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Journal Cover Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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   ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
   Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Genetic variant rs763361 regulates multiple sclerosis CD226 gene
           expression [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Guiyou Liu; Yang Hu, Shuilin Jin, Qinghua Jiang
      Abstract: In a recent study, Gross et al. investigate the presence, distribution, and function of natural killer (NK) cells in three different compartments to characterize the role of NK cells in multiple sclerosis (MS) (1). Their results indicate that NK cells played an important role in controlling T-cell activity in vivo....
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618520114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Reply to Liu et al.: Haplotype matters: CD226 polymorphism as a potential
           trigger for impaired immune regulation in multiple sclerosis [Biological
    • Authors: Catharina C. Gross; Gerd Meyer zu Horste, Andreas Schulte–Mecklenbeck, Luisa Klotz, Sven G. Meuth, Heinz Wiendl
      Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, which results from a breakdown in peripheral tolerance driven by genetic and environmental factors. The activating receptor DNAM-1 (DNAX accessory molecule-1, CD226) seems to be crucial in both NK-cell (1) and Foxp3+ (forkhead box protein-3) regulatory T-cell (Treg)...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619059114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Metabolome of chronic fatigue syndrome [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Megan E. Roerink; Ewald M. Bronkhorst, Jos W. M. van der Meer
      Abstract: Naviaux et al. (1) report on a distinct metabolic signature present in patients who have myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) compared with healthy controls. Metabolic pathway analysis is a growing field of interest, and could offer relevant pathophysiological or diagnostic clues in complex illnesses such as CFS. However, reviewing...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618447114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Reply to Roerink et al.: Metabolomics of chronic fatigue syndrome
           [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Robert K. Naviaux; Eric Gordon
      Abstract: We thank Roerink et al. (1) for their comments. We respond to their two points in order. Their first point asked about the effect of physical activity on sphingolipids. The sphingolipid response to exercise is complex. It differs in healthy trained and untrained individuals and has not yet been studied...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618984114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Uncovering hidden variation in polyploid wheat [Agricultural Sciences]
    • Authors: Ksenia V. Krasileva; Hans A. Vasquez-Gross, Tyson Howell, Paul Bailey, Francine Paraiso, Leah Clissold, James Simmonds, Ricardo H. Ramirez-Gonzalez, Xiaodong Wang, Philippa Borrill, Christine Fosker, Sarah Ayling, Andrew L. Phillips, Cristobal Uauy, Jorge Dubcovsky
      Abstract: Comprehensive reverse genetic resources, which have been key to understanding gene function in diploid model organisms, are missing in many polyploid crops. Young polyploid species such as wheat, which was domesticated less than 10,000 y ago, have high levels of sequence identity among subgenomes that mask the effects of recessive...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619268114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Differential control of retrovirus silencing in embryonic cells by
           proteasomal regulation of the ZFP809 retroviral repressor [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Cheng Wang; Stephen P. Goff
      Abstract: Replication of the murine leukemia viruses is strongly suppressed in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Proviral DNAs are formed normally but are then silenced by a large complex bound to DNA by the ES cell-specific zinc-finger protein ZFP809. We show here that ZFP809 expression is not regulated by transcription but...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620879114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Mutation of a kinase allosteric node uncouples dynamics linked to
           phosphotransfer [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Lalima G. Ahuja; Alexandr P. Kornev, Christopher L. McClendon, Gianluigi Veglia, Susan S. Taylor
      Abstract: The expertise of protein kinases lies in their dynamic structure, wherein they are able to modulate cellular signaling by their phosphotransferase activity. Only a few hundreds of protein kinases regulate key processes in human cells, and protein kinases play a pivotal role in health and disease. The present study dwells...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620667114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Heat-induced masculinization in domesticated zebrafish is family-specific
           and yields a set of different gonadal transcriptomes [Developmental
    • Authors: Laia Ribas; Woei Chang Liew, Noelia Diaz, Raȷini Sreenivasan, Laszlo Orban, Francesc Piferrer
      Abstract: Understanding environmental influences on sex ratios is important for the study of the evolution of sex-determining mechanisms and for evaluating the effects of global warming and chemical pollution. Fishes exhibit sexual plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms of environmental effects on their reproduction are unclear even in the well-established teleost research...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1609411114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Similarities and differences in the transcriptional control of expression
           of the mouse TSLP gene in skin epidermis and intestinal epithelium
    • Authors: Krishna Priya Ganti; Atish Mukherji, Milan Surjit, Mei Li, Pierre Chambon
      Abstract: We previously reported that selective ablation of the nuclear receptors retinoid X receptor (RXR)-α and RXR-β in mouse epidermal keratinocytes (RXR-αβep−/−) or a topical application of active vitamin D3 (VD3) and/or all-trans retinoic acid (RA) on wild-type mouse skin induces a human atopic dermatitis-like phenotype that is triggered by an...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620697114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Active MLKL triggers the NLRP3 inflammasome in a cell-intrinsic manner
           [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Stephanie A. Conos; Kaiwen W. Chen, Dominic De Nardo, Hideki Hara, Lachlan Whitehead, Gabriel Nunez, Seth L. Masters, James M. Murphy, Kate Schroder, David L. Vaux, Kate E. Lawlor, Lisa M. Lindqvist, James E. Vince
      Abstract: Necroptosis is a physiological cell suicide mechanism initiated by receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3) phosphorylation of mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), which results in disruption of the plasma membrane. Necroptotic cell lysis, and resultant release of proinflammatory mediators, is thought to cause inflammation in necroptotic disease models. However, we previously showed...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1613305114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Immunoinhibitory checkpoint deficiency in medium and large vessel
           vasculitis [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Hui Zhang; Ryu Watanabe, Gerald J. Berry, Augusto Vaglio, Yaping Joyce Liao, Kenneth J. Warrington, Jorg J. Goronzy, Cornelia M. Weyand
      Abstract: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) causes autoimmune inflammation of the aorta and its large branches, resulting in aortic arch syndrome, blindness, and stroke. CD4+ T cells and macrophages form organized granulomatous lesions in the walls of affected arteries, destroy the tunica media, and induce ischemic organ damage through rapid intimal hyperplasia...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616848114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • CD4 T-cell cytokines synergize to induce proliferation of malignant and
           nonmalignant innate intraepithelial lymphocytes [Immunology and
    • Authors: Yvonne M. C. Kooy-Winkelaar; Dagmar Bouwer, George M. C. Janssen, Allan Thompson, Martijn H. Brugman, Frederike Schmitz, Arnoud H. de Ru, Tom van Gils, Gerd Bouma, Jon J. van Rood, Peter A. van Veelen, M. Luisa Mearin, Chris J. Mulder, Frits Koning, Jeroen van Bergen
      Abstract: Refractory celiac disease type II (RCDII) is a severe complication of celiac disease (CD) characterized by the presence of an enlarged clonal population of innate intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) lacking classical B-, T-, and natural killer (NK)-cell lineage markers (Lin−IELs) in the duodenum. In ∼50% of patients with RCDII, these Lin−IELs...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620036114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Induction of dormancy in hypoxic human papillomavirus-positive cancer
           cells [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Karin Hoppe–Seyler; Felicitas Bossler, Claudia Lohrey, Julia Bulkescher, Frank Rosl, Lars Jansen, Arnulf Mayer, Peter Vaupel, Matthias Durst, Felix Hoppe–Seyler
      Abstract: Oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are closely linked to major human malignancies, including cervical and head and neck cancers. It is widely assumed that HPV-positive cancer cells are under selection pressure to continuously express the viral E6/E7 oncogenes, that their intracellular p53 levels are reconstituted on E6/E7 repression, and that E6/E7...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1615758114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Interference of the complex between NCS-1 and Ric8a with phenothiazines
           regulates synaptic function and is an approach for fragile X syndrome
    • Authors: Alicia Mansilla; Antonio Chaves–Sanȷuan, Nuria E. Campillo, Ourania Semelidou, Loreto Martinez–Gonzalez, Lourdes Infantes, Juana Maria Gonzalez–Rubio, Carmen Gil, Santiago Conde, Efthimios M. C. Skoulakis, Alberto Ferrus, Ana Martinez, Maria Jose Sanchez–Barrena
      Abstract: The protein complex formed by the Ca2+ sensor neuronal calcium sensor 1 (NCS-1) and the guanine exchange factor protein Ric8a coregulates synapse number and probability of neurotransmitter release, emerging as a potential therapeutic target for diseases affecting synapses, such as fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common heritable autism disorder....
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1611089114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • A natural product inhibits the initiation of {alpha}-synuclein aggregation
           and suppresses its toxicity [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Michele Perni; Celine Galvagnion, Alexander Maltsev, Georg Meisl, Martin B. D. Muller, Pavan K. Challa, Julius B. Kirkegaard, Patrick Flagmeier, Samuel I. A. Cohen, Roberta Cascella, Serene W. Chen, Ryan Limboker, Pietro Sormanni, Gabriella T. Heller, Francesco A. Aprile, Nunilo Cremades, Cristina Cecchi, Fabrizio Chiti, Ellen A. A. Nollen, Tuomas P. J. Knowles, Michele Vendruscolo, Adriaan Bax, Michael Zasloff, Christopher M. Dobson
      Abstract: The self-assembly of α-synuclein is closely associated with Parkinson’s disease and related syndromes. We show that squalamine, a natural product with known anticancer and antiviral activity, dramatically affects α-synuclein aggregation in vitro and in vivo. We elucidate the mechanism of action of squalamine by investigating its interaction with lipid vesicles,...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1610586114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Forkhead box a2 (FOXA2) is essential for uterine function and fertility
    • Authors: Andrew M. Kelleher; Wang Peng, James K. Pru, Cindy A. Pru, Francesco J. DeMayo, Thomas E. Spencer
      Abstract: Establishment of pregnancy is a critical event, and failure of embryo implantation and stromal decidualization in the uterus contribute to significant numbers of pregnancy losses in women. Glands of the uterus are essential for establishment of pregnancy in mice and likely in humans. Forkhead box a2 (FOXA2) is a transcription...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618433114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Endosperm-based hybridization barriers explain the pattern of gene flow
           between Arabidopsis lyrata and Arabidopsis arenosa in Central Europe
           [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Clement Lafon–Placette; Ida M. Johannessen, Karina S. Hornslien, Mohammad F. Ali, Katrine N. Bȷerkan, Jonathan Bramsiepe, Barbara M. Glockle, Carolin A. Rebernig, Anne K. Brysting, Paul E. Grini, Claudia Kohler
      Abstract: Based on the biological species concept, two species are considered distinct if reproductive barriers prevent gene flow between them. In Central Europe, the diploid species Arabidopsis lyrata and Arabidopsis arenosa are genetically isolated, thus fitting this concept as “good species.” Nonetheless, interspecific gene flow involving their tetraploid forms has been...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1615123114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Correction for Chen et al., Clarifying intact 3D tissues on a microfluidic
           chip for high-throughput structural analysis [Correction]
    • Abstract: ENGINEERING, BIOPHYSICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY Correction for “Clarifying intact 3D tissues on a microfluidic chip for high-throughput structural analysis,” by Yih Yang Chen, Pamuditha N. Silva, Abdullah Muhammed Syed, Shrey Sindhwani, Jonathan V. Rocheleau, and Warren C. W. Chan, which appeared in issue 52, December 27, 2016, of Proc Natl...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700238114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Correction for Honda et al., Dual chromatin recognition by the histone
           deacetylase complex HCHC is required for proper DNA methylation in
           Neurospora crassa [Correction]
    • Abstract: GENETICS Correction for “Dual chromatin recognition by the histone deacetylase complex HCHC is required for proper DNA methylation in Neurospora crassa,” by Shinji Honda, Vincent T. Bicocca, Jordan D. Gessaman, Michael R. Rountree, Ayumi Yokoyama, Eun Y. Yu, Jeanne M. L. Selker, and Eric U. Selker, which appeared in issue...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621475114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Correction for Eremina et al., Brassinosteroids participate in the control
           of basal and acquired freezing tolerance of plants [Correction]
    • Abstract: PLANT BIOLOGY Correction for “Brassinosteroids participate in the control of basal and acquired freezing tolerance of plants,” by Marina Eremina, Simon J. Unterholzner, Ajith I. Rathnayake, Marcos Castellanos, Mamoona Khan, Karl G. Kugler, Sean T. May, Klaus F. X. Mayer, Wilfried Rozhon, and Brigitte Poppenberger, which appeared in issue 40,...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700593114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 1213 - 1214
      Abstract: Role of hydrogen sulfide gas in sleep apnea Sleep apnea tied to hydrogen sulfide signaling. Image courtesy of iStockphoto/nicolesy. More than 10 million people in the United States suffer from sleep apnea, a condition marked by intermittent breathing during sleep and enhanced risk of hypertension and stroke. Studies have implicated...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti0617114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Inner Workings: Diamond anvils probe the origins of Earth’s magnetic
           field [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Charles Q. Choi
      Pages: 1215 - 1216
      Abstract: Why is Earth covered by oceans and teeming with life, when Mars remains arid and apparently lifeless? The reasons are many, ranging from atmospheric characteristics to the planet’s distance from the Sun. But one key condition may involve the ability of the Earth’s core to generate a magnetic field. Diamond...
      Keywords: Inner Workings, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700181114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Core Concept: Stabilizing turbulence in fusion stellarators [Physics]
    • Authors: Adam Mann
      Pages: 1217 - 1219
      Abstract: In the earliest days of the Cold War, physicists on both sides of the Iron Curtain raced to harness energy from nuclear fusion, which could, in principle, provide nearly limitless electricity. Innovative devices with names like pinch machines, levitrons, and superstators flourished, and for most of the 1950s it was...
      Keywords: Core Concepts, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618480113
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Is adaptive-innate lymphocyte cross-talk driving mucosal disease?
           [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Georg Gasteiger
      Pages: 1220 - 1222
      Abstract: Many nonlymphoid tissues, including epithelial barrier surfaces such as the skin, the lung, and the gut, are seeded by lymphocytes of the innate and adaptive immune system. These cells form strategically positioned local networks for immune surveillance and immediate front-line defense to microbial invasion. The activation of tissue-resident lymphocytes needs...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620663114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Modulating membrane binding of {alpha}-synuclein as a therapeutic strategy
    • Authors: Andre Pineda; Jacqueline Burre
      Pages: 1223 - 1225
      Abstract: α-Synuclein aggregation is a pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD), Lewy body dementia, multiple system atrophy, and a variety of other synucleinopathies (1). The occurrence of familial PD due to α-synuclein mutations, gene duplication and triplication, as well as polymorphisms in regulatory elements of the α-synuclein gene, supports a causative...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620159114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Hunting for Fox(A2): Dual roles in female fertility [Physiology]
    • Authors: Jeeyeon Cha; Sudhansu K. Dey
      Pages: 1226 - 1228
      Abstract: Pregnancy encompasses a complex orchestration of several sequential steps across tissue and cell types in the mother and fetus for embryo development and delivery of offspring at an opportune time for survival. These steps include embryo implantation, stromal cell proliferation and differentiation (decidualization), placentation, and ultimately parturition with delivery of...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620648114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Flow-assisted assembly of nanostructured protein microfibers [Applied
           Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Ayaka Kamada; Nitesh Mittal, L. Daniel Soderberg, Tobias Ingverud, Wiebke Ohm, Stephan V. Roth, Fredrik Lundell, Christofer Lendel
      Pages: 1232 - 1237
      Abstract: Some of the most remarkable materials in nature are made from proteins. The properties of these materials are closely connected to the hierarchical assembly of the protein building blocks. In this perspective, amyloid-like protein nanofibrils (PNFs) have emerged as a promising foundation for the synthesis of novel bio-based materials for...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617260114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Low energy cost for optimal speed and control of membrane fusion
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Claire Francois–Martin; James E. Rothman, Frederic Pincet
      Pages: 1238 - 1241
      Abstract: Membrane fusion is the cell’s delivery process, enabling its many compartments to receive cargo and machinery for cell growth and intercellular communication. The overall activation energy of the process must be large enough to prevent frequent and nonspecific spontaneous fusion events, yet must be low enough to allow it to...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621309114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Nickel pincer model of the active site of lactate racemase involves ligand
           participation in hydride transfer [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Tao Xu; Matthew D. Wodrich, Rosario Scopelliti, Clemence Corminboeuf, Xile Hu
      Pages: 1242 - 1245
      Abstract: Lactate racemase is the first enzyme known to possess a metal pincer active site. The enzyme interconverts d- and l-lactic acid, which is important for the assembly of cell walls in many microorganisms. Here, we report a synthetic model of the active site of lactate racemase, which features a pyridinium-based...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616038114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Global long-range transport and lung cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic
           hydrocarbons shielded by coatings of organic aerosol [Earth, Atmospheric,
           and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Manish Shrivastava; Silja Lou, Alla Zelenyuk, Richard C. Easter, Richard A. Corley, Brian D. Thrall, Philip J. Rasch, Jerome D. Fast, Staci L. Massey Simonich, Huizhong Shen, Shu Tao
      Pages: 1246 - 1251
      Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic impacts on humans and ecosystems. One of the most carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), is efficiently bound to and transported with atmospheric particles. Laboratory measurements show that particle-bound BaP degrades in a few hours by heterogeneous reaction with ozone, yet field observations indicate BaP persists...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618475114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Mesoscale ocean fronts enhance carbon export due to gravitational sinking
           and subduction [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Michael R. Stukel; Lihini I. Aluwihare, Katherine A. Barbeau, Alexander M. Chekalyuk, Ralf Goericke, Arthur J. Miller, Mark D. Ohman, Angel Ruacho, Hajoon Song, Brandon M. Stephens, Michael R. Landry
      Pages: 1252 - 1257
      Abstract: Enhanced vertical carbon transport (gravitational sinking and subduction) at mesoscale ocean fronts may explain the demonstrated imbalance of new production and sinking particle export in coastal upwelling ecosystems. Based on flux assessments from 238U:234Th disequilibrium and sediment traps, we found 2 to 3 times higher rates of gravitational particle export...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1609435114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Global warming precipitation accumulation increases above the
    • Authors: J. David Neelin; Sandeep Sahany, Samuel N. Stechmann, Diana N. Bernstein
      Pages: 1258 - 1263
      Abstract: Precipitation accumulations, integrated over rainfall events, can be affected by both intensity and duration of the storm event. Thus, although precipitation intensity is widely projected to increase under global warming, a clear framework for predicting accumulation changes has been lacking, despite the importance of accumulations for societal impacts. Theory for...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1615333114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Near-perfect broadband absorption from hyperbolic metamaterial
           nanoparticles [Engineering]
    • Authors: Conor T. Riley; Joseph S. T. Smalley, Jeffrey R. J. Brodie, Yeshaiahu Fainman, Donald J. Sirbuly, Zhaowei Liu
      Pages: 1264 - 1268
      Abstract: Broadband absorbers are essential components of many light detection, energy harvesting, and camouflage schemes. Current designs are either bulky or use planar films that cause problems in cracking and delamination during flexing or heating. In addition, transferring planar materials to flexible, thin, or low-cost substrates poses a significant challenge. On...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1613081114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Transient climate and ambient health impacts due to national solid fuel
           cookstove emissions [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Forrest G. Lacey; Daven K. Henze, Colin J. Lee, Aaron van Donkelaar, Randall V. Martin
      Pages: 1269 - 1274
      Abstract: Residential solid fuel use contributes to degraded indoor and ambient air quality and may affect global surface temperature. However, the potential for national-scale cookstove intervention programs to mitigate the latter issues is not yet well known, owing to the spatial heterogeneity of aerosol emissions and impacts, along with coemitted species....
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1612430114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Synchronized chaotic targeting and acceleration of surface chemistry in
           prebiotic hydrothermal microenvironments [Evolution]
    • Authors: Aashish Priye; Yuncheng Yu, Yassin A. Hassan, Victor M. Ugaz
      Pages: 1275 - 1280
      Abstract: Porous mineral formations near subsea alkaline hydrothermal vents embed microenvironments that make them potential hot spots for prebiotic biochemistry. But, synthesis of long-chain macromolecules needed to support higher-order functions in living systems (e.g., polypeptides, proteins, and nucleic acids) cannot occur without enrichment of chemical precursors before initiating polymerization, and identifying...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1612924114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Fast propagation regions cause self-sustained reentry in excitable media
    • Authors: Vladimir Zykov; Alexei Krekhov, Eberhard Bodenschatz
      Pages: 1281 - 1286
      Abstract: Self-sustained waves of electrophysiological activity can cause arrhythmia in the heart. These reentrant excitations have been associated with spiral waves circulating around either an anatomically defined weakly conducting region or a functionally determined core. Recently, an ablation procedure has been clinically introduced that stops atrial fibrillation of the heart by...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1611475114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Dynamical theory of shear bands in structural glasses [Physics]
    • Authors: Apiwat Wisitsorasak; Peter G. Wolynes
      Pages: 1287 - 1292
      Abstract: The heterogeneous elastoplastic deformation of structural glasses is explored using the framework of the random first-order transition theory of the glass transition along with an extended mode-coupling theory that includes activated events. The theory involves coupling the continuum elastic theory of strain transport with mobility generation and transport as described...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620399114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • High-precision radiocarbon dating of political collapse and dynastic
           origins at the Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala [Anthropology]
    • Authors: Takeshi Inomata; Daniela Triadan, Jessica MacLellan, Melissa Burham, Kazuo Aoyama, Juan Manuel Palomo, Hitoshi Yonenobu, Flory Pinzon, Hiroo Nasu
      Pages: 1293 - 1298
      Abstract: The lowland Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala, had a long history of occupation, spanning from the Middle Preclassic Period through the Terminal Classic (1000 BC to AD 950). The Ceibal-Petexbatun Archaeological Project has been conducting archaeological investigations at this site since 2005 and has obtained 154 radiocarbon dates, which represent...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618022114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • An experimental analysis of acquired impulse control among adult humans
           intolerant to alcohol [Economic Sciences]
    • Authors: Jianxin Wang; Yulei Rao, Daniel E. Houser
      Pages: 1299 - 1304
      Abstract: The ability to control tempting impulses impacts health, education, and general socioeconomic outcomes among people at all ages. Consequently, whether and how impulse control develops in adult populations is a topic of enduring interest. Although past research has shed important light on this question using controlled intervention studies, here we...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1610902114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Structural insights into the functional cycle of the ATPase module of the
           26S proteasome [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Marc Wehmer; Till Rudack, Florian Beck, Antȷe Aufderheide, Gunter Pfeifer, Jurgen M. Plitzko, Friedrich Forster, Klaus Schulten, Wolfgang Baumeister, Eri Sakata
      Pages: 1305 - 1310
      Abstract: In eukaryotic cells, the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) is responsible for the regulated degradation of intracellular proteins. The 26S holocomplex comprises the core particle (CP), where proteolysis takes place, and one or two regulatory particles (RPs). The base of the RP is formed by a heterohexameric AAA+ ATPase module, which unfolds...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621129114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Mechanism of catalysis, E2 recognition, and autoinhibition for the IpaH
           family of bacterial E3 ubiquitin ligases [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Alexander F. A. Keszei; Frank Sicheri
      Pages: 1311 - 1316
      Abstract: IpaH enzymes are secreted bacterial effectors that function within host cells as E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligases. Catalytic activity is imparted by a conserved novel E3 ligase (NEL) domain that is unique to Gram-negative pathogens and whose activity is repressed by a flanking substrate-binding leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain when substrate is...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1611595114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • A semisynthetic organism engineered for the stable expansion of the
           genetic alphabet [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Yorke Zhang; Brian M. Lamb, Aaron W. Feldman, Anne Xiaozhou Zhou, Thomas Lavergne, Lingjun Li, Floyd E. Romesberg
      Pages: 1317 - 1322
      Abstract: All natural organisms store genetic information in a four-letter, two-base-pair genetic alphabet. The expansion of the genetic alphabet with two synthetic unnatural nucleotides that selectively pair to form an unnatural base pair (UBP) would increase the information storage potential of DNA, and semisynthetic organisms (SSOs) that stably harbor this expanded...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616443114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Metastable radical state, nonreactive with oxygen, is inherent to
           catalysis by respiratory and photosynthetic cytochromes bc1/b6f
    • Authors: Marcin Sarewicz; Łukasz Buȷnowicz, Satarupa Bhaduri, Sandeep K. Singh, William A. Cramer, Artur Osyczka
      Pages: 1323 - 1328
      Abstract: Oxygenic respiration and photosynthesis based on quinone redox reactions face a danger of wasteful energy dissipation by diversion of the productive electron transfer pathway through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nevertheless, the widespread quinone oxido-reductases from the cytochrome bc family limit the amounts of released ROS to a...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618840114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Direct measurement of sequence-dependent transition path times and
           conformational diffusion in DNA duplex formation [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Krishna Neupane; Feng Wang, Michael T. Woodside
      Pages: 1329 - 1334
      Abstract: The conformational diffusion coefficient, D, sets the timescale for microscopic structural changes during folding transitions in biomolecules like nucleic acids and proteins. D encodes significant information about the folding dynamics such as the roughness of the energy landscape governing the folding and the level of internal friction in the molecule,...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1611602114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Independent active and thermodynamic processes govern the nucleolus
           assembly in vivo [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Hanieh Falahati; Eric Wieschaus
      Pages: 1335 - 1340
      Abstract: Membraneless organelles play a central role in the organization of protoplasm by concentrating macromolecules, which allows efficient cellular processes. Recent studies have shown that, in vitro, certain components in such organelles can assemble through phase separation. Inside the cell, however, such organelles are multicomponent, with numerous intermolecular interactions that can...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1615395114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • ATF5 regulates {beta}-cell survival during stress [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Christine A. Juliana; Juxiang Yang, Andrea V. Rozo, Austin Good, David N. Groff, Shu-Zong Wang, Michael R. Green, Doris A. Stoffers
      Pages: 1341 - 1346
      Abstract: The stress response and cell survival are necessary for normal pancreatic β-cell function, glucose homeostasis, and prevention of diabetes. The homeodomain transcription factor and human diabetes gene pancreas/duodenum homeobox protein 1 (Pdx1) regulates β-cell survival and endoplasmic reticulum stress susceptibility, in part through direct regulation of activating transcription factor 4...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620705114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Effect of a fish stock's demographic structure on offspring survival and
           sensitivity to climate [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Leif Christian Stige; Natalia A. Yaragina, Oystein Langangen, Bȷarte Bogstad, Nils Chr. Stenseth, Geir Ottersen
      Pages: 1347 - 1352
      Abstract: Commercial fishing generally removes large and old individuals from fish stocks, reducing mean age and age diversity among spawners. It is feared that these demographic changes lead to lower and more variable recruitment to the stocks. A key proposed pathway is that juvenation and reduced size distribution causes reduced ranges...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621040114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Drosophila larvae synthesize the putative oncometabolite
           L-2-hydroxyglutarate during normal developmental growth [Genetics]
    • Authors: Hongde Li; Geetanjali Chawla, Alexander J. Hurlburt, Maria C. Sterrett, Olga Zaslaver, James Cox, Jonathan A. Karty, Adam P. Rosebrock, Amy A. Caudy, Jason M. Tennessen
      Pages: 1353 - 1358
      Abstract: L-2-hydroxyglutarate (L-2HG) has emerged as a putative oncometabolite that is capable of inhibiting enzymes involved in metabolism, chromatin modification, and cell differentiation. However, despite the ability of L-2HG to interfere with a broad range of cellular processes, this molecule is often characterized as a metabolic waste product. Here, we demonstrate...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1614102114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone inhibit proliferation
           induced by inflammation in prostatic epithelial cells [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Petra Popovics; Andrew V. Schally, Luis Salgueiro, Krisztina Kovacs, Ferenc G. Rick
      Pages: 1359 - 1364
      Abstract: The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is multifactorial, and chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in its pathogenesis. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that has been shown to act as paracrine/autocrine factor in various malignancies including prostate cancer. GHRH and its receptors are expressed in experimental...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620884114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Guanylate-binding protein 1 (GBP1) contributes to the immunity of human
           mesenchymal stromal cells against Toxoplasma gondii [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Aiping Qin; De-Hua Lai, Qifa Liu, Weijun Huang, Ya-Ping Wu, Xiaoyong Chen, Sunxing Yan, Huimin Xia, Geoff Hide, Zhao-Rong Lun, Francisco J. Ayala, Andy Peng Xiang
      Pages: 1365 - 1370
      Abstract: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have recently been shown to play important roles in mammalian host defenses against intracellular pathogens, but the molecular mechanism still needs to be clarified. We confirmed that human MSCs (hMSCs) prestimulated with IFN-γ showed a significant and dose-dependent ability to inhibit the growth of two types...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619665114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Mycobacterial ESX-1 secretion system mediates host cell lysis through
           bacterium contact-dependent gross membrane disruptions [Microbiology]
    • Authors: William H. Conrad; Morwan M. Osman, Jonathan K. Shanahan, Frances Chu, Kevin K. Takaki, James Cameron, Digby Hopkinson-Woolley, Roland Brosch, Lalita Ramakrishnan
      Pages: 1371 - 1376
      Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium marinum are thought to exert virulence, in part, through their ability to lyse host cell membranes. The type VII secretion system ESX-1 [6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6) secretion system 1] is required for both virulence and host cell membrane lysis. Both activities are attributed to...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620133114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Lipid flippases promote antiviral silencing and the biogenesis of viral
           and host siRNAs in Arabidopsis [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Zhongxin Guo; Jinfeng Lu, Xianbing Wang, Binhui Zhan, Wanxiang Li, Shou-Wei Ding
      Pages: 1377 - 1382
      Abstract: Dicer-mediated processing of virus-specific dsRNA into short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in plants and animals initiates a specific antiviral defense by RNA interference (RNAi). In this study, we developed a forward genetic screen for the identification of host factors required for antiviral RNAi in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using whole-genome sequencing and a...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1614204114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Sex-specific gene-environment interactions underlying ASD-like behaviors
    • Authors: Sara M. Schaafsma; Khatuna Gagnidze, Anny Reyes, Natalie Norstedt, Karl Mansson, Kerel Francis, Donald W. Pfaff
      Pages: 1383 - 1388
      Abstract: The male bias in the incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is one of the most notable characteristics of this group of neurodevelopmental disorders. The etiology of this sex bias is far from known, but pivotal for understanding the etiology of ASDs in general. Here we investigate whether a “three-hit”...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619312114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Gleevec shifts APP processing from a {beta}-cleavage to a nonamyloidogenic
           cleavage [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: William J. Netzer; Karima Bettayeb, Subhash C. Sinha, Marc Flajolet, Paul Greengard, Victor Bustos
      Pages: 1389 - 1394
      Abstract: Neurotoxic amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) are major drivers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and are formed by sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase (BACE) and γ-secretase. Our previous study showed that the anticancer drug Gleevec lowers Aβ levels through indirect inhibition of γ-secretase activity. Here we report that...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620963114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • WAVE1 in neurons expressing the D1 dopamine receptor regulates cellular
           and behavioral actions of cocaine [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Ilaria Ceglia; Ko-Woon Lee, Michael E. Cahill, Steven M. Graves, David Dietz, Dalton J. Surmeier, Eric J. Nestler, Angus C. Nairn, Paul Greengard, Yong Kim
      Pages: 1395 - 1400
      Abstract: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family verprolin homologous protein 1 (WAVE1) regulates actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex-mediated actin polymerization. Our previous studies have found WAVE1 to be inhibited by Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation in brain and to play a role in the regulation of dendritic spine morphology. Here we report that mice in...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621185114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Superresolution imaging reveals activity-dependent plasticity of axon
           morphology linked to changes in action potential conduction velocity
    • Authors: Ronan Chereau; G. Ezequiel Saraceno, Julie Angibaud, Daniel Cattaert, U. Valentin Nagerl
      Pages: 1401 - 1406
      Abstract: Axons convey information to nearby and distant cells, and the time it takes for action potentials (APs) to reach their targets governs the timing of information transfer in neural circuits. In the unmyelinated axons of hippocampus, the conduction speed of APs depends crucially on axon diameters, which vary widely. However,...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1607541114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • How jet lag impairs Major League Baseball performance [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Alex Song; Thomas Severini, Ravi Allada
      Pages: 1407 - 1412
      Abstract: Laboratory studies have demonstrated that circadian clocks align physiology and behavior to 24-h environmental cycles. Examination of athletic performance has been used to discern the functions of these clocks in humans outside of controlled settings. Here, we examined the effects of jet lag, that is, travel that shifts the alignment...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1608847114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Complementary roles of gasotransmitters CO and H2S in sleep apnea
    • Authors: Ying-Jie Peng; Xiuli Zhang, Anna Gridina, Irina Chupikova, David L. McCormick, Robert J. Thomas, Thomas E. Scammell, Gene Kim, Chirag Vasavda, Jayasri Nanduri, Ganesh K. Kumar, Gregg L. Semenza, Solomon H. Snyder, Nanduri R. Prabhakar
      Pages: 1413 - 1418
      Abstract: Sleep apnea, which is the periodic cessation of breathing during sleep, is a major health problem affecting over 10 million people in the United States and is associated with several sequelae, including hypertension and stroke. Clinical studies suggest that abnormal carotid body (CB) activity may be a driver of sleep...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620717114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • Ecdysone signaling underlies the pea aphid transgenerational wing
           polyphenism [Physiology]
    • Authors: Neetha Nanoth Vellichirammal; Purba Gupta, Tannice A. Hall, Jennifer A. Brisson
      Pages: 1419 - 1423
      Abstract: The wing polyphenism of pea aphids is a compelling laboratory model with which to study the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity. In this polyphenism, environmental stressors such as high aphid density cause asexual, viviparous adult female aphids to alter the developmental fate of their embryos from wingless to winged morphs....
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617640114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
  • STV1, a ribosomal protein, binds primary microRNA transcripts to promote
           their interaction with the processing complex in Arabidopsis [Plant
    • Authors: Shengjun Li; Kan Liu, Shuxin Zhang, Xiaoyan Wang, Kestrel Rogers, Guodong Ren, Chi Zhang, Bin Yu
      Pages: 1424 - 1429
      Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression. They are processed from primary miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs), most of which are transcribed by DNA-dependent polymerase II (Pol II). miRNA levels are precisely controlled to maintain various biological processes. Here, we report that SHORT VALVE 1 (STV1), a conserved ribosomal protein, acts...
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:58:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1613069114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 6 (2017)
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