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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 6.092
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 956  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • How to eliminate MYCN-positive hepatic cancer stem cells to prevent the
           recurrence' [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Go J. Yoshida
      Abstract: I read with great interest the work of Qin et al. (1), in which the authors reveal that acyclic retinoid (ACR) selectively eliminates cancer stem cells (CSCs) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which highly express MYCN with enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway. There exist several molecules that are highly expressed in HCC-CSCs,...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808092115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Reply to Yoshida: Liver cancer stem cells: Identification and lipid
           metabolic reprogramming [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Xian-Yang Qin; Naoshi Dohmae, Soichi Kojima
      Abstract: As a molecular basis by which acyclic retinoid (ACR) prevents recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we identify MYCN+ liver cancer stem cell (CSC)-like cell serves as a biomarker and therapeutic target to be selectively eliminated by ACR (1). In the Letter by Yoshida (2), the author makes two important comments...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808740115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Genome diversity of the potato [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Binquan Huang; David M. Spooner, Qiqi Liang
      Abstract: In a recent issue of PNAS, Hardigan et al. (1) state that the genetic diversity of the potato is much greater than that of other major crops, based on 68.9 million SNPs identified from the resequencing of 67 accessions of wild and cultivated potatoes. We questioned this conclusion based on...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805917115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Reply to Huang et al.: Avoiding “one-size-fits-all” approaches to
           variant discovery [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Michael A. Hardigan; F. Parker E. Laimbeer, John P. Hamilton, Brieanne Vaillancourt, David S. Douches, Eva M. Farre, Richard E. Veilleux, C. Robin Buell
      Abstract: Huang et al. (1) argue that variant calling methods less conservative than GATK’s Best Practices workflow (2) increased false-positive variant discovery in our study of wild and cultivated potatoes (3), impacting diversity estimates. We disagree with their conclusion and highlight the rationale for the variant calling methods used in our...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807622115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Vibrational coherence transfer in the ultrafast intersystem crossing of a
           diplatinum complex in solution [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Roberto Monni; Gloria Capano, Gerald Aubock, Harry B. Gray, Antonin Vlček, Ivano Tavernelli, Maȷed Chergui
      Abstract: We investigate the ultrafast transient absorption response of tetrakis(μ-pyrophosphito)diplatinate(II), [Pt2(μ-P2O5H2)4]4− [hereafter abbreviated Pt(pop)], in acetonitrile upon excitation of its lowest singlet 1A2u state. Compared with previously reported solvents [van der Veen RM, Cannizzo A, van Mourik F, Vlček A, Jr, Chergui M (2011) J Am Chem Soc 133:305–315], a significant...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719899115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Kinetically guided radical-based synthesis of C(sp3)-C(sp3) linkages on
           DNA [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Jie Wang; Helena Lundberg, Shota Asai, Pedro Martin–Acosta, Jason S. Chen, Stephen Brown, William Farrell, Russell G. Dushin, Christopher J. O’Donnell, Anokha S. Ratnayake, Paul Richardson, Zhiqing Liu, Tian Qin, Donna G. Blackmond, Phil S. Baran
      Abstract: DNA-encoded libraries (DEL)-based discovery platforms have recently been widely adopted in the pharmaceutical industry, mainly due to their powerful diversity and incredible number of molecules. In the two decades since their disclosure, great strides have been made to expand the toolbox of reaction modes that are compatible with the idiosyncratic...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806900115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Learning atoms for materials discovery [Physics]
    • Authors: Quan Zhou; Peizhe Tang, Shenxiu Liu, Jinbo Pan, Qimin Yan, Shou-Cheng Zhang
      Abstract: Exciting advances have been made in artificial intelligence (AI) during recent decades. Among them, applications of machine learning (ML) and deep learning techniques brought human-competitive performances in various tasks of fields, including image recognition, speech recognition, and natural language understanding. Even in Go, the ancient game of profound complexity, the...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801181115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Developmental prosopagnosics have widespread selectivity reductions across
           category-selective visual cortex [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Guo Jiahui; Hua Yang, Bradley Duchaine
      Abstract: Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe deficits with facial identity recognition. It is unclear which cortical areas contribute to face processing deficits in DP, and no previous studies have investigated whether other category-selective areas function normally in DP. To address these issues, we scanned 22 DPs...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802246115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Unusual duplication mutation in a surface loop of human transthyretin
           leads to an aggressive drug-resistant amyloid disease [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Elena S. Klimtchuk; Tatiana Prokaeva, Nicholas M. Frame, Hassan A. Abdullahi, Brian Spencer, Surendra Dasari, Haili Cui, John L. Berk, Paul J. Kurtin, Lawreen H. Connors, Olga Gursky
      Abstract: Transthyretin (TTR) is a globular tetrameric transport protein in plasma. Nearly 140 single amino acid substitutions in TTR cause life-threatening amyloid disease. We report a one-of-a-kind pathological variant featuring a Glu51, Ser52 duplication mutation (Glu51_Ser52dup). The proband, heterozygous for the mutation, exhibited an unusually aggressive amyloidosis that was refractory to...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802977115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Gene expression distribution deconvolution in single-cell RNA sequencing
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Jingshu Wang; Mo Huang, Eduardo Torre, Hannah Dueck, Sydney Shaffer, John Murray, Arjun Raj, Mingyao Li, Nancy R. Zhang
      Abstract: Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) enables the quantification of each gene’s expression distribution across cells, thus allowing the assessment of the dispersion, nonzero fraction, and other aspects of its distribution beyond the mean. These statistical characterizations of the gene expression distribution are critical for understanding expression variation and for selecting marker...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721085115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Reversible inhibition of the ClpP protease via an N-terminal
           conformational switch [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Siavash Vahidi; Zev A. Ripstein, Massimiliano Bonomi, Tairan Yuwen, Mark F. Mabanglo, Jordan B. Juravsky, Kamran Rizzolo, Algirdas Velyvis, Walid A. Houry, Michele Vendruscolo, John L. Rubinstein, Lewis E. Kay
      Abstract: Protein homeostasis is critically important for cell viability. Key to this process is the refolding of misfolded or aggregated proteins by molecular chaperones or, alternatively, their degradation by proteases. In most prokaryotes and in chloroplasts and mitochondria, protein degradation is performed by the caseinolytic protease ClpP, a tetradecamer barrel-like proteolytic...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805125115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Structural basis for recognition of human 7SK long noncoding RNA by the
           La-related protein Larp7 [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Catherine D. Eichhorn; Yuan Yang, Lucas Repeta, Juli Feigon
      Abstract: The La and the La-related protein (LARP) superfamily is a diverse class of RNA binding proteins involved in RNA processing, folding, and function. Larp7 binds to the abundant long noncoding 7SK RNA and is required for 7SK ribonucleoprotein (RNP) assembly and function. The 7SK RNP sequesters a pool of the...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806276115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Targeting {beta}1-integrin inhibits vascular leakage in endotoxemia [Cell
           Biology]
    • Authors: Laura Hakanpaa; Elina A. Kiss, Guillaume Jacquemet, Ilkka Miinalainen, Martina Lerche, Camilo Guzman, Eero Mervaala, Lauri Eklund, Johanna Ivaska, Pipsa Saharinen
      Abstract: Loss of endothelial integrity promotes capillary leakage in numerous diseases, including sepsis, but there are no effective therapies for preserving endothelial barrier function. Angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2) is a context-dependent regulator of vascular leakage that signals via both endothelial TEK receptor tyrosine kinase (TIE2) and integrins. Here, we show that antibodies against...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722317115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • PIP30/FAM192A is a novel regulator of the nuclear proteasome activator
           PA28{gamma} [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Beata Jonik–Nowak; Thomas Menneteau, Didier Fesquet, Veronique Baldin, Catherine Bonne–Andrea, Francisca Mechali, Bertrand Fabre, Prisca Boisguerin, Sylvain de Rossi, Corinne Henriquet, Martine Pugniere, Manuelle Ducoux–Petit, Odile Burlet–Schiltz, Angus I. Lamond, Philippe Fort, Severine Boulon, Marie–Pierre Bousquet, Olivier Coux
      Abstract: PA28γ is a nuclear activator of the 20S proteasome involved in the regulation of several essential cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, nuclear dynamics, and cellular stress response. Unlike the 19S regulator of the proteasome, which specifically recognizes ubiquitylated proteins, PA28γ promotes the degradation of several substrates by the...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722299115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • F-actin homeostasis through transcriptional regulation and
           proteasome-mediated proteolysis [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Masayuki Onishi; Kresti Pecani, Taylor Jones IV, John R. Pringle, Frederick R. Cross
      Abstract: Many organisms possess multiple and often divergent actins whose regulation and roles are not understood in detail. For example, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has both a conventional actin (IDA5) and a highly divergent one (NAP1); only IDA5 is expressed in normal proliferating cells. We showed previously that the drug latrunculin B (LatB)...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721935115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Phosphatases control PKA-dependent functional microdomains at the outer
           mitochondrial membrane [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Alex Burdyga; Nicoletta C. Surdo, Stefania Monterisi, Giulietta Di Benedetto, Francesca Grisan, Elisa Penna, Luca Pellegrini, Mario Bortolozzi, Pawel Swietach, Tullio Pozzan, Konstantinos Lefkimmiatis
      Abstract: Evidence supporting the heterogeneity in cAMP and PKA signaling is rapidly accumulating and has been largely attributed to the localization or activity of adenylate cyclases, phosphodiesterases, and A-kinase–anchoring proteins in different cellular subcompartments. However, little attention has been paid to the possibility that, despite homogeneous cAMP levels, a major heterogeneity...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806318115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Whole-genome data reveal the complex history of a diverse ecological
           community [Ecology]
    • Authors: Lynsey Bunnefeld; Jack Hearn, Graham N. Stone, Konrad Lohse
      Abstract: How widespread ecological communities assemble remains a key question in ecology. Trophic interactions between widespread species may reflect a shared population history or ecological fitting of local pools of species with very different population histories. Which scenario applies is central to the stability of trophic associations and the potential for...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800334115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Real-time dynamics of mutagenesis reveal the chronology of DNA repair and
           damage tolerance responses in single cells [Genetics]
    • Authors: Stephan Uphoff
      Abstract: Evolutionary processes are driven by diverse molecular mechanisms that act in the creation and prevention of mutations. It remains unclear how these mechanisms are regulated because limitations of existing mutation assays have precluded measuring how mutation rates vary over time in single cells. Toward this goal, I detected nascent DNA...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801101115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Evolutionary genomic dynamics of Peruvians before, during, and after the
           Inca Empire [Genetics]
    • Authors: Daniel N. Harris; Wei Song, Amol C. Shetty, Kelly S. Levano, Omar Caceres, Carlos Padilla, Victor Borda, David Tarazona, Omar Truȷillo, Cesar Sanchez, Michael D. Kessler, Marco Galarza, Silvia Capristano, Harrison Monteȷo, Pedro O. Flores–Villanueva, Eduardo Tarazona–Santos, Timothy D. O’Connor, Heinner Guio
      Abstract: Native Americans from the Amazon, Andes, and coastal geographic regions of South America have a rich cultural heritage but are genetically understudied, therefore leading to gaps in our knowledge of their genomic architecture and demographic history. In this study, we sequence 150 genomes to high coverage combined with an additional...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720798115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Gentamicin induces LAMB3 nonsense mutation readthrough and restores
           functional laminin 332 in junctional epidermolysis bullosa [Genetics]
    • Authors: Vadim Lincoln; Jon Cogan, Yingping Hou, Michaela Hirsch, Michelle Hao, Vitali Alexeev, Michele De Luca, Laura De Rosa, Johann W. Bauer, David T. Woodley, Mei Chen
      Abstract: Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB) is an incurable, devastating, and mostly fatal inherited skin disease for which there is only supportive care. H-JEB is caused by loss-of-function mutations in LAMA3, LAMB3, or LAMC2, leading to complete loss of laminin 332, the major component of anchoring filaments, which mediate epidermal-dermal adherence....
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803154115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Fatty acid metabolism complements glycolysis in the selective regulatory T
           cell expansion during tumor growth [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Ilenia Pacella; Claudio Procaccini, Chiara Focaccetti, Stefano Miacci, Eleonora Timperi, Deriggio Faicchia, Martina Severa, Fabiana Rizzo, Eliana Marina Coccia, Fabrizia Bonacina, Nico Mitro, Giuseppe Danilo Norata, Grazisa Rossetti, Valeria Ranzani, Massimiliano Pagani, Ezio Giorda, Yu Wei, Giuseppe Matarese, Vincenzo Barnaba, Silvia Piconese
      Abstract: The tumor microenvironment restrains conventional T cell (Tconv) activation while facilitating the expansion of Tregs. Here we showed that Tregs’ advantage in the tumor milieu relies on supplemental energetic routes involving lipid metabolism. In murine models, tumor-infiltrating Tregs displayed intracellular lipid accumulation, which was attributable to an increased rate of...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720113115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Disrupting LXR{alpha} phosphorylation promotes FoxM1 expression and
           modulates atherosclerosis by inducing macrophage proliferation [Medical
           Sciences]
    • Authors: M. C. Gage; N. Becares, R. Louie, K. E. Waddington, Y. Zhang, T. H. Tittanegro, S. Rodriguez–Lorenzo, A. Jathanna, B. Pourcet, O. M. Pello, J. V. De la Rosa, A. Castrillo, I. Pineda–Torra
      Abstract: Macrophages are key immune cells for the initiation and development of atherosclerotic lesions. However, the macrophage regulatory nodes that determine how lesions progress in response to dietary challenges are not fully understood. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are sterol-regulated transcription factors that play a central role in atherosclerosis by integrating cholesterol...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721245115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Drosophila model of myosin myopathy rescued by overexpression of a
           TRIM-protein family member [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Martin Dahl–Halvarsson; Montse Olive, Malgorzata Pokrzywa, Katarina Eȷeskar, Ruth H. Palmer, Anne Elisabeth Uv, Homa Taȷsharghi
      Abstract: Myosin is a molecular motor indispensable for body movement and heart contractility. Apart from pure cardiomyopathy, mutations in MYH7 encoding slow/β-cardiac myosin heavy chain also cause skeletal muscle disease with or without cardiac involvement. Mutations within the α-helical rod domain of MYH7 are mainly associated with Laing distal myopathy. To...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800727115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Autoantibodies reactive to adrenocorticotropic hormone can alter cortisol
           secretion in both aggressive and nonaggressive humans [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Henning Varoy; Csaba Adori, Romain Legrand, Nicolas Lucas, Jonathan Breton, Caroline Cottard, Jean–Claude do Rego, Celine Duparc, Estelle Louiset, Herve Lefebvre, Pierre Dechelotte, Elin Western, Stein Andersson, Tomas Hokfelt, Serguei O. Fetissov
      Abstract: Violent aggression in humans may involve a modified response to stress, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here we show that naturally present autoantibodies reactive to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) exhibit distinct epitope-binding profiles to ACTH peptide in subjects with a history of violent aggression compared with controls. Namely,...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720008115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Coupled laboratory and field investigations resolve microbial interactions
           that underpin persistence in hydraulically fractured shales [Microbiology]
           
    • Authors: Mikayla A. Borton; David W. Hoyt, Simon Roux, Rebecca A. Daly, Susan A. Welch, Carrie D. Nicora, Samuel Purvine, Elizabeth K. Eder, Andrea J. Hanson, Julie M. Sheets, David M. Morgan, Richard A. Wolfe, Shikha Sharma, Timothy R. Carr, David R. Cole, Paula J. Mouser, Mary S. Lipton, Michael J. Wilkins, Kelly C. Wrighton
      Abstract: Hydraulic fracturing is one of the industrial processes behind the surging natural gas output in the United States. This technology inadvertently creates an engineered microbial ecosystem thousands of meters below Earth’s surface. Here, we used laboratory reactors to perform manipulations of persisting shale microbial communities that are currently not feasible...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800155115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Direct cell-cell contact activates SigM to express the ESX-4 secretion
           system in Mycobacterium smegmatis [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Ryan R. Clark; Julius Judd, Erica Lasek-Nesselquist, Sarah A. Montgomery, Jennifer G. Hoffmann, Keith M. Derbyshire, Todd A. Gray
      Abstract: Conjugal cell–cell contact between strains of Mycobacterium smegmatis induces the esxUT transcript, which encodes the putative primary substrates of the ESAT-6 secretion system 4 (ESX-4) secretion system. This recipient response was required for conjugal transfer of chromosomal DNA from the donor strain. Here we show that the extracytoplasmic σ factor,...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804227115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Arthropod EVs mediate dengue virus transmission through interaction with a
           tetraspanin domain containing glycoprotein Tsp29Fb [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Ashish Vora; Wenshuo Zhou, Berlin Londono-Renteria, Michael Woodson, Michael B. Sherman, Tonya M. Colpitts, Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana
      Abstract: Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes dengue fever in humans, worldwide. Using in vitro cell lines derived from Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, the primary vectors of DENV, we report that DENV2/DENV3-infected cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, containing infectious viral RNA and proteins. A full-length...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720125115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Inhibitor of intramembrane protease RseP blocks the {sigma}E response
           causing lethal accumulation of unfolded outer membrane proteins
           [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Anna Konovalova; Marcin Grabowicz, Carl J. Balibar, Juliana C. Malinverni, Ronald E. Painter, Daniel Riley, Paul A. Mann, Hao Wang, Charles G. Garlisi, Brad Sherborne, Nathan W. Rigel, Dante P. Ricci, Todd A. Black, Terry Roemer, Thomas J. Silhavy, Scott S. Walker
      Abstract: The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria forms a robust permeability barrier that blocks entry of toxins and antibiotics. Most OM proteins (OMPs) assume a β-barrel fold, and some form aqueous channels for nutrient uptake and efflux of intracellular toxins. The Bam machine catalyzes rapid folding and assembly of OMPs....
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806107115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • In vivo imaging of the pathophysiological changes and neutrophil dynamics
           in influenza virus-infected mouse lungs [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Hiroshi Ueki; I-Hsuan Wang, Satoshi Fukuyama, Hiroaki Katsura, Tiago Jose da Silva Lopes, Gabriele Neumann, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
      Abstract: The pathophysiological changes that occur in lungs infected with influenza viruses are poorly understood. Here we established an in vivo imaging system that combines two-photon excitation microscopy and fluorescent influenza viruses of different pathogenicity. This approach allowed us to monitor and correlate several parameters and physiological changes including the spread...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806265115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Piano training enhances the neural processing of pitch and improves speech
           perception in Mandarin-speaking children [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Yun Nan; Li Liu, Eveline Geiser, Hua Shu, Chen Chen Gong, Qi Dong, John D. E. Gabrieli, Robert Desimone
      Abstract: Musical training confers advantages in speech-sound processing, which could play an important role in early childhood education. To understand the mechanisms of this effect, we used event-related potential and behavioral measures in a longitudinal design. Seventy-four Mandarin-speaking children aged 4–5 y old were pseudorandomly assigned to piano training, reading training,...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808412115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Amyloid clearance defect in ApoE4 astrocytes is reversed by epigenetic
           correction of endosomal pH [Physiology]
    • Authors: Hari Prasad; Rajini Rao
      Abstract: Endosomes have emerged as a central hub and pathogenic driver of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The earliest brain cytopathology in neurodegeneration, occurring decades before amyloid plaques and cognitive decline, is an expansion in the size and number of endosomal compartments. The strongest genetic risk factor for sporadic AD is the ε4...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801612115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Multigenome analysis implicates miniature inverted-repeat transposable
           
    • Authors: Alexander M. Boutanaev; Anne E. Osbourn
      Abstract: Plants produce a plethora of natural products, including many drugs. It has recently emerged that the genes encoding different natural product pathways may be organized as biosynthetic gene clusters in plant genomes, with>30 examples reported so far. Despite superficial similarities with microbes, these clusters have not arisen by horizontal...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721318115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Degradation of unmethylated miRNA/miRNA*s by a DEDDy-type 3' to 5'
           exoribonuclease Atrimmer 2 in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Xiaoyan Wang; Yuan Wang, Yongchao Dou, Lu Chen, Junli Wang, Ning Jiang, Chunce Guo, Qingqing Yao, Chizao Wang, Lin Liu, Bin Yu, Binglian Zheng, Julia A. Chekanova, Jinbiao Ma, Guodong Ren
      Abstract: The 3′ end methylation catalyzed by HUA Enhancer 1 (HEN1) is a crucial step of small RNA stabilization in plants, yet how unmethylated small RNAs undergo degradation remains largely unknown. Using a reverse genetic approach, we here show that Atrimmer 2 (ATRM2), a DEDDy-type 3′ to 5′ exoribonuclease, acts in...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721917115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Correction for LeClere et al., Cross-resistance to dicamba, 2,4-D, and
           fluroxypyr in Kochia scoparia is endowed by a mutation in an AUX/IAA gene
           [Correction]
    • Abstract: AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES Correction for “Cross-resistance to dicamba, 2,4-D, and fluroxypyr in Kochia scoparia is endowed by a mutation in an AUX/IAA gene,” by Sherry LeClere, Chenxi Wu, Philip Westra, and R. Douglas Sammons, which was first published March 12, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1712372115 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115:E2911–E2920). The authors wish...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1809836115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Correction for Artemenko et al., Chemical and mechanical stimuli act on
           common signal transduction and cytoskeletal networks [Correction]
    • Abstract: CELL BIOLOGY Correction for “Chemical and mechanical stimuli act on common signal transduction and cytoskeletal networks,” by Yulia Artemenko, Lucas Axiotakis Jr., Jane Borleis, Pablo A. Iglesias, and Peter N. Devreotes, which was first published November 7, 2016; 10.1073/pnas.1608767113 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 113:E7500–E7509). The authors note that the...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1809926115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Correction for Lampert et al., Shear force-based genetic screen reveals
           
    • Abstract: CELL BIOLOGY Correction for “Shear force-based genetic screen reveals negative regulators of cell adhesion and protrusive activity,” by Thomas J. Lampert, Nadine Kamprad, Marc Edwards, Jane Borleis, Ayende J. Watson, Marco Tarantola, and Peter N. Devreotes, which was first published August 28, 2017; 10.1073/pnas.1616600114 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114:E7727–E7736)....
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1809927115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Correction for Edwards et al., Insight from the maximal activation of the
           signal transduction excitable network in Dictyostelium discoideum
           [Correction]
    • Abstract: CELL BIOLOGY Correction for “Insight from the maximal activation of the signal transduction excitable network in Dictyostelium discoideum,” by Marc Edwards, Huaqing Cai, Bedri Abubaker-Sharif, Yu Long, Thomas J. Lampert, and Peter N. Devreotes, which was first published March 30, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1710480115 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115:E3722–E3730). The authors...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1809928115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 7159 - 7161
      Abstract: Piano training might improve language skills Piano training is tied to improved linguistic skills. Image courtesy of iStock/ClarkandCompany. Music training has been tied to improved linguistic ability in children and adolescents, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To probe the link, Yun Nan et al. (pp. E6630–E6639) recruited 74 cognitively...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti2818115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Opinion: Offshore aquaculture in the United States: Untapped potential in
           need of smart policy [Political Sciences]
    • Authors: Sarah E. Lester; Rebecca R. Gentry, Carrie V. Kappel, Crow White, Steven D. Gaines
      Pages: 7162 - 7165
      Abstract: The United States had a $14 billion seafood trade deficit in 2016, importing more than 2.5 million tons of edible fishery products, 90% of the value of the seafood Americans eat (1). Half of those seafood imports are from aquaculture (2). Meanwhile, demand in the United States for local, fresh,...
      Keywords: Opinions, Front Matter, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808737115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • QnAs with Ewine F. van Dishoeck [QnAs]
    • Authors: Farooq Ahmed
      Pages: 7166 - 7167
      Abstract: In the last 15 years, two major international projects—the Herschel Space Observatory and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA)—have transformed researchers’ ability to investigate interstellar space at the farthest reaches of the universe. The 2018 recipient of the James Craig Watson Medal of the National Academy of Sciences, Ewine F....
      Keywords: QnAs
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808261115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Single-cell mutagenic responses and cell death revealed in real time
           [Genetics]
    • Authors: Bennett Van Houten; Neil M. Kad
      Pages: 7168 - 7170
      Abstract: When musing about evolution, the physician and scientific essayist Lewis Thomas wrote, “The capacity to blunder slightly is the real marvel of DNA. Without this special attribute, we would still be anaerobic bacteria and there would be no music” (1). Understanding how DNA mutations arise in cells, either spontaneously or...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808986115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Prepatterned liquid crystal elastomers as a step toward artificial
           morphogenesis [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Oleg D. Lavrentovich
      Pages: 7171 - 7173
      Abstract: Morphogenesis, a biological process that translates nanoscale details of molecular organization into a macroscopic shape of an organism, is a marvel of nature. Morphogenesis starts with a placement of predesigned molecules of different chemical structure into predetermined locations, with subsequent out-of-equilibrium interactions and developments fueled by an influx of energy....
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1809083115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Designing nanocellulose materials from the molecular scale [Engineering]
    • Authors: Francisco J. Martin-Martinez
      Pages: 7174 - 7175
      Abstract: Cellulose, in the form of cellulose nanocrystals, cellulose nanofibrils, or bacterial cellulose, has emerged as a renewable material with countless potential applications in materials science and engineering (1). Its anisotropy and excellent mechanical properties, together with its biocompatibility and tunable surface chemistry, have made cellulose-based nanomaterials a cornerstone in a...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1809308115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Psychological health and socioeconomic status among non-Hispanic whites
           [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Andrew J. Cherlin
      Pages: 7176 - 7178
      Abstract: Much attention has been paid of late to drug abuse and mortality among less-educated whites. This group, often referred to as the “white working class,” is typically defined as non-Hispanic whites who do not have Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science college degrees (1). Mortality rates have risen for...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808753115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • US nuclear power: The vanishing low-carbon wedge [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: M. Granger Morgan; Ahmed Abdulla, Michael J. Ford, Michael Rath
      Pages: 7184 - 7189
      Abstract: Nuclear power holds the potential to make a significant contribution to decarbonizing the US energy system. Whether it could do so in its current form is a critical question: Existing large light water reactors in the United States are under economic pressure from low natural gas prices, and some have...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804655115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Dual-process theory of racial isolation, legal cynicism, and reported
           crime [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: John Hagan; Bill McCarthy, Daniel Herda, Andrea Cann Chandrasekher
      Pages: 7190 - 7199
      Abstract: Why is neighborhood racial composition linked so strongly to police-reported crime' Common explanations include over-policing and negative interactions with police, but police reports of crime are heavily dependent on resident 911 calls. Using Sampson’s concept of legal cynicism and Vaisey’s dual-process theory, we theorize that racial concentration and isolation consciously...
      Keywords: Inaugural Articles
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722210115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Near-optimal matrix recovery from random linear measurements [Applied
           Mathematics]
    • Authors: Elad Romanov; Matan Gavish
      Pages: 7200 - 7205
      Abstract: In matrix recovery from random linear measurements, one is interested in recovering an unknown M-by-N matrix X0 from n
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705490115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Universal inverse design of surfaces with thin nematic elastomer sheets
           [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Hillel Aharoni; Yu Xia, Xinyue Zhang, Randall D. Kamien, Shu Yang
      Pages: 7206 - 7211
      Abstract: Programmable shape-shifting materials can take different physical forms to achieve multifunctionality in a dynamic and controllable manner. Although morphing a shape from 2D to 3D via programmed inhomogeneous local deformations has been demonstrated in various ways, the inverse problem—finding how to program a sheet in order for it to take...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804702115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Symmetric shear banding and swarming vortices in bacterial superfluids
           [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Shuo Guo; Devranjan Samanta, Yi Peng, Xinliang Xu, Xiang Cheng
      Pages: 7212 - 7217
      Abstract: Bacterial suspensions—a premier example of active fluids—show an unusual response to shear stresses. Instead of increasing the viscosity of the suspending fluid, the emergent collective motions of swimming bacteria can turn a suspension into a superfluid with zero apparent viscosity. Although the existence of active superfluids has been demonstrated in...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722505115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Close-packed block copolymer micelles induced by temperature quenching
           [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Liwen Chen; Han Seung Lee, Sangwoo Lee
      Pages: 7218 - 7223
      Abstract: Close-packed structures of uniformly sized spheres are ubiquitous across diverse material systems including elements, micelles, and colloidal assemblies. However, the controlled access to a specific symmetry of self-assembled close-packed spherical particles has not been well established. We investigated the ordering of spherical block copolymer micelles in aqueous solutions that was...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801682115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Dynamically reinforced heterogeneous grain structure prolongs ductility in
           a medium-entropy alloy with gigapascal yield strength [Applied Physical
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Muxin Yang; Dingshun Yan, Fuping Yuan, Ping Jiang, Evan Ma, Xiaolei Wu
      Pages: 7224 - 7229
      Abstract: Ductility, i.e., uniform strain achievable in uniaxial tension, diminishes for materials with very high yield strength. Even for the CrCoNi medium-entropy alloy (MEA), which has a simple face-centered cubic (FCC) structure that would bode well for high ductility, the fine grains processed to achieve gigapascal strength exhaust the strain hardening...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807817115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Identification and nanomechanical characterization of the fundamental
           single-strand protofilaments of amyloid {alpha}-synuclein fibrils
           [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Francesco Simone Ruggeri; Fabrizio Benedetti, Tuomas P. J. Knowles, Hilal A. Lashuel, Sergey Sekatskii, Giovanni Dietler
      Pages: 7230 - 7235
      Abstract: The formation and spreading of amyloid aggregates from the presynaptic protein α-synuclein in the brain play central roles in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Here, we use high-resolution atomic force microscopy to investigate the early oligomerization events of α-synuclein with single monomer angstrom resolution. We identify, visualize, and characterize directly...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721220115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Formation of HONO from the NH3-promoted hydrolysis of NO2 dimers in the
           atmosphere [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Lei Li; Zhiyao Duan, Hui Li, Chongqin Zhu, Graeme Henkelman, Joseph S. Francisco, Xiao Cheng Zeng
      Pages: 7236 - 7241
      Abstract: One challenging issue in atmospheric chemistry is identifying the source of nitrous acid (HONO), which is believed to be a primary source of atmospheric “detergent” OH radicals. Herein, we show a reaction route for the formation of HONO species from the NH3-promoted hydrolysis of a NO2 dimer (ONONO2), which entails...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807719115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Design principles for photonic crystals based on plasmonic nanoparticle
           superlattices [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Lin Sun; Haixin Lin, Kevin L. Kohlstedt, George C. Schatz, Chad A. Mirkin
      Pages: 7242 - 7247
      Abstract: Photonic crystals have been widely studied due to their broad technological applications in lasers, sensors, optical telecommunications, and display devices. Typically, photonic crystals are periodic structures of touching dielectric materials with alternating high and low refractive indices, and to date, the variables of interest have focused primarily on crystal symmetry...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800106115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Kinetics teach that electronic coupling lowers the free-energy change that
           accompanies electron transfer [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Renato N. Sampaio; Eric J. Piechota, Ludovic Troian-Gautier, Andrew B. Maurer, Ke Hu, Phil A. Schauer, Amber D. Blair, Curtis P. Berlinguette, Gerald J. Meyer
      Pages: 7248 - 7253
      Abstract: Electron-transfer theories predict that an increase in the quantum-mechanical mixing (HDA) of electron donor and acceptor wavefunctions at the instant of electron transfer drives equilibrium constants toward unity. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of four acceptor–bridge–donor (A-B-D) compounds reported herein provide experimental validation of this prediction. The compounds have two redox-active...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722401115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Focal, remote-controlled, chronic chemical modulation of brain
           microstructures [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Khalil B. Ramadi; Canan Dagdeviren, Kevin C. Spencer, Pauline Joe, Max Cotler, Erin Rousseau, Carlos Nunez-Lopez, Ann M. Graybiel, Robert Langer, Michael J. Cima
      Pages: 7254 - 7259
      Abstract: Direct delivery of fluid to brain parenchyma is critical in both research and clinical settings. This is usually accomplished through acutely inserted cannulas. This technique, however, results in backflow and significant dispersion away from the infusion site, offering little spatial or temporal control in delivering fluid. We present an implantable,...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804372115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Cellulose crystals plastify by localized shear [Engineering]
    • Authors: Gergely Molnar; David Rodney, Florian Martoia, Pierre J. J. Dumont, Yoshiharu Nishiyama, Karim Mazeau, Laurent Orgeas
      Pages: 7260 - 7265
      Abstract: Cellulose microfibrils are the principal structural building blocks of wood and plants. Their crystalline domains provide outstanding mechanical properties. Cellulose microfibrils have thus a remarkable potential as eco-friendly fibrous reinforcements for structural engineered materials. However, the elastoplastic properties of cellulose crystals remain poorly understood. Here, we use atomistic simulations to...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800098115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Fast charging of lithium-ion batteries at all temperatures [Engineering]
    • Authors: Xiao-Guang Yang; Guangsheng Zhang, Shanhai Ge, Chao-Yang Wang
      Pages: 7266 - 7271
      Abstract: Fast charging is a key enabler of mainstream adoption of electric vehicles (EVs). None of today’s EVs can withstand fast charging in cold or even cool temperatures due to the risk of lithium plating. Efforts to enable fast charging are hampered by the trade-off nature of a lithium-ion battery: Improving...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807115115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Aerosol microdroplets exhibit a stable pH gradient [Environmental
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Haoran Wei; Eric P. Vejerano, Weinan Leng, Qishen Huang, Marjorie R. Willner, Linsey C. Marr, Peter J. Vikesland
      Pages: 7272 - 7277
      Abstract: Suspended aqueous aerosol droplets (
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720488115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • How gender determines the way we speak about professionals [Psychological
           and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Stav Atir; Melissa J. Ferguson
      Pages: 7278 - 7283
      Abstract: Gender inequality persists in many professions, particularly in high-status fields, such as science, technology, engineering, and math. We report evidence of a form of gender bias that may contribute to this state: gender influences the way that people speak about professionals. When discussing professionals or their work, it is common...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805284115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Costs, needs, and integration efforts shape helping behavior toward
           refugees [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Robert Bohm; Maik M. P. Theelen, Hannes Rusch, Paul A. M. Van Lange
      Pages: 7284 - 7289
      Abstract: Recent political instabilities and conflicts around the world have drastically increased the number of people seeking refuge. The challenges associated with the large number of arriving refugees have revealed a deep divide among the citizens of host countries: one group welcomes refugees, whereas another rejects them. Our research aim is...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805601115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Declining mental health among disadvantaged Americans [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Noreen Goldman; Dana A. Glei, Maxine Weinstein
      Pages: 7290 - 7295
      Abstract: Although there is little dispute about the impact of the US opioid epidemic on recent mortality, there is less consensus about whether trends reflect increasing despair among American adults. The issue is complicated by the absence of established scales or definitions of despair as well as a paucity of studies...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722023115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Ionic liquids for oral insulin delivery [Engineering]
    • Authors: Amrita Banerjee; Kelly Ibsen, Tyler Brown, Renwei Chen, Christian Agatemor, Samir Mitragotri
      Pages: 7296 - 7301
      Abstract: With the rise in diabetes mellitus cases worldwide and lack of patient adherence to glycemia management using injectable insulin, there is an urgent need for the development of efficient oral insulin formulations. However, the gastrointestinal tract presents a formidable barrier to oral delivery of biologics. Here we report the development...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722338115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • O-GlcNAcylation regulates the stability and enzymatic activity of the
           histone methyltransferase EZH2 [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Pei-Wen Lo; Jiun-Jie Shie, Chein-Hung Chen, Chung-Yi Wu, Tsui-Ling Hsu, Chi-Huey Wong
      Pages: 7302 - 7307
      Abstract: Protein O-glycosylation by attachment of β-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to the Ser or Thr residue is a major posttranslational glycosylation event and is often associated with protein folding, stability, and activity. The methylation of histone H3 at Lys-27 catalyzed by the methyltransferase EZH2 was known to suppress gene expression and cancer development,...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801850115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Catalytic iron-carbene intermediate revealed in a cytochrome c carbene
           transferase [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Russell D. Lewis; Marc Garcia–Borras, Matthew J. Chalkley, Andrew R. Buller, K. N. Houk, S. B. Jennifer Kan, Frances H. Arnold
      Pages: 7308 - 7313
      Abstract: Recently, heme proteins have been discovered and engineered by directed evolution to catalyze chemical transformations that are biochemically unprecedented. Many of these nonnatural enzyme-catalyzed reactions are assumed to proceed through a catalytic iron porphyrin carbene (IPC) intermediate, although this intermediate has never been observed in a protein. Using crystallographic, spectroscopic,...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807027115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • The mutagen and carcinogen cadmium is a high-affinity inhibitor of the
           zinc-dependent MutL{alpha} endonuclease [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Shanen M. Sherrer; Elisabeth Penland, Paul Modrich
      Pages: 7314 - 7319
      Abstract: MutLα (MLH1-PMS2 heterodimer), which acts as a strand-directed endonuclease during the initiation of eukaryotic mismatch repair, has been postulated to function as a zinc-dependent enzyme [Kosinski J, Plotz G, Guarné A, Bujnicki JM, Friedhoff P (2008) J Mol Biol 382:610–627]. We show that human MutLα copurifies with two bound zinc...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807319115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Structure of the Lassa virus glycan shield provides a model for
           immunological resistance [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Yasunori Watanabe; Jayna Raghwani, Joel D. Allen, Gemma E. Seabright, Sai Li, Felipe Moser, Juha T. Huiskonen, Thomas Strecker, Thomas A. Bowden, Max Crispin
      Pages: 7320 - 7325
      Abstract: Lassa virus is an Old World arenavirus endemic to West Africa that causes severe hemorrhagic fever. Vaccine development has focused on the envelope glycoprotein complex (GPC) that extends from the virion envelope. The often inadequate antibody immune response elicited by both vaccine and natural infection has been, in part, attributed...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803990115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Ionophoric effects of the antitubercular drug bedaquiline [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Kiel Hards; Duncan G. G. McMillan, Lici A. Schurig-Briccio, Robert B. Gennis, Holger Lill, Dirk Bald, Gregory M. Cook
      Pages: 7326 - 7331
      Abstract: Bedaquiline (BDQ), an inhibitor of the mycobacterial F1Fo-ATP synthase, has revolutionized the antitubercular drug discovery program by defining energy metabolism as a potent new target space. Several studies have recently suggested that BDQ ultimately causes mycobacterial cell death through a phenomenon known as uncoupling. The biochemical basis underlying this, in...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803723115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Capsid protein structure, self-assembly, and processing reveal
           morphogenesis of the marine virophage mavirus [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Diana Born; Lukas Reuter, Ulrike Mersdorf, Melanie Mueller, Matthias G. Fischer, Anton Meinhart, Jochen Reinstein
      Pages: 7332 - 7337
      Abstract: Virophages have the unique property of parasitizing giant viruses within unicellular hosts. Little is understood about how they form infectious virions in this tripartite interplay. We provide mechanistic insights into assembly and maturation of mavirus, a marine virophage, by combining structural and stability studies on capsomers, virus-like particles (VLPs), and...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805376115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Molecular model of human tropoelastin and implications of associated
           mutations [Engineering]
    • Authors: Anna Tarakanova; Giselle C. Yeo, Clair Baldock, Anthony S. Weiss, Markus J. Buehler
      Pages: 7338 - 7343
      Abstract: Protein folding poses unique challenges for large, disordered proteins due to the low resolution of structural data accessible in experiment and on the basis of short time scales and limited sampling attainable in computation. Such molecules are uniquely suited to accelerated-sampling molecular dynamics algorithms due to a flat-energy landscape. We...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801205115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Structure of RNA polymerase complex and genome within a dsRNA virus
           provides insights into the mechanisms of transcription and assembly
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Xurong Wang; Fuxian Zhang, Rui Su, Xiaowu Li, Wenyuan Chen, Qingxiu Chen, Tao Yang, Jiawei Wang, Hongrong Liu, Qin Fang, Lingpeng Cheng
      Pages: 7344 - 7349
      Abstract: Most double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses transcribe RNA plus strands within a common innermost capsid shell. This process requires coordinated efforts by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) together with other capsid proteins and genomic RNA. Here we report the near-atomic resolution structure of the RdRp protein VP2 in complex with its cofactor...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803885115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Resistance to Plasmodium falciparum in sickle cell trait erythrocytes is
           driven by oxygen-dependent growth inhibition [Mathematics]
    • Authors: Natasha M. Archer; Nicole Petersen, Martha A. Clark, Caroline O. Buckee, Lauren M. Childs, Manoj T. Duraisingh
      Pages: 7350 - 7355
      Abstract: Sickle cell trait (AS) confers partial protection against lethal Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Multiple mechanisms for this have been proposed, with a recent focus on aberrant cytoadherence of parasite-infected red blood cells (RBCs). Here we investigate the mechanistic basis of AS protection through detailed temporal mapping. We find that parasites in...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804388115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • ZNF281 inhibits neuronal differentiation and is a prognostic marker for
           neuroblastoma [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Marco Pieraccioli; Sara Nicolai, Consuelo Pitolli, Massimiliano Agostini, Alexey Antonov, Michal Malewicz, Richard A. Knight, Giuseppe Raschella, Gerry Melino
      Pages: 7356 - 7361
      Abstract: Derangement of cellular differentiation because of mutation or inappropriate expression of specific genes is a common feature in tumors. Here, we show that the expression of ZNF281, a zinc finger factor involved in several cellular processes, decreases during terminal differentiation of murine cortical neurons and in retinoic acid-induced differentiation of...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801435115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Fisheries bycatch risk to marine megafauna is intensified in Lagrangian
           coherent structures [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Kylie L. Scales; Elliott L. Hazen, Michael G. Jacox, Frederic Castruccio, Sara M. Maxwell, Rebecca L. Lewison, Steven J. Bograd
      Pages: 7362 - 7367
      Abstract: Incidental catch of nontarget species (bycatch) is a major barrier to ecological and economic sustainability in marine capture fisheries. Key to mitigating bycatch is an understanding of the habitat requirements of target and nontarget species and the influence of heterogeneity and variability in the dynamic marine environment. While patterns of...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801270115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Large-scale replicated field study of maize rhizosphere identifies
           heritable microbes [Ecology]
    • Authors: William A. Walters; Zhao Jin, Nicholas Youngblut, Jason G. Wallace, Jessica Sutter, Wei Zhang, Antonio Gonzalez–Pena, Jason Peiffer, Omry Koren, Qiaoȷuan Shi, Rob Knight, Tiȷana Glavina del Rio, Susannah G. Tringe, Edward S. Buckler, Jeffery L. Dangl, Ruth E. Ley
      Pages: 7368 - 7373
      Abstract: Soil microbes that colonize plant roots and are responsive to differences in plant genotype remain to be ascertained for agronomically important crops. From a very large-scale longitudinal field study of 27 maize inbred lines planted in three fields, with partial replication 5 y later, we identify root-associated microbiota exhibiting reproducible...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800918115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Disease outbreak thresholds emerge from interactions between movement
           behavior, landscape structure, and epidemiology [Ecology]
    • Authors: Lauren A. White; James D. Forester, Meggan E. Craft
      Pages: 7374 - 7379
      Abstract: Disease models have provided conflicting evidence as to whether spatial heterogeneity promotes or impedes pathogen persistence. Moreover, there has been limited theoretical investigation into how animal movement behavior interacts with the spatial organization of resources (e.g., clustered, random, uniform) across a landscape to affect infectious disease dynamics. Importantly, spatial heterogeneity...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801383115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Changes in brain architecture are consistent with altered fear processing
           in domestic rabbits [Evolution]
    • Authors: Irene Brusini; Miguel Carneiro, Chunliang Wang, Carl–Johan Rubin, Henrik Ring, Sandra Afonso, Jose A. Blanco–Aguiar, Nuno Ferrand, Nima Rafati, Rafael Villafuerte, Orȷan Smedby, Peter Damberg, Finn Hallbook, Mats Fredrikson, Leif Andersson
      Pages: 7380 - 7385
      Abstract: The most characteristic feature of domestic animals is their change in behavior associated with selection for tameness. Here we show, using high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging in wild and domestic rabbits, that domestication reduced amygdala volume and enlarged medial prefrontal cortex volume, supporting that areas driving fear have lost volume...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801024115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Mutational and transcriptional landscape of spontaneous gene duplications
           and deletions in Caenorhabditis elegans [Evolution]
    • Authors: Anke Konrad; Stephane Flibotte, Jon Taylor, Robert H. Waterston, Donald G. Moerman, Ulfar Bergthorsson, Vaishali Katju
      Pages: 7386 - 7391
      Abstract: Gene duplication and deletion are pivotal processes shaping the structural and functional repertoire of genomes, with implications for disease, adaptation, and evolution. We employed a mutation accumulation (MA) framework partnered with high-throughput genomics to assess the molecular and transcriptional characteristics of newly arisen gene copy-number variants (CNVs) in Caenorhabditis elegans...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801930115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • miR-34a directly targets tRNAiMet precursors and affects cellular
           proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis [Genetics]
    • Authors: Bo Wang; Dongping Li, Igor Kovalchuk, Ingrid J. Apel, Arul M. Chinnaiyan, Rafał K. Woycicki, Charles R. Cantor, Olga Kovalchuk
      Pages: 7392 - 7397
      Abstract: It remains unknown whether microRNA (miRNA/miR) can target transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules. Here we provide evidence that miR-34a physically interacts with and functionally targets tRNAiMet precursors in both in vitro pulldown and Argonaute 2 (AGO2) cleavage assays. We find that miR-34a suppresses breast carcinogenesis, at least in part by lowering...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703029115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Sex-chromosome dosage effects on gene expression in humans [Genetics]
    • Authors: Armin Raznahan; Neelroop N. Parikshak, Vijay Chandran, Jonathan D. Blumenthal, Liv S. Clasen, Aaron F. Alexander-Bloch, Andrew R. Zinn, Danny Wangsa, Jasen Wise, Declan G. M. Murphy, Patrick F. Bolton, Thomas Ried, Judith Ross, Jay N. Giedd, Daniel H. Geschwind
      Pages: 7398 - 7403
      Abstract: A fundamental question in the biology of sex differences has eluded direct study in humans: How does sex-chromosome dosage (SCD) shape genome function' To address this, we developed a systematic map of SCD effects on gene function by analyzing genome-wide expression data in humans with diverse sex-chromosome aneuploidies (XO, XXX,...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802889115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Targeting the IL33-NLRP3 axis improves therapy for experimental cerebral
           malaria [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Patrick Strangward; Michael J. Haley, Manuel G. Albornoz, Jack Barrington, Tovah Shaw, Rebecca Dookie, Leo Zeef, Syed M. Baker, Emma Winter, Te-Chen Tzeng, Douglas T. Golenbock, Sheena M. Cruickshank, Stuart M. Allan, Alister Craig, Foo Y. Liew, David Brough, Kevin N. Couper
      Pages: 7404 - 7409
      Abstract: Cerebral malaria (CM) is a serious neurological complication caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection. Currently, the only treatment for CM is the provision of antimalarial drugs; however, such treatment by itself often fails to prevent death or development of neurological sequelae. To identify potential improved treatments for CM, we performed a...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801737115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Enhancement of Ebola virus infection by seminal amyloid fibrils
           [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Stephen M. Bart; Courtney Cohen, John M. Dye, James Shorter, Paul Bates
      Pages: 7410 - 7415
      Abstract: The 2014 western Africa Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic was unprecedented in magnitude, infecting over 28,000 and causing over 11,000 deaths. During this outbreak, multiple instances of EBOV sexual transmission were reported, including cases where the infectious individual had recovered from EBOV disease months before transmission. Potential human host factors in...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721646115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Staphylococcus aureus biofilms release leukocidins to elicit extracellular
           trap formation and evade neutrophil-mediated killing [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Mohini Bhattacharya; Evelien T. M. Berends, Rita Chan, Elizabeth Schwab, Sashwati Roy, Chandan K. Sen, Victor J. Torres, Daniel J. Wozniak
      Pages: 7416 - 7421
      Abstract: Bacterial biofilms efficiently evade immune defenses, greatly complicating the prognosis of chronic infections. How methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilms evade host immune defenses is largely unknown. This study describes some of the major mechanisms required for S. aureus biofilms to evade the innate immune response and provides evidence of key...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721949115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Interplay of a secreted protein with type IVb pilus for efficient
           enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli colonization [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Hiroya Oki; Kazuki Kawahara, Takahiro Maruno, Tomoya Imai, Yuki Muroga, Shunsuke Fukakusa, Takaki Iwashita, Yuji Kobayashi, Shigeaki Matsuda, Toshio Kodama, Tetsuya Iida, Takuya Yoshida, Tadayasu Ohkubo, Shota Nakamura
      Pages: 7422 - 7427
      Abstract: Initial attachment and subsequent colonization of the intestinal epithelium comprise critical events allowing enteric pathogens to survive and express their pathogenesis. In enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), these are mediated by a long proteinaceous fiber termed type IVb pilus (T4bP). We have reported that the colonization factor antigen/III (CFA/III), an operon-encoded...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805671115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Tandem internal models execute motor learning in the cerebellum
           [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Takeru Honda; Soichi Nagao, Yuji Hashimoto, Kinya Ishikawa, Takanori Yokota, Hidehiro Mizusawa, Masao Ito
      Pages: 7428 - 7433
      Abstract: In performing skillful movement, humans use predictions from internal models formed by repetition learning. However, the computational organization of internal models in the brain remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that a computational architecture employing a tandem configuration of forward and inverse internal models enables efficient motor learning in the cerebellum....
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:01-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716489115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Action potential counting at giant mossy fiber terminals gates information
           transfer in the hippocampus [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Simon Chamberland; Yulia Timofeeva, Alesya Evstratova, Kirill Volynski, Katalin Toth
      Pages: 7434 - 7439
      Abstract: Neuronal communication relies on action potential discharge, with the frequency and the temporal precision of action potentials encoding information. Hippocampal mossy fibers have long been recognized as conditional detonators owing to prominent short-term facilitation of glutamate release displayed during granule cell burst firing. However, the spiking patterns required to trigger...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720659115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
  • Dissecting the neurofunctional bases of intentional action [Psychological
           and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Laura Zapparoli; Silvia Seghezzi, Paola Scifo, Alberto Zerbi, Giuseppe Banfi, Marco Tettamanti, Eraldo Paulesu
      Pages: 7440 - 7445
      Abstract: Here we challenge and present evidence that expands the what, when, and whether anatomical model of intentional action, which states that internally driven decisions about the content and timing of our actions and about whether to act at all depend on separable neural systems, anatomically segregated along the medial wall...
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T09:36:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718891115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 28 (2018)
       
 
 
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