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Journal Cover Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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   ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
   Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Correction for Furuta et al., Measuring collective transport by defined
           numbers of processive and nonprocessive kinesin motors [Correction]
    • Abstract: BIOPHYSICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY Correction for “Measuring collective transport by defined numbers of processive and nonprocessive kinesin motors,” by Ken’ya Furuta, Akane Furuta, Yoko Y. Toyoshima, Misako Amino, Kazuhiro Oiwa, and Hiroaki Kojima which appeared in issue 2, January 8, 2013, of Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (110:501–506; first published...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701954114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Correction for Tung et al., {beta}-Catenin haploinsufficiency promotes
           mammary tumorigenesis in an ErbB2-positive basal breast cancer model
           [Correction]
    • Abstract: CELL BIOLOGY Correction for “β-Catenin haploinsufficiency promotes mammary tumorigenesis in an ErbB2-positive basal breast cancer model,” by Bui Tung, Babette Schade, Robert D. Cardiff, Olulanu H. Aina, Virginie Sanguin-Gendreau, and William J. Muller, which appeared in issue 5, January 31, 2017, of Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (114:E707–E716; first published...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702117114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Quantification of labile heme in live malaria parasites using a
           genetically encoded biosensor [Applied Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: James R. Abshire; Christopher J. Rowlands, Suresh M. Ganesan, Peter T. C. So, Jacquin C. Niles
      Abstract: Heme is ubiquitous, yet relatively little is known about the maintenance of labile pools of this cofactor, which likely ensures its timely bioavailability for proper cellular function. Quantitative analysis of labile heme is of fundamental importance to understanding how nature preserves access to the diverse chemistry heme enables, while minimizing...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1615195114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Bioinformatic analysis of riboswitch structures uncovers variant classes
           with altered ligand specificity [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Zasha Weinberg; James W. Nelson, Christina E. Lunse, Madeline E. Sherlock, Ronald R. Breaker
      Abstract: Riboswitches are RNAs that form complex, folded structures that selectively bind small molecules or ions. As with certain groups of protein enzymes and receptors, some riboswitch classes have evolved to change their ligand specificity. We developed a procedure to systematically analyze known riboswitch classes to find additional variants that have...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619581114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Synergy of cAMP and calcium signaling pathways in CFTR regulation
           [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Zoltan Bozoky; Saumel Ahmadi, Tal Milman, Tae Hun Kim, Kai Du, Michelle Di Paola, Stan Pasyk, Roman Pekhletski, Jacob P. Keller, Christine E. Bear, Julie D. Forman-Kay
      Abstract: Cystic fibrosis results from mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel, leading to defective apical chloride transport. Patients also experience overactivation of inflammatory processes, including increased calcium signaling. Many investigations have described indirect effects of calcium signaling on CFTR or other calcium-activated chloride channels; here, we...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1613546114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Structural basis of autoregulatory scaffolding by apoptosis
           signal-regulating kinase 1 [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Johannes F. Weijman; Abhishek Kumar, Sam A. Jamieson, Chontelle M. King, Tom T. Caradoc-Davies, Elizabeth C. Ledgerwood, James M. Murphy, Peter D. Mace
      Abstract: Apoptosis signal-regulating kinases (ASK1–3) are apical kinases of the p38 and JNK MAP kinase pathways. They are activated by diverse stress stimuli, including reactive oxygen species, cytokines, and osmotic stress; however, a molecular understanding of how ASK proteins are controlled remains obscure. Here, we report a biochemical analysis of the...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620813114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Structure of human IFIT1 with capped RNA reveals adaptable mRNA binding
           and mechanisms for sensing N1 and N2 ribose 2'-O methylations
           [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Yazan M. Abbas; Beatrice Theres Laudenbach, Saul Martinez–Montero, Regina Cencic, Matthias Habȷan, Andreas Pichlmair, Masad J. Damha, Jerry Pelletier, Bhushan Nagar
      Abstract: IFIT1 (IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats-1) is an effector of the host innate immune antiviral response that prevents propagation of virus infection by selectively inhibiting translation of viral mRNA. It relies on its ability to compete with the translation initiation factor eIF4F to specifically recognize foreign capped mRNAs, while remaining...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1612444114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Genome-wide transcription-coupled repair in Escherichia coli is mediated
           by the Mfd translocase [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Ogun Adebali; Yi-Ying Chiou, Jinchuan Hu, Aziz Sancar, Christopher P. Selby
      Abstract: We used high-throughput sequencing of short, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer-containing ssDNA oligos generated during repair of UV-induced damage to study that process at both mechanistic and systemic levels in Escherichia coli. Numerous important insights on DNA repair were obtained, bringing clarity to the respective roles of UvrD helicase and Mfd translocase...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700230114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Rps3/uS3 promotes mRNA binding at the 40S ribosome entry channel and
           stabilizes preinitiation complexes at start codons [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Jinsheng Dong; Colin Echeverria Aitken, Anil Thakur, Byung–Sik Shin, Jon R. Lorsch, Alan G. Hinnebusch
      Abstract: The eukaryotic 43S preinitiation complex (PIC) bearing Met-tRNAiMet in a ternary complex (TC) with eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)2-GTP scans the mRNA leader for an AUG codon in favorable “Kozak” context. AUG recognition provokes rearrangement from an open PIC conformation with TC bound in a state not fully engaged with the...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620569114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Ligand binding to telomeric G-quadruplex DNA investigated by
           funnel-metadynamics simulations [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Federica Moraca; Jussara Amato, Francesco Ortuso, Anna Artese, Bruno Pagano, Ettore Novellino, Stefano Alcaro, Michele Parrinello, Vittorio Limongelli
      Abstract: G-quadruplexes (G4s) are higher-order DNA structures typically present at promoter regions of genes and telomeres. Here, the G4 formation decreases the replicative DNA at each cell cycle, finally leading to apoptosis. The ability to control this mitotic clock, particularly in cancer cells, is fascinating and passes through a rational understanding...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1612627114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Mechanism and bottlenecks in strand photodissociation of split green
           fluorescent proteins (GFPs) [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Chi-Yun Lin; Johan Both, Keunbong Do, Steven G. Boxer
      Abstract: Split GFPs have been widely applied for monitoring protein–protein interactions by expressing GFPs as two or more constituent parts linked to separate proteins that only fluoresce on complementing with one another. Although this complementation is typically irreversible, it has been shown previously that light accelerates dissociation of a noncovalently attached...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618087114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Localization of the gate and selectivity filter of the full-length P2X7
           receptor [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Anȷa Pippel; Michaela Stolz, Ronȷa Woltersdorf, Achim Kless, Gunther Schmalzing, Fritz Markwardt
      Abstract: The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) belongs to the P2X family of ATP-gated cation channels. P2X7Rs are expressed in epithelial cells, leukocytes, and microglia, and they play important roles in immunological and inflammatory processes. P2X7Rs are obligate homotrimers, with each subunit having two transmembrane helices, TM1 and TM2. Structural and functional data...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1610414114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • LEM2 recruits CHMP7 for ESCRT-mediated nuclear envelope closure in fission
           yeast and human cells [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Mingyu Gu; Dollie LaJoie, Opal S. Chen, Alexander von Appen, Mark S. Ladinsky, Michael J. Redd, Linda Nikolova, Pamela J. Bjorkman, Wesley I. Sundquist, Katharine S. Ullman, Adam Frost
      Abstract: Endosomal sorting complexes required for transport III (ESCRT-III) proteins have been implicated in sealing the nuclear envelope in mammals, spindle pole body dynamics in fission yeast, and surveillance of defective nuclear pore complexes in budding yeast. Here, we report that Lem2p (LEM2), a member of the LEM (Lap2-Emerin-Man1) family of...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1613916114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • SM protein Munc18-2 facilitates transition of Syntaxin 11-mediated lipid
           mixing to complete fusion for T-lymphocyte cytotoxicity [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Waldo A. Spessott; Maria L. Sanmillan, Margaret E. McCormick, Vineet V. Kulkarni, Claudio G. Giraudo
      Abstract: The atypical lipid-anchored Syntaxin 11 (STX11) and its binding partner, the Sec/Munc (SM) protein Munc18-2, facilitate cytolytic granule release by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. Patients carrying mutations in these genes develop familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, a primary immunodeficiency characterized by impaired lytic granule exocytosis. However, whether...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617981114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Vitamin D receptor regulates autophagy in the normal mammary gland and in
           luminal breast cancer cells [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Luz E. Tavera-Mendoza; Thomas Westerling, Eric Libby, Andriy Marusyk, Laura Cato, Raymundo Cassani, Lisa A. Cameron, Scott B. Ficarro, Jarrod A. Marto, Jelena Klawitter, Myles Brown
      Abstract: Women in North America have a one in eight lifetime risk of developing breast cancer (BC), and a significant proportion of these individuals will develop recurrent BC and will eventually succumb to the disease. Metastatic, therapy-resistant BC cells are refractory to cell death induced by multiple stresses. Here, we document...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1615015114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Aberrant splicing in maize rough endosperm3 reveals a conserved role for
           U12 splicing in eukaryotic multicellular development [Developmental
           Biology]
    • Authors: Christine M. Gault; Federico Martin, Wenbin Mei, Fang Bai, Joseph B. Black, W. Brad Barbazuk, A. Mark Settles
      Abstract: RNA splicing of U12-type introns functions in human cell differentiation, but it is not known whether this class of introns has a similar role in plants. The maize ROUGH ENDOSPERM3 (RGH3) protein is orthologous to the human splicing factor, ZRSR2. ZRSR2 mutations are associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and cause...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616173114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Monoubiquitylation of histone H2B contributes to the bypass of DNA damage
           during and after DNA replication [Genetics]
    • Authors: Shih-Hsun Hung; Ronald P. Wong, Helle D. Ulrich, Cheng-Fu Kao
      Abstract: DNA lesion bypass is mediated by DNA damage tolerance (DDT) pathways and homologous recombination (HR). The DDT pathways, which involve translesion synthesis and template switching (TS), are activated by the ubiquitylation (ub) of PCNA through components of the RAD6-RAD18 pathway, whereas the HR pathway is independent of RAD18. However, it...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1612633114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Transposon insertional mutagenesis in mice identifies human breast cancer
           susceptibility genes and signatures for stratification [Genetics]
    • Authors: Liming Chen; Piroon Jenjaroenpun, Andrea Mun Ching Pillai, Anna V. Ivshina, Ghim Siong Ow, Motakis Efthimios, Tang Zhiqun, Tuan Zea Tan, Song-Choon Lee, Keith Rogers, Jerrold M. Ward, Seiichi Mori, David J. Adams, Nancy A. Jenkins, Neal G. Copeland, Kenneth Hon-Kim Ban, Vladimir A. Kuznetsov, Jean Paul Thiery
      Abstract: Robust prognostic gene signatures and therapeutic targets are difficult to derive from expression profiling because of the significant heterogeneity within breast cancer (BC) subtypes. Here, we performed forward genetic screening in mice using Sleeping Beauty transposon mutagenesis to identify candidate BC driver genes in an unbiased manner, using a stabilized...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701512114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Glyoxylate detoxification is an essential function of malate synthase
           required for carbon assimilation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
           [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Susan Puckett; Carolina Trujillo, Zhe Wang, Hyungjin Eoh, Thomas R. Ioerger, Inna Krieger, James Sacchettini, Dirk Schnappinger, Kyu Y. Rhee, Sabine Ehrt
      Abstract: The glyoxylate shunt is a metabolic pathway of bacteria, fungi, and plants used to assimilate even-chain fatty acids (FAs) and has been implicated in persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Recent work, however, showed that the first enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, isocitrate lyase (ICL), may mediate survival of Mtb during...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617655114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Manganese scavenging and oxidative stress response mediated by type VI
           secretion system in Burkholderia thailandensis [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Meiru Si; Chao Zhao, Brianne Burkinshaw, Bing Zhang, Dawei Wei, Yao Wang, Tao G. Dong, Xihui Shen
      Abstract: Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a versatile protein export machinery widely distributed in Gram-negative bacteria. Known to translocate protein substrates to eukaryotic and prokaryotic target cells to cause cellular damage, the T6SS has been primarily recognized as a contact-dependent bacterial weapon for microbe–host and microbial interspecies competition. Here we...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1614902114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Rapid and efficient generation of oligodendrocytes from human induced
           pluripotent stem cells using transcription factors [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Marc Ehrlich; Sabah Mozafari, Michael Glatza, Laura Starost, Sergiy Velychko, Anna–Lena Hallmann, Qiao–Ling Cui, Axel Schambach, Kee–Pyo Kim, Corinne Bachelin, Antoine Marteyn, Gunnar Hargus, Radia Marie Johnson, Jack Antel, Jared Sterneckert, Holm Zaehres, Hans R. Scholer, Anne Baron–Van Evercooren, Tanȷa Kuhlmann
      Abstract: Rapid and efficient protocols to generate oligodendrocytes (OL) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are currently lacking, but may be a key technology to understand the biology of myelin diseases and to develop treatments for such disorders. Here, we demonstrate that the induction of three transcription factors (SOX10, OLIG2,...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1614412114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2C (SV2C) modulates dopamine release and is
           disrupted in Parkinson disease [Pharmacology]
    • Authors: Amy R. Dunn; Kristen A. Stout, Minagi Ozawa, Kelly M. Lohr, Carlie A. Hoffman, Alison I. Bernstein, Yingjie Li, Minzheng Wang, Carmelo Sgobio, Namratha Sastry, Huaibin Cai, W. Michael Caudle, Gary W. Miller
      Abstract: Members of the synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2) family of proteins are involved in synaptic function throughout the brain. The ubiquitously expressed SV2A has been widely implicated in epilepsy, although SV2C with its restricted basal ganglia distribution is poorly characterized. SV2C is emerging as a potentially relevant protein in Parkinson...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616892114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Correction for Shrivastava et al., Global long-range transport and lung
           cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons shielded by coatings of
           organic aerosol [Correction]
    • Abstract: EARTH, ATMOSPHERIC, AND PLANETARY SCIENCES Correction for “Global long-range transport and lung cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons shielded by coatings of organic aerosol,” by Manish Shrivastava, Silja Lou, Alla Zelenyuk, Richard C. Easter, Richard A. Corley, Brian D. Thrall, Philip J. Rasch, Jerome D. Fast, Staci L. Massey Simonich,...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702221114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 2783 - 2783
      Abstract: Electronic wires and supercapacitors in living plants Electronic wires in the petals of a rose. Image courtesy of Thor Balkhed (Linköping University, Linkoping, Sweden). Researchers recently developed living plants with electronic circuitry integrated into the plant tissues. Previously, the electronic components of such electronic plants (e-Plants) were confined to localized...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti1117114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • News Feature: Code wars [Political Sciences]
    • Authors: Stephen Ornes
      Pages: 2784 - 2787
      Abstract: Quantum cryptography gears up to fight code-breaking quantum computers. Will the approach bolster security in the future, or is it fatally flawed? In October 2014, an Antares rocket blasted off from a NASA launch pad on one of Virginia’s barrier islands, and exploded seconds later. In addition to about 5,000...
      Keywords: News Features, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702236114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • G-quadruplex-forming promoter sequences enable transcriptional activation
           in response to oxidative stress [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Bogdan I. Fedeles
      Pages: 2788 - 2790
      Abstract: Oxidative DNA damage is an implacable consequence of aerobic metabolism and often exacerbated in inflammatory processes that use reactive oxygen species (ROS) both as signaling molecules and as chemical warfare against pathogens. An extensive body of work, recently reviewed in ref. 1, has highlighted the deleterious consequences of oxidative DNA...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701244114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Understanding bias in DNA repair [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Terence R. Strick; Nigel J. Savery
      Pages: 2791 - 2793
      Abstract: DNA damage is a frequent and detrimental event faced by all living organisms. Decades of research have characterized the repair pathways that counteract this threat at genetic, biochemical, and structural levels. More recently, genome sequencing has revealed patterns of mutation demonstrating that DNA repair proteins fight damage more efficiently in...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701549114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Tantalizing evidence for the glacial North Atlantic bottom water [Earth,
           Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Katsumi Matsumoto
      Pages: 2794 - 2796
      Abstract: The global Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) is one of the key components of the global climate system. Over timescales of 102 to 103 y, MOC connects the cold, carbon-rich waters in the deep ocean with warmer, carbon-poorer surface waters through localized deep water formation and more widespread upwelling of deep...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701563114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Understanding band gaps of solids in generalized Kohn-Sham theory [Applied
           Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: John P. Perdew; Weitao Yang, Kieron Burke, Zenghui Yang, Eberhard K. U. Gross, Matthias Scheffler, Gustavo E. Scuseria, Thomas M. Henderson, Igor Ying Zhang, Adrienn Ruzsinszky, Haowei Peng, Jianwei Sun, Egor Trushin, Andreas Gorling
      Pages: 2801 - 2806
      Abstract: The fundamental energy gap of a periodic solid distinguishes insulators from metals and characterizes low-energy single-electron excitations. However, the gap in the band structure of the exact multiplicative Kohn–Sham (KS) potential substantially underestimates the fundamental gap, a major limitation of KS density-functional theory. Here, we give a simple proof of...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621352114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • In vivo polymerization and manufacturing of wires and supercapacitors in
           plants [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Eleni Stavrinidou; Roger Gabrielsson, K. Peter R. Nilsson, Sandeep Kumar Singh, Juan Felipe Franco-Gonzalez, Anton V. Volkov, Magnus P. Jonsson, Andrea Grimoldi, Mathias Elgland, Igor V. Zozoulenko, Daniel T. Simon, Magnus Berggren
      Pages: 2807 - 2812
      Abstract: Electronic plants, e-Plants, are an organic bioelectronic platform that allows electronic interfacing with plants. Recently we have demonstrated plants with augmented electronic functionality. Using the vascular system and organs of a plant, we manufactured organic electronic devices and circuits in vivo, leveraging the internal structure and physiology of the plant...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616456114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Voltage-sensitive rhodol with enhanced two-photon brightness
           [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Rishikesh U. Kulkarni; Daniel J. Kramer, Narges Pourmandi, Kaveh Karbasi, Helen S. Bateup, Evan W. Miller
      Pages: 2813 - 2818
      Abstract: We have designed, synthesized, and applied a rhodol-based chromophore to a molecular wire-based platform for voltage sensing to achieve fast, sensitive, and bright voltage sensing using two-photon (2P) illumination. Rhodol VoltageFluor-5 (RVF5) is a voltage-sensitive dye with improved 2P cross-section for use in thick tissue or brain samples. RVF5 features...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1610791114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Previously unknown class of metalorganic compounds revealed in meteorites
           [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Alexander Ruf; Basem Kanawati, Norbert Hertkorn, Qing–Zhu Yin, Franco Moritz, Mourad Harir, Marianna Lucio, Bernhard Michalke, Joshua Wimpenny, Svetlana Shilobreeva, Basil Bronsky, Vladimir Saraykin, Zelimir Gabelica, Regis D. Gougeon, Eric Quirico, Stefan Ralew, Tomasz Jakubowski, Henning Haack, Michael Gonsior, Peter Jenniskens, Nancy W. Hinman, Philippe Schmitt–Kopplin
      Pages: 2819 - 2824
      Abstract: The rich diversity and complexity of organic matter found in meteorites is rapidly expanding our knowledge and understanding of extreme environments from which the early solar system emerged and evolved. Here, we report the discovery of a hitherto unknown chemical class, dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates [(OH)2MgO2CR]−, in meteoritic soluble organic matter. High...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616019114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Strategic aspects of cyberattack, attribution, and blame [Political
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Benjamin Edwards; Alexander Furnas, Stephanie Forrest, Robert Axelrod
      Pages: 2825 - 2830
      Abstract: Cyber conflict is now a common and potentially dangerous occurrence. The target typically faces a strategic choice based on its ability to attribute the attack to a specific perpetrator and whether it has a viable punishment at its disposal. We present a game-theoretic model, in which the best strategic choice...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700442114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Carbon isotope evidence for a northern source of deep water in the glacial
           western North Atlantic [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Lloyd D. Keigwin; Stephen A. Swift
      Pages: 2831 - 2835
      Abstract: The prevailing view of western Atlantic hydrography during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) calls for transport and intermixing of deep southern and intermediate northern end members. However, δ13C and Δ14C results on foraminifera from a sediment core at 5.0 km in the northern subtropics show that there may have also...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1614693114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Tolerance to structural disorder and tunable mechanical behavior in
           self-assembled superlattices of polymer-grafted nanocrystals [Engineering]
           
    • Authors: X. Wendy Gu; Xingchen Ye, David M. Koshy, Shraddha Vachhani, Peter Hosemann, A. Paul Alivisatos
      Pages: 2836 - 2841
      Abstract: Large, freestanding membranes with remarkably high elastic modulus (>10 GPa) have been fabricated through the self-assembly of ligand-stabilized inorganic nanocrystals, even though these nanocrystals are connected only by soft organic ligands (e.g., dodecanethiol or DNA) that are not cross-linked or entangled. Recent developments in the synthesis of polymer-grafted nanocrystals have...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618508114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Enhanced groundwater recharge rates and altered recharge sensitivity to
           climate variability through subsurface heterogeneity [Sustainability
           Science]
    • Authors: Andreas Hartmann; Tom Gleeson, Yoshihide Wada, Thorsten Wagener
      Pages: 2842 - 2847
      Abstract: Our environment is heterogeneous. In hydrological sciences, the heterogeneity of subsurface properties, such as hydraulic conductivities or porosities, exerts an important control on water balance. This notably includes groundwater recharge, which is an important variable for efficient and sustainable groundwater resources management. Current large-scale hydrological models do not adequately consider...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1614941114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Selenium deficiency risk predicted to increase under future climate change
           [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Gerrad D. Jones; Boris Droz, Peter Greve, Pia Gottschalk, Deyan Poffet, Steve P. McGrath, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Pete Smith, Lenny H. E. Winkel
      Pages: 2848 - 2853
      Abstract: Deficiencies of micronutrients, including essential trace elements, affect up to 3 billion people worldwide. The dietary availability of trace elements is determined largely by their soil concentrations. Until now, the mechanisms governing soil concentrations have been evaluated in small-scale studies, which identify soil physicochemical properties as governing variables. However, global...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1611576114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Co-occurrence of extremes in surface ozone, particulate matter, and
           temperature over eastern North America [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Jordan L. Schnell; Michael J. Prather
      Pages: 2854 - 2859
      Abstract: Heat waves and air pollution episodes pose a serious threat to human health and may worsen under future climate change. In this paper, we use 15 years (1999–2013) of commensurately gridded (1° x 1°) surface observations of extended summer (April–September) surface ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and maximum temperature...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1614453114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Assessing significance in a Markov chain without mixing [Political
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Maria Chikina; Alan Frieze, Wesley Pegden
      Pages: 2860 - 2864
      Abstract: We present a statistical test to detect that a presented state of a reversible Markov chain was not chosen from a stationary distribution. In particular, given a value function for the states of the Markov chain, we would like to show rigorously that the presented state is an outlier with...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617540114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Geometric localization of thermal fluctuations in red blood cells
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Arthur A. Evans; Basanta Bhaduri, Gabriel Popescu, Alex J. Levine
      Pages: 2865 - 2870
      Abstract: The thermal fluctuations of membranes and nanoscale shells affect their mechanical characteristics. Whereas these fluctuations are well understood for flat membranes, curved shells show anomalous behavior due to the geometric coupling between in-plane elasticity and out-of-plane bending. Using conventional shallow shell theory in combination with equilibrium statistical physics we theoretically...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1613204114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Shrinking instability of toroidal droplets [Physics]
    • Authors: Alexandros A. Fragkopoulos; Ekapop Pairam, Eric Berger, Phil N. Segre, Alberto Fernandez–Nieves
      Pages: 2871 - 2875
      Abstract: Toroidal droplets are inherently unstable due to surface tension. They can break up, similar to cylindrical jets, but also exhibit a shrinking instability, which is inherent to the toroidal shape. We investigate the evolution of shrinking toroidal droplets using particle image velocimetry. We obtain the flow field inside the droplets...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619073114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Legislative coalitions with incomplete information [Political Sciences]
    • Authors: Tiberiu Dragu; Michael Laver
      Pages: 2876 - 2880
      Abstract: In most parliamentary democracies, proportional representation electoral rules mean that no single party controls a majority of seats in the legislature. This in turn means that the formation of majority legislative coalitions in such settings is of critical political importance. Conventional approaches to modeling the formation of such legislative coalitions...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1608514114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • A neural model of valuation and information virality [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Christin Scholz; Elisa C. Baek, Matthew Brook O’Donnell, Hyun Suk Kim, Joseph N. Cappella, Emily B. Falk
      Pages: 2881 - 2886
      Abstract: Information sharing is an integral part of human interaction that serves to build social relationships and affects attitudes and behaviors in individuals and large groups. We present a unifying neurocognitive framework of mechanisms underlying information sharing at scale (virality). We argue that expectations regarding self-related and social consequences of sharing...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1615259114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Emergence of communities and diversity in social networks [Applied
           Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Xiao Han; Shinan Cao, Zhesi Shen, Boyu Zhang, Wen-Xu Wang, Ross Cressman, H. Eugene Stanley
      Pages: 2887 - 2891
      Abstract: Communities are common in complex networks and play a significant role in the functioning of social, biological, economic, and technological systems. Despite widespread interest in detecting community structures in complex networks and exploring the effect of communities on collective dynamics, a deep understanding of the emergence and prevalence of communities...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1608164114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Oligomeric lipoprotein PelC guides Pel polysaccharide export across the
           outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Lindsey S. Marmont; Jacquelyn D. Rich, John C. Whitney, Gregory B. Whitfield, Henrik Almblad, Howard Robinson, Matthew R. Parsek, Joe J. Harrison, P. Lynne Howell
      Pages: 2892 - 2897
      Abstract: Secreted polysaccharides are important functional and structural components of bacterial biofilms. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces the cationic exopolysaccharide Pel, which protects bacteria from aminoglycoside antibiotics and contributes to biofilm architecture through ionic interactions with extracellular DNA. A bioinformatics analysis of genome databases suggests that gene clusters for Pel...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1613606114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Selection of DNA aptamers with two modified bases [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Bharat N. Gawande; John C. Rohloff, Jeffrey D. Carter, Ira von Carlowitz, Chi Zhang, Daniel J. Schneider, Nebojsa Janjic
      Pages: 2898 - 2903
      Abstract: The nucleobases comprising DNA and RNA aptamers provide considerably less chemical diversity than protein-based ligands, limiting their versatility. The introduction of novel functional groups at just one of the four bases in modified aptamers has recently led to dramatic improvement in the success rate of identifying nucleic acid ligands to...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1615475114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Specific phospholipid binding to Na,K-ATPase at two distinct sites
           [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Michael Habeck; Einat Kapri-Pardes, Michal Sharon, Steven J. D. Karlish
      Pages: 2904 - 2909
      Abstract: Membrane protein function can be affected by the physical state of the lipid bilayer and specific lipid–protein interactions. For Na,K-ATPase, bilayer properties can modulate pump activity, and, as observed in crystal structures, several lipids are bound within the transmembrane domain. Furthermore, Na,K-ATPase activity depends on phosphatidylserine (PS) and cholesterol, which...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620799114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Formation and size distribution of self-assembled vesicles [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Changjin Huang; David Quinn, Yoel Sadovsky, Subra Suresh, K. Jimmy Hsia
      Pages: 2910 - 2915
      Abstract: When detergents and phospholipid membranes are dispersed in aqueous solutions, they tend to self-assemble into vesicles of various shapes and sizes by virtue of their hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. A clearer understanding of such vesiculation processes holds promise for better elucidation of human physiology and disease, and paves the way...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702065114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Electron transfer pathways in a multiheme cytochrome MtrF [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Hiroshi C. Watanabe; Yuki Yamashita, Hiroshi Ishikita
      Pages: 2916 - 2921
      Abstract: In MtrF, an outer-membrane multiheme cytochrome, the 10 heme groups are arranged in heme binding domains II and IV along the pseudo-C2 axis, forming the electron transfer (ET) pathways. Previous reports based on molecular dynamics simulations showed that the redox potential (Em) values for the heme pairs located in symmetrical...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617615114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Spatial confinement of active microtubule networks induces large-scale
           rotational cytoplasmic flow [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Kazuya Suzuki; Makito Miyazaki, Jun Takagi, Takeshi Itabashi, Shin’ichi Ishiwata
      Pages: 2922 - 2927
      Abstract: Collective behaviors of motile units through hydrodynamic interactions induce directed fluid flow on a larger length scale than individual units. In cells, active cytoskeletal systems composed of polar filaments and molecular motors drive fluid flow, a process known as cytoplasmic streaming. The motor-driven elongation of microtubule bundles generates turbulent-like flow...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616001114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Knowledge-based entropies improve the identification of native protein
           structures [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Kannan Sankar; Kejue Jia, Robert L. Jernigan
      Pages: 2928 - 2933
      Abstract: Evaluating protein structures requires reliable free energies with good estimates of both potential energies and entropies. Although there are many demonstrated successes from using knowledge-based potential energies, computing entropies of proteins has lagged far behind. Here we take an entirely different approach and evaluate knowledge-based conformational entropies of proteins based...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1613331114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Metabolic origins of spatial organization in the tumor microenvironment
           [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Carlos Carmona-Fontaine; Maxime Deforet, Leila Akkari, Craig B. Thompson, Johanna A. Joyce, Joao B. Xavier
      Pages: 2934 - 2939
      Abstract: The genetic and phenotypic diversity of cells within tumors is a major obstacle for cancer treatment. Because of the stochastic nature of genetic alterations, this intratumoral heterogeneity is often viewed as chaotic. Here we show that the altered metabolism of cancer cells creates predictable gradients of extracellular metabolites that orchestrate...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700600114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Microbial community assembly and evolution in subseafloor sediment
           [Ecology]
    • Authors: Piotr Starnawski; Thomas Bataillon, Thiȷs J. G. Ettema, Lara M. Jochum, Lars Schreiber, Xihan Chen, Mark A. Lever, Martin F. Polz, Bo B. Jorgensen, Andreas Schramm, Kasper U. Kȷeldsen
      Pages: 2940 - 2945
      Abstract: Bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting the subsurface seabed live under strong energy limitation and have growth rates that are orders of magnitude slower than laboratory-grown cultures. It is not understood how subsurface microbial communities are assembled and whether populations undergo adaptive evolution or accumulate mutations as a result of impaired...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1614190114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Human-started wildfires expand the fire niche across the United States
           [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Jennifer K. Balch; Bethany A. Bradley, John T. Abatzoglou, R. Chelsea Nagy, Emily J. Fusco, Adam L. Mahood
      Pages: 2946 - 2951
      Abstract: The economic and ecological costs of wildfire in the United States have risen substantially in recent decades. Although climate change has likely enabled a portion of the increase in wildfire activity, the direct role of people in increasing wildfire activity has been largely overlooked. We evaluate over 1.5 million government...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617394114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • BET N-terminal bromodomain inhibition selectively blocks Th17 cell
           differentiation and ameliorates colitis in mice [Immunology and
           Inflammation]
    • Authors: Kalung Cheung; Geming Lu, Rajal Sharma, Adam Vincek, Ruihua Zhang, Alexander N. Plotnikov, Fan Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Ying Ju, Yuan Hu, Li Zhao, Xinye Han, Jamel Meslamani, Feihong Xu, Anbalagan Jaganathan, Tong Shen, Hongfa Zhu, Elena Rusinova, Lei Zeng, Jiachi Zhou, Jianjun Yang, Liang Peng, Michael Ohlmeyer, Martin J. Walsh, David Y. Zhang, Huabao Xiong, Ming-Ming Zhou
      Pages: 2952 - 2957
      Abstract: T-helper 17 (Th17) cells have important functions in adaptor immunity and have also been implicated in inflammatory disorders. The bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) family proteins regulate gene transcription during lineage-specific differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells to produce mature T-helper cells. Inhibition of acetyl-lysine binding of the BET proteins...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1615601114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Permeation of macromolecules into the renal glomerular basement membrane
           and capture by the tubules [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Marlon G. Lawrence; Michael K. Altenburg, Ryan Sanford, Julian D. Willett, Benjamin Bleasdale, Byron Ballou, Jennifer Wilder, Feng Li, Jeffrey H. Miner, Ulla B. Berg, Oliver Smithies
      Pages: 2958 - 2963
      Abstract: How the kidney prevents urinary excretion of plasma proteins continues to be debated. Here, using unfixed whole-mount mouse kidneys, we show that fluorescent-tagged proteins and neutral dextrans permeate into the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), in general agreement with Ogston's 1958 equation describing how permeation into gels is related to molecular...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616457114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 promotes platelet activation and
           thrombosis [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Yiwen Zhang; Jian Zhang, Rong Yan, Jingluan Tian, Yang Zhang, Jie Zhang, Mengxing Chen, Qingya Cui, Lili Zhao, Renping Hu, Miao Jiang, Zhenyu Li, Changgeng Ruan, Sudan He, Kesheng Dai
      Pages: 2964 - 2969
      Abstract: Previous studies have shown that receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) is involved in many important biological processes, including necroptosis, apoptosis, and inflammation. Here we show that RIP3 plays a critical role in regulating platelet functions and in vivo thrombosis and hemostasis. Tail bleeding times were significantly longer in RIP3-knockout (RIP3−/−)...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1610963114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Cooperation of two distinct coupling proteins creates chemosensory network
           connections [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Samar Abedrabbo; Juan Castellon, Kieran D. Collins, Kevin S. Johnson, Karen M. Ottemann
      Pages: 2970 - 2975
      Abstract: Although it is appreciated that bacterial chemotaxis systems rely on coupling, also called scaffold, proteins to both connect input receptors with output kinases and build interkinase connections that allow signal amplification, it is not yet clear why many systems use more than one coupling protein. We examined the distinct functions...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618227114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Cas9-mediated genome editing in the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina
           acetivorans [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Dipti D. Nayak; William W. Metcalf
      Pages: 2976 - 2981
      Abstract: Although Cas9-mediated genome editing has proven to be a powerful genetic tool in eukaryotes, its application in Bacteria has been limited because of inefficient targeting or repair; and its application to Archaea has yet to be reported. Here we describe the development of a Cas9-mediated genome-editing tool that allows facile...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618596114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Agrobacterium-delivered virulence protein VirE2 is trafficked inside host
           cells via a myosin XI-K-powered ER/actin network [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Qinghua Yang; Xiaoyang Li, Haitao Tu, Shen Q. Pan
      Pages: 2982 - 2987
      Abstract: Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall tumors on various plants by delivering transferred DNA (T-DNA) and virulence proteins into host plant cells. Under laboratory conditions, the bacterium is widely used as a vector to genetically modify a wide range of organisms, including plants, yeasts, fungi, and algae. Various studies suggest that...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1612098114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Amino acid oxidation of the D1 and D2 proteins by oxygen radicals during
           photoinhibition of Photosystem II [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Ravindra Kale; Annette E. Hebert, Laurie K. Frankel, Larry Sallans, Terry M. Bricker, Pavel Pospišil
      Pages: 2988 - 2993
      Abstract: The Photosystem II reaction center is vulnerable to photoinhibition. The D1 and D2 proteins, lying at the core of the photosystem, are susceptible to oxidative modification by reactive oxygen species that are formed by the photosystem during illumination. Using spin probes and EPR spectroscopy, we have determined that both O2•−...
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:36:30-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618922114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 11 (2017)
       
 
 
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