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Psychological Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 4.128
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 327  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0956-7976 - ISSN (Online) 1467-9280
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1090 journals]
  • Breaking Bread Produces Bigger Pies: An Empirical Extension of Shared
           Eating to Negotiations and a Commentary on Woolley and Fishbach (2019)
    • Authors: Jiyin Cao, Dejun Tony Kong, Adam D. Galinsky
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-08-07T04:47:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620939532
  • Confidence as a Priority Signal
    • Authors: David Aguilar-Lleyda, Maxime Lemarchand, Vincent de Gardelle
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      When dealing with multiple tasks, we must establish the order in which to tackle them. In multiple experiments, including a preregistered replication (Ns = 16–105), we found that confidence, or the subjective accuracy of decisions, acts as a priority signal, both when ordering responses about tasks already completed or ordering tasks yet to be completed. Specifically, when participants categorized perceptual stimuli along two dimensions, they tended to first give the decision associated with higher confidence. When participants selected which of two tasks they wanted to perform first, they were slightly biased toward the task associated with higher confidence. This finding extends to nonperceptual decisions (mental calculation) and cannot be reduced to effects of task difficulty, response accuracy, response availability, or implicit demands. Our results thus support the role of confidence as a priority signal, thereby suggesting a new way in which it may regulate human behavior.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-08-05T06:14:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620925039
  • Aging Predicts Decline in Explicit and Implicit Memory: A Life-Span Study
    • Authors: Emma V. Ward, Christopher J. Berry, David R. Shanks, Petter L. Moller, Enida Czsiser
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Explicit memory declines with age, but age effects on implicit memory are debated. This issue is important because if implicit memory is age invariant, it may support effective interventions in individuals experiencing memory decline. In this study, we overcame several methodological issues in past research to clarify age effects on implicit memory (priming) and their relationship to explicit memory (recognition, source memory). We (a) recruited a large life-span sample of participants (N = 1,072) during a residency at the Science Museum in London, (b) employed an implicit task that was unaffected by explicit contamination, and (c) systematically manipulated attention and depth of processing to assess their contribution to age effects. Participants witnessed a succession of overlapping colored objects, attending to one color stream and ignoring the other, and identified masked objects at test before judging whether they were previously attended, unattended, or new. Age significantly predicted decline in both explicit and implicit memory for attended items.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-31T07:59:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620927648
  • Corrigendum: The Development of Intersectional Social Prototypes
    • Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-29T06:03:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620947640
  • Reanalysis Suggests Evidence for Motor Simulation in Naming Tools Is
           Limited: A Commentary on Witt, Kemmerer, Linkenauger, and Culham (2010)
    • Authors: Jessica K. Witt, David Kemmerer, Sally A. Linkenauger, Jody C. Culham
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-29T02:12:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620940555
  • Corrigendum: The Illusion of Consensus: A Failure to Distinguish Between
           True and False Consensus
    • Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-28T10:03:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620948511
  • The Latent Genetic Structure of Impulsivity and Its Relation to
           Internalizing Psychopathology
    • Authors: Daniel E. Gustavson, Naomi P. Friedman, Pierre Fontanillas, Sarah L. Elson, Abraham A. Palmer, Sandra Sanchez-Roige
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Factor analyses suggest that impulsivity traits that capture tendencies to act prematurely or take risks tap partially distinct constructs. We applied genomic structure equation modeling to evaluate the genetic factor structure of two well-established impulsivity questionnaires, using published statistics from genome-wide association studies of up to 22,861 participants. We also tested the hypotheses that delay discounting would be genetically separable from other impulsivity factors and that emotionally triggered facets of impulsivity (urgency) would be those most strongly genetically correlated with an internalizing latent factor. A five-factor model best fitted the impulsivity data. Delay discounting was genetically distinct from these five factors. As expected, the two urgency subscales were most strongly related to an internalizing-psychopathology latent factor. These findings provide empirical genetic evidence that impulsivity can be broken down into distinct categories of differential relevance for internalizing psychopathology. They also demonstrate how measured genetic markers can be used to inform theories of psychology and personality.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-27T04:43:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620938160
  • On Intersectionality: How Complex Patterns of Discrimination Can Emerge
           From Simple Stereotypes
    • Authors: Neil Hester, Keith Payne, Jazmin Brown-Iannuzzi, Kurt Gray
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Patterns of discrimination are often complex (i.e., multiplicative), with different identities combining to yield especially potent discrimination. For example, Black men are disproportionately stopped by police to a degree that cannot be explained by the simple (i.e., additive) effects of being Black and being male. Researchers often posit corresponding mental representations (e.g., intersectional stereotypes for Black men) to account for these complex outcomes. We suggest that complex discrimination can be explained by simple stereotypes combined with threshold models of behavior—for example, “if someone’s threat level seems higher than X, stop that person.” Simulations provide proof of this concept. We show how gender-by-race discrimination in both promotions and police stops can be explained by simple stereotypes. We also explore race-by-age discrimination in police stops, in which racial disparities are greater for young adolescents. This work suggests that complex behaviors can sometimes arise from relatively simple cognitions.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-27T04:42:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620929979
  • Dominance-Driven Autocratic Political Orientations Predict Political
           Violence in Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic
           (WEIRD) and Non-WEIRD Samples
    • Authors: Henrikas Bartusevičius, Florian van Leeuwen, Michael Bang Petersen
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Given the costs of political violence, scholars have long sought to identify its causes. We examined individual differences related to participation in political violence, emphasizing the central role of political orientations. We hypothesized that individuals with dominance-driven autocratic political orientations are prone to political violence. Multilevel analysis of survey data from 34 African countries (N = 51,587) indicated that autocracy-oriented individuals, compared with democracy-oriented individuals, are considerably more likely to participate in political violence. As a predictor of violence (indexed with attitudinal, intentional, and behavioral measures), autocratic orientation outperformed other variables highlighted in existing research, including socioeconomic status and group-based injustice. Additional analyses of original data from South Africa (N = 2,170), Denmark (N = 1,012), and the United States (N = 1,539) indicated that the link between autocratic orientations and political violence reflects individual differences in the use of dominance to achieve status and that the findings generalize to societies extensively socialized to democratic values.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-24T04:41:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620922476
  • Polluted Psyche: Is the Effect of Air Pollution on Unethical Behavior More
           Physiological or Psychological'
    • Authors: Shiyang Gong, Jackson G. Lu, John M. Schaubroeck, Qian Li, Qiwei Zhou, Xiaoye Qian
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-23T05:05:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620943835
  • Concerns About Automation and Negative Sentiment Toward Immigration
    • Authors: Monica Gamez-Djokic, Adam Waytz
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Across 12 studies (N = 31,581), we examined how concerns about the rise of automation may be associated with attitudes toward immigrants. Studies 1a to 1g used archival data ranging from 1986 to 2017 across both the United States and Europe to demonstrate a robust association between concerns about automation and more negative attitudes toward immigrants. Studies 2a, 2b, 2c, and 3 employed both correlational and experimental methods to demonstrate that people’s concerns about automation are linked to increased support for restrictive immigration policies. These studies show this association to be mediated by perceptions of both realistic and symbolic intergroup threat. Finally, Study 4 experimentally demonstrated that automation may lead to more discriminatory behavior toward immigrants in the context of layoffs. Together, these results suggest that concerns about automation correspond to perceptions of threat and competition with immigrants as well as consequent anti-immigration sentiment.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-22T06:07:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620929977
  • Face Pareidolia Recruits Mechanisms for Detecting Human Social Attention
    • Authors: Colin J. Palmer, Colin W. G. Clifford
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Face pareidolia is the phenomenon of seeing facelike structures in everyday objects. Here, we tested the hypothesis that face pareidolia, rather than being limited to a cognitive or mnemonic association, reflects the activation of visual mechanisms that typically process human faces. We focused on sensory cues to social attention, which engage cell populations in temporal cortex that are susceptible to habituation effects. Repeated exposure to “pareidolia faces” that appear to have a specific direction of attention causes a systematic bias in the perception of where human faces are looking, indicating that overlapping sensory mechanisms are recruited when we view human faces and when we experience face pareidolia. These cross-adaptation effects are significantly reduced when pareidolia is abolished by removing facelike features from the objects. These results indicate that face pareidolia is essentially a perceptual phenomenon, occurring when sensory input is processed by visual mechanisms that have evolved to extract specific social content from human faces.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-22T06:07:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620924814
  • Corrigendum: Truth, Lies, and Gossip
    • Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T07:50:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620944135
  • Corrigendum: In Generous Offers I Trust: The Effect of First-Offer Value
           on Economically Vulnerable Behaviors
    • Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-14T06:59:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620944137
  • Corrigendum: Targeted Memory Reactivation During Sleep Improves Next-Day
           Problem Solving
    • Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-14T06:47:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620943156
  • Exploring the Impact of Mindfulness on False-Memory Susceptibility
    • Authors: Susan M. Sherman, James A. Grange
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Wilson, Mickes, Stolarz-Fantino, Evrard, and Fantino (2015) presented data from three well-powered experiments suggesting that a brief mindfulness induction can increase false-memory susceptibility. However, we had concerns about some of the methodology, including whether mind wandering is the best control condition for brief mindfulness inductions. Here, we report the findings from a preregistered double-blind randomized controlled trial designed to replicate and extend Wilson et al.’s findings. Participants (N = 287) underwent 15-min mindfulness or mind-wandering inductions or completed a join-the-dots task before being presented with lists of words related to nonpresented critical lures. This was followed by free-recall and recognition tasks. There was no evidence for an effect of state of mind on correct or false recall or recognition. Furthermore, manipulation checks revealed that mindfulness and mind-wandering inductions activated overlapping states of mind. Exploratory analyses provided some support for mindfulness increasing false memory, but it appears that mind wandering may not be the right control for brief mindfulness research.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-14T04:59:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620929302
  • Affective Arousal Links Sound to Meaning
    • Authors: Arash Aryani, Erin S. Isbilen, Morten H. Christiansen
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Prior investigations have demonstrated that people tend to link pseudowords such as bouba to rounded shapes and kiki to spiky shapes, but the cognitive processes underlying this matching bias have remained controversial. Here, we present three experiments underscoring the fundamental role of emotional mediation in this sound–shape mapping. Using stimuli from key previous studies, we found that kiki-like pseudowords and spiky shapes, compared with bouba-like pseudowords and rounded shapes, consistently elicit higher levels of affective arousal, which we assessed through both subjective ratings (Experiment 1, N = 52) and acoustic models implemented on the basis of pseudoword material (Experiment 2, N = 70). Crucially, the mediating effect of arousal generalizes to novel pseudowords (Experiment 3, N = 64, which was preregistered). These findings highlight the role that human emotion may play in language development and evolution by grounding associations between abstract concepts (e.g., shapes) and linguistic signs (e.g., words) in the affective system.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-14T02:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620927967
  • “This is What a Mechanic Sounds Like”: Children’s Vocal Control
           Reveals Implicit Occupational Stereotypes
    • Authors: Valentina Cartei, Jane Oakhill, Alan Garnham, Robin Banerjee, David Reby
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we explored the use of variation in sex-related cues of the voice to investigate implicit occupational stereotyping in children. Eighty-two children between the ages of 5 and 10 years took part in an imitation task in which they were provided with descriptions of nine occupations (three traditionally male, three traditionally female, and three gender-neutral professions) and asked to give voices to them (e.g., “How would a mechanic say . . . '”). Overall, children adapted their voices to conform to gender-stereotyped expectations by masculinizing (lowering voice pitch and resonance) and feminizing (raising voice pitch and resonance) their voices for the traditionally male and female occupations, respectively. The magnitude of these shifts increased with age, particularly in boys, and was not mediated by children’s explicit stereotyping of the same occupations. We conclude by proposing a simple tool based on voice pitch for assessing levels of implicit occupational-gender stereotyping in children.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-08T06:59:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620929297
  • Young Adults Make Rational Sexual Decisions
    • Authors: Laura E. Hatz, Sanghyuk Park, Kayleigh N. McCarty, Denis M. McCarthy, Clintin P. Davis-Stober
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      We examined risky sexual choice under the lens of rational decision-making. Participants (N = 257) completed a novel sexual-choice task in which they selected from among hypothetical sexual partners varying in physical attractiveness and in the probability that one would contract a sexually transmitted infection (STI) from a one-time sexual encounter with them. We found that nearly all participants evaluated the sexual-choice alternatives in a coherent fashion consistent with utility-based theories of rational choice. In subsequent analyses, we classified participants’ responses according to whether their sexual preferences were based on maximizing attractiveness or minimizing the risk of STIs. Finally, we established an association between sexual choice in our task and reported real-world sexual risk-taking.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-06T10:38:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620925036
  • Confidence in Context: Perceived Accuracy of Quantitative Estimates
           Decreases With Repeated Trials
    • Authors: Julia A. Minson, Christopher Umphres
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Across seven studies (combined N = 5,484), we demonstrated that confidence in one’s judgments decreases over a series of quantitative estimates. This finding was robust to various methods of confidence elicitation, the presence of incentives, and different estimation topics (Studies 1, 2, and 4). Our results also stand in contrast to participant expectations (Study 3). The phenomenon does not appear to be driven by fatigue, lack of effort, or various explanations based on incorporating uncertainty from prior judgments into subsequent ones. Our findings suggest that rather than evaluating confidence in isolation, participants evaluate confidence in reference to their stated confidence on earlier judgments. We theorize that confidence in earlier judgments increases in hindsight because of biased forgetting of disconfirming evidence. As a result, confidence in subsequent judgments appears to be comparatively lower (preregistered Studies 5–7). We discuss the implications for confidence research and consumer, organizational, and policy decision-making.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-06T10:32:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620921517
  • The Development of Intersectional Social Prototypes
    • Authors: Ryan F. Lei, Rachel A. Leshin, Marjorie Rhodes
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Race and gender information overlap to shape adults’ representations of social categories. This overlap can lead to the psychological “invisibility” of people whose race and gender identities are perceived to have conflicting stereotypes. In the present research (N = 249), we examined when race begins to bias representations of gender across development. In Study 1, a speeded categorization task revealed that children were slower to categorize Black women as women, relative to their speed of categorizing White and Asian women as women and Black men as men. Children were also more likely to miscategorize Black women as men and less likely to stereotype Black women as feminine. Study 2 replicated these findings and provided evidence of a developmental shift in categorization speed. An omnibus analysis provided a high-powered test of this developmental hypothesis, revealing that target race begins biasing children’s gender categorization around age 5 years. Implications for the development of social-category representation are discussed.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-06-05T06:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620920360
  • A Call for Greater Sensitivity in the Wake of a Publication Controversy
    • Authors: Patricia J. Bauer
      First page: 767
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-06-26T04:09:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620941482
  • Fighting COVID-19 Misinformation on Social Media: Experimental Evidence
           for a Scalable Accuracy-Nudge Intervention
    • Authors: Gordon Pennycook, Jonathon McPhetres, Yunhao Zhang, Jackson G. Lu, David G. Rand
      First page: 770
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Across two studies with more than 1,700 U.S. adults recruited online, we present evidence that people share false claims about COVID-19 partly because they simply fail to think sufficiently about whether or not the content is accurate when deciding what to share. In Study 1, participants were far worse at discerning between true and false content when deciding what they would share on social media relative to when they were asked directly about accuracy. Furthermore, greater cognitive reflection and science knowledge were associated with stronger discernment. In Study 2, we found that a simple accuracy reminder at the beginning of the study (i.e., judging the accuracy of a non-COVID-19-related headline) nearly tripled the level of truth discernment in participants’ subsequent sharing intentions. Our results, which mirror those found previously for political fake news, suggest that nudging people to think about accuracy is a simple way to improve choices about what to share on social media.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-06-30T04:26:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620939054
  • The Earliest Origins of Genetic Nurture: The Prenatal Environment Mediates
           the Association Between Maternal Genetics and Child Development
    • Authors: Emma Armstrong-Carter, Sam Trejo, Liam J. B. Hill, Kirsty L. Crossley, Dan Mason, Benjamin W. Domingue
      First page: 781
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Observed genetic associations with educational attainment may be due to direct or indirect genetic influences. Recent work highlights genetic nurture, the potential effect of parents’ genetics on their child’s educational outcomes via rearing environments. To date, few mediating childhood environments have been tested. We used a large sample of genotyped mother–child dyads (N = 2,077) to investigate whether genetic nurture occurs via the prenatal environment. We found that mothers with more education-related genes are generally healthier and more financially stable during pregnancy. Further, measured prenatal conditions explain up to one third of the associations between maternal genetics and children’s academic and developmental outcomes at the ages of 4 to 7 years. By providing the first evidence of prenatal genetic nurture and showing that genetic nurture is detectable in early childhood, this study broadens our understanding of how parental genetics may influence children and illustrates the challenges of within-person interpretation of existing genetic associations.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-06-02T02:48:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620917209
  • What Is the Test-Retest Reliability of Common Task-Functional MRI
           Measures' New Empirical Evidence and a Meta-Analysis
    • Authors: Maxwell L. Elliott, Annchen R. Knodt, David Ireland, Meriwether L. Morris, Richie Poulton, Sandhya Ramrakha, Maria L. Sison, Terrie E. Moffitt, Avshalom Caspi, Ahmad R. Hariri
      First page: 792
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Identifying brain biomarkers of disease risk is a growing priority in neuroscience. The ability to identify meaningful biomarkers is limited by measurement reliability; unreliable measures are unsuitable for predicting clinical outcomes. Measuring brain activity using task functional MRI (fMRI) is a major focus of biomarker development; however, the reliability of task fMRI has not been systematically evaluated. We present converging evidence demonstrating poor reliability of task-fMRI measures. First, a meta-analysis of 90 experiments (N = 1,008) revealed poor overall reliability—mean intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = .397. Second, the test-retest reliabilities of activity in a priori regions of interest across 11 common fMRI tasks collected by the Human Connectome Project (N = 45) and the Dunedin Study (N = 20) were poor (ICCs = .067–.485). Collectively, these findings demonstrate that common task-fMRI measures are not currently suitable for brain biomarker discovery or for individual-differences research. We review how this state of affairs came to be and highlight avenues for improving task-fMRI reliability.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-06-03T12:00:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620916786
  • Does Happiness Improve Health' Evidence From a Randomized Controlled
    • Authors: Kostadin Kushlev, Samantha J. Heintzelman, Lesley D. Lutes, Derrick Wirtz, Jacqueline M. Kanippayoor, Damian Leitner, Ed Diener
      First page: 807
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Happier people are healthier, but does becoming happier lead to better health' In the current study, we deployed a comprehensive, 3-month positive psychological intervention as an experimental tool to examine the effects of increasing subjective well-being on physical health in a nonclinical population. In a 6-month randomized controlled trial with 155 community adults, we found effects of treatment on self-reported physical health—the number of days in the previous month that participants felt healthy or sick, as assessed by questions from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire. In a subsample of 100 participants, we also found evidence that improvements in subjective well-being over the course of the program predicted subsequent decreases in the number of sick days. Combining experimental and longitudinal methodologies, this work provides some evidence for a causal effect of subjective well-being on self-reported physical health.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-06-24T05:21:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620919673
  • Effortful Control Moderates the Relation Between Electronic-Media Use and
           Objective Sleep Indicators in Childhood
    • Authors: Sierra Clifford, Leah D. Doane, Reagan Breitenstein, Kevin J. Grimm, Kathryn Lemery-Chalfant
      First page: 822
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Electronic-media use is associated with sleep disruptions in childhood and adolescence, although research relies primarily on subjective sleep. Effortful control, a dimension of self-regulation, may mitigate this association by helping children disengage from and regulate responses to media. We examined associations between media use and multiple actigraph-measured sleep parameters at mean and day levels and tested children’s effortful control as a moderator of mean-level relations. We collected actigraph data and parents’ diary reports of children’s prebedtime television, video-game, laptop, desktop, cell-phone, and tablet use in 547 twin children (7–9 years old; 51.74% female). Mean-level media use was associated with bedtime and sleep duration. For the proportion of nights on which twins used media, but not the average number of media types, effortful control attenuated associations between media use and reduced sleep duration and efficiency. Day-level media use was related only to bedtime. Findings replicate and extend existing research and highlight self-regulation as a potential protective factor.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-06-19T02:11:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620919432
  • The Contribution of Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills to Intergenerational
           Social Mobility
    • Authors: Matt McGue, Emily A. Willoughby, Aldo Rustichini, Wendy Johnson, William G. Iacono, James J. Lee
      First page: 835
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      We investigated intergenerational educational and occupational mobility in a sample of 2,594 adult offspring and 2,530 of their parents. Participants completed assessments of general cognitive ability and five noncognitive factors related to social achievement; 88% were also genotyped, allowing computation of educational-attainment polygenic scores. Most offspring were socially mobile. Offspring who scored at least 1 standard deviation higher than their parents on both cognitive and noncognitive measures rarely moved down and frequently moved up. Polygenic scores were also associated with social mobility. Inheritance of a favorable subset of parent alleles was associated with moving up, and inheritance of an unfavorable subset was associated with moving down. Parents’ education did not moderate the association of offspring’s skill with mobility, suggesting that low-skilled offspring from advantaged homes were not protected from downward mobility. These data suggest that cognitive and noncognitive skills as well as genetic factors contribute to the reordering of social standing that takes place across generations.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-06-30T04:26:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620924677
  • The Psychological Appeal of Fake-News Attributions
    • Authors: Jordan R. Axt, Mark J. Landau, Aaron C. Kay
      First page: 848
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      The term fake news is increasingly used to discredit information from reputable news organizations. We tested the possibility that fake-news claims are appealing because they satisfy the need to see the world as structured. Believing that news organizations are involved in an orchestrated disinformation campaign implies a more orderly world than believing that the news is prone to random errors. Across six studies (N> 2,800), individuals with dispositionally high or situationally increased need for structure were more likely to attribute contested news stories to intentional deception than to journalistic incompetence. The effect persisted for stories that were ideologically consistent and ideologically inconsistent and after analyses controlled for strength of political identification. Political orientation showed a moderating effect; specifically, the link between need for structure and belief in intentional deception was stronger for Republican participants than for Democratic participants. This work helps to identify when, why, and for whom fake-news claims are persuasive.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-06-17T12:00:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620922785
  • Do Religious Primes Increase Risk Taking' Evidence Against
           “Anticipating Divine Protection” in Two Preregistered Direct
           Replications of Kupor, Laurin, and Levav (2015)
    • Authors: Will M. Gervais, Stephanie E. McKee, Sarah Malik
      First page: 858
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Do reminders of God encourage people to take more risks' Kupor, Laurin, and Levav (2015) reported nine studies that all yielded statistically significant results consistent with the hypothesis that they do. We conducted two large-sample Preregistered Direct Replications (N = 1,104) of studies in Kupor et al.’s article (Studies 1a and 1b) and evaluated replicability via (a) statistical significance, (b) a “small-telescopes” approach, (c) Bayes factors (BFs), and (d) meta-analyses pooled across original and replication studies. None of these approaches replicated the original studies’ effects. Combining both original studies and both replications yielded strong evidence in support of the null over a default alternative hypothesis, BF01 = 11.04, meaning that the totality of evidence speaks against the possibility that religious primes increased nonmoral risk taking in these designs. This suggests that support for the “anticipating-divine-protection” hypothesis may be overstated.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-06-26T01:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620922477
  • Can Short Psychological Interventions Affect Educational Performance'
           Revisiting the Effect of Self-Affirmation Interventions
    • Authors: Marta Serra-Garcia, Karsten T. Hansen, Uri Gneezy
      First page: 865
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Large amounts of resources are spent annually to improve educational achievement and to close the gender gap in sciences with typically very modest effects. In 2010, a 15-min self-affirmation intervention showed a dramatic reduction in this gender gap. We reanalyzed the original data and found several critical problems. First, the self-affirmation hypothesis stated that women’s performance would improve. However, the data showed no improvement for women. There was an interaction effect between self-affirmation and gender caused by a negative effect on men’s performance. Second, the findings were based on covariate-adjusted interaction effects, which imply that self-affirmation reduced the gender gap only for the small sample of men and women who did not differ in the covariates. Third, specification-curve analyses with more than 1,500 possible specifications showed that less than one quarter yielded significant interaction effects and less than 3% showed significant improvements among women.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-01T03:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620923587
  • Learning Novel Skills From Iconic Gestures: A Developmental and
           Evolutionary Perspective
    • Authors: Manuel Bohn, Clara Kordt, Maren Braun, Josep Call, Michael Tomasello
      First page: 873
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Cumulative cultural learning has been argued to rely on high-fidelity copying of other individuals’ actions. Iconic gestures of actions have no physical effect on objects in the world but merely represent actions that would have an effect. Learning from iconic gestures thus requires paying close attention to the teacher’s precise bodily movements—a prerequisite for high-fidelity copying. In three studies, we investigated whether 2- and 3-year-old children (N = 122) and great apes (N = 36) learn novel skills from iconic gestures. When faced with a novel apparatus, participants watched an experimenter perform either an iconic gesture depicting the action necessary to open the apparatus or a gesture depicting a different action. Children, but not great apes, profited from iconic gestures, with older children doing so to a larger extent. These results suggest that high-fidelity copying abilities are firmly in place in humans by at least 3 years of age.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-05-26T06:41:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620921519
  • Neighborhood Deprivation Shapes Motivational-Neurocircuit Recruitment in
    • Authors: Teagan S. Mullins, Ethan M. Campbell, Jeremy Hogeveen
      First page: 881
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Implementing motivated behaviors on the basis of prior reward is central to adaptive human functioning, but aberrant reward-motivated behavior is a core feature of neuropsychiatric illness. Children from disadvantaged neighborhoods have decreased access to rewards, which may shape motivational neurocircuits and risk for psychopathology. Here, we leveraged the unprecedented neuroimaging data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study to test the hypothesis that neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage shapes the functional recruitment of motivational neurocircuits in children. Specifically, via the ABCD study’s monetary-incentive-delay task (N = 6,396 children; age: 9–10 years), we found that children from zip codes with a high Area Deprivation Index demonstrate blunted recruitment of striatum (dorsal and ventral nuclei) and pallidum during reward anticipation. In fact, blunted dorsal striatal recruitment during reward anticipation mediated the association between Area Deprivation Index and increased attention problems. These data reveal a candidate mechanism driving elevated risk for psychopathology in children from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-06-30T04:27:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620929299
  • Weak and Variable Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on Cognitive
           Reflection Test Performance in Three Experiments: Commentary on Nave,
           Nadler, Zava, and Camerer (2017)
    • Authors: Erik L. Knight, Blakeley B. McShane, Hana H. Kutlikova, Pablo J. Morales, Colton B. Christian, William T. Harbaugh, Ulrich Mayr, Triana L. Ortiz, Kimberly Gilbert, Christine Ma-Kellams, Igor Riečanský, Neil V. Watson, Christoph Eisenegger, Claus Lamm, Pranjal H. Mehta, Justin M. Carré
      First page: 890
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-06-26T12:25:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619885607
  • Reflecting on the Evidence: A Reply to Knight, McShane, et al. (2020)
    • Authors: Gideon Nave, Remi Daviet, Amos Nadler, David Zava, Colin Camerer
      First page: 898
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-06-25T11:52:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620930966
  • Erratum: If It’s Difficult to Pronounce, It Might Not Be Risky: The
           Effect of Fluency on Judgment of Risk Does Not Generalize to New Stimuli
    • First page: 901
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-05-29T02:18:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620933249
  • Corrigendum: Selectively Distracted: Divided Attention and Memory for
           Important Information
    • First page: 902
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-06-29T12:00:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620937679
  • Retraction of “Declines in Religiosity Predict Increases in Violent
           Crime—but Not Among Countries With Relatively High Average IQ”
    • First page: 905
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-06-26T04:09:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620941437
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