
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Drug efflux machinery inherited asymmetrically
    • Authors: Ash; C.
      Pages: 280 - 283
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.280-n
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Humans--an overwhelming force?
    • Authors: Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink; J.
      Pages: 280 - 283
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.280-o
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • A transcription factor drug for asthma
    • Authors: Wong; W.
      Pages: 280 - 283
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.280-p
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • A nonlinear peek into electronic symmetry
    • Authors: Stajic; J.
      Pages: 280 - 283
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.280-q
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Facilitating refuges
    • Authors: Vignieri; S.
      Pages: 281 - 281
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.281-a
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Countering chemo's effects on fertility
    • Authors: Kiberstis; P. A.
      Pages: 281 - 282
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.281-b
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • The physics of social butterflies
    • Authors: McCartney; M.
      Pages: 281 - 282
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.281-c
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • The eyes have it
    • Authors: Vignieri; S.
      Pages: 281 - 282
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.281-d
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Disordered proteins make a dynamic switch
    • Authors: Ray; L. B.
      Pages: 281 - 282
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.281-e
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Setting up a recruiting office
    • Authors: Lavine; M. S.
      Pages: 281 - 282
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.281-f
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Nanostructured high-strength alloys
    • Authors: Grocholski; B.
      Pages: 281 - 282
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.281-g
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Greater role for Atlantic inflows on sea-ice loss in the Eurasian Basin of
           the Arctic Ocean
    • Authors: Polyakov, I. V; Pnyushkov, A. V, Alkire, M. B, Ashik, I. M, Baumann, T. M, Carmack, E. C, Goszczko, I, Guthrie, J, Ivanov, V. V, Kanzow, T, Krishfield, R, Kwok, R, Sundfjord, A, Morison, J, Rember, R, Yulin, A.
      Pages: 285 - 291
      Abstract: Arctic sea-ice loss is a leading indicator of climate change and can be attributed, in large part, to atmospheric forcing. Here, we show that recent ice reductions, weakening of the halocline, and shoaling of the intermediate-depth Atlantic Water layer in the eastern Eurasian Basin have increased winter ventilation in the ocean interior, making this region structurally similar to that of the western Eurasian Basin. The associated enhanced release of oceanic heat has reduced winter sea-ice formation at a rate now comparable to losses from atmospheric thermodynamic forcing, thus explaining the recent reduction in sea-ice cover in the eastern Eurasian Basin. This encroaching "atlantification" of the Eurasian Basin represents an essential step toward a new Arctic climate state, with a substantially greater role for Atlantic inflows.
      Keywords: Oceanography
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aai8204
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • iPTF16geu: A multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova
    • Authors: Goobar, A; Amanullah, R, Kulkarni, S. R, Nugent, P. E, Johansson, J, Steidel, C, Law, D, Mörtsell, E, Quimby, R, Blagorodnova, N, Brandeker, A, Cao, Y, Cooray, A, Ferretti, R, Fremling, C, Hangard, L, Kasliwal, M, Kupfer, T, Lunnan, R, Masci, F, Miller, A. A, Nayyeri, H, Neill, J. D, Ofek, E. O, Papadogiannakis, S, Petrushevska, T, Ravi, V, Sollerman, J, Sullivan, M, Taddia, F, Walters, R, Wilson, D, Yan, L, Yaron, O.
      Pages: 291 - 295
      Abstract: We report the discovery of a multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova, iPTF16geu (SN 2016geu), at redshift z = 0.409. This phenomenon was identified because the light from the stellar explosion was magnified more than 50 times by the curvature of space around matter in an intervening galaxy. We used high-spatial-resolution observations to resolve four images of the lensed supernova, approximately 0.3 arc seconds from the center of the foreground galaxy. The observations probe a physical scale of ~1 kiloparsec, smaller than is typical in other studies of extragalactic gravitational lensing. The large magnification and symmetric image configuration imply close alignment between the lines of sight to the supernova and to the lens. The relative magnifications of the four images provide evidence for substructures in the lensing galaxy.
      Keywords: Astronomy
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aal2729
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • A parity-breaking electronic nematic phase transition in the spin-orbit
           coupled metal Cd2Re2O7
    • Authors: Harter, J. W; Zhao, Z. Y, Yan, J.- Q, Mandrus, D. G, Hsieh, D.
      Pages: 295 - 299
      Abstract: Strong electron interactions can drive metallic systems toward a variety of well-known symmetry-broken phases, but the instabilities of correlated metals with strong spin-orbit coupling have only recently begun to be explored. We uncovered a multipolar nematic phase of matter in the metallic pyrochlore Cd2Re2O7 using spatially resolved second-harmonic optical anisotropy measurements. Like previously discovered electronic nematic phases, this multipolar phase spontaneously breaks rotational symmetry while preserving translational invariance. However, it has the distinguishing property of being odd under spatial inversion, which is allowed only in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. By examining the critical behavior of the multipolar nematic order parameter, we show that it drives the thermal phase transition near 200 kelvin in Cd2Re2O7 and induces a parity-breaking lattice distortion as a secondary order.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad1188
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Low-temperature activation of methane on the IrO2(110) surface
    • Authors: Liang, Z; Li, T, Kim, M, Asthagiri, A, Weaver, J. F.
      Pages: 299 - 303
      Abstract: Methane undergoes highly facile C–H bond cleavage on the stoichiometric IrO2(110) surface. From temperature-programmed reaction spectroscopy experiments, we found that methane molecularly adsorbed as a strongly bound complex on IrO2(110) and that a large fraction of the adsorbed complexes underwent C–H bond cleavage at temperatures as low as 150 kelvin (K). The initial dissociation probability of methane on IrO2(110) decreased from 80 to 20% with increasing surface temperature from 175 to 300 K. We estimate that the activation energy for methane C–H bond cleavage is 9.5 kilojoule per mole (kJ/mol) lower than the binding energy of the adsorbed precursor on IrO2(110), and equal to a value of ~28.5 kJ/mol. Low-temperature activation may avoid unwanted side reactions in the development of catalytic processes to selectively convert methane to value-added products.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam9147
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Quantitative 3D evolution of colloidal nanoparticle oxidation in solution
    • Authors: Sun, Y; Zuo, X, Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S, Peng, S, Narayanan, B, Kamath, G.
      Pages: 303 - 307
      Abstract: Real-time tracking of the three-dimensional (3D) evolution of colloidal nanoparticles in solution is essential for understanding complex mechanisms involved in nanoparticle growth and transformation. We used time-resolved small-angle and wide-angle x-ray scattering simultaneously to monitor oxidation of highly uniform colloidal iron nanoparticles, enabling the reconstruction of intermediate 3D morphologies of the nanoparticles with a spatial resolution of ~5 angstroms. The in situ observations, combined with large-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulations, reveal the details of the transformation from solid metal nanoparticles to hollow metal oxide nanoshells via a nanoscale Kirkendall process—for example, coalescence of voids as they grow and reversal of mass diffusion direction depending on crystallinity. Our results highlight the complex interplay between defect chemistry and defect dynamics in determining nanoparticle transformation and formation.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf6792
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Fructose-driven glycolysis supports anoxia resistance in the naked
           mole-rat
    • Authors: Park, T. J; Reznick, J, Peterson, B. L, Blass, G, Omerbasic, D, Bennett, N. C, Kuich, P. H. J. L, Zasada, C, Browe, B. M, Hamann, W, Applegate, D. T, Radke, M. H, Kosten, T, Lutermann, H, Gavaghan, V, Eigenbrod, O, Begay, V, Amoroso, V. G, Govind, V, Minshall, R. D, Smith, E. S. J, Larson, J, Gotthardt, M, Kempa, S, Lewin, G. R.
      Pages: 307 - 311
      Abstract: The African naked mole-rat’s (Heterocephalus glaber) social and subterranean lifestyle generates a hypoxic niche. Under experimental conditions, naked mole-rats tolerate hours of extreme hypoxia and survive 18 minutes of total oxygen deprivation (anoxia) without apparent injury. During anoxia, the naked mole-rat switches to anaerobic metabolism fueled by fructose, which is actively accumulated and metabolized to lactate in the brain. Global expression of the GLUT5 fructose transporter and high levels of ketohexokinase were identified as molecular signatures of fructose metabolism. Fructose-driven glycolytic respiration in naked mole-rat tissues avoids feedback inhibition of glycolysis via phosphofructokinase, supporting viability. The metabolic rewiring of glycolysis can circumvent the normally lethal effects of oxygen deprivation, a mechanism that could be harnessed to minimize hypoxic damage in human disease.
      Keywords: Anatomy, Morphology, Biomechanics
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aab3896
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Biased partitioning of the multidrug efflux pump AcrAB-TolC underlies
           long-lived phenotypic heterogeneity
    • Authors: Bergmiller, T; Andersson, A. M. C, Tomasek, K, Balleza, E, Kiviet, D. J, Hauschild, R, Tkacik, G, Guet, C. C.
      Pages: 311 - 315
      Abstract: The molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation in isogenic bacterial populations remain poorly understood. We report that AcrAB-TolC, the main multidrug efflux pump of Escherichia coli, exhibits a strong partitioning bias for old cell poles by a segregation mechanism that is mediated by ternary AcrAB-TolC complex formation. Mother cells inheriting old poles are phenotypically distinct and display increased drug efflux activity relative to daughters. Consequently, we find systematic and long-lived growth differences between mother and daughter cells in the presence of subinhibitory drug concentrations. A simple model for biased partitioning predicts a population structure of long-lived and highly heterogeneous phenotypes. This straightforward mechanism of generating sustained growth rate differences at subinhibitory antibiotic concentrations has implications for understanding the emergence of multidrug resistance in bacteria.
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf4762
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Neonatal acquisition of Clostridia species protects against colonization
           by bacterial pathogens
    • Authors: Kim, Y.-G; Sakamoto, K, Seo, S.-U, Pickard, J. M, Gillilland, M. G, Pudlo, N. A, Hoostal, M, Li, X, Wang, T. D, Feehley, T, Stefka, A. T, Schmidt, T. M, Martens, E. C, Fukuda, S, Inohara, N, Nagler, C. R, Nunez, G.
      Pages: 315 - 319
      Abstract: The high susceptibility of neonates to infections has been assumed to be due to immaturity of the immune system, but the mechanism remains unclear. By colonizing adult germ-free mice with the cecal contents of neonatal and adult mice, we show that the neonatal microbiota is unable to prevent colonization by two bacterial pathogens that cause mortality in neonates. The lack of colonization resistance occurred when Clostridiales were absent in the neonatal microbiota. Administration of Clostridiales, but not Bacteroidales, protected neonatal mice from pathogen infection and abrogated intestinal pathology upon pathogen challenge. Depletion of Clostridiales also abolished colonization resistance in adult mice. The neonatal bacteria enhanced the ability of protective Clostridiales to colonize the gut.
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aag2029
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Transgenerational transmission of environmental information in C. elegans
    • Authors: Klosin, A; Casas, E, Hidalgo-Carcedo, C, Vavouri, T, Lehner, B.
      Pages: 320 - 323
      Abstract: The environment experienced by an animal can sometimes influence gene expression for one or a few subsequent generations. Here, we report the observation that a temperature-induced change in expression from a Caenorhabditis elegans heterochromatic gene array can endure for at least 14 generations. Inheritance is primarily in cis with the locus, occurs through both oocytes and sperm, and is associated with altered trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) before the onset of zygotic transcription. Expression profiling reveals that temperature-induced expression from endogenous repressed repeats can also be inherited for multiple generations. Long-lasting epigenetic memory of environmental change is therefore possible in this animal.
      Keywords: Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aah6412
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Control of muscle formation by the fusogenic micropeptide myomixer
    • Authors: Bi, P; Ramirez-Martinez, A, Li, H, Cannavino, J, McAnally, J. R, Shelton, J. M, Sanchez-Ortiz, E, Bassel-Duby, R, Olson, E. N.
      Pages: 323 - 327
      Abstract: Skeletal muscle formation occurs through fusion of myoblasts to form multinucleated myofibers. From a genome-wide clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loss-of-function screen for genes required for myoblast fusion and myogenesis, we discovered an 84–amino acid muscle-specific peptide that we call Myomixer. Myomixer expression coincides with myoblast differentiation and is essential for fusion and skeletal muscle formation during embryogenesis. Myomixer localizes to the plasma membrane, where it promotes myoblast fusion and associates with Myomaker, a fusogenic membrane protein. Myomixer together with Myomaker can also induce fibroblast-fibroblast fusion and fibroblast-myoblast fusion. We conclude that the Myomixer-Myomaker pair controls the critical step in myofiber formation during muscle development.
      Keywords: Development
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam9361
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • Microtubules acquire resistance from mechanical breakage through
           intralumenal acetylation
    • Authors: Xu, Z; Schaedel, L, Portran, D, Aguilar, A, Gaillard, J, Marinkovich, M. P, Thery, M, Nachury, M. V.
      Pages: 328 - 332
      Abstract: Eukaryotic cells rely on long-lived microtubules for intracellular transport and as compression-bearing elements. We considered that long-lived microtubules are acetylated inside their lumen and that microtubule acetylation may modify microtubule mechanics. Here, we found that tubulin acetylation is required for the mechanical stabilization of long-lived microtubules in cells. Depletion of the tubulin acetyltransferase TAT1 led to a significant increase in the frequency of microtubule breakage. Nocodazole-resistant microtubules lost upon removal of acetylation were largely restored by either pharmacological or physical removal of compressive forces. In in vitro reconstitution experiments, acetylation was sufficient to protect microtubules from mechanical breakage. Thus, acetylation increases mechanical resilience to ensure the persistence of long-lived microtubules.
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aai8764
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • New Products
    • Pages: 334 - 334
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.334
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
  • The new tissue culture
    • Authors: Ruben; R. L.
      Pages: 342 - 342
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T10:27:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.342
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6335 (2017)
       
 
 
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