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Psychological Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 4.128
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 304  
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 1 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 0956-7976 - ISSN (Online) 1467-9280
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1085 journals]
  • Swan Song Editorial
    • Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T05:49:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619893653
  • Use of Letter Names Benefits Young Children’s Spelling
    • Authors: Rebecca Treiman, Sloane Wolter
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      We studied how children begin to produce spellings that reflect the sounds in words. We asked 75 U.S. preschoolers (mean age = 4 years, 11 months) to participate in two sessions. In one session, the children were asked to spell words (e.g., bead) that begin with a sequence of sounds that matches the name of a letter; in another session, they were asked to spell control words (e.g., bed). The phonological plausibility of children’s spellings, particularly their spellings of the words’ first phonemes, was higher for letter-name words than for control words. When we categorized spelling performance in a session as prephonological if the child used phonologically appropriate letters no more often than would be expected by chance, we found that children were more likely to be prephonological spellers in the session with control words than in the session with letter-name words. Words with letter names can help children move from prephonological spellings to spellings that symbolize at least some of the sounds in words.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T05:49:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619888837
  • Misinformation and Morality: Encountering Fake-News Headlines Makes Them
           Seem Less Unethical to Publish and Share
    • Authors: Daniel A. Effron, Medha Raj
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      People may repeatedly encounter the same misinformation when it “goes viral.” The results of four main experiments (two preregistered) and a pilot experiment (total N = 2,587) suggest that repeatedly encountering misinformation makes it seem less unethical to spread—regardless of whether one believes it. Seeing a fake-news headline one or four times reduced how unethical participants thought it was to publish and share that headline when they saw it again—even when it was clearly labeled as false and participants disbelieved it, and even after we statistically accounted for judgments of how likeable and popular it was. In turn, perceiving the headline as less unethical predicted stronger inclinations to express approval of it online. People were also more likely to actually share repeated headlines than to share new headlines in an experimental setting. We speculate that repeating blatant misinformation may reduce the moral condemnation it receives by making it feel intuitively true, and we discuss other potential mechanisms that might explain this effect.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T11:58:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619887896
  • Distracting Objects Induce Early Quitting in Visual Search
    • Authors: Jeff Moher
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Task-irrelevant objects can sometimes capture attention and increase the time it takes an observer to find a target. However, less is known about how these distractors impact visual search strategies. Here, I found that salient distractors reduced rather than increased response times on target-absent trials (Experiment 1; N = 200). Combined with higher error rates on target-present trials, these results indicate that distractors can induce observers to quit search earlier than they otherwise would. These effects were replicated when target prevalence was low (Experiment 2; N = 200) and with different stimuli that elicited shallower search slopes (Experiment 3; N = 75). These results demonstrate that salient distractors can produce at least two consequences in visual search: They can capture attention, and they can cause observers to quit searching early. This novel finding has implications both for understanding visual attention and for examining distraction in real-world domains where targets are often absent, such as medical image screening.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-11-20T06:40:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619886809
  • The Value of Interracial Contact for Reducing Anti-Black Bias Among
           Non-Black Physicians: A Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation (CHANGE)
           Study Report
    • Authors: Ivuoma N. Onyeador, Natalie M. Wittlin, Sara E. Burke, John F. Dovidio, Sylvia P. Perry, Rachel R. Hardeman, Liselotte N. Dyrbye, Jeph Herrin, Sean M. Phelan, Michelle van Ryn
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Although scholars have long studied circumstances that shape prejudice, inquiry into factors associated with long-term prejudice reduction has been more limited. Using a 6-year longitudinal study of non-Black physicians in training (N = 3,134), we examined the effect of three medical-school factors—interracial contact, medical-school environment, and diversity training—on explicit and implicit racial bias measured during medical residency. When accounting for all three factors, previous contact, and baseline bias, we found that quality of contact continued to predict lower explicit and implicit bias, although the effects were very small. Racial climate, modeling of bias, and hours of diversity training in medical school were not consistently related to less explicit or implicit bias during residency. These results highlight the benefits of interracial contact during an impactful experience such as medical school. Ultimately, professional institutions can play a role in reducing anti-Black bias by encouraging more frequent, and especially more favorable, interracial contact.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-11-19T05:53:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619879139
  • Corrigendum: “Our Country Needs a Strong Leader Right Now”: Economic
           Inequality Enhances the Wish for a Strong Leader
    • Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-11-18T06:26:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619890360
  • Corrigendum: Healthy Out-Group Members Are Represented Psychologically as
           Infected In-Group Members
    • Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-11-15T04:21:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619887750
  • How to Change the Weight of Rare Events in Decisions From Experience
    • Authors: Jared M. Hotaling, Andreas Jarvstad, Chris Donkin, Ben R. Newell
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      When people make risky choices, two kinds of information are crucial: outcome values and outcome probabilities. Here, we demonstrate that the juncture at which value and probability information is provided has a fundamental effect on choice. Across four experiments involving 489 participants, we compared two decision-making scenarios: one in which value information was revealed during sampling (standard) and one in which value information was revealed after sampling (value ignorance). On average, participants made riskier choices when value information was provided after sampling. Moreover, parameter estimates from a hierarchical Bayesian implementation of cumulative-prospect theory suggested that participants overweighted rare events when value information was absent during sampling but did not overweight such events in the standard condition. This suggests that the impact of rare events on choice relies crucially on the timing of probability and value integration. We provide paths toward mechanistic explanations of our results based on frameworks that assume different underlying cognitive architectures.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-11-14T07:08:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619884324
  • Corrigendum: Action-Video-Game Experience Alters the Spatial Resolution of
    • Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-11-14T04:26:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619889044
  • The Ethical Perils of Personal, Communal Relations: A Language Perspective
    • Authors: Maryam Kouchaki, Francesca Gino, Yuval Feldman
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Most companies use codes of conduct, ethics training, and regular communication to ensure that employees know about rules to follow to avoid misconduct. In the present research, we focused on the type of language used in codes of conduct and showed that impersonal language (e.g., “employees” or “members”) and personal, communal language (e.g., “we”) lead to different behaviors because they change how people perceive the group or organization of which they are a part. Using multiple methods, including lab- and field-based experiments (total N = 1,443), and a large data set of S&P 500 firms (i.e., publicly traded, large U.S. companies that are part of the S&P 500 stock market index), we robustly demonstrated that personal, communal language (compared with impersonal language) influences perceptions of a group’s warmth, which, in turn, increases levels of dishonesty among its members.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-11-13T08:51:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619882917
  • Lipid Profiles at Birth Predict Teacher-Rated Child Emotional and Social
           Development 5 Years Later
    • Authors: Erika M. Manczak, Ian H. Gotlib
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      The fetal environment has been increasingly implicated in later psychological health, but the role of lipids is unknown. Drawing on the ethnically diverse Born in Bradford (BiB) birth cohort, the current study related levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides in umbilical cord blood to 1,369 children’s teacher-rated psychosocial competence approximately 5 years later. Results of ordinal logistic regressions indicated that low levels of HDL, high levels of VLDL, and high levels of triglycerides predicted greater likelihood of being rated as less competent in domains of emotion regulation, self-awareness, and interpersonal functioning. Furthermore, these results generalized across ethnic background and children’s sex and were not accounted for by variables reflecting mothers’ psychological or physical health, children’s physical health, or children’s special education status. Together, these results identify fetal exposure to anomalous lipid levels as a possible contributor to subsequent psychological health and social functioning.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-11-11T05:27:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619885649
  • Not Learning From Failure—the Greatest Failure of All
    • Authors: Lauren Eskreis-Winkler, Ayelet Fishbach
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Our society celebrates failure as a teachable moment. Yet in five studies (total N = 1,674), failure did the opposite: It undermined learning. Across studies, participants answered binary-choice questions, following which they were told they answered correctly (success feedback) or incorrectly (failure feedback). Both types of feedback conveyed the correct answer, because there were only two answer choices. However, on a follow-up test, participants learned less from failure feedback than from success feedback. This effect was replicated across professional, linguistic, and social domains—even when learning from failure was less cognitively taxing than learning from success and even when learning was incentivized. Participants who received failure feedback also remembered fewer of their answer choices. Why does failure undermine learning' Failure is ego threatening, which causes people to tune out. Participants learned less from personal failure than from personal success, yet they learned just as much from other people’s failure as from others’ success. Thus, when ego concerns are muted, people tune in and learn from failure.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-11-08T04:56:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619881133
  • Reading Increases the Compositionality of Visual Word Representations
    • Authors: Aakash Agrawal, K. V. S. Hari, S. P. Arun
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Reading causes widespread changes in the brain, but its effect on visual word representations is unknown. Learning to read may facilitate visual processing by forming specialized detectors for longer strings or by making word responses more predictable from single letters—that is, by increasing compositionality. We provided evidence for the latter hypothesis using experiments that compared nonoverlapping groups of readers of two Indian languages (Telugu and Malayalam). Readers showed increased single-letter discrimination and decreased letter interactions for bigrams during visual search. Importantly, these interactions predicted subjects’ overall reading fluency. In a separate brain-imaging experiment, we observed increased compositionality in readers, whereby responses to bigrams were more predictable from single letters. This effect was specific to the anterior lateral occipital region, where activations best matched behavior. Thus, learning to read facilitates visual processing by increasing the compositionality of visual word representations.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-11-07T06:58:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619881134
  • Enhancement and Suppression Flexibly Guide Attention
    • Authors: Seah Chang, Howard E. Egeth
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research suggests that observers can suppress salient-but-irrelevant stimuli in a top-down manner. However, one question left unresolved is whether such suppression is, in fact, solely due to distractor-feature suppression or whether it instead also reflects some degree of target-feature enhancement. The present study (N = 60) addressed this issue. On search trials (70% of trials), participants searched for a shape target when an irrelevant color singleton was either present or absent; performance was better when a color singleton was present. On interleaved probe trials (30% of trials), participants searched for a letter target. Responses were faster for the letter on a target-colored item than on a neutral-colored item, whereas responses were slower for the letter on a distractor-colored item than on a neutral-colored item. The results demonstrate that target-feature enhancement and distractor-feature suppression contribute to attentional guidance independently; enhancement and suppression flexibly guide attention as the occasion demands.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-11-06T06:54:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619878813
  • Development of Holistic Episodic Recollection
    • Authors: Chi T. Ngo, Aidan J. Horner, Nora S. Newcombe, Ingrid R. Olson
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Episodic memory binds the diverse elements of an event into a coherent representation. This coherence allows for the reconstruction of different aspects of an experience when triggered by a cue related to a past event—a process of pattern completion. Previous work has shown that such holistic recollection is evident in young adults, as revealed by dependency in retrieval success for various associations from the same event. In addition, episodic memory shows clear quantitative increases during early childhood. However, the ontogeny of holistic recollection is uncharted. Using dependency analyses, we found here that 4-year-olds (n = 32), 6-year-olds (n = 30), and young adults (n = 31) all retrieved complex events in a holistic manner; specifically, retrieval accuracy for one aspect of an event predicted accuracy for other aspects of the same event. However, the degree of holistic retrieval increased from the age 4 to adulthood. Thus, extended refinement of multiway binding may be one aspect of episodic memory development.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T08:00:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619879441
  • The Sign Effect in Past and Future Discounting
    • Authors: Sarah Molouki, David J. Hardisty, Eugene M. Caruso
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      We compared the extent to which people discounted positive and negative events in the future and in the past. We found that the tendency to discount gains more than losses (i.e., the sign effect) emerged more strongly for future than for past outcomes. We present evidence from six studies (total N = 1,077) that the effect of tense on discounting is tied to differences in the contemplation emotion of these events, which we assessed by measuring participants’ emotions while they either anticipated or remembered the event. We ruled out loss aversion, uncertainty, utility curvature, thought frequency, and connection to the future and past self as explanations for this phenomenon, and we discuss why people experience a distinct mixture of emotions when contemplating upcoming events.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T03:07:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619876982
  • Searching for Rewards Like a Child Means Less Generalization and More
           Directed Exploration
    • Authors: Eric Schulz, Charley M. Wu, Azzurra Ruggeri, Björn Meder
      First page: 1561
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      How do children and adults differ in their search for rewards' We considered three different hypotheses that attribute developmental differences to (a) children’s increased random sampling, (b) more directed exploration toward uncertain options, or (c) narrower generalization. Using a search task in which noisy rewards were spatially correlated on a grid, we compared the ability of 55 younger children (ages 7 and 8 years), 55 older children (ages 9–11 years), and 50 adults (ages 19–55 years) to successfully generalize about unobserved outcomes and balance the exploration–exploitation dilemma. Our results show that children explore more eagerly than adults but obtain lower rewards. We built a predictive model of search to disentangle the unique contributions of the three hypotheses of developmental differences and found robust and recoverable parameter estimates indicating that children generalize less and rely on directed exploration more than adults. We did not, however, find reliable differences in terms of random sampling.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-10-25T06:23:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619863663
  • Poverty and Puberty: A Neurocognitive Study of Inhibitory Control in the
           Transition to Adolescence
    • Authors: Kirby Deater-Deckard, Mengjiao Li, Jacob Lee, Brooks King-Casas, Jungmeen Kim-Spoon
      First page: 1573
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Pubertal development during early adolescence is modestly associated with individual differences in slowly developing inhibitory control of impulses—an aspect of self-regulation associated with reward-seeking behaviors such as the onset and frequency of sexual activity. However, this effect may be much stronger in resource-poor environments. On the basis of life-history and r/K-selection theories, we tested the hypothesis that early pubertal timing would be more strongly associated with less mature neurocognitive inhibitory control in lower-income environments. In an economically diverse Appalachian sample (N = 157; 138 with complete neuroimaging data) of 14-year-olds (52% male), inhibitory control was measured using the multisource-interference task during functional MRI. Results showed that among poor youths only, more advanced puberty for one’s age was linked with lower inhibitory control for the neural but not the behavioral measure. This finding has implications regarding poverty, neurocognitive development, and health-risk behaviors in adolescence.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-09-26T09:49:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619863780
  • Rushing to Appear Virtuous: Time Pressure Increases Socially Desirable
    • Authors: John Protzko, Claire M. Zedelius, Jonathan W. Schooler
      First page: 1584
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Prosociality increases when decisions are made under time pressure. Here, we investigated whether time pressure increases socially desirable responding outside social interactions (Study 1). Finding that it did, we then examined whether this is because people align their responses with the concept of their “true” self or because of an intuitive tendency to comply with norms (Study 2). In Study 1, we randomly assigned each of 1,500 Americans to answer a measure of social-desirability bias either quickly or slowly and found that quick responding increased social desirability. In Study 2, we recruited a similar sample and tested whether fast-responding effects were moderated by the extent to which people display a good-true-self bias. A greater tendency to ascribe good behaviors to the true self predicted social desirability, but this relationship disappeared under time pressure. These results of socially desirable behavior under time pressure do not reflect people’s deep-down good selves but, rather, their desire to present themselves favorably to other people.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-10-11T10:03:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619867939
  • Automated Study Challenges the Existence of a Foundational
           Statistical-Learning Ability in Newborn Chicks
    • Authors: Samantha M. W. Wood, Scott P. Johnson, Justin N. Wood
      First page: 1592
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      What mechanisms underlie learning in newborn brains' Recently, researchers reported that newborn chicks use unsupervised statistical learning to encode the transitional probabilities (TPs) of shapes in a sequence, suggesting that TP-based statistical learning can be present in newborn brains. Using a preregistered design, we attempted to reproduce this finding with an automated method that eliminated experimenter bias and allowed more than 250 times more data to be collected per chick. With precise measurements of each chick’s behavior, we were able to perform individual-level analyses and substantially reduce measurement error for the group-level analyses. We found no evidence that newborn chicks encode the TPs between sequentially presented shapes. None of the chicks showed evidence for this ability. Conversely, we obtained strong evidence that newborn chicks encode the shapes of individual objects, showing that this automated method can produce robust results. These findings challenge the claim that TP-based statistical learning is present in newborn brains.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-10-16T12:31:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619868998
  • Increasing Vegetable Intake by Emphasizing Tasty and Enjoyable Attributes:
    • Authors: Bradley P. Turnwald, Jaclyn D. Bertoldo, Margaret A. Perry, Peggy Policastro, Maureen Timmons, Christopher Bosso, Priscilla Connors, Robert T. Valgenti, Lindsey Pine, Ghislaine Challamel, Christopher D. Gardner, Alia J. Crum
      First page: 1603
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Healthy food labels tout health benefits, yet most people prioritize tastiness in the moment of food choice. In a preregistered intervention, we tested whether taste-focused labels compared with health-focused labels increased vegetable intake at five university dining halls throughout the United States. Across 137,842 diner decisions, 185 days, and 24 vegetable types, taste-focused labels increased vegetable selection by 29% compared with health-focused labels and by 14% compared with basic labels. Vegetable consumption also increased. Supplementary studies further probed the mediators, moderators, and boundaries of these effects. Increased expectations of a positive taste experience mediated the effect of taste-focused labels on vegetable selection. Moderation tests revealed greater effects in settings that served tastier vegetable recipes. Taste-focused labels outperformed labels that merely contained positive words, fancy words, or lists of ingredients. Together, these studies show that emphasizing tasty and enjoyable attributes increases vegetable intake in real-world settings in which vegetables compete with less healthy options.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-10-02T03:00:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619872191
  • Targeted Memory Reactivation During Sleep Improves Next-Day Problem
    • Authors: Kristin E. G. Sanders, Samuel Osburn, Ken A. Paller, Mark Beeman
      First page: 1616
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Many people have claimed that sleep has helped them solve a difficult problem, but empirical support for this assertion remains tentative. The current experiment tested whether manipulating information processing during sleep impacts problem incubation and solving. In memory studies, delivering learning-associated sound cues during sleep can reactivate memories. We therefore predicted that reactivating previously unsolved problems could help people solve them. In the evening, we presented 57 participants with puzzles, each arbitrarily associated with a different sound. While participants slept overnight, half of the sounds associated with the puzzles they had not solved were surreptitiously presented. The next morning, participants solved 31.7% of cued puzzles, compared with 20.5% of uncued puzzles (a 55% improvement). Moreover, cued-puzzle solving correlated with cued-puzzle memory. Overall, these results demonstrate that cuing puzzle information during sleep can facilitate solving, thus supporting sleep’s role in problem incubation and establishing a new technique to advance understanding of problem solving and sleep cognition.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-10-11T08:00:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619873344
  • “Our Country Needs a Strong Leader Right Now”: Economic Inequality
           Enhances the Wish for a Strong Leader
    • Authors: Stefanie Sprong, Jolanda Jetten, Zhechen Wang, Kim Peters, Frank Mols, Maykel Verkuyten, Brock Bastian, Amarina Ariyanto, Frédérique Autin, Nadia Ayub, Constantina Badea, Tomasz Besta, Fabrizio Butera, Rui Costa-Lopes, Lijuan Cui, Carole Fantini, Gillian Finchilescu, Lowell Gaertner, Mario Gollwitzer, Ángel Gómez, Roberto González, Ying-Yi Hong, Dorthe Høj Jensen, Inga Jasinskaja-Lahti, Minoru Karasawa, Thomas Kessler, Olivier Klein, Marcus Lima, Laura Mégevand, Thomas Morton, Paola Paladino, Tibor Polya, Tuuli Anna Renvik, Aleksejs Ruza, Wan Shahrazad, Sushama Shama, Heather J. Smith, Ana Raquel Torres, Anne Marthe van der Bles, Michael J. A. Wohl
      First page: 1625
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Societal inequality has been found to harm the mental and physical health of its members and undermine overall social cohesion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that economic inequality is associated with a wish for a strong leader in a study involving 28 countries from five continents (Study 1, N = 6,112), a study involving an Australian community sample (Study 2, N = 515), and two experiments (Study 3a, N = 96; Study 3b, N = 296). We found correlational (Studies 1 and 2) and experimental (Studies 3a and 3b) evidence for our prediction that higher inequality enhances the wish for a strong leader. We also found that this relationship is mediated by perceptions of anomie, except in the case of objective inequality in Study 1. This suggests that societal inequality enhances the perception that society is breaking down (anomie) and that a strong leader is needed to restore order (even when that leader is willing to challenge democratic values).
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-09-30T12:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619875472
  • Sound-Symbolism Effects in the Absence of Awareness: A Replication Study
    • Authors: Tom Heyman, Anne-Sofie Maerten, Hendrik Vankrunkelsven, Wouter Voorspoels, Pieter Moors
      First page: 1638
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      People have been shown to link particular sounds with particular shapes. For instance, the round-sounding nonword bouba tends to be associated with curved shapes, whereas the sharp-sounding nonword kiki is deemed to be related to angular shapes. People’s tendency to associate sounds and shapes has been observed across different languages. In the present study, we reexamined the claim by Hung, Styles, and Hsieh (2017) that such sound–shape mappings can occur before an individual becomes aware of the visual stimuli. More precisely, we replicated their first experiment, in which congruent and incongruent stimuli (e.g., bouba presented in a round shape or an angular shape, respectively) were rendered invisible through continuous flash suppression. The results showed that congruent combinations, on average, broke suppression faster than incongruent combinations, thus providing converging evidence for Hung and colleagues’ assertions. Collectively, these findings now provide a solid basis from which to explore the boundary conditions of the effect.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-10-22T08:55:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619875482
  • How to Create Objects With Your Mind: From Object-Based Attention to
           Attention-Based Objects
    • Authors: Joan Danielle K. Ongchoco, Brian J. Scholl
      First page: 1648
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      When staring at a blank grid, one can readily “see” simple shapes—a peculiar experience that does not occur when viewing an empty background. But just what does this “seeing” entail' Previous work has explored many cues to object-based attention (e.g., involving continuity and closure), but here we asked whether attention can be object based even when there are no cues to objecthood. Observers viewed simple grids and attended to particular squares until they could effectively “see” shapes such as a capital H or I. During this scaffolded attention, two probes appeared, and observers reported whether they were the same or different. Remarkably, this produced a traditional same-object advantage: In several experiments (including high-powered direct replications), performance was enhanced for probes presented on the same (purely imagined) object, compared with equidistant probes presented on different objects. We conclude that attention not only operates over objects but also can effectively create object representations.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-10-21T07:47:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619863072
  • Visually Entrained Theta Oscillations Increase for Unexpected Events in
           the Infant Brain

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Moritz Köster, Miriam Langeloh, Stefanie Hoehl
      First page: 1656
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Infants form basic expectations about their physical and social environment, as indicated by their attention toward events that violate their expectations. Yet little is known about the neuronal processing of unexpected events in the infant brain. Here, we used rhythmic visual brain stimulation in 9-month-olds (N = 38) to elicit oscillations of the theta (4 Hz) and the alpha (6 Hz) rhythms while presenting events with unexpected or expected outcomes. We found that visually entrained theta oscillations sharply increased for unexpected outcomes, in contrast to expected outcomes, in the scalp-recorded electroencephalogram. Visually entrained alpha oscillations did not differ between conditions. The processing of unexpected events at the theta rhythm may reflect learning processes such as the refinement of infants’ basic representations. Visual brain-stimulation techniques provide new ways to investigate the functional relevance of neuronal oscillatory dynamics in early brain development.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-10-11T07:59:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619876260
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