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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 6.092
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 1141  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 20797 - 20799
      Abstract: Cryopreservation of avian species Pure heritage breed broiler chicken reconstituted from frozen genetic material surrounded by brown layer offspring. Image courtesy of Norman Russell (University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom). The high lipid content of some avian eggs renders it challenging to preserve genetic material from rare or endangered species...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti4219116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Core Concept: Blockchain offers applications well beyond Bitcoin but faces
           its own limitations [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Stephen Ornes
      Pages: 20800 - 20803
      Abstract: In 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto introduced the world to Bitcoin, a volatile digital currency that’s untethered to any specific institution or country (1). (Satoshi Nakamoto was quickly revealed to be a pseudonym; the true identity of the inventor or inventors remains unknown.) In the years that followed, the value of Bitcoin...
      Keywords: Core Concepts, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914849116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Messenger RNA therapy as an option for treating metabolic disorders
           [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Randy J. Chandler
      Pages: 20804 - 20806
      Abstract: The use of messenger RNA (mRNA) therapy by systemic delivery to treat metabolic disorders has long been hampered by poor stability, immunogenicity, inefficient delivery, and hepatic toxicity. In contrast, other molecular therapies such as viral gene and enzyme replacement therapy (Fig. 1) have been effectively employed to successfully treat rare...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914673116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Forgetting memories through distinct actin remodeling mechanisms
           [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Kuan-Lin Feng; Ann-Shyn Chiang
      Pages: 20807 - 20808
      Abstract: After an event takes place, we may memorize different aspects of the experience, such as visual details or the general context. Empirically, these memory components appear to fade away at different rates, suggesting different cellular and/or molecular mechanisms underlying such memory decay. Drosophila, a pioneering animal model for discovering genetic...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914578116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • On the multibin logarithmic score used in the FluSight competitions
           [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Johannes Bracher
      Pages: 20809 - 20810
      Abstract: The FluSight challenges (1) represent an outstanding collaborative effort and have “pioneered infectious disease forecasting in a formal way” (ref. 2, p. 2803). However, I wish to initiate a discussion about the employed evaluation measure. The competitions feature discrete or discretized targets related to the US influenza season. E.g., for...
      Keywords: Letters, Front Matter-Letters-Set Free
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912147116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Reply to Bracher: Scoring probabilistic forecasts to maximize public
           health interpretability [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Nicholas G. Reich; Dave Osthus, Evan L. Ray, Teresa K. Yamana, Matthew Biggerstaff, Michael A. Johansson, Roni Rosenfeld, Jeffrey Shaman
      Pages: 20811 - 20812
      Abstract: Evaluating probabilistic forecasts in the context of a real-time public health surveillance system is a complicated business. We agree with Bracher’s (1) observations that the scores established by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and used to evaluate our forecasts of seasonal influenza in the United States...
      Keywords: Letters, Front Matter-Letters-Set Free
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912694116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Reward prediction tells us less than expected about musical pleasure
           [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Remi de Fleurian; Peter M. C. Harrison, Marcus T. Pearce, David R. Quiroga–Martinez
      Pages: 20813 - 20814
      Abstract: Gold et al. (1) report a reinforcement-learning experiment where reward prediction errors (RPEs) were elicited by the consonance or dissonance of musical stimuli. They link these RPEs to activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and to behavioral indices of learning. They conclude that music can function as a reward, that...
      Keywords: Letters, Front Matter-Letters-Set Free
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913244116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Reply to de Fleurian et al.: Toward a fuller understanding of reward
           prediction errors and their role in musical pleasure [Biological Sciences]
           
    • Authors: Benjamin P. Gold; Ernest Mas-Herrero, Alain Dagher, Robert J. Zatorre
      Pages: 20815 - 20816
      Abstract: We are pleased that our manuscript on the neural processes underlying musical pleasure and reward (1) has elicited commentary from de Fleurian et al. (2). Their first comment regards the distinction between reward prediction errors (RPEs), which concern predicted values like rewards/punishments, and sensory prediction errors, which concern predicted events...
      Keywords: Letters, Front Matter-Letters-Set Free
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913835116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • A triple drug combination targeting components of the nutrient-sensing
           network maximizes longevity [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Jorge Ivan Castillo–Quan; Luke S. Tain, Kerri J. Kinghorn, Li Li, Sebastian Gronke, Yvonne Hinze, T. Keith Blackwell, Ivana Bȷedov, Linda Partridge
      Pages: 20817 - 20819
      Abstract: Increasing life expectancy is causing the prevalence of age-related diseases to rise, and there is an urgent need for new strategies to improve health at older ages. Reduced activity of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) nutrient-sensing signaling network can extend lifespan and improve health...
      Keywords: Brief Reports
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913212116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Wildfire prevention through prophylactic treatment of high-risk landscapes
           using viscoelastic retardant fluids [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Anthony C. Yu; Hector Lopez Hernandez, Andrew H. Kim, Lyndsay M. Stapleton, Ruben J. Brand, Eric T. Mellor, Cameron P. Bauer, Gregory D. McCurdy, Albert J. Wolff III, Doreen Chan, Craig S. Criddle, Jesse D. Acosta, Eric A. Appel
      Pages: 20820 - 20827
      Abstract: Polyphosphate fire retardants are a critical tactical resource for fighting fires in the wildland and in the wildland–urban interface. Yet, application of these retardants is limited to emergency suppression strategies because current formulations cannot retain fire retardants on target vegetation for extended periods of time through environmental exposure and weathering....
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1907855116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • A general constitutive model for dense, fine-particle suspensions
           validated in many geometries [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Aaron S. Baumgarten; Ken Kamrin
      Pages: 20828 - 20836
      Abstract: Fine-particle suspensions (such as cornstarch mixed with water) exhibit dramatic changes in viscosity when sheared, producing fascinating behaviors that captivate children and rheologists alike. Examination of these mixtures in simple flow geometries suggests intergranular repulsion and its influence on the frictional nature of granular contacts is central to this effect—for...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1908065116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Intact carbonic acid is a viable protonating agent for biological bases
           [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Daniel Aminov; Dina Pines, Philip M. Kiefer, Snehasis Daschakraborty, James T. Hynes, Ehud Pines
      Pages: 20837 - 20843
      Abstract: Carbonic acid H2CO3 (CA) is a key constituent of the universal CA/bicarbonate/CO2 buffer maintaining the pH of both blood and the oceans. Here we demonstrate the ability of intact CA to quantitatively protonate bases with biologically-relevant pKas and argue that CA has a previously unappreciated function as a major source...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909498116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Waterproof molecular monolayers stabilize 2D materials [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Cong Su; Zongyou Yin, Qing–Bo Yan, Zegao Wang, Hongtao Lin, Lei Sun, Wenshuo Xu, Tetsuya Yamada, Xiang Ji, Nobuyuki Zettsu, Katsuya Teshima, Jamie H. Warner, Mircea Dincă, Jueȷun Hu, Mingdong Dong, Gang Su, Jing Kong, Ju Li
      Pages: 20844 - 20849
      Abstract: Two-dimensional van der Waals materials have rich and unique functional properties, but many are susceptible to corrosion under ambient conditions. Here we show that linear alkylamines n-CmH2m+1NH2, with m = 4 through 11, are highly effective in protecting the optoelectronic properties of these materials, such as black phosphorus (BP) and...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909500116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • The binuclear cluster of [FeFe] hydrogenase is formed with sulfur donated
           
    • Authors: Guodong Rao; Scott A. Pattenaude, Katherine Alwan, Ninian J. Blackburn, R. David Britt, Thomas B. Rauchfuss
      Pages: 20850 - 20855
      Abstract: The enzyme [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HydA1) contains a unique 6-iron cofactor, the H-cluster, that has unusual ligands to an Fe–Fe binuclear subcluster: CN−, CO, and an azadithiolate (adt) ligand that provides 2 S bridges between the 2 Fe atoms. In cells, the H-cluster is assembled by a collection of 3 maturases: HydE...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913324116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Shape-shifting structured lattices via multimaterial 4D printing
           [Engineering]
    • Authors: J. William Boley; Wim M. van Rees, Charles Lissandrello, Mark N. Horenstein, Ryan L. Truby, Arda Kotikian, Jennifer A. Lewis, L. Mahadevan
      Pages: 20856 - 20862
      Abstract: Shape-morphing structured materials have the ability to transform a range of applications. However, their design and fabrication remain challenging due to the difficulty of controlling the underlying metric tensor in space and time. Here, we exploit a combination of multiple materials, geometry, and 4-dimensional (4D) printing to create structured heterogeneous...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1908806116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Multibioinspired slippery surfaces with wettable bump arrays for droplets
           pumping [Engineering]
    • Authors: Xiaoxuan Zhang; Lingyu Sun, Yu Wang, Feika Bian, Yuetong Wang, Yuanjin Zhao
      Pages: 20863 - 20868
      Abstract: Droplet manipulation is playing an important role in various fields, including scientific research, industrial production, and daily life. Here, inspired by the microstructures and functions of Namib desert beetles, Nepenthes pitcher plants, and emergent aquatic plants, we present a multibioinspired slippery surface for droplet manipulation by employing combined strategies of...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912467116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Intrinsically undamped plasmon modes in narrow electron bands [Physics]
    • Authors: Cyprian Lewandowski; Leonid Levitov
      Pages: 20869 - 20874
      Abstract: Surface plasmons in 2-dimensional electron systems with narrow Bloch bands feature an interesting regime in which Landau damping (dissipation via electron–hole pair excitation) is completely quenched. This surprising behavior is made possible by strong coupling in narrow-band systems characterized by large values of the “fine structure” constant α=e2/ℏκvF. Dissipation quenching...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909069116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Dynamics of wrinkling in ultrathin elastic sheets [Physics]
    • Authors: Finn Box; Doireann O’Kiely, Ousmane Kodio, Maxime Inizan, Alfonso A. Castreȷon–Pita, Dominic Vella
      Pages: 20875 - 20880
      Abstract: The wrinkling of thin elastic objects provides a means of generating regular patterning at small scales in applications ranging from photovoltaics to microfluidic devices. Static wrinkle patterns are known to be governed by an energetic balance between the object’s bending stiffness and an effective substrate stiffness, which may originate from...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1905755116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Sampling can be faster than optimization [Statistics]
    • Authors: Yi-An Ma; Yuansi Chen, Chi Jin, Nicolas Flammarion, Michael I. Jordan
      Pages: 20881 - 20885
      Abstract: Optimization algorithms and Monte Carlo sampling algorithms have provided the computational foundations for the rapid growth in applications of statistical machine learning in recent years. There is, however, limited theoretical understanding of the relationships between these 2 kinds of methodology, and limited understanding of relative strengths and weaknesses. Moreover, existing...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1820003116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Declining CO2 price paths [Economic Sciences]
    • Authors: Kent D. Daniel; Robert B. Litterman, Gernot Wagner
      Pages: 20886 - 20891
      Abstract: Pricing greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions involves making trade-offs between consumption today and unknown damages in the (distant) future. While decision making under risk and uncertainty is the forte of financial economics, important insights from pricing financial assets do not typically inform standard climate–economy models. Here, we introduce EZ-Climate, a simple recursive...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1817444116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Rapid increase in Asian bottles in the South Atlantic Ocean indicates
           major debris inputs from ships [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Peter G. Ryan; Ben J. Dilley, Robert A. Ronconi, Maelle Connan
      Pages: 20892 - 20897
      Abstract: Most plastic debris floating at sea is thought to come from land-based sources, but there is little direct evidence to support this assumption. Since 1984, stranded debris has been recorded along the west coast of Inaccessible Island, a remote, uninhabited island in the central South Atlantic Ocean that has a...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909816116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Local alliances and rivalries shape near-repeat terror activity of
           al-Qaeda, ISIS, and insurgents [Political Sciences]
    • Authors: Yao–Li Chuang; Noam Ben–Asher, Maria R. D’Orsogna
      Pages: 20898 - 20903
      Abstract: We study the spatiotemporal correlation of terrorist attacks by al-Qaeda, the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), and local insurgents, in six geographical areas identified via k-means clustering applied to the Global Terrorism Database. All surveyed organizations exhibit near-repeat activity whereby a prior attack increases the likelihood of a...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904418116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Great apes use self-experience to anticipate an agent’s action in a
           false-belief test [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Fumihiro Kano; Christopher Krupenye, Satoshi Hirata, Masaki Tomonaga, Josep Call
      Pages: 20904 - 20909
      Abstract: Human social life depends on theory of mind, the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others. A signature of theory of mind, false belief understanding, requires representing others’ views of the world, even when they conflict with one’s own. After decades of research, it remains controversial whether any...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910095116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Postdocs’ lab engagement predicts traȷectories of PhD students’ skill
           development [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: David F. Feldon; Kaylee Litson, Soojeong Jeong, Jennifer M. Blaney, Jina Kang, Candace Miller, Kimberly Griffin, Josipa Roksa
      Pages: 20910 - 20916
      Abstract: The doctoral advisor—typically the principal investigator (PI)—is often characterized as a singular or primary mentor who guides students using a cognitive apprenticeship model. Alternatively, the “cascading mentorship” model describes the members of laboratories or research groups receiving mentorship from more senior laboratory members and providing it to more junior members...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912488116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Detecting community response to water quality violations using bottled
           water sales [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Maura Allaire; Taylor Mackay, Shuyan Zheng, Upmanu Lall
      Pages: 20917 - 20922
      Abstract: Drinking-water contaminants pose a risk to public health. When confronted with elevated levels of contaminants, individuals can take actions to reduce exposure. Yet, few studies address averting behavior due to impaired water, particularly in high-income countries. This is a problem of national interest, given that 9 million to 45 million...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1905385116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Impact of increasing vegetarian availability on meal selection and sales
           in cafeterias [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Emma E. Garnett; Andrew Balmford, Chris Sandbrook, Mark A. Pilling, Theresa M. Marteau
      Pages: 20923 - 20929
      Abstract: Shifting people in higher income countries toward more plant-based diets would protect the natural environment and improve population health. Research in other domains suggests altering the physical environments in which people make decisions (“nudging”) holds promise for achieving socially desirable behavior change. Here, we examine the impact of attempting to...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1907207116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Reviving rare chicken breeds using genetically engineered sterility in
           surrogate host birds [Agricultural Sciences]
    • Authors: Mark E. Woodcock; Almas A. Gheyas, Andrew S. Mason, Sunil Nandi, Lorna Taylor, Adrian Sherman, Jacqueline Smith, Dave W. Burt, Rachel Hawken, Michael J. McGrew
      Pages: 20930 - 20937
      Abstract: In macrolecithal species, cryopreservation of the oocyte and zygote is not possible due to the large size and quantity of lipid deposited within the egg. For birds, this signifies that cryopreserving and regenerating a species from frozen cellular material are currently technically unfeasible. Diploid primordial germ cells (PGCs) are a...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906316116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Xanthomonas translucens commandeers the host rate-limiting step in ABA
           biosynthesis for disease susceptibility [Agricultural Sciences]
    • Authors: Zhao Peng; Ying Hu, Junli Zhang, Jose C. Huguet-Tapia, Anna K. Block, Sunghun Park, Suraj Sapkota, Zhaohui Liu, Sanzhen Liu, Frank F. White
      Pages: 20938 - 20946
      Abstract: Plants are vulnerable to disease through pathogen manipulation of phytohormone levels, which otherwise regulate development, abiotic, and biotic responses. Here, we show that the wheat pathogen Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa elevates expression of the host gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (TaNCED-5BS), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911660116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Engineering the stereoisomeric structure of seed oil to mimic human milk
           fat [Applied Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Harrie van Erp; Fiona M. Bryant, Jose Martin-Moreno, Louise V. Michaelson, Govindprasad Bhutada, Peter J. Eastmond
      Pages: 20947 - 20952
      Abstract: Human milk fat substitute (HMFS) is a class of structured lipid that is widely used as an ingredient in infant formulas. Like human milk fat, HMFS is characterized by enrichment of palmitoyl (C16:0) groups specifically at the middle (sn-2 or β) position on the glycerol backbone, and there is evidence...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1907915116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • A large-scale study reveals 24-h operational rhythms in hospital treatment
           [Applied Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Marc D. Ruben; Lauren J. Francey, Yuping Guo, Gang Wu, Edward B. Cooper, Amy S. Shah, John B. Hogenesch, David F. Smith
      Pages: 20953 - 20958
      Abstract: Hospitals operate 24 h a day, and it is assumed that important clinical decisions occur continuously around the clock. However, many aspects of hospital operation occur at specific times of day, including medical team rounding and shift changes. It is unclear whether this impacts patient care, as no studies have...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909557116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Francisella novicida Cas9 interrogates genomic DNA with very high
           specificity and can be used for mammalian genome editing [Applied
           Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Sundaram Acharya; Arpit Mishra, Deepanjan Paul, Asgar Hussain Ansari, Mohd. Azhar, Manoj Kumar, Riya Rauthan, Namrata Sharma, Meghali Aich, Dipanjali Sinha, Saumya Sharma, Shivani Jain, Arjun Ray, Suman Jain, Sivaprakash Ramalingam, Souvik Maiti, Debojyoti Chakraborty
      Pages: 20959 - 20968
      Abstract: Genome editing using the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been used to make precise heritable changes in the DNA of organisms. Although the widely used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) and its engineered variants have been efficiently harnessed for numerous gene-editing applications across different platforms, concerns remain regarding their putative off-targeting at multiple...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1818461116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Rationally engineered Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 nucleases with high
           genome-wide specificity [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Yuanyan Tan; Athena H. Y. Chu, Siyu Bao, Duc Anh Hoang, Firaol Tamiru Kebede, Wenjun Xiong, Mingfang Ji, Jiahai Shi, Zongli Zheng
      Pages: 20969 - 20976
      Abstract: RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 proteins have been widely used for genome editing, but their off-target activities limit broad application. The minimal Cas9 ortholog from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9) is commonly used for in vivo genome editing; however, no variant conferring high genome-wide specificity is available. Here, we report rationally engineered SaCas9 variants with...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906843116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Rotational symmetry of the structured Chip/LDB-SSDP core module of the Wnt
           enhanceosome [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Miha Renko; Marc Fiedler, Trevor J. Rutherford, Jonas V. Schaefer, Andreas Pluckthun, Mariann Bienz
      Pages: 20977 - 20983
      Abstract: The Chip/LIM-domain binding protein (LDB)–single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSDP) (ChiLS) complex controls numerous cell-fate decisions in animal cells, by mediating transcription of developmental control genes via remote enhancers. ChiLS is recruited to these enhancers by lineage-specific LIM-domain proteins that bind to its Chip/LDB subunit. ChiLS recently emerged as the core module...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912705116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Structural basis of light-induced redox regulation in the Calvin-Benson
           cycle in cyanobacteria [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Ciaran R. McFarlane; Nita R. Shah, Burak V. Kabasakal, Blanca Echeverria, Charles A. R. Cotton, Doryen Bubeck, James W. Murray
      Pages: 20984 - 20990
      Abstract: Plants, algae, and cyanobacteria fix carbon dioxide to organic carbon with the Calvin–Benson (CB) cycle. Phosphoribulokinase (PRK) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) are essential CB-cycle enzymes that control substrate availability for the carboxylation enzyme Rubisco. PRK consumes ATP to produce the Rubisco substrate ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP). GAPDH catalyzes the reduction...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906722116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • A CTG repeat-selective chemical screen identifies microtubule inhibitors
           as selective modulators of toxic CUG RNA levels [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Kaalak Reddy; Jana R. Jenquin, Ona L. McConnell, John D. Cleary, Jared I. Richardson, Belinda S. Pinto, Maja C. Haerle, Elizabeth Delgado, Lori Planco, Masayuki Nakamori, Eric T. Wang, J. Andrew Berglund
      Pages: 20991 - 21000
      Abstract: A CTG repeat expansion in the DMPK gene is the causative mutation of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Transcription of the expanded CTG repeat produces toxic gain-of-function CUG RNA, leading to disease symptoms. A screening platform that targets production or stability of the toxic CUG RNA in a selective manner...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1901893116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Mapping low-affinity/high-specificity peptide-protein interactions using
           ligand-footprinting mass spectrometry [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Benjamin W. Parker; Edward J. Goncz, David T. Krist, Alexander V. Statsyuk, Alexey I. Nesvizhskii, Eric L. Weiss
      Pages: 21001 - 21011
      Abstract: Short linear peptide motifs that are intracellular ligands of folded proteins are a modular, incompletely understood molecular interaction language in signaling systems. Such motifs, which frequently occur in intrinsically disordered protein regions, often bind partner proteins with modest affinity and are difficult to study with conventional structural biology methods. We...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1819533116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Overcoming insecticide resistance through computational inhibitor design
           [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Galen J. Correy; Daniel Zaidman, Alon Harmelin, Silvia Carvalho, Peter D. Mabbitt, Viviane Calaora, Peter J. James, Andrew C. Kotze, Colin J. Jackson, Nir London
      Pages: 21012 - 21021
      Abstract: Insecticides allow control of agricultural pests and disease vectors and are vital for global food security and health. The evolution of resistance to insecticides, such as organophosphates (OPs), is a serious and growing concern. OP resistance often involves sequestration or hydrolysis of OPs by carboxylesterases. Inhibiting carboxylesterases could, therefore, restore...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909130116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Theory and simulations for RNA folding in mixtures of monovalent and
           divalent cations [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Hung T. Nguyen; Naoto Hori, D. Thirumalai
      Pages: 21022 - 21030
      Abstract: RNA molecules cannot fold in the absence of counterions. Experiments are typically performed in the presence of monovalent and divalent cations. How to treat the impact of a solution containing a mixture of both ion types on RNA folding has remained a challenging problem for decades. By exploiting the large...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911632116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • How internal cavities destabilize a protein [Biophysics and Computational
           Biology]
    • Authors: Mengȷun Xue; Takuro Wakamoto, Camilla Keȷlberg, Yuichi Yoshimura, Tania Aaquist Nielsen, Michael Wulff Risor, Kristian Weȷse Sanggaard, Ryo Kitahara, Frans A. A. Mulder
      Pages: 21031 - 21036
      Abstract: Although many proteins possess a distinct folded structure lying at a minimum in a funneled free energy landscape, thermal energy causes any protein to continuously access lowly populated excited states. The existence of excited states is an integral part of biological function. Although transitions into the excited states may lead...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911181116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Capsid expansion of bacteriophage T5 revealed by high resolution
           cryoelectron microscopy [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Alexis Huet; Robert L. Duda, Pascale Boulanger, James F. Conway
      Pages: 21037 - 21046
      Abstract: The large (90-nm) icosahedral capsid of bacteriophage T5 is composed of 775 copies of the major capsid protein (mcp) together with portal, protease, and decoration proteins. Its assembly is a regulated process that involves several intermediates, including a thick-walled round precursor prohead that expands as the viral DNA is packaged...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909645116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Paternal knockout of Slc38a4/SNAT4 causes placental hypoplasia associated
           with intrauterine growth restriction in mice [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Shogo Matoba; Shoko Nakamuta, Kento Miura, Michiko Hirose, Hirosuke Shiura, Takashi Kohda, Nobuaki Nakamuta, Atsuo Ogura
      Pages: 21047 - 21053
      Abstract: The placenta is critical in mammalian embryonic development because the embryo’s supply of nutrients, including amino acids, depends solely on mother-to-embryo transport through it. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this amino acid supply are poorly understood. In this study, we focused on system A amino acid transporters Slc38a1/SNAT1, Slc38a2/SNAT2, and...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1907884116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • {beta}-Catenin is required for radial cell patterning and identity in the
           developing mouse cochlea [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Lina Jansson; Michael Ebeid, Jessica W. Shen, Tara E. Mokhtari, Lee A. Quiruz, David M. Ornitz, Sung-Ho Huh, Alan G. Cheng
      Pages: 21054 - 21060
      Abstract: Development of multicellular organs requires the coordination of cell differentiation and patterning. Critical for sound detection, the mammalian organ of Corti contains functional units arranged tonotopically along the cochlear turns. Each unit consists of sensory hair cells intercalated by nonsensory supporting cells, both specified and radially patterned with exquisite precision...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910223116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • The conflict between adaptation and dispersal for maintaining biodiversity
           in changing environments [Ecology]
    • Authors: Patrick L. Thompson; Emanuel A. Fronhofer
      Pages: 21061 - 21067
      Abstract: Dispersal and adaptation both allow species to persist in changing environments. Yet, we have limited understanding of how these processes interact to affect species persistence, especially in diverse communities where biotic interactions greatly complicate responses to environmental change. Here we use a stochastic metacommunity model to demonstrate how dispersal and...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911796116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • On the feasibility of saltational evolution [Evolution]
    • Authors: Mikhail I. Katsnelson; Yuri I. Wolf, Eugene V. Koonin
      Pages: 21068 - 21075
      Abstract: Is evolution always gradual or can it make leaps' We examine a mathematical model of an evolutionary process on a fitness landscape and obtain analytic solutions for the probability of multimutation leaps, that is, several mutations occurring simultaneously, within a single generation in 1 genome, and being fixed all together...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909031116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Multiple modes of convergent adaptation in the spread of
           glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus tuberculatus [Evolution]
    • Authors: Julia M. Kreiner; Darci Ann Giacomini, Felix Bemm, Bridgit Waithaka, Julian Regalado, Christa Lanz, Julia Hildebrandt, Peter H. Sikkema, Patrick J. Tranel, Detlef Weigel, John R. Stinchcombe, Stephen I. Wright
      Pages: 21076 - 21084
      Abstract: The selection pressure exerted by herbicides has led to the repeated evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds. The evolution of herbicide resistance on contemporary timescales in turn provides an outstanding opportunity to investigate key questions about the genetics of adaptation, in particular the relative importance of adaptation from new mutations,...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1900870116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Empirical measures of mutational effects define neutral models of
           regulatory evolution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Evolution]
    • Authors: Andrea Hodgins-Davis; Fabien Duveau, Elizabeth A. Walker, Patricia J. Wittkopp
      Pages: 21085 - 21093
      Abstract: Understanding how phenotypes evolve requires disentangling the effects of mutation generating new variation from the effects of selection filtering it. Tests for selection frequently assume that mutation introduces phenotypic variation symmetrically around the population mean, yet few studies have tested this assumption by deeply sampling the distributions of mutational effects...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1902823116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • A functional enrichment test for molecular convergent evolution finds a
           clear protein-coding signal in echolocating bats and whales [Evolution]
    • Authors: Amir Marcovitz; Yatish Turakhia, Heidi I. Chen, Michael Gloudemans, Benjamin A. Braun, Haoqing Wang, Gill Bejerano
      Pages: 21094 - 21103
      Abstract: Distantly related species entering similar biological niches often adapt by evolving similar morphological and physiological characters. How much genomic molecular convergence (particularly of highly constrained coding sequence) contributes to convergent phenotypic evolution, such as echolocation in bats and whales, is a long-standing fundamental question. Like others, we find that convergent...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1818532116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Allele-specific nonstationarity in evolution of influenza A virus surface
           proteins [Evolution]
    • Authors: Anfisa V. Popova; Ksenia R. Safina, Vasily V. Ptushenko, Anastasia V. Stolyarova, Alexander V. Favorov, Alexey D. Neverov, Georgii A. Bazykin
      Pages: 21104 - 21112
      Abstract: Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major public health problem and a pandemic threat. Its evolution is largely driven by diversifying positive selection so that relative fitness of different amino acid variants changes with time due to changes in herd immunity or genomic context, and novel amino acid variants attain...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904246116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Cowpox virus encodes a protein that binds B7.1 and B7.2 and subverts T
           cell costimulation [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Xiaoli Wang; Sytse J. Piersma, Jabari I. Elliott, John M. Errico, Maria D. Gainey, Liping Yang, Christopher A. Nelson, Wayne M. Yokoyama, Daved H. Fremont
      Pages: 21113 - 21119
      Abstract: Costimulation is required for optimal T cell activation, yet it is unclear whether poxviruses dedicatedly subvert costimulation during infection. Here, we report that the secreted M2 protein encoded by cowpox virus (CPXV) specifically interacts with human and murine B7.1 (CD80) and B7.2 (CD86). We also show that M2 competes with...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909414116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • IL-2 receptors preassemble and signal in the ER/Golgi causing resistance
           to antiproliferative anti-IL-2R{alpha} therapies [Immunology and
           Inflammation]
    • Authors: Julianna Volko; Adam Kenesei, Meili Zhang, Peter Varnai, Gabor Mocsar, Michael N. Petrus, Karoly Jambrovics, Zoltan Balaȷthy, Gabriele Muller, Andrea Bodnar, Katalin Toth, Thomas A. Waldmann, Gyorgy Vamosi
      Pages: 21120 - 21130
      Abstract: Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-15 play pivotal roles in T cell activation, apoptosis, and survival, and are implicated in leukemias and autoimmune diseases. Their heterotrimeric receptors share their β- and γc-chains, but have distinct α-chains. Anti–IL-2Rα (daclizumab) therapy targeting cell surface-expressed receptor subunits to inhibit T cell proliferation has only brought...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1901382116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Extrapituitary prolactin promotes generation of Eomes-positive helper T
           cells mediating neuroinflammation [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Chenyang Zhang; Ben J. E. Raveney, Hirohiko Hohjoh, Chiharu Tomi, Shinji Oki, Takashi Yamamura
      Pages: 21131 - 21139
      Abstract: Induction of eomesodermin-positive CD4+ T cells (Eomes+ T helper [Th] cells) has recently been correlated with the transition from an acute stage to a later stage of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis. Moreover, these cells’ pathogenic role has been experimentally proven in EAE. While exploring...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906438116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • ROR{alpha} is crucial for attenuated inflammatory response to maintain
           intestinal homeostasis [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Se Kyu Oh; Dongha Kim, Kyeongkyu Kim, Kyungjin Boo, Young Suk Yu, Ik Soo Kim, Yoon Jeon, Sun-Kyoung Im, Su-Hyung Lee, Ji Min Lee, Younhee Ko, Ho Lee, Daechan Park, Sungsoon Fang, Sung Hee Baek
      Pages: 21140 - 21149
      Abstract: Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor α (RORα) functions as a transcription factor for various biological processes, including circadian rhythm, cancer, and metabolism. Here, we generate intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific RORα-deficient (RORαΔIEC) mice and find that RORα is crucial for maintaining intestinal homeostasis by attenuating nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity. RORαΔIEC...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1907595116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Lipid nanoparticle-targeted mRNA therapy as a treatment for the inherited
           metabolic liver disorder arginase deficiency [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Brian Truong; Gabriella Allegri, Xiao–Bo Liu, Kristine E. Burke, Xuling Zhu, Stephen D. Cederbaum, Johannes Haberle, Paolo G. V. Martini, Gerald S. Lipshutz
      Pages: 21150 - 21159
      Abstract: Arginase deficiency is caused by biallelic mutations in arginase 1 (ARG1), the final step of the urea cycle, and results biochemically in hyperargininemia and the presence of guanidino compounds, while it is clinically notable for developmental delays, spastic diplegia, psychomotor function loss, and (uncommonly) death. There is currently no completely...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906182116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Genetic ablation of purine salvage in Cryptosporidium parvum reveals
           nucleotide uptake from the host cell [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Mattie C. Pawlowic; Mastanbabu Somepalli, Adam Sateriale, Gillian T. Herbert, Alexis R. Gibson, Gregory D. Cuny, Lizbeth Hedstrom, Boris Striepen
      Pages: 21160 - 21165
      Abstract: The apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium is a leading global cause of severe diarrheal disease and an important contributor to early-childhood mortality. Waterborne outbreaks occur frequently, even in countries with advanced water treatment capabilities, and there is currently no fully effective treatment. Nucleotide pathways are attractive targets for antimicrobial development, and several...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1908239116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • The cbb3-type cytochrome oxidase assembly factor CcoG is a widely
           distributed cupric reductase [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Dorian Marckmann; Petru-Iulian Trasnea, Johannes Schimpf, Christine Winterstein, Andreea Andrei, Stefan Schmollinger, Crysten E. Blaby-Haas, Thorsten Friedrich, Fevzi Daldal, Hans-Georg Koch
      Pages: 21166 - 21175
      Abstract: Copper (Cu)-containing proteins execute essential functions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, but their biogenesis is challenged by high Cu toxicity and the preferential presence of Cu(II) under aerobic conditions, while Cu(I) is the preferred substrate for Cu chaperones and Cu-transport proteins. These proteins form a coordinated network that prevents Cu...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913803116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Photopotentiation of the GABAA receptor with caged diazepam [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Lorenzo Sansalone; Joshua Bratsch–Prince, Sicheng Tang, Burȷor Captain, David D. Mott, Francisco M. Raymo
      Pages: 21176 - 21184
      Abstract: As the inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid–ergic (GABAergic) transmission has a pivotal role in the central nervous system (CNS) and defective forms of its synapses are associated with serious neurological disorders, numerous versions of caged GABA and, more recently, photoswitchable ligands have been developed to investigate such transmission. While the complementary nature...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1902383116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Laminar specific fMRI reveals directed interactions in distributed
           networks during language processing [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
           
    • Authors: Daniel Sharoh; Tim van Mourik, Lauren J. Bains, Katrien Segaert, Kirsten Weber, Peter Hagoort, David G. Norris
      Pages: 21185 - 21190
      Abstract: Interactions between top-down and bottom-up information streams are integral to brain function but challenging to measure noninvasively. Laminar resolution, functional MRI (lfMRI) is sensitive to depth-dependent properties of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response, which can be potentially related to top-down and bottom-up signal contributions. In this work, we used...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1907858116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Genetic dissection of active forgetting in labile and consolidated
           memories in Drosophila [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Yang Gao; Yichun Shuai, Xuchen Zhang, Yuwei Peng, Lianzhang Wang, Jing He, Yi Zhong, Qian Li
      Pages: 21191 - 21197
      Abstract: Different memory components are forgotten through distinct molecular mechanisms. In Drosophila, the activation of 2 Rho GTPases (Rac1 and Cdc42), respectively, underlies the forgetting of an early labile memory (anesthesia-sensitive memory, ASM) and a form of consolidated memory (anesthesia-resistant memory, ARM). Here, we dissected the molecular mechanisms that tie Rac1...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1903763116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Amyloid-beta impairs TOM1-mediated IL-1R1 signaling [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Alessandra Cadete Martini; Angela Gomez-Arboledas, Stefania Forner, Carlos J. Rodriguez-Ortiz, Amanda McQuade, Emma Danhash, Jimmy Phan, Dominic Javonillo, Jordan-Vu Ha, Melanie Tram, Laura Trujillo-Estrada, Celia da Cunha, Rahasson R. Ager, Jose C. Davila, Masashi Kitazawa, Mathew Blurton-Jones, Antonia Gutierrez, David Baglietto-Vargas, Rodrigo Medeiros, Frank M. LaFerla
      Pages: 21198 - 21206
      Abstract: Defects in interleukin-1β (IL-1β)–mediated cellular responses contribute to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To decipher the mechanism associated with its pathogenesis, we investigated the molecular events associated with the termination of IL-1β inflammatory responses by focusing on the role played by the target of Myb1 (TOM1), a negative regulator of the interleukin-1β...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914088116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • N-terminal alternative splicing of GluN1 regulates the maturation of
           excitatory synapses and seizure susceptibility [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Hong Liu; Hao Wang, Matthew Peterson, Wen Zhang, Guoqiang Hou, Zhong-wei Zhang
      Pages: 21207 - 21212
      Abstract: The majority of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in the brain are composed of 2 GluN1 and 2 GluN2 subunits. The inclusion or exclusion of 1 N-terminal and 2 C-terminal domains of GluN1 results in 8 splicing variants that exhibit distinct temporal and spatial patterns of expression and functional properties. However, previous...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1905721116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Gray Matter Age Prediction as a Biomarker for Risk of Dementia
           [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Johnny Wang; Maria J. Knol, Aleksei Tiulpin, Florian Dubost, Marleen de Bruijne, Meike W. Vernooij, Hieab H. H. Adams, M. Arfan Ikram, Wiro J. Niessen, Gennady V. Roshchupkin
      Pages: 21213 - 21218
      Abstract: The gap between predicted brain age using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and chronological age may serve as a biomarker for early-stage neurodegeneration. However, owing to the lack of large longitudinal studies, it has been challenging to validate this link. We aimed to investigate the utility of such a gap as...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1902376116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Gradients of structure-function tethering across neocortex [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Bertha Vazquez–Rodriguez; Laura E. Suarez, Ross D. Markello, Golia Shafiei, Casey Paquola, Patric Hagmann, Martiȷn P. van den Heuvel, Boris C. Bernhardt, R. Nathan Spreng, Bratislav Misic
      Pages: 21219 - 21227
      Abstract: The white matter architecture of the brain imparts a distinct signature on neuronal coactivation patterns. Interregional projections promote synchrony among distant neuronal populations, giving rise to richly patterned functional networks. A variety of statistical, communication, and biophysical models have been proposed to study the relationship between brain structure and function,...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1903403116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Muscle acetylcholine receptor conversion into chloride conductance at
           positive potentials by a single mutation [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Hakan Cetin; Max Epstein, Wei W. Liu, Susan Maxwell, Pedro M. Rodriguez Cruz, Judith Cossins, Angela Vincent, Richard Webster, Philip C. Biggin, David Beeson
      Pages: 21228 - 21235
      Abstract: Charge selectivity forms the basis of cellular excitation or inhibition by Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs), and is essential for physiological receptor function. There are no reports of naturally occurring mutations in LGICs associated with the conversion of charge selectivity. Here, we report on a CHRNA1 mutation (α1Leu251Arg) in a...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1908284116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • KCNQ5 activation is a unifying molecular mechanism shared by genetically
           and culturally diverse botanical hypotensive folk medicines [Pharmacology]
           
    • Authors: Rian W. Manville; Jennifer van der Horst, Kaitlyn E. Redford, Benȷamin B. Katz, Thomas A. Jepps, Geoffrey W. Abbott
      Pages: 21236 - 21245
      Abstract: Botanical folk medicines have been used throughout human history to treat common disorders such as hypertension, often with unknown underlying mechanisms. Here, we discovered that hypotensive folk medicines from a genetically diverse range of plant species each selectively activated the vascular-expressed KCNQ5 potassium channel, a feature lacking in the modern...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1907511116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Structure of a C2S2M2N2-type PSII-LHCII supercomplex from the green alga
           Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Liangliang Shen; Zihui Huang, Shenghai Chang, Wenda Wang, Jingfen Wang, Tingyun Kuang, Guangye Han, Jian-Ren Shen, Xing Zhang
      Pages: 21246 - 21255
      Abstract: Photosystem II (PSII) in the thylakoid membranes of plants, algae, and cyanobacteria catalyzes light-induced oxidation of water by which light energy is converted to chemical energy and molecular oxygen is produced. In higher plants and most eukaryotic algae, the PSII core is surrounded by variable numbers of light-harvesting antenna complex...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912462116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Mining for protein S-sulfenylation in Arabidopsis uncovers redox-sensitive
           sites [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Jingȷing Huang; Patrick Willems, Bo Wei, Caiping Tian, Renan B. Ferreira, Nandita Bodra, Santiago Agustin Martinez Gache, Khadiȷa Wahni, Keke Liu, Didier Vertommen, Kris Gevaert, Kate S. Carroll, Marc Van Montagu, Jing Yang, Frank Van Breusegem, Joris Messens
      Pages: 21256 - 21261
      Abstract: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important messenger molecule for diverse cellular processes. H2O2 oxidizes proteinaceous cysteinyl thiols to sulfenic acid, also known as S-sulfenylation, thereby affecting the protein conformation and functionality. Although many proteins have been identified as S-sulfenylation targets in plants, site-specific mapping and quantification remain largely unexplored. By...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906768116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • GWAS with principal component analysis identifies a gene comprehensively
           controlling rice architecture [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Kenji Yano; Yoichi Morinaka, Fanmiao Wang, Peng Huang, Sayaka Takehara, Takaaki Hirai, Aya Ito, Eriko Koketsu, Mayuko Kawamura, Kunihiko Kotake, Shinya Yoshida, Masaki Endo, Gen Tamiya, Hidemi Kitano, Miyako Ueguchi-Tanaka, Ko Hirano, Makoto Matsuoka
      Pages: 21262 - 21267
      Abstract: Elucidation of the genetic control of rice architecture is crucial due to the global demand for high crop yields. Rice architecture is a complex trait affected by plant height, tillering, and panicle morphology. In this study, principal component analysis (PCA) on 8 typical traits related to plant architecture revealed that...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904964116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Light-inducible expression of translation factor EF-Tu during acclimation
           to strong light enhances the repair of photosystem II [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Haruhiko Jimbo; Taichi Izuhara, Yukako Hihara, Toru Hisabori, Yoshitaka Nishiyama
      Pages: 21268 - 21273
      Abstract: In photosynthetic organisms, the repair of photosystem II (PSII) is enhanced after acclimation to strong light, with the resultant mitigation of photoinhibition of PSII. We previously reported that oxidation of translation elongation factor EF-Tu, which delivers aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosome, depresses the repair of PSII in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp....
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909520116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Salicylic acid-mediated plasmodesmal closure via Remorin-dependent lipid
           organization [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Dingquan Huang; Yanbiao Sun, Zhiming Ma, Meiyu Ke, Yong Cui, Zichen Chen, Chaofan Chen, Changyang Ji, Tuan Minh Tran, Liang Yang, Sin Man Lam, Yanhong Han, Guanghou Shu, Jiři Friml, Yansong Miao, Liwen Jiang, Xu Chen
      Pages: 21274 - 21284
      Abstract: Plasmodesmata (PD) are plant-specific membrane-lined channels that create cytoplasmic and membrane continuities between adjacent cells, thereby facilitating cell–cell communication and virus movement. Plant cells have evolved diverse mechanisms to regulate PD plasticity in response to numerous environmental stimuli. In particular, during defense against plant pathogens, the defense hormone, salicylic acid...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911892116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Noncanonical auxin signaling regulates cell division pattern during
           lateral root development [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Rongfeng Huang; Rui Zheng, Jun He, Zimin Zhou, Jiacheng Wang, Yan Xiong, Tongda Xu
      Pages: 21285 - 21290
      Abstract: In both plants and animals, multiple cellular processes must be orchestrated to ensure proper organogenesis. The cell division patterns control the shape of growing organs, yet how they are precisely determined and coordinated is poorly understood. In plants, the distribution of the phytohormone auxin is tightly linked to organogenesis, including...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910916116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Interaction between VPS35 and RABG3f is necessary as a checkpoint to
           control fusion of late compartments with the vacuole [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Cecilia Rodriguez-Furlan; David Domozych, Weixing Qian, Per-Anders Enquist, Xiaohui Li, Chunhua Zhang, Rolf Schenk, Holly Saulsbery Winbigler, William Jackson, Natasha V. Raikhel, Glenn R. Hicks
      Pages: 21291 - 21301
      Abstract: Vacuoles are essential organelles in plants, playing crucial roles, such as cellular material degradation, ion and metabolite storage, and turgor maintenance. Vacuoles receive material via the endocytic, secretory, and autophagic pathways. Membrane fusion is the last step during which prevacuolar compartments (PVCs) and autophagosomes fuse with the vacuole membrane (tonoplast)...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1905321116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Contemporary evolution of maize landraces and their wild relatives
           influenced by gene flow with modern maize varieties [Population Biology]
    • Authors: Idalia C. Roȷas–Barrera; Ana Wegier, Jose de Jesus Sanchez Gonzalez, Gregory L. Owens, Loren H. Rieseberg, Daniel Pinero
      Pages: 21302 - 21311
      Abstract: Mexico is recognized as the center of origin and domestication of maize. Introduction of modern maize varieties (MVs) into Mexico raised concerns regarding the possible effects of gene flow from MVs into maize landraces (LRs) and their wild relatives (WRs), teosintes. However, after more than 60 y from the release...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1817664116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Distinct representations of spatial and categorical relationships across
           human scene-selective cortex [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Andrew S. Persichetti; Daniel D. Dilks
      Pages: 21312 - 21317
      Abstract: We represent the locations of places (e.g., the coffee shop on 10th Street vs. the coffee shop on Peachtree Street) so that we can use them as landmarks to orient ourselves while navigating large-scale environments. While several neuroimaging studies have argued that the parahippocampal place area (PPA) represents such navigationally...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1903057116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Neural dynamics of semantic composition [Psychological and Cognitive
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Bingjiang Lyu; Hun S. Choi, William D. Marslen-Wilson, Alex Clarke, Billi Randall, Lorraine K. Tyler
      Pages: 21318 - 21327
      Abstract: Human speech comprehension is remarkable for its immediacy and rapidity. The listener interprets an incrementally delivered auditory input, millisecond by millisecond as it is heard, in terms of complex multilevel representations of relevant linguistic and nonlinguistic knowledge. Central to this process are the neural computations involved in semantic combination, whereby...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1903402116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Correction for Manca et al., SNARE machinery is optimized for ultrafast
           fusion [Correction]
    • Pages: 21328 - 21329
      Abstract: BIOPHYSICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY Correction for “SNARE machinery is optimized for ultrafast fusion,” by Fabio Manca, Frederic Pincet, Lev Truskinovsky, James E. Rothman, Lionel Foret, and Matthieu Caruel, which was first published January 30, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1820394116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 2435–2442). The authors wish to note the following:...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915891116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Correction for Sotoudeh et al., Effects of the peer metagenomic
           environment on smoking behavior [Correction]
    • Pages: 21330 - 21330
      Abstract: SOCIAL SCIENCES Correction for “Effects of the peer metagenomic environment on smoking behavior,” by Ramina Sotoudeh, Kathleen Mullan Harris, and Dalton Conley, which was first published July 30, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1806901116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 16302–16307). The authors note that Fig. 3 appeared incorrectly. The corrected figure and its...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916279116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Correction for Ishii et al., MPE-seq, a new method for the genome-wide
           analysis of chromatin structure [Correction]
    • Pages: 21331 - 21331
      Abstract: BIOCHEMISTRY Correction for “MPE-seq, a new method for the genome-wide analysis of chromatin structure,” by Haruhiko Ishii, James T. Kadonaga, and Bing Ren, which was first published June 15, 2015; 10.1073/pnas.1424804112 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, E3457–E3465). The authors note that on page E3464, left column, lines 4–5, “6...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916397116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
  • Correction for Font-Munoz et al., Collective sinking promotes selective
           cell pairing in planktonic pennate diatoms [Correction]
    • Pages: 21332 - 21332
      Abstract: ECOLOGY Correction for “Collective sinking promotes selective cell pairing in planktonic pennate diatoms,” by Joan S. Font-Muñoz, Raphaël Jeanneret, Jorge Arrieta, Sílvia Anglès, Antoni Jordi, Idan Tuval, and Gotzon Basterretxea, which was first published July 25, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1904837116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 15997–16002). The authors note that the...
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T09:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916096116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 42 (2019)
       
 
 
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