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Psychological Bulletin
Journal Prestige (SJR): 8.793
Citation Impact (citeScore): 16
Number of Followers: 275  
 
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ISSN (Print) 0033-2909
Published by APA Homepage  [86 journals]
  • Defending behavior of peer victimization in school and cyber context
           during childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic review of individual and
           peer-relational characteristics.
    • Abstract: Adolescent defending of peer victimization in the school and cyber context has received increased attention in developmental science and is an important component of antibullying interventions. However, the overall prevalence, and individual characteristics that correlate with defending in adolescence, have not been systematically and statistically reviewed. Framed in Bronfenbrenner’s social-ecological theory, this meta-analytic review included 172 reports out of 155 studies of defending including 150,978 children and adolescent participants from 4 continents (i.e., North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia) to analyze two aspects: (1) the average proportion of defenders in the population and (2) associations between defending and individual and peer-relational correlates of defending in school and cyber contexts. Using mixed-effects modeling, our results confirmed prior findings of gender differences (favoring girls) and age differences (favoring younger children) in defending. We found positive correlations between defending and affective empathy, cognitive empathy, experiences of peer victimization, self-efficacy, popularity, and acceptance, and a negative correlation between defending and moral disengagement. We also found substantial heterogeneity in these effect sizes. The reporter of defending consistently moderated all mean effect sizes. Implications for prevention efforts and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Jul 2019 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • The relation between parents’ involvement in children’s schooling and
           children’s adjustment: A meta-analysis.
    • Abstract: This quantitative synthesis of 448 independent studies including 480,830 families revealed small positive associations (rs = .13 to .23) between parents’ naturally occurring involvement in children’s schooling and children’s academic adjustment (i.e., achievement, engagement, and motivation) that were maintained over time. Parents’ involvement was also positively related to children’s social (r = .12) and emotional adjustment (r = .17) and negatively related to their delinquency (r = −.15), concurrently. Analyses focusing on children’s academic adjustment revealed that different types of involvement (e.g., parents’ participation in school events and discussion of school with children) were similarly positively associated with such adjustment. The only exception was that parents’ homework assistance was negatively associated with children’s achievement (r = −.15), but not engagement (r = .07) or motivation (r = .05). There was little variation due to age, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status in the links between different types of involvement and children’s academic adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jul 2019 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Exercise, sports, and performance arts benefit cognition via a common
           process.
    • Abstract: Exercise training is widely promoted as a method to enhance both physical health and cognitive function. Although routine exercise engenders physiological adaptations to the body and brain, its effects on mental processing are uncertain. Our review of the experimental evidence reveals that acknowledging the role of skill acquisition may help clarify the exercise–cognition relation. Instructional methods that optimize physical and mental challenge provide the conditions necessary to produce long-term changes in the way individuals process information, make decisions, select movements, and experience the consequences of actions. Main conclusions drawn by intersecting theory-based research on the linkages between chronic exercise and cognitive function and research on the associations of both sport and performance arts with cognitive function are as follows: (1) Exercise may be but one of many types of movement activities that can benefit cognition; (2) the process of skill acquisition provides a parsimonious explanation for outcomes across exercise, sport, and performing art studies; (3) the allocation of mental resources required during skill acquisition, independently from or interactively with the level of physical energy expenditure, is essential for reaping the largest cognitive benefits; and (4) cognitive benefits obtained via skill-acquisition interventions are enduring. This review also highlights issues that call for future research to provide convergent evidence for the relation between skill training and cognition; the inclusion of outcome measures other than executive functions; and a naturalistic translational approach to complement controlled experiments in chronic exercise and cognition and skill learning research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jun 2019 04:00:00 GMT
       
 
 
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