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Journal Cover Science
  [SJR: 13.217]   [H-I: 915]   [3501 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
   Published by AAAS Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Erratum for the Report "Global climatic drivers of leaf size" by I. J.
           Wright, N. Dong, V. Maire, I. C. Prentice, M. Westoby, S. Diaz, R. V.
           Gallagher, B. F. Jacobs, R. Kooyman, E. A. Law, M. R. Leishman, Ü.
           Niinemets, P. B. Reich, L. Sack, R. Villar, H. Wang, P. Wilf
    • PubDate: 2017-10-05T14:01:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaq0577
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Erratum for the Report "Two histone marks establish the inner centromere
           and chromosome bi-orientation" by Y. Yamagishi, T. Honda, Y. Tanno, Y.
           Watanabe
    • PubDate: 2017-10-05T14:01:00-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaq0573
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • A triple threat for HIV
    • Authors: Kelly; P. N.
      Pages: 78
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.76-i
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • U.S.-Iran science exchange
    • Authors: Schweitzer; G.
      Pages: 11 - 11
      Keywords: Editorials
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaq0553
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • News at a glance
    • Pages: 14 - 16
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.14
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Trio surfs gravitational waves to Nobel glory
    • Authors: Cho; A.
      Pages: 17 - 17
      Keywords: Physics, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.17
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Revelations about rhythm of life rewarded
    • Authors: Stokstad, E; Vogel, G.
      Pages: 18 - 18
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.18
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Treaty tested by space miners
    • Authors: Clery; D.
      Pages: 19 - 19
      Keywords: Astronomy, Scientific Community, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.19
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • China sprints ahead in CRISPR therapy race
    • Authors: Normile; D.
      Pages: 20 - 21
      Keywords: Asia/Pacific News, Genetics
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.20
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Neandertal genome reveals greater legacy in the living
    • Authors: Gibbons; A.
      Pages: 21 - 21
      Keywords: Anthropology, Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.21
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Seismic array shifts to Alaska
    • Authors: Rosen; J.
      Pages: 22 - 22
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.22
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Catalan scientists ponder fate after independence vote
    • Authors: Rabesandratana; T.
      Pages: 23 - 23
      Keywords: European News, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.23
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Against the grain
    • Authors: Cornwall; W.
      Pages: 24 - 27
      Keywords: Ecology, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.24
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Archaeology in a divided land
    • Authors: Gannon; M.
      Pages: 28 - 30
      Keywords: Anthropology, European News
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.28
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Promoting human rights through science
    • Authors: Segal, L; Chow, R. D.-W, Kumar, B, Nguyen, J, Yu, K.-H, Chen, J, Polat, E. O, Porter, K. E, Kelly-Irving, M, Bimpe, I, Winter, K. A, Zeng, R, Ahmed, M, Saalman, D. R, James, J. I, Kosinski, M, White, E. R, Oda, F. S, Bretscher, H, Hamel, P, Negi, S, Jawaid, A.
      Pages: 34 - 37
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaq1083
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Nerve agents in honey
    • Authors: Connolly; C. N.
      Pages: 38 - 39
      Keywords: Chemistry, Ecology
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao6000
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • The proton radius revisited
    • Authors: Vassen; W.
      Pages: 39 - 40
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao3969
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Microbial change in warming soils
    • Authors: Metcalfe; D. B.
      Pages: 41 - 42
      Keywords: Ecology, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aap7325
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Neutrophils take a round-trip
    • Authors: Garner, H; de Visser, K. E.
      Pages: 42 - 43
      Keywords: Immunology
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aap8361
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Nocebo effects can make you feel pain
    • Authors: Colloca; L.
      Pages: 44 - 44
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aap8488
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • The molecular basis of Alzheimer's plaques
    • Authors: Pospich, S; Raunser, S.
      Pages: 45 - 46
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aap8002
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Broadly neutralizing antibodies to prevent HIV-1
    • Authors: Cohen, M. S; Corey, L.
      Pages: 46 - 47
      Keywords: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases, Virology
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aap8131
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Deciphering dueling analyses of clean water regulations
    • Authors: Boyle, K. J; Kotchen, M. J, Smith, V. K.
      Pages: 49 - 50
      Keywords: Economics, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aap8023
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Survival of the spineless
    • Authors: McAnulty; S. J.
      Pages: 53 - 53
      Keywords: Anatomy, Morphology, Biomechanics, Paleontology
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao4381
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Fun and games
    • Authors: Phillips; C. J.
      Pages: 54 - 54
      Keywords: Computers, Mathematics
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao4385
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • A Fantastic Voyage in Genomics
    • Authors: Zahn; L. M.
      Pages: 56 - 57
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.56
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Single-cell transcriptomics to explore the immune system in health and
           disease
    • Authors: Stubbington, M. J. T; Rozenblatt-Rosen, O, Regev, A, Teichmann, S. A.
      Pages: 58 - 63
      Abstract: The immune system varies in cell types, states, and locations. The complex networks, interactions, and responses of immune cells produce diverse cellular ecosystems composed of multiple cell types, accompanied by genetic diversity in antigen receptors. Within this ecosystem, innate and adaptive immune cells maintain and protect tissue function, integrity, and homeostasis upon changes in functional demands and diverse insults. Characterizing this inherent complexity requires studies at single-cell resolution. Recent advances such as massively parallel single-cell RNA sequencing and sophisticated computational methods are catalyzing a revolution in our understanding of immunology. Here we provide an overview of the state of single-cell genomics methods and an outlook on the use of single-cell techniques to decipher the adaptive and innate components of immunity.
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan6828
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • The promise of spatial transcriptomics for neuroscience in the era of
           molecular cell typing
    • Authors: Lein, E; Borm, L. E, Linnarsson, S.
      Pages: 64 - 69
      Abstract: The stereotyped spatial architecture of the brain is both beautiful and fundamentally related to its function, extending from gross morphology to individual neuron types, where soma position, dendritic architecture, and axonal projections determine their roles in functional circuitry. Our understanding of the cell types that make up the brain is rapidly accelerating, driven in particular by recent advances in single-cell transcriptomics. However, understanding brain function, development, and disease will require linking molecular cell types to morphological, physiological, and behavioral correlates. Emerging spatially resolved transcriptomic methods promise to fill this gap by localizing molecularly defined cell types in tissues, with simultaneous detection of morphology, activity, or connectivity. Here, we review the requirements for spatial transcriptomic methods toward these goals, consider the challenges ahead, and describe promising applications.
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan6827
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Single-cell epigenomics: Recording the past and predicting the future
    • Authors: Kelsey, G; Stegle, O, Reik, W.
      Pages: 69 - 75
      Abstract: Single-cell multi-omics has recently emerged as a powerful technology by which different layers of genomic output—and hence cell identity and function—can be recorded simultaneously. Integrating various components of the epigenome into multi-omics measurements allows for studying cellular heterogeneity at different time scales and for discovering new layers of molecular connectivity between the genome and its functional output. Measurements that are increasingly available range from those that identify transcription factor occupancy and initiation of transcription to long-lasting and heritable epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation. Together with techniques in which cell lineage is recorded, this multilayered information will provide insights into a cell’s past history and its future potential. This will allow new levels of understanding of cell fate decisions, identity, and function in normal development, physiology, and disease.
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan6826
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Making a denser optical lattice clock
    • Authors: Stajic; J.
      Pages: 76 - 76
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.76-a
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Climate and the carbon cycle
    • Authors: Smith; H. J.
      Pages: 76 - 76
      Keywords: Ecology, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.76-b
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • From bees to honey
    • Authors: Vignieri; S.
      Pages: 76 - 76
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.76-c
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Moving lymphatic endothelial cells about
    • Authors: Wong; W.
      Pages: 76 - 76
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.76-d
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Price modulates early pain processing
    • Authors: Stern; P.
      Pages: 76 - 77
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.76-e
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Gene expression during mitosis
    • Authors: Purnell; B. A.
      Pages: 76 - 77
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.76-f
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Rapidly recognizing resistance
    • Authors: Czajka; C.
      Pages: 76 - 77
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.76-g
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Imaging the unforeseen fate of neutrophils
    • Authors: Scanlon; S. T.
      Pages: 76 - 77
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.76-h
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • How big is the proton'
    • Authors: Stajic; J.
      Pages: 76 - 78
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.76-j
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Harnessing complexity in laser light
    • Authors: Osborne; I. S.
      Pages: 76 - 78
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.76-k
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Giving grain boundaries more structure
    • Authors: Grocholski; B.
      Pages: 76 - 78
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.76-l
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Elucidating pathological fibril structure
    • Authors: Hurtley; S. M.
      Pages: 76 - 78
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.76-m
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • A revealing repertoire for systemic sclerosis
    • Authors: Fogg; C. N.
      Pages: 76 - 78
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.76-n
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Initiating lung cancer
    • Authors: Alderton; G.
      Pages: 77 - 77
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.77-a
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Regulation through clustering
    • Authors: Purnell; B. A.
      Pages: 77 - 78
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.77-b
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Smothering seeing-eye training
    • Authors: Ash; C.
      Pages: 77 - 78
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.77-c
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • How does nitrogenase spring its trap'
    • Authors: Yeston; J.
      Pages: 77 - 78
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.77-d
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • An atomic ring around the rosie
    • Authors: Stajic; J.
      Pages: 77 - 78
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.77-e
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Gut bacteria may tell human cells what to do
    • Authors: Ray; L. B.
      Pages: 77 - 78
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.77-f
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • An expanding shell around an evolved star
    • Authors: Smith; K. T.
      Pages: 77 - 78
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.77-g
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • The Rydberg constant and proton size from atomic hydrogen
    • Authors: Beyer, A; Maisenbacher, L, Matveev, A, Pohl, R, Khabarova, K, Grinin, A, Lamour, T, Yost, D. C, Hänsch, T. W, Kolachevsky, N, Udem, T.
      Pages: 79 - 85
      Abstract: At the core of the "proton radius puzzle" is a four–standard deviation discrepancy between the proton root-mean-square charge radii (rp) determined from the regular hydrogen (H) and the muonic hydrogen (µp) atoms. Using a cryogenic beam of H atoms, we measured the 2S-4P transition frequency in H, yielding the values of the Rydberg constant R = 10973731.568076(96) per meterand rp = 0.8335(95) femtometer. Our rp value is 3.3 combined standard deviations smaller than the previous H world data, but in good agreement with the µp value. We motivate an asymmetric fit function, which eliminates line shifts from quantum interference of neighboring atomic resonances.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aah6677
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Trispecific broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies mediate potent SHIV
           protection in macaques
    • Authors: Xu, L; Pegu, A, Rao, E, Doria-Rose, N, Beninga, J, McKee, K, Lord, D. M, Wei, R. R, Deng, G, Louder, M, Schmidt, S. D, Mankoff, Z, Wu, L, Asokan, M, Beil, C, Lange, C, Leuschner, W. D, Kruip, J, Sendak, R, Do Kwon, Y, Zhou, T, Chen, X, Bailer, R. T, Wang, K, Choe, M, Tartaglia, L. J, Barouch, D. H, ODell, S, Todd, J.-P, Burton, D. R, Roederer, M, Connors, M, Koup, R. A, Kwong, P. D, Yang, Z.-y, Mascola, J. R, Nabel, G. J.
      Pages: 85 - 90
      Abstract: The development of an effective AIDS vaccine has been challenging because of viral genetic diversity and the difficulty of generating broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). We engineered trispecific antibodies (Abs) that allow a single molecule to interact with three independent HIV-1 envelope determinants: the CD4 binding site, the membrane-proximal external region (MPER), and the V1V2 glycan site. Trispecific Abs exhibited higher potency and breadth than any previously described single bnAb, showed pharmacokinetics similar to those of human bnAbs, and conferred complete immunity against a mixture of simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) in nonhuman primates, in contrast to single bnAbs. Trispecific Abs thus constitute a platform to engage multiple therapeutic targets through a single protein, and they may be applicable for treatment of diverse diseases, including infections, cancer, and autoimmunity.
      Keywords: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases, Virology
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan8630
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • A Fermi-degenerate three-dimensional optical lattice clock
    • Authors: Campbell, S. L; Hutson, R. B, Marti, G. E, Goban, A, Darkwah Oppong, N, McNally, R. L, Sonderhouse, L, Robinson, J. M, Zhang, W, Bloom, B. J, Ye, J.
      Pages: 90 - 94
      Abstract: Strontium optical lattice clocks have the potential to simultaneously interrogate millions of atoms with a high spectroscopic quality factor of 4 x 1017. Previously, atomic interactions have forced a compromise between clock stability, which benefits from a large number of atoms, and accuracy, which suffers from density-dependent frequency shifts. Here we demonstrate a scalable solution that takes advantage of the high, correlated density of a degenerate Fermi gas in a three-dimensional (3D) optical lattice to guard against on-site interaction shifts. We show that contact interactions are resolved so that their contribution to clock shifts is orders of magnitude lower than in previous experiments. A synchronous clock comparison between two regions of the 3D lattice yields a measurement precision of 5 x 10–19 in 1 hour of averaging time.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam5538
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Spatiotemporal mode-locking in multimode fiber lasers
    • Authors: Wright, L. G; Christodoulides, D. N, Wise, F. W.
      Pages: 94 - 97
      Abstract: A laser is based on the electromagnetic modes of its resonator, which provides the feedback required for oscillation. Enormous progress has been made toward controlling the interactions of longitudinal modes in lasers with a single transverse mode. For example, the field of ultrafast science has been built on lasers that lock many longitudinal modes together to form ultrashort light pulses. However, coherent superposition of longitudinal and transverse modes in a laser has received little attention. We show that modal and chromatic dispersions in fiber lasers can be counteracted by strong spatial and spectral filtering. This allows locking of multiple transverse and longitudinal modes to create ultrashort pulses with a variety of spatiotemporal profiles. Multimode fiber lasers thus open new directions in studies of nonlinear wave propagation and capabilities for applications.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao0831
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Segregation-induced ordered superstructures at general grain boundaries in
           a nickel-bismuth alloy
    • Authors: Yu, Z; Cantwell, P. R, Gao, Q, Yin, D, Zhang, Y, Zhou, N, Rohrer, G. S, Widom, M, Luo, J, Harmer, M. P.
      Pages: 97 - 101
      Abstract: The properties of materials change, sometimes catastrophically, as alloying elements and impurities accumulate preferentially at grain boundaries. Studies of bicrystals show that regular atomic patterns often arise as a result of this solute segregation at high-symmetry boundaries, but it is not known whether superstructures exist at general grain boundaries in polycrystals. In bismuth-doped polycrystalline nickel, we found that ordered, segregation-induced grain boundary superstructures occur at randomly selected general grain boundaries, and that these reconstructions are driven by the orientation of the terminating grain surfaces rather than by lattice matching between grains. This discovery shows that adsorbate-induced superstructures are not limited to special grain boundaries but may exist at a variety of general grain boundaries, and hence they can affect the performance of polycrystalline engineering alloys.
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam8256
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Long-term pattern and magnitude of soil carbon feedback to the climate
           system in a warming world
    • Authors: Melillo, J. M; Frey, S. D, DeAngelis, K. M, Werner, W. J, Bernard, M. J, Bowles, F. P, Pold, G, Knorr, M. A, Grandy, A. S.
      Pages: 101 - 105
      Abstract: In a 26-year soil warming experiment in a mid-latitude hardwood forest, we documented changes in soil carbon cycling to investigate the potential consequences for the climate system. We found that soil warming results in a four-phase pattern of soil organic matter decay and carbon dioxide fluxes to the atmosphere, with phases of substantial soil carbon loss alternating with phases of no detectable loss. Several factors combine to affect the timing, magnitude, and thermal acclimation of soil carbon loss. These include depletion of microbially accessible carbon pools, reductions in microbial biomass, a shift in microbial carbon use efficiency, and changes in microbial community composition. Our results support projections of a long-term, self-reinforcing carbon feedback from mid-latitude forests to the climate system as the world warms.
      Keywords: Ecology, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan2874
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Interactions between brain and spinal cord mediate value effects in nocebo
           hyperalgesia
    • Authors: Tinnermann, A; Geuter, S, Sprenger, C, Finsterbusch, J, Büchel, C.
      Pages: 105 - 108
      Abstract: Value information about a drug, such as the price tag, can strongly affect its therapeutic effect. We discovered that value information influences adverse treatment outcomes in humans even in the absence of an active substance. Labeling an inert treatment as expensive medication led to stronger nocebo hyperalgesia than labeling it as cheap medication. This effect was mediated by neural interactions between cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. In particular, activity in the prefrontal cortex mediated the effect of value on nocebo hyperalgesia. Value furthermore modulated coupling between prefrontal areas, brainstem, and spinal cord, which might represent a flexible mechanism through which higher-cognitive representations, such as value, can modulate early pain processing.
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan1221
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • A worldwide survey of neonicotinoids in honey
    • Authors: Mitchell, E. A. D; Mulhauser, B, Mulot, M, Mutabazi, A, Glauser, G, Aebi, A.
      Pages: 109 - 111
      Abstract: Growing evidence for global pollinator decline is causing concern for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services maintenance. Neonicotinoid pesticides have been identified or suspected as a key factor responsible for this decline. We assessed the global exposure of pollinators to neonicotinoids by analyzing 198 honey samples from across the world. We found at least one of five tested compounds (acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) in 75% of all samples, 45% of samples contained two or more of these compounds, and 10% contained four or five. Our results confirm the exposure of bees to neonicotinoids in their food throughout the world. The coexistence of neonicotinoids and other pesticides may increase harm to pollinators. However, the concentrations detected are below the maximum residue level authorized for human consumption (average ± standard error for positive samples: 1.8 ± 0.56 nanograms per gram).
      Keywords: Chemistry, Ecology
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan3684
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Visualizing the function and fate of neutrophils in sterile injury and
           repair
    • Authors: Wang, J; Hossain, M, Thanabalasuriar, A, Gunzer, M, Meininger, C, Kubes, P.
      Pages: 111 - 116
      Abstract: Neutrophils have been implicated as harmful cells in a variety of inappropriate inflammatory conditions where they injure the host, leading to the death of the neutrophils and their subsequent phagocytosis by monocytes and macrophages. Here we show that in a fully repairing sterile thermal hepatic injury, neutrophils also penetrate the injury site and perform the critical tasks of dismantling injured vessels and creating channels for new vascular regrowth. Upon completion of these tasks, they neither die at the injury site nor are phagocytosed. Instead, many of these neutrophils reenter the vasculature and have a preprogrammed journey that entails a sojourn in the lungs to up-regulate CXCR4 (C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4) before entering the bone marrow, where they undergo apoptosis.
      Keywords: Immunology
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam9690
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Fibril structure of amyloid-{beta}(1-42) by cryo-electron microscopy
    • Authors: Gremer, L; Schölzel, D, Schenk, C, Reinartz, E, Labahn, J, Ravelli, R. B. G, Tusche, M, Lopez-Iglesias, C, Hoyer, W, Heise, H, Willbold, D, Schröder, G. F.
      Pages: 116 - 119
      Abstract: Amyloids are implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Fibrillar aggregates of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ) are the main component of the senile plaques found in brains of Alzheimer’s disease patients. We present the structure of an Aβ(1–42) fibril composed of two intertwined protofilaments determined by cryo–electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to 4.0-angstrom resolution, complemented by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. The backbone of all 42 residues and nearly all side chains are well resolved in the EM density map, including the entire N terminus, which is part of the cross-β structure resulting in an overall "LS"-shaped topology of individual subunits. The dimer interface protects the hydrophobic C termini from the solvent. The characteristic staggering of the nonplanar subunits results in markedly different fibril ends, termed "groove" and "ridge," leading to different binding pathways on both fibril ends, which has implications for fibril growth.
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao2825
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Mitotic transcription and waves of gene reactivation during mitotic exit
    • Authors: Palozola, K. C; Donahue, G, Liu, H, Grant, G. R, Becker, J. S, Cote, A, Yu, H, Raj, A, Zaret, K. S.
      Pages: 119 - 122
      Abstract: Although the genome is generally thought to be transcriptionally silent during mitosis, technical limitations have prevented sensitive mapping of transcription during mitosis and mitotic exit. Thus, the means by which the interphase expression pattern is transduced to daughter cells have been unclear. We used 5-ethynyluridine to pulse-label transcripts during mitosis and mitotic exit and found that many genes exhibit transcription during mitosis, as confirmed with fluorescein isothiocyanate–uridine 5'-triphosphate labeling, RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The first round of transcription immediately after mitosis primarily activates genes involved in the growth and rebuilding of daughter cells, rather than cell type–specific functions. We propose that the cell’s transcription pattern is largely retained at a low level through mitosis, whereas the amplitude of transcription observed in interphase is reestablished during mitotic exit.
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aal4671
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • New Products
    • Pages: 123 - 123
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.123-a
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Webinar Overcoming the evils of fixation and storage: Getting the most out
           of your FFPE samples
    • Authors: Gupta, M; (Zhihong) Zhang, J, Strengman, E. E.
      Pages: 123 - 123
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Development, Medicine, Diseases, Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.123-b
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
  • Hard data and human empathy
    • Authors: Collins; D.
      Pages: 142 - 142
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T10:33:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.358.6359.142
      Issue No: Vol. 358, No. 6359 (2017)
       
 
 
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