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Psychological Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 4.128
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 311  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0956-7976 - ISSN (Online) 1467-9280
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1086 journals]
  • Correlated Individual Differences in the Estimated Precision of Working
           Memory and Long-Term Memory: Commentary on the Study by Biderman, Luria,
           Teodorescu, Hajaj, and Goshen-Gottstein (2019)
    • Authors: Weizhen Xie, Hyung-Bum Park, Kareem A. Zaghloul, Weiwei Zhang
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-02-12T08:23:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620903718
  • Subjective Well-Being Around the World: Trends and Predictors Across the
           Life Span
    • Authors: Andrew T. Jebb, Mike Morrison, Louis Tay, Ed Diener
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Using representative cross-sections from 166 nations (more than 1.7 million respondents), we examined differences in three measures of subjective well-being over the life span. Globally, and in the individual regions of the world, we found only very small differences in life satisfaction and negative affect. By contrast, decreases in positive affect were larger. We then examined four important predictors of subjective well-being and how their associations changed: marriage, employment, prosociality, and life meaning. These predictors were typically associated with higher subjective well-being over the life span in every world region. Marriage showed only very small associations for the three outcomes, whereas employment had larger effects that peaked around age 50 years. Prosociality had practically significant associations only with positive affect, and life meaning had strong, consistent associations with all subjective-well-being measures across regions and ages. These findings enhance our understanding of subjective-well-being patterns and what matters for subjective well-being across the life span.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-02-11T05:12:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619898826
  • Do People Want to Be More Moral'
    • Authors: Jessie Sun, Geoffrey P. Goodwin
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Most people want to change some aspects of their personality, but does this phenomenon extend to moral character and to close others' Targets (n = 800) rated their personality traits and reported how much they wanted to change on each trait; well-acquainted informants (n = 958) rated targets’ personality traits and how much they wanted the targets to change on those same traits. Targets and informants reported a lower desire to change on more morally relevant traits (e.g., honesty, compassion, fairness) compared with less morally relevant traits (e.g., anxiety, sociability, productiveness)—even after we controlled for current trait levels. Moreover, although targets generally wanted to improve more on traits that they had less desirable levels of, and informants wanted their targets to improve more on those traits as well, targets’ moral change goals were less calibrated to their current trait levels. Finally, informants wanted targets to change in similar ways, but to a lesser extent, than targets themselves did. These findings suggest that moral considerations take a back seat when it comes to self-improvement.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-02-11T05:10:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619893078
  • Is There a Gender-Equality Paradox in Science, Technology, Engineering,
           and Math (STEM)' Commentary on the Study by Stoet and Geary (2018)
    • Authors: Sarah S. Richardson, Meredith W. Reiches, Joe Bruch, Marion Boulicault, Nicole E. Noll, Heather Shattuck-Heidorn
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-02-11T04:31:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619872762
  • The Gender-Equality Paradox Is Part of a Bigger Phenomenon: Reply to
           Richardson and Colleagues (2020)
    • Authors: Gijsbert Stoet, David C. Geary
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-02-11T03:58:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620904134
  • Predicting Real-Life Self-Control From Brain Activity Encoding the Value
           of Anticipated Future Outcomes
    • Authors: Klaus-Martin Krönke, Max Wolff, Holger Mohr, Anja Kräplin, Michael N. Smolka, Gerhard Bühringer, Thomas Goschke
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Deficient self-control leads to shortsighted decisions and incurs severe personal and societal costs. Although neuroimaging has advanced our understanding of neural mechanisms underlying self-control, the ecological validity of laboratory tasks used to assess self-control remains largely unknown. To increase ecological validity and to test a specific hypothesis about the mechanisms underlying real-life self-control, we combined functional MRI during value-based decision-making with smartphone-based assessment of real-life self-control in a large community sample (N = 194). Results showed that an increased propensity to make shortsighted decisions and commit self-control failures, both in the laboratory task as well as during real-life conflicts, was associated with a reduced modulation of neural value signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in response to anticipated long-term consequences. These results constitute the first evidence that neural mechanisms mediating anticipations of future consequences not only account for self-control in laboratory tasks but also predict real-life self-control, thereby bridging the gap between laboratory research and real-life behavior.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-02-06T01:50:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619896357
  • Replicating Roaches: A Preregistered Direct Replication of Zajonc,
           Heingartner, and Herman’s (1969) Social-Facilitation Study
    • Authors: Emma Halfmann, Janne Bredehöft, Jan Alexander Häusser
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Fifty years ago, Zajonc, Heingartner, and Herman (1969) conducted a famous experiment on social enhancement and inhibition of performance in cockroaches. A moderating effect of task difficulty on the effect of the presence of an audience, as revealed by impaired performance in complex tasks and enhanced performance in simple tasks, was presented as the major conclusion of this research. However, the researchers did not test this interaction statistically. We conducted a preregistered direct replication using a 2 (audience: present vs. absent) × 2 (task difficulty: runway vs. maze) between-subjects design. Results revealed main effects for task difficulty, with faster running times in the runway than the maze, and for audience, with slower running times when the audience was present than when it was absent. There was no interaction between the presence of an audience and task difficulty. Although we replicated the social-inhibition effect, there was no evidence for a social-facilitation effect.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-02-04T06:46:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797620902101
  • How Firm Are the Foundations of Mind-Set Theory' The Claims Appear
           Stronger Than the Evidence
    • Authors: Alexander P. Burgoyne, David Z. Hambrick, Brooke N. Macnamara
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Mind-set refers to people’s beliefs about whether attributes are malleable (growth mind-set) or unchangeable ( fixed mind-set). Proponents of mind-set theory have made bold claims about mind-set’s importance. For example, one’s mind-set is described as having profound effects on one’s motivation and achievements, creating different psychological worlds for people, and forming the core of people’s meaning systems. We examined the evidentiary strength of six key premises of mind-set theory in 438 participants; we reasoned that strongly worded claims should be supported by equally strong evidence. However, no support was found for most premises. All associations (rs) were significantly weaker than .20. Other achievement-motivation constructs, such as self-efficacy and need for achievement, have been found to correlate much more strongly with presumed associates of mind-set. The strongest association with mind-set (r = −.12) was opposite from the predicted direction. The results suggest that the foundations of mind-set theory are not firm and that bold claims about mind-set appear to be overstated.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-02-03T03:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619897588
  • Conflict Changes How People View God
    • Authors: Nava Caluori, Joshua Conrad Jackson, Kurt Gray, Michele Gelfand
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Religion shapes the nature of intergroup conflict, but conflict may also shape religion. Here, we report four multimethod studies that reveal the impact of conflict on religious belief: The threat of warfare and intergroup tensions increase the psychological need for order and obedience to rules, which leads people to view God as more punitive. Studies 1 (N = 372) and 2 (N = 911) showed that people’s concern about conflict correlates with belief in a punitive God. Study 3 (N = 1,065) found that experimentally increasing the salience of conflict increases people’s perceptions of the importance of a punitive God, and this effect is mediated by people’s support for a tightly regulated society. Study 4 showed that the severity of warfare predicted and preceded worldwide fluctuations in punitive-God belief between 1800 CE and 2000 CE. Our findings illustrate how conflict can change the nature of religious belief and add to a growing literature showing how cultural ecologies shape psychology.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-01-28T05:10:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619895286
  • What We Owe to Family: The Impact of Special Obligations on Moral Judgment
    • Authors: Ryan M. McManus, Max Kleiman-Weiner, Liane Young
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Although people often recognize the moral value of impartial behavior (i.e., not favoring specific individuals), it is unclear when, if ever, people recognize the moral value of partiality. The current studies investigated whether information about special obligations to specific individuals, particularly kin, is integrated into moral judgments. In Studies 1 and 2, agents who helped a stranger were judged as more morally good and trustworthy than those who helped kin, but agents who helped a stranger, instead of kin were judged as less morally good and trustworthy than those who did the opposite. In Studies 3 and 4, agents who simply neglected a stranger were judged as less morally bad and untrustworthy than those who neglected kin. Study 4 also demonstrated that the violation (vs. fulfillment) of perceived obligations underlaid all judgment patterns. Study 5 demonstrated boundary conditions: When occupying roles requiring impartiality, agents who helped a stranger instead of kin were judged as more morally good and trustworthy than agents who did the opposite. These findings illuminate the importance of obligations in structuring moral judgment.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-01-28T05:10:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619900321
  • Implicit Gender Bias in Linguistic Descriptions for Expected Events: The
           Cases of the 2016 United States and 2017 United Kingdom Elections
    • Authors: Titus von der Malsburg, Till Poppels, Roger P. Levy
      First page: 115
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Gender stereotypes influence subjective beliefs about the world, and this is reflected in our use of language. But do gender biases in language transparently reflect subjective beliefs' Or is the process of translating thought to language itself biased' During the 2016 United States (N = 24,863) and 2017 United Kingdom (N = 2,609) electoral campaigns, we compared participants’ beliefs about the gender of the next head of government with their use and interpretation of pronouns referring to the next head of government. In the United States, even when the female candidate was expected to win, she pronouns were rarely produced and induced substantial comprehension disruption. In the United Kingdom, where the incumbent female candidate was heavily favored, she pronouns were preferred in production but yielded no comprehension advantage. These and other findings suggest that the language system itself is a source of implicit biases above and beyond previously known biases, such as those measured by the Implicit Association Test.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-01-08T06:05:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619890619
  • Design Drives Discovery in Causal Learning
    • Authors: Caren M. Walker, Alexandra Rett, Elizabeth Bonawitz
      First page: 129
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      We assessed whether an artifact’s design can facilitate recognition of abstract causal rules. In Experiment 1, 152 three-year-olds were presented with evidence consistent with a relational rule (i.e., pairs of same or different blocks activated a machine) using two differently designed machines. In the standard-design condition, blocks were placed on top of the machine; in the relational-design condition, blocks were placed into openings on either side. In Experiment 2, we assessed whether this design cue could facilitate adults’ (N = 102) inference of a distinct conjunctive cause (i.e., that two blocks together activate the machine). Results of both experiments demonstrated that causal inference is sensitive to an artifact’s design: Participants in the relational-design conditions were more likely to infer rules that were a priori unlikely. Our findings suggest that reasoning failures may result from difficulty generating the relevant rules as cognitive hypotheses but that artifact design aids causal inference. These findings have clear implications for creating intuitive learning environments.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:03:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619898134
  • Children Delay Gratification for Cooperative Ends
    • Authors: Rebecca Koomen, Sebastian Grueneisen, Esther Herrmann
      First page: 139
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      To cooperate effectively, both in small-scale interactions and large-scale collective-action problems, people frequently have to delay gratification (i.e., resist short-term temptations in favor of joint long-term goals). Although delay-of-gratification skills are commonly considered critical in children’s social-cognitive development, they have rarely been studied in the context of cooperative decision-making. In the current study, we therefore presented pairs of children (N = 207 individuals) with a modified version of the famous marshmallow test, in which children’s outcomes were interdependently linked such that the children were rewarded only if both members of the pair delayed gratification. Children from two highly diverse cultures (Germany and Kenya) performed substantially better than they did on a standard version of the test, suggesting that children are more willing to delay gratification for cooperative than for individual goals. The results indicate that from early in life, human children are psychologically equipped to respond to social interdependencies in ways that facilitate cooperative success.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-01-09T04:10:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619894205
  • Body Maps of Moral Concerns
    • Authors: Mohammad Atari, Aida Mostafazadeh Davani, Morteza Dehghani
      First page: 160
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      It has been proposed that somatosensory reaction to varied social circumstances results in feelings (i.e., conscious emotional experiences). Here, we present two preregistered studies in which we examined the topographical maps of somatosensory reactions associated with violations of different moral concerns. Specifically, participants in Study 1 (N = 596) were randomly assigned to respond to scenarios involving various moral violations and were asked to draw key aspects of their subjective somatosensory experience on two 48,954-pixel silhouettes. Our results show that body patterns corresponding to different moral violations are felt in different regions of the body depending on whether individuals are classified as liberals or conservatives. We also investigated how individual differences in moral concerns relate to body maps of moral violations. Finally, we used natural-language processing to predict activation in body parts on the basis of the semantic representation of textual stimuli. We replicated these findings in a nationally representative sample in Study 2 (N = 300). Overall, our findings shed light on the complex relationships between moral processes and somatosensory experiences.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-01-08T06:04:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619895284
  • Declines in Religiosity Predict Increases in Violent Crime—but Not Among
           Countries With Relatively High Average IQ
    • Authors: Cory J. Clark, Bo M. Winegard, Jordan Beardslee, Roy F. Baumeister, Azim F. Shariff
      First page: 170
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Many scholars have argued that religion reduces violent behavior within human social groups. Here, we tested whether intelligence moderates this relationship. We hypothesized that religion would have greater utility for regulating violent behavior among societies with relatively lower average IQs than among societies with relatively more cognitively gifted citizens. Two studies supported this hypothesis. Study 1, a longitudinal analysis from 1945 to 2010 (with up to 176 countries and 1,046 observations), demonstrated that declines in religiosity were associated with increases in homicide rates—but only in countries with relatively low average IQs. Study 2, a multiverse analysis (171 models) using modern data (97–195 countries) and various controls, consistently confirmed that lower rates of religiosity were more strongly associated with higher homicide rates in countries with lower average IQ. These findings raise questions about how secularization might differentially affect groups of different mean cognitive ability.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:02:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619897915
  • Sex Differences in Misperceptions of Sexual Interest Can Be Explained by
           Sociosexual Orientation and Men Projecting Their Own Interest Onto Women
    • Authors: Anthony J. Lee, Morgan J. Sidari, Sean C. Murphy, James M. Sherlock, Brendan P. Zietsch
      First page: 184
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Sex differences in misperceptions of sexual interest have been well documented; however, it is unclear whether this cognitive bias could be explained by other factors. In the current study, 1,226 participants (586 men, 640 women) participated in a speed-dating task in which they rated their sexual interest in each other as well as the sexual interest they perceived from their partners. Consistent with previous findings, results showed that men tended to overperceive sexual interest from their partners, whereas women tended to underperceive sexual interest. However, this sex difference became negligible when we considered potential mediators, such as the raters’ sociosexual orientation and raters’ tendency to project their own levels of sexual interest onto their partners. These findings challenge the popular notion that sex differences in misperceptions of sexual interest have evolved as a specialized adaptation to different selection pressures in men and women.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T05:34:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619900315
  • Same Data Set, Different Conclusions: Preschool Delay of Gratification
           Predicts Later Behavioral Outcomes in a Preregistered Study
    • Authors: Laura E. Michaelson, Yuko Munakata
      First page: 193
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      One simple marshmallow test in preschool children predicts an array of important life outcomes, according to multiple studies spanning several decades. However, a recent conceptual replication casts doubt on these famous findings. We conducted an independent, preregistered secondary analysis to test whether previously observed longitudinal associations between preschool delay of gratification and adolescent outcomes would be conceptually replicated. Associations were significant for three of the five outcomes we tested using the analytic approach employed in the original studies of the marshmallow test. Relationships between delay of gratification and problem behavior held in bivariate, multivariate, and multilevel models; in contrast, no significant relationships between delay and problem behavior were found in the other recent replication, even though both studies used the same data set. These relationships were better explained by social support than by self-control, suggesting that the marshmallow test is predictive because it reflects aspects of a child’s early environment that are important over the long term. This novel interpretation of the classic findings points to new directions for intervention.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:02:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619896270
  • Two Preregistered Direct Replications of “Objects Don’t Object:
           Evidence That Self-Objectification Disrupts Women’s Social Activism”
    • Authors: Matthias De Wilde, Annalisa Casini, Philippe Bernard, Robin Wollast, Olivier Klein, Stéphanie Demoulin
      First page: 214
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Self-objectification has been claimed to induce numerous detrimental consequences for women at the individual level (e.g., sexual dysfunction, depression, eating disorders). Additionally, at the collective level, it has been proposed that self-objectified women might themselves contribute to the maintenance of the patriarchal status quo, for instance, by participating less in collective action. In 2013, Calogero found a negative link between self-objectification and collective action, which was mediated by the adoption of gender-specific system justification. Here, we report two preregistered direct replications (PDRs) of Calogero’s original study. We conducted these PDRs after three failures to replicate the positive relation between self-objectification and gender-specific system-justification belief in correlational studies. Results of the two PDRs, in which we used a Bayesian approach, supported the null hypothesis. This work has important theoretical implications because it challenges the role attributed to self-objectified women in the maintenance of patriarchy.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:03:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619896273
  • Young Children Use Probability to Infer Happiness and the Quality of
    • Authors: Tiffany Doan, Ori Friedman, Stephanie Denison
      First page: 149
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Happiness with an outcome often depends on whether better or worse outcomes were initially more likely. In five experiments, we found that young children (N = 620, Experiments 1–4) and adults (N = 254, Experiment 5) used probability to infer emotions and assess outcome quality. In Experiments 1 and 2, 5- and 6-year-olds (but not 4-year-olds) inferred that an agent would be less happy with an outcome if a better outcome were initially more likely. In Experiment 3, 4- to 6-year-olds used probability to assess quality. These findings suggest a developmental lag between 4-year-olds’ assessments of quality and happiness. We replicated this lag in Experiment 4. In Experiment 5, adults used probability to assess both quality and happiness. We suggest that children and adults may use probability to establish a standard against which actual outcomes are compared. Doing so might allow them to make probability-based inferences of happiness without drawing on counterfactual reasoning.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-12-23T03:00:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619895282
  • Language-Style Similarity and Social Networks
    • Authors: Balazs Kovacs, Adam M. Kleinbaum
      First page: 202
      Abstract: Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      This research demonstrates that linguistic similarity predicts network-tie formation and that friends exhibit linguistic convergence over time. In Study 1, we analyzed the linguistic styles and the emerging social network of a complete cohort of 285 students. In Study 2, we analyzed a large-scale data set of online reviews. In both studies, we collected data in two waves to examine changes in both social networks and linguistic styles. Using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) framework, we analyzed the text of students’ essays and of 1.7 million reviews by 159,651 Yelp reviewers. Consistent with our theory, results showed that similarity in linguistic style corresponded to a higher likelihood of friendship formation and persistence and that friendship ties, in turn, corresponded to a convergence in linguistic style. We discuss the implications of the coevolution of linguistic styles and social networks, which contribute to the formation of relational echo chambers.
      Citation: Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2019-12-26T05:30:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0956797619894557
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