Journal Cover
Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 14.142
Citation Impact (citeScore): 16
Number of Followers: 4782  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
Published by AAAS Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Organoids recapitulate brain development
    • Authors: Zahn; L. M.
      Pages: 403
      Keywords: Genetics, Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.401-i
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Chromatin accessibility dynamics in a model of human forebrain development
    • Authors: Trevino, A. E; Sinnott-Armstrong, N, Andersen, J, Yoon, S.-J, Huber, N, Pritchard, J. K, Chang, H. Y, Greenleaf, W. J, Pasca, S. P.
      Abstract: Forebrain development is characterized by highly synchronized cellular processes, which, if perturbed, can cause disease. To chart the regulatory activity underlying these events, we generated a map of accessible chromatin in human three-dimensional forebrain organoids. To capture corticogenesis, we sampled glial and neuronal lineages from dorsal or ventral forebrain organoids over 20 months in vitro. Active chromatin regions identified in human primary brain tissue were observed in organoids at different developmental stages. We used this resource to map genetic risk for disease and to explore evolutionary conservation. Moreover, we integrated chromatin accessibility with transcriptomics to identify putative enhancer-gene linkages and transcription factors that regulate human corticogenesis. Overall, this platform brings insights into gene-regulatory dynamics at previously inaccessible stages of human forebrain development, including signatures of neuropsychiatric disorders.
      Keywords: Genetics, Neuroscience, Online Only
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay1645
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Drop the chalk
    • Authors: Thorp; H. H.
      Pages: 345 - 345
      Keywords: Editorials
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba9156
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • News at a glance
    • Pages: 346 - 347
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.346
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • United Kingdom breaks from EU farm subsidies
    • Authors: Stokstad; E.
      Pages: 348 - 349
      Keywords: European News, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.348
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Campus attack and police violence alarm Indian academics
    • Authors: Kumar; S.
      Pages: 349 - 350
      Keywords: Asia/Pacific News, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.349
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Planetary turmoil unleashed during Solar System infancy
    • Authors: Voosen; P.
      Pages: 350 - 351
      Keywords: Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.350
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Florida center details fired scientists' links to China
    • Authors: Mervis; J.
      Pages: 351 - 352
      Keywords: Asia/Pacific News, Scientific Community, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.351
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • NSF rolls out huge makeover of science statistics
    • Authors: Mervis; J.
      Pages: 352 - 353
      Keywords: Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.352
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Cheap shots
    • Authors: Hand; E.
      Pages: 354 - 358
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.354
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Overhaul environmental risk assessment for pesticides
    • Authors: Topping, C. J; Aldrich, A, Berny, P.
      Pages: 360 - 363
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay1144
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Can phase separation buffer cellular noise'
    • Authors: Riback, J. A; Brangwynne, C. P.
      Pages: 364 - 365
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba0446
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Support cells in the brain promote longevity
    • Authors: Miklas, J. W; Brunet, A.
      Pages: 365 - 366
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba4474
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • The stillness of sleep
    • Authors: Wisden, W; Franks, N. P.
      Pages: 366 - 367
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba4485
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Coherent scanning tunneling microscopy
    • Authors: Aiello; C. D.
      Pages: 368 - 368
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba0714
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Rethinking chemistry for a circular economy
    • Authors: Kümmerer, K; Clark, J. H, Zuin, V. G.
      Pages: 369 - 370
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba4979
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • A notorious Nazi, revealed
    • Authors: Rice; P. H.
      Pages: 371 - 371
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba0950
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Confronting campus sexual assault
    • Authors: Renzetti; C. M.
      Pages: 372 - 372
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba1150
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Time to update China's panda loan terms
    • Authors: Yan, Q; Hu, Y, Ye, H. B.
      Pages: 373 - 373
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba3948
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • China's dams isolate Asian elephants
    • Authors: Wang, Z; Li, Z, Tang, Y, Yao, C, Liu, Y, Jiang, G, Wang, F, Liang, L, Zhao, W, Zhu, G, Chen, M.
      Pages: 373 - 374
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba5991
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Conservationists must address meat and dairy
    • Authors: da Fonte, L. F. M; Marin, A. P. F.
      Pages: 374 - 374
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba5867
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • A cleaner, greener future for chemicals
    • Authors: Funk, M; Ash, C.
      Pages: 378 - 379
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba8242
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Can do
    • Authors: Cornwall; W.
      Pages: 380 - 383
      Keywords: Materials Science, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.380
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Learning from the past and considering the future of chemicals in the
           environment
    • Authors: Johnson, A. C; Jin, X, Nakada, N, Sumpter, J. P.
      Pages: 384 - 387
      Abstract: Knowledge of the hazards and associated risks from chemicals discharged to the environment has grown considerably over the past 40 years. This improving awareness stems from advances in our ability to measure chemicals at low environmental concentrations, recognition of a range of effects on organisms, and a worldwide growth in expertise. Environmental scientists and companies have learned from the experiences of the past; in theory, the next generation of chemicals will cause less acute toxicity and be less environmentally persistent and bioaccumulative. However, researchers still struggle to establish whether the nonlethal effects associated with some modern chemicals and substances will have serious consequences for wildlife. Obtaining the resources to address issues associated with chemicals in the environment remains a challenge.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay6637
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Tracking complex mixtures of chemicals in our changing environment
    • Authors: Escher, B. I; Stapleton, H. M, Schymanski, E. L.
      Pages: 388 - 392
      Abstract: Chemicals have improved our quality of life, but the resulting environmental pollution has the potential to cause detrimental effects on humans and the environment. People and biota are chronically exposed to thousands of chemicals from various environmental sources through multiple pathways. Environmental chemists and toxicologists have moved beyond detecting and quantifying single chemicals to characterizing complex mixtures of chemicals in indoor and outdoor environments and biological matrices. We highlight analytical and bioanalytical approaches to isolating, characterizing, and tracking groups of chemicals of concern in complex matrices. Techniques that combine chemical analysis and bioassays have the potential to facilitate the identification of mixtures of chemicals that pose a combined risk.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Chemistry
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay6636
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • The exposome and health: Where chemistry meets biology
    • Authors: Vermeulen, R; Schymanski, E. L, Barabasi, A.-L, Miller, G. W.
      Pages: 392 - 396
      Abstract: Despite extensive evidence showing that exposure to specific chemicals can lead to disease, current research approaches and regulatory policies fail to address the chemical complexity of our world. To safeguard current and future generations from the increasing number of chemicals polluting our environment, a systematic and agnostic approach is needed. The "exposome" concept strives to capture the diversity and range of exposures to synthetic chemicals, dietary constituents, psychosocial stressors, and physical factors, as well as their corresponding biological responses. Technological advances such as high-resolution mass spectrometry and network science have allowed us to take the first steps toward a comprehensive assessment of the exposome. Given the increased recognition of the dominant role that nongenetic factors play in disease, an effort to characterize the exposome at a scale comparable to that of the human genome is warranted.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Chemistry
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay3164
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Designing for a green chemistry future
    • Authors: Zimmerman, J. B; Anastas, P. T, Erythropel, H. C, Leitner, W.
      Pages: 397 - 400
      Abstract: The material basis of a sustainable society will depend on chemical products and processes that are designed following principles that make them conducive to life. Important inherent properties of molecules need to be considered from the earliest stage—the design stage—to address whether compounds and processes are depleting versus renewable, toxic versus benign, and persistent versus readily degradable. Products, feedstocks, and manufacturing processes will need to integrate the principles of green chemistry and green engineering under an expanded definition of performance that includes sustainability considerations. This transformation will require the best of the traditions of science and innovation coupled with new emerging systems thinking and systems design that begins at the molecular level and results in a positive impact on the global scale.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay3060
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Breathing faster in thin air
    • Authors: Wong; W.
      Pages: 401 - 401
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.401-a
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Modeling a superluminous supernova
    • Authors: Smith; K. T.
      Pages: 401 - 401
      Keywords: Astronomy
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.401-b
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Detecting a single magnetic excitation
    • Authors: Osborne; I. S.
      Pages: 401 - 401
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Physics
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.401-c
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Heterostructured nanorod libraries
    • Authors: Szuromi; P.
      Pages: 401 - 402
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.401-d
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • A one-two, CAR-T cell punch
    • Authors: Kelly; P. N.
      Pages: 401 - 402
      Keywords: Immunology
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.401-e
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • A twisted small-molecule synthesis
    • Authors: Funk; M. A.
      Pages: 401 - 402
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Chemistry
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.401-f
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Taking the bite out of diseases
    • Authors: Pujanandez; L.
      Pages: 401 - 402
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.401-g
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Shaping the early amniote embryo
    • Authors: Purnell; B. A.
      Pages: 401 - 402
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Development
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.401-h
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • More diversity at the top
    • Authors: Kiberstis; P. A.
      Pages: 401 - 403
      Keywords: Development, Techniques
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.401-j
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Shining a light on STM
    • Authors: Osborne; I. S.
      Pages: 401 - 403
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Physics
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.401-k
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Imaging reactive surface water
    • Authors: Szuromi; P.
      Pages: 401 - 403
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.401-l
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Interneurons control brain arousal states
    • Authors: Stern; P.
      Pages: 401 - 403
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.401-m
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Taking the stress out of life
    • Authors: Hurtley; S. M.
      Pages: 401 - 403
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.401-n
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Keeping the noise down
    • Authors: Hurtley; S. M.
      Pages: 401 - 403
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.401-o
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Understanding the boundaries of life
    • Authors: JJdP
      Pages: 401 - 403
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.401-p
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Filling in the gaps
    • Authors: Hines; P. J.
      Pages: 401 - 403
      Keywords: Botany, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.401-q
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Good news from the Cayman Islands
    • Authors: Ash; C.
      Pages: 402 - 402
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.402-a
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Ethnicity reflected in tumor genomes
    • Authors: Kiberstis; P. A.
      Pages: 402 - 402
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.402-b
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Synthesizing single-layer diamond
    • Authors: Grocholski; B.
      Pages: 402 - 402
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.402-c
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Predicting transmission risk for de novo mutation
    • Authors: Zahn; L. M.
      Pages: 402 - 403
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.402-d
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Some seeds store better than others
    • Authors: Hines; P. J.
      Pages: 402 - 403
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.402-e
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Guiding solvothermal synthesis
    • Authors: Suleymanov; Y.
      Pages: 402 - 403
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.402-f
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Linking microwaves to photons
    • Authors: Osborne; I. S.
      Pages: 402 - 403
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.402-g
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Single-cell transcriptional diversity is a hallmark of developmental
           potential
    • Authors: Gulati, G. S; Sikandar, S. S, Wesche, D. J, Manjunath, A, Bharadwaj, A, Berger, M. J, Ilagan, F, Kuo, A. H, Hsieh, R. W, Cai, S, Zabala, M, Scheeren, F. A, Lobo, N. A, Qian, D, Yu, F. B, Dirbas, F. M, Clarke, M. F, Newman, A. M.
      Pages: 405 - 411
      Abstract: Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) is a powerful approach for reconstructing cellular differentiation trajectories. However, inferring both the state and direction of differentiation is challenging. Here, we demonstrate a simple, yet robust, determinant of developmental potential—the number of expressed genes per cell—and leverage this measure of transcriptional diversity to develop a computational framework (CytoTRACE) for predicting differentiation states from scRNA-seq data. When applied to diverse tissue types and organisms, CytoTRACE outperformed previous methods and nearly 19,000 annotated gene sets for resolving 52 experimentally determined developmental trajectories. Additionally, it facilitated the identification of quiescent stem cells and revealed genes that contribute to breast tumorigenesis. This study thus establishes a key RNA-based feature of developmental potential and a platform for delineation of cellular hierarchies.
      Keywords: Development, Techniques
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax0249
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Attosecond coherent manipulation of electrons in tunneling microscopy
    • Authors: Garg, M; Kern, K.
      Pages: 411 - 415
      Abstract: Nanoelectronic devices operating in the quantum regime require coherent manipulation and control over electrons at atomic length and time scales. We demonstrate coherent control over electrons in a tunnel junction of a scanning tunneling microscope by means of precise tuning of the carrier-envelope phase of two-cycle long (
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Physics
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz1098
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • A type Ia supernova at the heart of superluminous transient SN 2006gy
    • Authors: Jerkstrand, A; Maeda, K, Kawabata, K. S.
      Pages: 415 - 418
      Abstract: Superluminous supernovae radiate up to 100 times more energy than normal supernovae. The origin of this energy and the nature of the stellar progenitors of these transients are poorly understood. We identify neutral iron lines in the spectrum of one such supernova, SN 2006gy, and show that they require a large mass of iron (0.3 solar masses) expanding at 1500 kilometers per second. By modeling a standard type Ia supernova hitting a shell of circumstellar material, we produce a light curve and late-time iron-dominated spectrum that match the observations of SN 2006gy. In such a scenario, common envelope evolution of a progenitor binary system can synchronize envelope ejection and supernova explosion and may explain these bright transients.
      Keywords: Astronomy
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw1469
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Rational construction of a scalable heterostructured nanorod megalibrary
    • Authors: Steimle, B. C; Fenton, J. L, Schaak, R. E.
      Pages: 418 - 424
      Abstract: Integrating multiple materials in arbitrary arrangements within nanoparticles is a prerequisite for advancing many applications. Strategies to synthesize heterostructured nanoparticles are emerging, but they are limited in complexity, scope, and scalability. We introduce two design guidelines, based on interfacial reactivity and crystal structure relations, that enable the rational synthesis of a heterostructured nanorod megalibrary. We define synthetically feasible pathways to 65,520 distinct multicomponent metal sulfide nanorods having as many as 6 materials, 8 segments, and 11 internal interfaces by applying up to seven sequential cation-exchange reactions to copper sulfide nanorod precursors. We experimentally observe 113 individual heterostructured nanorods and demonstrate the scalable production of three samples. Previously unimaginable complexity in heterostructured nanorods is now routinely achievable with simple benchtop chemistry and standard laboratory glassware.
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz1172
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Entanglement-based single-shot detection of a single magnon with a
           superconducting qubit
    • Authors: Lachance-Quirion, D; Wolski, S. P, Tabuchi, Y, Kono, S, Usami, K, Nakamura, Y.
      Pages: 425 - 428
      Abstract: The recent development of hybrid systems based on superconducting circuits provides the possibility of engineering quantum sensors that exploit different degrees of freedom. Quantum magnonics, which aims to control and read out quanta of collective spin excitations in magnetically ordered systems, provides opportunities for advances in both the study of magnetism and the development of quantum technologies. Using a superconducting qubit as a quantum sensor, we report the detection of a single magnon in a millimeter-sized ferrimagnetic crystal with a quantum efficiency of up to 0.71. The detection is based on the entanglement between a magnetostatic mode and the qubit, followed by a single-shot measurement of the qubit state. This proof-of-principle experiment establishes the single-photon detector counterpart for magnonics.
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Physics
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz9236
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Visualizing H2O molecules reacting at TiO2 active sites with transmission
           electron microscopy
    • Authors: Yuan, W; Zhu, B, Li, X.-Y, Hansen, T. W, Ou, Y, Fang, K, Yang, H, Zhang, Z, Wagner, J. B, Gao, Y, Wang, Y.
      Pages: 428 - 430
      Abstract: Imaging a reaction taking place at the molecular level could provide direct information for understanding the catalytic reaction mechanism. We used in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy and a nanocrystalline anatase titanium dioxide (001) surface with (1 x 4) reconstruction as a catalyst, which provided highly ordered four-coordinated titanium "active rows" to realize real-time monitoring of water molecules dissociating and reacting on the catalyst surface. The twin-protrusion configuration of adsorbed water was observed. During the water–gas shift reaction, dynamic changes in these structures were visualized on these active rows at the molecular level.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay2474
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • A two-way molecular dialogue between embryo and endosperm is required for
           seed development
    • Authors: Doll, N. M; Royek, S, Fujita, S, Okuda, S, Chamot, S, Stintzi, A, Widiez, T, Hothorn, M, Schaller, A, Geldner, N, Ingram, G.
      Pages: 431 - 435
      Abstract: The plant embryonic cuticle is a hydrophobic barrier deposited de novo by the embryo during seed development. At germination, it protects the seedling from water loss and is, thus, critical for survival. Embryonic cuticle formation is controlled by a signaling pathway involving the ABNORMAL LEAF SHAPE1 subtilase and the two GASSHO receptor-like kinases. We show that a sulfated peptide, TWISTED SEED1 (TWS1), acts as a GASSHO ligand. Cuticle surveillance depends on the action of the subtilase, which, unlike the TWS1 precursor and the GASSHO receptors, is not produced in the embryo but in the neighboring endosperm. Subtilase-mediated processing of the embryo-derived TWS1 precursor releases the active peptide, triggering GASSHO-dependent cuticle reinforcement in the embryo. Thus, a bidirectional molecular dialogue between embryo and endosperm safeguards cuticle integrity before germination.
      Keywords: Botany, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz4131
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Four glial cells regulate ER stress resistance and longevity via
           neuropeptide signaling in C. elegans
    • Authors: Frakes, A. E; Metcalf, M. G, Tronnes, S. U, Bar-Ziv, R, Durieux, J, Gildea, H. K, Kandahari, N, Monshietehadi, S, Dillin, A.
      Pages: 436 - 440
      Abstract: The ability of the nervous system to sense cellular stress and coordinate protein homeostasis is essential for organismal health. Unfortunately, stress responses that mitigate disturbances in proteostasis, such as the unfolded protein response of the endoplasmic reticulum (UPRER), become defunct with age. In this work, we expressed the constitutively active UPRER transcription factor, XBP-1s, in a subset of astrocyte-like glia, which extended the life span in Caenorhabditis elegans. Glial XBP-1s initiated a robust cell nonautonomous activation of the UPRER in distal cells and rendered animals more resistant to protein aggregation and chronic ER stress. Mutants deficient in neuropeptide processing and secretion suppressed glial cell nonautonomous induction of the UPRER and life-span extension. Thus, astrocyte-like glial cells play a role in regulating organismal ER stress resistance and longevity.
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz6896
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • A common hub for sleep and motor control in the substantia nigra
    • Authors: Liu, D; Li, W, Ma, C, Zheng, W, Yao, Y, Tso, C. F, Zhong, P, Chen, X, Song, J. H, Choi, W, Paik, S.-B, Han, H, Dan, Y.
      Pages: 440 - 445
      Abstract: The arousal state of the brain covaries with the motor state of the animal. How these state changes are coordinated remains unclear. We discovered that sleep–wake brain states and motor behaviors are coregulated by shared neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Analysis of mouse home-cage behavior identified four states with different levels of brain arousal and motor activity: locomotion, nonlocomotor movement, quiet wakefulness, and sleep; transitions occurred not randomly but primarily between neighboring states. The glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 but not the parvalbumin subset of SNr -aminobutyric acid (GABA)–releasing (GABAergic) neurons was preferentially active in states of low motor activity and arousal. Their activation or inactivation biased the direction of natural behavioral transitions and promoted or suppressed sleep, respectively. These GABAergic neurons integrate wide-ranging inputs and innervate multiple arousal-promoting and motor-control circuits through extensive collateral projections.
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz0956
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • An RNA vaccine drives expansion and efficacy of claudin-CAR-T cells
           against solid tumors
    • Authors: Reinhard, K; Rengstl, B, Oehm, P, Michel, K, Billmeier, A, Hayduk, N, Klein, O, Kuna, K, Ouchan, Y, Wöll, S, Christ, E, Weber, D, Suchan, M, Bukur, T, Birtel, M, Jahndel, V, Mroz, K, Hobohm, K, Kranz, L, Diken, M, Kühlcke, K, Türeci, O, Sahin, U.
      Pages: 446 - 453
      Abstract: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)–T cells have shown efficacy in patients with B cell malignancies. Yet, their application for solid tumors has challenges that include limited cancer-specific targets and nonpersistence of adoptively transferred CAR-T cells. Here, we introduce the developmentally regulated tight junction protein claudin 6 (CLDN6) as a CAR target in solid tumors and a strategy to overcome inefficient CAR-T cell stimulation in vivo. We demonstrate that a nanoparticulate RNA vaccine, designed for body-wide delivery of the CAR antigen into lymphoid compartments, stimulates adoptively transferred CAR-T cells. Presentation of the natively folded target on resident antigen-presenting cells promotes cognate and selective expansion of CAR-T cells. Improved engraftment of CAR-T cells and regression of large tumors in difficult-to-treat mouse models was achieved at subtherapeutic CAR-T cell doses.
      Keywords: Immunology
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay5967
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • A tensile ring drives tissue flows to shape the gastrulating amniote
           embryo
    • Authors: Saadaoui, M; Rocancourt, D, Roussel, J, Corson, F, Gros, J.
      Pages: 453 - 458
      Abstract: Tissue morphogenesis is driven by local cellular deformations that are powered by contractile actomyosin networks. How localized forces are transmitted across tissues to shape them at a mesoscopic scale is still unclear. Analyzing gastrulation in entire avian embryos, we show that it is driven by the graded contraction of a large-scale supracellular actomyosin ring at the margin between the embryonic and extraembryonic territories. The propagation of these forces is enabled by a fluid-like response of the epithelial embryonic disk, which depends on cell division. A simple model of fluid motion entrained by a tensile ring quantitatively captures the vortex-like "polonaise" movements that accompany the formation of the primitive streak. The geometry of the early embryo thus arises from the transmission of active forces generated along its boundary.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Development
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw1965
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Total synthesis reveals atypical atropisomerism in a small-molecule
           natural product, tryptorubin A
    • Authors: Reisberg, S. H; Gao, Y, Walker, A. S, Helfrich, E. J. N, Clardy, J, Baran, P. S.
      Pages: 458 - 463
      Abstract: Molecular shape defines function in both biological and material settings, and chemists have developed an ever-increasing vernacular to describe these shapes. Noncanonical atropisomers—shape-defined molecules that are formally topologically trivial but are interconvertible only by complex, nonphysical multibond torsions—form a unique subset of atropisomers that differ from both canonical atropisomers (e.g., binaphthyls) and topoisomers (i.e., molecules that have identical connectivity but nonidentical molecular graphs). Small molecules, in contrast to biomacromolecules, are not expected to exhibit such ambiguous shapes. Using total synthesis, we found that the peptidic alkaloid tryptorubin A can be one of two noncanonical atropisomers. We then devised a synthetic strategy that drives the atropospecific synthesis of a noncanonical atrop-defined small molecule.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Chemistry
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay9981
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • Phase separation provides a mechanism to reduce noise in cells
    • Authors: Klosin, A; Oltsch, F, Harmon, T, Honigmann, A, Jülicher, F, Hyman, A. A, Zechner, C.
      Pages: 464 - 468
      Abstract: Expression of proteins inside cells is noisy, causing variability in protein concentration among identical cells. A central problem in cellular control is how cells cope with this inherent noise. Compartmentalization of proteins through phase separation has been suggested as a potential mechanism to reduce noise, but systematic studies to support this idea have been missing. In this study, we used a physical model that links noise in protein concentration to theory of phase separation to show that liquid droplets can effectively reduce noise. We provide experimental support for noise reduction by phase separation using engineered proteins that form liquid-like compartments in mammalian cells. Thus, phase separation can play an important role in biological signal processing and control.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav6691
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
  • A lesson from Bollywood
    • Authors: Srivastava; A.
      Pages: 478 - 478
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:16-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.367.6476.478
      Issue No: Vol. 367, No. 6476 (2020)
       
 
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