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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 6.092
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 1182  
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ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 1237 - 1239
      Abstract: Fin-to-limb transition in vertebrate evolution Artist’s reconstruction of tetrapodomorphs. From Top to Bottom: S. taylori, E. foordi, and T. roseae. Dorsal and ventral fin rays shown in orange and blue, respectively. Image courtesy of Alex Boersma (artist). The transformation of fins into limbs is marked by the appearance of digits,...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti0320117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Inner Workings: A massive star dies without a bang, revealing the
           sensitive nature of supernovae [Astronomy]
    • Authors: Ken Croswell
      Pages: 1240 - 1242
      Abstract: In 2008, a huge red star in another galaxy reached the end of its life. A star as heavy as this one, born with 25 times the mass of the Sun, was supposed to go out in a fiery flash of light known as a supernova, millions or billions of...
      Keywords: Inner Workings, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920319116
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • QnAs with Sangeeta N. Bhatia [QnAs]
    • Authors: Prashant Nair
      Pages: 1243 - 1245
      Abstract: More than 2% of the human genome is claimed by genes encoding proteases, or protein-degrading enzymes. A diverse family of more than 550 members, human proteases perform a raft of functions in cells, from recycling damaged proteins to regulating signaling and growth. So it follows that proteases have been implicated...
      Keywords: QnAs
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922176117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Profile of Mary Lou Guerinot [Profiles]
    • Authors: Jennifer Viegas
      Pages: 1246 - 1248
      Abstract: On the first Earth Day, April 22, 1970, Mary Lou Guerinot decided that she would major in biology in college in the hope of promoting environmental sustainability. As the 50th anniversary of Earth Day approaches, Guerinot, now a professor of biological sciences at Dartmouth College and a member of the...
      Keywords: PNAS Profiles
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1921933117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Chronic well leakage probability relative to basin and fluid
           characteristics [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Preston Jordan
      Pages: 1249 - 1251
      Abstract: Regulation of wells is largely concerned with precluding leakage along them. Studies of the proportion of wells in large populations that leak provide one means of reviewing the effectiveness of these regulations. The article entitled “A portrait of wellbore leakage in northeastern British Columbia, Canada” in PNAS (1) provides the...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919199116
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • The Australasian tektite source crater: Found at last' [Earth,
           Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: H. J. Melosh
      Pages: 1252 - 1253
      Abstract: In PNAS, Sieh et al. (1) present the best candidate yet for the long-sought source crater of the Australasian tektite strewn field. Unlike the other 4 or so tektite strewn fields, each of which can be traced back to a large impact crater, the Australasian field’s source has yet to...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920576117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Linking calcium signaling and mitochondrial function in fungal drug
           resistance [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Paul Bowyer; Michael J. Bromley, David W. Denning
      Pages: 1254 - 1256
      Abstract: The host range for Aspergillus fumigatus is wide, including mammals, aves, and insecta (stonebrood). This is linked to the significant adaptability of this important fungal pathogen. It is thermotolerant, able to grow up to 70 °C, and astonishingly also remains viable down to −20 °C (1). It is microaerophilic and...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920497117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Further wet-taro evidence from Polynesia’s southernmost Neolithic
           production margins [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Ian G. Barber
      Pages: 1257 - 1258
      Abstract: For Prebble et al. (1), the cultivation of introduced semiaquatic tropical taro (Colocasia esculenta) on cooler southern Pacific islands during the Polynesian “initial colonization period” (ICP) (1200 to 1500 CE) represents a “striking” Neolithic example of nonoptimal, marginal crop production. In that respect, ICP taro pollen from Ahuahu, a warm-temperate,...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918374117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Reply to Barber: Marginal evidence for taro production in northern New
           Zealand between 1200 and 1500 CE [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Matthew Prebble; Atholl J. Anderson, Paul Augustinus, Joshua Emmitt, Stewart J. Fallon, Louise L. Furey, Simon J. Holdaway, Alex Jorgensen, Thegn N. Ladefoged, Peter J. Matthews, Jean-Yves Meyer, Rebecca Phillipps, Rod Wallace, Nicholas Porch
      Pages: 1259 - 1260
      Abstract: We welcome Barber’s (1) comments and are grateful for the opportunity to respond. Our study of wetland taro (Colocasia esculenta) gardens during the initial colonization period (ICP) (1200 to 1500 CE) in New Zealand did not overlook the evidence from the Aupouri Peninsula (2–4). We agree that gardens were probably...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919037117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Making inferences about racial disparities in police violence [Social
    • Authors: Dean Knox; Jonathan Mummolo
      Pages: 1261 - 1262
      Abstract: A recent PNAS study, Johnson et al. (1), investigates the role of race in fatal police shootings. Unlike previous studies which focused on victim race alone, the paper features original data about the race of officers who use deadly force and offers a rare accounting of other shooting attributes that...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919418117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Young unarmed nonsuicidal male victims of fatal use of force are 13 times
           more likely to be Black than White [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Ulrich Schimmack; Rickard Carlsson
      Pages: 1263 - 1263
      Abstract: A recent PNAS article reports “no evidence of anti-Black or anti-Hispanic disparities across [fatal] shootings” by police officers (ref. 1, p. 15877). This claim is based on the results of a regression model that suggested “a person fatally shot by police was 6.67 times less likely (odds ratio [OR] =...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917915117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Reply to Knox and Mummolo and Schimmack and Carlsson: Controlling for
           crime and population rates [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: David J. Johnson; Joseph Cesario
      Pages: 1264 - 1265
      Abstract: Recently, we (1) published a report showing that, among civilians fatally shot, officer race does not predict civilian race and there is no evidence of anti-Black or anti-Hispanic disparities. As Knox and Mummolo (2) correctly state, this is different from the likelihood of being shot given a person’s race, Pr(shot∣race)....
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920184117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • The role of saltwater and waves in continental shelf formation with
           seaward migrating clinoform [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Toshiki Iwasaki; Gary Parker
      Pages: 1266 - 1273
      Abstract: Continental shelves have generally been interpreted as drowned coastal plains associated with the allogenic effect of sea-level variation. Here, without disputing this mechanism we describe an alternative autogenic mechanism for subaqueous shelf formation, driven by the presence of dissolved salt in seawater and surface waves. We use a numerical model...
      Keywords: Inaugural Articles
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909572117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Scientists’ incentives and attitudes toward public communication
           [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Kathleen M. Rose; Ezra M. Markowitz, Dominique Brossard
      Pages: 1274 - 1276
      Abstract: In an era of large-scale science-related challenges and rapid advancements in groundbreaking science with major societal implications, communicating about science is critical. The profile of science communication has increased over the last few decades, with multiple sectors calling for such activities. As scientists respond to calls for public-facing communication, we...
      Keywords: Brief Reports
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916740117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Evidence of tool use in a seabird [Evolution]
    • Authors: Annette L. Fayet; Erpur Snar Hansen, Dora Biro
      Pages: 1277 - 1279
      Abstract: Documenting novel cases of tool use in wild animals can inform our understanding of the evolutionary drivers of the behavior’s emergence in the natural world. We describe a previously unknown tool-use behavior for wild birds, so far only documented in the wild in primates and elephants. We observed 2 Atlantic...
      Keywords: Brief Reports
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918060117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Host protein glycosylation in nucleic acid vaccines as a potential hurdle
           in vaccine design for nonviral pathogens [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Ahmet Ozdilek; Amy V. Paschall, Michelle Dookwah, Michael Tiemeyer, Fikri Y. Avci
      Pages: 1280 - 1282
      Abstract: Nucleic acid vaccines introduce the genetic materials encoding antigenic proteins into host cells. If these proteins are directed into the secretory pathway with a signal/leader sequence, they will be exposed to the host’s glycosylation machinery, and, if their amino acid sequences contain consensus sequons for N-linked glycosylation, they may become...
      Keywords: Brief Reports
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916131117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Intermediate states of molecular self-assembly from liquid-cell electron
           microscopy [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Huan Wang; Bo Li, Ye-Jin Kim, Oh-Hoon Kwon, Steve Granick
      Pages: 1283 - 1292
      Abstract: Traditional single-molecule methods do not report whole-molecule kinetic conformations, and their adaptive shape changes during the process of self-assembly. Here, using graphene liquid-cell electron microscopy with electrons of low energy at low dose, we show that this approach resolves the time dependence of conformational adaptations of macromolecules for times up...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916065117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Short solvent model for ion correlations and hydrophobic association
           [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Ang Gao; Richard C. Remsing, John D. Weeks
      Pages: 1293 - 1302
      Abstract: Coulomb interactions play a major role in determining the thermodynamics, structure, and dynamics of condensed-phase systems, but often present significant challenges. Computer simulations usually use periodic boundary conditions to minimize corrections from finite cell boundaries but the long range of the Coulomb interactions generates significant contributions from distant periodic images...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918981117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Biophysical principles of choanoflagellate self-organization [Biophysics
           and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Ben T. Larson; Teresa Ruiz-Herrero, Stacey Lee, Sanjay Kumar, L. Mahadevan, Nicole King
      Pages: 1303 - 1311
      Abstract: Inspired by the patterns of multicellularity in choanoflagellates, the closest living relatives of animals, we quantify the biophysical processes underlying the morphogenesis of rosette colonies in the choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta. We find that rosettes reproducibly transition from an early stage of 2-dimensional (2D) growth to a later stage of 3D...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909447117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • The effector mechanism of siRNA spherical nucleic acids [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Gokay Yamankurt; Robert J. Stawicki, Diana M. Posadas, Joseph Q. Nguyen, Richard W. Carthew, Chad A. Mirkin
      Pages: 1312 - 1320
      Abstract: Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) are nanostructures formed by chemically conjugating short linear strands of oligonucleotides to a nanoparticle template. When made with modified small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes, SNAs act as single-entity transfection and gene silencing agents and have been used as lead therapeutic constructs in several disease models. However,...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915907117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • An anticancer gold(III)-activated porphyrin scaffold that covalently
           modifies protein cysteine thiols [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Ka-Chung Tong; Chun-Nam Lok, Pui-Ki Wan, Di Hu, Yi Man Eva Fung, Xiao-Yong Chang, Song Huang, Haibo Jiang, Chi-Ming Che
      Pages: 1321 - 1329
      Abstract: Cysteine thiols of many cancer-associated proteins are attractive targets of anticancer agents. Herein, we unequivocally demonstrate a distinct thiol-targeting property of gold(III) mesoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (AuMesoIX) and its anticancer activities. While the binding of cysteine thiols with metal complexes usually occurs via M–S bond formation, AuMesoIX is unique in...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915202117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Highly efficient binary copper-iron catalyst for photoelectrochemical
           carbon dioxide reduction toward methane [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Baowen Zhou; Pengfei Ou, Nick Pant, Shaobo Cheng, Srinivas Vanka, Sheng Chu, Roksana Tonny Rashid, Gianluigi Botton, Jun Song, Zetian Mi
      Pages: 1330 - 1338
      Abstract: A rational design of an electrocatalyst presents a promising avenue for solar fuels synthesis from carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation but is extremely challenging. Herein, we use density functional theory calculations to study an inexpensive binary copper−iron catalyst for photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction toward methane. The calculations of reaction energetics suggest that...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911159117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • A unified machine-learning protocol for asymmetric catalysis as a proof of
           concept demonstration using asymmetric hydrogenation [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Sukriti Singh; Monika Pareek, Avtar Changotra, Sayan Banerjee, Bangaru Bhaskararao, P. Balamurugan, Raghavan B. Sunoj
      Pages: 1339 - 1345
      Abstract: Design of asymmetric catalysts generally involves time- and resource-intensive heuristic endeavors. In view of the steady increase in interest toward efficient catalytic asymmetric reactions and the rapid growth in the field of machine learning (ML) in recent years, we envisaged dovetailing these two important domains. We selected a set of...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916392117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Australasian impact crater buried under the Bolaven volcanic field,
           Southern Laos [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Kerry Sieh; Jason Herrin, Brian Jicha, Dayana Schonwalder Angel, James D. P. Moore, Paramesh Banerjee, Weerachat Wiwegwin, Vanpheng Sihavong, Brad Singer, Tawachai Chualaowanich, Punya Charusiri
      Pages: 1346 - 1353
      Abstract: The crater and proximal effects of the largest known young meteorite impact on Earth have eluded discovery for nearly a century. We present 4 lines of evidence that the 0.79-Ma impact crater of the Australasian tektites lies buried beneath lavas of a long-lived, 910-km3 volcanic field in Southern Laos: 1)...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904368116
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Fast oxidation of sulfur dioxide by hydrogen peroxide in deliquesced
           aerosol particles [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Tengyu Liu; Simon L. Clegg, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt
      Pages: 1354 - 1359
      Abstract: Atmospheric sulfate aerosols have important impacts on air quality, climate, and human and ecosystem health. However, current air-quality models generally underestimate the rate of conversion of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to sulfate during severe haze pollution events, indicating that our understanding of sulfate formation chemistry is incomplete. This may arise because...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916401117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Oxidized micrometeorites suggest either high pCO2 or low pN2 during the
           Neoarchean [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Rebecca C. Payne; Don Brownlee, James F. Kasting
      Pages: 1360 - 1366
      Abstract: Tomkins et al. [A. G. Tomkins et al., Nature 533, 235–238 (2016)] suggested that iron oxides contained in 2.7-Ga iron micrometeorites can be used to determine the concentration of O2 in the Archean upper atmosphere. Specifically, they argued that the presence of magnetite in these objects implies that O2 must...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910698117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Bioinspired sonar reflectors as guiding beacons for autonomous navigation
    • Authors: Ralph Simon; Stefan Rupitsch, Markus Baumann, Huan Wu, Herbert Peremans, Jan Steckel
      Pages: 1367 - 1374
      Abstract: Sonar sensors are universally applied in autonomous vehicles such as robots and driverless cars as they are inexpensive, energy-efficient, and provide accurate range measurements; however, they have some limitations. Their measurements can lead to ambiguous estimates and echo clutter can hamper target detection. In nature, echolocating bats experience similar problems...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909890117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Channelization cascade in landscape evolution [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Sara Bonetti; Milad Hooshyar, Carlo Camporeale, Amilcare Porporato
      Pages: 1375 - 1382
      Abstract: The hierarchy of channel networks in landscapes displays features that are characteristic of nonequilibrium complex systems. Here we show that a sequence of increasingly complex ridge and valley networks is produced by a system of partial differential equations coupling landscape evolution dynamics with a specific catchment area equation. By means...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911817117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Optimizing Brownian escape rates by potential shaping [Physics]
    • Authors: Marie Chupeau; Jannes Gladrow, Alexei Chepelianskii, Ulrich F. Keyser, Emmanuel Trizac
      Pages: 1383 - 1388
      Abstract: Brownian escape is key to a wealth of physico-chemical processes, including polymer folding and information storage. The frequency of thermally activated energy barrier crossings is assumed to generally decrease exponentially with increasing barrier height. Here, we show experimentally that higher, fine-tuned barrier profiles result in significantly enhanced escape rates, in...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910677116
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • A randomized trial of a lab-embedded discourse intervention to improve
           research ethics [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Dena K. Plemmons; Erica N. Baranski, Kyle Harp, David D. Lo, Courtney K. Soderberg, Timothy M. Errington, Brian A. Nosek, Kevin M. Esterling
      Pages: 1389 - 1394
      Abstract: We report a randomized trial of a research ethics training intervention designed to enhance ethics communication in university science and engineering laboratories, focusing specifically on authorship and data management. The intervention is a project-based research ethics curriculum that was designed to enhance the ability of science and engineering research laboratory...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917848117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Retroconversion of estrogens into androgens by bacteria via a
           cobalamin-mediated methylation [Applied Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Po-Hsiang Wang; Yi-Lung Chen, Sean Ting-Shyang Wei, Kan Wu, Tzong-Huei Lee, Tien-Yu Wu, Yin-Ru Chiang
      Pages: 1395 - 1403
      Abstract: Steroid estrogens modulate physiology and development of vertebrates. Conversion of C19 androgens into C18 estrogens is thought to be an irreversible reaction. Here, we report a denitrifying Denitratisoma sp. strain DHT3 capable of catabolizing estrogens or androgens anaerobically. Strain DHT3 genome contains a polycistronic gene cluster, emtABCD, differentially transcribed under...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914380117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Bioderivatization as a concept for renewable production of chemicals that
           are toxic or poorly soluble in the liquid phase [Applied Biological
    • Authors: Pachara Sattayawat; Ian Sofian Yunus, Patrik R. Jones
      Pages: 1404 - 1413
      Abstract: Bio-based production technologies may complement or replace petroleum-based production of chemicals, but they face a number of technical challenges, including product toxicity and/or water insolubility. Plants and microorganisms naturally biosynthesize chemicals that often are converted into derivatives with reduced toxicity or enhanced solubility. Inspired by this principle, we propose a...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914069117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Activation by substoichiometric inhibition [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Melisa Merdanovic; Steven G. Burston, Anna Laura Schmitz, Steffen Kocher, Stefan Knapp, Tim Clausen, Markus Kaiser, Robert Huber, Michael Ehrmann
      Pages: 1414 - 1418
      Abstract: Startling reports described the paradoxical triggering of the human mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway when a small-molecule inhibitor specifically inactivates the BRAF V600E protein kinase but not wt-BRAF. We performed a conceptual analysis of the general phenomenon “activation by inhibition” using bacterial and human HtrA proteases as models. Our data suggest...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918721117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • A de novo peroxidase is also a promiscuous yet stereoselective carbene
           transferase [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Richard Stenner; Jack W. Steventon, Annela Seddon, J. L. Ross Anderson
      Pages: 1419 - 1428
      Abstract: By constructing an in vivo-assembled, catalytically proficient peroxidase, C45, we have recently demonstrated the catalytic potential of simple, de novo-designed heme proteins. Here, we show that C45’s enzymatic activity extends to the efficient and stereoselective intermolecular transfer of carbenes to olefins, heterocycles, aldehydes, and amines. Not only is this a...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915054117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Long-range interdomain communications in eIF5B regulate GTP hydrolysis and
           translation initiation [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Bridget Y. Huang; Israel S. Fernandez
      Pages: 1429 - 1437
      Abstract: Translation initiation controls protein synthesis by regulating the delivery of the first aminoacyl-tRNA to messenger RNAs (mRNAs). In eukaryotes, initiation is sophisticated, requiring dozens of protein factors and 2 GTP-regulated steps. The GTPase eIF5B gates progression to elongation during the second GTP-regulated step. Using electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM), we imaged an...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916436117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Cryo-EM analysis of a feline coronavirus spike protein reveals a unique
           structure and camouflaging glycans [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Tzu-Jing Yang; Yen-Chen Chang, Tzu-Ping Ko, Piotr Draczkowski, Yu-Chun Chien, Yuan-Chih Chang, Kuen-Phon Wu, Kay-Hooi Khoo, Hui-Wen Chang, Shang-Te Danny Hsu
      Pages: 1438 - 1446
      Abstract: Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is an alphacoronavirus that causes a nearly 100% mortality rate without effective treatment. Here we report a 3.3-Å cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the serotype I FIPV spike (S) protein, which is responsible for host recognition and viral entry. Mass spectrometry provided site-specific compositions of...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1908898117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Rotary catalysis of bovine mitochondrial F1-ATPase studied by
           single-molecule experiments [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Ryohei Kobayashi; Hiroshi Ueno, Chun-Biu Li, Hiroyuki Noji
      Pages: 1447 - 1456
      Abstract: The reaction scheme of rotary catalysis and the torque generation mechanism of bovine mitochondrial F1 (bMF1) were studied in single-molecule experiments. Under ATP-saturated concentrations, high-speed imaging of a single 40-nm gold bead attached to the γ subunit of bMF1 showed 2 types of intervening pauses during the rotation that were...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909407117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Translation of the intrinsically disordered protein {alpha}-synuclein is
           inhibited by a small molecule targeting its structured mRNA [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Peiyuan Zhang; Hye-Jin Park, Jie Zhang, Eunsung Junn, Ryan J. Andrews, Sai Pradeep Velagapudi, Daniel Abegg, Kamalakannan Vishnu, Matthew G. Costales, Jessica L. Childs-Disney, Alexander Adibekian, Walter N. Moss, M. Maral Mouradian, Matthew D. Disney
      Pages: 1457 - 1467
      Abstract: Many proteins are refractory to targeting because they lack small-molecule binding pockets. An alternative to drugging these proteins directly is to target the messenger (m)RNA that encodes them, thereby reducing protein levels. We describe such an approach for the difficult-to-target protein α-synuclein encoded by the SNCA gene. Multiplication of the...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1905057117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Braiding topology and the energy landscape of chromosome organization
           proteins [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Dana Krepel; Aram Davtyan, Nicholas P. Schafer, Peter G. Wolynes, Jose N. Onuchic
      Pages: 1468 - 1477
      Abstract: Assemblies of structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins and kleisin subunits are essential to chromosome organization and segregation across all kingdoms of life. While structural data exist for parts of the SMC−kleisin complexes, complete structures of the entire complexes have yet to be determined, making mechanistic studies difficult. Using an...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917750117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Structures of cofilin-induced structural changes reveal local and
           asymmetric perturbations of actin filaments [Biophysics and Computational
    • Authors: Andrew R. Huehn; Jeffrey P. Bibeau, Anthony C. Schramm, Wenxiang Cao, Enrique M. De La Cruz, Charles V. Sindelar
      Pages: 1478 - 1484
      Abstract: Members of the cofilin/ADF family of proteins sever actin filaments, increasing the number of filament ends available for polymerization or depolymerization. Cofilin binds actin filaments with positive cooperativity, forming clusters of contiguously bound cofilin along the filament lattice. Filament severing occurs preferentially at boundaries between bare and cofilin-decorated (cofilactin) segments...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915987117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Cotranslational folding allows misfolding-prone proteins to circumvent
           deep kinetic traps [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Amir Bitran; William M. Jacobs, Xiadi Zhai, Eugene Shakhnovich
      Pages: 1485 - 1495
      Abstract: Many large proteins suffer from slow or inefficient folding in vitro. It has long been known that this problem can be alleviated in vivo if proteins start folding cotranslationally. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this improvement have not been well established. To address this question, we use an all-atom simulation-based...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913207117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Improved protein structure prediction using predicted interresidue
           orientations [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Jianyi Yang; Ivan Anishchenko, Hahnbeom Park, Zhenling Peng, Sergey Ovchinnikov, David Baker
      Pages: 1496 - 1503
      Abstract: The prediction of interresidue contacts and distances from coevolutionary data using deep learning has considerably advanced protein structure prediction. Here, we build on these advances by developing a deep residual network for predicting interresidue orientations, in addition to distances, and a Rosetta-constrained energy-minimization protocol for rapidly and accurately generating structure...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914677117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Molecular mechanism of the chitinolytic peroxygenase reaction [Biophysics
           and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Bastien Bissaro; Bennett Streit, Ingvild Isaksen, Vincent G. H. Eiȷsink, Gregg T. Beckham, Jennifer L. DuBois, Asmund K. Rohr
      Pages: 1504 - 1513
      Abstract: Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are a recently discovered class of monocopper enzymes broadly distributed across the tree of life. Recent reports indicate that LPMOs can use H2O2 as an oxidant and thus carry out a novel type of peroxygenase reaction involving unprecedented copper chemistry. Here, we present a combined computational...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904889117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • A cell atlas of the adult Drosophila midgut [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Ruei-Jiun Hung; Yanhui Hu, Rory Kirchner, Yifang Liu, Chiwei Xu, Aram Comjean, Sudhir Gopal Tattikota, Fangge Li, Wei Song, Shannan Ho Sui, Norbert Perrimon
      Pages: 1514 - 1523
      Abstract: Studies of the adult Drosophila midgut have led to many insights in our understanding of cell-type diversity, stem cell regeneration, tissue homeostasis, and cell fate decision. Advances in single-cell RNA sequencing provide opportunities to identify new cell types and molecular features. We used single-cell RNA sequencing to characterize the transcriptome...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916820117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Loss of TSC complex enhances gluconeogenesis via upregulation of Dlk1-Dio3
           locus miRNAs [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Dritan Liko; Andrzej Rzepiela, Vanja Vukojevic, Mihaela Zavolan, Michael N. Hall
      Pages: 1524 - 1532
      Abstract: Loss of the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (Tsc1) in the liver promotes gluconeogenesis and glucose intolerance. We asked whether this could be attributed to aberrant expression of small RNAs. We performed small-RNA sequencing on liver of Tsc1-knockout mice, and found that miRNAs of the delta-like homolog 1 (Dlk1)–deiodinase...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918931117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Quantitative microscopy reveals dynamics and fate of clustered IRE1{alpha}
           [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Vladislav Belyy; Ngoc-Han Tran, Peter Walter
      Pages: 1533 - 1542
      Abstract: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-resident stress sensor inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) governs the most evolutionarily conserved branch of the unfolded protein response. Upon sensing an accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER lumen, IRE1 activates its cytoplasmic kinase and ribonuclease domains to transduce the signal. IRE1 activity correlates with its...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915311117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • The clock gene Bmal1 inhibits macrophage motility, phagocytosis, and
           impairs defense against pneumonia [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Gareth B. Kitchen; Peter S. Cunningham, Toryn M. Poolman, Mudassar Iqbal, Robert Maidstone, Matthew Baxter, James Bagnall, Nicola Begley, Ben Saer, Tracy Hussell, Laura C. Matthews, David H. Dockrell, Hannah J. Durrington, Julie E. Gibbs, John F. Blaikley, Andrew S. Loudon, David W. Ray
      Pages: 1543 - 1551
      Abstract: The circadian clock regulates many aspects of immunity. Bacterial infections are affected by time of day, but the mechanisms involved remain undefined. Here we show that loss of the core clock protein BMAL1 in macrophages confers protection against pneumococcal pneumonia. Infected mice show both reduced weight loss and lower bacterial...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915932117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Global shape of Toll activation is determined by wntD enhancer properties
           [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Neta Rahimi; Shari Carmon, Inna Averbukh, Farzaneh Khajouei, Saurabh Sinha, Eyal D. Schejter, Naama Barkai, Ben-Zion Shilo
      Pages: 1552 - 1558
      Abstract: Buffering variability in morphogen distribution is essential for reproducible patterning. A theoretically proposed class of mechanisms, termed “distal pinning,” achieves robustness by combining local sensing of morphogen levels with global modulation of gradient spread. Here, we demonstrate a critical role for morphogen sensing by a gene enhancer, which ultimately determines...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918268117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Geographically divergent evolutionary and ecological legacies shape mammal
           biodiversity in the global tropics and subtropics [Earth, Atmospheric, and
           Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: John Rowan; Lydia Beaudrot, Janet Franklin, Kaye E. Reed, Irene E. Smail, Andrew Zamora, Jason M. Kamilar
      Pages: 1559 - 1565
      Abstract: Studies of the factors governing global patterns of biodiversity are key to predicting community responses to ongoing and future abiotic and biotic changes. Although most research has focused on present-day climate, a growing body of evidence indicates that modern ecological communities may be significantly shaped by paleoclimatic change and past...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910489116
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Infrared optical and thermal properties of microstructures in butterfly
           wings [Engineering]
    • Authors: Anirudh Krishna; Xiao Nie, Andrew D. Warren, Jorge E. Llorente-Bousquets, Adriana D. Briscoe, Jaeho Lee
      Pages: 1566 - 1572
      Abstract: While surface microstructures of butterfly wings have been extensively studied for their structural coloration or optical properties within the visible spectrum, their properties in infrared wavelengths with potential ties to thermoregulation are relatively unknown. The midinfrared wavelengths of 7.5 to 14 µm are particularly important for radiative heat transfer in...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906356117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Land-use history impacts functional diversity across multiple trophic
           groups [Ecology]
    • Authors: Gaetane Le Provost; Isabelle Badenhausser, Yoann Le Bagousse–Pinguet, Yann Clough, Laura Henckel, Cyrille Violle, Vincent Bretagnolle, Marilyn Roncoroni, Peter Manning, Nicolas Gross
      Pages: 1573 - 1579
      Abstract: Land-use change is a major driver of biodiversity loss worldwide. Although biodiversity often shows a delayed response to land-use change, previous studies have typically focused on a narrow range of current landscape factors and have largely ignored the role of land-use history in shaping plant and animal communities and their...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910023117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Scaling the risk landscape drives optimal life-history strategies and the
           evolution of grazing [Ecology]
    • Authors: Uttam Bhat; Christopher P. Kempes, Justin D. Yeakel
      Pages: 1580 - 1586
      Abstract: Consumers face numerous risks that can be minimized by incorporating different life-history strategies. How much and when a consumer adds to its energetic reserves or invests in reproduction are key behavioral and physiological adaptations that structure communities. Here we develop a theoretical framework that explicitly accounts for stochastic fluctuations of...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1907998117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Recovery of critically endangered Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus) in
           the Cayman Islands following targeted conservation actions [Ecology]
    • Authors: Lynn Waterhouse; Scott A. Heppell, Christy V. Pattengill-Semmens, Croy McCoy, Phillippe Bush, Bradley C. Johnson, Brice X. Semmens
      Pages: 1587 - 1595
      Abstract: Many large-bodied marine fishes that form spawning aggregations, such as the Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus), have suffered regional overfishing due to exploitation during spawning. In response, marine resource managers in many locations have established marine protected areas or seasonal closures to recover these overfished stocks. The challenge in assessing management...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917132117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • High productivity in hybrid-poplar plantations without isoprene emission
           to the atmosphere [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Russell K. Monson; Barbro Winkler, Todd N. Rosenstiel, Katȷa Block, Juliane Merl–Pham, Steven H. Strauss, Kori Ault, Jason Maxfield, David J. P. Moore, Nicole A. Trahan, Amberly A. Neice, Ian Shiach, Greg A. Barron–Gafford, Peter Ibsen, Joel T. McCorkel, Jorg Bernhardt, Joerg–Peter Schnitzler
      Pages: 1596 - 1605
      Abstract: Hybrid-poplar tree plantations provide a source for biofuel and biomass, but they also increase forest isoprene emissions. The consequences of increased isoprene emissions include higher rates of tropospheric ozone production, increases in the lifetime of methane, and increases in atmospheric aerosol production, all of which affect the global energy budget...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912327117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • A compartment size-dependent selective threshold limits mutation
           accumulation in hierarchical tissues [Biophysics and Computational
    • Authors: Daniel Graȷzel; Imre Derenyi, Gergely J. Szollősi
      Pages: 1606 - 1611
      Abstract: Cancer is a genetic disease fueled by somatic evolution. Hierarchical tissue organization can slow somatic evolution by two qualitatively different mechanisms: by cell differentiation along the hierarchy “washing out” harmful mutations and by limiting the number of cell divisions required to maintain a tissue. Here we explore the effects of...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913104117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Fin ray patterns at the fin-to-limb transition [Evolution]
    • Authors: Thomas A. Stewart; Justin B. Lemberg, Natalia K. Taft, Ihna Yoo, Edward B. Daeschler, Neil H. Shubin
      Pages: 1612 - 1620
      Abstract: The fin-to-limb transition was marked by the origin of digits and the loss of dermal fin rays. Paleontological research into this transformation has focused on the evolution of the endoskeleton, with little attention paid to fin ray structure and function. To address this knowledge gap, we study the dermal rays...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915983117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Cystic fibrosis carriers are at increased risk for a wide range of cystic
           fibrosis-related conditions [Genetics]
    • Authors: Aaron C. Miller; Alejandro P. Comellas, Douglas B. Hornick, David A. Stoltz, Joseph E. Cavanaugh, Alicia K. Gerke, Michael J. Welsh, Joseph Zabner, Philip M. Polgreen
      Pages: 1621 - 1627
      Abstract: Autosomal recessive diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF), require inheritance of 2 mutated genes. However, some studies indicate that CF carriers are at increased risk for some conditions associated with CF. These investigations focused on single conditions and included small numbers of subjects. Our goal was to determine whether CF...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914912117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Large-scale contractions of Friedreich’s ataxia GAA repeats in yeast
           occur during DNA replication due to their triplex-forming ability
    • Authors: Alexandra N. Khristich; Jillian F. Armenia, Robert M. Matera, Anna A. Kolchinski, Sergei M. Mirkin
      Pages: 1628 - 1637
      Abstract: Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA) is a human hereditary disease caused by the presence of expanded (GAA)n repeats in the first intron of the FXN gene [V. Campuzano et al., Science 271, 1423–1427 (1996)]. In somatic tissues of FRDA patients, (GAA)n repeat tracts are highly unstable, with contractions more common than expansions...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913416117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Presynaptic MAST kinase controls opposing postsynaptic responses to convey
           stimulus valence in Caenorhabditis elegans [Genetics]
    • Authors: Shunji Nakano; Muneki Ikeda, Yuki Tsukada, Xianfeng Fei, Takamasa Suzuki, Yusuke Niino, Rhea Ahluwalia, Ayana Sano, Rumi Kondo, Kunio Ihara, Atsushi Miyawaki, Koichi Hashimoto, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Ikue Mori
      Pages: 1638 - 1647
      Abstract: Presynaptic plasticity is known to modulate the strength of synaptic transmission. However, it remains unknown whether regulation in presynaptic neurons can evoke excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic responses. We report here that the Caenorhabditis elegans homologs of MAST kinase, Stomatin, and Diacylglycerol kinase act in a thermosensory neuron to elicit in...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909240117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Structural insight into T cell coinhibition by PD-1H (VISTA) [Immunology
           and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Benjamin T. Slater; Xue Han, Lieping Chen, Yong Xiong
      Pages: 1648 - 1657
      Abstract: Programmed death-1 homolog (PD-1H), a CD28/B7 family molecule, coinhibits T cell activation and is an attractive immunotherapeutic target for cancer and inflammatory diseases. The molecular basis of its function, however, is unknown. Bioinformatic analyses indicated that PD-1H has a very long Ig variable region (IgV)-like domain and extraordinarily high histidine...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1908711117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Identification and characterization of extrachromosomal circular DNA in
           maternal plasma [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Sarah T. K. Sin; Peiyong Jiang, Jiaen Deng, Lu Ji, Suk Hang Cheng, Anindya Dutta, Tak Y. Leung, K. C. Allen Chan, Rossa W. K. Chiu, Y. M. Dennis Lo
      Pages: 1658 - 1665
      Abstract: We explored the presence of extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) in the plasma of pregnant women. Through sequencing following either restriction enzyme or Tn5 transposase treatment, we identified eccDNA molecules in the plasma of pregnant women. These eccDNA molecules showed bimodal size distributions peaking at ∼202 and ∼338 bp with distinct...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914949117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • High-dose ascorbic acid synergizes with anti-PD1 in a lymphoma mouse model
           [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Rebecca A. Luchtel; Tushar Bhagat, Kith Pradhan, William R. Jacobs Jr, Mark Levine, Amit Verma, Niraj Shenoy
      Pages: 1666 - 1677
      Abstract: Major efforts are underway to identify agents that can potentiate effects of immune checkpoint inhibition. Here, we show that ascorbic acid (AA) treatment caused genomewide demethylation and enhanced expression of endogenous retroviral elements in lymphoma cells. AA also increased 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) levels of CD8+ T cells and enhanced their cytotoxic...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1908158117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Expansion, in vivo-ex vivo cycling, and genetic manipulation of primary
           human hepatocytes [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Eleftherios Michailidis; Koen Vercauteren, Liliana Mancio-Silva, Linda Andrus, Cyprien Jahan, Inna Ricardo-Lax, Chenhui Zou, Mohammad Kabbani, Paul Park, Corrine Quirk, Christina Pyrgaki, Brandon Razooky, Lieven Verhoye, Irene Zoluthkin, Wei-Yu Lu, Stuart J. Forbes, Luis Chiriboga, Neil D. Theise, Roland W. Herzog, Hiroshi Suemizu, William M. Schneider, Amir Shlomai, Philip Meuleman, Sangeeta N. Bhatia, Charles M. Rice, Ype P. de Jong
      Pages: 1678 - 1688
      Abstract: Primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) are an essential tool for modeling drug metabolism and liver disease. However, variable plating efficiencies, short lifespan in culture, and resistance to genetic manipulation have limited their use. Here, we show that the pyrrolizidine alkaloid retrorsine improves PHH repopulation of chimeric mice on average 10-fold and...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919035117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Designing cyclic competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) analogs with
           pan-group quorum-sensing inhibition activity in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Authors: Yifang Yang; Jingjun Lin, Anthony Harrington, Gabriel Cornilescu, Gee W. Lau, Yftah Tal-Gan
      Pages: 1689 - 1699
      Abstract: Streptococcus pneumoniae is an opportunistic human pathogen that utilizes the competence regulon, a quorum-sensing circuitry, to acquire antibiotic resistance genes and initiate its attack on the human host. Interception of the competence regulon can therefore be utilized to study S. pneumoniae cell−cell communication and behavioral changes, as well as attenuate...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915812117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Bile acids and ceramide overcome the entry restriction for GII.3 human
           norovirus replication in human intestinal enteroids [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Kosuke Murakami; Victoria R. Tenge, Umesh C. Karandikar, Shih-Ching Lin, Sasirekha Ramani, Khalil Ettayebi, Sue E. Crawford, Xi-Lei Zeng, Frederick H. Neill, B. Vijayalakshmi Ayyar, Kazuhiko Katayama, David Y. Graham, Erhard Bieberich, Robert L. Atmar, Mary K. Estes
      Pages: 1700 - 1710
      Abstract: Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) cause sporadic and epidemic outbreaks of gastroenteritis in all age groups worldwide. We previously reported that stem cell-derived human intestinal enteroid (HIE) cultures support replication of multiple HuNoV strains and that some strains (e.g., GII.3) replicate only in the presence of bile. Heat- and trypsin-treatment of bile...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910138117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Mitochondrial dysfunctions trigger the calcium signaling-dependent fungal
           multidrug resistance [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Yeqi Li; Yuanwei Zhang, Chi Zhang, Hongchen Wang, Xiaolei Wei, Peiying Chen, Ling Lu
      Pages: 1711 - 1721
      Abstract: Drug resistance in fungal pathogens has risen steadily over the past decades due to long-term azole therapy or triazole usage in agriculture. Modification of the drug target protein to prevent drug binding is a major recognized route to induce drug resistance. However, mechanisms for nondrug target-induced resistance remain only loosely...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911560116
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • A promiscuous inflammasome sparks replication of a common tumor virus
    • Authors: Eric M. Burton; Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky, Sumita Bhaduri-McIntosh
      Pages: 1722 - 1730
      Abstract: Viruses activate inflammasomes but then subvert resulting inflammatory responses to avoid elimination. We asked whether viruses could instead use such activated or primed inflammasomes to directly aid their propagation and spread. Since herpesviruses are experts at coopting cellular functions, we investigated whether Epstein−Barr virus (EBV), an oncoherpesvirus, exploits inflammasomes to...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919133117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Robust hepatitis E virus infection and transcriptional response in human
           hepatocytes [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Daniel Todt; Martina Friesland, Nora Moeller, Dimas Praditya, Volker Kinast, Yannick Bruggemann, Leonard Knegendorf, Thomas Burkard, Joerg Steinmann, Rani Burm, Lieven Verhoye, Avista Wahid, Toni Luise Meister, Michael Engelmann, Vanessa M. Pfankuche, Christina Puff, Florian W. R. Vondran, Wolfgang Baumgartner, Philip Meuleman, Patrick Behrendt, Eike Steinmann
      Pages: 1731 - 1741
      Abstract: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E in humans and the leading cause for acute viral hepatitis worldwide. The virus is classified as a member of the genus Orthohepevirus A within the Hepeviridae family. Due to the absence of a robust cell culture model for HEV...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912307117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Microglial IRF5-IRF4 regulatory axis regulates neuroinflammation after
           cerebral ischemia and impacts stroke outcomes [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Abdullah Al Mamun; Anjali Chauhan, Shaohua Qi, Conelius Ngwa, Yan Xu, Romana Sharmeen, Amy L. Hazen, Jun Li, Jaroslaw A. Aronowski, Louise D. McCullough, Fudong Liu
      Pages: 1742 - 1752
      Abstract: Microglial activation plays a central role in poststroke inflammation and causes secondary neuronal damage; however, it also contributes in debris clearance and chronic recovery. Microglial pro- and antiinflammatory responses (or so-called M1-M2 phenotypes) coexist and antagonize each other throughout the disease progress. As a result of this balance, poststroke immune...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914742117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Impaired endothelium-mediated cerebrovascular reactivity promotes anxiety
           and respiration disorders in mice [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Jan Wenzel; Cathrin E. Hansen, Carla Bettoni, Miriam A. Vogt, Beate Lembrich, Rentsenkhand Natsagdorȷ, Gianna Huber, Josefine Brands, Kȷestine Schmidt, Julian C. Assmann, Ines Stolting, Kathrin Saar, Jan Sedlacik, Jens Fiehler, Peter Ludewig, Michael Wegmann, Nina Feller, Marius Richter, Helge Muller–Fielitz, Thomas Walther, Gabriele M. Konig, Evi Kostenis, Walter Raasch, Norbert Hubner, Peter Gass, Stefan Offermanns, Cor de Wit, Carsten A. Wagner, Markus Schwaninger
      Pages: 1753 - 1761
      Abstract: Carbon dioxide (CO2), the major product of metabolism, has a strong impact on cerebral blood vessels, a phenomenon known as cerebrovascular reactivity. Several vascular risk factors such as hypertension or diabetes dampen this response, making cerebrovascular reactivity a useful diagnostic marker for incipient vascular pathology, but its functional relevance, if...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1907467117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • NK cells clear {alpha}-synuclein and the depletion of NK cells exacerbates
           synuclein pathology in a mouse model of {alpha}-synucleinopathy
    • Authors: Rachael H. Earls; Kelly B. Menees, Jaegwon Chung, Claire–Anne Gutekunst, Hyun Joon Lee, Manuel G. Hazim, Balazs Rada, Levi B. Wood, Jae–Kyung Lee
      Pages: 1762 - 1771
      Abstract: The pathological hallmark of synucleinopathies, including Lewy body dementia and Parkinson’s disease (PD), is the presence of Lewy bodies, which are primarily composed of intracellular inclusions of misfolded α-synuclein (α-syn) among other proteins. α-Syn is found in extracellular biological fluids in PD patients and has been implicated in modulating immune...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909110117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Internal fluid pressure influences muscle contractile force [Physiology]
    • Authors: David A. Sleboda; Thomas J. Roberts
      Pages: 1772 - 1778
      Abstract: Fluid fills intracellular, extracellular, and capillary spaces within muscle. During normal physiological activity, intramuscular fluid pressures develop as muscle exerts a portion of its developed force internally. These pressures, typically ranging between 10 and 250 mmHg, are rarely considered in mechanical models of muscle but have the potential to affect...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914433117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Specialized stellate cells offer a privileged route for rapid water flux
           in Drosophila renal tubule [Physiology]
    • Authors: Pablo Cabrero; Selim Terhzaz, Anthony J. Dornan, Saurav Ghimire, Heather L. Holmes, Daniel R. Turin, Michael F. Romero, Shireen A. Davies, Julian A. T. Dow
      Pages: 1779 - 1787
      Abstract: Insects are highly successful, in part through an excellent ability to osmoregulate. The renal (Malpighian) tubules can secrete fluid faster on a per-cell basis than any other epithelium, but the route for these remarkable water fluxes has not been established. In Drosophila melanogaster, we show that 4 genes of the...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915943117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Cryo-EM structures of a lipid-sensitive pentameric ligand-gated ion
           channel embedded in a phosphatidylcholine-only bilayer [Physiology]
    • Authors: Pramod Kumar; Yuhang Wang, Zhening Zhang, Zhiyu Zhao, Gisela D. Cymes, Emad Tajkhorshid, Claudio Grosman
      Pages: 1788 - 1798
      Abstract: The lipid dependence of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from the Torpedo electric organ has long been recognized, and one of the most consistent experimental observations is that, when reconstituted in membranes formed by zwitterionic phospholipids alone, exposure to agonist fails to elicit ion-flux activity. More recently, it has been suggested...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906823117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • The maize heterotrimeric G protein {beta} subunit controls shoot meristem
           development and immune responses [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Qingyu Wu; Fang Xu, Lei Liu, Si Nian Char, Yezhang Ding, Byoung Il Je, Eric Schmelz, Bing Yang, David Jackson
      Pages: 1799 - 1805
      Abstract: Heterotrimeric G proteins are important transducers of receptor signaling, functioning in plants with CLAVATA receptors in controlling shoot meristem size and with pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptors in basal immunity. However, whether specific members of the heterotrimeric complex potentiate cross-talk between development and defense, and the extent to which these functions...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917577116
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • The rhizobial autotransporter determines the symbiotic nitrogen fixation
           activity of Lotus japonicus in a host-specific manner [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Yoshikazu Shimoda; Yuki Nishigaya, Hiroko Yamaya-Ito, Noritoshi Inagaki, Yosuke Umehara, Hideki Hirakawa, Shusei Sato, Toshimasa Yamazaki, Makoto Hayashi
      Pages: 1806 - 1815
      Abstract: Leguminous plants establish endosymbiotic associations with rhizobia and form root nodules in which the rhizobia fix atmospheric nitrogen. The host plant and intracellular rhizobia strictly control this symbiotic nitrogen fixation. We recently reported a Lotus japonicus Fix− mutant, apn1 (aspartic peptidase nodule-induced 1), that impairs symbiotic nitrogen fixation. APN1 encodes...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913349117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Correction for Perkins, Core Concept: Albedo is a simple concept that
           plays complicated roles in climate and astronomy [Corrections]
    • Pages: 1816 - 1816
      Abstract: CORE CONCEPTS Correction for “Core Concept: Albedo is a simple concept that plays complicated roles in climate and astronomy,” by Sid Perkins, which was first published December 17, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1918770116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 25369–25371). The editors note that on page 25371, left column, third paragraph, a date...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922493117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Correction for Mann, Core Concept: To improve weather and climate models,
           researchers are chasing atmospheric gravity waves [Corrections]
    • Pages: 1817 - 1817
      Abstract: CORE CONCEPTS Correction for “Core Concept: To improve weather and climate models, researchers are chasing atmospheric gravity waves,” by Adam Mann, which was first published September 24, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1912426116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 19218–19221). The editors note that reference 2 appeared incorrectly. The last name of the author...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922468117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Correction for Porter et al., Epithelial to mesenchymal plasticity and
           differential response to therapies in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
    • Pages: 1818 - 1818
      Abstract: MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction for “Epithelial to mesenchymal plasticity and differential response to therapies in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma,” by Rebecca L. Porter, Neelima K. C. Magnus, Vishal Thapar, Robert Morris, Annamaria Szabolcs, Azfar Neyaz, Anupriya S. Kulkarni, Eric Tai, Abhijit Chougule, Alessandra Hillis, Gabriel Golczer, Hongshan Guo, Teppei Yamada, Tomohiro Kurokawa,...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922469117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
  • Correction for Hu et al., Structural bases for F plasmid conjugation and F
           pilus biogenesis in Escherichia coli [Correction]
    • Pages: 1819 - 1819
      Abstract: MICROBIOLOGY Correction for “Structural bases for F plasmid conjugation and F pilus biogenesis in Escherichia coli,” by Bo Hu, Pratick Khara, and Peter J. Christie, which was first published June 25, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1904428116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 14222–14227). The authors note that the following statement should be added...
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T09:52:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922471117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 3 (2020)
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