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Journal Cover Science
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   ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
   Published by AAAS Homepage  [5 journals]
  • [In Depth] California approves publicly funded gun research center
    • Authors: Emily Underwood
      Abstract: For 2 decades, firearms advocates in Congress have blocked taxpayer-funded research into the causes and consequences of gun violence, which kills more people in the United States than in any other developed nation. Last week, California's state legislature bucked that trend, voting to establish the nation's first publicly funded center for studying gun violence. The new California Firearm Violence Research Center will be run by the University of California system. Its lean budget—$1 million per year over the next 5 years—will likely preclude large-scale studies, but backers hope it will demonstrate the value of publicly funded gun research and perhaps help build support in Congress for a similar federal effort. Author: Emily Underwood
      Keywords: Public Health
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1505
       
  • [In Depth] Beleaguered phage therapy trial presses on
    • Authors: Kelly Servick
      Abstract: In the face of rising antibiotic resistance, many researchers hope that bacteria-killing viruses known as phages—long available to patients in Eastern Europe—will offer patients in the West with dangerous infections an alternative treatment. A European clinical trial envisioned as the first large-scale test of phages under modern regulatory standards was expected to have results this summer. But after a series of delays, the trial, known as PhagoBurn, has been forced to shrink in size and scope. Now, it's racing to recruit patients and produce results by early next year. The project may blaze a path for future products to seek market approval, but it also illustrates some of the many obstacles they'll face in demonstrating that phages are safe and effective. Author: Kelly Servick
      Keywords: Drug Development
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1506
       
  • [Feature] Polar explorer
    • Authors: Eric Hand
      Abstract: It is now widely accepted that many animals sense Earth's magnetic field and use it for navigation, and researchers are getting ever closer to the cellular foundations of magnetoreception. But what about humans? Researchers in Tokyo and Pasadena, California, think they have found glimmers of a vestigial sense. Screening out electromagnetic noise, and applying weak magnetic fields on human subjects in a dark, metal box, the researchers think they have found brain waves that signal a passive response to the fields. But as with many things in the colorful history of magnetoreception research, only time will tell if the results hold up. Author: Eric Hand
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1508
       
  • [This Week in Science] Multimetal nanoparticle synthesis
    • Authors: Phil Szuromi
      Abstract: Author: Phil Szuromi
      Keywords: Nanomaterials
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-g
       
  • [This Week in Science] Mini-guts for testing drug therapy
    • Authors: Orla M. Smith
      Abstract: Author: Orla M. Smith
      Keywords: Cystic Fibrosis
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-h
       
  • [This Week in Science] Nanoparticles restore tolerance
    • Authors: John F. Foley
      Abstract: Author: John F. Foley
      Keywords: Immunology
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-i
       
  • [This Week in Science] Shining brightly in the early universe
    • Authors: Keith T. Smith
      Abstract: Author: Keith T. Smith
      Keywords: Distant Galaxies
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-j
       
  • [This Week in Science] Gut microbiota and undernutrition
    • Authors: Caroline Ash
      Abstract: Author: Caroline Ash
      Keywords: Microbiota
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-k
       
  • [This Week in Science] Simplifying DNA origami design
    • Authors: Phil Szuromi
      Abstract: Author: Phil Szuromi
      Keywords: DNA Nanotechnology
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-l
       
  • [This Week in Science] Quantum enhanced metrology
    • Authors: Ian S. Osborne
      Abstract: Author: Ian S. Osborne
      Keywords: Quantum Physics
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-m
       
  • [This Week in Science] Holding kinases at the ready
    • Authors: Valda Vinson
      Abstract: Author: Valda Vinson
      Keywords: Structural Biology
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-e
       
  • [This Week in Science] Catalysis gets all tied up in knots
    • Authors: Jake Yeston
      Abstract: Author: Jake Yeston
      Keywords: Organic Chemistry
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-f
       
  • [In Depth] Step aside, E. coli
    • Authors: Ben Panko
      Abstract: Escherichia coli has long been the bacterium of choice for laboratory experiments, but geneticist George Church and his team are hoping to save scientists time by getting them to use a faster-reproducing model organism. Vibrio natriegens is a salt marsh organism with a doubling time of as little as 10 minutes—twice the fastest time for E. coli. Church's team has released the first complete genome of V. natriegens, and hope to make it a "drop-in, turnkey alternative" to E. coli for future research. Biologists see questions still to be resolved about V. natriegens, but are cautiously optimistic about its potential. Author: Ben Panko
      Keywords: Biology
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1503
       
  • [In Depth] High-profile cancer reviews trigger controversy
    • Authors: Kai Kupferschmidt
      Abstract: On 15 June, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), released a statement concluding there isn't enough evidence to say that coffee causes cancer, but that very hot beverages are probably carcinogenic. IARC, the cancer research arm of the World Health Organization, has released verdicts on the human carcinogenicity of almost a thousand products and environmental factors since 1972, from plutonium and shift work to coffee and processed meat. The reviews, produced primarily for regulatory agencies, have come under fire from scientists who say that they are confusing and of little help to consumers, and that IARC's focus on cancer hazards instead of risks is outdated. Author: Kai Kupferschmidt
      Keywords: Epidemiology
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1504
       
  • [In Depth] How a ‘Godzilla’ El Niño shook up weather
           forecasts
    • Authors: Eli Kintisch
      Abstract: The 14-month El Niño climate event that ended this month brought impacts across the globe, from wildfires in Indonesia to drought in Peru. The main drivers of El Niño conditions, ocean temperatures in the central and eastern Pacific, were as high as 3°C above the average, making this event one of the three most intense El Niños on record. For the most part, forecasts of its impacts on weather patterns were borne out, but forecasters fared relatively poorly in California, which relies on El Niños to deliver rains to parched areas. Along the U.S. West Coast, the jet stream was shifted hundreds of kilometers north last winter, which had the effect of dousing the Pacific Northwest with extraordinary precipitation while Southern California experienced its fourth straight year of drought. Now, scientists are analyzing why their climate models were blindsided and how they can be improved. Author: Eli Kintisch
      Keywords: Climate
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1501
       
  • [In Depth] Blind cave fish may provide insights into human health
    • Authors: Elizabeth Pennisi
      Abstract: Degenerated retinas, globs of liver fat, wildly fluctuating blood sugar and insulin levels—all can spell trouble for people. But they are a way of life for Astyanax mexicanus, better known as the blind cave fish or Mexican tetra. For decades, biologists have studied these pale 6-centimeter-long fish to understand the ecological and evolutionary effects of subterranean life. Now, some researchers argue that the fishes' adaptations can shed light on human diseases including retinal degeneration and diabetes. And results presented last week at the 2016 International Conference on Subterranean Biology back up that view. The U.S. National Institutes of Health sees promise in cave fish as well, having agreed to fund the work of several cave fish biologists. Author: Elizabeth Pennisi
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1502
       
  • [This Week in Science] Versatile embryonic neural crest cells
    • Authors: Pamela J. Hines
      Abstract: Author: Pamela J. Hines
      Keywords: Neurodevelopment
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-a
       
  • [This Week in Science] Making error-free DNA from RNA
    • Authors: Guy Riddihough
      Abstract: Author: Guy Riddihough
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-b
       
  • [This Week in Science] How to single out the right atoms
    • Authors: Jelena Stajic
      Abstract: Author: Jelena Stajic
      Keywords: Quantum Information
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-c
       
  • [This Week in Science] Mounting the intestinal barricades
    • Authors: Caroline Ash
      Abstract: Author: Caroline Ash
      Keywords: Innate Immunity
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-d
       
  • [Book Review] Making babies
    • Authors: Dov Greenbaum
      Abstract: Two authors have recently sought to enlighten readers on the topic of advances in reproductive technologies: Paul S. Knoepfler, a prolific blogger and well-known stem cell researcher at the University of California, Davis, and Henry T. Greely, professor of law at Stanford University and director of the Center for Law and the Biosciences. Knoepfler's GMO Sapiens is a down-to-earth introduction to the human use of new genetic technologies. An easy and enjoyable read, the book is targeted to an audience that has a general interest in, but perhaps a minimal understanding of, science. Readers looking for a more in-depth analysis of human genome modifications and reproductive technologies and their legal and ethical implications are encouraged to consider picking up Greely's The End of Sex and the Future of Human Reproduction. Greely's breezy first-person narrative belies the extraordinary depth and impressive quality of information provided, both scientific and legal. Author: Dov Greenbaum
      Keywords: Human Reproduction
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8469
       
  • [Book Review] The best-studied people on the planet
    • Authors: Alireza Salehi Nejad
      Abstract: Cohort studies, the empirical longitudinal research of people with a common characteristic, have played a crucial role in enhancing medical care and have dramatically reduced the risk of early death by revealing potential risk factors and unanticipated dangers. In The Life Project, Helen Pearson explores the world's oldest and longest running birth cohort study, which has tracked the lives of five generations of Britons for seven decades. Author: Alireza Salehi Nejad
      Keywords: Public Health
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8256
       
  • [Letter] Reduce, relegalize, and recycle food waste
    • Authors: Erasmus K. H. J. zu Ermgassen
      Abstract:
      Authors : Erasmus K. H. J. zu Ermgassen, Andrew Balmford, Ramy Salemdeeb
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf9630
       
  • [Letter] Burial law impedes scientific discovery
    • Authors: S. Cachel
      Abstract: Author: S. Cachel
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aag1641
       
  • [Letter] Modeling the effects of climate engineering
    • Authors: David Keith
      Abstract:
      Authors : David Keith, Gernot Wagner, Juan Moreno-Cruz
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aag1630
       
  • [Technical Comment] Comment on “The Atlantic Multidecadal
           Oscillation without a role for ocean circulation”
    • Authors: Rong Zhang
      Abstract: Clement et al. (Reports, 16 October 2015, p. 320) claim that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is a thermodynamic response of the ocean mixed layer to stochastic atmospheric forcing and that ocean circulation changes have no role in causing the AMO. These claims are not justified. We show that ocean dynamics play a central role in the AMO.
      Authors : Rong Zhang, Rowan Sutton, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Thomas L. Delworth, Who M. Kim, Jon Robson, Stephen G. Yeager
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf1660
       
  • [Technical Response] Response to Comment on “The Atlantic
           Multidecadal Oscillation without a role for ocean circulation”
    • Authors: Amy Clement
      Abstract: Zhang et al. interpret the mixed-layer energy budget in models as showing that “ocean dynamics play a central role in the AMO.” Here, we show that their diagnostics cannot reveal the causes of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and that their results can be explained with minimal ocean influence. Hence, we reaffirm our findings that the AMO in models can be understood primarily as the upper-ocean thermal response to stochastic atmospheric forcing.
      Authors : Amy Clement, Mark A. Cane, Lisa N. Murphy, Katinka Bellomo, Thorsten Mauritsen, Bjorn Stevens
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf2575
       
  • [Association Affairs] Panel of experts encourages scientific collaboration
           with Iran
    • Authors: Michaela Jarvis
      Abstract: AAAS conference examines partnership potential since signing of nuclear agreement Author: Michaela Jarvis
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1528
       
  • [Editorial] Fast horses
    • Authors: Marcia McNutt
      Abstract: Those who know me well appreciate my passion for fast horses—those with spirit and stamina, as well as speed. And thus I devote my final words as editor-in-chief of the Science journals to the incredible team of thoroughbreds who accomplished more in a short time than I ever thought was possible. The changes that have come to the publishing enterprise at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS, the publisher of Science journals) have touched all facets of what we do and how we deliver it to our readers. Author: Marcia McNutt
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aag3351
       
  • [In Brief] News at a glance
    • Abstract: In science news around the world, an independent review of the National Ignition Facility finds that the lab may never reach its titular goal, Australian scientists report that climate change has apparently claimed its first mammal, researchers propose the first trial of the gene-editing tool CRISPR on the human genome, the World Health Organization says that lower doses of yellow fever vaccine can be used in an emergency, and more. Also, environmental DNA holds promise as a new conservation tool for a rare cave salamander in Slovenia. And a new art installation at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, may be the most detailed piece of brain art ever made.
      Keywords: SCI COMMUN
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1498
       
  • [In Depth] China overtakes U.S. supercomputing lead
    • Authors: Robert F. Service
      Abstract: A new supercomputer at China's National Supercomputing Center has snagged the top spot on a list of the world's fastest machines. The Sunway TaihuLight can perform 93 petaflop, or 93 quadrillion calculations, per second—nearly three times the speed of its closest competitor, China's Tianhe-2 supercomputer, and 2 million times faster than a standard laptop. More important, for the first time China has overtaken the United States as the country with the largest installed supercomputing capacity. The rankings come from the latest TOP500 list of supercomputers, unveiled this week at the 2016 International Supercomputing Conference in Frankfurt, Germany. Experts say China's preeminence in supercomputing could pay off for research, engineering, and commerce. Author: Robert F. Service
      Keywords: High-Performance Computing
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1500
       
  • [Perspective] Avoid the kinks when measuring mobility
    • Authors: Iain McCulloch
      Abstract: The ability to make flexible electronics enables us to envision new types of devices such as durable displays, implantable bioelectronics, and sensors seamlessly integrated in everyday items (1). Furthermore, the power and flexibility of organic chemistry to design new semiconductors has been a strong driver for an unprecedented effort in materials development worldwide (2). A key materials parameter is the mobility of charge carriers, which is often determined by building a field-effect transistor (FET) with the material. We outline why such measurements, which are indirect and depend on the appropriate use of device models, only provide apparent mobilities that can, in some cases, overstate the real values by more than an order of magnitude.
      Authors : Iain McCulloch, Alberto Salleo, Michael Chabinyc
      Keywords: Organic Devices
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf9062
       
  • [Policy Forum] Capitalizing on convergence for health care
    • Authors: Phillip Sharp
      Abstract: For decades, scientists have called for more collaboration between the life and physical sciences, and in the past 5 years, we have been among those calling for a new national research strategy—one we call “convergence”—that would integrate engineering, physical, computational, and mathematical sciences with biomedical science (1). Thanks to the accelerating pace of biological discovery, the expanding power of computation, and a new focus in engineering on biocompatible materials and nanotechnology, the potential of such a strategy for advances in health care is greater than ever (see the photo). Technologies emerging from such efforts have potential implications far beyond health care: creating jobs; speeding products to market; and improving everything from agriculture and the environment to defense, the economy, and energy production. It all adds up to a moment of unprecedented opportunity, if we choose to invest in it meaningfully. But so far we have not. We detail below, and in greater depth in a new report with colleagues from across the country (2), the stakes in the convergence revolution and what we should do to capitalize on it.
      Authors : Phillip Sharp, Tyler Jacks, Susan Hockfield
      Keywords: Biomedical Engineering
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aag2350
       
  • [Perspective] How climate change affects extreme weather events
    • Authors: Peter Stott
      Abstract: Human-induced climate change has led to an increase in the frequency and intensity of daily temperature extremes and has contributed to a widespread intensification of daily precipitation extremes (1, 2). But has it also made specific extreme weather and climate events—such as floods, droughts, and heat waves—more likely? Although it has been said that individual climate events cannot be attributed to anthropogenic climate change (3), a recent assessment by the National Academies of Science concludes that “this is no longer true as an unqualified blanket statement” (4). Robust event attribution can support decisions such as how to rebuild after a disaster and how to price insurance by quantifying the current risk of such events. Author: Peter Stott
      Keywords: Climate Change
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf7271
       
  • [Perspective] Corals' microbial sentinels
    • Authors: Tracy D. Ainsworth
      Abstract: In 2005, Pandolfi et al. (1) asked whether U.S. coral reefs would in the future be overgrown and dominated by algae as a result of rapid change in the marine environment. Over a decade later, an increasing number of reefs worldwide have declined, and severe and lasting environmental changes are altering the composition of coral reefs that were once pristine and resilient. In the past 2 years, many reefs around the world have suffered from repeated bleaching (see the photo) as a result of high water temperatures caused by a strong El Niño event combined with climate change. Corals that survive the multiple impacts of climate change and local disturbance will form the basis of future reefs that will differ in fundamental ways from those considered healthy today (2). Changes to the coral microbiome on these reefs will play a vital part in future coral reef health (see the figure).
      Authors : Tracy D. Ainsworth, Ruth D. Gates
      Keywords: Ocean Biology
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad9957
       
  • [Perspective] When the universe became dusty
    • Authors: Carlos De Breuck
      Abstract: Observations of the most distant galaxies known are now reaching into the epoch when the first generations of stars were being formed. As stars are the main factories of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium, one also expects to see a reduced abundance of these heavy elements and of the dust that condenses out of them. Recent observations of galaxies within 1 billion years of the Big Bang have shown that the far-infrared (far-IR) emission from dust in these galaxies indeed becomes fainter. Also, the usually strong far-IR emission line from ionized carbon remains undetected in an increasing number of galaxies of redshift z > 7 (1–3). Hence, it has been assumed that detailed studies of the interstellar medium (ISM) in these galaxies will be very challenging, even with the powerful Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). On page 1559 of this issue, Inoue et al. (4) detect doubly ionized oxygen at a rest wavelength of 88 µm from a galaxy at z = 7.2, where neither dust nor ionized carbon was detected. The oxygen to far-ultraviolet luminosity ratio in this galaxy is similar to nearby dwarf galaxies with an oxygen abundance of 10 to 60% that of the Sun (5), which suggests that some substantial chemical enrichment has already occurred. However, the similarities stop there; in dwarf galaxies, the dust and ionized carbon lines are not as faint. It appears that the dust in this young galaxy may not have formed yet, or that it was destroyed, for example, by supernova shock waves. Author: Carlos De Breuck
      Keywords: Astronomy
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf9761
       
  • [Perspective] Converting to adapt
    • Authors: Marco Colonna
      Abstract: Effective immune responses rely on balancing lymphocyte stability and plasticity. Lymphocytes have regulatory circuits that control phenotypic and functional identity. Stable circuits maintain homeostasis and prevent autoimmunity. But plasticity is needed to integrate new environmental inputs and generate immune responses that subdue the eliciting agent without damaging tissue. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subset of CD4+ T cells that control effector T cell responses and prevent excessive inflammation and autoimmunity (1, 2). On page 1581 in this issue, Sujino et al. (3) report that intestinal Tregs convert into CD4+ intraepithelial T cells (CD4IELs) to adapt to the local intestinal environment, thus identifying the intestinal epithelium as a compartment that enforces lymphocyte plasticity.
      Authors : Marco Colonna, Luisa Cervantes-Barragan
      Keywords: Immunology
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aag1719
       
  • [Feature] What and where are the body's magnetometers?
    • Authors: Eric Hand
      Abstract: Exactly how animals—and maybe humans—sense Earth's magnetic field is still a mystery. There are two rival explanations, one based on the mineral magnetite working as a mechanical sensor, and another based on the protein cryptochrome as a chemical sensor. Magnetite has turned up in many animal tissues and would provide the sensitivity necessary to respond to minute changes in Earth's field strength, as some animals appear to do. But magnetite could also be a metabolic byproduct. Cryptochrome has been found in the retina and, through a complex series of quantum chemical reactions, it could be a magnetically sensitive neural gatekeeper. But questions remain about its ability to provide a refined, precise compass. Author: Eric Hand
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1510
       
  • [Perspective] Our driverless dilemma
    • Authors: Joshua D. Greene
      Abstract: Suppose that a driverless car is headed toward five pedestrians. It can stay on course and kill them or swerve into a concrete wall, killing its passenger. On page 1573 of this issue, Bonnefon et al. (1) explore this social dilemma in a series of clever survey experiments. They show that people generally approve of cars programmed to minimize the total amount of harm, even at the expense of their passengers, but are not enthusiastic about riding in such “utilitarian” cars—that is, autonomous vehicles that are, in certain emergency situations, programmed to sacrifice their passengers for the greater good. Such dilemmas may arise infrequently, but once millions of autonomous vehicles are on the road, the improbable becomes probable, perhaps even inevitable. And even if such cases never arise, autonomous vehicles must be programmed to handle them. How should they be programmed? And who should decide? Author: Joshua D. Greene
      Keywords: Ethics
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf9534
       
  • [This Week in Science] Coming to a drought near you
    • Authors: Julia Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink
      Abstract: Author: Julia Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink
      Keywords: Climate Change
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-n
       
  • [This Week in Science] The microbial key to coral reef health
    • Authors: Julia Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink
      Abstract: Author: Julia Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink
      Keywords: Ocean Biology
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-o
       
  • [This Week in Science] Mind the mobilities
    • Authors: Phil Szuromi
      Abstract: Author: Phil Szuromi
      Keywords: Organic Devices
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-p
       
  • [This Week in Science] Clues to cancer from an identity change
    • Authors: Paula A. Kiberstis
      Abstract: Author: Paula A. Kiberstis
      Keywords: Prostate Development
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-q
       
  • [This Week in Science] Codes of conduct in autonomous vehicles
    • Authors: Barbara R. Jasny
      Abstract: Author: Barbara R. Jasny
      Keywords: Driving Ethics
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-r
       
  • [This Week in Science] Bosons refusing to thermalize in 2D
    • Authors: Jelena Stajic
      Abstract: Author: Jelena Stajic
      Keywords: Quantum Simulation
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-s
       
  • [This Week in Science] Location matters for immunosuppression
    • Authors: Kristen L. Mueller
      Abstract: Author: Kristen L. Mueller
      Keywords: Mucosal Immunology
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-t
       
  • [This Week in Science] Highly branched polymers deliver
    • Authors: Philip Yeagle
      Abstract: Author: Philip Yeagle
      Keywords: Polymers
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-u
       
  • [This Week in Science] Single-nucleus gene expression
    • Authors: Laura M. Zahn
      Abstract: Author: Laura M. Zahn
      Keywords: Neurogenomics
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1530-v
       
  • [Editors' Choice] Disease information-seeking behavior
    • Authors: Caroline Ash
      Abstract: Author: Caroline Ash
      Keywords: Infectious Disease
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1531-a
       
  • [Editors' Choice] A partially protected surface state
    • Authors: Jelena Stajic
      Abstract: Author: Jelena Stajic
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1531-b
       
  • [Editors' Choice] Can a red dwarf host a habitable planet?
    • Authors: Keith T. Smith
      Abstract: Author: Keith T. Smith
      Keywords: Extrasolar Planets
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1531-c
       
  • [Editors' Choice] From the green glow to the deep tunnel
    • Authors: Jake Yeston
      Abstract: Author: Jake Yeston
      Keywords: Biophysics
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1531-d
       
  • [Editors' Choice] Exploring the human proteome
    • Authors: Valda Vinson
      Abstract: Author: Valda Vinson
      Keywords: cell Biology
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1531-e
       
  • [Editors' Choice] Macrophages moonlight in brain bleeds
    • Authors: Beverly A. Purnell
      Abstract: Author: Beverly A. Purnell
      Keywords: Vascular Repair
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1531-f
       
  • [Editors' Choice] Tumor cells fatten up to adapt
    • Authors: Lisa D. Chong
      Abstract: Author: Lisa D. Chong
      Keywords: Cancer
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1531-g
       
  • [Review] Childhood undernutrition, the gut microbiota, and
           microbiota-directed therapeutics
    • Authors: Laura V. Blanton
      Abstract: Childhood undernutrition is a major global health challenge. Although current therapeutic approaches have reduced mortality in individuals with severe disease, they have had limited efficacy in ameliorating long-term sequelae, notably stunting, immune dysfunction, and neurocognitive deficits. Recent work is providing insights about the role of impaired development of the human gut microbiota in disease pathogenesis, leading to new concepts for treatment and prevention. These findings raise intriguing basic questions about the mechanisms that direct normal gut microbial community assembly and functional maturation. Designing and implementing new microbiota-directed therapeutics for undernutrition highlights the need to simultaneously consider a variety of features of human biology as well as broader societal issues.
      Authors : Laura V. Blanton, Michael J. Barratt, Mark R. Charbonneau, Tahmeed Ahmed, Jeffrey I. Gordon
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad9359
       
  • [Research Article] Designer nanoscale DNA assemblies programmed from the
           top down
    • Abstract: Scaffolded DNA origami is a versatile means of synthesizing complex molecular architectures. However, the approach is limited by the need to forward-design specific Watson-Crick base pairing manually for any given target structure. Here, we report a general, top-down strategy to design nearly arbitrary DNA architectures autonomously based only on target shape. Objects are represented as closed surfaces rendered as polyhedral networks of parallel DNA duplexes, which enables complete DNA scaffold routing with a spanning tree algorithm. The asymmetric polymerase chain reaction is applied to produce stable, monodisperse assemblies with custom scaffold length and sequence that are verified structurally in three dimensions to be high fidelity by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. Their long-term stability in serum and low-salt buffer confirms their utility for biological as well as nonbiological applications.
      Authors : Rémi Veneziano, Sakul Ratanalert, Kaiming Zhang, Fei Zhang, Hao Yan, Wah Chiu, Mark Bathe
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf4388
       
  • [Research Article] A sentinel goblet cell guards the colonic crypt by
           triggering Nlrp6-dependent Muc2 secretion
    • Authors: George M. H. Birchenough
      Abstract: Innate immune signaling pathways contribute to the protection of host tissue when bacterially challenged. Colonic goblet cells are responsible for generating the two mucus layers that physically separate the luminal microbiota from the host epithelium. Analysis of colonic tissues from multiple mouse strains allowed us to identify a “sentinel” goblet cell (senGC) localized to the colonic crypt entrance. This cell nonspecifically endocytoses and reacts to the TLR2/1, TLR4, and TLR5 ligands by activating the Nlrp6 inflammasome downstream of TLR- and MyD88-dependent Nox/Duox reactive oxygen species synthesis. This triggers calcium ion–dependent compound exocytosis of Muc2 mucin from the senGC and generates an intercellular gap junction signal; in turn, this signal induces Muc2 secretion from adjacent goblet cells in the upper crypt, which expels bacteria. Thus, senGCs guard and protect the colonic crypt from bacterial intruders that have penetrated the inner mucus layer.
      Authors : George M. H. Birchenough, Elisabeth E. L. Nyström, Malin E. V. Johansson, Gunnar C. Hansson
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf7419
       
  • [Research Article] Atomic structure of Hsp90-Cdc37-Cdk4 reveals that Hsp90
           traps and stabilizes an unfolded kinase
    • Authors: Kliment A. Verba
      Abstract: The Hsp90 molecular chaperone and its Cdc37 cochaperone help stabilize and activate more than half of the human kinome. However, both the mechanism by which these chaperones assist their “client” kinases and the reason why some kinases are addicted to Hsp90 while closely related family members are independent are unknown. Our structural understanding of these interactions is lacking, as no full-length structures of human Hsp90, Cdc37, or either of these proteins with a kinase have been elucidated. Here we report a 3.9 angstrom cryo–electron microscopy structure of the Hsp90-Cdc37-Cdk4 kinase complex. Surprisingly, the two lobes of Cdk4 are completely separated with the β4-β5 sheet unfolded. Cdc37 mimics part of the kinase N lobe, stabilizing an open kinase conformation by wedging itself between the two lobes. Finally, Hsp90 clamps around the unfolded kinase β5 strand and interacts with exposed N- and C-lobe interfaces, protecting the kinase in a trapped unfolded state. On the basis of this structure and an extensive amount of previously collected data, we propose unifying conceptual and mechanistic models of chaperone-kinase interactions.
      Authors : Kliment A. Verba, Ray Yu-Ruei Wang, Akihiko Arakawa, Yanxin Liu, Mikako Shirouzu, Shigeyuki Yokoyama, David A. Agard
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf5023
       
  • [Research Article] Exploring the many-body localization transition in two
           dimensions
    • Authors: Jae-yoon Choi
      Abstract: A fundamental assumption in statistical physics is that generic closed quantum many-body systems thermalize under their own dynamics. Recently, the emergence of many-body localized systems has questioned this concept and challenged our understanding of the connection between statistical physics and quantum mechanics. Here we report on the observation of a many-body localization transition between thermal and localized phases for bosons in a two-dimensional disordered optical lattice. With our single-site–resolved measurements, we track the relaxation dynamics of an initially prepared out-of-equilibrium density pattern and find strong evidence for a diverging length scale when approaching the localization transition. Our experiments represent a demonstration and in-depth characterization of many-body localization in a regime not accessible with state-of-the-art simulations on classical computers.
      Authors : Jae-yoon Choi, Sebastian Hild, Johannes Zeiher, Peter Schauß, Antonio Rubio-Abadal, Tarik Yefsah, Vedika Khemani, David A. Huse, Immanuel Bloch, Christian Gross
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8834
       
  • [Report] Quantum phase magnification
    • Authors: O. Hosten
      Abstract: Quantum metrology exploits entangled states of particles to improve sensing precision beyond the limit achievable with uncorrelated particles. All previous methods required detection noise levels below this standard quantum limit to realize the benefits of the intrinsic sensitivity provided by these states. We experimentally demonstrate a widely applicable method for entanglement-enhanced measurements without low-noise detection. The method involves an intermediate quantum phase magnification step that eases implementation complexity. We used it to perform squeezed-state metrology 8 decibels below the standard quantum limit with a detection system that has a noise floor 10 decibels above the standard quantum limit.
      Authors : O. Hosten, R. Krishnakumar, N. J. Engelsen, M. A. Kasevich
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf3397
       
  • [Report] Allosteric initiation and regulation of catalysis with a
           molecular knot
    • Authors: Vanesa Marcos
      Abstract: Molecular knots occur in DNA, proteins, and other macromolecules. However, the benefits that can potentially arise from tying molecules in knots are, for the most part, unclear. Here, we report on a synthetic molecular pentafoil knot that allosterically initiates or regulates catalyzed chemical reactions by controlling the in situ generation of a carbocation formed through the knot-promoted cleavage of a carbon-halogen bond. The knot architecture is crucial to this function because it restricts the conformations that the molecular chain can adopt and prevents the formation of catalytically inactive species upon metal ion binding. Unknotted analogs are not catalytically active. Our results suggest that knotting molecules may be a useful strategy for reducing the degrees of freedom of flexible chains, enabling them to adopt what are otherwise thermodynamically inaccessible functional conformations.
      Authors : Vanesa Marcos, Alexander J. Stephens, Javier Jaramillo-Garcia, Alina L. Nussbaumer, Steffen L. Woltering, Alberto Valero, Jean-François Lemonnier, Iñigo J. Vitorica-Yrezabal, David A. Leigh
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf3673
       
  • [Report] Detection of an oxygen emission line from a high-redshift galaxy
           in the reionization epoch
    • Authors: Akio K. Inoue
      Abstract: The physical properties and elemental abundances of the interstellar medium in galaxies during cosmic reionization are important for understanding the role of galaxies in this process. We report the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array detection of an oxygen emission line at a wavelength of 88 micrometers from a galaxy at an epoch about 700 million years after the Big Bang. The oxygen abundance of this galaxy is estimated at about one-tenth that of the Sun. The nondetection of far-infrared continuum emission indicates a deficiency of interstellar dust in the galaxy. A carbon emission line at a wavelength of 158 micrometers is also not detected, implying an unusually small amount of neutral gas. These properties might allow ionizing photons to escape into the intergalactic medium.
      Authors : Akio K. Inoue, Yoichi Tamura, Hiroshi Matsuo, Ken Mawatari, Ikkoh Shimizu, Takatoshi Shibuya, Kazuaki Ota, Naoki Yoshida, Erik Zackrisson, Nobunari Kashikawa, Kotaro Kohno, Hideki Umehata, Bunyo Hatsukade, Masanori Iye, Yuichi Matsuda, Takashi Okamoto, Yuki Yamaguchi
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf0714
       
  • [Report] Single-qubit gates based on targeted phase shifts in a 3D neutral
           atom array
    • Authors: Yang Wang
      Abstract: Although the quality of individual quantum bits (qubits) and quantum gates has been steadily improving, the number of qubits in a single system has increased quite slowly. Here, we demonstrate arbitrary single-qubit gates based on targeted phase shifts, an approach that can be applied to atom, ion, or other atom-like systems. These gates are highly insensitive to addressing beam imperfections and have little cross-talk, allowing for a dramatic scaling up of qubit number. We have performed gates in series on 48 individually targeted sites in a 40% full 5 by 5 by 5 three-dimensional array created by an optical lattice. Using randomized benchmarking, we demonstrate an average gate fidelity of 0.9962(16), with an average cross-talk fidelity of 0.9979(2) (numbers in parentheses indicate the one standard deviation uncertainty in the final digits).
      Authors : Yang Wang, Aishwarya Kumar, Tsung-Yao Wu, David S. Weiss
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf2581
       
  • [Report] Polyelemental nanoparticle libraries
    • Authors: Peng-Cheng Chen
      Abstract: Multimetallic nanoparticles are useful in many fields, yet there are no effective strategies for synthesizing libraries of such structures, in which architectures can be explored in a systematic and site-specific manner. The absence of these capabilities precludes the possibility of comprehensively exploring such systems. We present systematic studies of individual polyelemental particle systems, in which composition and size can be independently controlled and structure formation (alloy versus phase-separated state) can be understood. We made libraries consisting of every combination of five metallic elements (Au, Ag, Co, Cu, and Ni) through polymer nanoreactor–mediated synthesis. Important insight into the factors that lead to alloy formation and phase segregation at the nanoscale were obtained, and routes to libraries of nanostructures that cannot be made by conventional methods were developed.
      Authors : Peng-Cheng Chen, Xiaolong Liu, James L. Hedrick, Zhuang Xie, Shunzhi Wang, Qing-Yuan Lin, Mark C. Hersam, Vinayak P. Dravid, Chad A. Mirkin
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8402
       
  • [Report] Reprogramming of avian neural crest axial identity and cell fate
    • Authors: Marcos Simoes-Costa
      Abstract: Neural crest populations along the embryonic body axis of vertebrates differ in developmental potential and fate, so that only the cranial neural crest can contribute to the craniofacial skeleton in vivo. We explored the regulatory program that imbues the cranial crest with its specialized features. Using axial-level specific enhancers to isolate and perform genome-wide profiling of the cranial versus trunk neural crest in chick embryos, we identified and characterized regulatory relationships between a set of cranial-specific transcription factors. Introducing components of this circuit into neural crest cells of the trunk alters their identity and endows these cells with the ability to give rise to chondroblasts in vivo. Our results demonstrate that gene regulatory circuits that support the formation of particular neural crest derivatives may be used to reprogram specific neural crest–derived cell types.
      Authors : Marcos Simoes-Costa, Marianne E. Bronner
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf2729
       
  • [Report] The social dilemma of autonomous vehicles
    • Abstract: Autonomous vehicles (AVs) should reduce traffic accidents, but they will sometimes have to choose between two evils, such as running over pedestrians or sacrificing themselves and their passenger to save the pedestrians. Defining the algorithms that will help AVs make these moral decisions is a formidable challenge. We found that participants in six Amazon Mechanical Turk studies approved of utilitarian AVs (that is, AVs that sacrifice their passengers for the greater good) and would like others to buy them, but they would themselves prefer to ride in AVs that protect their passengers at all costs. The study participants disapprove of enforcing utilitarian regulations for AVs and would be less willing to buy such an AV. Accordingly, regulating for utilitarian algorithms may paradoxically increase casualties by postponing the adoption of a safer technology.
      Authors : Jean-François Bonnefon, Azim Shariff, Iyad Rahwan
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf2654
       
  • [Report] Identification of an NKX3.1-G9a-UTY transcriptional regulatory
           network that controls prostate differentiation
    • Authors: Aditya Dutta
      Abstract: The NKX3.1 homeobox gene plays essential roles in prostate differentiation and prostate cancer. We show that loss of function of Nkx3.1 in mouse prostate results in down-regulation of genes that are essential for prostate differentiation, as well as up-regulation of genes that are not normally expressed in prostate. Conversely, gain of function of Nkx3.1 in an otherwise fully differentiated nonprostatic mouse epithelium (seminal vesicle) is sufficient for respecification to prostate in renal grafts in vivo. In human prostate cells, these activities require the interaction of NKX3.1 with the G9a histone methyltransferase via the homeodomain and are mediated by activation of target genes such as UTY (KDM6c), the male-specific paralog of UTX (KDM6a). We propose that an NKX3.1-G9a-UTY transcriptional regulatory network is essential for prostate differentiation, and we speculate that disruption of such a network predisposes to prostate cancer.
      Authors : Aditya Dutta, Clémentine Le Magnen, Antonina Mitrofanova, Xuesong Ouyang, Andrea Califano, Cory Abate-Shen
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aad9512
       
  • [Report] Tissue adaptation of regulatory and intraepithelial CD4+ T cells
           controls gut inflammation
    • Authors: Tomohisa Sujino
      Abstract: Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in peripheral tissues (pTregs) are instrumental in limiting inflammatory responses to nonself antigens. Within the intestine, pTregs are located primarily in the lamina propria, whereas intraepithelial CD4+ T cells (CD4IELs), which also exhibit anti-inflammatory properties and depend on similar environmental cues, reside in the epithelium. Using intravital microscopy, we show distinct cell dynamics of intestinal Tregs and CD4IELs. Upon migration to the epithelium, Tregs lose Foxp3 and convert to CD4IELs in a microbiota-dependent manner, an effect attributed to the loss of the transcription factor ThPOK. Finally, we demonstrate that pTregs and CD4IELs perform complementary roles in the regulation of intestinal inflammation. These results reveal intratissue specialization of anti-inflammatory T cells shaped by discrete niches of the intestine.
      Authors : Tomohisa Sujino, Mariya London, David P. Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Tomiko Rendon, Thorsten Buch, Hernandez M. Silva, Juan J. Lafaille, Bernardo S. Reis, Daniel Mucida
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf3892
       
  • [Report] Neuronal subtypes and diversity revealed by single-nucleus RNA
           sequencing of the human brain
    • Authors: Blue B. Lake
      Abstract: The human brain has enormously complex cellular diversity and connectivities fundamental to our neural functions, yet difficulties in interrogating individual neurons has impeded understanding of the underlying transcriptional landscape. We developed a scalable approach to sequence and quantify RNA molecules in isolated neuronal nuclei from a postmortem brain, generating 3227 sets of single-neuron data from six distinct regions of the cerebral cortex. Using an iterative clustering and classification approach, we identified 16 neuronal subtypes that were further annotated on the basis of known markers and cortical cytoarchitecture. These data demonstrate a robust and scalable method for identifying and categorizing single nuclear transcriptomes, revealing shared genes sufficient to distinguish previously unknown and orthologous neuronal subtypes as well as regional identity and transcriptomic heterogeneity within the human brain.
      Authors : Blue B. Lake, Rizi Ai, Gwendolyn E. Kaeser, Neeraj S. Salathia, Yun C. Yung, Rui Liu, Andre Wildberg, Derek Gao, Ho-Lim Fung, Song Chen, Raakhee Vijayaraghavan, Julian Wong, Allison Chen, Xiaoyan Sheng, Fiona Kaper, Richard Shen, Mostafa Ronaghi, Jian-Bing Fan, Wei Wang, Jerold Chun, Kun Zhang
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf1204
       
  • [Report] Synthetic evolutionary origin of a proofreading reverse
           transcriptase
    • Authors: Jared W. Ellefson
      Abstract: Most reverse transcriptase (RT) enzymes belong to a single protein family of ancient evolutionary origin. These polymerases are inherently error prone, owing to their lack of a proofreading (3′- 5′ exonuclease) domain. To determine if the lack of proofreading is a historical coincidence or a functional limitation of reverse transcription, we attempted to evolve a high-fidelity, thermostable DNA polymerase to use RNA templates efficiently. The evolutionarily distinct reverse transcription xenopolymerase (RTX) actively proofreads on DNA and RNA templates, which greatly improves RT fidelity. In addition, RTX enables applications such as single-enzyme reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and direct RNA sequencing without complementary DNA isolation. The creation of RTX confirms that proofreading is compatible with reverse transcription.
      Authors : Jared W. Ellefson, Jimmy Gollihar, Raghav Shroff, Haridha Shivram, Vishwanath R. Iyer, Andrew D. Ellington
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf5409
       
  • [New Products] New Products
    • Abstract: A weekly roundup of information on newly offered instrumentation, apparatus, and laboratory materials of potential interest to researchers.
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1594
       
  • [Working Life] A winding path to satisfaction
    • Authors: Sarah Fankhauser
      Abstract: Author: Sarah Fankhauser
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.1126/science.352.6293.1606
       
 
 
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