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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 6.092
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 984  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Infrastructure to enable deployment of carbon capture, utilization, and
           storage in the United States [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Ryan W. J. Edwards; Michael A. Celia
      Abstract: In February 2018, the United States enacted significant financial incentives for carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) that will make capture from the lowest-capture-cost sources economically viable. The largest existing low-capture-cost opportunity is from ethanol fermentation at biorefineries in the Midwest. An impediment to deployment of carbon capture at ethanol...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806504115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Gain control explains the effect of distraction in human perceptual,
           cognitive, and economic decision making [Psychological and Cognitive
    • Authors: Vickie Li; Elizabeth Michael, Jan Balaguer, Santiago Herce Castanon, Christopher Summerfield
      Abstract: When making decisions, humans are often distracted by irrelevant information. Distraction has a different impact on perceptual, cognitive, and value-guided choices, giving rise to well-described behavioral phenomena such as the tilt illusion, conflict adaptation, or economic decoy effects. However, a single, unified model that can account for all these phenomena...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805224115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Infants distinguish between leaders and bullies [Psychological and
           Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Francesco Margoni; Renee Baillargeon, Luca Surian
      Abstract: We examined whether 21-month-old infants could distinguish between two broad types of social power: respect-based power exerted by a leader (who might be an authority figure with legitimate power, a prestigious individual with merited power, or some combination thereof) and fear-based power exerted by a bully. Infants first saw three...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801677115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Altered ER-mitochondria contact impacts mitochondria calcium homeostasis
           and contributes to neurodegeneration in vivo in disease models [Applied
           Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Kyu-Sun Lee; Sungun Huh, Seongsoo Lee, Zhihao Wu, Ae-Kyeong Kim, Ha-Young Kang, Bingwei Lu
      Abstract: Calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis is essential for neuronal function and survival. Altered Ca2+ homeostasis has been consistently observed in neurological diseases. How Ca2+ homeostasis is achieved in various cellular compartments of disease-relevant cell types is not well understood. Here we show in Drosophila Parkinson’s disease (PD) models that Ca2+ transport from...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721136115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Structural elements required for coupling ion and substrate transport in
           the neurotransmitter transporter homolog LeuT [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Yuan-Wei Zhang; Sotiria Tavoulari, Steffen Sinning, Antoniya A. Aleksandrova, Lucy R. Forrest, Gary Rudnick
      Abstract: The coupled transport of ions and substrates allows transporters to accumulate substrates using the energy of transmembrane ion gradients and electrical potentials. During transport, conformational changes that switch accessibility of substrate and ion binding sites from one side of the membrane to the other must be controlled so as to...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716870115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Photoaffinity-engineered protein scaffold for systematically exploring
           native phosphotyrosine signaling complexes in tumor samples [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Bizhu Chu; An He, Yeteng Tian, Wan He, Peizhong Chen, Jintao Hu, Ruilian Xu, Wenbin Zhou, Mingjie Zhang, Pengyuan Yang, Shawn S. C. Li, Ying Sun, Pengfei Li, Tony Hunter, Ruijun Tian
      Abstract: Phosphotyrosine (pTyr)-regulated protein complexes play critical roles in cancer signaling. The systematic characterization of these protein complexes in tumor samples remains a challenge due to their limited access and the transient nature of pTyr-mediated interactions. We developed a hybrid chemical proteomics approach, termed Photo-pTyr-scaffold, by engineering Src homology 2 (SH2)...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805633115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • 14-3-3ϵa directs the pulsatile transport of basal factors toward the
           apical domain for lumen growth in tubulogenesis [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Yuji Mizotani; Mayu Suzuki, Kohji Hotta, Hidenori Watanabe, Kogiku Shiba, Kazuo Inaba, Etsu Tashiro, Kotaro Oka, Masaya Imoto
      Abstract: The Ciona notochord has emerged as a simple and tractable in vivo model for tubulogenesis. Here, using a chemical genetics approach, we identified UTKO1 as a selective small molecule inhibitor of notochord tubulogenesis. We identified 14-3-3εa protein as a direct binding partner of UTKO1 and showed that 14-3-3εa knockdown leads...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808756115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Fc{alpha}RI binding at the IgA1 CH2-CH3 interface induces long-range
           conformational changes that are transmitted to the hinge region
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Monica T. Posgai; Sam Tonddast-Navaei, Manori Jayasinghe, George M. Ibrahim, George Stan, Andrew B. Herr
      Abstract: IgA effector functions include proinflammatory immune responses triggered upon clustering of the IgA-specific receptor, FcαRI, by IgA immune complexes. FcαRI binds to the IgA1–Fc domain (Fcα) at the CH2–CH3 junction and, except for CH2 L257 and L258, all side-chain contacts are contributed by the CH3 domain. In this study, we...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807478115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Structure of the membrane proximal external region of HIV-1 envelope
           glycoprotein [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Qingshan Fu; Md Munan Shaik, Yongfei Cai, Fadi Ghantous, Alessandro Piai, Hanqin Peng, Sophia Rits-Volloch, Zhijun Liu, Stephen C. Harrison, Michael S. Seaman, Bing Chen, James J. Chou
      Abstract: The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) bears epitopes of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) from infected individuals; it is thus a potential vaccine target. We report an NMR structure of the MPER and its adjacent transmembrane domain in bicelles that mimic a lipid-bilayer membrane. The MPER...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807259115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • A cancer-associated polymorphism in ESCRT-III disrupts the abscission
           checkpoint and promotes genome instability [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Jessica B. A. Sadler; Dawn M. Wenzel, Lauren K. Williams, Marta Guindo–Martinez, Steven L. Alam, Josep M. Mercader, David Torrents, Katharine S. Ullman, Wesley I. Sundquist, Juan Martin–Serrano
      Abstract: Cytokinetic abscission facilitates the irreversible separation of daughter cells. This process requires the endosomal-sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery and is tightly regulated by charged multivesicular body protein 4C (CHMP4C), an ESCRT-III subunit that engages the abscission checkpoint (NoCut) in response to mitotic problems such as persisting chromatin bridges...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805504115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Evolution of metazoan morphological disparity [Evolution]
    • Authors: Bradley Deline; Jennifer M. Greenwood, James W. Clark, Mark N. Puttick, Kevin J. Peterson, Philip C. J. Donoghue
      Abstract: The animal kingdom exhibits a great diversity of organismal form (i.e., disparity). Whether the extremes of disparity were achieved early in animal evolutionary history or clades continually explore the limits of possible morphospace is subject to continuing debate. Here we show, through analysis of the disparity of the animal kingdom,...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1810575115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Defective cortex glia plasma membrane structure underlies light-induced
           epilepsy in cpes mutants [Genetics]
    • Authors: Govind Kunduri; Daniel Turner-Evans, Yutaka Konya, Yoshihiro Izumi, Kunio Nagashima, Stephen Lockett, Joost Holthuis, Takeshi Bamba, Usha Acharya, Jairaj K. Acharya
      Abstract: Seizures induced by visual stimulation (photosensitive epilepsy; PSE) represent a common type of epilepsy in humans, but the molecular mechanisms and genetic drivers underlying PSE remain unknown, and no good genetic animal models have been identified as yet. Here, we show an animal model of PSE, in Drosophila, owing to...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808463115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 regulate viral encephalitis-induced
           hippocampal damage but not seizures [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Christopher Kaufer; Chintan Chhatbar, Sonȷa Broer, Inken Waltl, Luca Ghita, Ingo Gerhauser, Ulrich Kalinke, Wolfgang Loscher
      Abstract: Viral encephalitis is a major risk factor for the development of seizures, epilepsy, and hippocampal damage with associated cognitive impairment, markedly reducing quality of life in survivors. The mechanisms underlying seizures and hippocampal neurodegeneration developing during and after viral encephalitis are only incompletely understood, hampering the development of preventive treatments....
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806754115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Lack of Sprouty 1 and 2 enhances survival of effector CD8+ T cells and
           yields more protective memory cells [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Hesham M. Shehata; Shahzada Khan, Elise Chen, Patrick E. Fields, Richard A. Flavell, Shomyseh Sanjabi
      Abstract: Identifying novel pathways that promote robust function and longevity of cytotoxic T cells has promising potential for immunotherapeutic strategies to combat cancer and chronic infections. We show that sprouty 1 and 2 (Spry1/2) molecules regulate the survival and function of memory CD8+ T cells. Spry1/2 double-knockout (DKO) ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD8+...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808320115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Expansion of cancer stem cell pool initiates lung cancer recurrence before
           angiogenesis [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Lei Li; Jiang-Chao Li, Hong Yang, Xu Zhang, Lu-Lu Liu, Yan Li, Ting-Ting Zeng, Ying-Hui Zhu, Xiao-Dong Li, , Dan Xie, Li Fu, Xin-Yuan Guan
      Abstract: Angiogenesis is essential in the early stage of solid tumor recurrence, but how a suspensive tumor is reactivated before angiogenesis is mostly unknown. Herein, we stumble across an interesting phenomenon that s.c. xenografting human lung cancer tissues can awaken the s.c. suspensive tumor in nude mice. We further found that...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806219115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Phylogenetic approach to recover integration dates of latent HIV sequences
           within-host [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Bradley R. Jones; Natalie N. Kinloch, Joshua Horacsek, Bruce Ganase, Marianne Harris, P. Richard Harrigan, R. Brad Jones, Mark A. Brockman, Jeffrey B. Joy, Art F. Y. Poon, Zabrina L. Brumme
      Abstract: Given that HIV evolution and latent reservoir establishment occur continually within-host, and that latently infected cells can persist long-term, the HIV reservoir should comprise a genetically heterogeneous archive recapitulating within-host HIV evolution. However, this has yet to be conclusively demonstrated, in part due to the challenges of reconstructing within-host reservoir...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802028115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Enterotoxigenic E. coli virulence gene regulation in human infections
    • Authors: Alexander A. Crofts, Simone M. Giovanetti, Erica J. Rubin, Frederic M. Poly, Ramiro L. Gutierrez, Kawsar R. Talaat, Chad K. Porter, Mark S. Riddle, Barbara DeNearing, Jessica Brubaker, Milton Maciel Jr; Ashley N. Alcala, Subhra Chakraborty, Michael G. Prouty, Stephen J. Savarino, Bryan W. Davies, M. Stephen Trent
      Abstract: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a global diarrheal pathogen that utilizes adhesins and secreted enterotoxins to cause disease in mammalian hosts. Decades of research on virulence factor regulation in ETEC has revealed a variety of environmental factors that influence gene expression, including bile, pH, bicarbonate, osmolarity, and glucose. However, other...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808982115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Ehrlichia type IV secretion system effector Etf-2 binds to active RAB5 and
           delays endosome maturation [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Qi Yan; Mingqun Lin, Weiyan Huang, Omid Teymournejad, Jennifer M. Johnson, Franklin A. Hays, Zhimin Liang, Guangpu Li, Yasuko Rikihisa
      Abstract: Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an obligatory intracellular bacterium, infects monocytes/macrophages by sequestering a regulator of endosomal traffic, the small GTPase RAB5, on its membrane-bound inclusions to avoid routing to host-cell phagolysosomes. How RAB5 is sequestered on ehrlichial inclusions is poorly understood, however. We found that native Ehrlichia translocated factor-2 (Etf-2), a previously...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806904115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Elimination of the error signal in the superior colliculus impairs saccade
           motor learning [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Yoshiko Kojima; Robijanto Soetedjo
      Abstract: When movements become dysmetric, the resultant motor error induces a plastic change in the cerebellum to correct the movement, i.e., motor adaptation. Current evidence suggests that the error signal to the cerebellum is delivered by complex spikes originating in the inferior olive (IO). To prove a causal link between the...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806215115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • PKCϵ contributes to lipid-induced insulin resistance through cross
           talk with p70S6K and through previously unknown regulators of insulin
           signaling [Physiology]
    • Authors: Brandon M. Gassaway; Max C. Petersen, Yulia V. Surovtseva, Karl W. Barber, Joshua B. Sheetz, Hans R. Aerni, Jane S. Merkel, Varman T. Samuel, Gerald I. Shulman, Jesse Rinehart
      Abstract: Insulin resistance drives the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In liver, diacylglycerol (DAG) is a key mediator of lipid-induced insulin resistance. DAG activates protein kinase C ε (PKCε), which phosphorylates and inhibits the insulin receptor. In rats, a 3-day high-fat diet produces hepatic insulin resistance through this mechanism, and...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804379115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Glutamate-activated BK channel complexes formed with NMDA receptors
    • Authors: Jiyuan Zhang; Xin Guan, Qin Li, Andrea L. Meredith, Hui-Lin Pan, Jiusheng Yan
      Abstract: The large-conductance calcium- and voltage-activated K+ (BK) channel has a requirement of high intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations for its activation in neurons under physiological conditions. The Ca2+ sources for BK channel activation are not well understood. In this study, we showed by coimmunopurification and colocalization analyses that BK channels form...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802567115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Mid-level visual features underlie the high-level categorical organization
           of the ventral stream [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Bria Long; Chen-Ping Yu, Talia Konkle
      Abstract: Human object-selective cortex shows a large-scale organization characterized by the high-level properties of both animacy and object size. To what extent are these neural responses explained by primitive perceptual features that distinguish animals from objects and big objects from small objects' To address this question, we used a texture synthesis...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719616115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Correction for Chen et al., Diverse AR-V7 cistromes in
    • Abstract: MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction for “Diverse AR-V7 cistromes in castration-resistant prostate cancer are governed by HoxB13,” by Zhong Chen, Dayong Wu, Jennifer M. Thomas-Ahner, Changxue Lu, Pei Zhao, Qingfu Zhang, Connor Geraghty, Pearlly S. Yan, William Hankey, Benjamin Sunkel, Xiaolong Cheng, Emmanuel S. Antonarakis, Qi-En Wang, Zhihua Liu, Tim H.-M. Huang,...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1814741115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 9325 - 9326
      Abstract: DNA architecture influences genome-editing efficiency Illustration of Cas9 binding to DNA. Hypothetical PAM sites for Cas9 targets are shown in red; DNA backbones are blue; RNA backbone is teal; DNA and RNA bases are white, except for PAM; histones are green; and Cas9 is purple. Image courtesy of Janet Iwasa...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti3818115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • News Feature: What’s the best way to build a molecular machine'
    • Authors: Stephen Ornes
      Pages: 9327 - 9330
      Abstract: Chemists are tinkering with a variety of different designs and means of propulsion, though practical uses for these mini-motors have yet to be realized. Some of the smallest, most useful machines known to science are the biological molecules that keep living things living. The protein myosin drives the contraction and...
      Keywords: News Features, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1811689115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Profile of Dana Carroll [Profiles]
    • Authors: Jennifer Viegas
      Pages: 9331 - 9333
      Abstract: University of Utah biochemist Dana Carroll was among the first scientists to develop reagents for genome editing. These tools can make site-specific double-strand DNA breaks to stimulate desired recombination and repair. The technology that Carroll spearheaded, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), laid the groundwork for other genome-editing platforms, such as transcription activator-like...
      Keywords: PNAS Profiles
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1813829115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Dark deactivation of chloroplast enzymes finally comes to light [Plant
    • Authors: Jean-Pierre Jacquot
      Pages: 9334 - 9335
      Abstract: From the pioneering work that the Buchanan group started in the late 1960s, we know that the division of photosynthesis into light and dark reactions is inadequate because the activity of a number of chloroplast enzymes, many involved in the Calvin–Benson cycle, is strictly controlled by light; that is, they...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1814182115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Single-molecule study reveals the frenetic lives of proteins in gradients
           [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Andrew W. Folkmann; Geraldine Seydoux
      Pages: 9336 - 9338
      Abstract: Protein concentration gradients are a common strategy to compartmentalize activities within cells and tissues. Gradients position the division plane of bacterial cells, regulate the size of yeast cells, and pattern embryos (1–3). Among the most studied gradients is the Bicoid gradient of Drosophila. Bicoid protein is synthesized from a localized...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1812248115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Sprouty branches out to control T cell memory [Immunology and
    • Authors: Jana Raynor; Hongbo Chi
      Pages: 9339 - 9341
      Abstract: CD8+ T cells provide critical immune protection against infections and cancer. Upon T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of a cognate antigen–MHC I complex and costimulatory signals presented by dendritic cells, quiescent CD8+ T cells undergo activation, leading to proliferation and effector responses that mediate clearance of pathogen-infected cells or cancer....
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1813460115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Pathogens’ adaptation to the human host [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Vanessa Sperandio
      Pages: 9342 - 9343
      Abstract: Diarrheal diseases are still one of the biggest global health burdens. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), diarrhea ranks as the ninth cause of death worldwide, being the fourth among children. One of the most prevalent diarrheagenic pathogens is enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) (1). ETEC’s classic virulence mechanisms include...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1813379115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Defect engineering using crystal symmetry [Physics]
    • Authors: Ramamoorthy Ramesh
      Pages: 9344 - 9346
      Abstract: Defects in solids can be broadly classified based on their dimensionality (1). Zero-dimensional defects (point defects) arise as a consequence of entropy considerations (configurational entropy) and thus are thermodynamically required in any material. One-dimensional defects such as dislocations are not required by thermodynamics but arise anyway as a consequence of...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1812554115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Nucleosomes inhibit target cleavage by CRISPR-Cas9 in vivo [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Robert M. Yarrington; Surbhi Verma, Shaina Schwartz, Jonathan K. Trautman, Dana Carroll
      Pages: 9351 - 9358
      Abstract: Genome editing with CRISPR-Cas nucleases has been applied successfully to a wide range of cells and organisms. There is, however, considerable variation in the efficiency of cleavage and outcomes at different genomic targets, even within the same cell type. Some of this variability is likely due to the inherent quality...
      Keywords: Inaugural Articles
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1810062115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Growing community of artificial molecular machinists [Introductions]
    • Authors: Damien Sluysmans; J. Fraser Stoddart
      Pages: 9359 - 9361
      Abstract: Over the past decades, chemists have been pursuing the creation of man-made molecular machines with either designed engineering-like operations or with higher performances compared with biological machines. The promise of creating an artificial molecular world traces its origins in the well-known lecture of Richard Feynman, There’s plenty of room at...
      Keywords: Artificial Molecular Machines Special Feature
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1813973115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Dynamic force spectroscopy of synthetic oligorotaxane foldamers [Physical
    • Authors: Damien Sluysmans; Floriane Devaux, Carson J. Bruns, J. Fraser Stoddart, Anne-Sophie Duwez
      Pages: 9362 - 9366
      Abstract: Wholly synthetic molecules involving both mechanical bonds and a folded secondary structure are one of the most promising architectures for the design of functional molecular machines with unprecedented properties. Here, we report dynamic single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments that explore the energetic details of donor–acceptor oligorotaxane foldamers, a class of molecular...
      Keywords: Artificial Molecular Machines Special Feature
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712790115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Triangular cyclic rotaxanes: Size, fluctuations, and switching properties
           [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Prithvi Reddy; Edith M. Sevick, David R. M. Williams
      Pages: 9367 - 9372
      Abstract: We examine one of the simplest cyclic rotaxanes—a molecule made from three rods with variable length between 0 and L. This [3]rotaxane, unlike a traditional molecule, shows significant size and shape fluctuations. We quantify these using a number of different measures. In particular, we show that the average angles are...
      Keywords: Artificial Molecular Machines Special Feature
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715790115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Structure of a monolayer of molecular rotors on aqueous subphase from
           grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Jiři Kaleta; Jin Wen, Thomas F. Magnera, Paul I. Dron, Chenhui Zhu, Josef Michl
      Pages: 9373 - 9378
      Abstract: In situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering shows that a monolayer of artificial rod-shaped dipolar molecular rotors produced on the surface of an aqueous subphase in a Langmuir trough has a structure conducive to a 2D ferroelectric phase. The axes of the rotors stand an average of 0.83 nm apart in a...
      Keywords: Artificial Molecular Machines Special Feature
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712789115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Reversible photoswitching of encapsulated azobenzenes in water [Physical
    • Authors: Dipak Samanta; Julius Gemen, Zonglin Chu, Yael Diskin-Posner, Linda J. W. Shimon, Rafal Klajn
      Pages: 9379 - 9384
      Abstract: Efficient molecular switching in confined spaces is critical for the successful development of artificial molecular machines. However, molecular switching events often entail large structural changes and therefore require conformational freedom, which is typically limited under confinement conditions. Here, we investigated the behavior of azobenzene—the key building block of light-controlled molecular...
      Keywords: Artificial Molecular Machines Special Feature
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712787115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Remote electrochemical modulation of pKa in a rotaxane by
           co-conformational allostery [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Giulio Ragazzon; Christian Schafer, Paola Franchi, Serena Silvi, Benoit Colasson, Marco Lucarini, Alberto Credi
      Pages: 9385 - 9390
      Abstract: Allosteric control, one of Nature’s most effective ways to regulate functions in biomolecular machinery, involves the transfer of information between distant sites. The mechanistic details of such a transfer are still an object of intensive investigation and debate, and the idea that intramolecular communication could be enabled by dynamic processes...
      Keywords: Artificial Molecular Machines Special Feature
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712783115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Inchworm movement of two rings switching onto a thread by biased Brownian
           diffusion represent a three-body problem [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Christopher R. Benson; Christopher Maffeo, Elisabeth M. Fatila, Yun Liu, Edward G. Sheetz, Aleksei Aksimentiev, Abhishek Singharoy, Amar H. Flood
      Pages: 9391 - 9396
      Abstract: The coordinated motion of many individual components underpins the operation of all machines. However, despite generations of experience in engineering, understanding the motion of three or more coupled components remains a challenge, known since the time of Newton as the “three-body problem.” Here, we describe, quantify, and simulate a molecular...
      Keywords: Artificial Molecular Machines Special Feature
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719539115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Molecular machines with bio-inspired mechanisms [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Liang Zhang; Vanesa Marcos, David A. Leigh
      Pages: 9397 - 9404
      Abstract: The widespread use of molecular-level motion in key natural processes suggests that great rewards could come from bridging the gap between the present generation of synthetic molecular machines—which by and large function as switches—and the machines of the macroscopic world, which utilize the synchronized behavior of integrated components to perform...
      Keywords: Artificial Molecular Machines Special Feature
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712788115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Stochastically pumped adaptation and directional motion of molecular
           machines [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: R. Dean Astumian
      Pages: 9405 - 9413
      Abstract: Recent developments in synthetic molecular motors and pumps have sprung from a remarkable confluence of experiment and theory. Synthetic accomplishments have facilitated the ability to design and create molecules, many of them featuring mechanically bonded components, to carry out specific functions in their environment—walking along a polymeric track, unidirectional circling...
      Keywords: Artificial Molecular Machines Special Feature
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714498115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • New molecular switch architectures [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Jared D. Harris; Mark J. Moran, Ivan Aprahamian
      Pages: 9414 - 9422
      Abstract: In this paper we elaborate on recently developed molecular switch architectures and how these new systems can help with the realization of new functions and advancement of artificial molecular machines. Progress in chemically and photoinduced switches and motors is summarized and contextualized such that the reader may gain an appreciation...
      Keywords: Artificial Molecular Machines Special Feature
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714499115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Molecular rotary motors: Unidirectional motion around double bonds
           [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Diederik Roke; Sander J. Wezenberg, Ben L. Feringa
      Pages: 9423 - 9431
      Abstract: The field of synthetic molecular machines has quickly evolved in recent years, growing from a fundamental curiosity to a highly active field of chemistry. Many different applications are being explored in areas such as catalysis, self-assembled and nanostructured materials, and molecular electronics. Rotary molecular motors hold great promise for achieving...
      Keywords: Artificial Molecular Machines Special Feature
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712784115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Chemical control over membrane-initiated steroid signaling with a DNA
           nanocapsule [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Aneesh T. Veetil; Maulik S. Jani, Yamuna Krishnan
      Pages: 9432 - 9437
      Abstract: Membrane-initiated steroid signaling (MISS) is a recently discovered aspect of steroidal control over cell function that has proved highly challenging to study due to its rapidity and ultrasensitivity to the steroid trigger [Chow RWY, Handelsman DJ, Ng MKC (2010) Endocrinology 151:2411–2422]. Fundamental aspects underlying MISS, such as receptor binding, kinetics...
      Keywords: Artificial Molecular Machines Special Feature
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712792115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Morphological transitions of elastic filaments in shear flow [Applied
           Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Yanan Liu; Brato Chakrabarti, David Saintillan, Anke Lindner, Olivia du Roure
      Pages: 9438 - 9443
      Abstract: The morphological dynamics, instabilities, and transitions of elastic filaments in viscous flows underlie a wealth of biophysical processes from flagellar propulsion to intracellular streaming and are also key to deciphering the rheological behavior of many complex fluids and soft materials. Here, we combine experiments and computational modeling to elucidate the...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805399115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Origin of the emergent fragile-to-strong transition in supercooled water
           [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Rui Shi; John Russo, Hajime Tanaka
      Pages: 9444 - 9449
      Abstract: Liquids can be broadly classified into two categories, fragile and strong ones, depending on how their dynamical properties change with temperature. The dynamics of a strong liquid obey the Arrhenius law, whereas the fragile one displays a super-Arrhenius law, with a much steeper slowing down upon cooling. Recently, however, it...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807821115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Franck-Condon picture of incoherent neutron scattering [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Gerald R. Kneller
      Pages: 9450 - 9455
      Abstract: A spectroscopic interpretation of incoherent neutron scattering experiments is presented which is based on Franck–Condon-type probabilities for scattering-induced transitions between quantum states of the target. The resulting expressions for the scattering functions enable an energy landscape-oriented analysis of neutron scattering spectra as well as a physical interpretation of Van Hove’s...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718720115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Toward the first quantum simulation with quantum speedup [Computer
    • Authors: Andrew M. Childs; Dmitri Maslov, Yunseong Nam, Neil J. Ross, Yuan Su
      Pages: 9456 - 9461
      Abstract: With quantum computers of significant size now on the horizon, we should understand how to best exploit their initially limited abilities. To this end, we aim to identify a practical problem that is beyond the reach of current classical computers, but that requires the fewest resources for a quantum computer....
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801723115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Striking stationarity of large-scale climate model bias patterns under
           strong climate change [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Gerhard Krinner; Mark G. Flanner
      Pages: 9462 - 9466
      Abstract: Because all climate models exhibit biases, their use for assessing future climate change requires implicitly assuming or explicitly postulating that the biases are stationary or vary predictably. This hypothesis, however, has not been, and cannot be, tested directly. This work shows that under very large climate change the bias patterns...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807912115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Dynamic amplification of extreme precipitation sensitivity [Earth,
           Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Ji Nie; Adam H. Sobel, Daniel A. Shaevitz, Shuguang Wang
      Pages: 9467 - 9472
      Abstract: A useful starting hypothesis for predictions of changes in precipitation extremes with climate is that those extremes increase at the same rate as atmospheric moisture does, which is ∼7% K−1 following the Clausius–Clapeyron (CC) relation. This hypothesis, however, neglects potential changes in the strengths of atmospheric circulations associated with precipitation...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800357115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Simultaneous polymerization and adhesion under hypoxia in sickle cell
           disease [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Dimitrios P. Papageorgiou; Sabia Z. Abidi, Hung-Yu Chang, Xuejin Li, Gregory J. Kato, George E. Karniadakis, Subra Suresh, Ming Dao
      Pages: 9473 - 9478
      Abstract: Polymerization and adhesion, dynamic processes that are hallmarks of sickle cell disease (SCD), have thus far been studied in vitro only separately. Here, we present quantitative results of the simultaneous and synergistic effects of adhesion and polymerization of deoxygenated sickle hemoglobin (HbS) in the human red blood cell (RBC) on...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807405115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Wetting controls of droplet formation in step emulsification [Engineering]
    • Authors: Maximilian L. Eggersdorfer; Hansȷorg Seybold, Alessandro Ofner, David A. Weitz, Andre R. Studart
      Pages: 9479 - 9484
      Abstract: The formation of droplets is ubiquitous in many natural and industrial processes and has reached an unprecedented level of control with the emergence of milli- and microfluidics. Although important insight into the mechanisms of droplet formation has been gained over the past decades, a sound understanding of the physics underlying...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803644115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Designing antiphase boundaries by atomic control of heterointerfaces
    • Authors: Zhen Wang; Hangwen Guo, Shuai Shao, Mohammad Saghayezhian, Jun Li, Rosalba Fittipaldi, Antonio Vecchione, Prahald Siwakoti, Yimei Zhu, Jiandi Zhang, E. W. Plummer
      Pages: 9485 - 9490
      Abstract: Extended defects are known to have critical influences in achieving desired material performance. However, the nature of extended defect generation is highly elusive due to the presence of multiple nucleation mechanisms with close energetics. A strategy to design extended defects in a simple and clean way is thus highly desirable...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808812115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Floquet quantum criticality [Physics]
    • Authors: William Berdanier; Michael Kolodrubetz, S. A. Parameswaran, Romain Vasseur
      Pages: 9491 - 9496
      Abstract: We study transitions between distinct phases of one-dimensional periodically driven (Floquet) systems. We argue that these are generically controlled by infinite-randomness fixed points of a strong-disorder renormalization group procedure. Working in the fermionic representation of the prototypical Floquet Ising chain, we leverage infinite randomness physics to provide a simple description...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805796115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Universal quantum Hamiltonians [Physics]
    • Authors: Toby S. Cubitt; Ashley Montanaro, Stephen Piddock
      Pages: 9497 - 9502
      Abstract: Quantum many-body systems exhibit an extremely diverse range of phases and physical phenomena. However, we prove that the entire physics of any quantum many-body system can be replicated by certain simple, “universal” spin-lattice models. We first characterize precisely what it means for one quantum system to simulate the entire physics...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804949115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Nontrivial superconductivity in topological MoTe2-xSx crystals [Physics]
    • Authors: Yanan Li; Qiangqiang Gu, Chen Chen, Jun Zhang, Qin Liu, Xiyao Hu, Jun Liu, Yi Liu, Langsheng Ling, Mingliang Tian, Yong Wang, Nitin Samarth, Shiyan Li, Tong Zhang, Ji Feng, Jian Wang
      Pages: 9503 - 9508
      Abstract: Topological Weyl semimetals (TWSs) with pairs of Weyl points and topologically protected Fermi arc states have broadened the classification of topological phases and provide superior platform for study of topological superconductivity. Here we report the nontrivial superconductivity and topological features of sulfur-doped Td-phase MoTe2 with enhanced Tc compared with type-II...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801650115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Structural fluctuations cause spin-split states in tetragonal (CH3NH3)PbI3
           as evidenced by the circular photogalvanic effect [Physics]
    • Authors: Daniel Niesner; Martin Hauck, Shreetu Shrestha, Ievgen Levchuk, Gebhard J. Matt, Andres Osvet, Miroslaw Batentschuk, Christoph Brabec, Heiko B. Weber, Thomas Fauster
      Pages: 9509 - 9514
      Abstract: Lead halide perovskites are used in thin-film solar cells, which owe their high efficiency to the long lifetimes of photocarriers. Various calculations find that a dynamical Rashba effect could significantly contribute to these long lifetimes. This effect is predicted to cause a spin splitting of the electronic bands of inversion-symmetric...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805422115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Metal-insulator-transition engineering by modulation tilt-control in
           perovskite nickelates for room temperature optical switching [Physics]
    • Authors: Zhaoliang Liao; Nicolas Gauquelin, Robert J. Green, Knut Muller–Caspary, Ivan Lobato, Lin Li, Sandra Van Aert, Johan Verbeeck, Mark Huiȷben, Mathieu N. Grisolia, Victor Rouco, Ralph El Hage, Javier E. Villegas, Alain Mercy, Manuel Bibes, Philippe Ghosez, George A. Sawatzky, Guus Riȷnders, Gertȷan Koster
      Pages: 9515 - 9520
      Abstract: In transition metal perovskites ABO3, the physical properties are largely driven by the rotations of the BO6 octahedra, which can be tuned in thin films through strain and dimensionality control. However, both approaches have fundamental and practical limitations due to discrete and indirect variations in bond angles, bond lengths, and...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807457115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Perspective taking can promote short-term inclusionary behavior toward
           Syrian refugees [Political Sciences]
    • Authors: Claire L. Adida; Adeline Lo, Melina R. Platas
      Pages: 9521 - 9526
      Abstract: Social scientists have shown how easily individuals are moved to exclude outgroup members. Can we foster inclusion instead' This study leverages one of the most significant humanitarian crises of our time to test whether, and under what conditions, American citizens adopt more inclusionary behavior toward Syrian refugees. We conduct a...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804002115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Americans’ occupational status reflects the status of both of their
           parents [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Michael Hout
      Pages: 9527 - 9532
      Abstract: American workers’ occupational status strongly reflects the status of their parents. Men and women who grew up in a two-earner or father-breadwinner family achieved occupations that rose 0.5 point for every one-point increase in their parents’ statuses (less if their father was absent). Gender differences were small in two-earner families...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802508115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Linking economic growth pathways and environmental sustainability by
           understanding development as alternate social-ecological regimes
           [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Graeme S. Cumming; Stephan von Cramon-Taubadel
      Pages: 9533 - 9538
      Abstract: Scientists understand how global ecological degradation is occurring but not why it seems to be so difficult to reverse. We used national-level data and a mathematical model to provide an empirical test of the hypothesis that national economies display two distinct economic regimes that are maintained by self-reinforcing feedbacks between...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807026115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Decreased water activity in nanoconfinement contributes to the folding of
           G-quadruplex and i-motif structures [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Sagun Jonchhe; Shankar Pandey, Tomoko Emura, Kumi Hidaka, Mohammad Akter Hossain, Prakash Shrestha, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Masayuki Endo, Hanbin Mao
      Pages: 9539 - 9544
      Abstract: Due to the small size of a nanoconfinement, the property of water contained inside is rather challenging to probe. Herein, we measured the amount of water molecules released during the folding of individual G-quadruplex and i-motif structures, from which water activities are estimated in the DNA nanocages prepared by 5...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805939115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Ragulator and SLC38A9 activate the Rag GTPases through noncanonical GEF
           mechanisms [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Kuang Shen; David M. Sabatini
      Pages: 9545 - 9550
      Abstract: The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) growth pathway detects nutrients through a variety of sensors and regulators that converge on the Rag GTPases, which form heterodimers consisting of RagA or RagB tightly bound to RagC or RagD and control the subcellular localization of mTORC1. The Rag heterodimer uses...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1811727115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Ultrahigh-throughput functional profiling of microbiota communities
    • Authors: Stanislav S. Terekhov; Ivan V. Smirnov, Maja V. Malakhova, Andrei E. Samoilov, Alexander I. Manolov, Anton S. Nazarov, Dmitry V. Danilov, Svetlana A. Dubiley, Ilya A. Osterman, Maria P. Rubtsova, Elena S. Kostryukova, Rustam H. Ziganshin, Maria A. Kornienko, Anna A. Vanyushkina, Olga N. Bukato, Elena N. Ilina, Valentin V. Vlasov, Konstantin V. Severinov, Alexander G. Gabibov, Sidney Altman
      Pages: 9551 - 9556
      Abstract: Microbiome spectra serve as critical clues to elucidate the evolutionary biology pathways, potential pathologies, and even behavioral patterns of the host organisms. Furthermore, exotic sources of microbiota represent an unexplored niche to discover microbial secondary metabolites. However, establishing the bacterial functionality is complicated by an intricate web of interactions inside...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1811250115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Mammalian STT3A/B oligosaccharyltransferases segregate N-glycosylation at
           the translocon from lipid-linked oligosaccharide hydrolysis [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Hua Lu; Charles S. Fermaintt, Natalia A. Cherepanova, Reid Gilmore, Nan Yan, Mark A. Lehrman
      Pages: 9557 - 9562
      Abstract: Oligosaccharyltransferases (OSTs) N-glycosylate proteins by transferring oligosaccharides from lipid-linked oligosaccharides (LLOs) to asparaginyl residues of Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr acceptor sequons. Mammals have OST isoforms with STT3A or STT3B catalytic subunits for cotranslational or posttranslational N-glycosylation, respectively. OSTs also hydrolyze LLOs, forming free oligosaccharides (fOSs). It has been unclear whether hydrolysis is due...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806034115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • GEF mechanism revealed by the structure of SmgGDS-558 and farnesylated
    • Authors: Hikaru Shimizu; Sachiko Toma-Fukai, Kenji Kontani, Toshiaki Katada, Toshiyuki Shimizu
      Pages: 9563 - 9568
      Abstract: SmgGDS has dual functions in cells and regulates small GTPases as both a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Rho family and a molecular chaperone for small GTPases possessing a C-terminal polybasic region followed by four C-terminal residues called the CaaX motif, which is posttranslationally prenylated at its cysteine...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804740115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Machining protein microcrystals for structure determination by electron
           diffraction [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Helen M. E. Duyvesteyn; Abhay Kotecha, Helen M. Ginn, Corey W. Hecksel, Emma V. Beale, Felix de Haas, Gwyndaf Evans, Peijun Zhang, Wah Chiu, David I. Stuart
      Pages: 9569 - 9573
      Abstract: We demonstrate that ion-beam milling of frozen, hydrated protein crystals to thin lamella preserves the crystal lattice to near-atomic resolution. This provides a vehicle for protein structure determination, bridging the crystal size gap between the nanometer scale of conventional electron diffraction and micron scale of synchrotron microfocus beamlines. The demonstration...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1809978115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Mechanics of diseased red blood cells in human spleen and consequences for
           hereditary blood disorders [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: He Li; Lu Lu, Xuejin Li, Pierre A. Buffet, Ming Dao, George E. Karniadakis, Subra Suresh
      Pages: 9574 - 9579
      Abstract: In red blood cell (RBC) diseases, the spleen contributes to anemia by clearing the damaged RBCs, but its unique ability to mechanically challenge RBCs also poses the risk of inducing other pathogenic effects. We have analyzed RBCs in hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and hereditary elliptocytosis (HE), two typical examples of blood...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806501115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • The chaperonin TRiC/CCT is essential for the action of bacterial
           glycosylating protein toxins like Clostridium difficile toxins A and B
           [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Marcus Steinemann; Andreas Schlosser, Thomas Jank, Klaus Aktories
      Pages: 9580 - 9585
      Abstract: Various bacterial protein toxins, including Clostridium difficile toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), attack intracellular target proteins of host cells by glucosylation. After receptor binding and endocytosis, the toxins are translocated into the cytosol, where they modify target proteins (e.g., Rho proteins). Here we report that the activity of translocated...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807658115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Genetic screen identifies adaptive aneuploidy as a key mediator of ER
           stress resistance in yeast [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Carine Beaupere; Leticia Dinatto, Brian M. Wasko, Rosalyn B. Chen, Lauren VanValkenburg, Michael G. Kiflezghi, Mitchell B. Lee, Daniel E. L. Promislow, Weiwei Dang, Matt Kaeberlein, Vyacheslav M. Labunskyy
      Pages: 9586 - 9591
      Abstract: The yeast genome becomes unstable during stress, which often results in adaptive aneuploidy, allowing rapid activation of protective mechanisms that restore cellular homeostasis. In this study, we performed a genetic screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify genome adaptations that confer resistance to tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Whole-genome sequencing of...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804264115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Global estimates of mortality associated with long-term exposure to
           outdoor fine particulate matter [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Richard Burnett; Hong Chen, Mieczysław Szyszkowicz, Neal Fann, Bryan Hubbell, C. Arden Pope III, Joshua S. Apte, Michael Brauer, Aaron Cohen, Scott Weichenthal, Jay Coggins, Qian Di, Bert Brunekreef, Joseph Frostad, Stephen S. Lim, Haidong Kan, Katherine D. Walker, George D. Thurston, Richard B. Hayes, Chris C. Lim, Michelle C. Turner, Michael Jerrett, Daniel Krewski, Susan M. Gapstur, W. Ryan Diver, Bart Ostro, Debbie Goldberg, Daniel L. Crouse, Randall V. Martin, Paul Peters, Lauren Pinault, Michael Tȷepkema, Aaron van Donkelaar, Paul J. Villeneuve, Anthony B. Miller, Peng Yin, Maigeng Zhou, Liȷun Wang, Nicole A. H. Janssen, Marten Marra, Richard W. Atkinson, Hilda Tsang, Thuan Quoc Thach, John B. Cannon, Ryan T. Allen, Jaime E. Hart, Francine Laden, Giulia Cesaroni, Francesco Forastiere, Gudrun Weinmayr, Andrea Jaensch, Gabriele Nagel, Hans Concin, Joseph V. Spadaro
      Pages: 9592 - 9597
      Abstract: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major global health concern. Quantitative estimates of attributable mortality are based on disease-specific hazard ratio models that incorporate risk information from multiple PM2.5 sources (outdoor and indoor air pollution from use of solid fuels and secondhand and active smoking), requiring assumptions...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803222115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Cancer-driving H3G34V/R/D mutations block H3K36 methylation and
           H3K36me3-MutS{alpha} interaction [Genetics]
    • Authors: Jun Fang; Yaping Huang, Guogen Mao, Shuang Yang, Gadi Rennert, Liya Gu, Haitao Li, Guo-Min Li
      Pages: 9598 - 9603
      Abstract: Somatic mutations on glycine 34 of histone H3 (H3G34) cause pediatric cancers, but the underlying oncogenic mechanism remains unknown. We demonstrate that substituting H3G34 with arginine, valine, or aspartate (H3G34R/V/D), which converts the non-side chain glycine to a large side chain-containing residue, blocks H3 lysine 36 (H3K36) dimethylation and trimethylation...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806355115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • High-resolution repertoire analysis reveals a major bystander activation
           of Tfh and Tfr cells [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Paul-Gydeon Ritvo; Ahmed Saadawi, Pierre Barennes, Valentin Quiniou, Wahiba Chaara, Karim El Soufi, Benjamin Bonnet, Adrien Six, Mikhail Shugay, Encarnita Mariotti-Ferrandiz, David Klatzmann
      Pages: 9604 - 9609
      Abstract: T follicular helper (Tfh) and regulatory (Tfr) cells are terminally differentiated cells found in germinal centers (GCs), specialized secondary lymphoid organ structures dedicated to antibody production. As such, follicular T (Tfol) cells are supposed to be specific for immunizing antigens, which has been reported for Tfh cells but is debated...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808594115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Distinct antiviral signatures revealed by the magnitude and round of
           influenza virus replication in vivo [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Louisa E. Sjaastad; Elizabeth J. Fay, Jessica K. Fiege, Marissa G. Macchietto, Ian A. Stone, Matthew W. Markman, Steven Shen, Ryan A. Langlois
      Pages: 9610 - 9615
      Abstract: Influenza virus has a broad cellular tropism in the respiratory tract. Infected epithelial cells sense the infection and initiate an antiviral response. To define the antiviral response at the earliest stages of infection we used a series of single-cycle reporter viruses. These viral probes demonstrated cells in vivo harbor a...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807516115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Clinical and veterinary trypanocidal benzoxaboroles target CPSF3
    • Authors: Richard J. Wall; Eva Rico, Iva Lukac, Fabio Zuccotto, Sara Elg, Ian H. Gilbert, Yvonne Freund, M. R. K. Alley, Mark C. Field, Susan Wyllie, David Horn
      Pages: 9616 - 9621
      Abstract: African trypanosomes cause lethal and neglected tropical diseases, known as sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals. Current therapies are limited, but fortunately, promising therapies are in advanced clinical and veterinary development, including acoziborole (AN5568 or SCYX-7158) and AN11736, respectively. These benzoxaboroles will likely be key to the World...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807915115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • A pan-mammalian map of interhemispheric brain connections predates the
           evolution of the corpus callosum [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Rodrigo Suarez; Annalisa Paolino, Laura R. Fenlon, Laura R. Morcom, Peter Kozulin, Nyoman D. Kurniawan, Linda J. Richards
      Pages: 9622 - 9627
      Abstract: The brain of mammals differs from that of all other vertebrates, in having a six-layered neocortex that is extensively interconnected within and between hemispheres. Interhemispheric connections are conveyed through the anterior commissure in egg-laying monotremes and marsupials, whereas eutherians evolved a separate commissural tract, the corpus callosum. Although the pattern...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808262115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • ASCT1 (Slc1a4) transporter is a physiologic regulator of brain d-serine
           and neurodevelopment [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Eitan Kaplan; Salman Zubedat, Inna Radzishevsky, Alec C. Valenta, Ohad Rechnitz, Hagit Sason, Clara Sajrawi, Oded Bodner, Kohtarou Konno, Kayoko Esaki, Dori Derdikman, Takeo Yoshikawa, Masahiko Watanabe, Robert T. Kennedy, Jean-Marie Billard, Avi Avital, Herman Wolosker
      Pages: 9628 - 9633
      Abstract: d-serine is a physiologic coagonist of NMDA receptors, but little is known about the regulation of its synthesis and synaptic turnover. The amino acid exchangers ASCT1 (Slc1a4) and ASCT2 (Slc1a5) are candidates for regulating d-serine levels. Using ASCT1 and ASCT2 KO mice, we report that ASCT1, rather than ASCT2, is...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722677115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
  • Plastid terminal oxidase requires translocation to the grana stacks to act
           as a sink for electron transport [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Piotr Stepien; Giles N. Johnson
      Pages: 9634 - 9639
      Abstract: The plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) has been shown to be an important sink for photosynthetic electron transport in stress-tolerant plants. However, overexpression studies in stress-sensitive species have previously failed to induce significant activity of this protein. Here we show that overexpression of PTOX from the salt-tolerant brassica species Eutrema salsugineum...
      PubDate: 2018-09-18T09:52:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719070115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 38 (2018)
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