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Journal Cover Science
  [SJR: 13.217]   [H-I: 915]   [2857 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
   Published by AAAS Homepage  [6 journals]
  • [Editorial] What now for science'
    • Authors: Rush Holt
      Abstract: Faced with the uncertainty of what the 2016 U.S. presidential election means for science, we may find some reassurance in understanding that the health of the nation's scientific enterprise depends on much more than the attitudes of the particular person who is president. We must not forget that members of Congress and other national, state, local, and international officials also make policy and collectively constitute a considerable force that is in many ways more influential than the president alone. There is now important work to do ensuring that all citizenry, including the president, understand the powerful benefits of science and that decisions made with scientific input are more likely to succeed.Author: Rush Holt
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aal4180
  • [In Brief] News at a glance
    • Abstract: In science news around the world, a new containment structure slides into place over a Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant reactor, scientists in Argentina brace for budget cuts in 2017, a new report finds that harm reduction strategies for illegal drug injectors are underused, a U.K. parliamentary committee warns that the government needs to ensure that research is at the center of Brexit negotiations, and the U.S. Surgeon General calls for accelerating research on alcohol and drug addiction. Also, Science discusses censorship research with computer scientist Phillipa Gill of the University of Massachusetts in Amherst. And a new interactive visualization tool lets users monitor air pollution around the planet in real time.
      Keywords: SCI COMMUN
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.948
  • [In Depth] Republicans ready a regulatory rollback
    • Authors: David Malakoff
      Abstract: Get ready for a regulatory reckoning. President-elect Donald Trump and a Republican-dominated Congress are poised to erase scores of science-rooted regulations and directives issued by President Barack Obama and his administration. Likely targets include rules and executive orders that aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, require agencies to consider climate change as they make policy, protect sensitive environments from energy development, and improve public health. Many will take time to undo, but a seldom-used law could enable Congress to make quick work of some regulations. The same law could have consequences that far outlast a Trump presidency, because it lets Congress bar agencies from subsequently issuing rules that are "substantially the same" as those it kills. At issue are the 2000 to 3000 regulations that federal agencies issue every year (which typically carry the weight of law), as well as some 200 Obama executive orders and presidential memoranda (which carry less weight because they can be rescinded by another president).Author: David Malakoff
      Keywords: U.S. Policy
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.951
  • [In Depth] Gas changes signal eruptions
    • Authors: Julia Rosen
      Abstract: By monitoring gases emitted from the mouths of volcanoes, scientists could provide days to weeks of warning before an eruption. The latest evidence comes from studies of volcanoes monitored as part of the Volcano Deep Earth Carbon Degassing initiative, where scientists used hardy, long-lived sensors to measure the ratio of carbon to sulfur gases emitted before eruptions. In principle, a jump in the ratio can signal when a fresh injection of magma is rising from deep in the crust—a prelude to an eruption. The ratio changes because carbon dioxide dissolved in rising magma bubbles out at depths of 10 kilometers or more, as the pressure drops. Sulfur-rich gases, in contrast, stay in solution up to shallower depths. A spike in the ratio provides warning that a batch of magma has risen above a deep threshold. A subsequent drop in the ratio could indicate that the magma has climbed farther still, to depths where sulfur gases are released, but this has not been observed reliably. The studies offer hope that geochemical monitoring of gases could someday join the two geophysical mainstays of forecasting: tracking the swelling of Earth's surface and the rise in the earthquakes that typically precedes eruptions.Author: Julia Rosen
      Keywords: Volcanology
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.952
  • [In Depth] Catching ancient maize domestication in the act
    • Authors: Jessica Boddy
      Abstract: In a dramatic example of the power of domestication, beginning some 9000 years ago people in Mexico and the U.S. Southwest transformed the unappetizing grass called teosinte into the many-kerneled maize that today feeds hundreds of millions around the world. Researchers had already identified a handful of genes involved in this transformation. Now, studies of ancient DNA by two independent research groups show what was happening to the plant's genes middomestication, about 5000 years ago. The snapshot reveals exactly how the genetics changed over time as generations of people selected plants with their preferred traits.Author: Jessica Boddy
      Keywords: Archaeology
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.953
  • [In Depth] Graveyard of cold slabs mapped in Earth's mantle
    • Authors: Paul Voosen
      Abstract: The x-ray of Earth's interior is coming into focus. In December, at a meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco, California, a team of Dutch scientists will announce a catalog of 100 tectonic plates that have descended into the mantle, with information about their age, size, and related surface rock records, based on their own imaging and other studies. This "atlas of the underworld" is part of a movement by geoscientists to rewind the clock on ocean crust lost to subduction, allowing them to reconstruct the sizes and locations of ancient oceans, along with points where mountains rose and later eroded away, their traces visible only in unexplained rock records. Although imaging uncertainties remain, these scientists could be inaugurating a new discipline, which some call "slab tectonics."Author: Paul Voosen
      Keywords: Geophysics
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.954
  • [In Depth] Rogue protein's partners offer hope in Parkinson's disease
    • Authors: Meredith Wadman
      Abstract: It has been 8 years since an astonishing observation persuaded many scientists that the misfolded protein implicated in Parkinson's disease spreads from brain cell to brain cell, like an infection. Last week, findings presented at the huge annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience further buttressed the theory that spread of the rogue protein, called α-synuclein, is responsible for the progressive disease, which is marked by tremor, stiff movements, depression, and, ultimately, dementia. Scientists at the San Diego, California, conference also described their discovery that an obscure protein carried on the cell membranes of neurons and other brain cells blocks the uptake of the α-synuclein into cells. Little is known about TM9SF2, but it is part of a family of proteins that span the cell membrane and indications are that it may work to transport specific molecules from the outside to the inside of the cell. It is made in abundance in the brain, especially in regions where damage to dopamine-producing neurons is known to give rise to Parkinson's. If it emerges that it is indeed a "catcher's mitt" for α-synuclein, it could provide a drug target for a disease whose 10 million sufferers are sorely in need of new medicines. The same goes for another cell membrane protein, LAG-3, which is present in neurons and which was recently described in Science as binding tightly to the rogue Parkinson's protein.Author: Meredith Wadman
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.956
  • [Feature] The wanderers
    • Authors: Ann Gibbons
      Abstract: The famous site of Dmanisi, Georgia, offers an unparalleled glimpse into a harsh early chapter in human evolution, when primitive members of our genus Homo struggled to survive in a new land far north of their ancestors' African home, braving winters without clothes or fire and competing with fierce carnivores for meat. The 4-hectare site has yielded beautifully preserved fossils that are the oldest hominins known outside of Africa, including five skulls, about 50 skeletal bones, and an as-yet-unpublished pelvis unearthed 2 years ago. These fossils are showing that the first hominins to leave Africa were startlingly primitive, with small bodies about 1.5 meters tall, simple tools, and brains one-third to one-half the size of modern humans'.Author: Ann Gibbons
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.958
  • [Letter] Research night owls
    • Keywords: Ingenuity: Nextgen's Vision
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.964
  • [Perspective] Proinflammatory primates
    • Authors: Robert M. Sapolsky
      Abstract: If you have the choice, don't be a low-ranking, female rhesus monkey. As with many primates, rhesus social groups feature stable, linear dominance hierarchies. Those at the bottom work harder for their calories, have less access to social support (e.g., grooming), and are more subject to displacement aggression from a dominant individual (1). Not surprisingly, primate social subordination can produce adverse health outcomes. Depending on the species, gender, and setting, this includes elevated concentrations of glucocorticoids (the adrenal steroids secreted during stressful situations) and increased rates of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and reproductive dysfunction (2). On page 1041 of this issue, Snyder-Mackler et al. (3) show that primate social subordination promotes a proinflammatory response. Do the trials, tribulations, and inflammatory states of rhesus monkeys apply to us'Author: Robert M. Sapolsky
      Keywords: Gene Expression
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aal3170
  • [Perspective] Closing the loop
    • Authors: Beth Levine
      Abstract: In 1963, the term autophagy was coined by Christian de Duve (Nobel Laureate, 1974) to denote the degradation of cellular self-constituents by the lysosome (1). In 2016, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Yoshinori Ohsumi for “his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy” (2). Such discoveries led to the unveiling of autophagy as an evolutionarily conserved pathway that functions in differentiation and development, physiology, and protection against aging and many diseases (3). On page 1036 of this issue, Tsuboyama et al. (4) uncover a surprising twist to the mechanism in mammalian cells for forming the autophagosomal membrane, the structure that engulfs unwanted cellular cargo for delivery to the lysosome. These findings have implications for understanding the various roles of autophagy-related genes (ATGs) in membrane-trafficking and mammalian health and disease.Author: Beth Levine
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aal3145
  • [Perspective] Teaching nature the unnatural
    • Authors: Hendrik F. T. Klare
      Abstract: Silicon is found in nature in many inorganic forms, some of which are constructed by living organisms. Yet, no known biological molecule contains a carbon–silicon (C–Si) bond, and no biological processes to form C–Si bonds have been identified. On page 1048 of this issue, Kan et al. (1) show that natural as well as reengineered enzymes can promote C–Si bond formation. The resulting chiral compounds mostly consist of one of the two possible stereoisomers (enantiomers).
      Authors : Hendrik F. T. Klare, Martin Oestreich
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aal1951
  • [Perspective] Mosquitoes on the move
    • Authors: Jeffrey R. Powell
      Abstract: The mosquito Aedes aegypti rose to global attention around 1900 when it was shown to be the vector of yellow fever, a viral disease that was ravaging the New World. After World War II, a partly successful program was mounted to eliminate this invader from the New World through the use of DDT. By the late 1960s, however, the urgency for eliminating Ae. aegypti receded after the widespread use of an effective yellow fever vaccine. Eradication efforts were suspended, and the mosquito reestablished itself in its previous, or even a greater, range. The mosquito continues to be a substantial public health threat that requires urgent attention, particularly given recent evidence for hybridization of previously distinct subtypes.Author: Jeffrey R. Powell
      Keywords: Epidemiology
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aal1717
  • [Perspective] Susan Lindquist (1949–2016)
    • Authors: Luke Whitesell
      Abstract: On 27 October, Susan Lee Lindquist, professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), died of cancer at the age of 67. She was a formidable academic leader, dedicated mentor, beloved friend, and devoted wife and mother who will be deeply missed. Susan was born in Chicago, Illinois, in 1949 to parents of Swedish and Italian ancestry. This rich blend of genes and cultures was reflected in her ability to balance the dramatic against the carefully reasoned. She earned a bachelor's degree in microbiology at the University of Illinois in 1971, followed by a doctorate in biology from Harvard University in 1976. After a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Chicago, she joined its molecular biology department and set about deciphering how cells regulate protein synthesis and folding. She recounted an environment far from supportive for women, yet she persisted and thrived. She ignored warnings that her career would flounder when she switched organisms or undertook difficult areas of study. Rather, she demonstrated an ability to choose the right questions at the right time and helped found the field of heat-shock biology.
      Authors : Luke Whitesell, Sandro Santagata
      Keywords: Retrospective
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aal3609
  • [Policy Forum] Ten policies for pollinators
    • Authors: Lynn V. Dicks
      Abstract: Earlier this year, the first global thematic assessment from the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) evaluated the state of knowledge about pollinators and pollination (1, 2). It confirmed evidence of large-scale wild pollinator declines in northwest Europe and North America and identified data shortfalls and an urgent need for monitoring elsewhere in the world. With high-level political commitments to support pollinators in the United States (3), the United Kingdom (4), and France (5); encouragement from the Convention on Biological Diversity's (CBD's) scientific advice body (6); and the issue on the agenda for next month's Conference of the Parties to the CBD, we see a chance for global-scale policy change. We extend beyond the IPBES report, which we helped to write, and suggest 10 policies that governments should seriously consider to protect pollinators and secure pollination services. Our suggestions are not the only available responses but are those we consider most likely to succeed, because of synergy with international policy objectives and strategies or formulation of international policy creating opportunities for change. We make these suggestions as independent scientists and not on behalf of IPBES.
      Authors : Lynn V. Dicks, Blandina Viana, Riccardo Bommarco, Berry Brosi, María del Coro Arizmendi, Saul A. Cunningham, Leonardo Galetto, Rosemary Hill, Ariadna V. Lopes, Carmen Pires, Hisatomo Taki, Simon G. Potts
      Keywords: Biodiversity
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aai9226
  • [Book Review] Toxic textiles
    • Authors: Emily Monosson
      Abstract: In Fake Silk: The Lethal History of Viscose Rayon, Paul David Blanc takes the reader on a historical tour that touches on chemistry, occupational health, and the maneuverings of multinational corporations. Our guide is a small, "elegant" molecule called carbon disulfide—a compound that is a key ingredient in the making of viscose (better known as rayon) and is also insidiously toxic, having devastated the minds and bodies.Author: Emily Monosson
      Keywords: Occupational Health
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aak9834
  • [Book Review] Embodied inequality
    • Authors: Daniel Goldberg
      Abstract: Inequality is core to virtually any Western conception of health justice. There is robust debate over which inequalities, if any, are unethical and over priority-setting among inequalities. Based on issues explored at a 2013 conference at the University of North Carolina Institute for Arts and Humanities, Understanding Health Inequalities and Justice represents one of the latest contributions to this conversation.Author: Daniel Goldberg
      Keywords: Health Policy
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaj2241
  • [Association Affairs] Northeast Asia trip bolsters ongoing scientific
    • Authors: Michaela Jarvis
      Abstract: Chief Executive Officer Rush Holt offers strategy for building trust in scienceAuthor: Michaela Jarvis
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.979
  • [Association Affairs] 2016 AAAS Fellows approved by the AAAS Council
    • PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.981
  • [Introduction to Special Issue] On the clock
    • Authors: L. Bryan Ray
      Abstract: Our bodies' internal timepieces drive daily rhythms and influence health
      Authors : L. Bryan Ray, John Travis
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.986
  • [Special Issue News] The scientific night shift
    • Authors: Sam Kean
      Abstract: Working nights is unavoidable, or at least commonplace, in certain scientific fields. If you want to study bat behavior or stellar nebulae or sleep physiology, you may have to become half-nocturnal yourself, and scientists who sign up for the night shift encounter problems that just don't arise during the day. They tumble down embankments in the pitch black, nod off midexperiment, and grow paranoid in the witching hours. It's a tough gig, and for these and other reasons psychologists and sleep experts take a dim view of night work, which can disrupt sleep, throw hormones out of whack, and make you measurably dumber. And yet, few of the nocturnal scientists Science talked to would give up their work. Amid the misery and exhaustion, science after hours can still produce moments of serenity, even euphoria. "Either you're getting to know more about the natural world, or you're getting to know more about yourself," one night-shift scientist says. "It's always a source of happiness to me."Author: Sam Kean
      Keywords: Circadian Physiology
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.988
  • [Special Issue Perspective] Circadian clocks: Not your grandfather’s
    • Authors: Fred W. Turek
      Abstract: The last 20 years have seen the rapid evolution of our understanding of the molecular genes and networks that enable almost all forms of life to generate 24-hour—or circadian—rhythms. One finding has been particularly exciting: that the molecular circadian clock resides in almost all of the cells of the body and that the clock regulates the timing of many cellular and signaling pathways associated with multiple disease states. Such advances represent a new frontier for medicine: circadian medicine.Author: Fred W. Turek
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aal2613
  • [Special Issue Review] Circadian time signatures of fitness and disease
    • Authors: Joseph Bass
      Abstract: Biological clocks are autonomous anticipatory oscillators that play a critical role in the organization and information processing from genome to whole organisms. Transformative advances into the clock system have opened insight into fundamental mechanisms through which clocks program energy transfer from sunlight into organic matter and potential energy, in addition to cell development and genotoxic stress response. The identification of clocks in nearly every single cell of the body raises questions as to how this gives rise to rhythmic physiology in multicellular organisms and how environmental signals entrain clocks to geophysical time. Here, we consider advances in understanding how regulatory networks emergent in clocks give rise to cell type–specific functions within tissues to affect homeostasis.
      Authors : Joseph Bass, Mitchell A. Lazar
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aah4965
  • [Special Issue Review] Immunity around the clock
    • Authors: Kevin Man
      Abstract: Immunity is a high-cost, high-benefit trait that defends against pathogens and noxious stimuli but whose overactivation can result in immunopathologies and sometimes even death. Because many immune parameters oscillate rhythmically with the time of day, the circadian clock has emerged as an important gatekeeper for reducing immunity-associated costs, which, in turn, enhances organismal fitness. This is mediated by interactions between extrinsic environmental cues and the intrinsic oscillators of immune cells, which together optimize immune responses throughout the circadian cycle. The elucidation of these clock-controlled immunomodulatory mechanisms might uncover new approaches for treating infections and chronic inflammatory diseases.
      Authors : Kevin Man, Andrew Loudon, Ajay Chawla
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aah4966
  • [Special Issue Review] Mechanisms linking circadian clocks, sleep, and
    • Authors: Erik S. Musiek
      Abstract: Disruptions of normal circadian rhythms and sleep cycles are consequences of aging and can profoundly affect health. Accumulating evidence indicates that circadian and sleep disturbances, which have long been considered symptoms of many neurodegenerative conditions, may actually drive pathogenesis early in the course of these diseases. In this Review, we explore potential cellular and molecular mechanisms linking circadian dysfunction and sleep loss to neurodegenerative diseases, with a focus on Alzheimer’s disease. We examine the interplay between central and peripheral circadian rhythms, circadian clock gene function, and sleep in maintaining brain homeostasis, and discuss therapeutic implications. The circadian clock and sleep can influence a number of key processes involved in neurodegeneration, suggesting that these systems might be manipulated to promote healthy brain aging.
      Authors : Erik S. Musiek, David M. Holtzman
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aah4968
  • [Special Issue Review] Circadian physiology of metabolism
    • Authors: Satchidananda Panda
      Abstract: A majority of mammalian genes exhibit daily fluctuations in expression levels, making circadian expression rhythms the largest known regulatory network in normal physiology. Cell-autonomous circadian clocks interact with daily light-dark and feeding-fasting cycles to generate approximately 24-hour oscillations in the function of thousands of genes. Circadian expression of secreted molecules and signaling components transmits timing information between cells and tissues. Such intra- and intercellular daily rhythms optimize physiology both by managing energy use and by temporally segregating incompatible processes. Experimental animal models and epidemiological data indicate that chronic circadian rhythm disruption increases the risk of metabolic diseases. Conversely, time-restricted feeding, which imposes daily cycles of feeding and fasting without caloric reduction, sustains robust diurnal rhythms and can alleviate metabolic diseases. These findings highlight an integrative role of circadian rhythms in physiology and offer a new perspective for treating chronic diseases in which metabolic disruption is a hallmark.Author: Satchidananda Panda
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aah4967
  • [This Week in Science] Better health' Prepare to sweat
    • Authors: Caitlin Czajka
      Abstract: Author: Caitlin Czajka
      Keywords: Biosensors
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1016-a
  • [This Week in Science] Mega-earthquakes go the flat way
    • Authors: Brent Grocholski
      Abstract: Author: Brent Grocholski
      Keywords: Geophysics
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1016-b
  • [This Week in Science] Tuning nanoparticle strain
    • Authors: Phil Szuromi
      Abstract: Author: Phil Szuromi
      Keywords: Catalysis
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1016-c
  • [This Week in Science] Bringing carbon-silicon bonds to life
    • Authors: Nicholas S. Wigginton
      Abstract: Author: Nicholas S. Wigginton
      Keywords: Biocatalysis
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1016-d
  • [This Week in Science] Protecting memories from stress
    • Authors: Peter Stern
      Abstract: Author: Peter Stern
      Keywords: Memory Research
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1016-e
  • [This Week in Science] Targeting the ligand in hypophosphatemia
    • Authors: Leslie K. Ferrarelli
      Abstract: Author: Leslie K. Ferrarelli
      Keywords: Pharmacology
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1016-f
  • [This Week in Science] Status alters immune function in macaques
    • Authors: Laura M. Zahn
      Abstract: Author: Laura M. Zahn
      Keywords: Behavioral Immunology
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1016-g
  • [This Week in Science] Making perfect atomic arrays
    • Authors: Jelena Stajic
      Abstract: Author: Jelena Stajic
      Keywords: Cold Atoms
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1016-h
  • [This Week in Science] Open sesame!
    • Authors: Stella M. Hurtley
      Abstract: Author: Stella M. Hurtley
      Keywords: Autophagy
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1016-i
  • [This Week in Science] Digital reconstruction of human development
    • Authors: Beverly A. Purnell
      Abstract: Author: Beverly A. Purnell
      Keywords: Human Development
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1016-j
  • [This Week in Science] For cell reprogramming, context matters
    • Authors: Paula A. Kiberstis
      Abstract: Author: Paula A. Kiberstis
      Keywords: Cell Reprogramming
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1016-k
  • [This Week in Science] Increasing viral threats from mosquitoes
    • Authors: Julia Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink
      Abstract: Author: Julia Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink
      Keywords: Epidemiology
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1016-l
  • [Editors' Choice] Continuing the dialog via experiment
    • Authors: Gilbert Chin
      Abstract: Author: Gilbert Chin
      Keywords: Psychology
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1017-a
  • [Editors' Choice] Cardiac side effect
    • Authors: Lisa D. Chong
      Abstract: Author: Lisa D. Chong
      Keywords: Cancer Immunotherapy
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1017-b
  • [Editors' Choice] A new direction for breast cancer therapy
    • Authors: Priscilla Kelly
      Abstract: Author: Priscilla Kelly
      Keywords: Cancer Therapy
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1017-c
  • [Editors' Choice] Ants farming plants
    • Authors: Sacha Vignieri
      Abstract: Author: Sacha Vignieri
      Keywords: Plant-Animal Interactions
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1017-d
  • [Editors' Choice] THz-driven magnetism goes nonlinear
    • Authors: Jelena Stajic
      Abstract: Author: Jelena Stajic
      Keywords: Magnetism
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1017-e
  • [Editors' Choice] A clean combination of CO and amines
    • Authors: Jake Yeston
      Abstract: Author: Jake Yeston
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1017-f
  • [Editors' Choice] Fast action with little effect
    • Authors: Keith T. Smith
      Abstract: Author: Keith T. Smith
      Keywords: Ice Sheets
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1017-g
  • [Research Article] An interactive three-dimensional digital atlas and
           quantitative database of human development
    • Authors: Bernadette S. de Bakker
      Abstract: Current knowledge about human development is based on the description of a limited number of embryonic specimens published in original articles and textbooks, often more than 100 years ago. It is exceedingly difficult to verify this knowledge, given the restricted availability of human embryos. We created a three-dimensional digital atlas and database spanning the first 2 months of human development, based on analysis of nearly 15,000 histological sections of the renowned Carnegie Collection of human embryonic specimens. We identified and labeled up to 150 organs and structures per specimen and made three-dimensional models to quantify growth, establish changes in the position of organs, and clarify current ambiguities. The atlas provides an educational and reference resource for studies on early human development, growth, and congenital malformations.
      Authors : Bernadette S. de Bakker, Kees H. de Jong, Jaco Hagoort, Karel de Bree, Clara T. Besselink, Froukje E. C. de Kanter, Tyas Veldhuis, Babette Bais, Reggie Schildmeijer, Jan M. Ruijter, Roelof-Jan Oostra, Vincent M. Christoffels, Antoon F. M. Moorman
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aag0053
  • [Research Article] Tissue damage and senescence provide critical signals
           for cellular reprogramming in vivo
    • Authors: Lluc Mosteiro
      Abstract: Reprogramming of differentiated cells into pluripotent cells can occur in vivo, but the mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. Senescence is a cellular response to damage, characterized by abundant production of cytokines and other secreted factors that, together with the recruitment of inflammatory cells, result in tissue remodeling. Here, we show that in vivo expression of the reprogramming factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC (OSKM) in mice leads to senescence and reprogramming, both coexisting in close proximity. Genetic and pharmacological analyses indicate that OSKM-induced senescence requires the Ink4a/Arf locus and, through the production of the cytokine interleukin-6, creates a permissive tissue environment for in vivo reprogramming. Biological conditions linked to senescence, such as tissue injury or aging, favor in vivo reprogramming by OSKM. These observations may be relevant for tissue repair.
      Authors : Lluc Mosteiro, Cristina Pantoja, Noelia Alcazar, Rosa M. Marión, Dafni Chondronasiou, Miguel Rovira, Pablo J. Fernandez-Marcos, Maribel Muñoz-Martin, Carmen Blanco-Aparicio, Joaquin Pastor, Gonzalo Gómez-López, Alba De Martino, Maria A. Blasco, María Abad, Manuel Serrano
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf4445
  • [Report] An atom-by-atom assembler of defect-free arbitrary
           two-dimensional atomic arrays
    • Authors: Daniel Barredo
      Abstract: Large arrays of individually controlled atoms trapped in optical tweezers are a very promising platform for quantum engineering applications. However, deterministic loading of the traps is experimentally challenging. We demonstrate the preparation of fully loaded two-dimensional arrays of up to ~50 microtraps, each containing a single atom and arranged in arbitrary geometries. Starting from initially larger, half-filled matrices of randomly loaded traps, we obtain user-defined target arrays at unit filling. This is achieved with a real-time control system and a moving optical tweezers, which together enable a sequence of rapid atom moves depending on the initial distribution of the atoms in the arrays. These results open exciting prospects for quantum engineering with neutral atoms in tunable two-dimensional geometries.
      Authors : Daniel Barredo, Sylvain de Léséleuc, Vincent Lienhard, Thierry Lahaye, Antoine Browaeys
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aah3778
  • [Report] Atom-by-atom assembly of defect-free one-dimensional cold atom
    • Authors: Manuel Endres
      Abstract: The realization of large-scale fully controllable quantum systems is an exciting frontier in modern physical science. We use atom-by-atom assembly to implement a platform for the deterministic preparation of regular one-dimensional arrays of individually controlled cold atoms. In our approach, a measurement and feedback procedure eliminates the entropy associated with probabilistic trap occupation and results in defect-free arrays of more than 50 atoms in less than 400 milliseconds. The technique is based on fast, real-time control of 100 optical tweezers, which we use to arrange atoms in desired geometric patterns and to maintain these configurations by replacing lost atoms with surplus atoms from a reservoir. This bottom-up approach may enable controlled engineering of scalable many-body systems for quantum information processing, quantum simulations, and precision measurements.
      Authors : Manuel Endres, Hannes Bernien, Alexander Keesling, Harry Levine, Eric R. Anschuetz, Alexandre Krajenbrink, Crystal Senko, Vladan Vuletic, Markus Greiner, Mikhail D. Lukin
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aah3752
  • [Report] Mega-earthquakes rupture flat megathrusts
    • Authors: Quentin Bletery
      Abstract: The 2004 Sumatra-Andaman and 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquakes highlighted gaps in our understanding of mega-earthquake rupture processes and the factors controlling their global distribution: A fast convergence rate and young buoyant lithosphere are not required to produce mega-earthquakes. We calculated the curvature along the major subduction zones of the world, showing that mega-earthquakes preferentially rupture flat (low-curvature) interfaces. A simplified analytic model demonstrates that heterogeneity in shear strength increases with curvature. Shear strength on flat megathrusts is more homogeneous, and hence more likely to be exceeded simultaneously over large areas, than on highly curved faults.
      Authors : Quentin Bletery, Amanda M. Thomas, Alan W. Rempel, Leif Karlstrom, Anthony Sladen, Louis De Barros
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aag0482
  • [Report] Direct and continuous strain control of catalysts with tunable
           battery electrode materials
    • Authors: Haotian Wang
      Abstract: We report a method for using battery electrode materials to directly and continuously control the lattice strain of platinum (Pt) catalyst and thus tune its catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Whereas the common approach of using metal overlayers introduces ligand effects in addition to strain, by electrochemically switching between the charging and discharging status of battery electrodes the change in volume can be precisely controlled to induce either compressive or tensile strain on supported catalysts. Lattice compression and tension induced by the lithium cobalt oxide substrate of ~5% were directly observed in individual Pt nanoparticles with aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. We observed 90% enhancement or 40% suppression in Pt ORR activity under compression or tension, respectively, which is consistent with theoretical predictions.
      Authors : Haotian Wang, Shicheng Xu, Charlie Tsai, Yuzhang Li, Chong Liu, Jie Zhao, Yayuan Liu, Hongyuan Yuan, Frank Abild-Pedersen, Fritz B. Prinz, Jens K. Nørskov, Yi Cui
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf7680
  • [Report] The ATG conjugation systems are important for degradation of the
           inner autophagosomal membrane
    • Authors: Kotaro Tsuboyama
      Abstract: In macroautophagy, cytoplasmic contents are sequestered into the double-membrane autophagosome, which fuses with the lysosome to become the autolysosome. It has been thought that the autophagy-related (ATG) conjugation systems are required for autophagosome formation. Here, we found that autophagosomal soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) syntaxin 17–positive autophagosome-like structures could be generated even in the absence of the ATG conjugation systems, although at a reduced rate. These syntaxin 17–positive structures could further fuse with lysosomes, but degradation of the inner autophagosomal membrane was significantly delayed. Accordingly, autophagic activity in ATG conjugation–deficient cells was strongly suppressed. We suggest that the ATG conjugation systems, which are likely required for the closure (i.e., fission) of the autophagosomal edge, are not absolutely essential for autolysosome formation but are important for efficient degradation of the inner autophagosomal membrane.
      Authors : Kotaro Tsuboyama, Ikuko Koyama-Honda, Yuriko Sakamaki, Masato Koike, Hideaki Morishita, Noboru Mizushima
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf6136
  • [Report] Social status alters immune regulation and response to infection
           in macaques
    • Authors: Noah Snyder-Mackler
      Abstract: Social status is one of the strongest predictors of human disease risk and mortality, and it also influences Darwinian fitness in social mammals more generally. To understand the biological basis of these effects, we combined genomics with a social status manipulation in female rhesus macaques to investigate how status alters immune function. We demonstrate causal but largely plastic social status effects on immune cell proportions, cell type–specific gene expression levels, and the gene expression response to immune challenge. Further, we identify specific transcription factor signaling pathways that explain these differences, including low-status–associated polarization of the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway toward a proinflammatory response. Our findings provide insight into the direct biological effects of social inequality on immune function, thus improving our understanding of social gradients in health.
      Authors : Noah Snyder-Mackler, Joaquín Sanz, Jordan N. Kohn, Jessica F. Brinkworth, Shauna Morrow, Amanda O. Shaver, Jean-Christophe Grenier, Roger Pique-Regi, Zachary P. Johnson, Mark E. Wilson, Luis B. Barreiro, Jenny Tung
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aah3580
  • [Report] Retrieval practice protects memory against acute stress
    • Authors: Amy M. Smith
      Abstract: More than a decade of research has supported a robust consensus: Acute stress impairs memory retrieval. We aimed to determine whether a highly effective learning technique could strengthen memory against the negative effects of stress. To bolster memory, we used retrieval practice, or the act of taking practice tests. Participants first learned stimuli by either restudying or engaging in retrieval practice. Twenty-four hours later, we induced stress in half of the participants and assessed subsequent memory performance. Participants who learned by restudying demonstrated the typical stress-related memory impairment, whereas those who learned by retrieval practice were immune to the deleterious effects of stress. These results suggest that the effects of stress on memory retrieval may be contingent on the strength of the memory representations themselves.
      Authors : Amy M. Smith, Victoria A. Floerke, Ayanna K. Thomas
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aah5067
  • [Report] Directed evolution of cytochrome c for carbon–silicon bond
           formation: Bringing silicon to life
    • Authors: S. B. Jennifer Kan
      Abstract: Enzymes that catalyze carbon–silicon bond formation are unknown in nature, despite the natural abundance of both elements. Such enzymes would expand the catalytic repertoire of biology, enabling living systems to access chemical space previously only open to synthetic chemistry. We have discovered that heme proteins catalyze the formation of organosilicon compounds under physiological conditions via carbene insertion into silicon–hydrogen bonds. The reaction proceeds both in vitro and in vivo, accommodating a broad range of substrates with high chemo- and enantioselectivity. Using directed evolution, we enhanced the catalytic function of cytochrome c from Rhodothermus marinus to achieve more than 15-fold higher turnover than state-of-the-art synthetic catalysts. This carbon–silicon bond-forming biocatalyst offers an environmentally friendly and highly efficient route to producing enantiopure organosilicon molecules.
      Authors : S. B. Jennifer Kan, Russell D. Lewis, Kai Chen, Frances H. Arnold
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aah6219
  • [New Products] New Products
    • Abstract: A weekly roundup of information on newly offered instrumentation, apparatus, and laboratory materials of potential interest to researchers.
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1055-a
  • [Business Office Feature] Webinar The emergence of structured illumination
           microscopy: From home-built to commercial solutions
    • Authors: Bi-Chang Chen
      Authors : Bi-Chang Chen, George Komis, Christelle Rosazza
      Keywords: Science Webinar Series
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1055-b
  • [Business Office Feature] Posters The Human Cell
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1055-c
  • [Business Office Feature] Cell biology shapes up
    • Authors: Alan Dove
      Abstract: Author: Alan Dove
      Keywords: Business Office Feature
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1055-d
  • [Working Life] Family-friendly science
    • Authors: Amanda Zellmer
      Abstract: Author: Amanda Zellmer
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1126/science.354.6315.1070
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