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Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 14.142
Citation Impact (citeScore): 16
Number of Followers: 3949  
 
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ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
Published by AAAS Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Retinal isomerization in bacteriorhodopsin captured by a femtosecond x-ray
           laser
    • Authors: Nogly, P; Weinert, T, James, D, Carbajo, S, Ozerov, D, Furrer, A, Gashi, D, Borin, V, Skopintsev, P, Jaeger, K, Nass, K, Bath, P, Bosman, R, Koglin, J, Seaberg, M, Lane, T, Kekilli, D, Brünle, S, Tanaka, T, Wu, W, Milne, C, White, T, Barty, A, Weierstall, U, Panneels, V, Nango, E, Iwata, S, Hunter, M, Schapiro, I, Schertler, G, Neutze, R, Standfuss, J.
      Abstract: Ultrafast isomerization of retinal is the primary step in photoresponsive biological functions including vision in humans and ion transport across bacterial membranes. We used an x-ray laser to study the subpicosecond structural dynamics of retinal isomerization in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. A series of structural snapshots with near-atomic spatial resolution and temporal resolution in the femtosecond regime show how the excited all-trans retinal samples conformational states within the protein binding pocket before passing through a twisted geometry and emerging in the 13-cis conformation. Our findings suggest ultrafast collective motions of aspartic acid residues and functional water molecules in the proximity of the retinal Schiff base as a key facet of this stereoselective and efficient photochemical reaction.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Online Only
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat0094
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Genomic traces of symbiosis loss
    • Authors: Hines P. J.
      Pages: 143
      Keywords: Botany
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.141-i
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Comment on "Designing river flows to improve food security futures in the
           Lower Mekong Basin"
    • Authors: Williams J. G.
      Abstract: Sabo et al. (Research Articles, 8 December 2017, p. 1270) use sophisticated analyses of flow and fishery data from the Lower Mekong Basin to design a "good" hydrograph that, if implemented by planned hydropower dams, would increase the catch by a factor of 3.7. However, the hydrograph is not implementable, and, if it were, it would devastate the fishery. Further, the analyses are questionable.
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat1225
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Multimessenger observations of a flaring blazar coincident with
           high-energy neutrino IceCube-170922A
    • Authors: The IceCube Collaboration, Fermi-LAT, MAGIC, AGILE, ASAS-SN, HAWC, H.E.S.S; INTEGRAL, Kanata, Kiso, Kapteyn, Liverpool Telescope, Subaru, Swift/NuSTAR, VERITAS, VLA/17B-403 teams, Aartsen, Ackermann, Adams, Aguilar, Ahlers, Ahrens, Al Samarai, Altmann, Andeen, Anderson, Ansseau, Anton, Argüelles, Auffenberg, Axani, Bagherpour, Bai, Barron, Barwick, Baum, Bay, Beatty, Becker, Tjus, BenZvi, Berley, Bernardini, Besson, Binder, Bindig, Blaufuss, Blot, Bohm, Boerner, Bos, Boeser, Botner, Bourbeau, Bourbeau, Bradascio, Braun, Brenzke, Bretz, Bron, Brostean-Kaiser, Burgman, Busse, Carver, Cheng, Chirkin, Christov, Clark, Classen, Coenders, Collin, Conrad, Coppin, Correa, Cowen, Cross, Dave, Day, de Andre, De Clercq, Delaunay, Dembinski, DeRidder, Desiati, de Vries, DeWasseige, DeWith, DeYoung, Diaz-Velez, Di Lorenzo, Dujmovic, Dumm, Dunkman, Dvorak, Eberhardt, Ehrhardt, Eichmann, Eller, Evenson, Fahey, Fazely, Felde, Filimonov, Finley, Flis, Franckowiak, Friedman, Fritz, Gaisser, Gallagher, Gerhardt, Ghorbani, Glauch, Gluesenkamp, Goldschmidt, Gonzalez, Grant, Griffith, Haack, Hallgren, Halzen, Hanson, Hebecker, Heereman, Helbing, Hellauer, Hickford, Hignight, Hill, Hoffman, Hoffmann, Hoinka, Hokanson-Fasig, Hoshina, Huang, Huber, Hultqvist, Huennefeld, Hussain, In, Iovine, Ishihara, Jacobi, Japaridze, Jeong, Jero, Jones, Kalaczynski, Kang, Kappes, Kappesser, Karg, Karle, Katz, Kauer, Keivani, Kelley, Kheirandish, Kim, Kim, Kintscher, Kiryluk, Kittler, Klein, Koirala, Kolanoski, Koepke, Kopper, Kopper, Koschinsky, Koskinen, Kowalski, Krings, Kroll, Krueckl, Kunwar, Kurahashi Neilson, Kuwabara, Kyriacou, Labare, Lanfranchi, Larson, Lauber, Leonard, Lesiak-Bzdak, Leuermann, Liu, Lozano Mariscal, Lu, Luenemann, Luszczak, Madsen, Maggi, Mahn, Mancina, Maruyama, Mase, Maunu, Meagher, Medici, Meier, Menne, Merino, Meures, Miarecki, Micallef, Momente, Montaruli, Moore, Morse, Moulai, Nahnhauer, Nakarmi, Naumann, Neer, Niederhausen, Nowicki, Nygren, Pollmann, Olivas, Murchadha, O'Sullivan, Palczewski, Pandya, Pankova, Peiffer, Pepper, de los Heros, Pieloth, Pinat, Plum, Price, Przybylski, Raab, Raedel, Rameez, Rauch, Rawlins, Rea, Reimann, Relethford, Relich, Resconi, Rhode, Richman, Robertson, Rongen, Rott, Ruhe, Ryckbosch, Rysewyk, Safa, Saelzer, Sanchez, Sandrock, Sandroos, Santander, Sarkar, Sarkar, Satalecka, Schlunder, Schmidt, Schneider, Schoenen, Schoneberg, Schumacher, Sclanfani, Seckel, Seunarine, Soedingrekso, Soldin, Song, Spiczak, Spiering, Stachurska, Stamatikos, Stanev, Stasik, Stein, Stettner, Steuer, Stezelberger, Stokstad, Stoessl, Strotjohann, Stuttard, Sullivan, Sutherland, Taboada, Tatar, Tenholt, Ter-Antonyan, Terliuk, Tilav, Toale, Tobin, Toennis, Toscano, Tosi, Tselengidou, Tung, Turcati, Turley, Ty, Unger, Usner, Van Driessche, Van Eijk, van Eijndhoven, Vandenbroucke, Vanheule, van Santen, Vogel, Vraeghe, Walck, Wallace, Wallraff, Wandler, Wandkowsky, Waza, Weaver, Weiss, Wendt, Werthebach, Westerhoff, Whelan, Whitehorn, Wiebe, Wiebusch, Wille, Williams, Wills, Wolf, Wood, Wood, Woschnagg, Xu, Xu, Xu, Yanez, Yodh, Yoshida, Yuan, Abdollahi, Ajello, Angioni, Baldini, Ballet, Barbiellini, Bastieri, Bechtol, Bellazzini, Berenji, Bissaldi, Blandford, Bonino, Bottacini, Bregeon, Bruel, Büehler, Burnett, Burns, Buson, Cameron, Caputo, Caraveo, Cavazzuti, Charles, Chen, Cheung, Chiang, Chiaro, Ciprini, Cohen-Tanugi, Conrad, Costantin, Cutini, D'Ammando, de Palma, Digel, Di Lalla, Di Mauro, Di Venere, Dominguez, Favuzzi, Franckowiak, Fukazawa, Funk, Fusco, Gargano, Gasparrini, Giglietto, Giomi, Giommi, Giordano, Giroletti, Glanzman, Green, Grenier, Grondin, Guiriec, Harding, Hayashida, Hays, Hewitt, Horan, Johannesson, Kadler, Kensei, Kocevski, Krauss, Kreter, Kuss, La Mura, Larsson, Latronico, Lemoine-Goumard, Li, Longo, Loparco, Lovellette, Lubrano, Magill, Maldera, Malyshev, Manfreda, Mazziotta, McEnery, Meyer, Michelson, Mizuno, Monzani, Morselli, Moskalenko, Negro, Nuss, Ojha, Omodei, Orienti, Orlando, Palatiello, Paliya, Perkins, Persic, Pesce-Rollins, Piron, Porter, Principe, Raino, Rando, Rani, Razzano, Razzaque, Reimer, Reimer, Renault-Tinacci, Ritz, Rochester, Parkinson, Sgro, Siskind, Spandre, Spinelli, Suson, Tajima, Takahashi, Tanaka, Thayer, Thompson, Tibaldo, Torres, Torresi, Tosti, Troja, Valverde, Vianello, Vogel, Wood, Wood, Zaharijas, Ahnen, Ansoldi, Antonelli, Arcaro, Baack, Babic, Banerjee, Bangale, Barres de Almeida, Barrio, Gonzalez, Bednarek, Bernardini, Berti, Bhattacharyya, Biland, Blanch, Bonnoli, Carosi, Carosi, Ceribella, Chatterjee, Colak, Colin, Colombo, Contreras, Cortina, Covino, Cumani, Da Vela, Dazzi, De Angelis, De Lotto, Delfino, Delgado, Di Pierro, Dominguez, Dominis Prester, Dorner, Doro, Einecke, Elsaesser, Fallah Ramazani, Fernandez-Barral, Fidalgo, Foffano, Pfrang, Fonseca, Font, Fruck, Galindo, Gallozzi, Garcia Lopez, Garczarczyk, Gaug, Giammaria, Godinovic, Gora, Guberman, Hadasch, Hahn, Hassan, Hayashida, Herrera, Hose, Hrupec, Inoue, Ishio, Konno, Kubo, Kushida, Lelas, Lindfors, Lombardi, Longo, Lopez, Maggio, Majumdar, Makariev, Maneva, Manganaro, Mannheim, Maraschi, Mariotti, Martinez, Masuda, Mazin, Minev, Miranda, Mirzoyan, Moralejo, Moreno, Moretti, Nagayoshi, Neustroev, Niedzwiecki, Nievas Rosillo, Nigro, Nilsson, Ninci, Nishijima, Noda, Nogues, Paiano, Palacio, Paneque, Paoletti, Paredes, Pedaletti, Peresano, Persic, Prada Moroni, Prandini, Puljak, Rodriguez, Reichardt, Rhode, Ribo, Rico, Righi, Rugliancich, Saito, Satalecka, Schweizer, Sitarek, Snidaric, Sobczynska, Stamerra, Strzys, Suric, Takahashi, Tavecchio, Temnikov, Terzic, Teshima, Torres-Alba, Treves, Tsujimoto, Vanzo, Vazquez Acosta, Vovk, Ward, Will, Zaric, Franceschini, Lucarelli, Tavani, Piano, Donnarumma, Pittori, Verrecchia, Barbiellini, Bulgarelli, Caraveo, Cattaneo, Colafrancesco, Costa, Di Cocco, Ferrari, Gianotti, Giuliani, Lipari, Mereghetti, Morselli, Pacciani, Paoletti, Parmiggiani, Pellizzoni, Picozza, Pilia, Rappoldi, Trois, Vercellone, Vittorini, Albert, Alfaro, Alvarez, Arceo, Arteaga Velazquez, Avila Rojas, Ayala Solares, Becerril, Belmont-Moreno, Bernal, Caballero Mora, Capistran Rojas, Carraminana, Casanova, Castillo Maldonado, Cotti, Cotzomi, Coutino de Leon, De Leon Acuna, De la Fuente, Hernandez, Dichiara, Dingus, DuVernois, Diaz Velez, Ellsworth, Engel, Fiorino, Fleischhack, Fraija, Garcia Gonzalez, Garfias, Gonzalez, Munoz, Goodman, Hampel-Arias, Harding, Cadena, Hona, Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, Hui, Hüntemeyer, Iriarte, Jardin-Blicq, Joshi, Kaufmann, Kunde, Lara, Lauer, Lee, Lennarz, Vargas, Linnemann, Longinotti, Luis-Raya, Luna-Garcia, Malone, Marinelli, Martinez, Martinez Castellanos, Martinez Huerta, Martinez Castro, Matthews, Miranda-Romagnoli, Moreno Barbosa, Mostafa, Nayerhoda, Nellen, Newbold, Nisa, Noriega-Papaqui, Pelayo, Pretz, Perez Perez, Ren, Rho, Riviere, Gonzalez, Rosenberg, Ruiz-Velasco, Ruiz-Velasco, Greus, Sandoval, Schneider, Schoorlemmer, Sinnis, Smith, Springer, Surajbali, Tibolla, Tollefson, Torres, Villasenor, Weisgarber, Werner, Yapici, Yodh, Zepeda, Zhou, Alvarez Romero, Abdalla, Angüner, Armand, Backes, Becherini, Berge, Böttcher, Boisson, Bolmont, Bonnefoy, Bordas, Brun, Büchele, Bulik, Caroff, Carosi, Casanova, Cerruti, Chakraborty, Chandra, Chen, Colafrancesco, Davids, Deil, Devin, Djannati-Ataï, Egberts, Emery, Eschbach, Fiasson, Fontaine, Funk, Füssling, Gallant, Gate, Giavitto, Glawion, Glicenstein, Gottschall, Grondin, Haupt, Henri, Hinton, Hoischen, Holch, Huber, Jamrozy, Jankowsky, Jankowsky, Jouvin, Jung-Richardt, Kerszberg, Khelifi, King, Klepser, Kluzniak, Komin, Kraus, Lefaucheur, Lemiere, Lemoine-Goumard, Lenain, Leser, Lohse, Lopez-Coto, Lorentz, Lypova, Marandon, Marti-Devesa, Maurin, Mitchell, Moderski, Mohamed, Mohrmann, Moulin, Murach, de Naurois, Niederwanger, Niemiec, Oakes, O'Brien, Ohm, Ostrowski, Oya, Panter, Parsons, Perennes, Piel, Pita, Poireau, Noel, Prokoph, Pühlhofer, Quirrenbach, Raab, Rauth, Renaud, Rieger, Rinchiuso, Romoli, Rowell, Rudak, Sanchez, Sasaki, Schlickeiser, Schüssler, Schulz, Schwanke, Seglar-Arroyo, Shafi, Simoni, Sol, Stegmann, Steppa, Tavernier, Taylor, Tiziani, Trichard, Tsirou, van Eldik, van Rensburg, van Soelen, Veh, Vincent, Voisin, Wagner, Wagner, Wierzcholska, Zanin, Zdziarski, Zech, Ziegler, Zorn, Zywucka, Savchenko, Ferrigno, Bazzano, Diehl, Kuulkers, Laurent, Mereghetti, Natalucci, Panessa, Rodi, Ubertini, Morokuma, Ohta, Tanaka, Mori, Yamanaka, Kawabata, Utsumi, Nakaoka, Kawabata, Nagashima, Yoshida, Matsuoka, Itoh, Keel, Copperwheat, Steele, Cenko, Evans, Fox, Kennea, Marshall, Osborne, Tohuvavohu, Turley, Cowen, DeLaunay, Keivani, Santander, Abeysekara, Archer, Benbow, Bird, Brill, Brose, Buchovecky, Buckley, Bugaev, Christiansen, Connolly, Cui, Daniel, Errando, Falcone, Feng, Finley, Fortson, Furniss, Gueta, Hütten, Hervet, Hughes, Humensky, Johnson, Kaaret, Kar, Kelley-Hoskins, Kertzman, Kieda, Krause, Krennrich, Kumar, Lang, Lin, Maier, McArthur, Moriarty, Mukherjee, Nieto, O'Brien, Ong, Otte, Park, Petrashyk, Pohl, Popkow, Pueschel, Quinn, Ragan, Reynolds, Richards, Roache, Rulten, Sadeh, Santander, Scott, Sembroski, Shahinyan, Sushch, Trepanier, Tyler, Vassiliev, Wakely, Weinstein, Wells, Wilcox, Wilhelm, Williams, Zitzer, Tetarenko, Kimball, Miller-Jones, Sivakoff
      Abstract: Previous detections of individual astrophysical sources of neutrinos are limited to the Sun and the supernova 1987A, whereas the origins of the diffuse flux of high-energy cosmic neutrinos remain unidentified. On 22 September 2017, we detected a high-energy neutrino, IceCube-170922A, with an energy of ~290 tera–electron volts. Its arrival direction was consistent with the location of a known -ray blazar, TXS 0506+056, observed to be in a flaring state. An extensive multiwavelength campaign followed, ranging from radio frequencies to -rays. These observations characterize the variability and energetics of the blazar and include the detection of TXS 0506+056 in very-high-energy -rays. This observation of a neutrino in spatial coincidence with a -ray–emitting blazar during an active phase suggests that blazars may be a source of high-energy neutrinos.
      Keywords: Astronomy, Online Only, Physics
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat1378
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Response to Comments on "Designing river flows to improve food security
           futures in the Lower Mekong Basin"
    • Authors: Holtgrieve, G. W; Arias, M. E, Ruhi, A, Elliott, V, Nam, S, Ngor, P. B, Räsänen, T. A, Sabo, J. L.
      Abstract: Sabo et al. presented an empirically derived algorithm defining the socioecological response of the Tonle Sap Dai fishery in the Cambodian Mekong to basin-scale variation in hydrologic flow regime. Williams suggests that the analysis leading to the algorithm is flawed because of the large distance between the gauge used to measure water levels (hydrology) and the site of harvest for the fishery. Halls and Moyle argue that Sabo et al.’s findings are well known and contend that the algorithm is not a comprehensive assessment of sustainability. We argue that Williams’ critique stems from a misunderstanding about our analysis; further clarification of the analysis is provided. We regret not citing more of the work indicated by Halls and Moyle, yet we note that our empirical analysis provides additional new insights into Mekong flow-fishery relationships.
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat1477
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Phylogenomics reveals multiple losses of nitrogen-fixing root nodule
           symbiosis
    • Authors: Griesmann, M; Chang, Y, Liu, X, Song, Y, Haberer, G, Crook, M. B, Billault-Penneteau, B, Lauressergues, D, Keller, J, Imanishi, L, Roswanjaya, Y. P, Kohlen, W, Pujic, P, Battenberg, K, Alloisio, N, Liang, Y, Hilhorst, H, Salgado, M. G, Hocher, V, Gherbi, H, Svistoonoff, S, Doyle, J. J, He, S, Xu, Y, Xu, S, Qu, J, Gao, Q, Fang, X, Fu, Y, Normand, P, Berry, A. M, Wall, L. G, Ane, J.-M, Pawlowski, K, Xu, X, Yang, H, Spannagl, M, Mayer, K. F. X, Wong, G. K.-S, Parniske, M, Delaux, P.-M, Cheng, S.
      Abstract: The root nodule symbiosis of plants with nitrogen-fixing bacteria affects global nitrogen cycles and food production but is restricted to a subset of genera within a single clade of flowering plants. To explore the genetic basis for this scattered occurrence, we sequenced the genomes of 10 plant species covering the diversity of nodule morphotypes, bacterial symbionts, and infection strategies. In a genome-wide comparative analysis of a total of 37 plant species, we discovered signatures of multiple independent loss-of-function events in the indispensable symbiotic regulator NODULE INCEPTION in 10 of 13 genomes of nonnodulating species within this clade. The discovery that multiple independent losses shaped the present-day distribution of nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in plants reveals a phylogenetically wider distribution in evolutionary history and a so-far-underestimated selection pressure against this symbiosis.
      Keywords: Botany, Online Only
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat1743
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Comment on "Designing river flows to improve food security futures in the
           Lower Mekong Basin"
    • Authors: Halls, A. S; Moyle, P. B.
      Abstract: The designer flow regime proposed by Sabo et al. (Research Articles, 8 December 2017, p. 1270) to support fisheries in the Lower Mekong Basin fails to account for important ecological, political, and economic dimensions. In doing so, they indicate that dam impacts can be easily mitigated. Such an action would serve to increase risks to food and livelihood futures in the basin.
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat1989
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Spain's good news
    • Authors: Moro-Martin A.
      Pages: 111 - 111
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau6630
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • News at a glance
    • Pages: 112 - 114
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.112
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Ice reveals a messenger from a blazing galaxy
    • Authors: Clery D.
      Pages: 115 - 116
      Keywords: Astronomy, Physics
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.115
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • China announces new flotilla of space science missions
    • Authors: Normile D.
      Pages: 116 - 117
      Keywords: Astronomy, Physics, Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.116
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Digital chemical test impresses
    • Authors: Zainzinger V.
      Pages: 117 - 117
      Keywords: Chemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicology, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.117
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • A 'gene drive makes its debut in mammals
    • Authors: Cohen J.
      Pages: 118 - 118
      Keywords: Development, Genetics, Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.118
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Molecular 'barcodes reveal lost whale hunts
    • Authors: Pennisi, E; Price, M.
      Pages: 119 - 119
      Keywords: Anthropology, Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.119
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Liquid sunshine
    • Authors: Service R. F.
      Pages: 120 - 123
      Keywords: Chemistry, Energy, Engineering
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.120
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • When persistence doesn't pay
    • Authors: Brosnan S. F.
      Pages: 124 - 125
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau3144
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Many roads to convergence
    • Authors: Nagy L. G.
      Pages: 125 - 126
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau2409
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Femtosecond structural photobiology
    • Authors: Moffat K.
      Pages: 127 - 128
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau3200
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Double trouble at the beginning of life
    • Authors: Zielinska, A. P; Schuh, M.
      Pages: 128 - 129
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau3216
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Eradication genomics--lessons for parasite control
    • Authors: Cotton, J. A; Berriman, M, Dalen, L, Barnes, I.
      Pages: 130 - 131
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar6609
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Perovskite ferroelectrics go metal free
    • Authors: Li, W; Ji, L.-J.
      Pages: 132 - 132
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat5729
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Jens Christian Skou (1918-2018)
    • Authors: Nissen P.
      Pages: 133 - 133
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau5275
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Citizen science, public policy
    • Authors: Guerrini, C. J; Majumder, M. A, Lewellyn, M. J, McGuire, A. L.
      Pages: 134 - 136
      Keywords: Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar8379
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • To be a bee
    • Authors: Winfree R.
      Pages: 137 - 137
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat9250
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Learning from different disciplines
    • Authors: Uzzi B.
      Pages: 138 - 138
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau1692
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Brazil naturalizes non-native species
    • Authors: Brito, M. F. G; Magalhaes, A. L. B, Lima-Junior, D. P, Pelicice, F. M, Azevedo-Santos, V. M, Garcia, D. A. Z, Cunico, A. M, Vitule, J. R. S.
      Pages: 139 - 139
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau3368
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Free satellite data key to conservation
    • Authors: Buchanan, G. M; Beresford, A. E, Hebblewhite, M, Escobedo, F. J, De Klerk, H. M, Donald, P. F, Escribano, P, Koh, L. P, Martinez-Lopez, J, Pettorelli, N, Skidmore, A. K, Szantoi, Z, Tabor, K, Wegmann, M, Wich, S.
      Pages: 139 - 140
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau2650
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Funding agencies can prevent harassment
    • Authors: Iversen, L. L; Bendixen, M.
      Pages: 140 - 140
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau3979
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • How rice defeats the floodwaters
    • Authors: Hines P. J.
      Pages: 141 - 141
      Keywords: Botany
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.141-a
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Simulating correlated electron systems
    • Authors: Osborne I. S.
      Pages: 141 - 141
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Physics
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.141-b
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Nuclear testing under the radar
    • Authors: Grocholski B.
      Pages: 141 - 141
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.141-c
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • A leaky endeavor
    • Authors: Smith H. J.
      Pages: 141 - 141
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.141-d
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • The impact of time wasted
    • Authors: Vignieri S.
      Pages: 141 - 142
      Keywords: Economics, Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.141-e
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • It takes two to tango
    • Authors: Hurtley S. M.
      Pages: 141 - 142
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Development
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.141-f
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Hampering HCV transmission
    • Authors: Charneski C. A.
      Pages: 141 - 142
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.141-g
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • An inflammatory way to activate AMPK
    • Authors: Wong W.
      Pages: 141 - 142
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.141-h
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Neutrino emission from a flaring blazar
    • Authors: Smith K. T.
      Pages: 141 - 143
      Keywords: Astronomy, Physics
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.141-j
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Engineering multilayered cellular structures
    • Authors: Ray L. B.
      Pages: 141 - 143
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.141-k
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Perovskites go organic
    • Authors: Grocholski B.
      Pages: 141 - 143
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.141-l
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • A silver cleaver splits cyclic amines
    • Authors: Yeston J.
      Pages: 141 - 143
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.141-m
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • The rise of oxygen
    • Authors: Smith H. J.
      Pages: 141 - 143
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.141-n
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Tracking parasite decline
    • Authors: Alderton G.
      Pages: 141 - 143
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.141-o
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Methylation patterns in early embryos
    • Authors: Benson P. J.
      Pages: 141 - 143
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.141-p
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Metabolic signaling circuits in thymocytes
    • Authors: Balasubramani A.
      Pages: 141 - 143
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.141-q
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Look fast
    • Authors: Funk M. A.
      Pages: 141 - 143
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.141-r
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Cell-to-cell action in cholera
    • Authors: Ash C.
      Pages: 142 - 143
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.142-a
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Gene editing gets a head start
    • Authors: Kiberstis P. A.
      Pages: 142 - 142
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.142-b
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Finding the precise drug
    • Authors: Alderton G.
      Pages: 142 - 142
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.142-c
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Single photons for optic fibers
    • Authors: Osborne I. S.
      Pages: 142 - 143
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.142-d
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • mTORC1 jams cell traffic
    • Authors: Ray L. B.
      Pages: 142 - 143
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.142-e
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Help wanted
    • Authors: Smith H. J.
      Pages: 142 - 143
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.142-f
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Lower symmetry for higher performance
    • Authors: Grocholski B.
      Pages: 142 - 143
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.142-g
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Neutrino emission from the direction of the blazar TXS 0506+056 prior to
           the IceCube-170922A alert
    • Authors: IceCube Collaboration; Aartsen, Ackermann, Adams, Aguilar, Ahlers, Ahrens, Al Samarai, Altmann, Andeen, Anderson, Ansseau, Anton, Argüelles, Arsioli, Auffenberg, Axani, Bagherpour, Bai, Barron, Barwick, Baum, Bay, Beatty, Becker, Becker Tjus, BenZvi, Berley, Bernardini, Besson, Binder, Bindig, Blaufuss, Blot, Bohm, Boerner, Bos, Boeser, Botner, Bourbeau, Bourbeau, Bradascio, Braun, Brenzke, Bretz, Bron, Brostean-Kaiser, Burgman, Busse, Carver, Cheung, Chirkin, Christov, Clark, Classen, Coenders, Collin, Conrad, Coppin, Correa, Cowen, Cross, Dave, Day, de Andre, De Clercq, Delaunay, Dembinski, DeRidder, Desiati, de Vries, DeWasseige, DeWith, DeYoung, Diaz-Velez, Di Lorenzo, Dujmovic, Dumm, Dunkman, Dvorak, Eberhardt, Ehrhardt, Eichmann, Eller, Evenson, Fahey, Fazely, Felde, Filimonov, Finley, Flis, Franckowiak, Friedman, Fritz, Gaisser, Gallagher, Gerhardt, Ghorbani, Giommi, Glauch, Gluesenkamp, Goldschmidt, Gonzalez, Grant, Griffith, Haack, Hallgren, Halzen, Hanson, Hebecker, Heereman, Helbing, Hellauer, Hickford, Hignight, Hill, Hoffman, Hoffmann, Hoinka, Hokanson-Fasig, Hoshina, Huang, Huber, Hultqvist, Huennefeld, Hussain, In, Iovine, Ishihara, Jacobi, Japaridze, Jeong, Jero, Jones, Kalaczynski, Kang, Kappes, Kappesser, Karg, Karle, Katz, Kauer, Keivani, Kelley, Kheirandish, Kim, Kim, Kintscher, Kiryluk, Kittler, Klein, Koirala, Kolanoski, Koepke, Kopper, Kopper, Koschinsky, Koskinen, Kowalski, Krammer, Krings, Kroll, Krueckl, Kunwar, Neilson, Kuwabara, Kyriacou, Labare, Lanfranchi, Larson, Lauber, Leonard, Lesiak-Bzdak, Leuermann, Liu, Lozano Mariscal, Lu, Luenemann, Luszczak, Madsen, Maggi, Mahn, Mancina, Maruyama, Mase, Maunu, Meagher, Medici, Meier, Menne, Merino, Meures, Miarecki, Micallef, Momente, Montaruli, Moore, Morse, Moulai, Nahnhauer, Nakarmi, Naumann, Neer, Niederhausen, Nowicki, Nygren, Pollmann, Olivas, O Murchadha, OSullivan, Padovani, Palczewski, Pandya, Pankova, Peiffer, Pepper, Perez de los Heros, Pieloth, Pinat, Plum, Price, Przybylski, Raab, Raedel, Rameez, Rawlins, Rea, Reimann, Relethford, Relich, Resconi, Rhode, Richman, Robertson, Rongen, Rott, Ruhe, Ryckbosch, Rysewyk, Safa, Saelzer, Sahakyan, Sanchez Herrera, Sandrock, Sandroos, Santander, Sarkar, Sarkar, Satalecka, Schlunder, Schmidt, Schneider, Schoenen, Schoeneberg, Schumacher, Sclanfani, Seckel, Seunarine, Soedingrekso, Soldin, Song, Spiczak, Spiering, Stachurska, Stamatikos, Stanev, Stasik, Stettner, Steuer, Stezelberger, Stokstad, Stoessl, Strotjohann, Stuttard, Sullivan, Sutherland, Taboada, Tatar, Tenholt, Ter-Antonyan, Terliuk, Tilav, Toale, Tobin, Toennis, Toscano, Tosi, Tselengidou, Tung, Turcati, Turley, Ty, Unger, Usner, Van Driessche, Van Eijk, van Eijndhoven, Vandenbroucke, Vanheule, van Santen, Vogel, Vraeghe, Walck, Wallace, Wallraff, Wandler, Wandkowsky, Waza, Weaver, Weiss, Wendt, Werthebach, Westerhoff, Whelan, Whitehorn, Wiebe, Wiebusch, Wille, Williams, Wills, Wolf, Wood, Wood, Woschnagg, Xu, Xu, Xu, Yanez, Yodh, Yoshida, Yuan
      Pages: 147 - 151
      Abstract: A high-energy neutrino event detected by IceCube on 22 September 2017 was coincident in direction and time with a gamma-ray flare from the blazar TXS 0506+056. Prompted by this association, we investigated 9.5 years of IceCube neutrino observations to search for excess emission at the position of the blazar. We found an excess of high-energy neutrino events, with respect to atmospheric backgrounds, at that position between September 2014 and March 2015. Allowing for time-variable flux, this constitutes 3.5 evidence for neutrino emission from the direction of TXS 0506+056, independent of and prior to the 2017 flaring episode. This suggests that blazars are identifiable sources of the high-energy astrophysical neutrino flux.
      Keywords: Astronomy, Physics
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat2890
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Metal-free three-dimensional perovskite ferroelectrics
    • Authors: Ye, H.-Y; Tang, Y.-Y, Li, P.-F, Liao, W.-Q, Gao, J.-X, Hua, X.-N, Cai, H, Shi, P.-P, You, Y.-M, Xiong, R.-G.
      Pages: 151 - 155
      Abstract: Inorganic perovskite ferroelectrics are widely used in nonvolatile memory elements, capacitors, and sensors because of their excellent ferroelectric and other properties. Organic ferroelectrics are desirable for their mechanical flexibility, low weight, environmentally friendly processing, and low processing temperatures. Although almost a century has passed since the first ferroelectric, Rochelle salt, was discovered, examples of highly desirable organic perovskite ferroelectrics are lacking. We found a family of metal-free organic perovskite ferroelectrics with the characteristic three-dimensional structure, among which MDABCO (N-methyl-N'-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octonium)–ammonium triiodide has a spontaneous polarization of 22 microcoulombs per square centimeter [close to that of barium titanate (BTO)], a high phase transition temperature of 448 kelvins (above that of BTO), and eight possible polarization directions. These attributes make it attractive for use in flexible devices, soft robotics, biomedical devices, and other applications.
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aas9330
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Programming self-organizing multicellular structures with synthetic
           cell-cell signaling
    • Authors: Toda, S; Blauch, L. R, Tang, S. K. Y, Morsut, L, Lim, W. A.
      Pages: 156 - 162
      Abstract: A common theme in the self-organization of multicellular tissues is the use of cell-cell signaling networks to induce morphological changes. We used the modular synNotch juxtacrine signaling platform to engineer artificial genetic programs in which specific cell-cell contacts induced changes in cadherin cell adhesion. Despite their simplicity, these minimal intercellular programs were sufficient to yield assemblies with hallmarks of natural developmental systems: robust self-organization into multidomain structures, well-choreographed sequential assembly, cell type divergence, symmetry breaking, and the capacity for regeneration upon injury. The ability of these networks to drive complex structure formation illustrates the power of interlinking cell signaling with cell sorting: Signal-induced spatial reorganization alters the local signals received by each cell, resulting in iterative cycles of cell fate branching. These results provide insights into the evolution of multicellularity and demonstrate the potential to engineer customized self-organizing tissues or materials.
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat0271
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Phase transitions in a programmable quantum spin glass simulator
    • Authors: Harris, R; Sato, Y, Berkley, A. J, Reis, M, Altomare, F, Amin, M. H, Boothby, K, Bunyk, P, Deng, C, Enderud, C, Huang, S, Hoskinson, E, Johnson, M. W, Ladizinsky, E, Ladizinsky, N, Lanting, T, Li, R, Medina, T, Molavi, R, Neufeld, R, Oh, T, Pavlov, I, Perminov, I, Poulin-Lamarre, G, Rich, C, Smirnov, A, Swenson, L, Tsai, N, Volkmann, M, Whittaker, J, Yao, J.
      Pages: 162 - 165
      Abstract: Understanding magnetic phases in quantum mechanical systems is one of the essential goals in condensed matter physics, and the advent of prototype quantum simulation hardware has provided new tools for experimentally probing such systems. We report on the experimental realization of a quantum simulation of interacting Ising spins on three-dimensional cubic lattices up to dimensions 8 x 8 x 8 on a D-Wave processor (D-Wave Systems, Burnaby, Canada). The ability to control and read out the state of individual spins provides direct access to several order parameters, which we used to determine the lattice’s magnetic phases as well as critical disorder and one of its universal exponents. By tuning the degree of disorder and effective transverse magnetic field, we observed phase transitions between a paramagnetic, an antiferromagnetic, and a spin-glass phase.
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Physics
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat2025
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • The rise, collapse, and compaction of Mt. Mantap from the 3 September 2017
           North Korean nuclear test
    • Authors: Wang, T; Shi, Q, Nikkhoo, M, Wei, S, Barbot, S, Dreger, D, Bürgmann, R, Motagh, M, Chen, Q.-F.
      Pages: 166 - 170
      Abstract: Surveillance of clandestine nuclear tests relies on a global seismic network, but the potential of spaceborne monitoring has been underexploited. We used satellite radar imagery to determine the complete surface displacement field of up to 3.5 meters of divergent horizontal motion with 0.5 meters of subsidence associated with North Korea’s largest underground nuclear test. Combining insight from geodetic and seismological remote sensing, we found that the aftermath of the initial explosive deformation involved subsidence associated with subsurface collapse and aseismic compaction of the damaged rocks of the test site. The explosive yield from the nuclear detonation with best-fitting source parameters for 450-meter depth was 191 kilotonnes of TNT equivalent. Our results demonstrate the capability of spaceborne remote sensing to help characterize large underground nuclear tests.
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar7230
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Deconstructive fluorination of cyclic amines by carbon-carbon cleavage
    • Authors: Roque, J. B; Kuroda, Y, Göttemann, L. T, Sarpong, R.
      Pages: 171 - 174
      Abstract: Deconstructive functionalizations involving scission of carbon-carbon double bonds are well established. In contrast, unstrained C(sp3)–C(sp3) bond cleavage and functionalization have less precedent. Here we report the use of deconstructive fluorination to access mono- and difluorinated amine derivatives by C(sp3)–C(sp3) bond cleavage in saturated nitrogen heterocycles such as piperidines and pyrrolidines. Silver-mediated ring-opening fluorination using Selectfluor highlights a strategy for cyclic amine functionalization and late-stage skeletal diversification, establishing cyclic amines as synthons for amino alkyl radicals and providing synthetic routes to valuable building blocks.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat6365
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Late inception of a resiliently oxygenated upper ocean
    • Authors: Lu, W; Ridgwell, A, Thomas, E, Hardisty, D. S, Luo, G, Algeo, T. J, Saltzman, M. R, Gill, B. C, Shen, Y, Ling, H.-F, Edwards, C. T, Whalen, M. T, Zhou, X, Gutchess, K. M, Jin, L, Rickaby, R. E. M, Jenkyns, H. C, Lyons, T. W, Lenton, T. M, Kump, L. R, Lu, Z.
      Pages: 174 - 177
      Abstract: Rising oceanic and atmospheric oxygen levels through time have been crucial to enhanced habitability of surface Earth environments. Few redox proxies can track secular variations in dissolved oxygen concentrations around threshold levels for metazoan survival in the upper ocean. We present an extensive compilation of iodine-to-calcium ratios (I/Ca) in marine carbonates. Our record supports a major rise in the partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere at ~400 million years (Ma) ago and reveals a step change in the oxygenation of the upper ocean to relatively sustainable near-modern conditions at ~200 Ma ago. An Earth system model demonstrates that a shift in organic matter remineralization to greater depths, which may have been due to increasing size and biomineralization of eukaryotic plankton, likely drove the I/Ca signals at ~200 Ma ago.
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar5372
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Sensitivity to "sunk costs" in mice, rats, and humans
    • Authors: Sweis, B. M; Abram, S. V, Schmidt, B. J, Seeland, K. D, MacDonald, A. W, Thomas, M. J, Redish, A. D.
      Pages: 178 - 181
      Abstract: Sunk costs are irrecoverable investments that should not influence decisions, because decisions should be made on the basis of expected future consequences. Both human and nonhuman animals can show sensitivity to sunk costs, but reports from across species are inconsistent. In a temporal context, a sensitivity to sunk costs arises when an individual resists ending an activity, even if it seems unproductive, because of the time already invested. In two parallel foraging tasks that we designed, we found that mice, rats, and humans show similar sensitivities to sunk costs in their decision-making. Unexpectedly, sensitivity to time invested accrued only after an initial decision had been made. These findings suggest that sensitivity to temporal sunk costs lies in a vulnerability distinct from deliberation processes and that this distinction is present across species.
      Keywords: Economics, Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar8644
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Ethylene-gibberellin signaling underlies adaptation of rice to periodic
           flooding
    • Authors: Kuroha, T; Nagai, K, Gamuyao, R, Wang, D. R, Furuta, T, Nakamori, M, Kitaoka, T, Adachi, K, Minami, A, Mori, Y, Mashiguchi, K, Seto, Y, Yamaguchi, S, Kojima, M, Sakakibara, H, Wu, J, Ebana, K, Mitsuda, N, Ohme-Takagi, M, Yanagisawa, S, Yamasaki, M, Yokoyama, R, Nishitani, K, Mochizuki, T, Tamiya, G, McCouch, S. R, Ashikari, M.
      Pages: 181 - 186
      Abstract: Most plants do poorly when flooded. Certain rice varieties, known as deepwater rice, survive periodic flooding and consequent oxygen deficiency by activating internode growth of stems to keep above the water. Here, we identify the gibberellin biosynthesis gene, SD1 (SEMIDWARF1), whose loss-of-function allele catapulted the rice Green Revolution, as being responsible for submergence-induced internode elongation. When submerged, plants carrying the deepwater rice–specific SD1 haplotype amplify a signaling relay in which the SD1 gene is transcriptionally activated by an ethylene-responsive transcription factor, OsEIL1a. The SD1 protein directs increased synthesis of gibberellins, largely GA4, which promote internode elongation. Evolutionary analysis shows that the deepwater rice–specific haplotype was derived from standing variation in wild rice and selected for deepwater rice cultivation in Bangladesh.
      Keywords: Botany
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat1577
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Assessment of methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas supply chain
    • Authors: Alvarez, R. A; Zavala-Araiza, D, Lyon, D. R, Allen, D. T, Barkley, Z. R, Brandt, A. R, Davis, K. J, Herndon, S. C, Jacob, D. J, Karion, A, Kort, E. A, Lamb, B. K, Lauvaux, T, Maasakkers, J. D, Marchese, A. J, Omara, M, Pacala, S. W, Peischl, J, Robinson, A. L, Shepson, P. B, Sweeney, C, Townsend-Small, A, Wofsy, S. C, Hamburg, S. P.
      Pages: 186 - 188
      Abstract: Methane emissions from the U.S. oil and natural gas supply chain were estimated by using ground-based, facility-scale measurements and validated with aircraft observations in areas accounting for ~30% of U.S. gas production. When scaled up nationally, our facility-based estimate of 2015 supply chain emissions is 13 ± 2 teragrams per year, equivalent to 2.3% of gross U.S. gas production. This value is ~60% higher than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency inventory estimate, likely because existing inventory methods miss emissions released during abnormal operating conditions. Methane emissions of this magnitude, per unit of natural gas consumed, produce radiative forcing over a 20-year time horizon comparable to the CO2 from natural gas combustion. Substantial emission reductions are feasible through rapid detection of the root causes of high emissions and deployment of less failure-prone systems.
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar7204
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Dual-spindle formation in zygotes keeps parental genomes apart in early
           mammalian embryos
    • Authors: Reichmann, J; Nijmeijer, B, Hossain, M. J, Eguren, M, Schneider, I, Politi, A. Z, Roberti, M. J, Hufnagel, L, Hiiragi, T, Ellenberg, J.
      Pages: 189 - 193
      Abstract: At the beginning of mammalian life, the genetic material from each parent meets when the fertilized egg divides. It was previously thought that a single microtubule spindle is responsible for spatially combining the two genomes and then segregating them to create the two-cell embryo. We used light-sheet microscopy to show that two bipolar spindles form in the zygote and then independently congress the maternal and paternal genomes. These two spindles aligned their poles before anaphase but kept the parental genomes apart during the first cleavage. This spindle assembly mechanism provides a potential rationale for erroneous divisions into more than two blastomeric nuclei observed in mammalian zygotes and reveals the mechanism behind the observation that parental genomes occupy separate nuclear compartments in the two-cell embryo.
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Development
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar7462
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • New Products
    • Pages: 194 - 194
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.194
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
  • Heed the call to change
    • Authors: Evans T.
      Pages: 198 - 198
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T10:39:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.361.6398.198
      Issue No: Vol. 361, No. 6398 (2018)
       
 
 
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