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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 6.092
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 1203  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 6955 - 6958
      Abstract: Twin-chain hydrogels for cleaning artworks Pollock’s Eyes in the Heat before (Left) and after (Right) cleaning using the twin-chain hydrogel. Eyes in the Heat by Jackson Pollock, © Pollock-Krasner Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Removing soil from painted surfaces is a major challenge in the preservation of art, partly...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti1320117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Science and Culture: Researchers embrace fashion to show off science
           concepts [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Eva Amsen
      Pages: 6959 - 6962
      Abstract: When fashion designers, retailers, and families attend Vancouver Kids Fashion Week, they expect to see models donning the latest in children’s fashion. But at an event last October, attendees saw scientists as well. Researchers from Michael Kobor’s lab at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, had set up...
      Keywords: Science and Culture, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003370117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • QnAs with Paula England [QnAs]
    • Authors: Tinsley H. Davis
      Pages: 6963 - 6964
      Abstract: Fifty-five years after the passage of the Civil Rights Act in the United States preventing discrimination based on sex, gender equality in the workplace remains unattained. After rapid gains in the 1980s and 1990s, progress has slowed considerably and, by some measures, stalled, according to Paula England, chair of the...
      Keywords: QnAs
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003878117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Deterministic insights from stochastic interactions [Ecology]
    • Authors: John L. Orrock
      Pages: 6965 - 6967
      Abstract: Theodosius Dobzhansky once famously noted that “nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution.” Given their profound influence (1, 2), it may also be safe to wager that nothing in community ecology makes sense except in the light of area and heterogeneity. In PNAS, Ben-Hur and Kadmon...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001848117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • {beta}-Arrestin2 arrests the clearance of tau in FTLD [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Amantha Thathiah
      Pages: 6968 - 6970
      Abstract: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) comprises a spectrum of clinical syndromes associated with several underlying neurodegenerative diseases. The primary brain areas affected in patients with FTD are the frontal and temporal lobes. As such, FTD is also referred to as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) (1). In patients younger than 65 y, FTLD...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001455117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • The quest for high-resolution G protein-coupled receptor-G protein
           structures [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Reinhard Grisshammer
      Pages: 6971 - 6973
      Abstract: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are integral membrane proteins that mediate many responses of cells to external stimuli (1). The fundamental role of GPCRs in regulating human cellular processes makes them high-value targets for drugs (2). GPCRs are highly dynamic entities, and thus, determination of high-resolution structures of GPCRs in complex...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2002665117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Mechanism of murderous mushrooms paves path for parasitic helminth halt
    • Authors: Tess Renahan; Ralf J. Sommer
      Pages: 6974 - 6975
      Abstract: “In the animal kingdom, the rule is, eat or be eaten” (ref. 1, p. 20). We will expand academic Thomas Szasz’s statement to include the fungi, because in the multifaceted interactions of fungi and nematodes, this is often a steadfast rule. Indeed, soil systems that appear inert or lifeless to...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2002662117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • A little history goes a long way toward understanding why we study
           consciousness the way we do today [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Joseph E. LeDoux; Matthias Michel, Hakwan Lau
      Pages: 6976 - 6984
      Abstract: Consciousness is currently a thriving area of research in psychology and neuroscience. While this is often attributed to events that took place in the early 1990s, consciousness studies today are a continuation of research that started in the late 19th century and that continued throughout the 20th century. From the...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1921623117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • On bone fatigue and its relevance for the design of architected materials
           [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Amir A. Zadpoor
      Pages: 6985 - 6985
      Abstract: Torres et al. (1) study the fatigue life of trabecular bone and use their observations for improving the design of microarchitected materials. Architected materials with enhanced fatigue life have received tremendous attention recently (2, 3) largely due to the maturation of additive manufacturing that enables the realization of complex geometries....
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922857117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Reply to Zadpoor: Fatigue mechanisms observed in bone provide insight to
           microarchitectured materials [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Christopher J. Hernandez; Pablo D. Zavattieri, Adwait A. Trikanad, Clare M. Rimnac
      Pages: 6986 - 6986
      Abstract: We are pleased to see interest in our study in which we identify aspects of microarchitecture in cancellous bone that enhance the fatigue life of microstructures (1). Zadpoor (2) questions 1) the rationale for studying fatigue life in cancellous bone and 2) the originality of our finding. Zadpoor asks whether...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2000331117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Ecological and individual data both indicate that influenza inhibits
           rhinovirus infection [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Kirsten M. Kloepfer; James E. Gern
      Pages: 6987 - 6987
      Abstract: We read the article “Virus–virus interactions impact the population dynamics of influenza and the common cold” by Nickbakhsh et al. (1) with great interest. The authors analyzed a large Scottish dataset consisting of virology results from patients with acute respiratory illnesses and used mathematical models to identify a negative interaction...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922920117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Reply to Kloepfer and Gern: Independent studies suggest an arms race
           between influenza and rhinovirus: What next' [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: S. Nickbakhsh; C. Mair, L. Matthews, R. Reeve, P. C. D. Johnson, F. Thorburn, B. von Wissmann, J. McMenamin, R. N. Gunson, P. R. Murcia
      Pages: 6988 - 6989
      Abstract: It was very interesting to learn about Kloepfer et al.’s study investigating the link between asthma and influenza A H1N1 infection incidence and severity (1). Their finding that influenza A virus (IAV) infections reduced the subsequent risk of infection with human rhinoviruses (HRVs) was contrary to theories at the time...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2000903117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Progress toward gender equality in the United States has slowed or stalled
           [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Paula England; Andrew Levine, Emma Mishel
      Pages: 6990 - 6997
      Abstract: We examine change in multiple indicators of gender inequality for the period of 1970 to 2018. The percentage of women (age 25 to 54) who are employed rose continuously until ∼2000 when it reached its highest point to date of 75%; it was slightly lower at 73% in 2018. Women...
      Keywords: Inaugural Articles
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918891117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • US life expectancy stalls due to cardiovascular disease, not drug deaths
           [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Neil K. Mehta; Leah R. Abrams, Mikko Myrskyla
      Pages: 6998 - 7000
      Abstract: After decades of robust growth, the rise in US life expectancy stalled after 2010. Explanations for the stall have focused on rising drug-related deaths. Here we show that a stagnating decline in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality was the main culprit, outpacing and overshadowing the effects of all other causes of...
      Keywords: Brief Reports
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920391117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Enhanced isolation of SARS-CoV-2 by TMPRSS2-expressing cells
    • Authors: Shutoku Matsuyama; Naganori Nao, Kazuya Shirato, Miyuki Kawase, Shinji Saito, Ikuyo Takayama, Noriyo Nagata, Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Hiroshi Katoh, Fumihiro Kato, Masafumi Sakata, Maino Tahara, Satoshi Kutsuna, Norio Ohmagari, Makoto Kuroda, Tadaki Suzuki, Tsutomu Kageyama, Makoto Takeda
      Pages: 7001 - 7003
      Abstract: A novel betacoronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which caused a large respiratory outbreak in Wuhan, China in December 2019, is currently spreading across many countries globally. Here, we show that a TMPRSS2-expressing VeroE6 cell line is highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, making it useful for isolating and...
      Keywords: Brief Reports, Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2002589117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Estimating and leveraging protein diffusion on ion-exchange resin surfaces
           [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Ohnmar Khanal; Vijesh Kumar, Fabrice Schlegel, Abraham M. Lenhoff
      Pages: 7004 - 7010
      Abstract: Protein mobility at solid–liquid interfaces can affect the performance of applications such as bioseparations and biosensors by facilitating reorganization of adsorbed protein, accelerating molecular recognition, and informing the fundamentals of adsorption. In the case of ion-exchange chromatographic beads with small, tortuous pores, where the existence of surface diffusion is often...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1921499117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Twin-chain polymer hydrogels based on poly(vinyl alcohol) as new advanced
           tool for the cleaning of modern and contemporary art [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Rosangela Mastrangelo; David Chelazzi, Giovanna Poggi, Emiliano Fratini, Luciano Pensabene Buemi, Maria Laura Petruzzellis, Piero Baglioni
      Pages: 7011 - 7020
      Abstract: Conservation of our cultural heritage is fundamental for conveying to future generations our culture, traditions, and ways of thinking and behaving. Cleaning art, in particular modern/contemporary paintings, with traditional tools could be risky and impractical, particularly on large collections of important works to be transferred to future generations. We report...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911811117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Oxaliplatin Pt(IV) prodrugs conjugated to gadolinium-texaphyrin as
           potential antitumor agents [Pharmacology]
    • Authors: Gregory Thiabaud; Guangan He, Saȷal Sen, Kathryn A. Shelton, Wallace B. Baze, Luke Segura, Julie Alaniz, Ruben Munoz Macias, Greg Lyness, Alan B. Watts, Hyun Min Kim, Hyunseung Lee, Mi Young Cho, Kwan Soo Hong, Rick Finch, Zahid H. Siddik, Jonathan F. Arambula, Jonathan L. Sessler
      Pages: 7021 - 7029
      Abstract: Described here is the development of gadolinium(III) texaphyrin-platinum(IV) conjugates capable of overcoming platinum resistance by 1) localizing to solid tumors, 2) promoting enhanced cancer cell uptake, and 3) reactivating p53 in platinum-resistant models. Side by side comparative studies of these Pt(IV) conjugates to clinically approved platinum(II) agents and previously reported...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914911117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Vibrational exciton nanoimaging of phases and domains in porphyrin
           nanocrystals [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Eric A. Muller; Thomas P. Gray, Zhou Zhou, Xinbin Cheng, Omar Khatib, Hans A. Bechtel, Markus B. Raschke
      Pages: 7030 - 7037
      Abstract: Much of the electronic transport, photophysical, or biological functions of molecular materials emerge from intermolecular interactions and associated nanoscale structure and morphology. However, competing phases, defects, and disorder give rise to confinement and many-body localization of the associated wavefunction, disturbing the performance of the material. Here, we employ vibrational excitons...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914172117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Extreme weather events recorded by daily to hourly resolution
           biogeochemical proxies of marine giant clam shells [Earth, Atmospheric,
           and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Hong Yan; Chengcheng Liu, Zhisheng An, Wei Yang, Yuanjian Yang, Ping Huang, Shican Qiu, Pengchao Zhou, Nanyu Zhao, Haobai Fei, Xiaolin Ma, Ge Shi, John Dodson, Jialong Hao, Kefu Yu, Gangjian Wei, Yanan Yang, Zhangdong Jin, Weijian Zhou
      Pages: 7038 - 7043
      Abstract: Paleoclimate research has built a framework for Earth’s climate changes over the past 65 million years or even longer. However, our knowledge of weather-timescale extreme events (WEEs, also named paleoweather), which usually occur over several days or hours, under different climate regimes is almost blank because current paleoclimatic records rarely...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916784117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Half-precessional cycle of thermocline temperature in the western
           equatorial Pacific and its bihemispheric dynamics [Earth, Atmospheric, and
           Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Zhimin Jian; Yue Wang, Haowen Dang, David W. Lea, Zhengyu Liu, Haiyan Jin, Yaqian Yin
      Pages: 7044 - 7051
      Abstract: The El Niño−Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which is tightly coupled to the equatorial thermocline in the Pacific, is the dominant source of interannual climate variability, but its long-term evolution in response to climate change remains highly uncertain. This study uses Mg/Ca in planktonic foraminiferal shells to reconstruct sea surface and thermocline...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915510117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Extraction of mechanical properties of materials through deep learning
           from instrumented indentation [Engineering]
    • Authors: Lu Lu; Ming Dao, Punit Kumar, Upadrasta Ramamurty, George Em Karniadakis, Subra Suresh
      Pages: 7052 - 7062
      Abstract: Instrumented indentation has been developed and widely utilized as one of the most versatile and practical means of extracting mechanical properties of materials. This method is particularly desirable for those applications where it is difficult to experimentally determine the mechanical properties using stress–strain data obtained from coupon specimens. Such applications...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922210117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • All-nanofiber-based, ultrasensitive, gas-permeable mechanoacoustic sensors
           for continuous long-term heart monitoring [Engineering]
    • Authors: Md Osman Goni Nayeem; Sunghoon Lee, Hanbit Jin, Naoji Matsuhisa, Hiroaki Jinno, Akihito Miyamoto, Tomoyuki Yokota, Takao Someya
      Pages: 7063 - 7070
      Abstract: The prolonged and continuous monitoring of mechanoacoustic heart signals is essential for the early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. These bodily acoustics have low intensity and low frequency, and measuring them continuously for long periods requires ultrasensitive, lightweight, gas-permeable mechanoacoustic sensors. Here, we present an all-nanofiber mechanoacoustic sensor, which exhibits a...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920911117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • A regional nuclear conflict would compromise global food security
           [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Jonas Jagermeyr; Alan Robock, Joshua Elliott, Christoph Muller, Lili Xia, Nikolay Khabarov, Christian Folberth, Erwin Schmid, Wenfeng Liu, Florian Zabel, Sam S. Rabin, Michael J. Puma, Alison Heslin, James Franke, Ian Foster, Senthold Asseng, Charles G. Bardeen, Owen B. Toon, Cynthia Rosenzweig
      Pages: 7071 - 7081
      Abstract: A limited nuclear war between India and Pakistan could ignite fires large enough to emit more than 5 Tg of soot into the stratosphere. Climate model simulations have shown severe resulting climate perturbations with declines in global mean temperature by 1.8 °C and precipitation by 8%, for at least 5...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919049117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Seasonal hysteresis of surface urban heat islands [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Gabriele Manoli; Simone Fatichi, Elie Bou-Zeid, Gabriel G. Katul
      Pages: 7082 - 7089
      Abstract: Temporal dynamics of urban warming have been extensively studied at the diurnal scale, but the impact of background climate on the observed seasonality of surface urban heat islands (SUHIs) remains largely unexplored. On seasonal time scales, the intensity of urban–rural surface temperature differences (ΔTs) exhibits distinctive hysteretic cycles whose shape...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917554117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Direct experimental evidence of physical origin of electronic phase
           separation in manganites [Physics]
    • Authors: Tian Miao; Lina Deng, Wenting Yang, Jinyang Ni, Changlin Zheng, Joanne Etheridge, Shasha Wang, Hao Liu, Hanxuan Lin, Yang Yu, Qian Shi, Peng Cai, Yinyan Zhu, Tieying Yang, Xingmin Zhang, Xingyu Gao, Chuanying Xi, Mingliang Tian, Xiaoshan Wu, Hongjun Xiang, Elbio Dagotto, Lifeng Yin, Jian Shen
      Pages: 7090 - 7094
      Abstract: Electronic phase separation in complex oxides is the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of electronic phases, involving length scales much larger than those of structural defects or nonuniform distribution of chemical dopants. While experimental efforts focused on phase separation and established its correlation with nonlinear responses under external stimuli, it remains controversial...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920502117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • A better Amazon road network for people and the environment [Environmental
    • Authors: Thais Vilela; Alfonso Malky Harb, Aaron Bruner, Vera Laisa da Silva Arruda, Vivian Ribeiro, Ane Auxiliadora Costa Alencar, Annie Julissa Escobedo Grandez, Adriana Roȷas, Aleȷandra Laina, Rodrigo Botero
      Pages: 7095 - 7102
      Abstract: The rapidly expanding network of roads into the Amazon is permanently altering the world’s largest tropical forest. Most proposed road projects lack rigorous impact assessments or even basic economic justification. This study analyzes the expected environmental, social and economic impacts of 75 road projects, totaling 12 thousand kilometers of planned...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910853117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Signing at the beginning versus at the end does not decrease dishonesty
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Ariella S. Kristal; Ashley V. Whillans, Max H. Bazerman, Francesca Gino, Lisa L. Shu, Nina Mazar, Dan Ariely
      Pages: 7103 - 7107
      Abstract: Honest reporting is essential for society to function well. However, people frequently lie when asked to provide information, such as misrepresenting their income to save money on taxes. A landmark finding published in PNAS [L. L. Shu, N. Mazar, F. Gino, D. Ariely, M. H. Bazerman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci....
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911695117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Shared vision for a decarbonized future energy system in the United States
           [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Deidra Miniard; Joseph Kantenbacher, Shahzeen Z. Attari
      Pages: 7108 - 7114
      Abstract: How do people envision the future energy system in the United States with respect to using fossil fuels, renewable energy, and nuclear energy' Are there shared policy pathways of achieving a decarbonized energy system' Here, we present results of an online survey (n = 2,429) designed to understand public perceptions...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920558117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Sitting, squatting, and the evolutionary biology of human inactivity
    • Authors: David A. Raichlen; Herman Pontzer, Theodore W. Zderic, Jacob A. Harris, Audax Z. P. Mabulla, Marc T. Hamilton, Brian M. Wood
      Pages: 7115 - 7121
      Abstract: Recent work suggests human physiology is not well adapted to prolonged periods of inactivity, with time spent sitting increasing cardiovascular disease and mortality risk. Health risks from sitting are generally linked with reduced levels of muscle contractions in chair-sitting postures and associated reductions in muscle metabolism. These inactivity-associated health risks...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911868117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • A pair of esterases from a commensal gut bacterium remove acetylations
           from all positions on complex {beta}-mannans [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Leszek Michalak; Sabina Leanti La Rosa, Shaun Leivers, Lars Jordhoy Lindstad, Asmund Kȷendseth Rohr, Finn Lillelund Aachmann, Bȷorge Westereng
      Pages: 7122 - 7130
      Abstract: β-mannans and xylans are important components of the plant cell wall and they are acetylated to be protected from degradation by glycoside hydrolases. β-mannans are widely present in human and animal diets as fiber from leguminous plants and as thickeners and stabilizers in processed foods. There are many fully characterized...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915376117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Small-molecule covalent bond formation at tyrosine creates a binding site
           and inhibits activation of Ral GTPases [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Khuchtumur Bum-Erdene; Degang Liu, Giovanni Gonzalez-Gutierrez, Mona K. Ghozayel, David Xu, Samy O. Meroueh
      Pages: 7131 - 7139
      Abstract: Ral (Ras-like) GTPases are directly activated by oncogenic Ras GTPases. Mutant K-Ras (G12C) has enabled the development of covalent K-Ras inhibitors currently in clinical trials. However, Ral, and the overwhelming majority of mutant oncogenic K-Ras, are devoid of a druggable pocket and lack an accessible cysteine for the development of...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913654117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • An autoinhibitory intramolecular interaction proof-reads RNA recognition
           by the essential splicing factor U2AF2 [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Hyun–Seo Kang; Carolina Sanchez–Rico, Stefanie Ebersberger, F. X. Reymond Sutandy, Anke Busch, Thomas Welte, Ralf Stehle, Clara Hipp, Laura Schulz, Andreas Buchbender, Kathi Zarnack, Julian Konig, Michael Sattler
      Pages: 7140 - 7149
      Abstract: The recognition of cis-regulatory RNA motifs in human transcripts by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) is essential for gene regulation. The molecular features that determine RBP specificity are often poorly understood. Here, we combined NMR structural biology with high-throughput iCLIP approaches to identify a regulatory mechanism for U2AF2 RNA recognition. We...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913483117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • A key mammalian cholesterol synthesis enzyme, squalene monooxygenase, is
           allosterically stabilized by its substrate [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Hiromasa Yoshioka; Hudson W. Coates, Ngee Kiat Chua, Yuichi Hashimoto, Andrew J. Brown, Kenji Ohgane
      Pages: 7150 - 7158
      Abstract: Cholesterol biosynthesis is a high-cost process and, therefore, tightly regulated by both transcriptional and posttranslational negative feedback mechanisms in response to the level of cellular cholesterol. Squalene monooxygenase (SM, also known as squalene epoxidase or SQLE) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and catalyzes epoxidation of squalene....
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915923117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Structural basis for DEAH-helicase activation by G-patch proteins
    • Authors: Michael K. Studer; Lazar Ivanović, Marco E. Weber, Sabrina Marti, Stefanie Jonas
      Pages: 7159 - 7170
      Abstract: RNA helicases of the DEAH/RHA family are involved in many essential cellular processes, such as splicing or ribosome biogenesis, where they remodel large RNA–protein complexes to facilitate transitions to the next intermediate. DEAH helicases couple adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis to conformational changes of their catalytic core. This movement results in...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913880117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Probing allosteric coupling in a constitutively open mutant of the ion
    • Authors: Zhiyu Sun; Yunyao Xu, Dongyu Zhang, Ann E. McDermott
      Pages: 7171 - 7175
      Abstract: Transmembrane allosteric coupling is a feature of many critical biological signaling events. Here we test whether transmembrane allosteric coupling controls the potassium binding affinity of the prototypical potassium channel KcsA in the context of C-type inactivation. Activation of KcsA is initiated by proton binding to the pH gate upon an...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1908828117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Inhibition mechanisms of AcrF9, AcrF8, and AcrF6 against type I-F
           CRISPR-Cas complex revealed by cryo-EM [Biophysics and Computational
    • Authors: Kaiming Zhang; Shuo Wang, Shanshan Li, Yuwei Zhu, Grigore D. Pintilie, Tung-Chung Mou, Michael F. Schmid, Zhiwei Huang, Wah Chiu
      Pages: 7176 - 7182
      Abstract: Prokaryotes and viruses have fought a long battle against each other. Prokaryotes use CRISPR–Cas-mediated adaptive immunity, while conversely, viruses evolve multiple anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins to defeat these CRISPR–Cas systems. The type I-F CRISPR–Cas system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires the crRNA-guided surveillance complex (Csy complex) to recognize the invading DNA. Although...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922638117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Interleukin-2 druggability is modulated by global conformational
           transitions controlled by a helical capping switch [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Viviane S. De Paula; Kevin M. Jude, Santrupti Nerli, Caleb R. Glassman, K. Christopher Garcia, Nikolaos G. Sgourakis
      Pages: 7183 - 7192
      Abstract: Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a small α-helical cytokine that regulates immune cell homeostasis through its recruitment to a high-affinity heterotrimeric receptor complex (IL-2Rα/IL-2Rβ/γc). IL-2 has been shown to have therapeutic efficacy for immune diseases by preferentially expanding distinct T cell compartments, and several regulatory T cell (Treg)-biasing anti–IL-2 antibodies have been...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2000419117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Small protein folds at the root of an ancient metabolic network
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Hagai Raanan; Saroj Poudel, Douglas H. Pike, Vikas Nanda, Paul G. Falkowski
      Pages: 7193 - 7199
      Abstract: Life on Earth is driven by electron transfer reactions catalyzed by a suite of enzymes that comprise the superfamily of oxidoreductases (Enzyme Classification EC1). Most modern oxidoreductases are complex in their structure and chemistry and must have evolved from a small set of ancient folds. Ancient oxidoreductases from the Archean...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914982117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Influenza hemagglutinin drives viral entry via two sequential
           intramembrane mechanisms [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Anna Pabis; Robert J. Rawle, Peter M. Kasson
      Pages: 7200 - 7207
      Abstract: Enveloped viruses enter cells via a process of membrane fusion between the viral envelope and a cellular membrane. For influenza virus, mutational data have shown that the membrane-inserted portions of the hemagglutinin protein play a critical role in achieving fusion. In contrast to the relatively well-understood ectodomain, a predictive mechanistic...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914188117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Computational design of closely related proteins that adopt two
           well-defined but structurally divergent folds [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Kathy Y. Wei; Danai Moschidi, Matthew J. Bick, Santrupti Nerli, Andrew C. McShan, Lauren P. Carter, Po-Ssu Huang, Daniel A. Fletcher, Nikolaos G. Sgourakis, Scott E. Boyken, David Baker
      Pages: 7208 - 7215
      Abstract: The plasticity of naturally occurring protein structures, which can change shape considerably in response to changes in environmental conditions, is critical to biological function. While computational methods have been used for de novo design of proteins that fold to a single state with a deep free-energy minimum [P.-S. Huang, S....
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914808117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Emergence of chromatin hierarchical loops from protein disorder and
           nucleosome asymmetry [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Akshay Sridhar; Stephen E. Farr, Guillem Portella, Tamar Schlick, Modesto Orozco, Rosana Collepardo-Guevara
      Pages: 7216 - 7224
      Abstract: Protein flexibility and disorder is emerging as a crucial modulator of chromatin structure. Histone tail disorder enables transient binding of different molecules to the nucleosomes, thereby promoting heterogeneous and dynamic internucleosome interactions and making possible recruitment of a wide-range of regulatory and remodeling proteins. On the basis of extensive multiscale...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910044117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • ER membranes exhibit phase behavior at sites of organelle contact [Cell
    • Authors: Christopher King; Prabuddha Sengupta, Arnold Y. Seo, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz
      Pages: 7225 - 7235
      Abstract: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of synthesis of secretory and membrane proteins and contacts every organelle of the cell, exchanging lipids and metabolites in a highly regulated manner. How the ER spatially segregates its numerous and diverse functions, including positioning nanoscopic contact sites with other organelles, is unclear....
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910854117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Specialized cytonemes induce self-organization of stem cells [Cell
    • Authors: Sergi Junyent; Clare L. Garcin, James L. A. Szczerkowski, Tung-Jui Trieu, Joshua Reeves, Shukry J. Habib
      Pages: 7236 - 7244
      Abstract: Spatial cellular organization is fundamental for embryogenesis. Remarkably, coculturing embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) recapitulates this process, forming embryo-like structures. However, mechanisms driving ESC–TSC interaction remain elusive. We describe specialized ESC-generated cytonemes that react to TSC-secreted Wnts. Cytoneme formation and length are controlled by actin, intracellular...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920837117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Rbm24 controls poly(A) tail length and translation efficiency of
           crystallin mRNAs in the lens via cytoplasmic polyadenylation
           [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Ming Shao; Tong Lu, Chong Zhang, Yi-Zhuang Zhang, Shu-Hui Kong, De-Li Shi
      Pages: 7245 - 7254
      Abstract: Lens transparency is established by abundant accumulation of crystallin proteins and loss of organelles in the fiber cells. It requires an efficient translation of lens messenger RNAs (mRNAs) to overcome the progressively reduced transcriptional activity that results from denucleation. Inappropriate regulation of this process impairs lens differentiation and causes cataract...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917922117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Environmental reservoir dynamics predict global infection patterns and
           population impacts for the fungal disease white-nose syndrome
           [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Joseph R. Hoyt; Kate E. Langwig, Keping Sun, Katy L. Parise, Aoqiang Li, Yuȷuan Wang, Xiaobin Huang, Lisa Worledge, Helen Miller, J. Paul White, Heather M. Kaarakka, Jennifer A. Redell, Tamas Gorfol, Sandor Andras Boldogh, Dai Fukui, Muneki Sakuyama, Syuuȷi Yachimori, Akiyoshi Sato, Munkhnast Dalannast, Ariunbold Jargalsaikhan, Nyambayar Batbayar, Yossi Yovel, Eran Amichai, Ioseb Natradze, Winifred F. Frick, Jeffrey T. Foster, Jiang Feng, A. Marm Kilpatrick
      Pages: 7255 - 7262
      Abstract: Disease outbreaks and pathogen introductions can have significant effects on host populations, and the ability of pathogens to persist in the environment can exacerbate disease impacts by fueling sustained transmission, seasonal epidemics, and repeated spillover events. While theory suggests that the presence of an environmental reservoir increases the risk of...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914794117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Vulnerability and resistance in the spatial heterogeneity of soil
           microbial communities under resource additions [Ecology]
    • Authors: Kelly Gravuer; Anu Eskelinen, Joy B. Winbourne, Susan P. Harrison
      Pages: 7263 - 7270
      Abstract: Spatial heterogeneity in composition and function enables ecosystems to supply diverse services. For soil microbes and the ecosystem functions they catalyze, whether such heterogeneity can be maintained in the face of altered resource inputs is uncertain. In a 50-ha northern California grassland with a mosaic of plant communities generated by...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1908117117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Nutrient dilution and climate cycles underlie declines in a dominant
           insect herbivore [Ecology]
    • Authors: Ellen A. R. Welti; Karl A. Roeder, Kirsten M. de Beurs, Anthony Joern, Michael Kaspari
      Pages: 7271 - 7275
      Abstract: Evidence for global insect declines mounts, increasing our need to understand underlying mechanisms. We test the nutrient dilution (ND) hypothesis—the decreasing concentration of essential dietary minerals with increasing plant productivity—that particularly targets insect herbivores. Nutrient dilution can result from increased plant biomass due to climate or CO2 enrichment. Additionally, when...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920012117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Synthesis of phosphoramidate-linked DNA by a modified DNA polymerase
    • Authors: Victor S. Lelyveld; Wen Zhang, Jack W. Szostak
      Pages: 7276 - 7283
      Abstract: All known polymerases copy genetic material by catalyzing phosphodiester bond formation. This highly conserved activity proceeds by a common mechanism, such that incorporated nucleoside analogs terminate chain elongation if the resulting primer strand lacks a terminal hydroxyl group. Even conservatively substituted 3′-amino nucleotides generally act as chain terminators, and no...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922400117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • A pheromone antagonist liberates female sea lamprey from a sensory trap to
           enable reliable communication [Evolution]
    • Authors: Tyler J. Buchinger; Anne M. Scott, Skye D. Fissette, Cory O. Brant, Mar Huertas, Ke Li, Nicholas S. Johnson, Weiming Li
      Pages: 7284 - 7289
      Abstract: The evolution of male signals and female preferences remains a central question in the study of animal communication. The sensory trap model suggests males evolve signals that mimic cues used in nonsexual contexts and thus manipulate female behavior to generate mating opportunities. Much evidence supports the sensory trap model, but...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1921394117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Evolution of dispersal in a spatially heterogeneous population with finite
           patch sizes [Evolution]
    • Authors: Kalle Parvinen; Hisashi Ohtsuki, Joe Yuichiro Wakano
      Pages: 7290 - 7295
      Abstract: Dispersal is one of the fundamental life-history strategies of organisms, so understanding the selective forces shaping the dispersal traits is important. In the Wright’s island model, dispersal evolves due to kin competition even when dispersal is costly, and it has traditionally been assumed that the living conditions are the same...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915881117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Hox genes maintain critical roles in the adult skeleton [Genetics]
    • Authors: Jane Y. Song; Kyriel M. Pineault, Jesus M. Dones, Ronald T. Raines, Deneen M. Wellik
      Pages: 7296 - 7304
      Abstract: Hox genes are indispensable for the proper patterning of the skeletal morphology of the axial and appendicular skeleton during embryonic development. Recently, it has been demonstrated that Hox expression continues from embryonic stages through postnatal and adult stages exclusively in a skeletal stem cell population. However, whether Hox genes continue...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920860117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Evidence for a pathogenic role of extrafollicular, IL-10-producing CCR6+B
           helper T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus [Immunology and
    • Authors: F. Facciotti; P. Larghi, R. Bosotti, C. Vasco, N. Gagliani, C. Cordiglieri, S. Mazzara, V. Ranzani, E. Rottoli, S. Curti, A. Penatti, B. Karnani, Y. Kobayashi, M. Crosti, M. Bombaci, J. P. van Hamburg, G. Rossetti, R. Gualtierotti, M. Gerosa, S. Gatti, S. Torretta, L. Pignataro, S. W. Tas, S. Abrignani, M. Pagani, F. Grassi, P. L. Meroni, R. A. Flavell, J. Geginat
      Pages: 7305 - 7316
      Abstract: Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is an antiinflammatory cytokine, but also promotes B cell responses and plays a pathogenic role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). CD4+CCR6+IL-7R+T cells from human tonsils produced IL-10 following stimulation by naïve B cells, which promoted B cell immunoglobulin G (IgG) production. These tonsillar CCR6+B helper T cells...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917834117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Iron sequestration by transferrin 1 mediates nutritional immunity in
           Drosophila melanogaster [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Igor Iatsenko; Alice Marra, Jean–Philippe Boquete, Jasquelin Pena, Bruno Lemaitre
      Pages: 7317 - 7325
      Abstract: Iron sequestration is a recognized innate immune mechanism against invading pathogens mediated by iron-binding proteins called transferrins. Despite many studies on antimicrobial activity of transferrins in vitro, their specific in vivo functions are poorly understood. Here we use Drosophila melanogaster as an in vivo model to investigate the role of...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914830117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • NETosis proceeds by cytoskeleton and endomembrane disassembly and
           PAD4-mediated chromatin decondensation and nuclear envelope rupture
           [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Hawa Racine Thiam; Siu Ling Wong, Rong Qiu, Mark Kittisopikul, Amir Vahabikashi, Anne E. Goldman, Robert D. Goldman, Denisa D. Wagner, Clare M. Waterman
      Pages: 7326 - 7337
      Abstract: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are web-like DNA structures decorated with histones and cytotoxic proteins that are released by activated neutrophils to trap and neutralize pathogens during the innate immune response, but also form in and exacerbate sterile inflammation. Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) citrullinates histones and is required for NET formation...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909546117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • The intelligent knife (iKnife) and its intraoperative diagnostic advantage
           for the treatment of cervical disease [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Menelaos Tzafetas; Anita Mitra, Maria Paraskevaidi, Zsolt Bodai, Ilkka Kalliala, Sarah Bowden, Konstantinos Lathouras, Francesca Rosini, Marcell Szasz, Adele Savage, Julia Balog, James McKenzie, Deirdre Lyons, Phillip Bennett, David MacIntyre, Sadaf Ghaem-Maghami, Zoltan Takats, Maria Kyrgiou
      Pages: 7338 - 7346
      Abstract: Clearance of surgical margins in cervical cancer prevents the need for adjuvant chemoradiation and allows fertility preservation. In this study, we determined the capacity of the rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS), also known as intelligent knife (iKnife), to discriminate between healthy, preinvasive, and invasive cervical tissue. Cervical tissue samples...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916960117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Effect of a ketogenic diet on hepatic steatosis and hepatic mitochondrial
           metabolism in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Panu K. Luukkonen; Sylvie Dufour, Kun Lyu, Xian–Man Zhang, Antti Hakkarainen, Tiina E. Lehtimaki, Gary W. Cline, Kitt Falk Petersen, Gerald I. Shulman, Hannele Yki–Jarvinen
      Pages: 7347 - 7354
      Abstract: Weight loss by ketogenic diet (KD) has gained popularity in management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). KD rapidly reverses NAFLD and insulin resistance despite increasing circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), the main substrate for synthesis of intrahepatic triglycerides (IHTG). To explore the underlying mechanism, we quantified hepatic mitochondrial fluxes...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922344117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Honey bees harbor a diverse gut virome engaging in nested strain-level
           interactions with the microbiota [Microbiology]
    • Authors: German Bonilla–Rosso; Theodora Steiner, Fabienne Wichmann, Evan Bexkens, Philipp Engel
      Pages: 7355 - 7362
      Abstract: The honey bee gut microbiota influences bee health and has become an important model to study the ecology and evolution of microbiota–host interactions. Yet, little is known about the phage community associated with the bee gut, despite its potential to modulate bacterial diversity or to govern important symbiotic functions. Here...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2000228117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • PIMMS43 is required for malaria parasite immune evasion and sporogonic
           development in the mosquito vector [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Chiamaka V. Ukegbu; Maria Giorgalli, Sofia Tapanelli, Luisa D. P. Rona, Amie Jaye, Claudia Wyer, Fiona Angrisano, Andrew M. Blagborough, George K. Christophides, Dina Vlachou
      Pages: 7363 - 7373
      Abstract: After being ingested by a female Anopheles mosquito during a bloodmeal on an infected host, and before they can reach the mosquito salivary glands to be transmitted to a new host, Plasmodium parasites must establish an infection of the mosquito midgut in the form of oocysts. To achieve this, they...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919709117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Targeted inhibition of gut bacterial {beta}-glucuronidase activity
           enhances anticancer drug efficacy [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Aadra P. Bhatt; Samuel J. Pellock, Kristen A. Biernat, William G. Walton, Bret D. Wallace, Benjamin C. Creekmore, Marine M. Letertre, Jonathan R. Swann, Ian D. Wilson, Jose R. Roques, David B. Darr, Sean T. Bailey, Stephanie A. Montgomery, Jeffrey M. Roach, M. Andrea Azcarate-Peril, R. Balfour Sartor, Raad Z. Gharaibeh, Scott J. Bultman, Matthew R. Redinbo
      Pages: 7374 - 7381
      Abstract: Irinotecan treats a range of solid tumors, but its effectiveness is severely limited by gastrointestinal (GI) tract toxicity caused by gut bacterial β-glucuronidase (GUS) enzymes. Targeted bacterial GUS inhibitors have been shown to partially alleviate irinotecan-induced GI tract damage and resultant diarrhea in mice. Here, we unravel the mechanistic basis...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918095117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Loss of Nef-mediated CD3 down-regulation in the HIV-1 lineage increases
           viral infectivity and spread [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Dejan Mesner; Dominik Hotter, Frank Kirchhoff, Clare Jolly
      Pages: 7382 - 7391
      Abstract: Nef is an accessory protein of primate lentiviruses that is essential for efficient replication and pathogenesis of HIV-1. A conserved feature of Nef proteins from different lentiviral lineages is the ability to modulate host protein trafficking and down-regulate a number of cell surface receptors to enhance replication and promote immune...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1921135117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • c-di-AMP hydrolysis by the phosphodiesterase AtaC promotes differentiation
           of multicellular bacteria [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Andreas Latoscha; David Jan Drexler, Mahmoud M. Al-Bassam, Adrian M. Bandera, Volkhard Kaever, Kim C. Findlay, Gregor Witte, Natalia Tschowri
      Pages: 7392 - 7400
      Abstract: Antibiotic-producing Streptomyces use the diadenylate cyclase DisA to synthesize the nucleotide second messenger c-di-AMP, but the mechanism for terminating c-di-AMP signaling and the proteins that bind the molecule to effect signal transduction are unknown. Here, we identify the AtaC protein as a c-di-AMP-specific phosphodiesterase that is also conserved in pathogens...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917080117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • CCAP regulates feeding behavior via the NPF pathway in Drosophila adults
    • Authors: Michael J. Williams; Mehwish Akram, Deimante Barkauskaite, Sourabh Patil, Eirini Kotsidou, Sania Kheder, Giovanni Vitale, Monica Filaferro, Simone W. Blemings, Giulia Maestri, Noor Hazim, Anna Valeria Vergoni, Helgi B. Schioth
      Pages: 7401 - 7408
      Abstract: The intake of macronutrients is crucial for the fitness of any animal and is mainly regulated by peripheral signals to the brain. How the brain receives and translates these peripheral signals or how these interactions lead to changes in feeding behavior is not well-understood. We discovered that 2 crustacean cardioactive...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914037117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Macroscopic information-based taste representations in insular cortex are
           shaped by stimulus concentration [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Emanuele Porcu; Karsta M. Benz, Felix Ball, Claus Tempelmann, Michael Hanke, Toemme Noesselt
      Pages: 7409 - 7417
      Abstract: Taste processing is an essential ability in all animals signaling potential harm or benefit of ingestive behavior. However, current evidence for cortical taste representations remains contradictory. To address this issue, high-resolution functional MRI (fMRI) and multivariate pattern analysis were used to characterize taste-related informational content in human insular cortex, which...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916329117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Parcellation of the striatal complex into dorsal and ventral districts
    • Authors: Shih-Yun Chen; Kuan-Ming Lu, Hsin-An Ko, Ting-Hao Huang, Janice Hsin-Jou Hao, Yu-Ting Yan, Sunny Li-Yun Chang, Sylvia M. Evans, Fu-Chin Liu
      Pages: 7418 - 7429
      Abstract: The striatal complex of basal ganglia comprises two functionally distinct districts. The dorsal district controls motor and cognitive functions. The ventral district regulates the limbic function of motivation, reward, and emotion. The dorsoventral parcellation of the striatum also is of clinical importance as differential striatal pathophysiologies occur in Huntington’s disease,...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1921007117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Imaging local genetic influences on cortical folding [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Aaron F. Alexander–Bloch; Armin Raznahan, Simon N. Vandekar, Jakob Seidlitz, Zhixin Lu, Samuel R. Matthias, Emma Knowles, Josephine Mollon, Amanda Rodrigue, Joanne E. Curran, Harald H. H. Gorring, Theodore D. Satterthwaite, Raquel E. Gur, Danielle S. Bassett, Gil D. Hoftman, Godfrey Pearlson, Russell T. Shinohara, Siyuan Liu, Peter T. Fox, Laura Almasy, John Blangero, David C. Glahn
      Pages: 7430 - 7436
      Abstract: Recent progress in deciphering mechanisms of human brain cortical folding leave unexplained whether spatially patterned genetic influences contribute to this folding. High-resolution in vivo brain MRI can be used to estimate genetic correlations (covariability due to shared genetic factors) in interregional cortical thickness, and biomechanical studies predict an influence of...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912064117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Decoding across sensory modalities reveals common supramodal signatures of
           conscious perception [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Gaetan Sanchez; Thomas Hartmann, Marco Fusca, Gianpaolo Demarchi, Nathan Weisz
      Pages: 7437 - 7446
      Abstract: An increasing number of studies highlight common brain regions and processes in mediating conscious sensory experience. While most studies have been performed in the visual modality, it is implicitly assumed that similar processes are involved in other sensory modalities. However, the existence of supramodal neural processes related to conscious perception...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912584117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Mechanism and site of action of big dynorphin on ASIC1a [Pharmacology]
    • Authors: Christian B. Borg; Nina Braun, Stephanie A. Heusser, Yasmin Bay, Daniel Weis, Iacopo Galleano, Camilla Lund, Weihua Tian, Linda M. Haugaard–Kedstrom, Eric P. Bennett, Timothy Lynagh, Kristian Stromgaard, Jacob Andersen, Stephan A. Pless
      Pages: 7447 - 7454
      Abstract: Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated cation channels that contribute to neurotransmission, as well as initiation of pain and neuronal death following ischemic stroke. As such, there is a great interest in understanding the in vivo regulation of ASICs, especially by endogenous neuropeptides that potently modulate ASICs. The most potent...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919323117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Gq/11-dependent regulation of endosomal cAMP generation by parathyroid
           hormone class B GPCR [Pharmacology]
    • Authors: Alex D. White; Frederic G. Jean–Alphonse, Fei Fang, Karina A. Pena, Shi Liu, Gabriele M. Konig, Asuka Inoue, Despoina Aslanoglou, Samuel H. Gellman, Evi Kostenis, Kunhong Xiao, Jean–Pierre Vilardaga
      Pages: 7455 - 7460
      Abstract: cAMP production upon activation of Gs by G protein-coupled receptors has classically been considered to be plasma membrane-delimited, but a shift in this paradigm has occurred in recent years with the identification of several receptors that continue to signal from early endosomes after internalization. The molecular mechanisms regulating this aspect...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918158117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • ATP- and voltage-dependent electro-metabolic signaling regulates blood
           flow in heart [Physiology]
    • Authors: Guiling Zhao; Humberto C. Joca, Mark T. Nelson, W. Jonathan Lederer
      Pages: 7461 - 7470
      Abstract: Local control of blood flow in the heart is important yet poorly understood. Here we show that ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP), hugely abundant in cardiac ventricular myocytes, sense the local myocyte metabolic state and communicate a negative feedback signal-correction upstream electrically. This electro-metabolic voltage signal is transmitted instantaneously to cellular...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922095117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • EHD2-mediated restriction of caveolar dynamics regulates cellular fatty
           acid uptake [Physiology]
    • Authors: Claudia Matthaeus; Ines Lahmann, Severine Kunz, Wenke Jonas, Arthur Alves Melo, Martin Lehmann, Elin Larsson, Richard Lundmark, Matthias Kern, Matthias Bluher, Hannah Olschowski, Julian Kompa, Britta Brugger, Dominik N. Muller, Volker Haucke, Annette Schurmann, Carmen Birchmeier, Oliver Daumke
      Pages: 7471 - 7481
      Abstract: Eps15-homology domain containing protein 2 (EHD2) is a dynamin-related ATPase located at the neck of caveolae, but its physiological function has remained unclear. Here, we found that global genetic ablation of EHD2 in mice leads to increased lipid droplet size in fat tissue. This organismic phenotype was paralleled at the...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918415117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • COST1 regulates autophagy to control plant drought tolerance [Plant
    • Authors: Yan Bao; Wei-Meng Song, Peipei Wang, Xiang Yu, Bei Li, Chunmei Jiang, Shin-Han Shiu, Hongxia Zhang, Diane C. Bassham
      Pages: 7482 - 7493
      Abstract: Plants balance their competing requirements for growth and stress tolerance via a sophisticated regulatory circuitry that controls responses to the external environments. We have identified a plant-specific gene, COST1 (constitutively stressed 1), that is required for normal plant growth but negatively regulates drought resistance by influencing the autophagy pathway. An...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918539117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Structural basis for recognition of RALF peptides by LRX proteins during
           pollen tube growth [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Steven Moussu; Caroline Broyart, Gorka Santos-Fernandez, Sebastian Augustin, Sarah Wehrle, Ueli Grossniklaus, Julia Santiago
      Pages: 7494 - 7503
      Abstract: Plant reproduction relies on the highly regulated growth of the pollen tube for sperm delivery. This process is controlled by secreted RALF signaling peptides, which have previously been shown to be perceived by Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like (CrRLK1Ls) membrane receptor-kinases/LORELEI-like GLYCOLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL (GPI)-ANCHORED PROTEINS (LLG) complexes, or by leucine-rich repeat (LRR) extensin...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2000100117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Impact of international travel and border control measures on the global
           spread of the novel 2019 coronavirus outbreak [Population Biology]
    • Authors: Chad R. Wells; Pratha Sah, Seyed M. Moghadas, Abhishek Pandey, Affan Shoukat, Yaning Wang, Zheng Wang, Lauren A. Meyers, Burton H. Singer, Alison P. Galvani
      Pages: 7504 - 7509
      Abstract: The novel coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) in mainland China has rapidly spread across the globe. Within 2 mo since the outbreak was first reported on December 31, 2019, a total of 566 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS CoV-2) cases have been confirmed in 26 other countries. Travel restrictions and border control...
      Keywords: Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2002616117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Predictions drive neural representations of visual events ahead of
           incoming sensory information [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Tessel Blom; Daniel Feuerriegel, Philippa Johnson, Stefan Bode, Hinze Hogendoorn
      Pages: 7510 - 7515
      Abstract: The transmission of sensory information through the visual system takes time. As a result of these delays, the visual information available to the brain always lags behind the timing of events in the present moment. Compensating for these delays is crucial for functioning within dynamic environments, since interacting with a...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917777117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Functional cooperation of the glycine synthase-reductase and
           Wood-L»∑ungdahl pathways for autotrophic growth of Clostridium drakei
           [Systems Biology]
    • Authors: Yoseb Song; Jin Soo Lee, Jongoh Shin, Gyu Min Lee, Sangrak Jin, Seulgi Kang, Jung-Kul Lee, Dong Rip Kim, Eun Yeol Lee, Sun Chang Kim, Suhyung Cho, Donghyuk Kim, Byung-Kwan Cho
      Pages: 7516 - 7523
      Abstract: Among CO2-fixing metabolic pathways in nature, the linear Wood–Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) in phylogenetically diverse acetate-forming acetogens comprises the most energetically efficient pathway, requires the least number of reactions, and converts CO2 to formate and then into acetyl-CoA. Despite two genes encoding glycine synthase being well-conserved in WLP gene clusters, the...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912289117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Absolute yeast mitochondrial proteome quantification reveals trade-off
           between biosynthesis and energy generation during diauxic shift [Systems
    • Authors: Francesca Di Bartolomeo; Carl Malina, Kate Campbell, Maurizio Mormino, Johannes Fuchs, Egor Vorontsov, Claes M. Gustafsson, Jens Nielsen
      Pages: 7524 - 7535
      Abstract: Saccharomyces cerevisiae constitutes a popular eukaryal model for research on mitochondrial physiology. Being Crabtree-positive, this yeast has evolved the ability to ferment glucose to ethanol and respire ethanol once glucose is consumed. Its transition phase from fermentative to respiratory metabolism, known as the diauxic shift, is reflected by dramatic rearrangements...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918216117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Correction for Zhang et al., An unexpected catalyst dominates formation
           and radiative forcing of regional haze [Correction]
    • Pages: 7536 - 7536
      Abstract: EARTH, ATMOSPHERIC, AND PLANETARY SCIENCES Correction for “An unexpected catalyst dominates formation and radiative forcing of regional haze,” by Fang Zhang, Yuan Wang, Jianfei Peng, Lu Chen, Yele Sun, Lian Duan, Xinlei Ge, Yixin Li, Jiayun Zhao, Chao Liu, Xiaochun Zhang, Gen Zhang, Yuepeng Pan, Yuesi Wang, Annie L. Zhang,...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003855117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
  • Correction for Krieger et al., Mutations in thyroid hormone receptor
           {alpha}1 cause premature neurogenesis and progenitor cell depletion in
           human cortical development [Correction]
    • Pages: 7537 - 7538
      Abstract: MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction for “Mutations in thyroid hormone receptor α1 cause premature neurogenesis and progenitor cell depletion in human cortical development,” by Teresa G. Krieger, Carla M. Moran, Alberto Frangini, W. Edward Visser, Erik Schoenmakers, Francesco Muntoni, Chris A. Clark, David Gadian, Wui K. Chong, Adam Kuczynski, Mehul Dattani, Greta...
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T09:06:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003767117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 13 (2020)
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