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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 6.092
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 969  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Different opinion on the reported role of Poldip2 and ACSM1 in a mammalian
           lipoic acid salvage pathway controlling HIF-1 activation [Biological
    • Authors: Peter S. J. Bailey; J. Kalervo Hiltunen, Carol L. Dieckmann, Alexander J. Kastaniotis, James A. Nathan
      Abstract: Paredes et al. (1) describe polymerase-δ interacting protein 2 (Poldip2) as a novel regulator of mitochondrial lipoylation through stabilization of Ac-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 1 (ACSM1). We have several concerns with their proposed model based on the following reasons. Prior mammalian and yeast biochemical studies are not consistent with...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804041115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Reply to Bailey et al.: New perspectives on the novel role of the
           Poldip2/ACSM1 axis in a functional mammalian lipoylation salvage pathway
           [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: F. Paredes; B. Lassegue, H. C. Williams, E. A. Faidley, G. A. Benavides, S. M. Yeligar, K. K. Griendling, V. Darley–Usmar, A. San Martin
      Abstract: We appreciate Bailey et al.’s (1) interest in our publication (2), in which we define a role for polymerase-δ interacting protein 2 (Poldip2) in controlling a salvage pathway of lipoylation. Our study builds on a substantial body of evidence, indicating that the mammalian mitochondrial lipoyltransferase LIPT1 lipoylates using lipoyl-AMP. While...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807968115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • How adaptive immunity constrains the composition and fate of large
           bacterial populations [Physics]
    • Authors: Madeleine Bonsma–Fisher; Dominique Soutiere, Sidhartha Goyal
      Abstract: Features of the CRISPR-Cas system, in which bacteria integrate small segments of phage genome (spacers) into their DNA to neutralize future attacks, suggest that its effect is not limited to individual bacteria but may control the fate and structure of whole populations. Emphasizing the population-level impact of the CRISPR-Cas system,...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802887115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Selection of an ASIC1a-blocking combinatorial antibody that protects cells
           from ischemic death [Applied Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Min Qiang; Xue Dong, Zhao Zha, Xiao-Kun Zuo, Xing-Lei Song, Lixia Zhao, Chao Yuan, Chen Huang, Pingdong Tao, Qin Hu, Wei-Guang Li, Wanhui Hu, Jie Li, Yan Nie, Damiano Buratto, Francesco Zonta, Peixiang Ma, Zheng Yu, Lili Liu, Yi Zhang, Bei Yang, Jia Xie, Tian-Le Xu, Zhihu Qu, Guang Yang, Richard A. Lerner
      Abstract: Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) have emerged as important, albeit challenging therapeutic targets for pain, stroke, etc. One approach to developing therapeutic agents could involve the generation of functional antibodies against these channels. To select such antibodies, we used channels assembled in nanodiscs, such that the target ASIC1a has a configuration...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807233115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Switching of the folding-energy landscape governs the allosteric
           activation of protein kinase A [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Jeneffer P. England; Yuxin Hao, Lihui Bai, Virginia Glick, H. Courtney Hodges, Susan S. Taylor, Rodrigo A. Maillard
      Abstract: Protein kinases are dynamic molecular switches that sample multiple conformational states. The regulatory subunit of PKA harbors two cAMP-binding domains [cyclic nucleotide-binding (CNB) domains] that oscillate between inactive and active conformations dependent on cAMP binding. The cooperative binding of cAMP to the CNB domains activates an allosteric interaction network that...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802510115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Mavacamten stabilizes an autoinhibited state of two-headed cardiac myosin
    • Authors: John A. Rohde; Osha Roopnarine, David D. Thomas, Joseph M. Muretta
      Abstract: We used transient biochemical and structural kinetics to elucidate the molecular mechanism of mavacamten, an allosteric cardiac myosin inhibitor and a prospective treatment for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We find that mavacamten stabilizes an autoinhibited state of two-headed cardiac myosin not found in the single-headed S1 myosin motor fragment. We determined this...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720342115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Many-body effect determines the selectivity for Ca2+ and Mg2+ in proteins
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Zhifeng Jing; Chengwen Liu, Rui Qi, Pengyu Ren
      Abstract: Calcium ion is a versatile messenger in many cell-signaling processes. To achieve their functions, calcium-binding proteins selectively bind Ca2+ against a background of competing ions such as Mg2+. The high specificity of calcium-binding proteins has been intriguing since Mg2+ has a higher charge density than Ca2+ and is expected to...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805049115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Electrostatic lock in the transport cycle of the multidrug resistance
           transporter EmrE [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Josh V. Vermaas; Susan B. Rempe, Emad Tajkhorshid
      Abstract: EmrE is a small, homodimeric membrane transporter that exploits the established electrochemical proton gradient across the Escherichia coli inner membrane to export toxic polyaromatic cations, prototypical of the wider small-multidrug resistance transporter family. While prior studies have established many fundamental aspects of the specificity and rate of substrate transport in...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722399115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Tethered multifluorophore motion reveals equilibrium transition kinetics
           of single DNA double helices [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Matthias Schickinger; Martin Zacharias, Hendrik Dietz
      Abstract: We describe a tethered multifluorophore motion assay based on DNA origami for revealing bimolecular reaction kinetics on the single-molecule level. Molecular binding partners may be placed at user-defined positions and in user-defined stoichiometry; and binding states are read out by tracking the motion of quickly diffusing fluorescent reporter units. Multiple...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800585115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Tumor promoter TPA activates Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in a casein
           kinase 1-dependent manner [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Zijie Su; Jiaxing Song, Zhongyuan Wang, Liang Zhou, Yuqing Xia, Shubin Yu, Qi Sun, Shan-Shan Liu, Liang Zhao, Shiyue Li, Lei Wei, Dennis A. Carson, Desheng Lu
      Abstract: The tumor promoter 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) has been defined by its ability to promote tumorigenesis on carcinogen-initiated mouse skin. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling has a decisive role in mouse skin carcinogenesis, but it remains unclear how TPA activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mouse skin carcinogenesis. Here, we found that TPA could enhance...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802422115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Waves cue distinct behaviors and differentiate transport of congeneric
           snail larvae from sheltered versus wavy habitats [Ecology]
    • Authors: Heidi L. Fuchs; Gregory P. Gerbi, Elias J. Hunter, Adam J. Christman
      Abstract: Marine population dynamics often depend on dispersal of larvae with infinitesimal odds of survival, creating selective pressure for larval behaviors that enhance transport to suitable habitats. One intriguing possibility is that larvae navigate using physical signals dominating their natal environments. We tested whether flow-induced larval behaviors vary with adults’ physical...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804558115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Warming reverses top-down effects of predators on belowground ecosystem
           function in Arctic tundra [Ecology]
    • Authors: Amanda M. Koltz; Aimee T. Classen, Justin P. Wright
      Abstract: Predators can disproportionately impact the structure and function of ecosystems relative to their biomass. These effects may be exacerbated under warming in ecosystems like the Arctic, where the number and diversity of predators are low and small shifts in community interactions can alter carbon cycle feedbacks. Here, we show that...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808754115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Inferring the shape of global epistasis [Evolution]
    • Authors: Jakub Otwinowski; David M. McCandlish, Joshua B. Plotkin
      Abstract: Genotype–phenotype relationships are notoriously complicated. Idiosyncratic interactions between specific combinations of mutations occur and are difficult to predict. Yet it is increasingly clear that many interactions can be understood in terms of global epistasis. That is, mutations may act additively on some underlying, unobserved trait, and this trait is then...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804015115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Identifying a large number of high-yield genes in rice by pedigree
           analysis, whole-genome sequencing, and CRISPR-Cas9 gene knockout
    • Authors: Ju Huang; Jing Li, Jun Zhou, Long Wang, Sihai Yang, Laurence D. Hurst, Wen-Hsiung Li, Dacheng Tian
      Abstract: Repeated artificial selection of a complex trait facilitates the identification of genes underlying the trait, especially if multiple selected descendant lines are available. Here we developed a pedigree-based approach to identify genes underlying the Green Revolution (GR) phenotype. From a pedigree analysis, we selected 30 cultivars including the “miracle rice”...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806110115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Unbiased classification of mosquito blood cells by single-cell genomics
           and high-content imaging [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Maiara S. Severo; Jonathan J. M. Landry, Randall L. Lindquist, Christian Goosmann, Volker Brinkmann, Paul Collier, Anja E. Hauser, Vladimir Benes, Johan Henriksson, Sarah A. Teichmann, Elena A. Levashina
      Abstract: Mosquito blood cells are immune cells that help control infection by vector-borne pathogens. Despite their importance, little is known about mosquito blood cell biology beyond morphological and functional criteria used for their classification. Here, we combined the power of single-cell RNA sequencing, high-content imaging flow cytometry, and single-molecule RNA hybridization...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803062115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Analysis of CD8+ T cell response during the 2013-2016 Ebola epidemic in
           West Africa [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Saori Sakabe; Brian M. Sullivan, Jessica N. Hartnett, Refugio Robles-Sikisaka, Karthik Gangavarapu, Beatrice Cubitt, Brian C. Ware, Dylan Kotliar, Luis M. Branco, Augustine Goba, Mambu Momoh, John Demby Sandi, Lansana Kanneh, Donald S. Grant, Robert F. Garry, Kristian G. Andersen, Juan Carlos de la Torre, Pardis C. Sabeti, John S. Schieffelin, Michael B. A. Oldstone
      Abstract: The recent Ebola epidemic exemplified the importance of understanding and controlling emerging infections. Despite the importance of T cells in clearing virus during acute infection, little is known about Ebola-specific CD8+ T cell responses. We investigated immune responses of individuals infected with Ebola virus (EBOV) during the 2013–2016 West Africa...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806200115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Liquid crystalline bacterial outer membranes are critical for antibiotic
           susceptibility [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Nicolo Paracini; Luke A. Clifton, Maximilian W. A. Skoda, Jeremy H. Lakey
      Abstract: The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria is a robust, impermeable, asymmetric bilayer of outer lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and inner phospholipids containing selective pore proteins which confer on it the properties of a molecular sieve. This structure severely limits the variety of antibiotic molecules effective against Gram-negative pathogens and, as antibiotic...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803975115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Selective visual representation of letters and words in the left ventral
           occipito-temporal cortex with intracerebral recordings [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Aliette Lochy; Corentin Jacques, Louis Maillard, Sophie Colnat-Coulbois, Bruno Rossion, Jacques Jonas
      Abstract: We report a comprehensive cartography of selective responses to visual letters and words in the human ventral occipito-temporal cortex (VOTC) with direct neural recordings, clarifying key aspects of the neural basis of reading. Intracerebral recordings were performed in a large group of patients (n = 37) presented with visual words...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718987115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Top-down, contextual entrainment of neuronal oscillations in the auditory
           thalamocortical circuit [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Annamaria Barczak; Monica Noelle O’Connell, Tammy McGinnis, Deborah Ross, Todd Mowery, Arnaud Falchier, Peter Lakatos
      Abstract: Prior studies have shown that repetitive presentation of acoustic stimuli results in an alignment of ongoing neuronal oscillations to the sequence rhythm via oscillatory entrainment by external cues. Our study aimed to explore the neural correlates of the perceptual parsing and grouping of complex repeating auditory patterns that occur based...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714684115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • “Shepherd’s crook” neurons drive and synchronize the enhancing and
           suppressive mechanisms of the midbrain stimulus selection network
    • Authors: Florencia Garrido–Charad; Tomas Vega–Zuniga, Cristian Gutierrez–Ibanez, Pedro Fernandez, Luciana Lopez–Jury, Cristian Gonzalez–Cabrera, Harvey J. Karten, Harald Luksch, Gonzalo J. Marin
      Abstract: The optic tectum (TeO), or superior colliculus, is a multisensory midbrain center that organizes spatially orienting responses to relevant stimuli. To define the stimulus with the highest priority at each moment, a network of reciprocal connections between the TeO and the isthmi promotes competition between concurrent tectal inputs. In the...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804517115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Synaptotagmin oligomerization is essential for calcium control of
           regulated exocytosis [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Oscar D. Bello; Ouardane Jouannot, Arunima Chaudhuri, Ekaterina Stroeva, Jeff Coleman, Kirill E. Volynski, James E. Rothman, Shyam S. Krishnakumar
      Abstract: Regulated exocytosis, which underlies many intercellular signaling events, is a tightly controlled process often triggered by calcium ion(s) (Ca2+). Despite considerable insight into the central components involved, namely, the core fusion machinery [soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE)] and the principal Ca2+ sensor [C2-domain proteins like synaptotagmin (Syt)], the...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808792115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • A population of gut epithelial enterochromaffin cells is mechanosensitive
           and requires Piezo2 to convert force into serotonin release [Physiology]
    • Authors: Constanza Alcaino; Kaitlyn R. Knutson, Anthony J. Treichel, Gulcan Yildiz, Peter R. Strege, David R. Linden, Joyce H. Li, Andrew B. Leiter, Joseph H. Szurszewski, Gianrico Farrugia, Arthur Beyder
      Abstract: Enterochromaffin (EC) cells constitute the largest population of intestinal epithelial enteroendocrine (EE) cells. EC cells are proposed to be specialized mechanosensory cells that release serotonin in response to epithelial forces, and thereby regulate intestinal fluid secretion. However, it is unknown whether EE and EC cells are directly mechanosensitive, and if...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804938115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Mice harboring the human SLC30A8 R138X loss-of-function mutation have
           increased insulin secretory capacity [Physiology]
    • Authors: Sandra Kleiner; Daniel Gomez, Bezawit Megra, Erqian Na, Ramandeep Bhavsar, Katie Cavino, Yurong Xin, Jose Rojas, Giselle Dominguez-Gutierrez, Brian Zambrowicz, Gaelle Carrat, Pauline Chabosseau, Ming Hu, Andrew J. Murphy, George D. Yancopoulos, Guy A. Rutter, Jesper Gromada
      Abstract: SLC30A8 encodes a zinc transporter that is primarily expressed in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. In β-cells it transports zinc into insulin-containing secretory granules. Loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in SLC30A8 protect against type 2 diabetes in humans. In this study, we generated a knockin mouse model carrying one of the most...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721418115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Correction for Daniel et al., Mechanistic insights in
           transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair of ribosomal DNA
    • Abstract: CELL BIOLOGY Correction for “Mechanistic insights in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair of ribosomal DNA,” by Laurianne Daniel, Elena Cerruti, Lise-Marie Donnio, Julie Nonnekens, Christophe Carrat, Simona Zahova, Pierre-Olivier Mari, and Giuseppina Giglia-Mari, which was first published July 2, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1716581115 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115:E6770–E6779). The authors note that...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1812123115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Correction for Otto et al., Past role and future outlook of the
           Conservation Reserve Program for supporting honey bees in the Great Plains
    • Abstract: SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE Correction for “Past role and future outlook of the Conservation Reserve Program for supporting honey bees in the Great Plains,” by Clint R. V. Otto, Haochi Zheng, Alisa L. Gallant, Rich Iovanna, Benjamin L. Carlson, Matthew D. Smart, and Skip Hyberg, which was first published July 2, 2018;...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1812119115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 8049 - 8050
      Abstract: Exploring curcumin’s anticancer effects Turmeric. Image courtesy of Pixabay/cgdsro. The anticancer properties of turmeric are attributed to its active ingredient curcumin, a polyphenol extracted from the rhizomes of the medicinal plant Curcuma longa. Curcumin is thought to block the action of proteasomes, which are cellular organelles that recycle damaged proteins,...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti3218115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Opinion: Risk to study nonparticipants: A procedural approach [Medical
    • Authors: Nir Eyal; Marc Lipsitch, Till Barnighausen, Dan Wikler
      Pages: 8051 - 8053
      Abstract: Current ethical guidance for research on human subjects is primarily concerned with protecting study participants.* They are, after all, the “human subjects” whose interests are the focus of oversight. But research—whether on human subjects or not—may also strongly affect individuals who are not study participants. US law defines study participants...
      Keywords: Opinions, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1810920115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Profile of Myles Brown [Profiles]
    • Authors: Beth Azar
      Pages: 8054 - 8056
      Abstract: Ever since oncologist Myles Brown used tamoxifen to treat a patient with metastatic breast cancer during his fellowship, he has wanted to understand how cancer cells can sometimes become resistant to this therapy after months of success. That quest led him to his life’s work on estrogen receptor (ER) biology....
      Keywords: PNAS Profiles
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1810395115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Understanding when people will report crimes to the police [Social
    • Authors: Mario L. Small
      Pages: 8057 - 8059
      Abstract: In a recent PNAS article, Hagan et al. (1) use administrative records of 911 calls to study how people in urban neighborhoods decide whether to report crimes to the police. The authors argue that an important factor in the decision is what researchers have called “legal cynicism,” or a general...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1810663115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Zooming in on a small multidrug transporter reveals details of asymmetric
           protonation [Commentary]
    • Authors: Jana Shen
      Pages: 8060 - 8062
      Abstract: Drug resistance poses a major threat to human health. A principal mechanism of multidrug resistance is the active transport of chemically unrelated compounds out of the cell by integral membrane proteins known as multidrug transporters (1). Multidrug transporters are represented by four superfamilies: ABC (ATP-binding cassette), MFS (major facilitator superfamily),...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1810814115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Simple scaling law predicts peak efficiency in oscillatory propulsion
    • Authors: Graham K. Taylor
      Pages: 8063 - 8065
      Abstract: Oscillatory propulsion is ubiquitous among swimming and flying animals, and may some day be practical as a replacement for rotary propulsion in watercraft and small air vehicles. The strength and efficiency of flapping thrust production closely depend on a dimensionless parameter called the Strouhal number (St), representing the ratio of...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1809769115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Rates of cavity filling by liquids [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Dongjin Seo; Alex M. Schrader, Szu-Ying Chen, Yair Kaufman, Thomas R. Cristiani, Steven H. Page, Peter H. Koenig, Yonas Gizaw, Dong Woog Lee, Jacob N. Israelachvili
      Pages: 8070 - 8075
      Abstract: Understanding the fundamental wetting behavior of liquids on surfaces with pores or cavities provides insights into the wetting phenomena associated with rough or patterned surfaces, such as skin and fabrics, as well as the development of everyday products such as ointments and paints, and industrial applications such as enhanced oil...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804437115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Isothermal pressure-derived metastable states in 2D hybrid perovskites
           showing enduring bandgap narrowing [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Gang Liu; Jue Gong, Lingping Kong, Richard D. Schaller, Qingyang Hu, Zhenxian Liu, Shuai Yan, Wenge Yang, Constantinos C. Stoumpos, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis, Ho-kwang Mao, Tao Xu
      Pages: 8076 - 8081
      Abstract: Materials in metastable states, such as amorphous ice and supercooled condensed matter, often exhibit exotic phenomena. To date, achieving metastability is usually accomplished by rapid quenching through a thermodynamic path function, namely, heating−cooling cycles. However, heat can be detrimental to organic-containing materials because it can induce degradation. Alternatively, the application...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1809167115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Foam-driven fracture [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Ching-Yao Lai; Bhargav Rallabandi, Antonio Perazzo, Zhong Zheng, Samuel E. Smiddy, Howard A. Stone
      Pages: 8082 - 8086
      Abstract: In hydraulic fracturing, water is injected at high pressure to crack shale formations. More sustainable techniques use aqueous foams as injection fluids to reduce the water use and wastewater treatment of conventional hydrofractures. However, the physical mechanism of foam fracturing remains poorly understood, and this lack of understanding extends to...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808068115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Orthogonal self-assembly of an organoplatinum(II) metallacycle and
           cucurbit[8]uril that delivers curcumin to cancer cells [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Sougata Datta; Santosh K. Misra, Manik Lal Saha, Nabajit Lahiri, Janis Louie, Dipanjan Pan, Peter J. Stang
      Pages: 8087 - 8092
      Abstract: Curcumin (Cur) is a naturally occurring anticancer drug isolated from the Curcuma longa plant. It is known to exhibit anticancer properties via inhibiting the STAT3 phosphorylation process. However, its poor water solubility and low bioavailability impede its clinical application. Herein, we used organoplatinum(II) ← pyridyl coordination-driven self-assembly and a cucurbit[8]uril...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803800115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Computational discovery of chemically patterned surfaces that effect
           unique hydration water dynamics [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Jacob I. Monroe; M. Scott Shell
      Pages: 8093 - 8098
      Abstract: The interactions of water with solid surfaces govern their apparent hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, influenced at the molecular scale by surface coverage of chemical groups of varied nonpolar/polar character. Recently, it has become clear that the precise patterning of surface groups, and not simply average surface coverage, has a significant impact on the...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807208115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Tractable near-optimal policies for crawling [Computer Sciences]
    • Authors: Yossi Azar; Eric Horvitz, Eyal Lubetzky, Yuval Peres, Dafna Shahaf
      Pages: 8099 - 8103
      Abstract: The problem of maintaining a local cache of n constantly changing pages arises in multiple mechanisms such as web crawlers and proxy servers. In these, the resources for polling pages for possible updates are typically limited. The goal is to devise a polling and fetching policy that maximizes the utility...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801519115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Constraints on Paleoproterozoic atmospheric oxygen levels [Evolution]
    • Authors: Eric J. Bellefroid; Ashleigh v. S. Hood, Paul F. Hoffman, Matthew D. Thomas, Christopher T. Reinhard, Noah J. Planavsky
      Pages: 8104 - 8109
      Abstract: The oxygenation of Earth’s surface environment dramatically altered key biological and geochemical cycles and ultimately ushered in the rise of an ecologically diverse biosphere. However, atmospheric oxygen partial pressures (pO2) estimates for large swaths of the Precambrian remain intensely debated. Here we evaluate and explore the use of carbonate cerium...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806216115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Chemical feedbacks weaken the wintertime response of particulate sulfate
           and nitrate to emissions reductions over the eastern United States [Earth,
           Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Viral Shah; Lyatt Jaegle, Joel A. Thornton, Felipe D. Lopez–Hilfiker, Ben H. Lee, Jason C. Schroder, Pedro Campuzano–Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Hongyu Guo, Amy P. Sullivan, Rodney J. Weber, Jaime R. Green, Marc N. Fiddler, Solomon Bililign, Teresa L. Campos, Meghan Stell, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Denise D. Montzka, Steven S. Brown
      Pages: 8110 - 8115
      Abstract: Sulfate (SO42-) and nitrate (NO3-) account for half of the fine particulate matter mass over the eastern United States. Their wintertime concentrations have changed little in the past decade despite considerable precursor emissions reductions. The reasons for this have remained unclear because detailed observations to constrain the wintertime gas–particle chemical...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803295115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Efficient cruising for swimming and flying animals is dictated by fluid
           drag [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Daniel Floryan; Tyler Van Buren, Alexander J. Smits
      Pages: 8116 - 8118
      Abstract: Many swimming and flying animals are observed to cruise in a narrow range of Strouhal numbers, where the Strouhal number St=2fA/U is a dimensionless parameter that relates stroke frequency f, amplitude A, and forward speed U. Dolphins, sharks, bony fish, birds, bats, and insects typically cruise in the range 0.2
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805941115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Flexible magnetic composites for light-controlled actuation and interfaces
    • Authors: Meng Li; Yu Wang, Aiping Chen, Arin Naidu, Bradley S. Napier, Wenyi Li, Carlos Lopez Rodriguez, Scott A. Crooker, Fiorenzo G. Omenetto
      Pages: 8119 - 8124
      Abstract: The interaction between light and matter has been long explored, leading to insights based on the modulation and control of electrons and/or photons within a material. An opportunity exists in optomechanics, where the conversion of radiation into material strain and actuation is currently induced at the molecular level in liquid...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805832115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Parametric transitions between bare and vegetated states in water-driven
           patterns [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Matteo Bernard Bertagni; Paolo Perona, Carlo Camporeale
      Pages: 8125 - 8130
      Abstract: Conditions for vegetation spreading and pattern formation are mathematically framed through an analysis encompassing three fundamental processes: flow stochasticity, vegetation dynamics, and sediment transport. Flow unsteadiness is included through Poisson stochastic processes whereby vegetation dynamics appears as a secondary instability, which is addressed by Floquet theory. Results show that the...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721765115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Quantum optics approach to radiation from atoms falling into a black hole
    • Authors: Marlan O. Scully; Stephen Fulling, David M. Lee, Don N. Page, Wolfgang P. Schleich, Anatoly A. Svidzinsky
      Pages: 8131 - 8136
      Abstract: We show that atoms falling into a black hole (BH) emit acceleration radiation which, under appropriate initial conditions, looks to a distant observer much like (but is different from) Hawking BH radiation. In particular, we find the entropy of the acceleration radiation via a simple laser-like analysis. We call this...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807703115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Microrheology of DNA hydrogels [Physics]
    • Authors: Zhongyang Xing; Alessio Caciagli, Tianyang Cao, Iliya Stoev, Mykolas Zupkauskas, Thomas O’Neill, Tobias Wenzel, Robin Lamboll, Dongsheng Liu, Erika Eiser
      Pages: 8137 - 8142
      Abstract: A key objective in DNA-based material science is understanding and precisely controlling the mechanical properties of DNA hydrogels. We perform microrheology measurements using diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) to investigate the viscoelastic behavior of a hydrogel made of Y-shaped DNA (Y-DNA) nanostars over a wide range of frequencies and temperatures. We...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722206115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Indigenous impacts on North American Great Plains fire regimes of the past
           millennium [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Christopher I. Roos; Maria Nieves Zedeno, Kacy L. Hollenback, Mary M. H. Erlick
      Pages: 8143 - 8148
      Abstract: Fire use has played an important role in human evolution and subsequent dispersals across the globe, yet the relative importance of human activity and climate on fire regimes is controversial. This is particularly true for historical fire regimes of the Americas, where indigenous groups used fire for myriad reasons but...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805259115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Neural detection of socially valued community members [Psychological and
           Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Sylvia A. Morelli; Yuan Chang Leong, Ryan W. Carlson, Monica Kullar, Jamil Zaki
      Pages: 8149 - 8154
      Abstract: As people form social groups, they benefit from being able to detect socially valuable community members—individuals who act prosocially, support others, and form strong relationships. Multidisciplinary evidence demonstrates that people indeed track others’ social value, but the mechanisms through which such detection occurs remain unclear. Here, we combine social network...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712811115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Ancient drug curcumin impedes 26S proteasome activity by direct inhibition
           of dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase 2 [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Sourav Banerjee; Chenggong Ji, Joshua E. Mayfield, Apollina Goel, Junyu Xiao, Jack E. Dixon, Xing Guo
      Pages: 8155 - 8160
      Abstract: Curcumin, the active ingredient in Curcuma longa, has been in medicinal use since ancient times. However, the therapeutic targets and signaling cascades modulated by curcumin have been enigmatic despite extensive research. Here we identify dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase 2 (DYRK2), a positive regulator of the 26S proteasome, as a direct target...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806797115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Elesclomol restores mitochondrial function in genetic models of copper
           deficiency [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Shivatheja Soma; Andrew J. Latimer, Haarin Chun, Alison C. Vicary, Shrishiv A. Timbalia, Aren Boulet, Jennifer J. Rahn, Sherine S. L. Chan, Scot C. Leary, Byung-Eun Kim, Jonathan D. Gitlin, Vishal M. Gohil
      Pages: 8161 - 8166
      Abstract: Copper is an essential cofactor of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Inherited loss-of-function mutations in several genes encoding proteins required for copper delivery to CcO result in diminished CcO activity and severe pathologic conditions in affected infants. Copper supplementation restores CcO function in...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806296115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Cytoskeletal tension regulates mesodermal spatial organization and
           subsequent vascular fate [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Quinton Smith; Nash Rochman, Ana Maria Carmo, Dhruv Vig, Xin Yi Chan, Sean Sun, Sharon Gerecht
      Pages: 8167 - 8172
      Abstract: Morphogenesis during human development relies on the interplay between physiochemical cues that are mediated in part by cellular density and cytoskeletal tension. Here, we interrogated these factors on vascular lineage specification during human-induced pluripotent stem-cell (hiPSC) fate decision. We found that independent of chemical cues, spatially presented physical cues induce...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808021115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Eda-activated RelB recruits an SWI/SNF (BAF) chromatin-remodeling complex
           and initiates gene transcription in skin appendage formation
           [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Jian Sima; Zhijiang Yan, Yaohui Chen, Elin Lehrmann, Yongqing Zhang, Ramaiah Nagaraja, Weidong Wang, Zhong Wang, David Schlessinger
      Pages: 8173 - 8178
      Abstract: Ectodysplasin A (Eda) signaling activates NF-κB during skin appendage formation, but how Eda controls specific gene transcription remains unclear. Here, we find that Eda triggers the formation of an NF-κB–associated SWI/SNF (BAF) complex in which p50/RelB recruits a linker protein, Tfg, that interacts with BAF45d in the BAF complex. We...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800930115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Recombinant Listeria promotes tumor rejection by CD8+ T cell-dependent
           remodeling of the tumor microenvironment [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Weiwen Deng; Victor Lira, Thomas E. Hudson, Edward E. Lemmens, William G. Hanson, Ruben Flores, Gonzalo Barajas, George E. Katibah, Anthony L. Desbien, Peter Lauer, Meredith L. Leong, Daniel A. Portnoy, Thomas W. Dubensky Jr.
      Pages: 8179 - 8184
      Abstract: Agents that remodel the tumor microenvironment (TME), prime functional tumor-specific T cells, and block inhibitory signaling pathways are essential components of effective immunotherapy. We are evaluating live-attenuated, double-deleted Listeria monocytogenes expressing tumor antigens (LADD-Ag) in the clinic. Here we show in numerous mouse models that while treatment with nonrecombinant LADD...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801910115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Tsix-Mecp2 female mouse model for Rett syndrome reveals that low-level
           MECP2 expression extends life and improves neuromotor function [Medical
    • Authors: Lieselot L. G. Carrette; Roy Blum, Weiyuan Ma, Raymond J. Kelleher III, Jeannie T. Lee
      Pages: 8185 - 8190
      Abstract: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a mutation in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). There is currently no disease-specific treatment, but MECP2 restoration through reactivation of the inactive X (Xi) has been of considerable interest. Progress toward an Xi-reactivation therapy has been hampered by a...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800931115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Zinc depletion induces ribosome hibernation in mycobacteria [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Yunlong Li; Manjuli R. Sharma, Ravi K. Koripella, Yong Yang, Prem S. Kaushal, Qishan Lin, Joseph T. Wade, Todd A. Gray, Keith M. Derbyshire, Rajendra K. Agrawal, Anil K. Ojha
      Pages: 8191 - 8196
      Abstract: Bacteria respond to zinc starvation by replacing ribosomal proteins that have the zinc-binding CXXC motif (C+) with their zinc-free (C−) paralogues. Consequences of this process beyond zinc homeostasis are unknown. Here, we show that the C− ribosome in Mycobacterium smegmatis is the exclusive target of a bacterial protein Y homolog,...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804555115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • RNA triphosphatase DUSP11 enables exonuclease XRN-mediated restriction of
           hepatitis C virus [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Rodney P. Kincaid; Victor L. Lam, Rachel P. Chirayil, Glenn Randall, Christopher S. Sullivan
      Pages: 8197 - 8202
      Abstract: Seventy percent of people infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) will suffer chronic infection, putting them at risk for liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The full range of mechanisms that render some people more susceptible to chronic infection and liver disease is still being elucidated. XRN exonucleases can restrict HCV...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802326115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Gating-induced large aqueous volumetric remodeling and aspartate tolerance
           in the voltage sensor domain of Shaker K+ channels [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Ignacio Diaz–Franulic; Vivian Gonzalez–Perez, Hans Moldenhauer, Nieves Navarro–Quezada, David Naranȷo
      Pages: 8203 - 8208
      Abstract: Neurons encode electrical signals with critically tuned voltage-gated ion channels and enzymes. Dedicated voltage sensor domains (VSDs) in these membrane proteins activate coordinately with an unresolved structural change. Such change conveys the transmembrane translocation of four positively charged arginine side chains, the voltage-sensing residues (VSRs; R1–R4). Countercharges and lipid phosphohead...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806578115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum stress leads to accumulation of wild-type SOD1
           aggregates associated with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    • Authors: Danilo B. Medinas; Pablo Rozas, Francisca Martinez Traub, Ute Woehlbier, Robert H. Brown, Daryl A. Bosco, Claudio Hetz
      Pages: 8209 - 8214
      Abstract: Abnormal modifications to mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). Misfolding of wild-type SOD1 (SOD1WT) is also observed in postmortem tissue of a subset of sporadic ALS (sALS) cases, but cellular and molecular mechanisms generating abnormal SOD1WT species are unknown. We analyzed aberrant human...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801109115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Junctional membrane Ca2+ dynamics in human muscle fibers are altered by
           malignant hyperthermia causative RyR mutation [Physiology]
    • Authors: Tanya R. Cully; Rocky H. Choi, Andrew R. Bjorksten, D. George Stephenson, Robyn M. Murphy, Bradley S. Launikonis
      Pages: 8215 - 8220
      Abstract: We used the nanometer-wide tubules of the transverse tubular (t)-system of human skeletal muscle fibers as sensitive sensors for the quantitative monitoring of the Ca2+-handling properties in the narrow junctional cytoplasmic space sandwiched between the tubular membrane and the sarcoplasmic reticulum cisternae in single muscle fibers. The t-system sealed with...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800490115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
  • Neural tracking of the musical beat is enhanced by low-frequency sounds
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Tomas Lenc; Peter E. Keller, Manuel Varlet, Sylvie Nozaradan
      Pages: 8221 - 8226
      Abstract: Music makes us move, and using bass instruments to build the rhythmic foundations of music is especially effective at inducing people to dance to periodic pulse-like beats. Here, we show that this culturally widespread practice may exploit a neurophysiological mechanism whereby low-frequency sounds shape the neural representations of rhythmic input...
      PubDate: 2018-08-07T11:31:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801421115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 32 (2018)
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