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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 6.092
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 1110  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 16153 - 16154
      Abstract: Induced seismicity and fluid injection House in central Oklahoma damaged in an earthquake on November 6, 2011. Image courtesy of Flickr/US Geological Survey. Over the past decade, the central and eastern United States have experienced an increased number of earthquakes, which are mostly attributed to waste fluid disposal through subsurface...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti3319116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Opinion: To advance sustainable stewardship, we must document not only
           biodiversity but geodiversity [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Franziska Schrodt; Joseph J. Bailey, W. Daniel Kissling, Kenneth F. Riȷsdiȷk, Arie C. Seiȷmonsbergen, Derk van Ree, Jan Hȷort, Russell S. Lawley, Christopher N. Williams, Mark G. Anderson, Paul Beier, Pieter van Beukering, Doreen S. Boyd, Jose Brilha, Luis Carcavilla, Kyla M. Dahlin, Joel C. Gill, John E. Gordon, Murray Gray, Mike Grundy, Malcolm L. Hunter, Joshua J. Lawler, Manu Monge–Ganuzas, Katherine R. Royse, Iain Stewart, Sydne Record, Woody Turner, Phoebe L. Zarnetske, Richard Field
      Pages: 16155 - 16158
      Abstract: Rapid environmental change is driving the need for complex and comprehensive scientific information that supports policies aimed at managing natural resources through international treaties, platforms, and networks. One successful approach for delivering such information has been the development of essential variables for climate (1), oceans (2), biodiversity (3), and sustainable...
      Keywords: Opinions, Front Matter, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911799116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Core Concept: Seismic tomography uses earthquake waves to probe the inner
           Earth [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Sid Perkins
      Pages: 16159 - 16161
      Abstract: Computerized tomography (CT) scans revolutionized medicine by giving doctors and diagnosticians the ability to visualize tissues deep within the body in three dimensions. In recent years, a different sort of imaging technique has done the same for geophysicists. Seismic tomography allows them to detect and depict subterranean features. Data gathered...
      Keywords: Core Concepts, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909777116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • QnAs with Elizabeth Ainsworth [QnAs]
    • Authors: Tinsley H. Davis
      Pages: 16162 - 16163
      Abstract: The atmosphere of today will be increasingly different in the coming decades as it continues to respond to human influences. Elizabeth Ainsworth, of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS), recently received the 2019 National Academy of Sciences Prize in Food and Agriculture Sciences for her efforts...
      Keywords: QnAs
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911301116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Water and methane stay together at extreme pressures [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Christoph G. Salzmann
      Pages: 16164 - 16166
      Abstract: Large lakes of liquid methane nestle between mountain ranges of solid water ice in the polar regions of Jupiter’s moon Titan (1, 2). This strange world illustrates in a quite dramatic fashion that the isoelectronic CH4 and H2O molecules display profoundly different physical properties including a 182 °C difference in...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911390116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Origin of programmed cell death from antiviral defense' [Genetics]
    • Authors: Eugene V. Koonin; Mart Krupovic
      Pages: 16167 - 16169
      Abstract: Viruses and other genetic parasites are ubiquitous in the biosphere, and virtually all cellular organisms evolved multiple defense mechanisms to cope with onslaughts of these parasites (1). In multicellular life forms, a major class of such mechanisms is programmed cell death (PCD), whereby an infected cell “commits altruistic suicide” to...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910303116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Temperature impact on GDP growth is overestimated [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Richard A. Rosen
      Pages: 16170 - 16170
      Abstract: I am writing about the PNAS article entitled “Global warming has increased global economic inequality” by Diffenbaugh and Burke (1). I believe that all of the numerical results cited in this article are wrong, because the methodology is not valid. The abstract says this research yields “a ratio between the...
      Keywords: Letters, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1908081116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Reply to Rosen: Temperature-growth relationship is robust [Social
    • Authors: Noah S. Diffenbaugh; Marshall Burke
      Pages: 16171 - 16172
      Abstract: Rosen (1) argues that because our statistical model relating temperature to economic growth does not explain all of the variation in economic growth over the last half-century it cannot uncover the relationship between temperature and growth. This is a little like saying a medicine cannot possibly be effective at reducing...
      Keywords: Letters, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1908772116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Familial hyperkalemia and hypertension and a hypothesis to explain
           proximal renal tubular acidosis [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Zvi Farfel; Haim Mayan, Steven J. D. Karlish
      Pages: 16173 - 16174
      Abstract: Familial hyperkalemia and hypertension (FHHt) is an inherited disease characterized by hyperkalemia, hypertension, and hyperchloremic acidosis (1, 2). The primary defect is a hyperactive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC), expressed exclusively in renal distal convoluted tubule (DCT). FHHt is caused by a mutation in 1 of 4 genes, WNK1, WNK4, KLHL3,...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909494116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Reply to Farfel et al.: Is enhanced chloride reabsorption in proximal
           tubule a possible mechanism of metabolic acidosis in PHAII'
           [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Jen-Chi Chen; Shih-Hua Lin, Chou-Long Huang, Chih-Jen Cheng
      Pages: 16175 - 16176
      Abstract: Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis along with hypertension and hyperkalemia are features of pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII). Increased activity of sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) is believed to be an important mechanism of these phenotypic features (1). Gain-of-function mutations of WNK4 in PHAII activate NCC in the distal convoluted tubule, which leads to...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910215116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • The overlooked significance of plasma volume for successful adaptation to
           high altitude in Sherpa and Andean natives [Physiology]
    • Authors: Mike Stembridge; Alexandra M. Williams, Christopher Gasho, Tony G. Dawkins, Aimee Drane, Francisco C. Villafuerte, Benjamin D. Levine, Rob Shave, Philip N. Ainslie
      Pages: 16177 - 16179
      Abstract: In contrast to Andean natives, high-altitude Tibetans present with a lower hemoglobin concentration that correlates with reproductive success and exercise capacity. Decades of physiological and genomic research have assumed that the lower hemoglobin concentration in Himalayan natives results from a blunted erythropoietic response to hypoxia (i.e., no increase in total...
      Keywords: Brief Reports
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909002116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • The role of shape-dependent flight stability in the origin of oriented
           meteorites [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Khunsa Amin; Jinzi Mac Huang, Kevin J. Hu, Jun Zhang, Leif Ristroph
      Pages: 16180 - 16185
      Abstract: The atmospheric ablation of meteoroids is a striking example of the reshaping of a solid object due to its motion through a fluid. Motivated by meteorite samples collected on Earth that suggest fixed orientation during flight—most notably the conical shape of so-called oriented meteorites—we hypothesize that such forms result from...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1815133116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Anisotropic spin-orbit torque generation in epitaxial SrIrO3 by symmetry
           design [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: T. Nan; T. J. Anderson, J. Gibbons, K. Hwang, N. Campbell, H. Zhou, Y. Q. Dong, G. Y. Kim, D. F. Shao, T. R. Paudel, N. Reynolds, X. J. Wang, N. X. Sun, E. Y. Tsymbal, S. Y. Choi, M. S. Rzchowski, Yong Baek Kim, D. C. Ralph, C. B. Eom
      Pages: 16186 - 16191
      Abstract: Spin-orbit coupling (SOC), the interaction between the electron spin and the orbital angular momentum, can unlock rich phenomena at interfaces, in particular interconverting spin and charge currents. Conventional heavy metals have been extensively explored due to their strong SOC of conduction electrons. However, spin-orbit effects in classes of materials such...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1812822116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Mechanical and kinetic factors drive sorting of F-actin cross-linkers on
           bundles [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Simon L. Freedman; Cristian Suarez, Jonathan D. Winkelman, David R. Kovar, Gregory A. Voth, Aaron R. Dinner, Glen M. Hocky
      Pages: 16192 - 16197
      Abstract: In cells, actin-binding proteins (ABPs) sort to different regions to establish F-actin networks with diverse functions, including filopodia used for cell migration and contractile rings required for cell division. Recent experimental work uncovered a competition-based mechanism that may facilitate spatial localization of ABPs: binding of a short cross-linker protein to...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1820814116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Excitation energy-dependent photocurrent switching in a single-molecule
           photodiode [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Bing Shan; Animesh Nayak, Olivia F. Williams, Dillon C. Yost, Nicholas F. Polizzi, Yanming Liu, Ninghao Zhou, Yosuke Kanai, Andrew M. Moran, Michael J. Therien, Thomas J. Meyer
      Pages: 16198 - 16203
      Abstract: The direction of electron flow in molecular optoelectronic devices is dictated by charge transfer between a molecular excited state and an underlying conductor or semiconductor. For those devices, controlling the direction and reversibility of electron flow is a major challenge. We describe here a single-molecule photodiode. It is based on...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1907118116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Observation of methane filled hexagonal ice stable up to 150 GPa
    • Authors: Sofiane Schaack; Umbertoluca Ranieri, Philippe Depondt, Richard Gaal, Werner F. Kuhs, Philippe Gillet, Fabio Finocchi, Livia E. Bove
      Pages: 16204 - 16209
      Abstract: Gas hydrates consist of hydrogen-bonded water frameworks enclosing guest gas molecules and have been the focus of intense research for almost 40 y, both for their fundamental role in the understanding of hydrophobic interactions and for gas storage and energy-related applications. The stable structure of methane hydrate above 2 GPa,...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904911116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Energy conversion via metal nanolayers [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Mavis D. Boamah; Emilie H. Lozier, Jeongmin Kim, Paul E. Ohno, Catherine E. Walker, Thomas F. Miller III, Franz M. Geiger
      Pages: 16210 - 16215
      Abstract: Current approaches for electric power generation from nanoscale conducting or semiconducting layers in contact with moving aqueous droplets are promising as they show efficiencies of around 30%, yet even the most successful ones pose challenges regarding fabrication and scaling. Here, we report stable, all-inorganic single-element structures synthesized in a single...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906601116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • African biomass burning is a substantial source of phosphorus deposition
           to the Amazon, Tropical Atlantic Ocean, and Southern Ocean [Earth,
           Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Anne E. Barkley; Joseph M. Prospero, Natalie Mahowald, Douglas S. Hamilton, Kimberly J. Popendorf, Amanda M. Oehlert, Ali Pourmand, Alexandre Gatineau, Kathy Panechou-Pulcherie, Patricia Blackwelder, Cassandra J. Gaston
      Pages: 16216 - 16221
      Abstract: The deposition of phosphorus (P) from African dust is believed to play an important role in bolstering primary productivity in the Amazon Basin and Tropical Atlantic Ocean (TAO), leading to sequestration of carbon dioxide. However, there are few measurements of African dust in South America that can robustly test this...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906091116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Radiokrypton unveils dual moisture sources of a deep desert aquifer
           [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Reika Yokochi; Roi Ram, Jake C. Zappala, Wei Jiang, Eilon Adar, Ryan Bernier, Avihu Burg, Uri Dayan, Zheng-Tian Lu, Peter Mueller, Roland Purtschert, Yoseph Yechieli
      Pages: 16222 - 16227
      Abstract: In arid regions, groundwater is a vital resource that can also provide a long-term record of the regional water cycle. However, the use of groundwater as a paleoclimate proxy has been limited by the complex hydrology and the lack of appropriate chronometers to determine the recharge time without complication. Applying...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904260116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Pore-pressure diffusion, enhanced by poroelastic stresses, controls
           induced seismicity in Oklahoma [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary
    • Authors: Guang Zhai; Manoochehr Shirzaei, Michael Manga, Xiaowei Chen
      Pages: 16228 - 16233
      Abstract: Induced seismicity linked to geothermal resource exploitation, hydraulic fracturing, and wastewater disposal is evolving into a global issue because of the increasing energy demand. Moderate to large induced earthquakes, causing widespread hazards, are often related to fluid injection into deep permeable formations that are hydraulically connected to the underlying crystalline...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1819225116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Volumetric and shear processes in crystalline rock approaching faulting
           [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Francois Renard; Jessica McBeck, Neelima Kandula, Benoit Cordonnier, Paul Meakin, Yehuda Ben–Zion
      Pages: 16234 - 16239
      Abstract: Understanding the approach to faulting in continental rocks is critical for identifying processes leading to fracturing in geomaterials and the preparation process of large earthquakes. In situ dynamic X-ray imaging and digital volume correlation analysis of a crystalline rock core, under a constant confining pressure of 25 MPa, are used...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1902994116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Universal amplification-free molecular diagnostics by billion-fold
           hierarchical nanofluidic concentration [Engineering]
    • Authors: Wei Ouyang; Jongyoon Han
      Pages: 16240 - 16249
      Abstract: Rapid and reliable detection of ultralow-abundance nucleic acids and proteins in complex biological media may greatly advance clinical diagnostics and biotechnology development. Currently, nucleic acid tests rely on enzymatic processes for target amplification (e.g., PCR), which have many inherent issues restricting their implementation in diagnostics. On the other hand, there...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904513116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Anomalous relaxation and the high-temperature structure factor of XXZ spin
           chains [Physics]
    • Authors: Sarang Gopalakrishnan; Romain Vasseur, Brayden Ware
      Pages: 16250 - 16255
      Abstract: We compute the spin-structure factor of XXZ spin chains in the Heisenberg and gapped (Ising) regimes in the high-temperature limit for nonzero magnetization, within the framework of generalized hydrodynamics, including diffusive corrections. The structure factor shows a hierarchy of timescales in the gapped phase, owing to s-spin magnon bound states...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906914116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Depletion layer dynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions under Poiseuille
           flow [Physics]
    • Authors: Seong Jun Park; Anisha Shakya, John T. King
      Pages: 16256 - 16261
      Abstract: Complex liquids flow through channels faster than expected, an effect attributed to the formation of low-viscosity depletion layers at the boundaries. Characterization of depletion layer length scale, concentration, and dynamics has remained elusive due in large part to the lack of suitable real-space experimental techniques. The short length scales associated...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1900623116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • The empirical relationship between nonstandard economic behaviors
           [Economic Sciences]
    • Authors: Mark Dean; Pietro Ortoleva
      Pages: 16262 - 16267
      Abstract: We study the joint distribution of 11 behavioral phenomena in a group of 190 laboratory subjects and compare it to the predictions of existing models as a step in the development of a parsimonious, general model of economic choice. We find strong correlations between most measures of risk and time...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1821353116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Personal infidelity and professional conduct in 4 settings [Economic
    • Authors: John M. Griffin; Samuel Kruger, Gonzalo Maturana
      Pages: 16268 - 16273
      Abstract: We study the connection between personal and professional behavior by introducing usage of a marital infidelity website as a measure of personal conduct. Police officers and financial advisors who use the infidelity website are significantly more likely to engage in professional misconduct. Results are similar for US Securities and Exchange...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1905329116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Parochialism, social norms, and discrimination against immigrants
           [Political Sciences]
    • Authors: Donghyun Danny Choi; Mathias Poertner, Nicholas Sambanis
      Pages: 16274 - 16279
      Abstract: Ingroup bias and outgroup prejudice are pervasive features of human behavior, motivating various forms of discrimination and conflict. In an era of increased cross-border migration, these tendencies exacerbate intergroup conflict between native populations and immigrant groups, raising the question of how conflict can be overcome. We address this question through...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1820146116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Ethnic networks can foster the economic integration of refugees [Political
    • Authors: Linna Marten; Jens Hainmueller, Dominik Hangartner
      Pages: 16280 - 16285
      Abstract: There is widespread concern in Europe and other refugee-receiving continents that living in an enclave of coethnics hinders refugees’ economic and social integration. Several European governments have adopted policies to geographically disperse refugees. While many theoretical arguments and descriptive studies analyze the impact of spatially concentrated ethnic networks on immigrant...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1820345116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Reappraising academic and social adversity improves middle school
           students’ academic achievement, behavior, and well-being [Psychological
           and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Geoffrey D. Borman; Christopher S. Rozek, Jaymes Pyne, Paul Hanselman
      Pages: 16286 - 16291
      Abstract: The period of early adolescence is characterized by dramatic changes, simultaneously affecting physiological, psychological, social, and cognitive development. The physical transition from elementary to middle school can exacerbate the stress and adversity experienced during this critical life stage. Middle school students often struggle to find social and emotional support, and...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1820317116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Infants expect leaders to right wrongs [Psychological and Cognitive
    • Authors: Maayan Stavans; Renee Baillargeon
      Pages: 16292 - 16301
      Abstract: Anthropological and psychological research on direct third-party punishment suggests that adults expect the leaders of social groups to intervene in within-group transgressions. Here, we explored the developmental roots of this expectation. In violation-of-expectation experiments, we asked whether 17-mo-old infants (n = 120) would expect a leader to intervene when observing...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1820091116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Effects of the peer metagenomic environment on smoking behavior [Social
    • Authors: Ramina Sotoudeh; Kathleen Mullan Harris, Dalton Conley
      Pages: 16302 - 16307
      Abstract: Recent scholarship suggests that the genomes of those around us affect our own phenotypes. Much of the empirical evidence for such “metagenomic” effects comes from animal studies, where the socio-genetic environment can be easily manipulated. Among humans, it is more difficult to identify such effects given the nonrandom distribution of...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806901116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Power quality and modern energy for all [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Veronica Jacome; Noah Klugman, Catherine Wolfram, Belinda Grunfeld, Duncan Callaway, Isha Ray
      Pages: 16308 - 16313
      Abstract: “Modern energy for all,” an internationally supported initiative to connect populations to electricity services, is expected to help reduce poverty-induced vulnerabilities. It has become a primary strategy for meeting sustainable development goals, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. However, when electricity is supplied by a capacity-constrained grid to a resource-constrained population, the...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1903610116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Functional selection of protease inhibitory antibodies [Applied Biological
    • Authors: Tyler Lopez; Zahid Mustafa, Chuan Chen, Ki Baek Lee, Aaron Ramirez, Chris Benitez, Xin Luo, Ru-Rong Ji, Xin Ge
      Pages: 16314 - 16319
      Abstract: Critical for diverse biological processes, proteases represent one of the largest families of pharmaceutical targets. To inhibit pathogenic proteases with desired selectivity, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) hold great promise as research tools and therapeutic agents. However, identification of mAbs with inhibitory functions is challenging because current antibody discovery methods rely on...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1903330116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • UvrD helicase activation by MutL involves rotation of its 2B subdomain
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Yerdos A. Ordabayev; Binh Nguyen, Alexander G. Kozlov, Haifeng Jia, Timothy M. Lohman
      Pages: 16320 - 16325
      Abstract: Escherichia coli UvrD is a superfamily 1 helicase/translocase that functions in DNA repair, replication, and recombination. Although a UvrD monomer can translocate along single-stranded DNA, self-assembly or interaction with an accessory protein is needed to activate its helicase activity in vitro. Our previous studies have shown that an Escherichia coli...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1905513116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Phase separation and clustering of an ABC transporter in Mycobacterium
           tuberculosis [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Florian Heinkel; Libin Abraham, Mary Ko, Joseph Chao, Horacio Bach, Lok Tin Hui, Haoran Li, Mang Zhu, Yeou Mei Ling, Jason C. Rogalski, Joshua Scurll, Jennifer M. Bui, Thibault Mayor, Michael R. Gold, Keng C. Chou, Yossef Av–Gay, Lawrence P. McIntosh, Jorg Gsponer
      Pages: 16326 - 16331
      Abstract: Phase separation drives numerous cellular processes, ranging from the formation of membrane-less organelles to the cooperative assembly of signaling proteins. Features such as multivalency and intrinsic disorder that enable condensate formation are found not only in cytosolic and nuclear proteins, but also in membrane-associated proteins. The ABC transporter Rv1747, which...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1820683116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Phosphatidylserine flipping by the P4-ATPase ATP8A2 is electrogenic
    • Authors: Francesco Tadini-Buoninsegni; Stine A. Mikkelsen, Louise S. Mogensen, Robert S. Molday, Jens Peter Andersen
      Pages: 16332 - 16337
      Abstract: Phospholipid flippases (P4-ATPases) utilize ATP to translocate specific phospholipids from the exoplasmic leaflet to the cytoplasmic leaflet of biological membranes, thus generating and maintaining transmembrane lipid asymmetry essential for a variety of cellular processes. P4-ATPases belong to the P-type ATPase protein family, which also encompasses the ion transporting P2-ATPases: Ca2+-ATPase,...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910211116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Selective incorporation of proteinaceous over nonproteinaceous cationic
           amino acids in model prebiotic oligomerization reactions [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Moran Frenkel-Pinter; Jay W. Haynes, Martin C, Anton S. Petrov, Bradley T. Burcar, Ramanarayanan Krishnamurthy, Nicholas V. Hud, Luke J. Leman, Loren Dean Williams
      Pages: 16338 - 16346
      Abstract: Numerous long-standing questions in origins-of-life research center on the history of biopolymers. For example, how and why did nature select the polypeptide backbone and proteinaceous side chains' Depsipeptides, containing both ester and amide linkages, have been proposed as ancestors of polypeptides. In this paper, we investigate cationic depsipeptides that form...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904849116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Two PKA RI{alpha} holoenzyme states define ATP as an isoform-specific
           orthosteric inhibitor that competes with the allosteric activator, cAMP
    • Authors: Tsan-Wen Lu; Jian Wu, Phillip C. Aoto, Jui-Hung Weng, Lalima G. Ahuja, Nicholas Sun, Cecilia Y. Cheng, Ping Zhang, Susan S. Taylor
      Pages: 16347 - 16356
      Abstract: Protein kinase A (PKA) holoenzyme, comprised of a cAMP-binding regulatory (R)-subunit dimer and 2 catalytic (C)-subunits, is the master switch for cAMP-mediated signaling. Of the 4 R-subunits (RIα, RIβ, RIIα, RIIβ), RIα is most essential for regulating PKA activity in cells. Our 2 RIα2C2 holoenzyme states, which show different conformations...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906036116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • In vitro 0N4R tau fibrils contain a monomorphic {beta}-sheet core enclosed
           by dynamically heterogeneous fuzzy coat segments [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Aurelio J. Dregni; Venkata S. Mandala, Haifan Wu, Matthew R. Elkins, Harrison K. Wang, Ivan Hung, William F. DeGrado, Mei Hong
      Pages: 16357 - 16366
      Abstract: Misfolding of the microtubule-binding protein tau into filamentous aggregates is characteristic of many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and progressive supranuclear palsy. Determining the structures and dynamics of these tau fibrils is important for designing inhibitors against tau aggregation. Tau fibrils obtained from patient brains have been found by...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906839116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Protein stability engineering insights revealed by domain-wide
           comprehensive mutagenesis [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Alex Nisthal; Connie Y. Wang, Marie L. Ary, Stephen L. Mayo
      Pages: 16367 - 16377
      Abstract: The accurate prediction of protein stability upon sequence mutation is an important but unsolved challenge in protein engineering. Large mutational datasets are required to train computational predictors, but traditional methods for collecting stability data are either low-throughput or measure protein stability indirectly. Here, we develop an automated method to generate...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1903888116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Frustration and folding of a TIM barrel protein [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Kevin T. Halloran; Yanming Wang, Karunesh Arora, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Thomas C. Irving, Osman Bilsel, Charles L. Brooks III, C. Robert Matthews
      Pages: 16378 - 16383
      Abstract: Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel proteins have not only a conserved architecture that supports a myriad of enzymatic functions, but also a conserved folding mechanism that involves on- and off-pathway intermediates. Although experiments have proven to be invaluable in defining the folding free-energy surface, they provide only a limited understanding of...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1900880116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • High-speed AFM reveals subsecond dynamics of cardiac thin filaments upon
           Ca2+ activation and heavy meromyosin binding [Biophysics and Computational
    • Authors: Oleg S. Matusovsky; Alf Mansson, Malin Persson, Yu-Shu Cheng, Dilson E. Rassier
      Pages: 16384 - 16393
      Abstract: High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) can be used to study dynamic processes with real-time imaging of molecules within 1- to 5-nm spatial resolution. In the current study, we evaluated the 3-state model of activation of cardiac thin filaments (cTFs) isolated as a complex and deposited on a mica-supported lipid bilayer....
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1903228116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Structural basis for GPCR-independent activation of heterotrimeric Gi
           proteins [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Nicholas A. Kalogriopoulos; Steven D. Rees, Tony Ngo, Noah J. Kopcho, Andrey V. Ilatovskiy, Nina Sun, Elizabeth A. Komives, Geoffrey Chang, Pradipta Ghosh, Irina Kufareva
      Pages: 16394 - 16403
      Abstract: Heterotrimeric G proteins are key molecular switches that control cell behavior. The canonical activation of G proteins by agonist-occupied G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has recently been elucidated from the structural perspective. In contrast, the structural basis for GPCR-independent G protein activation by a novel family of guanine-nucleotide exchange modulators (GEMs)...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906658116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Aging of spermatogonial stem cells by Jnk-mediated glycolysis activation
           [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Mito Kanatsu-Shinohara; Takuya Yamamoto, Hidehiro Toh, Yasuhiro Kazuki, Kanako Kazuki, Junichi Imoto, Kazuho Ikeo, Motohiko Oshima, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Atsushi Iwama, Yoichi Nabeshima, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Takashi Shinohara
      Pages: 16404 - 16409
      Abstract: Because spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are immortal by serial transplantation, SSC aging in intact testes is considered to be caused by a deteriorated microenvironment. Here, we report a cell-intrinsic mode of SSC aging by glycolysis activation. Using cultured SSCs, we found that aged SSCs proliferated more actively than young SSCs...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904980116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Regulation of CCL2 expression in human vascular endothelial cells by a
           neighboring divergently transcribed long noncoding RNA [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Nadiya Khyzha; Melvin Khor, Peter V. DiStefano, Liangxi Wang, Ljubica Matic, Ulf Hedin, Michael D. Wilson, Lars Maegdefessel, Jason E. Fish
      Pages: 16410 - 16419
      Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is driven, in part, by activation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs). In response to inflammatory stimuli, the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway orchestrates the expression of a network of EC genes that contribute to monocyte recruitment and diapedesis...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904108116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Disruption of IRE1{alpha} through its kinase domain attenuates multiple
           myeloma [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Jonathan M. Harnoss; Adrien Le Thomas, Anna Shemorry, Scot A. Marsters, David A. Lawrence, Min Lu, Yung-Chia Ariel Chen, Jing Qing, Klara Totpal, David Kan, Ehud Segal, Mark Merchant, Mike Reichelt, Heidi Ackerly Wallweber, Weiru Wang, Kevin Clark, Susan Kaufman, Maureen H. Beresini, Steven T. Laing, Wendy Sandoval, Maria Lorenzo, Jiansheng Wu, Justin Ly, Tom De Bruyn, Amy Heidersbach, Benjamin Haley, Alvin Gogineni, Robby M. Weimer, Dong Lee, Marie-Gabrielle Braun, Joachim Rudolph, Michael J. VanWyngarden, Daniel W. Sherbenou, Patricia Gomez-Bougie, Martine Amiot, Diego Acosta-Alvear, Peter Walter, Avi Ashkenazi
      Pages: 16420 - 16429
      Abstract: Multiple myeloma (MM) arises from malignant immunoglobulin (Ig)-secreting plasma cells and remains an incurable, often lethal disease despite therapeutic advances. The unfolded-protein response sensor IRE1α supports protein secretion by deploying a kinase–endoribonuclease module to activate the transcription factor XBP1s. MM cells may co-opt the IRE1α–XBP1s pathway; however, the validity of...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906999116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Hox genes limit germ cell formation in the short germ insect Gryllus
           bimaculatus [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Austen A. Barnett; Taro Nakamura, Cassandra G. Extavour
      Pages: 16430 - 16435
      Abstract: Hox genes are conserved transcription factor-encoding genes that specify the identity of body regions in bilaterally symmetrical animals. In the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, a member of the hemimetabolous insect group Orthoptera, the induction of a subset of mesodermal cells to form the primordial germ cells (PGCs) is restricted to the...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1816024116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Dissecting macroecological and macroevolutionary patterns of forest
           biodiversity across the Hawaiian archipelago [Ecology]
    • Authors: Dylan Craven; Tiffany M. Knight, Kasey E. Barton, Lalasia Bialic-Murphy, Jonathan M. Chase
      Pages: 16436 - 16441
      Abstract: Biodiversity patterns emerge as a consequence of evolutionary and ecological processes. Their relative importance is frequently tested on model ecosystems such as oceanic islands that vary in both. However, the coarse-scale data typically used in biogeographic studies have limited inferential power to separate the effects of historical biogeographic factors (e.g.,...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1901954116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Increasing crop heterogeneity enhances multitrophic diversity across
           agricultural regions [Ecology]
    • Authors: Clelia Sirami; Nicolas Gross, Aliette Bosem Baillod, Colette Bertrand, Romain Carrie, Annika Hass, Laura Henckel, Paul Miguet, Carole Vuillot, Audrey Alignier, Jude Girard, Peter Batary, Yann Clough, Cyrille Violle, David Giralt, Gerard Bota, Isabelle Badenhausser, Gaetan Lefebvre, Bertrand Gauffre, Aude Vialatte, Francois Calatayud, Assu Gil–Tena, Lutz Tischendorf, Scott Mitchell, Kathryn Lindsay, Romain Georges, Samuel Hilaire, Jordi Recasens, Xavier Oriol Sole–Senan, Irene Robleno, Jordi Bosch, Jose Antonio Barrientos, Antonio Ricarte, Maria Angeles Marcos–Garcia, Jesus Minano, Raphael Mathevet, Annick Gibon, Jacques Baudry, Gerard Balent, Brigitte Poulin, Francoise Burel, Teȷa Tscharntke, Vincent Bretagnolle, Gavin Siriwardena, Annie Ouin, Lluis Brotons, Jean–Louis Martin, Lenore Fahrig
      Pages: 16442 - 16447
      Abstract: Agricultural landscape homogenization has detrimental effects on biodiversity and key ecosystem services. Increasing agricultural landscape heterogeneity by increasing seminatural cover can help to mitigate biodiversity loss. However, the amount of seminatural cover is generally low and difficult to increase in many intensively managed agricultural landscapes. We hypothesized that increasing the...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906419116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • NADPH-dependent extracellular superoxide production is vital to
           photophysiology in the marine diatom Thalassiosira oceanica [Environmental
    • Authors: Julia M. Diaz; Sydney Plummer, Colleen M. Hansel, Peter F. Andeer, Mak A. Saito, Matthew R. McIlvin
      Pages: 16448 - 16453
      Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) like superoxide drive rapid transformations of carbon and metals in aquatic systems and play dynamic roles in biological health, signaling, and defense across a diversity of cell types. In phytoplankton, however, the ecophysiological role(s) of extracellular superoxide production has remained elusive. Here, the mechanism and function...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1821233116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Meiotic viral attenuation through an ancestral apoptotic pathway
    • Authors: Jie Gao; Sabrina Chau, Fuad Chowdhury, Tina Zhou, Saif Hossain, G. Angus McQuibban, Marc D. Meneghini
      Pages: 16454 - 16462
      Abstract: The programmed release of apoptogenic proteins from mitochondria is a core event of apoptosis, although ancestral roles of this phenomenon are not known. In mammals, one such apoptogenic protein is Endonuclease G (EndoG), a conserved mitochondrial nuclease that fragments the DNA of dying cells. In this work, we show that...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1900751116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • A deep intronic splice mutation of STAT3 underlies hyper IgE syndrome by
           negative dominance [Genetics]
    • Authors: Joelle Khourieh; Geetha Rao, Tanwir Habib, Danielle T. Avery, Alain Lefevre–Utile, Marie–Olivia Chandesris, Aziz Belkadi, Maya Chrabieh, Hanan Alwaseem, Virginie Grandin, Francoise Sarrot–Reynauld, Agathe Senechal, Olivier Lortholary, Xiao–Fei Kong, Stephanie Boisson–Dupuis, Capucine Picard, Anne Puel, Vivien Beziat, Qian Zhang, Laurent Abel, Henrik Molina, Nico Marr, Stuart G. Tangye, Jean–Laurent Casanova, Bertrand Boisson
      Pages: 16463 - 16472
      Abstract: Heterozygous in-frame mutations in coding regions of human STAT3 underlie the only known autosomal dominant form of hyper IgE syndrome (AD HIES). About 5% of familial cases remain unexplained. The mutant proteins are loss-of-function and dominant-negative when tested following overproduction in recipient cells. However, the production of mutant proteins has...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1901409116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Enhancing humoral immunity via sustained-release implantable microneedle
           patch vaccination [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Archana V. Boopathy; Anasuya Mandal, Daniel W. Kulp, Sergey Menis, Nitasha R. Bennett, Hannah C. Watkins, Wade Wang, Jacob T. Martin, Nikki T. Thai, Yanpu He, William R. Schief, Paula T. Hammond, Darrell J. Irvine
      Pages: 16473 - 16478
      Abstract: Sustained exposure of lymphoid tissues to vaccine antigens promotes humoral immunity, but traditional bolus immunizations lead to rapid antigen clearance. We describe a technology to tailor vaccine kinetics in a needle-free platform translatable to human immunization. Solid pyramidal microneedle (MN) arrays were fabricated with silk fibroin protein tips encapsulating a...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1902179116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • TMEM203 is a binding partner and regulator of STING-mediated inflammatory
           signaling in macrophages [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Yang Li; Sharmy J. James, David H. Wyllie, Claire Wynne, Agnes Czibula, Ahmed Bukhari, Katherine Pye, Seri Musfirah Bte Mustafah, Roberta Fajka-Boja, Eniko Szabo, Adrienn Angyal, Zoltan Hegedus, Laszlo Kovacs, Adrian V. S. Hill, Caroline A. Jefferies, Heather L. Wilson, Zhang Yongliang, Endre Kiss-Toth
      Pages: 16479 - 16488
      Abstract: Regulation of IFN signaling is critical in host recognition and response to pathogens while its dysregulation underlies the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. STimulator of IFN Genes (STING) has been identified as a critical mediator of IFN inducing innate immune pathways, but little is known about direct coregulators of this...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1901090116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • SLAMF9 regulates pDC homeostasis and function in health and disease
           [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Lital Sever; Lihi Radomir, Kristin Strim, Anna Weiner, Nofar Shchottlender, Hadas Lewinsky, Avital F. Barak, Gilgi Friedlander, Shifra Ben-Dor, Shirly Becker-Herman, Idit Shachar
      Pages: 16489 - 16496
      Abstract: SLAMF9 belongs to the conserved lymphocytic activation molecule family (SLAMF). Unlike other SLAMs, which have been extensively studied, the role of SLAMF9 in the immune system remained mostly unexplored. By generating CRISPR/Cas9 SLAMF9 knockout mice, we analyzed the role of this receptor in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), which preferentially express...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1900079116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Autophagy genes in myeloid cells counteract IFN{gamma}-induced
           TNF-mediated cell death and fatal TNF-induced shock [Immunology and
    • Authors: Anthony Orvedahl; Michael R. McAllaster, Amy Sansone, Bria F. Dunlap, Chandni Desai, Ya-Ting Wang, Dale R. Balce, Cliff J. Luke, Sanghyun Lee, Robert C. Orchard, Maxim N. Artyomov, Scott A. Handley, John G. Doench, Gary A. Silverman, Herbert W. Virgin
      Pages: 16497 - 16506
      Abstract: Host inflammatory responses must be tightly regulated to ensure effective immunity while limiting tissue injury. IFN gamma (IFNγ) primes macrophages to mount robust inflammatory responses. However, IFNγ also induces cell death, and the pathways that regulate IFNγ-induced cell death are incompletely understood. Using genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screening, we identified autophagy genes...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1822157116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Retinal and optic nerve degeneration in liver X receptor {beta} knockout
           mice [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Xiao–yu Song; Wan–fu Wu, Chiara Gabbi, Yu–bing Dai, Mark So, Surendra P. Chaurasiya, Li Wang, Margaret Warner, Jan–Ake Gustafsson
      Pages: 16507 - 16512
      Abstract: The retina is an extension of the brain. Like the brain, neurodegeneration of the retina occurs with age and is the cause of several retinal diseases including optic neuritis, macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are expressed in the brain where they play a key role in maintenance...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904719116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • STAT6 induces expression of Gas6 in macrophages to clear apoptotic
           neutrophils and resolve inflammation [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Saroj Nepal; Chinnaswamy Tiruppathi, Yoshikazu Tsukasaki, Joseph Farahany, Manish Mittal, Jalees Rehman, Darwin J. Prockop, Asrar B. Malik
      Pages: 16513 - 16518
      Abstract: Efferocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils (PMNs) by alveolar macrophages (AMФs) is vital for resolution of inflammation and tissue injury. Here, we investigated the role of AMФ polarization and expression of the efferocytic ligand Gas6 in restoring homeostasis. In the murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI), we observed augmented...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1821601116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • How Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus stably transforms peripheral
           B cells towards lymphomagenesis [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Aurelia Faure; Mitch Hayes, Bill Sugden
      Pages: 16519 - 16528
      Abstract: Primary effusion lymphomas (PELs) are causally associated with Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and 86% of PELs are coinfected with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). Understanding how PELs develop has been impaired by the difficulty of infecting B cells with KSHV in vitro, and the inability of KSHV to transform them. We show...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1905025116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • A selective membrane-targeting repurposed antibiotic with activity against
           persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Wooseong Kim; Guijin Zou, Taylor P. A. Hari, Ingrid K. Wilt, Wenpeng Zhu, Nicolas Galle, Hammad A. Faizi, Gabriel L. Hendricks, Katerina Tori, Wen Pan, Xiaowen Huang, Andrew D. Steele, Erika E. Csatary, Madeline M. Dekarske, Jake L. Rosen, Noelly de Queiroz Ribeiro, Kiho Lee, Jenna Port, Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Petia M. Vlahovska, William M. Wuest, Huajian Gao, Frederick M. Ausubel, Eleftherios Mylonakis
      Pages: 16529 - 16534
      Abstract: Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections is complicated by the development of antibiotic tolerance, a consequence of the ability of S. aureus to enter into a nongrowing, dormant state in which the organisms are referred to as persisters. We report that the clinically approved anthelmintic agent bithionol kills methicillin-resistant S. aureus...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904700116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • In situ structures of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inside bluetongue virus
           before and after uncoating [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Yao He; Sakar Shivakoti, Ke Ding, Yanxiang Cui, Polly Roy, Z. Hong Zhou
      Pages: 16535 - 16540
      Abstract: Bluetongue virus (BTV), a major threat to livestock, is a multilayered, nonturreted member of the Reoviridae, a family of segmented dsRNA viruses characterized by endogenous RNA transcription through an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). To date, the structure of BTV RdRp has been unknown, limiting our mechanistic understanding of BTV transcription...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1905849116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Kinome profiling of non-Hodgkin lymphoma identifies Tyro3 as a therapeutic
           target in primary effusion lymphoma [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Jason P. Wong; Timothy J. Stuhlmiller, Louise C. Giffin, Carolina Lin, Rachele Bigi, Jichen Zhao, Weihe Zhang, Ariana G. Bravo Cruz, Steven I. Park, H. Shelton Earp, Dirk P. Dittmer, Stephen V. Frye, Xiaodong Wang, Gary L. Johnson, Blossom Damania
      Pages: 16541 - 16550
      Abstract: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) make up the majority of lymphoma diagnoses and represent a very diverse set of malignancies. We sought to identify kinases uniquely up-regulated in different NHL subtypes. Using multiplexed inhibitor bead-mass spectrometry (MIB/MS), we found Tyro3 was uniquely up-regulated and important for cell survival in primary effusion lymphoma...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1903991116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Leptin signaling impairs macrophage defenses against Salmonella
           Typhimurium [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Julia Fischer; Saray Gutierrez, Raȷa Ganesan, Chiara Calabrese, Raȷeev Ranȷan, Gokhan Cildir, Nina Judith Hos, Jan Rybniker, Martina Wolke, Jochen W. U. Fries, Vinay Tergaonkar, Georg Plum, Adam Antebi, Nirmal Robinson
      Pages: 16551 - 16560
      Abstract: The dynamic interplay between metabolism and immune responses in health and disease, by which different immune cells impact on metabolic processes, are being increasingly appreciated. However, the potential of master regulators of metabolism to control innate immunity are less understood. Here, we studied the cross-talk between leptin signaling and macrophage...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904885116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Dynamic colocalization of 2 simultaneously active VSG expression sites
    • Authors: James Budzak; Louise E. Kerry, Aris Aristodemou, Belinda S. Hall, Kathrin Witmer, Manish Kushwaha, Carys Davies, Megan L. Povelones, Jacquelyn R. McDonald, Aakash Sur, Peter J. Myler, Gloria Rudenko
      Pages: 16561 - 16570
      Abstract: Monoallelic exclusion ensures that the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei exclusively expresses only 1 of thousands of different variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat genes. The active VSG is transcribed from 1 of 15 polycistronic bloodstream-form VSG expression sites (ESs), which are controlled in a mutually exclusive fashion. Unusually, T. brucei uses...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1905552116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Hippocampal deletion of NaV1.1 channels in mice causes thermal seizures
           and cognitive deficit characteristic of Dravet Syndrome [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Rachael E. Stein; Joshua S. Kaplan, Jin Li, William A. Catterall
      Pages: 16571 - 16576
      Abstract: Dravet Syndrome is a severe childhood epileptic disorder caused by haploinsufficiency of the SCN1A gene encoding brain voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1. Symptoms include treatment-refractory epilepsy, cognitive impairment, autistic-like behavior, and premature death. The specific loci of NaV1.1 function in the brain that underlie these global deficits remain unknown. Here we...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906833116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Sex-specific neuroprotection by inhibition of the Y-chromosome gene, SRY,
           in experimental Parkinson’s disease [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Joohyung Lee; Paulo Pinares-Garcia, Hannah Loke, Seungmin Ham, Eric Vilain, Vincent R. Harley
      Pages: 16577 - 16582
      Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder caused by the loss of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. While the cause of DA cell loss in PD is unknown, male sex is a strong risk factor. Aside from the protective actions of sex hormones in females, emerging evidence suggests that sex-chromosome...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1900406116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Parvalbumin interneuron in the ventral hippocampus functions as a
           discriminator in social memory [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Xiaofei Deng; Lijia Gu, Nan Sui, Jianyou Guo, Jing Liang
      Pages: 16583 - 16592
      Abstract: The ability to identify strange conspecifics in societies is supported by social memory, which is vital for gregarious animals and humans. The function of hippocampal principal neurons in social memory has been extensively investigated; however, the nonprincipal neuronal mechanism underlying social memory remains unclear. Here, we first observed parallel changes...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1819133116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Mutant huntingtin disrupts mitochondrial proteostasis by interacting with
           TIM23 [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Svitlana Yablonska; Vinitha Ganesan, Lisa M. Ferrando, JinHo Kim, Anna Pyzel, Oxana V. Baranova, Nicolas K. Khattar, Timothy M. Larkin, Sergei V. Baranov, Ning Chen, Colleen E. Strohlein, Donte A. Stevens, Xiaomin Wang, Yue–Fang Chang, Mark E. Schurdak, Diane L. Carlisle, Jonathan S. Minden, Robert M. Friedlander
      Pages: 16593 - 16602
      Abstract: Mutant huntingtin (mHTT), the causative protein in Huntington’s disease (HD), associates with the translocase of mitochondrial inner membrane 23 (TIM23) complex, resulting in inhibition of synaptic mitochondrial protein import first detected in presymptomatic HD mice. The early timing of this event suggests that it is a relevant and direct pathophysiologic...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904101116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • In vivo imaging reveals transient microglia recruitment and functional
           recovery of photoreceptor signaling after injury [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Eric B. Miller, Pengfei Zhang, Karli Ching, Edward N. Pugh Jr; Marie E. Burns
      Pages: 16603 - 16612
      Abstract: Microglia respond to damage and microenvironmental changes within the central nervous system by morphologically transforming and migrating to the lesion, but the real-time behavior of populations of these resident immune cells and the neurons they support have seldom been observed simultaneously. Here, we have used in vivo high-resolution optical coherence...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1903336116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Parietal low beta rhythm provides a dynamical substrate for a working
           memory buffer [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Alexandros Gelastopoulos; Miles A. Whittington, Nancy J. Kopell
      Pages: 16613 - 16620
      Abstract: Working memory (WM) is a component of the brain’s memory systems vital for interpretation of sequential sensory inputs and consequent decision making. Anatomically, WM is highly distributed over the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the parietal cortex (PC). Here we present a biophysically detailed dynamical systems model for a WM buffer...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1902305116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Blastocyst activation engenders transcriptome reprogram affecting
           X-chromosome reactivation and inflammatory trigger of implantation
    • Authors: Bo He; Hangxiao Zhang, Jianqi Wang, Mengying Liu, Yang Sun, Chuanhui Guo, Jinhua Lu, Haibin Wang, Shuangbo Kong
      Pages: 16621 - 16630
      Abstract: Implantation of the blastocyst into the uterus is the gateway for further embryonic development in mammals. Programming of blastocyst to an implantation-competent state known as blastocyst activation is the determining factor for implantation into the receptive uterus. However, it remains largely unclear how the blastocyst is globally programmed for implantation....
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1900401116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • A thylakoid membrane-bound and redox-active rubredoxin (RBD1) functions in
           de novo assembly and repair of photosystem II [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Jose G. Garcia–Cerdan; Ariel L. Furst, Kent L. McDonald, Danȷa Schunemann, Matthew B. Francis, Krishna K. Niyogi
      Pages: 16631 - 16640
      Abstract: Photosystem II (PSII) undergoes frequent photooxidative damage that, if not repaired, impairs photosynthetic activity and growth. How photosynthetic organisms protect vulnerable PSII intermediate complexes during de novo assembly and repair remains poorly understood. Here, we report the genetic and biochemical characterization of chloroplast-located rubredoxin 1 (RBD1), a PSII assembly factor...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1903314116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Histone acetylation recruits the SWR1 complex to regulate active DNA
           demethylation in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Wen-Feng Nie; Mingguang Lei, Mingxuan Zhang, Kai Tang, Huan Huang, Cuijun Zhang, Daisuke Miki, Pan Liu, Yu Yang, Xingang Wang, Heng Zhang, Zhaobo Lang, Na Liu, Xuechen Xu, Ramesh Yelagandula, Huiming Zhang, Zhidan Wang, Xiaoqiang Chai, Andrea Andreucci, Jing-Quan Yu, Frederic Berger, Rosa Lozano-Duran, Jian-Kang Zhu
      Pages: 16641 - 16650
      Abstract: Active DNA demethylation is critical for controlling the DNA methylomes in plants and mammals. However, little is known about how DNA demethylases are recruited to target loci, and the involvement of chromatin marks in this process. Here, we identify 2 components of the SWR1 chromatin-remodeling complex, PIE1 and ARP6, as...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906023116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Correction for Kohn et al., Shear heating reconciles thermal models with
           the metamorphic rock record of subduction [Correction]
    • Pages: 16651 - 16653
      Abstract: EARTH, ATMOSPHERIC, AND PLANETARY SCIENCES Correction for “Shear heating reconciles thermal models with the metamorphic rock record of subduction,” by Matthew J. Kohn, Adrian E. Castro, Buchanan C. Kerswell, César R. Ranero, and Frank S. Spear, which was first published October 29, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1809962115 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 115,...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1820654116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Correction for Kittur et al., Scaling up analogical innovation with crowds
           and AI [Correction]
    • Pages: 16654 - 16654
      Abstract: PSYCHOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES, COMPUTER SCIENCES Correction for “Scaling up analogical innovation with crowds and AI,” by Aniket Kittur, Lixiu Yu, Tom Hope, Joel Chan, Hila Lifshitz-Assaf, Karni Gilon, Felicia Ng, Robert E. Kraut, and Dafna Shahaf, which was first published February 4, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1807185116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A....
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912314116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Correction for Kashida et al., Nanoparticle-based local translation
           reveals mRNA as a translation-coupled scaffold with anchoring function
    • Pages: 16655 - 16655
      Abstract: BIOPHYSICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY Correction for “Nanoparticle-based local translation reveals mRNA as a translation-coupled scaffold with anchoring function,” by Shunnichi Kashida, Dan Ohtan Wang, Hirohide Saito, and Zoher Gueroui, which was first published June 19, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1900310116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 13346–13351). The authors note that, in Fig....
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912167116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
  • Correction for Xie et al., Nanobody-based CAR T cells that target the
           tumor microenvironment inhibit the growth of solid tumors in
           immunocompetent mice [Correction]
    • Pages: 16656 - 16656
      Abstract: MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction for “Nanobody-based CAR T cells that target the tumor microenvironment inhibit the growth of solid tumors in immunocompetent mice,” by Yushu Joy Xie, Michael Dougan, Noor Jailkhani, Jessica Ingram, Tao Fang, Laura Kummer, Noor Momin, Novalia Pishesha, Steffen Rickelt, Richard O. Hynes, and Hidde Ploegh, which was...
      PubDate: 2019-08-13T10:11:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912487116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 33 (2019)
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