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Journal Cover   Science
  [SJR: 10.618]   [H-I: 739]   [2077 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
   Published by American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Homepage  [3 journals]
  • [Editors' Choice] Untangling dips and pulses in starlight
    • Authors: Margaret M. Moerchen
      Abstract: Author: Margaret M. Moerchen
      Keywords: Exoplanet Detection
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.961-a
  • [Editors' Choice] Hunting the elusive (quasi)particles
    • Authors: Jelena Stajic
      Abstract: Author: Jelena Stajic
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.961-b
  • [Editors' Choice] Squid are hyper-editors when it comes to RNA
    • Authors: Lisa D. Chong
      Abstract: Author: Lisa D. Chong
      Keywords: RNA Editing
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.961-c
  • [Editors' Choice] Trading growth for happiness
    • Authors: Gilbert Chin
      Abstract: Author: Gilbert Chin
      Keywords: Social Science
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.961-d
  • [Editors' Choice] The secrets of blood proteins revealed
    • Authors: Laura M. Zahn
      Abstract: Author: Laura M. Zahn
      Keywords: Proteomics
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.961-e
  • [Editors' Choice] Achievement viewed through a genetic lens
    • Authors: Melissa McCartney
      Abstract: Author: Melissa McCartney
      Keywords: Education
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.961-f
  • [Feature] Line of attack
    • Authors: Jill Neimark
      Abstract: University of Colorado geneticist Christopher Korch passionately wants to correct a problem that has bedeviled biomedical research for more than half a century: the contamination of laboratory cell cultures. Over the past 15 years, he has exposed 78 widely used cell lines as overgrown with other cells, but few scientists have paid attention or sought to retract or correct their work on those impostor lines. Now Korch has a band of allies and, he hopes, a novel way to persuade recalcitrant biologists: Zoom out from individual cases of contamination to show the big picture. After a year of intensive data gathering and analysis, he believes he has for the first time begun to quantify the damage done to the scientific enterprise by contaminated cell lines. "We're looking at tens of thousands of publications, millions of journal citations, and potentially hundreds of millions of research dollars," he says. Author: Jill Neimark
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.938
  • [Business Office Feature] Quantitative Western blotting: Improving your
           data quality and reproducibility
    • Authors: Tibor Harkany
      Authors : Tibor Harkany, sa Hagner-McWhirter
      Keywords: Science Webinar Series
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.1022-c
  • [Business Office Feature] Leadership Training for Early Career Researchers
    • Authors: Julie Clayton
      Abstract: A decade ago, the "sink or swim" culture was widespread in research. But academic institutions across the United States and Europe are now investing resources in helping young researchers gain the skills they need for climbing the career ladder. Top on the list are leadership skills, whether for conflict management, handling finances, or negotiating intellectual property rights in an international consortium, these are highly rated assets that can help researchers advance to senior roles. Here's a look at some of the most established leadership programs that hold alumni who are leaping ahead as a result of the training.Read the Feature (Full-Text HTML)Read the Feature (PDF) Author: Julie Clayton
      Keywords: Business Office Feature
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.1024
  • [Working Life] Follow your star
    • Authors: Elisabeth Pain
      Abstract: Author: Elisabeth Pain
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.1038
  • [Report] Evolutionary resurrection of flagellar motility via rewiring of
           the nitrogen regulation system
    • Authors: Tiffany B. Taylor
      Abstract: A central process in evolution is the recruitment of genes to regulatory networks. We engineered immotile strains of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens that lack flagella due to deletion of the regulatory gene fleQ. Under strong selection for motility, these bacteria consistently regained flagella within 96 hours via a two-step evolutionary pathway. Step 1 mutations increase intracellular levels of phosphorylated NtrC, a distant homolog of FleQ, which begins to commandeer control of the fleQ regulon at the cost of disrupting nitrogen uptake and assimilation. Step 2 is a switch-of-function mutation that redirects NtrC away from nitrogen uptake and toward its novel function as a flagellar regulator. Our results demonstrate that natural selection can rapidly rewire regulatory networks in very few, repeatable mutational steps.
      Authors : Tiffany B. Taylor, Geraldine Mulley, Alexander H. Dills, Abdullah S. Alsohim, Liam J. McGuffin, David J. Studholme, Mark W. Silby, Michael A. Brockhurst, Louise J. Johnson, Robert W. Jackson
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.1259145
  • [Report] CTCF establishes discrete functional chromatin domains at the Hox
           clusters during differentiation
    • Authors: Varun Narendra
      Abstract: Polycomb and Trithorax group proteins encode the epigenetic memory of cellular positional identity by establishing inheritable domains of repressive and active chromatin within the Hox clusters. Here we demonstrate that the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) functions to insulate these adjacent yet antagonistic chromatin domains during embryonic stem cell differentiation into cervical motor neurons. Deletion of CTCF binding sites within the Hox clusters results in the expansion of active chromatin into the repressive domain. CTCF functions as an insulator by organizing Hox clusters into spatially disjoint domains. Ablation of CTCF binding disrupts topological boundaries such that caudal Hox genes leave the repressed domain and become subject to transcriptional activation. Hence, CTCF is required to insulate facultative heterochromatin from impinging euchromatin to produce discrete positional identities.
      Authors : Varun Narendra, Pedro P. Rocha, Disi An, Ramya Raviram, Jane A. Skok, Esteban O. Mazzoni, Danny Reinberg
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.1262088
  • [New Products] New Products
    • Abstract: A weekly roundup of information on newly offered instrumentation, apparatus, and laboratory materials of potential interest to researchers.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.1022-a
  • [Podcast] Science Podcast: 27 February Show
    • Abstract: On this week's show: sexual traits and malaria transmission in mosquitoes, and a roundup of daily news stories.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.1022-b
  • [In Depth] Japan looks to instill global mindset in grads
    • Authors: Dennis Normile
      Abstract: Fewer and fewer Japanese students are going abroad for study. The number of foreign students in Japan is trending downward. And non-Japanese professors are uncommon. To address these deficits, Japan's education ministry has just launched the Top Global University Project. Under the program, 13 research universities deemed by the ministry capable of attaining top-100 status worldwide will each receive $3.5 million a year for 10 years. And 24 smaller universities will get $1.4 million a year over that period. The funding is modest, but it should allow the universities to become more in sync with international norms by revamping tenure systems, for example, and overhauling curricula. Author: Dennis Normile
      Keywords: Higher Education
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.937
  • [In Depth] Research at Kew overhauled for leaner times
    • Authors: Erik Stokstad
      Abstract: The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, one of the world's largest collections of plants and fungi, has shrunk its scientific workforce by 18% and undergone a major reorganization. Recent independent reviews had urged Kew to focus its research program. The organization also faced budget cuts, compounded by significant bills for maintenance of its historic grounds and buildings. A new strategy, described in a 5-year plan released this week, emphasizes collections-based research, particularly in fungi and plant health. The plan sets research targets, such as charting the evolutionary relatedness of plant and fungal species by 2020, and lists several new communication products. A new website, for example, will offer information on traits, distributions, and evolutionary relationships of plants and fungi. An annual report, called the State of the World's Plants, will identify important issues in plant health and conservation. Author: Erik Stokstad
      Keywords: Plant Biology
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.936
  • [Report] TERT promoter mutations and telomerase reactivation in urothelial
    • Authors: Sumit Borah
      Abstract: Reactivation of telomerase, the chromosome end–replicating enzyme, drives human cell immortality and cancer. Point mutations in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene promoter occur at high frequency in multiple cancers, including urothelial cancer (UC), but their effect on telomerase function has been unclear. In a study of 23 human UC cell lines, we show that these promoter mutations correlate with higher levels of TERT messenger RNA (mRNA), TERT protein, telomerase enzymatic activity, and telomere length. Although previous studies found no relation between TERT promoter mutations and UC patient outcome, we find that elevated TERT mRNA expression strongly correlates with reduced disease-specific survival in two independent UC patient cohorts (n = 35; n = 87). These results suggest that high telomerase activity may be a better marker of aggressive UC tumors than TERT promoter mutations alone.
      Authors : Sumit Borah, Linghe Xi, Arthur J. Zaug, Natasha M. Powell, Garrett M. Dancik, Scott B. Cohen, James C. Costello, Dan Theodorescu, Thomas R. Cech
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.1260200
  • [Report] Transcribed enhancers lead waves of coordinated transcription in
           transitioning mammalian cells
    • Authors: Erik Arner
      Abstract: Although it is generally accepted that cellular differentiation requires changes to transcriptional networks, dynamic regulation of promoters and enhancers at specific sets of genes has not been previously studied en masse. Exploiting the fact that active promoters and enhancers are transcribed, we simultaneously measured their activity in 19 human and 14 mouse time courses covering a wide range of cell types and biological stimuli. Enhancer RNAs, then messenger RNAs encoding transcription factors, dominated the earliest responses. Binding sites for key lineage transcription factors were simultaneously overrepresented in enhancers and promoters active in each cellular system. Our data support a highly generalizable model in which enhancer transcription is the earliest event in successive waves of transcriptional change during cellular differentiation or activation.
      Authors : Erik Arner, Carsten O. Daub, Kristoffer Vitting-Seerup, Robin Andersson, Berit Lilje, Finn Drabløs, Andreas Lennartsson, Michelle Rönnerblad, Olga Hrydziuszko, Morana Vitezic, Tom C. Freeman, Ahmad M. N. Alhendi, Peter Arner, Richard Axton, J. Kenneth Baillie, Anthony Beckhouse, Beatrice Bodega, James Briggs, Frank Brombacher, Margaret Davis, Michael Detmar, Anna Ehrlund, Mitsuhiro Endoh, Afsaneh Eslami, Michela Fagiolini, Lynsey Fairbairn, Geoffrey J. Faulkner, Carmelo Ferrai, Malcolm E. Fisher, Lesley Forrester, Daniel Goldowitz, Reto Guler, Thomas Ha, Mitsuko Hara, Meenhard Herlyn, Tomokatsu Ikawa, Chieko Kai, Hiroshi Kawamoto, Levon M. Khachigian, S. Peter Klinken, Soichi Kojima, Haruhiko Koseki, Sarah Klein, Niklas Mejhert, Ken Miyaguchi, Yosuke Mizuno, Mitsuru Morimoto, Kelly J. Morris, Christine Mummery, Yutaka Nakachi, Soichi Ogishima, Mariko Okada-Hatakeyama, Yasushi Okazaki, Valerio Orlando, Dmitry Ovchinnikov, Robert Passier, Margaret Patrikakis, Ana Pombo, Xian-Yang Qin, Sugata Roy, Hiroki Sato, Suzana Savvi, Alka Saxena, Anita Schwegmann, Daisuke Sugiyama, Rolf Swoboda, Hiroshi Tanaka, Andru Tomoiu, Louise N. Winteringham, Ernst Wolvetang, Chiyo Yanagi-Mizuochi, Misako Yoneda, Susan Zabierowski, Peter Zhang, Imad Abugessaisa, Nicolas Bertin, Alexander D. Diehl, Shiro Fukuda, Masaaki Furuno, Jayson Harshbarger, Akira Hasegawa, Fumi Hori, Sachi Ishikawa-Kato, Yuri Ishizu, Masayoshi Itoh, Tsugumi Kawashima, Miki Kojima, Naoto Kondo, Marina Lizio, Terrence F. Meehan, Christopher J. Mungall, Mitsuyoshi Murata, Hiromi Nishiyori-Sueki, Serkan Sahin, Sayaka Nagao-Sato, Jessica Severin, Michiel J.L. de Hoon, Jun Kawai, Takeya Kasukawa, Timo Lassmann, Harukazu Suzuki, Hideya Kawaji, Kim M. Summers, Christine Wells, , David A. Hume, Alistair R.R. Forrest, Albin Sandelin, Piero Carninci, Yoshihide Hayashizaki
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.1259418
  • [In Depth] As new botulism threat implodes, more questions
    • Authors: Martin Enserink
      Abstract: In 2013, Stephen Arnon of the California Department of Public Health reported finding a novel type of botulinum toxin against which no existing antitoxins offered protection, opening a potential gap in biosecurity. Arnon decided not to reveal the genetic sequence of the microbe that produced the toxin in his papers. But since then, government researchers have concluded that the toxin poses no special threat at all, and posted the entire sequence in GenBank. Many in the small field of botulinum research still wonder how two labs could arrive at such radically different conclusions, and many say the episode could have ended much earlier—or been prevented altogether—if Arnon had been willing to share the strain of Clostridium botulinum with other labs sooner. Author: Martin Enserink
      Keywords: Biosecurity
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.934
  • [Report] Sedimentary DNA from a submerged site reveals wheat in the
           British Isles 8000 years ago
    • Authors: Oliver Smith
      Abstract: The Mesolithic-to-Neolithic transition marked the time when a hunter-gatherer economy gave way to agriculture, coinciding with rising sea levels. Bouldnor Cliff, is a submarine archaeological site off the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom that has a well-preserved Mesolithic paleosol dated to 8000 years before the present. We analyzed a core obtained from sealed sediments, combining evidence from microgeomorphology and microfossils with sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) analyses to reconstruct floral and faunal changes during the occupation of this site, before it was submerged. In agreement with palynological analyses, the sedaDNA sequences suggest a mixed habitat of oak forest and herbaceous plants. However, they also provide evidence of wheat 2000 years earlier than mainland Britain and 400 years earlier than proximate European sites. These results suggest that sophisticated social networks linked the Neolithic front in southern Europe to the Mesolithic peoples of northern Europe.
      Authors : Oliver Smith, Garry Momber, Richard Bates, Paul Garwood, Simon Fitch, Mark Pallen, Vincent Gaffney, Robin G. Allaby
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.1261278
  • [Report] m6A mRNA methylation facilitates resolution of naïve
           pluripotency toward differentiation
    • Authors: Shay Geula
      Abstract: Naïve and primed pluripotent states retain distinct molecular properties, yet limited knowledge exists on how their state transitions are regulated. Here, we identify Mettl3, an N6-methyladenosine (m6A) transferase, as a regulator for terminating murine naïve pluripotency. Mettl3 knockout preimplantation epiblasts and naïve embryonic stem cells are depleted for m6A in mRNAs, yet are viable. However, they fail to adequately terminate their naïve state and, subsequently, undergo aberrant and restricted lineage priming at the postimplantation stage, which leads to early embryonic lethality. m6A predominantly and directly reduces mRNA stability, including that of key naïve pluripotency-promoting transcripts. This study highlights a critical role for an mRNA epigenetic modification in vivo and identifies regulatory modules that functionally influence naïve and primed pluripotency in an opposing manner.
      Authors : Shay Geula, Sharon Moshitch-Moshkovitz, Dan Dominissini, Abed AlFatah Mansour, Nitzan Kol, Mali Salmon-Divon, Vera Hershkovitz, Eyal Peer, Nofar Mor, Yair S. Manor, Moshe Shay Ben-Haim, Eran Eyal, Sharon Yunger, Yishay Pinto, Diego Adhemar Jaitin, Sergey Viukov, Yoach Rais, Vladislav Krupalnik, Elad Chomsky, Mirie Zerbib, Itay Maza, Yoav Rechavi, Rada Massarwa, Suhair Hanna, Ido Amit, Erez Y. Levanon, Ninette Amariglio, Noam Stern-Ginossar, Noa Novershtern, Gideon Rechavi, Jacob H. Hanna
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.1261417
  • [In Depth] New jitters over megaquakes in Himalayas
    • Authors: Priyanka Pulla
      Abstract: Seismologists worried about the prospect of a massive earthquake in the shadow of the Himalayas, where it could devastate cities such as Kathmandu and Delhi, have long cast a wary glance at an eerily calm region called the central seismic gap. A massive earthquake in southwestern Tibet in 1505 C.E., researchers proposed a decade ago, relieved enough strain to quiet that stretch of the restive Himalayas. But new findings now suggest that the 1505 temblor was smaller than thought and was just one of a cluster of potent quakes to rattle the region within a few centuries. If so, the recurrence of major quakes in the Himalayas, unlike in many other seismic hot spots, follows no discernible pattern of strain relief—meaning that authorities must gird for a megaearthquake anywhere at any time. Author: Priyanka Pulla
      Keywords: Seismic Risk
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.933
  • [In Depth] Plumes on Europa tease NASA mission planners
    • Authors: Eric Hand
      Abstract: A proposed NASA mission to Jupiter's moon Europa is gathering momentum. Congress has long been enthusiastic, and earlier this month the White House finally signed on to the $2 billion mission, which would investigate the habitability of Europa, which might host life in its deep, hidden saltwater ocean. Lately the mission has also gained a tantalizing target: plumes of water vapor that seem to erupt through the moon's icy crust, presumably sweeping any organic molecules into space, where they might be detectable. The trouble is, the plumes might not exist. Observers spotted them with the Hubble Space Telescope in 2012, detecting the fluorescence of oxygen and hydrogen in the water molecules as they were bombarded by electrons whipped up by Jupiter's intense magnetic fields. But dozens of other observational campaigns have failed to spot any plume. That posed a dilemma for the scientists who gathered last week at NASA's Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California, to discuss how the presence of plumes—or their absence—should affect planning for the mission. Author: Eric Hand
      Keywords: Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.932
  • [Editorial] Wider attention for GOF science
    • Authors: Harvey V. Fineberg
      Abstract: In October 2014, the U.S. government paused funding for so-called gain-of-function (GOF) research involving pathogens with pandemic potential, to allow for a systematic assessment of its benefits and risks. The topic raises critical questions for society as a whole, and decisions cannot be left with the scientific community alone. Author: Harvey V. Fineberg
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa7711
  • [In Brief] This week's section
    • Abstract: In science news around the world, the European Commission authorizes Europe's first commercial stem cell product, the World Health Organization approves the first rapid diagnostic test for Ebola, Nature Publishing Group's journals offer authors the option of double-blind peer reviews, and malaria parasites resistant to the most powerful antimalarial drug appear to have spread from Southeast Asia to the border of Myanmar and India, a potential disaster for global malaria control. Also, the head of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change resigns amid allegations of sexual harassment by a colleague. And the winners of the 2015 Visualization Challenge highlight the beauty of science.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.930
  • [Report] Evolution of sexual traits influencing vectorial capacity in
           anopheline mosquitoes
    • Authors: Sara N. Mitchell
      Abstract: The availability of genome sequences from 16 anopheline species provides unprecedented opportunities to study the evolution of reproductive traits relevant for malaria transmission. In Anopheles gambiae, a likely candidate for sexual selection is male 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Sexual transfer of this steroid hormone as part of a mating plug dramatically changes female physiological processes intimately tied to vectorial capacity. By combining phenotypic studies with ancestral state reconstructions and phylogenetic analyses, we show that mating plug transfer and male 20E synthesis are both derived characters that have coevolved in anophelines, driving the adaptation of a female 20E-interacting protein that promotes oogenesis via mechanisms also favoring Plasmodium survival. Our data reveal coevolutionary dynamics of reproductive traits between the sexes likely to have shaped the ability of anophelines to transmit malaria.
      Authors : Sara N. Mitchell, Evdoxia G. Kakani, Adam South, Paul I. Howell, Robert M. Waterhouse, Flaminia Catteruccia
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.1259435
  • [Report] Atlantic and Pacific multidecadal oscillations and Northern
           Hemisphere temperatures
    • Authors: Byron A. Steinman
      Abstract: The recent slowdown in global warming has brought into question the reliability of climate model projections of future temperature change and has led to a vigorous debate over whether this slowdown is the result of naturally occurring, internal variability or forcing external to Earth’s climate system. To address these issues, we applied a semi-empirical approach that combines climate observations and model simulations to estimate Atlantic- and Pacific-based internal multidecadal variability (termed “AMO” and “PMO,” respectively). Using this method, the AMO and PMO are found to explain a large proportion of internal variability in Northern Hemisphere mean temperatures. Competition between a modest positive peak in the AMO and a substantially negative-trending PMO are seen to produce a slowdown or “false pause” in warming of the past decade.
      Authors : Byron A. Steinman, Michael E. Mann, Sonya K. Miller
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.1257856
  • [Report] Full crop protection from an insect pest by expression of long
           double-stranded RNAs in plastids
    • Authors: Jiang Zhang
      Abstract: Double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeted against essential genes can trigger a lethal RNA interference (RNAi) response in insect pests. The application of this concept in plant protection is hampered by the presence of an endogenous plant RNAi pathway that processes dsRNAs into short interfering RNAs. We found that long dsRNAs can be stably produced in chloroplasts, a cellular compartment that appears to lack an RNAi machinery. When expressed from the chloroplast genome, dsRNAs accumulated to as much as 0.4% of the total cellular RNA. Transplastomic potato plants producing dsRNAs targeted against the β-actin gene of the Colorado potato beetle, a notorious agricultural pest, were protected from herbivory and were lethal to its larvae. Thus, chloroplast expression of long dsRNAs can provide crop protection without chemical pesticides.
      Authors : Jiang Zhang, Sher Afzal Khan, Claudia Hasse, Stephanie Ruf, David G. Heckel, Ralph Bock
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.1261680
  • [Report] Two-pore channels control Ebola virus host cell entry and are
           drug targets for disease treatment
    • Authors: Yasuteru Sakurai
      Abstract: Ebola virus causes sporadic outbreaks of lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans, but there is no currently approved therapy. Cells take up Ebola virus by macropinocytosis, followed by trafficking through endosomal vesicles. However, few factors controlling endosomal virus movement are known. Here we find that Ebola virus entry into host cells requires the endosomal calcium channels called two-pore channels (TPCs). Disrupting TPC function by gene knockout, small interfering RNAs, or small-molecule inhibitors halted virus trafficking and prevented infection. Tetrandrine, the most potent small molecule that we tested, inhibited infection of human macrophages, the primary target of Ebola virus in vivo, and also showed therapeutic efficacy in mice. Therefore, TPC proteins play a key role in Ebola virus infection and may be effective targets for antiviral therapy.
      Authors : Yasuteru Sakurai, Andrey A. Kolokoltsov, Cheng-Chang Chen, Michael W. Tidwell, William E. Bauta, Norbert Klugbauer, Christian Grimm, Christian Wahl-Schott, Martin Biel, Robert A. Davey
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.1258758
  • [Editors' Choice] Easier binding the second time around
    • Authors: Jake Yeston
      Abstract: Author: Jake Yeston
      Keywords: Receptor Chemistry
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.961-g
  • [This Week in Science] Keeping repressed genes repressed
    • Authors: Guy Riddihough
      Abstract: Author: Guy Riddihough
      Keywords: Transcription
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.960-p
  • [This Week in Science] Losing and then regaining flagella
    • Authors: Guy Riddihough
      Abstract: Author: Guy Riddihough
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.960-q
  • [This Week in Science] Itching to reduce inflammation
    • Authors: John F. Foley
      Abstract: Author: John F. Foley
      Keywords: Inflammation
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.960-r
  • [This Week in Science] Balanced carrier diffusion in perovskites
    • Authors: Phil Szuromi
      Abstract: Author: Phil Szuromi
      Keywords: Solar Cells
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.960-s
  • [This Week in Science] An enduring catalyst built from carbon
    • Authors: Jake Yeston
      Abstract: Author: Jake Yeston
      Keywords: Water Splitting
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.960-t
  • [This Week in Science] Channeling Ebola virus entry into the cell
    • Authors: Kristen L. Mueller
      Abstract: Author: Kristen L. Mueller
      Keywords: Ebola Virus
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.960-i
  • [This Week in Science] Seeking systems-based solutions
    • Authors: Nicholas S. Wigginton
      Abstract: Author: Nicholas S. Wigginton
      Keywords: Sustainability
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.960-j
  • [This Week in Science] Shocking! Particle accelerators in space
    • Authors: Margaret M. Moerchen
      Abstract: Author: Margaret M. Moerchen
      Keywords: Plasma Physics
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.960-k
  • [This Week in Science] Uncaging promoter and enhancer dynamics
    • Authors: Laura M. Zahn
      Abstract: Author: Laura M. Zahn
      Keywords: Gene Regulation
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.960-l
  • [This Week in Science] Making small actuators more effective
    • Authors: Marc S. Lavine
      Abstract: Author: Marc S. Lavine
      Keywords: Actuating Materials
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.960-m
  • [This Week in Science] mRNA modification regulates pluripotency
    • Authors: Beverly A. Purnell
      Abstract: Author: Beverly A. Purnell
      Keywords: Stem Cells
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.960-n
  • [This Week in Science] The downstream effects of false promotion
    • Authors: Paula A. Kiberstis
      Abstract: Author: Paula A. Kiberstis
      Keywords: Cancer
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.960-o
  • [Report] Voxelated liquid crystal elastomers
    • Authors: Taylor H. Ware
      Abstract: Dynamic control of shape can bring multifunctionality to devices. Soft materials capable of programmable shape change require localized control of the magnitude and directionality of a mechanical response. We report the preparation of soft, ordered materials referred to as liquid crystal elastomers. The direction of molecular order, known as the director, is written within local volume elements (voxels) as small as 0.0005 cubic millimeters. Locally, the director controls the inherent mechanical response (55% strain) within the material. In monoliths with spatially patterned director, thermal or chemical stimuli transform flat sheets into three-dimensional objects through controlled bending and stretching. The programmable mechanical response of these materials could yield monolithic multifunctional devices or serve as reconfigurable substrates for flexible devices in aerospace, medicine, or consumer goods.
      Authors : Taylor H. Ware, Michael E. McConney, Jeong Jae Wie, Vincent P. Tondiglia, Timothy J. White
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.1261019
  • [This Week in Science] Is the end of the warming hiatus nigh?
    • Authors: H. Jesse Smith
      Abstract: Author: H. Jesse Smith
      Keywords: Climate Change
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.960-e
  • [This Week in Science] Early wheat movement into Britain
    • Authors: Laura M. Zahn
      Abstract: Author: Laura M. Zahn
      Keywords: Archaeology
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.960-f
  • [This Week in Science] Mucus: It's the quality that counts
    • Authors: Angela Colmone
      Abstract: Author: Angela Colmone
      Keywords: Lung Disease
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.960-g
  • [This Week in Science] Metal-free catalysts for fuel cell technology
    • Authors: Zakya H. Kafafi
      Abstract: Author: Zakya H. Kafafi
      Keywords: Fuel Cells
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.960-h
  • [This Week in Science] Mating plugs promote malaria parasites
    • Authors: Caroline Ash
      Abstract: Author: Caroline Ash
      Keywords: Mosquito Biology
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.960-b
  • [This Week in Science] Catching CO oxidation
    • Authors: Phil Szuromi
      Abstract: Author: Phil Szuromi
      Keywords: Surface Chemistry
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.960-c
  • [This Week in Science] Light with twist and structure
    • Authors: Ian S. Osborne
      Abstract: Author: Ian S. Osborne
      Keywords: Optics
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.960-d
  • [Letter] Reindeer Ewenki's fading culture
    • Authors: Jing Wang
      Authors : Jing Wang, Junping Sun, Achyut Aryal, David Raubenheimer, Deguang Liu, Yan Sheng, Dunhu Chang, Lei Shi, Jian Wu, Zhong Ma, Hongchen Wang, Xiuxiang Meng
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.957-a
  • [Letter] Genetic privacy: Trust is not enough
    • Authors: David Gurwitz
      Abstract: Author: David Gurwitz
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.957-b
  • [Letter] Navigating Massive Open Online Courses
    • Authors: Alexander O. Savi
      Authors : Alexander O. Savi, Han L. J. van der Maas, Gunter K. J. Maris
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.958
  • [Association Affairs] AAAS News and Notes
    • Abstract: A monthly roundup of recent news and projects of Science's publisher, the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.959
  • [This Week in Science] Bypassing a plant's defense for pest defense
    • Authors: Pamela J. Hines
      Abstract: Author: Pamela J. Hines
      Keywords: Pest Control
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.960-a
  • [Book Review] The computer connection
    • Authors: Dov Greenbaum
      Abstract: In The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution, Walter Isaacson tells the story of the people who invented the computer and the Internet. From complementary duos like Grace Hopper and Howard Aiken, who developed the first computer that automatically executed long computations, to synergistic rivals like Larry Roberts and Bob Taylor, who worked together to create the global internet precursor, ARPANET, Isaacson argues that "innovation comes from teams more often than from the lightbulb moments of lone geniuses." But how do teams really work? And will "citizen science" change how we think of teamwork in the future?
      Authors : Dov Greenbaum, Mark Gerstein
      Keywords: Computer Science
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa0848
  • [Books et al.] Books Received
    • Abstract: A listing of books received at Science during the week ending 20 February 2015.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.956-b
  • [Report] Electron-hole diffusion lengths > 175 μm in
           solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals
    • Authors: Qingfeng Dong
      Abstract: Long, balanced electron and hole diffusion lengths greater than 100 nanometers in the polycrystalline organolead trihalide compound CH3NH3PbI3 are critical for highly efficient perovskite solar cells. We found that the diffusion lengths in CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals grown by a solution-growth method can exceed 175 micrometers under 1 sun (100 mW cm−2) illumination and exceed 3 millimeters under weak light for both electrons and holes. The internal quantum efficiencies approach 100% in 3-millimeter-thick single-crystal perovskite solar cells under weak light. These long diffusion lengths result from greater carrier mobility, longer lifetime, and much smaller trap densities in the single crystals than in polycrystalline thin films. The long carrier diffusion lengths enabled the use of CH3NH3PbI3 in radiation sensing and energy harvesting through the gammavoltaic effect, with an efficiency of 3.9% measured with an intense cesium-137 source.
      Authors : Qingfeng Dong, Yanjun Fang, Yuchuan Shao, Padhraic Mulligan, Jie Qiu, Lei Cao, Jinsong Huang
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa5760
  • [Report] Metal-free efficient photocatalyst for stable visible water
           splitting via a two-electron pathway
    • Authors: Juan Liu
      Abstract: The use of solar energy to produce molecular hydrogen and oxygen (H2 and O2) from overall water splitting is a promising means of renewable energy storage. In the past 40 years, various inorganic and organic systems have been developed as photocatalysts for water splitting driven by visible light. These photocatalysts, however, still suffer from low quantum efficiency and/or poor stability. We report the design and fabrication of a metal-free carbon nanodot–carbon nitride (C3N4) nanocomposite and demonstrate its impressive performance for photocatalytic solar water splitting. We measured quantum efficiencies of 16% for wavelength λ = 420 ± 20 nanometers, 6.29% for λ = 580 ± 15 nanometers, and 4.42% for λ = 600 ± 10 nanometers, and determined an overall solar energy conversion efficiency of 2.0%. The catalyst comprises low-cost, Earth-abundant, environmentally friendly materials and shows excellent stability.
      Authors : Juan Liu, Yang Liu, Naiyun Liu, Yuzhi Han, Xing Zhang, Hui Huang, Yeshayahu Lifshitz, Shuit-Tong Lee, Jun Zhong, Zhenhui Kang
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa3145
  • [Report] Stochastic electron acceleration during spontaneous turbulent
           reconnection in a strong shock wave
    • Authors: Y. Matsumoto
      Abstract: Explosive phenomena such as supernova remnant shocks and solar flares have demonstrated evidence for the production of relativistic particles. Interest has therefore been renewed in collisionless shock waves and magnetic reconnection as a means to achieve such energies. Although ions can be energized during such phenomena, the relativistic energy of the electrons remains a puzzle for theory. We present supercomputer simulations showing that efficient electron energization can occur during turbulent magnetic reconnection arising from a strong collisionless shock. Upstream electrons undergo first-order Fermi acceleration by colliding with reconnection jets and magnetic islands, giving rise to a nonthermal relativistic population downstream. These results shed new light on magnetic reconnection as an agent of energy dissipation and particle acceleration in strong shock waves.
      Authors : Y. Matsumoto, T. Amano, T. N. Kato, M. Hoshino
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.1260168
  • [Report] Probing the transition state region in catalytic CO oxidation on
    • Authors: H. Öström
      Abstract: Femtosecond x-ray laser pulses are used to probe the carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation reaction on ruthenium (Ru) initiated by an optical laser pulse. On a time scale of a few hundred femtoseconds, the optical laser pulse excites motions of CO and oxygen (O) on the surface, allowing the reactants to collide, and, with a transient close to a picosecond (ps), new electronic states appear in the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum. Density functional theory calculations indicate that these result from changes in the adsorption site and bond formation between CO and O with a distribution of OC–O bond lengths close to the transition state (TS). After 1 ps, 10% of the CO populate the TS region, which is consistent with predictions based on a quantum oscillator model.
      Authors : H. Öström, H. Öberg, H. Xin, J. LaRue, M. Beye, M. Dell’Angela, J. Gladh, M. L. Ng, J. A. Sellberg, S. Kaya, G. Mercurio, D. Nordlund, M. Hantschmann, F. Hieke, D. Kühn, W. F. Schlotter, G. L. Dakovski, J. J. Turner, M. P. Minitti, A. Mitra, S. P. Moeller, A. Föhlisch, M. Wolf, W. Wurth, M. Persson, J. K. Nørskov, F. Abild-Pedersen, H. Ogasawara, L. G. M Pettersson, A. Nilsson
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.1261747
  • [Review] Systems integration for global sustainability
    • Authors: Jianguo Liu
      Abstract: Global sustainability challenges, from maintaining biodiversity to providing clean air and water, are closely interconnected yet often separately studied and managed. Systems integration—holistic approaches to integrating various components of coupled human and natural systems—is critical to understand socioeconomic and environmental interconnections and to create sustainability solutions. Recent advances include the development and quantification of integrated frameworks that incorporate ecosystem services, environmental footprints, planetary boundaries, human-nature nexuses, and telecoupling. Although systems integration has led to fundamental discoveries and practical applications, further efforts are needed to incorporate more human and natural components simultaneously, quantify spillover systems and feedbacks, integrate multiple spatial and temporal scales, develop new tools, and translate findings into policy and practice. Such efforts can help address important knowledge gaps, link seemingly unconnected challenges, and inform policy and management decisions.
      Authors : Jianguo Liu, Harold Mooney, Vanessa Hull, Steven J. Davis, Joanne Gaskell, Thomas Hertel, Jane Lubchenco, Karen C. Seto, Peter Gleick, Claire Kremen, Shuxin Li
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.1258832
  • [Report] Observation of optical polarization Möbius strips
    • Authors: Thomas Bauer
      Abstract: Möbius strips are three-dimensional geometrical structures, fascinating for their peculiar property of being surfaces with only one “side”—or, more technically, being “nonorientable” surfaces. Despite being easily realized artificially, the spontaneous emergence of these structures in nature is exceedingly rare. Here, we generate Möbius strips of optical polarization by tightly focusing the light beam emerging from a q-plate, a liquid crystal device that modifies the polarization of light in a space-variant manner. Using a recently developed method for the three-dimensional nanotomography of optical vector fields, we fully reconstruct the light polarization structure in the focal region, confirming the appearance of Möbius polarization structures. The preparation of such structured light modes may be important for complex light beam engineering and optical micro- and nanofabrication.
      Authors : Thomas Bauer, Peter Banzer, Ebrahim Karimi, Sergej Orlov, Andrea Rubano, Lorenzo Marrucci, Enrico Santamato, Robert W. Boyd, Gerd Leuchs
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.1260635
  • [Policy Forum] Prediction, precaution, and policy under global change
    • Authors: Daniel E. Schindler
      Abstract: A great deal of research to inform environmental conservation and management takes a predict-and-prescribe strategy in which improving forecasts about future states of ecosystems is the primary goal. But sufficiently thorough understanding of ecosystems needed to reduce deep uncertainties is probably not achievable, seriously limiting the potential effectiveness of the predict-and-prescribe approach. Instead, research should integrate more closely with policy development to identify the range of alternative plausible futures and develop strategies that are robust across these scenarios and responsive to unpredictable ecosystem dynamics.
      Authors : Daniel E. Schindler, Ray Hilborn
      Keywords: Sustainability
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.1261824
  • [Book Review] The hitchhiker's guide to the Anthropocene
    • Authors: Hillary Young
      Abstract: In Adventures in the Anthropocene, Gaia Vince spins rigorous science deftly into an absorbing, and occasionally even light-hearted around-the-world travelogue that attempts to convince the reader that we are not only the cause, but also the potential cure for the declining state of our planet. Author: Hillary Young
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa0999
  • [Perspective] Why the Pacific is cool
    • Authors: Ben B. Booth
      Abstract: After a period of rapid global warming, the rate of global temperature rise has slowed markedly in the past 10 to 15 years. Is this “hiatus” a result of natural climate variability, or does it signify a change in the drivers of global warming? On page 988 of this issue, Steinman et al. (1) present time-series estimates of Atlantic and Pacific variability from state-of-the-art climate modeling. They show that in the past 130 years, periods of natural variability both in the Atlantic and Pacific have at times enhanced or counteracted the underlying global warming trend. The results support the conclusion that cool Pacific temperatures have played a key role in modulating atmospheric temperature increases in the past 10 years (2), only partially offset by modest warming in the Atlantic. Author: Ben B. Booth
      Keywords: Climate Change
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa4840
  • [Perspective] Shape-shifting liquid crystals
    • Authors: Rafael Verduzco
      Abstract: Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) contain tens of thousands of pixels filled with a birefringent fluid known as a liquid crystal, in which molecular orientations fluctuate (like a liquid) but still have an average alignment (like a crystal). The moving images we see on a display are created by controlling the net orientation of the molecules, which changes the optical polarization of the liquid so that it either blocks or transmits light. But what if instead of producing an image on a flat screen, your LCD television could transform into different three-dimensional (3D) objects, and then back to a flat screen? Is it possible for soft materials to reproduce shapes instead of images? On page 982 of this issue, Ware et al. (1) demonstrate this possibility with liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs). Author: Rafael Verduzco
      Keywords: Actuating Materials
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa6579
  • [Perspective] Insecticidal RNA, the long and short of it
    • Authors: Steve Whyard
      Abstract: Insects cost the agricultural sector billions of dollars every year in lost crop yields and insecticide expenditures. The continued use of chemical insecticides has inadvertently selected for more resistant pest strains, prompting higher doses and more frequent applications to control them. The advent of transgenic plants, such as those expressing insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins, reduces the use of chemicals while offering protection to some crops (1), but not all insects are affected by Bt toxins, and continued use of Bt technologies will eventually see the rise of Bt-resistant insects. To stay ahead of the pests will require additional technologies. On page 991 of this issue, Zhang et al. (2) describe a clever modification to an existing transgenic plant technology that produces insecticidal RNAs. The trick is to express lethal RNA in the plant's photosynthetic organelles, the chloroplasts. Author: Steve Whyard
      Keywords: Plant Science
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa7722
  • [Perspective] Delineating Ebola entry
    • Authors: Darryl Falzarano
      Abstract: The means by which Ebola virus enters a cell are becoming less mysterious. Although a definitive cell surface receptor for the virus, if there is one, remains to be identified, the mechanism of gaining entry is beginning to be fleshed out. Once inside the cell, the importance of numerous sequential processes is becoming better understood. On page 995 of this issue, Sakurai et al. (1) add another element to the viral entry pathway by showing that a calcium channel called two-pore channel 2 (TPC2) is required for release of the viral genome into the host cell.
      Authors : Darryl Falzarano, Heinz Feldmann
      Keywords: Virology
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa8121
  • [Perspective] An unexpected cost of sex
    • Authors: Suzanne H. Alonzo
      Abstract: Selection arising from interactions between the sexes is responsible for some of the most striking diversity on the planet. These interactions generate coevolutionary dynamics between males and females that have shaped traits such as the striking courtship displays of male birds and the less winsome mating appendages of some male insects (1). But research on sexual selection has relevance beyond understanding the weird sex lives of animals. For example, human disturbance of sexual selection can lead to the loss of native species (2) and sexually selected male harassment of females can increase a species' risk of extinction (3). On page 985 of this issue, Mitchell et al. (4) show that sexual selection can also be relevant to human health. Author: Suzanne H. Alonzo
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa6495
  • [Perspective] How wheat came to Britain
    • Authors: Greger Larson
      Abstract: Settled communities dependent on agriculture and animal husbandry emerged independently on several continents over the past ∼10,000 years. In many cases, farmers began to disperse out of regions where plants and animals were domesticated and into areas occupied by hunter-gatherer populations. This process of Neolithization certainly took place in Europe. Dating of artifacts and bones indisputably associated with human farming has led to a chronological framework for the spread of the Neolithic along two primary routes into Europe that ended with the arrival of farming in Britain ∼6000 years ago (1). Yet, on page 998 of this issue, Smith et al. (2) report genomic sequences of wheat in an ∼8000-year-old soil sample collected off the coast of southern England, suggesting that domestic crops first appeared on the British Isles long before they were cultivated there. Author: Greger Larson
      Keywords: Anthropology
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa6113
  • [Feature] What's in a name?
    • Authors: Michael Erard
      Abstract: Scientists once shied away from naming research animals, and many of the millions of mice and rats used in U.S. research today go nameless, except for special individuals. But a look at many facilities suggests that most of the other 891,161 U.S. research animals—including nonhuman primates, dogs, pigs, rabbits, cats, and sheep—have proper names. Mice are Harold, Copernicus, or Dudley. Monkeys are Nyah or Nadira. One octopus is called Nixon. Animals in research are named after shampoos, candy bars, whiskeys, family members, movie stars, and superheroes. These unofficial names rarely appear in publications, except sometimes in field studies of primates. But they're used daily.Is this practice good or bad for research? Some scientists worry that names lead to anthropomorphizing and carry associations that could trigger bias. But others argue that animals that are named, and therefore seen as individuals, may be tended more carefully, making them less stressed. That's better for the animals' welfare as well as for study, these scientists say. Author: Michael Erard
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.347.6225.941
  • [Perspective] Understanding particle acceleration in astrophysical plasmas
    • Authors: Hantao Ji
      Abstract: Energetic electrons are ubiquitous in astrophysical plasmas, as they are considered to be behind the surges of emission across the electromagnetic spectrum at wavelengths from radio to gamma rays. These dynamic phenomena include stellar flares, supernova explosions (see the figure) (1), gamma ray bursts, and extragalactic jets. Energetic electrons are also directly observed in situ during terrestrial substorms. Despite these rich observations and substantial progress in theory, numerical simulations, and laboratory experiments over the past few decades, however, the mechanisms by which the electrons obtain their energy still remain elusive. On page 974 of this issue, Matsumoto et al. (2) make progress toward resolving these issues.
      Authors : Hantao Ji, Ellen Zweibel
      Keywords: Plasma Physics
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa3036
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