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Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 14.142
Citation Impact (citeScore): 16
Number of Followers: 4594  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
Published by AAAS Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Linkages between flow regime, biota, and ecosystem processes: Implications
           for river restoration
    • Authors: Palmer, M; Ruhi, A.
      Abstract: River ecosystems are highly biodiverse, influence global biogeochemical cycles, and provide valued services. However, humans are increasingly degrading fluvial ecosystems by altering their streamflows. Effective river restoration requires advancing our mechanistic understanding of how flow regimes affect biota and ecosystem processes. Here, we review emerging advances in hydroecology relevant to this goal. Spatiotemporal variation in flow exerts direct and indirect control on the composition, structure, and dynamics of communities at local to regional scales. Streamflows also influence ecosystem processes, such as nutrient uptake and transformation, organic matter processing, and ecosystem metabolism. We are deepening our understanding of how biological processes, not just static patterns, affect and are affected by stream ecosystem processes. However, research on this nexus of flow-biota-ecosystem processes is at an early stage. We illustrate this frontier with evidence from highly altered regulated rivers and urban streams. We also identify research challenges that should be prioritized to advance process-based river restoration.
      Keywords: Atmospheric Science, Ecology, Online Only
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T11:46:49-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw2087
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • The need to stabilize global climate
    • Authors: Sugden A. M.
      Pages: 1262
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1260-i
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Global trends in antimicrobial resistance in animals in low- and
           middle-income countries
    • Authors: Van Boeckel, T. P; Pires, J, Silvester, R, Zhao, C, Song, J, Criscuolo, N. G, Gilbert, M, Bonhoeffer, S, Laxminarayan, R.
      Abstract: The global scale-up in demand for animal protein is the most notable dietary trend of our time. Antimicrobial consumption in animals is threefold that of humans and has enabled large-scale animal protein production. The consequences for the development of antimicrobial resistance in animals have received comparatively less attention than in humans. We analyzed 901 point prevalence surveys of pathogens in developing countries to map resistance in animals. China and India represented the largest hotspots of resistance, with new hotspots emerging in Brazil and Kenya. From 2000 to 2018, the proportion of antimicrobials showing resistance above 50% increased from 0.15 to 0.41 in chickens and from 0.13 to 0.34 in pigs. Escalating resistance in animals is anticipated to have important consequences for animal health and, eventually, for human health.
      Keywords: Ecology, Epidemiology, Online Only
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw1944
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • A lineage-resolved molecular atlas of C. elegans embryogenesis at
           single-cell resolution
    • Authors: Packer, J. S; Zhu, Q, Huynh, C, Sivaramakrishnan, P, Preston, E, Dueck, H, Stefanik, D, Tan, K, Trapnell, C, Kim, J, Waterston, R. H, Murray, J. I.
      Abstract: Caenorhabditis elegans is an animal with few cells but a wide diversity of cell types. In this study, we characterize the molecular basis for their specification by profiling the transcriptomes of 86,024 single embryonic cells. We identify 502 terminal and preterminal cell types, mapping most single-cell transcriptomes to their exact position in C. elegans’ invariant lineage. Using these annotations, we find that (i) the correlation between a cell’s lineage and its transcriptome increases from middle to late gastrulation, then falls substantially as cells in the nervous system and pharynx adopt their terminal fates; (ii) multilineage priming contributes to the differentiation of sister cells at dozens of lineage branches; and (iii) most distinct lineages that produce the same anatomical cell type converge to a homogenous transcriptomic state.
      Keywords: Development, Molecular Biology, Online Only
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax1971
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • The human imperative of stabilizing global climate change at 1.5{degrees}C
    • Authors: Hoegh-Guldberg, O; Jacob, D, Taylor, M, Guillen Bolanos, T, Bindi, M, Brown, S, Camilloni, I. A, Diedhiou, A, Djalante, R, Ebi, K, Engelbrecht, F, Guiot, J, Hijioka, Y, Mehrotra, S, Hope, C. W, Payne, A. J, Pörtner, H.- O, Seneviratne, S. I, Thomas, A, Warren, R, Zhou, G.
      Abstract: Increased concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases have led to a global mean surface temperature 1.0°C higher than during the pre-industrial period. We expand on the recent IPCC Special Report on global warming of 1.5°C and review the additional risks associated with higher levels of warming, each having major implications for multiple geographies, climates, and ecosystems. Limiting warming to 1.5°C rather than 2.0°C would be required to maintain substantial proportions of ecosystems and would have clear benefits for human health and economies. These conclusions are relevant for people everywhere, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, where the escalation of climate-related risks may prevent the achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.
      Keywords: Ecology, Online Only
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw6974
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Comment on "Revised paleoaltimetry data show low Tibetan Plateau elevation
           during the Eocene"
    • Authors: Valdes, P. J; Lin, D, Farnsworth, A, Spicer, R. A, Li, S.-H, Tao, S.
      Abstract: Botsyun et al. (Research Articles, 1 March 2019, eaaq1436) have suggested that the Tibetan Plateau was low (substantially less than 3000 meters) during the Eocene, based on a comparison of oxygen isotope proxy data with isotope-enabled climate model simulations. However, we contend that their conclusions are flawed as the result of a number of failings of both the modeling and the data comparison.
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax8474
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Response to Comment on "Revised paleoaltimetry data show low Tibetan
           Plateau elevation during the Eocene"
    • Authors: Botsyun, S; Sepulchre, P, Donnadieu, Y, Risi, C, Licht, A, Caves Rugenstein, J. K.
      Abstract: Valdes et al. contest our results, suggesting failings in our modeling approach as well as in our comparison with data. Although their comment points to interesting ideas of improvement, we find that their critique reflects an incomplete understanding of our methods and is not supported by the material they provide.
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax8990
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • 400 years and (re)counting
    • Authors: Malcom S. M.
      Pages: 1221 - 1221
      Keywords: Editorials
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz4970
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • News at a glance
    • Pages: 1226 - 1227
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1226
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Billions of North American birds have vanished
    • Authors: Pennisi E.
      Pages: 1228 - 1229
      Keywords: Animal Behavior, Ecology
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1228
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • New deals could help scientific societies survive open access
    • Authors: Brainard J.
      Pages: 1229 - 1229
      Keywords: Science and Business, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1229
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Dust from asteroid breakup veiled and cooled Earth
    • Authors: Sokol J.
      Pages: 1230 - 1230
      Keywords: Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1230
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • EPA plan to end animal testing splits scientists
    • Authors: Grimm D.
      Pages: 1231 - 1231
      Keywords: Scientific Community, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1231
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Face of the mysterious Denisovans emerges
    • Authors: Price M.
      Pages: 1232 - 1232
      Keywords: Anthropology, Evolution
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1232
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • A new 'Blob menaces Pacific ecosystems
    • Authors: Cornwall W.
      Pages: 1233 - 1233
      Keywords: Oceanography
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1233
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • GM mosquito study draws fire
    • Authors: Servick K.
      Pages: 1234 - 1234
      Keywords: Genetics, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1234
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Sickle cell drug raises hopes and doubts
    • Authors: Wadman M.
      Pages: 1235 - 1235
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1235
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Renewable bonds
    • Authors: Service R. F.
      Pages: 1236 - 1239
      Keywords: Chemistry, Energy
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1236
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • A climate intelligence arms race in financial markets
    • Authors: Keenan J. M.
      Pages: 1240 - 1243
      Keywords: Economics, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay8442
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • An aging phenotype in the wild
    • Authors: Gaillard, J.-M; Lemaitre, J.-F.
      Pages: 1244 - 1245
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay9493
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • An atomic-scale view of cyclocarbon synthesis
    • Authors: Maier S.
      Pages: 1245 - 1246
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay7461
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Countering opioid side effects
    • Authors: Lindsay, N. M; Scherrer, G.
      Pages: 1246 - 1247
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay9345
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • "Weyl"ing away time-reversal symmetry
    • Authors: da Silva Neto E. H.
      Pages: 1248 - 1249
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax6190
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Cleaning up plastic pollution in Africa
    • Authors: Adebiyi-Abiola, B; Assefa, S, Sheikh, K, Garcia, J. M.
      Pages: 1249 - 1251
      Keywords: Computers, Mathematics, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax3539
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Changes in antibiotic resistance in animals
    • Authors: Moore C. E.
      Pages: 1251 - 1252
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay9652
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • John Robert Schrieffer (1931-2019)
    • Authors: Scalapino, D; Kivelson, S. A.
      Pages: 1253 - 1253
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz2849
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Preparing for the unthinkable
    • Authors: Baum S. D.
      Pages: 1254 - 1254
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay4219
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Only the strongest hive will survive
    • Authors: Chuang A.
      Pages: 1255 - 1255
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz1804
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Solve the biodiversity crisis with funding
    • Authors: Malcom, J; Schwartz, M. W, Evansen, M, Ripple, W. J, Polasky, S, Gerber, L. R, Lovejoy, T. E, Talbot, L. M, Miller, J. R. B, 1648 signatories
      Pages: 1256 - 1256
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay9839
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • On reporting scientific and racial history
    • Authors: Wynn-Grant R.
      Pages: 1256 - 1257
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay2459
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Editor's Note
    • Authors: Appenzeller T.
      Pages: 1257 - 1257
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz4872
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • A new scientific agenda for Mexico
    • Authors: Alvarez-Buylla Roces M. E.
      Pages: 1257 - 1258
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz0488
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Extinction leads to restructuring
    • Authors: Vignieri S.
      Pages: 1260 - 1260
      Keywords: Ecology, Paleontology
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1260-a
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Catch and release
    • Authors: Vinson V.
      Pages: 1260 - 1260
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1260-b
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Magnetic Weyl semimetals
    • Authors: Stajic J.
      Pages: 1260 - 1260
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1260-c
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Priming responses to checkpoint blockade
    • Authors: Balasubramani A.
      Pages: 1260 - 1261
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1260-d
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Taking RV144 beyond Thailand
    • Authors: Pujanandez L.
      Pages: 1260 - 1261
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1260-e
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • A brain pathway for active forgetting
    • Authors: Stern P.
      Pages: 1260 - 1261
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1260-f
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Worms yield opioid receptor insight
    • Authors: Ray L. B.
      Pages: 1260 - 1261
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1260-g
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Tracking nucleic acids in living cells
    • Authors: Mao S.
      Pages: 1260 - 1261
      Keywords: Molecular Biology, Techniques
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1260-h
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • River restoration guided by research
    • Authors: Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink J.
      Pages: 1260 - 1262
      Keywords: Atmospheric Science, Ecology
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1260-j
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Identifying terminal nematode cells
    • Authors: Zahn L. M.
      Pages: 1260 - 1262
      Keywords: Development, Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1260-k
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Livestock antibiotic resistance
    • Authors: Ash C.
      Pages: 1260 - 1262
      Keywords: Ecology, Epidemiology
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1260-l
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • The topology of line nodes
    • Authors: Stajic J.
      Pages: 1260 - 1262
      Keywords: Materials Science, Physics
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1260-m
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • An 18-member carbon ring
    • Authors: Szuromi P.
      Pages: 1260 - 1262
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1260-n
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • The decline of resistance in old age
    • Authors: Ash C.
      Pages: 1260 - 1262
      Keywords: Ecology, Evolution
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1260-o
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Flood-resistance from gene regulation
    • Authors: Hines P. J.
      Pages: 1260 - 1262
      Keywords: Botany
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1260-p
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Tumors metabolically paralyze T cells
    • Authors: Foley J. F.
      Pages: 1260 - 1262
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1260-q
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • How learning to read changes the brain
    • Authors: LaMarco K.
      Pages: 1260 - 1262
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1260-r
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Reorganization to initiate ovulation
    • Authors: Purnell B. A.
      Pages: 1261 - 1261
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1261-a
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • A haven for T cells
    • Authors: Scanlon S. T.
      Pages: 1261 - 1261
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1261-b
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • The perils of pests
    • Authors: Sugden A. M.
      Pages: 1261 - 1262
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1261-c
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • To boldly claim
    • Authors: Ash C.
      Pages: 1261 - 1262
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1261-d
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Experimental oxygen redox energetics
    • Authors: Suleymanov Y.
      Pages: 1261 - 1262
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1261-e
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Modeling trade to discover lost cities
    • Authors: Rai T. S.
      Pages: 1261 - 1262
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1261-f
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • A mineral solution for LLSVPs
    • Authors: Grocholski B.
      Pages: 1261 - 1262
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1261-g
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Genetic behavioral screen identifies an orphan anti-opioid system
    • Authors: Wang, D; Stoveken, H. M, Zucca, S, Dao, M, Orlandi, C, Song, C, Masuho, I, Johnston, C, Opperman, K. J, Giles, A. C, Gill, M. S, Lundquist, E. A, Grill, B, Martemyanov, K. A.
      Pages: 1267 - 1273
      Abstract: Opioids target the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) to produce unrivaled pain management, but their addictive properties can lead to severe abuse. We developed a whole-animal behavioral platform for unbiased discovery of genes influencing opioid responsiveness. Using forward genetics in Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified a conserved orphan receptor, GPR139, with anti-opioid activity. GPR139 is coexpressed with MOR in opioid-sensitive brain circuits, binds to MOR, and inhibits signaling to heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding proteins (G proteins). Deletion of GPR139 in mice enhanced opioid-induced inhibition of neuronal firing to modulate morphine-induced analgesia, reward, and withdrawal. Thus, GPR139 could be a useful target for increasing opioid safety. These results also demonstrate the potential of C. elegans as a scalable platform for genetic discovery of G protein–coupled receptor signaling principles.
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau2078
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Non-Abelian band topology in noninteracting metals
    • Authors: Wu, Q; Soluyanov, A. A, Bzdusek, T.
      Pages: 1273 - 1277
      Abstract: Electron energy bands of crystalline solids generically exhibit degeneracies called band-structure nodes. Here, we introduce non-Abelian topological charges that characterize line nodes inside the momentum space of crystalline metals with space-time inversion (PT) symmetry and with weak spin-orbit coupling. We show that these are quaternion charges, similar to those describing disclinations in biaxial nematics. Starting from two-band considerations, we develop the complete many-band description of nodes in the presence of PT and mirror symmetries, which allows us to investigate the topological stability of nodal chains in metals. The non-Abelian charges put strict constraints on the possible nodal-line configurations. Our analysis goes beyond the standard approach to band topology and implies the existence of one-dimensional topological phases not present in existing classifications.
      Keywords: Materials Science, Physics
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau8740
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Discovery of topological Weyl fermion lines and drumhead surface states in
           a room temperature magnet
    • Authors: Belopolski, I; Manna, K, Sanchez, D. S, Chang, G, Ernst, B, Yin, J, Zhang, S. S, Cochran, T, Shumiya, N, Zheng, H, Singh, B, Bian, G, Multer, D, Litskevich, M, Zhou, X, Huang, S.-M, Wang, B, Chang, T.-R, Xu, S.-Y, Bansil, A, Felser, C, Lin, H, Hasan, M. Z.
      Pages: 1278 - 1281
      Abstract: Topological matter is known to exhibit unconventional surface states and anomalous transport owing to unusual bulk electronic topology. In this study, we use photoemission spectroscopy and quantum transport to elucidate the topology of the room temperature magnet Co2MnGa. We observe sharp bulk Weyl fermion line dispersions indicative of nontrivial topological invariants present in the magnetic phase. On the surface of the magnet, we observe electronic wave functions that take the form of drumheads, enabling us to directly visualize the crucial components of the bulk-boundary topological correspondence. By considering the Berry curvature field associated with the observed topological Weyl fermion lines, we quantitatively account for the giant anomalous Hall response observed in this magnet. Our experimental results suggest a rich interplay of strongly interacting electrons and topology in quantum matter.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav2327
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Magnetic Weyl semimetal phase in a Kagome crystal
    • Authors: Liu, D. F; Liang, A. J, Liu, E. K, Xu, Q. N, Li, Y. W, Chen, C, Pei, D, Shi, W. J, Mo, S. K, Dudin, P, Kim, T, Cacho, C, Li, G, Sun, Y, Yang, L. X, Liu, Z. K, Parkin, S. S. P, Felser, C, Chen, Y. L.
      Pages: 1282 - 1285
      Abstract: Weyl semimetals are crystalline solids that host emergent relativistic Weyl fermions and have characteristic surface Fermi-arcs in their electronic structure. Weyl semimetals with broken time reversal symmetry are difficult to identify unambiguously. In this work, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we visualized the electronic structure of the ferromagnetic crystal Co3Sn2S2 and discovered its characteristic surface Fermi-arcs and linear bulk band dispersions across the Weyl points. These results establish Co3Sn2S2 as a magnetic Weyl semimetal that may serve as a platform for realizing phenomena such as chiral magnetic effects, unusually large anomalous Hall effect and quantum anomalous Hall effect.
      Keywords: Materials Science, Physics
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav2873
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Fermi-arc diversity on surface terminations of the magnetic Weyl semimetal
           Co3Sn2S2
    • Authors: Morali, N; Batabyal, R, Nag, P. K, Liu, E, Xu, Q, Sun, Y, Yan, B, Felser, C, Avraham, N, Beidenkopf, H.
      Pages: 1286 - 1291
      Abstract: Bulk–surface correspondence in Weyl semimetals ensures the formation of topological "Fermi arc" surface bands whose existence is guaranteed by bulk Weyl nodes. By investigating three distinct surface terminations of the ferromagnetic semimetal Co3Sn2S2, we verify spectroscopically its classification as a time-reversal symmetry-broken Weyl semimetal. We show that the distinct surface potentials imposed by three different terminations modify the Fermi-arc contour and Weyl node connectivity. On the tin (Sn) surface, we identify intra–Brillouin zone Weyl node connectivity of Fermi arcs, whereas on cobalt (Co) termination, the connectivity is across adjacent Brillouin zones. On the sulfur (S) surface, Fermi arcs overlap with nontopological bulk and surface states. We thus resolve both topologically protected and nonprotected electronic properties of a Weyl semimetal.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav2334
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Evolutionary flexibility in flooding response circuitry in angiosperms
    • Authors: Reynoso, M. A; Kajala, K, Bajic, M, West, D. A, Pauluzzi, G, Yao, A. I, Hatch, K, Zumstein, K, Woodhouse, M, Rodriguez-Medina, J, Sinha, N, Brady, S. M, Deal, R. B, Bailey-Serres, J.
      Pages: 1291 - 1295
      Abstract: Flooding due to extreme weather threatens crops and ecosystems. To understand variation in gene regulatory networks activated by submergence, we conducted a high-resolution analysis of chromatin accessibility and gene expression at three scales of transcript control in four angiosperms, ranging from a dryland-adapted wild species to a wetland crop. The data define a cohort of conserved submergence-activated genes with signatures of overlapping cis regulation by four transcription factor families. Syntenic genes are more highly expressed than nonsyntenic genes, yet both can have the cis motifs and chromatin accessibility associated with submergence up-regulation. Whereas the flexible circuitry spans the eudicot-monocot divide, the frequency of specific cis motifs, extent of chromatin accessibility, and degree of submergence activation are more prevalent in the wetland crop and may have adaptive importance.
      Keywords: Botany
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax8862
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Senescence in immunity against helminth parasites predicts adult mortality
           in a wild mammal
    • Authors: Froy, H; Sparks, A. M, Watt, K, Sinclair, R, Bach, F, Pilkington, J. G, Pemberton, J. M, McNeilly, T. N, Nussey, D. H.
      Pages: 1296 - 1298
      Abstract: Our understanding of the deterioration in immune function in old age—immunosenescence—derives principally from studies of modern human populations and laboratory animals. The generality and significance of this process for systems experiencing complex, natural infections and environmental challenges are unknown. Here, we show that late-life declines in an important immune marker of resistance to helminth parasites in wild Soay sheep predict overwinter mortality. We found senescence in circulating antibody levels against a highly prevalent nematode worm, which was associated with reduced adult survival probability, independent of changes in body weight. These findings establish a role for immunosenescence in the ecology and evolution of natural populations.
      Keywords: Ecology, Evolution
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw5822
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • An sp-hybridized molecular carbon allotrope, cyclo[18]carbon
    • Authors: Kaiser, K; Scriven, L. M, Schulz, F, Gawel, P, Gross, L, Anderson, H. L.
      Pages: 1299 - 1301
      Abstract: Carbon allotropes built from rings of two-coordinate atoms, known as cyclo[n]carbons, have fascinated chemists for many years, but until now they could not be isolated or structurally characterized because of their high reactivity. We generated cyclo[18]carbon (C18) using atom manipulation on bilayer NaCl on Cu(111) at 5 kelvin by eliminating carbon monoxide from a cyclocarbon oxide molecule, C24O6. Characterization of cyclo[18]carbon by high-resolution atomic force microscopy revealed a polyynic structure with defined positions of alternating triple and single bonds. The high reactivity of cyclocarbon and cyclocarbon oxides allows covalent coupling between molecules to be induced by atom manipulation, opening an avenue for the synthesis of other carbon allotropes and carbon-rich materials from the coalescence of cyclocarbon molecules.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay1914
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • CRISPR-mediated live imaging of genome editing and transcription
    • Authors: Wang, H; Nakamura, M, Abbott, T. R, Zhao, D, Luo, K, Yu, C, Nguyen, C. M, Lo, A, Daley, T. P, La Russa, M, Liu, Y, Qi, L. S.
      Pages: 1301 - 1305
      Abstract: We report a robust, versatile approach called CRISPR live-cell fluorescent in situ hybridization (LiveFISH) using fluorescent oligonucleotides for genome tracking in a broad range of cell types, including primary cells. An intrinsic stability switch of CRISPR guide RNAs enables LiveFISH to accurately detect chromosomal disorders such as Patau syndrome in prenatal amniotic fluid cells and track multiple loci in human T lymphocytes. In addition, LiveFISH tracks the real-time movement of DNA double-strand breaks induced by CRISPR-Cas9–mediated editing and consequent chromosome translocations. Finally, by combining Cas9 and Cas13 systems, LiveFISH allows for simultaneous visualization of genomic DNA and RNA transcripts in living cells. The LiveFISH approach enables real-time live imaging of DNA and RNA during genome editing, transcription, and rearrangements in single cells.
      Keywords: Molecular Biology, Techniques
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax7852
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Reorganization of surviving mammal communities after the end-Pleistocene
           megafaunal extinction
    • Authors: Toth, A. B; Lyons, S. K, Barr, W. A, Behrensmeyer, A. K, Blois, J. L, Bobe, R, Davis, M, Du, A, Eronen, J. T, Faith, J. T, Fraser, D, Gotelli, N. J, Graves, G. R, Jukar, A. M, Miller, J. H, Pineda-Munoz, S, Soul, L. C, Villasenor, A, Alroy, J.
      Pages: 1305 - 1308
      Abstract: Large mammals are at high risk of extinction globally. To understand the consequences of their demise for community assembly, we tracked community structure through the end-Pleistocene megafaunal extinction in North America. We decomposed the effects of biotic and abiotic factors by analyzing co-occurrence within the mutual ranges of species pairs. Although shifting climate drove an increase in niche overlap, co-occurrence decreased, signaling shifts in biotic interactions. Furthermore, the effect of abiotic factors on co-occurrence remained constant over time while the effect of biotic factors decreased. Biotic factors apparently played a key role in continental-scale community assembly before the extinctions. Specifically, large mammals likely promoted co-occurrence in the Pleistocene, and their loss contributed to the modern assembly pattern in which co-occurrence frequently falls below random expectations.
      Keywords: Ecology, Paleontology
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw1605
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • REM sleep-active MCH neurons are involved in forgetting
           hippocampus-dependent memories
    • Authors: Izawa, S; Chowdhury, S, Miyazaki, T, Mukai, Y, Ono, D, Inoue, R, Ohmura, Y, Mizoguchi, H, Kimura, K, Yoshioka, M, Terao, A, Kilduff, T. S, Yamanaka, A.
      Pages: 1308 - 1313
      Abstract: The neural mechanisms underlying memory regulation during sleep are not yet fully understood. We found that melanin concentrating hormone–producing neurons (MCH neurons) in the hypothalamus actively contribute to forgetting in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Hypothalamic MCH neurons densely innervated the dorsal hippocampus. Activation or inhibition of MCH neurons impaired or improved hippocampus-dependent memory, respectively. Activation of MCH nerve terminals in vitro reduced firing of hippocampal pyramidal neurons by increasing inhibitory inputs. Wake- and REM sleep–active MCH neurons were distinct populations that were randomly distributed in the hypothalamus. REM sleep state–dependent inhibition of MCH neurons impaired hippocampus-dependent memory without affecting sleep architecture or quality. REM sleep–active MCH neurons in the hypothalamus are thus involved in active forgetting in the hippocampus.
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax9238
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Structural basis for client recognition and activity of Hsp40 chaperones
    • Authors: Jiang, Y; Rossi, P, Kalodimos, C. G.
      Pages: 1313 - 1319
      Abstract: Hsp70 and Hsp40 chaperones work synergistically in a wide range of biological processes including protein synthesis, membrane translocation, and folding. We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the solution structure and dynamic features of an Hsp40 in complex with an unfolded client protein. Atomic structures of the various binding sites in the client complexed to the binding domains of the Hsp40 reveal the recognition pattern. Hsp40 engages the client in a highly dynamic fashion using a multivalent binding mechanism that alters the folding properties of the client. Different Hsp40 family members have different numbers of client-binding sites with distinct sequence selectivity, providing additional mechanisms for activity regulation and function modification. Hsp70 binding to Hsp40 displaces the unfolded client. The activity of Hsp40 is altered in its complex with Hsp70, further regulating client binding and release.
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aax1280
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Gordon Research Conferences
    • Pages: 1320 - 1328
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1320
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • New Products
    • Pages: 1333 - 1333
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1333-a
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • Technology Feature When robots sleep, do they dream of algorithms'
    • Authors: Dove A.
      Pages: 1333 - 1333
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1333-b
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
  • What industry can teach academia
    • Authors: Mao Y.
      Pages: 1342 - 1342
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T10:40:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.365.6459.1342
      Issue No: Vol. 365, No. 6459 (2019)
       
 
 
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