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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 6.092
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 1074  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 7599 - 7601
      Abstract: Symbiosis and gene expression in luminescent squid Luminous symbionts (red) induce edema-associated gene expression (green) in host epithelia (nuclei, blue). Animal microbiomes can affect tissues and organs anatomically distant from those with which they directly associate. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. Using the symbiosis between the Hawaiian...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti1619116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Science and Culture: Can climate change games boost public
           understanding' [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Roberta Kwok
      Pages: 7602 - 7604
      Abstract: In 2014, ecologist Josh Lawler watched as his 8-year-old son became engrossed in video games. The games’ hold made him wonder: Could researchers exploit the medium to teach players—both children and adults—about climate change' “I figured we’re having trouble getting the message about climate change out,” says Lawler, who is...
      Keywords: Science and Culture, Front Matter, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1903508116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Inner Workings: Newborn stars don’t have enough dust to build planets.
           What are the missing ingredients' [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary
    • Authors: Nola Taylor Redd
      Pages: 7605 - 7607
      Abstract: Building a planet is a mysterious process. New worlds emerge from the disk of leftover dust and gas that swirls around an infant star, but it’s still not clear how planets form or how quickly they grow. Astronomers have typically had difficulty peering into the dusty planet nurseries formed from...
      Keywords: Inner Workings, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904572116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Profile of Dame Carol Robinson [Profiles]
    • Authors: Jennifer Viegas
      Pages: 7608 - 7610
      Abstract: Over a quarter century ago, chemist Carol Robinson led research that yielded the first mass spectra of molecular chaperones in complex with protein ligands. The achievement, which defied early scientific dogma concerning the theorized limits of mass spectrometry, inspired a discipline: gas-phase structural biology. Since then, the work of this...
      Keywords: PNAS Profiles
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1903862116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Theory and experiments join forces to characterize the electrocatalytic
           interface [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Stephan N. Steinmann; Zi-Yang Wei, Philippe Sautet
      Pages: 7611 - 7613
      Abstract: Electrocatalysis is gaining impetus as a key technology in fuel cells and for the medium-term energy storage in the context of intermittent, renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. Furthermore, electrocatalysis promises to convert rather inert molecules such as CO2 and N2 into reduced products such as CO...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1903412116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Synthetic ubiquitinated proteins meet the proteasome: Distinct roles of
           ubiquitin in a chain [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Gerbrand J. van der Heden van Noort; Jin Gan, Huib Ovaa
      Pages: 7614 - 7616
      Abstract: Protein homeostasis is tightly regulated, and multiple cellular mechanisms are in place to dispose of misfolded or no-longer-needed proteins. One of the key players is the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome system (UPS), in which a variety of specific ligases mark substrate proteins with a Ub “flag” to be recognized by the proteolytic...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1903405116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Shining light on microbial signaling to distant organs [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Fredrik Backhed
      Pages: 7617 - 7619
      Abstract: Almost all organisms, from insects to mammals, have coevolved with microorganisms, establishing symbiotic interactions. Whereas most such interactions are based on nutrition (1), there are other examples, among which one of the most well studied is symbioses involving light-emitting bacteria. The bobtailed squid, Euprymna scolopes, forms a symbiosis with the...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1902664116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Plague, camels, and lice [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Remi Barbieri; M. Drancourt, D. Raoult
      Pages: 7620 - 7621
      Abstract: In PNAS, the paper by Namouchi et al. (1) suggests that there were no reservoirs of plague in Europe in the Middle Ages, but rather multiple reintroductions. This study may be completed by reporting several works poorly cited in literature which add to our comprehension of plague transmission. It is...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1901145116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Reply to Barbieri et al.: Out of the Land of Darkness: Plague on the fur
           trade routes [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Barbara Bramanti; Amine Namouchi, Boris V. Schmid, Katharine R. Dean, Nils Chr. Stenseth
      Pages: 7622 - 7623
      Abstract: In their letter, Barbieri et al. (1) cite valuable works on human ectoparasite transmission well known to us. Indeed, we previously tested alternatives to the rat/rat–flea mechanism of transmission and found that a model with human ectoparasites was the most appropriate in Europe (2, 3) where there were no known...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1902274116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Nanobody-based CAR T cells that target the tumor microenvironment inhibit
           the growth of solid tumors in immunocompetent mice [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Yushu Joy Xie; Michael Dougan, Noor Jailkhani, Jessica Ingram, Tao Fang, Laura Kummer, Noor Momin, Novalia Pishesha, Steffen Rickelt, Richard O. Hynes, Hidde Ploegh
      Pages: 7624 - 7631
      Abstract: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has been successful in clinical trials against hematological cancers, but has experienced challenges in the treatment of solid tumors. One of the main difficulties lies in a paucity of tumor-specific targets that can serve as CAR recognition domains. We therefore focused on developing...
      Keywords: Inaugural Articles
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1817147116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • The Science of Science Communication III [Introductions]
    • Authors: Baruch Fischhoff; Dietram A. Scheufele
      Pages: 7632 - 7633
      Abstract: Three National Academy of Sciences colloquia have sought to create the science of science communication as a unique discipline, fostering collaboration across disciplines and between researchers and practitioners. Each colloquium has engaged researchers from the social, behavioral, and decision sciences needed to connect the scientific community with those who depend...
      Keywords: Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium on the Science of Science Communication III
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1902256116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Communicating uncertainty in policy analysis [Colloquium Paper]
    • Authors: Charles F. Manski
      Pages: 7634 - 7641
      Abstract: The term “policy analysis” describes scientific evaluations of the impacts of past public policies and predictions of the outcomes of potential future policies. A prevalent practice has been to report policy analysis with incredible certitude. That is, exact predictions of policy outcomes are routine, while expressions of uncertainty are rare....
      Keywords: Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium on the Science of Science Communication III
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722389115
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Conflict across representational gaps: Threats to and opportunities for
           improved communication [Colloquium Paper]
    • Authors: Matthew A. Cronin; Laurie R. Weingart
      Pages: 7642 - 7649
      Abstract: Often, the senders and receivers of scientific communication have different knowledge bases. While such communication is essential for solving the complex social and technological problems that affect multiple stakeholders, a diversity of knowledge among communicators can create representational gaps (rGaps). rGaps occur when senders make assumptions that receivers do not,...
      Keywords: Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium on the Science of Science Communication III
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805866116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Science, health, and cultural literacy in a rapidly changing
           communications landscape [Colloquium Paper]
    • Authors: Susan C. Scrimshaw
      Pages: 7650 - 7655
      Abstract: There is a gap between how many scientists communicate and how most people understand and interpret messages. This article argues that the extensive science communications literature needs to be joined by the health literacy literature and anthropological work on cultural variations in hearing and understanding messages. Rapid changes and differences...
      Keywords: Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium on the Science of Science Communication III
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807218116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Scientific communication in a post-truth society [Colloquium Paper]
    • Authors: Shanto Iyengar; Douglas S. Massey
      Pages: 7656 - 7661
      Abstract: Within the scientific community, much attention has focused on improving communications between scientists, policy makers, and the public. To date, efforts have centered on improving the content, accessibility, and delivery of scientific communications. Here we argue that in the current political and media environment faulty communication is no longer the...
      Keywords: Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium on the Science of Science Communication III
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805868115
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Science audiences, misinformation, and fake news [Colloquium Paper]
    • Authors: Dietram A. Scheufele; Nicole M. Krause
      Pages: 7662 - 7669
      Abstract: Concerns about public misinformation in the United States—ranging from politics to science—are growing. Here, we provide an overview of how and why citizens become (and sometimes remain) misinformed about science. Our discussion focuses specifically on misinformation among individual citizens. However, it is impossible to understand individual information processing and acceptance...
      Keywords: Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium on the Science of Science Communication III
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805871115
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Evaluating science communication [Colloquium Paper]
    • Authors: Baruch Fischhoff
      Pages: 7670 - 7675
      Abstract: Effective science communication requires assembling scientists with knowledge relevant to decision makers, translating that knowledge into useful terms, establishing trusted two-way communication channels, evaluating the process, and refining it as needed. Communicating Science Effectively: A Research Agenda [National Research Council (2017)] surveys the scientific foundations for accomplishing these tasks, the...
      Keywords: Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium on the Science of Science Communication III, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805863115
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Reflections on an interdisciplinary collaboration to inform public
           understanding of climate change, mitigation, and impacts [Colloquium
    • Authors: Wandi Bruine de Bruin; M. Granger Morgan
      Pages: 7676 - 7683
      Abstract: We describe two interdisciplinary projects in which natural scientists and engineers, as well as psychologists and other behavioral scientists, worked together to better communicate about climate change, including mitigation and impacts. One project focused on understanding and informing public perceptions of an emerging technology to capture and sequester carbon dioxide...
      Keywords: Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium on the Science of Science Communication III, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803726115
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • On the future of transportation in an era of automated and autonomous
           vehicles [Colloquium Paper]
    • Authors: P. A. Hancock; Illah Nourbakhsh, Jack Stewart
      Pages: 7684 - 7691
      Abstract: Automated vehicles (AVs) already navigate US highways and those of many other nations around the world. Current questions about AVs do not now revolve around whether such technologies should or should not be implemented; they are already with us. Rather, such questions are more and more focused on how such...
      Keywords: Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium on the Science of Science Communication III
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805770115
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Promises and perils of gene drives: Navigating the communication of
           complex, post-normal science [Colloquium Paper]
    • Authors: Dominique Brossard; Pam Belluck, Fred Gould, Christopher D. Wirz
      Pages: 7692 - 7697
      Abstract: In November of 2017, an interdisciplinary panel discussed the complexities of gene drive applications as part of the third Sackler Colloquium on “The Science of Science Communication.” The panel brought together a social scientist, life scientist, and journalist to discuss the issue from each of their unique perspectives. This paper...
      Keywords: Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium on the Science of Science Communication III
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805874115
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • How to communicate large-scale social challenges: The problem of the
           disappearing American corporation [Colloquium Paper]
    • Authors: Gerald F. Davis
      Pages: 7698 - 7702
      Abstract: Social science has distinct advantages and challenges when it comes to communicating its findings to the public. Its topics are often highly accessible to the general public, yet its findings may be counterintuitive and politically contentious. Conveying recent changes in the organization of the American economy provides an illustration of...
      Keywords: Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium on the Science of Science Communication III
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805867115
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Boron-oxygen complex yields n-type surface layer in semiconducting diamond
           [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Xiaobing Liu; Xin Chen, David J. Singh, Richard A. Stern, Jinsong Wu, Sylvain Petitgirard, Craig R. Bina, Steven D. Jacobsen
      Pages: 7703 - 7711
      Abstract: Diamond is a wide-bandgap semiconductor possessing exceptional physical and chemical properties with the potential to miniaturize high-power electronics. Whereas boron-doped diamond (BDD) is a well-known p-type semiconductor, fabrication of practical diamond-based electronic devices awaits development of an effective n-type dopant with satisfactory electrical properties. Here we report the synthesis of...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1821612116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Night-sky radiometry can revolutionize the characterization of
           light-pollution sources globally [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Miroslav Kocifaȷ; Hector Antonio Solano–Lamphar, Gorden Videen
      Pages: 7712 - 7717
      Abstract: The city emission function (CEF), describing the angular emission from an entire city as a light source, is one of the key elements in night-sky radiance models. The CEF describes the rate at which skyglow depends on distance and is indispensable in any prediction of light-pollution propagation into nocturnal environments....
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1900153116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Reaction intermediates during operando electrocatalysis identified from
           full solvent quantum mechanics molecular dynamics [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Tao Cheng; Alessandro Fortunelli, William A. Goddard III
      Pages: 7718 - 7722
      Abstract: Electrocatalysis provides a powerful means to selectively transform molecules, but a serious impediment in making rapid progress is the lack of a molecular-based understanding of the reactive mechanisms or intermediates at the electrode–electrolyte interface (EEI). Recent experimental techniques have been developed for operando identification of reaction intermediates using surface infrared...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1821709116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Unsupervised learning by competing hidden units [Computer Sciences]
    • Authors: Dmitry Krotov; John J. Hopfield
      Pages: 7723 - 7731
      Abstract: It is widely believed that end-to-end training with the backpropagation algorithm is essential for learning good feature detectors in early layers of artificial neural networks, so that these detectors are useful for the task performed by the higher layers of that neural network. At the same time, the traditional form...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1820458116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Tropical cyclone activity affected by volcanically induced ITCZ shifts
           [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Francesco S. R. Pausata; Suzana J. Camargo
      Pages: 7732 - 7737
      Abstract: Volcanic eruptions can affect global climate through changes in atmospheric and ocean circulation, and therefore could impact tropical cyclone (TC) activity. Here, we use ensemble simulations performed with an Earth System Model to investigate the impact of strong volcanic eruptions occurring in the tropical Northern (NH) and Southern (SH) Hemisphere...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1900777116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Cryoprotectant-free cryopreservation of mammalian cells by superflash
           freezing [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Yoshitake Akiyama; Masato Shinose, Hiroki Watanabe, Shigeru Yamada, Yasunari Kanda
      Pages: 7738 - 7743
      Abstract: Cryopreservation is widely used to maintain backups of cells as it enables the semipermanent storage of cells. During the freezing process, ice crystals that are generated inside and outside the cells can lethally damage the cells. All conventional cryopreservation methods use at least one cryoprotective agent (CPA) to render water...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808645116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Photothermal-responsive nanosized hybrid polymersome as versatile
           therapeutics codelivery nanovehicle for effective tumor suppression
           [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Hongbo Zhang; Wenguo Cui, Xiangmeng Qu, Huayin Wu, Liangliang Qu, Xu Zhang, Ermei Makila, Jarno Salonen, Yueqi Zhu, Zhou Yang, Dong Chen, Helder A. Santos, Mingtan Hai, David A. Weitz
      Pages: 7744 - 7749
      Abstract: Effective cancer therapies often demand delivery of combinations of drugs to inhibit multidrug resistance through synergism, and the development of multifunctional nanovehicles with enhanced drug loading and delivery efficiency for combination therapy is currently a major challenge in nanotechnology. However, such combinations are more challenging to administer than single drugs...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1817251116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Digital logic for soft devices [Engineering]
    • Authors: Daniel J. Preston; Philipp Rothemund, Haihui Joy Jiang, Markus P. Nemitz, Jeff Rawson, Zhigang Suo, George M. Whitesides
      Pages: 7750 - 7759
      Abstract: Although soft devices (grippers, actuators, and elementary robots) are rapidly becoming an integral part of the broad field of robotics, autonomy for completely soft devices has only begun to be developed. Adaptation of conventional systems of control to soft devices requires hard valves and electronic controls. This paper describes completely...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1820672116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Ammonia emission control in China would mitigate haze pollution and
           nitrogen deposition, but worsen acid rain [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Mingxu Liu; Xin Huang, Yu Song, Jie Tang, Junji Cao, Xiaoye Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Shuxiao Wang, Tingting Xu, Ling Kang, Xuhui Cai, Hongsheng Zhang, Fumo Yang, Huanbo Wang, Jian Zhen Yu, Alexis K. H. Lau, Lingyan He, Xiaofeng Huang, Lei Duan, Aijun Ding, Likun Xue, Jian Gao, Bin Liu, Tong Zhu
      Pages: 7760 - 7765
      Abstract: China has been experiencing fine particle (i.e., aerodynamic diameters ≤ 2.5 µm; PM2.5) pollution and acid rain in recent decades, which exert adverse impacts on human health and the ecosystem. Recently, ammonia (i.e., NH3) emission reduction has been proposed as a strategic option to mitigate haze pollution. However, atmospheric NH3...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1814880116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Diffusing wave microrheology of highly scattering concentrated
           monodisperse emulsions [Physics]
    • Authors: Ha Seong Kim; Nesrin Şenbil, Chi Zhang, Frank Scheffold, Thomas G. Mason
      Pages: 7766 - 7771
      Abstract: Motivated by improvements in diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) for nonergodic, highly optically scattering soft matter and by cursory treatment of collective scattering effects in prior DWS microrheology experiments, we investigate the low-frequency plateau elastic shear moduli Gp′ of concentrated, monodisperse, disordered oil-in-water emulsions as droplets jam. In such experiments, the...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1817029116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Punishing and toxic neighborhood environments independently predict the
           intergenerational social mobility of black and white children [Economic
    • Authors: Robert Manduca; Robert J. Sampson
      Pages: 7772 - 7777
      Abstract: We use data on intergenerational social mobility by neighborhood to examine how social and physical environments beyond concentrated poverty predict children’s long-term well-being. First, we examine neighborhoods that are harsh on children’s development: those characterized by high levels of violence, incarceration, and lead exposure. Second, we examine potential supportive or...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1820464116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • The mixed effects of online diversity training [Psychological and
           Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Edward H. Chang; Katherine L. Milkman, Dena M. Gromet, Robert W. Rebele, Cade Massey, Angela L. Duckworth, Adam M. Grant
      Pages: 7778 - 7783
      Abstract: We present results from a large (n = 3,016) field experiment at a global organization testing whether a brief science-based online diversity training can change attitudes and behaviors toward women in the workplace. Our preregistered field experiment included an active placebo control and measured participants’ attitudes and real workplace decisions...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1816076116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Modeling cocaine traffickers and counterdrug interdiction forces as a
           complex adaptive system [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Nicholas R. Magliocca; Kendra McSweeney, Steven E. Sesnie, Elizabeth Tellman, Jennifer A. Devine, Erik A. Nielsen, Zoe Pearson, David J. Wrathall
      Pages: 7784 - 7792
      Abstract: Counterdrug interdiction efforts designed to seize or disrupt cocaine shipments between South American source zones and US markets remain a core US “supply side” drug policy and national security strategy. However, despite a long history of US-led interdiction efforts in the Western Hemisphere, cocaine movements to the United States through...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1812459116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Prion protein quantification in human cerebrospinal fluid as a tool for
           prion disease drug development [Applied Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Sonia M. Vallabh; Chloe K. Nobuhara, Franc Llorens, Inga Zerr, Piero Parchi, Sabina Capellari, Eric Kuhn, Jacob Klickstein, Jiri G. Safar, Flavia C. Nery, Kathryn J. Swoboda, Michael D. Geschwind, Henrik Zetterberg, Steven E. Arnold, Eric Vallabh Minikel, Stuart L. Schreiber
      Pages: 7793 - 7798
      Abstract: Reduction of native prion protein (PrP) levels in the brain is an attractive strategy for the treatment or prevention of human prion disease. Clinical development of any PrP-reducing therapeutic will require an appropriate pharmacodynamic biomarker: a practical and robust method for quantifying PrP, and reliably demonstrating its reduction in the...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1901947116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Precise small-molecule cleavage of an r(CUG) repeat expansion in a
           myotonic dystrophy mouse model [Applied Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Alicia J. Angelbello; Suzanne G. Rzuczek, Kendra K. Mckee, Jonathan L. Chen, Hailey Olafson, Michael D. Cameron, Walter N. Moss, Eric T. Wang, Matthew D. Disney
      Pages: 7799 - 7804
      Abstract: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an incurable neuromuscular disorder caused by an expanded CTG repeat that is transcribed into r(CUG)exp. The RNA repeat expansion sequesters regulatory proteins such as Muscleblind-like protein 1 (MBNL1), which causes pre-mRNA splicing defects. The disease-causing r(CUG)exp has been targeted by antisense oligonucleotides, CRISPR-based approaches,...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1901484116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Diverse fate of ubiquitin chain moieties: The proximal is degraded with
           the target, and the distal protects the proximal from removal and recycles
    • Authors: Hao Sun; Sachitanand M. Mali, Sumeet K. Singh, Roman Meledin, Ashraf Brik, Yong Tae Kwon, Yelena Kravtsova-Ivantsiv, Beatrice Bercovich, Aaron Ciechanover
      Pages: 7805 - 7812
      Abstract: One of the enigmas in the ubiquitin (Ub) field is the requirement for a poly-Ub chain as a proteasomal targeting signal. The canonical chain appears to be longer than the distance between the two Ub-binding proteasomal receptors. Furthermore, genetic manipulation has shown that one receptor subunit is sufficient, which suggests...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1822148116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Spontaneous ribosomal translocation of mRNA and tRNAs into a chimeric
           hybrid state [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Jie Zhou; Laura Lancaster, John Paul Donohue, Harry F. Noller
      Pages: 7813 - 7818
      Abstract: The elongation factor G (EF-G)–catalyzed translocation of mRNA and tRNA through the ribosome is essential for vacating the ribosomal A site for the next incoming aminoacyl-tRNA, while precisely maintaining the translational reading frame. Here, the 3.2-Å crystal structure of a ribosome translocation intermediate complex containing mRNA and two tRNAs, formed...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1901310116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Structures of ligand-occupied {beta}-Klotho complexes reveal a molecular
           mechanism underlying endocrine FGF specificity and activity [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Ekaterina S. Kuzina; Peter Man-Un Ung, Jyotidarsini Mohanty, Francisco Tome, Jungyuen Choi, Els Pardon, Jan Steyaert, Irit Lax, Avner Schlessinger, Joseph Schlessinger, Sangwon Lee
      Pages: 7819 - 7824
      Abstract: The three members of the endocrine fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family designated FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23 mediate their pleiotropic cellular effects by binding to and activating binary complexes composed of an FGF receptor (FGFR) bound to either α-Klotho or β-Klotho receptors. Structural analyses of ligand-occupied Klotho extracellular domains have provided...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1822055116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Peptidoglycan hydrolase of an unusual cross-link cleavage specificity
           contributes to bacterial cell wall synthesis [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Pavan Kumar Chodisetti; Manjula Reddy
      Pages: 7825 - 7830
      Abstract: Bacteria are surrounded by a protective exoskeleton, peptidoglycan (PG), a cross-linked mesh-like macromolecule consisting of glycan strands interlinked by short peptides. Because PG completely encases the cytoplasmic membrane, cleavage of peptide cross-links is a prerequisite to make space for incorporation of nascent glycan strands for its successful expansion during cell...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1816893116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Papain-like cysteine proteases prepare plant cyclic peptide precursors for
           cyclization [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Fabian B. H. Rehm; Mark A. Jackson, Ewout De Geyter, Kuok Yap, Edward K. Gilding, Thomas Durek, David J. Craik
      Pages: 7831 - 7836
      Abstract: Cyclotides are plant defense peptides that have been extensively investigated for pharmaceutical and agricultural applications, but key details of their posttranslational biosynthesis have remained elusive. Asparaginyl endopeptidases are crucial in the final stage of the head-to-tail cyclization reaction, but the enzyme(s) involved in the prerequisite steps of N-terminal proteolytic release...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1901807116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • A U2-snRNP-independent role of SF3b in promoting mRNA export
    • Authors: Ke Wang; Changping Yin, Xian Du, Suli Chen, Jianshu Wang, Li Zhang, Lantian Wang, Yong Yu, Binkai Chi, Min Shi, Changshou Wang, Robin Reed, Yu Zhou, Jing Huang, Hong Cheng
      Pages: 7837 - 7846
      Abstract: To ensure efficient and accurate gene expression, pre-mRNA processing and mRNA export need to be balanced. However, how this balance is ensured remains largely unclear. Here, we found that SF3b, a component of U2 snRNP that participates in splicing and 3′ processing of pre-mRNAs, interacts with the key mRNA export...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1818835116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Repertoires of G protein-coupled receptors for Ciona-specific
           neuropeptides [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Akira Shiraishi; Toshimi Okuda, Natsuko Miyasaka, Tomohiro Osugi, Yasushi Okuno, Jun Inoue, Honoo Satake
      Pages: 7847 - 7856
      Abstract: Neuropeptides play pivotal roles in various biological events in the nervous, neuroendocrine, and endocrine systems, and are correlated with both physiological functions and unique behavioral traits of animals. Elucidation of functional interaction between neuropeptides and receptors is a crucial step for the verification of their biological roles and evolutionary processes....
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1816640116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • O-GlcNAcylation of core components of the translation initiation machinery
           regulates protein synthesis [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Xuexia Li; Qiang Zhu, Xiaoliu Shi, Yaxian Cheng, Xueliu Li, Huan Xu, Xiaotao Duan, Linda C. Hsieh-Wilson, Jennifer Chu, Jerry Pelletier, Maowei Ni, Zhiguo Zheng, Sihui Li, Wen Yi
      Pages: 7857 - 7866
      Abstract: Protein synthesis is essential for cell growth, proliferation, and survival. Protein synthesis is a tightly regulated process that involves multiple mechanisms. Deregulation of protein synthesis is considered as a key factor in the development and progression of a number of diseases, such as cancer. Here we show that the dynamic...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1813026116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Energetic regulation of coordinated leader-follower dynamics during
           collective invasion of breast cancer cells [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Jian Zhang; Kayla F. Goliwas, Wenjun Wang, Paul V. Taufalele, Francois Bordeleau, Cynthia A. Reinhart-King
      Pages: 7867 - 7872
      Abstract: The ability of primary tumor cells to invade into adjacent tissues, followed by the formation of local or distant metastasis, is a lethal hallmark of cancer. Recently, locomoting clusters of tumor cells have been identified in numerous cancers and associated with increased invasiveness and metastatic potential. However, how the collective...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1809964116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Ephemeral states in protein folding under force captured with a magnetic
           tweezers design [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Rafael Tapia–Roȷo; Edward C. Eckels, Julio M. Fernandez
      Pages: 7873 - 7878
      Abstract: Magnetic tape heads are ubiquitously used to read and record on magnetic tapes in technologies as diverse as old VHS tapes, modern hard-drive disks, or magnetic bands on credit cards. Their design highlights the ability to convert electric signals into fluctuations of the magnetic field at very high frequencies, which...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1821284116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • IKs ion-channel pore conductance can result from individual voltage sensor
           movements [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Maartje Westhoff; Jodene Eldstrom, Christopher I. Murray, Emely Thompson, David Fedida
      Pages: 7879 - 7888
      Abstract: The IKs current has an established role in cardiac action potential repolarization, and provides a repolarization reserve at times of stress. The underlying channels are formed from tetramers of KCNQ1 along with one to four KCNE1 accessory subunits, but how these components together gate the IKs complex to open the...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1811623116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Spontaneous driving forces give rise to protein-RNA condensates with
           coexisting phases and complex material properties [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Steven Boeynaems; Alex S. Holehouse, Venera Weinhardt, Denes Kovacs, Joris Van Lindt, Carolyn Larabell, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Rhiju Das, Peter S. Tompa, Rohit V. Pappu, Aaron D. Gitler
      Pages: 7889 - 7898
      Abstract: Phase separation of multivalent protein and RNA molecules underlies the biogenesis of biomolecular condensates such as membraneless organelles. In vivo, these condensates encompass hundreds of distinct types of molecules that typically organize into multilayered structures supporting the differential partitioning of molecules into distinct regions with distinct material properties. The interplay...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1821038116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Nontoxic nanopore electroporation for effective intracellular delivery of
           biological macromolecules [Engineering]
    • Authors: Yuhong Cao; Enbo Ma, Stefano Cestellos-Blanco, Bei Zhang, Ruoyi Qiu, Yude Su, Jennifer A. Doudna, Peidong Yang
      Pages: 7899 - 7904
      Abstract: We present a simple nanopore-electroporation (NanoEP) platform for delivery of nucleic acids, functional protein, and Cas9 single-guide RNA ribonucleoproteins into both adherent and suspension cells with up to 80% delivery efficiency and>95% cell viability. Low-voltage electric pulses permeabilize a small area of cell membrane as a cell comes into...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1818553116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Predicting future invaders and future invasions [Ecology]
    • Authors: Alice Fournier; Caterina Penone, Maria Grazia Pennino, Franck Courchamp
      Pages: 7905 - 7910
      Abstract: Invasive alien species are a great threat to biodiversity and human livelihoods worldwide. The most effective way to limit their impacts and costs is to prevent their introduction into new areas. Identifying invaders and invasions before their occurrence would arguably be the most efficient strategy. Here, we provide a profiling...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803456116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Disease mortality in domesticated animals is predicted by host
           evolutionary relationships [Evolution]
    • Authors: Maxwell J. Farrell; T. Jonathan Davies
      Pages: 7911 - 7915
      Abstract: Infectious diseases of domesticated animals impact human well-being via food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, and human infections. While much research has focused on parasites that infect single host species, most parasites of domesticated mammals infect multiple species. The impact of multihost parasites varies across hosts; some rarely result in death,...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1817323116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Earth history and the passerine superradiation [Evolution]
    • Authors: Carl H. Oliveros; Daniel J. Field, Daniel T. Ksepka, F. Keith Barker, Alexandre Aleixo, Michael J. Andersen, Per Alstrom, Brett W. Benz, Edward L. Braun, Michael J. Braun, Gustavo A. Bravo, Robb T. Brumfield, R. Terry Chesser, Santiago Claramunt, Joel Cracraft, Andres M. Cuervo, Elizabeth P. Derryberry, Travis C. Glenn, Michael G. Harvey, Peter A. Hosner, Leo Joseph, Rebecca T. Kimball, Andrew L. Mack, Colin M. Miskelly, A. Townsend Peterson, Mark B. Robbins, Frederick H. Sheldon, Luis Fabio Silveira, Brian Tilston Smith, Noor D. White, Robert G. Moyle, Brant C. Faircloth
      Pages: 7916 - 7925
      Abstract: Avian diversification has been influenced by global climate change, plate tectonic movements, and mass extinction events. However, the impact of these factors on the diversification of the hyperdiverse perching birds (passerines) is unclear because family level relationships are unresolved and the timing of splitting events among lineages is uncertain. We...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1813206116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Small-molecule factor B inhibitor for the treatment of complement-mediated
           diseases [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Anna Schubart; Karen Anderson, Nello Mainolfi, Holger Sellner, Takeru Ehara, Christopher M. Adams, Aengus Mac Sweeney, Sha–Mei Liao, Maura Crowley, Amanda Littlewood–Evans, Sophie Sarret, Grazyna Wieczorek, Ludovic Perrot, Valerie Dubost, Thierry Flandre, Yuzhou Zhang, Richard J. H. Smith, Antonio M. Risitano, Raȷeshri G. Karki, Chun Zhang, Eric Valeur, Finton Sirockin, Bernd Gerhartz, Paulus Erbel, Nicola Hughes, Thomas M. Smith, Frederic Cumin, Upendra A. Argikar, Borȷe Haraldsson, Muneto Mogi, Richard Sedrani, Christian Wiesmann, Bruce Jaffee, Jurgen Maibaum, Stefanie Flohr, Richard Harrison, Jorg Eder
      Pages: 7926 - 7931
      Abstract: Dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway (AP) predisposes individuals to a number of diseases including paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, and C3 glomerulopathy. Moreover, glomerular Ig deposits can lead to complement-driven nephropathies. Here we describe the discovery of a highly potent, reversible, and selective small-molecule inhibitor of factor...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1820892116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Uniquely human CHRFAM7A gene increases the hematopoietic stem cell
           reservoir in mice and amplifies their inflammatory response [Immunology
           and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Todd W. Costantini; Theresa W. Chan, Olga Cohen, Simone Langness, Sabrina Treadwell, Elliot Williams, Brian P. Eliceiri, Andrew Baird
      Pages: 7932 - 7940
      Abstract: A subset of genes in the human genome are uniquely human and not found in other species. One example is CHRFAM7A, a dominant-negative inhibitor of the antiinflammatory α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR/CHRNA7) that is also a neurotransmitter receptor linked to cognitive function, mental health, and neurodegenerative disease. Here we show...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1821853116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Hierarchy of clinical manifestations in SAVI N153S and V154M mouse models
           [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Mona Motwani; Sudesh Pawaria, Jennifer Bernier, Stephanie Moses, Kate Henry, Terry Fang, Linda Burkly, Ann Marshak-Rothstein, Katherine A. Fitzgerald
      Pages: 7941 - 7950
      Abstract: Studies over the past decade have revealed a central role for innate immune sensors in autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. cGAS, a cytosolic DNA sensor, detects both foreign and host DNA and generates a second-messenger cGAMP, which in turn binds and activates stimulator of IFN genes (STING), leading to induction of...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1818281116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Cone photoreceptor classification in the living human eye from
           photostimulation-induced phase dynamics [Engineering]
    • Authors: Furu Zhang; Kazuhiro Kurokawa, Ayoub Lassoued, James A. Crowell, Donald T. Miller
      Pages: 7951 - 7956
      Abstract: Human color vision is achieved by mixing neural signals from cone photoreceptors sensitive to different wavelengths of light. The spatial arrangement and proportion of these spectral types in the retina set fundamental limits on color perception, and abnormal or missing types are responsible for color vision loss. Imaging provides the...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1816360116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Target identification reveals lanosterol synthase as a vulnerability in
           glioma [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Richard E. Phillips; Yanhong Yang, Ryan C. Smith, Bonne M. Thompson, Tomoko Yamasaki, Yadira M. Soto–Feliciano, Kosuke Funato, Yupu Liang, Javier Garcia–Bermudez, Xiaoshi Wang, Benȷamin A. Garcia, Kazuhiko Yamasaki, Jeffrey G. McDonald, Kivanc Birsoy, Viviane Tabar, C. David Allis
      Pages: 7957 - 7962
      Abstract: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) remains an incurable childhood brain tumor for which novel therapeutic approaches are desperately needed. Previous studies have shown that the menin inhibitor MI-2 exhibits promising activity in preclinical DIPG and adult glioma models, although the mechanism underlying this activity is unknown. Here, using an integrated...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1820989116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) loss causes neurodegeneration
           by altering protein turnover in the first postnatal weeks [Medical
    • Authors: Anna T. Reinicke; Karoline Laban, Marlies Sachs, Vanessa Kraus, Michael Walden, Markus Damme, Wiebke Sachs, Julia Reichelt, Michaela Schweizer, Philipp Christoph Janiesch, Kent E. Duncan, Paul Saftig, Markus M. Rinschen, Fabio Morellini, Catherine Meyer-Schwesinger
      Pages: 7963 - 7972
      Abstract: Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is one of the most abundant and enigmatic enzymes of the CNS. Based on existing UCH-L1 knockout models, UCH-L1 is thought to be required for the maintenance of axonal integrity, but not for neuronal development despite its high expression in neurons. Several lines of evidence...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1812413116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Hepatic posttranscriptional network comprised of CCR4-NOT deadenylase and
           FGF21 maintains systemic metabolic homeostasis [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Masahiro Morita; Nadeem Siddiqui, Sakie Katsumura, Christopher Rouya, Ola Larsson, Takeshi Nagashima, Bahareh Hekmatneȷad, Akinori Takahashi, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Mengwei Zang, Rene St–Arnaud, Yuichi Oike, Vincent Giguere, Ivan Topisirovic, Mariko Okada–Hatakeyama, Tadashi Yamamoto, Nahum Sonenberg
      Pages: 7973 - 7981
      Abstract: Whole-body metabolic homeostasis is tightly controlled by hormone-like factors with systemic or paracrine effects that are derived from nonendocrine organs, including adipose tissue (adipokines) and liver (hepatokines). Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone-like protein, which is emerging as a major regulator of whole-body metabolism and has therapeutic potential...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1816023116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Horizontal gene transfer allowed the emergence of broad host range
           entomopathogens [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Qiangqiang Zhang; Xiaoxuan Chen, Chuan Xu, Hong Zhao, Xing Zhang, Guohong Zeng, Ying Qian, Ran Liu, Na Guo, Wubin Mi, Yamin Meng, Raymond J. St. Leger, Weiguo Fang
      Pages: 7982 - 7989
      Abstract: The emergence of new pathogenic fungi has profoundly impacted global biota, but the underlying mechanisms behind host shifts remain largely unknown. The endophytic insect pathogen Metarhizium robertsii evolved from fungi that were plant associates, and entomopathogenicity is a more recently acquired adaptation. Here we report that the broad host-range entomopathogen...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1816430116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Critical symbiont signals drive both local and systemic changes in diel
           and developmental host gene expression [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Silvia Moriano-Gutierrez; Eric J. Koch, Hailey Bussan, Kymberleigh Romano, Mahdi Belcaid, Federico E. Rey, Edward G. Ruby, Margaret J. McFall-Ngai
      Pages: 7990 - 7999
      Abstract: The colonization of an animal’s tissues by its microbial partners creates networks of communication across the host’s body. We used the natural binary light-organ symbiosis between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminous bacterial partner, Vibrio fischeri, to define the impact of colonization on transcriptomic networks in the host. A...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1819897116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Loss of postnatal quiescence of neural stem cells through mTOR activation
           upon genetic removal of cysteine string protein-{alpha} [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Jose L. Nieto–Gonzalez; Leonardo Gomez–Sanchez, Fabiola Mavillard, Pedro Linares–Clemente, Maria C. Rivero, Marina Valenzuela–Villatoro, Jose L. Munoz–Bravo, Ricardo Pardal, Rafael Fernandez–Chacon
      Pages: 8000 - 8009
      Abstract: Neural stem cells continuously generate newborn neurons that integrate into and modify neural circuitry in the adult hippocampus. The molecular mechanisms that regulate or perturb neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation, however, remain poorly understood. Here, we have found that mouse hippocampal radial glia-like (RGL) neural stem cells express the...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1817183116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Pejvakin-mediated pexophagy protects auditory hair cells against
           noise-induced damage [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Jean Defourny; Alain Aghaie, Isabelle Perfettini, Paul Avan, Sedigheh Delmaghani, Christine Petit
      Pages: 8010 - 8017
      Abstract: Noise overexposure causes oxidative stress, leading to auditory hair cell damage. Adaptive peroxisome proliferation involving pejvakin, a peroxisome-associated protein from the gasdermin family, has been shown to protect against this harmful oxidative stress. However, the role of pejvakin in peroxisome dynamics and homeostasis remains unclear. Here we show that sound...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1821844116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Macroscale intrinsic network architecture of the hypothalamus
    • Authors: Joel D. Hahn; Olaf Sporns, Alan G. Watts, Larry W. Swanson
      Pages: 8018 - 8027
      Abstract: Control of multiple life-critical physiological and behavioral functions requires the hypothalamus. Here, we provide a comprehensive description and rigorous analysis of mammalian intrahypothalamic network architecture. To achieve this at the gray matter region (macroscale) level, macroscale connection (macroconnection) data for the rat hypothalamus were extracted from the primary literature. The...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1819448116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • The STEP61 interactome reveals subunit-specific AMPA receptor binding and
           synaptic regulation [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Sehoon Won; Salvatore Incontro, Yan Li, Roger A. Nicoll, Katherine W. Roche
      Pages: 8028 - 8037
      Abstract: Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) is a brain-specific protein phosphatase that regulates a variety of synaptic proteins, including NMDA receptors (NAMDRs). To better understand STEP’s effect on other receptors, we used mass spectrometry to identify the STEP61 interactome. We identified a number of known interactors, but also ones including the...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1900878116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Phospholipid membranes drive abdominal aortic aneurysm development through
           stimulating coagulation factor activity [Physiology]
    • Authors: Keith Allen–Redpath; Maceler Aldrovandi, Sarah N. Lauder, Anastasia Gketsopoulou, Victoria J. Tyrrell, David A. Slatter, Robert Andrews, W. John Watkins, Georgia Atkinson, Eileen McNeill, Anna Gilfedder, Maȷd Protty, James Burston, Sam R. C. Johnson, Patricia R. S. Rodrigues, Dylan O. Jones, Regent Lee, Ashok Handa, Keith Channon, Samya Obaȷi, Jorge Alvarez–Jarreta, Gerhard Kronke, Jochen Ackermann, P. Vince Jenkins, Peter W. Collins, Valerie B. O’Donnell
      Pages: 8038 - 8047
      Abstract: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an inflammatory vascular disease with high mortality and limited treatment options. How blood lipids regulate AAA development is unknown. Here lipidomics and genetic models demonstrate a central role for procoagulant enzymatically oxidized phospholipids (eoxPL) in regulating AAA. Specifically, through activating coagulation, eoxPL either promoted or...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1814409116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas phosphoribulokinase crystal structures
           complete the redox structural proteome of the Calvin-Benson cycle [Plant
    • Authors: Libero Gurrieri; Alessandra Del Giudice, Nicola Demitri, Giuseppe Falini, Nicolae Viorel Pavel, Mirko Zaffagnini, Maurizio Polentarutti, Pierre Crozet, Christophe H. Marchand, Julien Henri, Paolo Trost, Stephane D. Lemaire, Francesca Sparla, Simona Fermani
      Pages: 8048 - 8053
      Abstract: In land plants and algae, the Calvin–Benson (CB) cycle takes place in the chloroplast, a specialized organelle in which photosynthesis occurs. Thioredoxins (TRXs) are small ubiquitous proteins, known to harmonize the two stages of photosynthesis through a thiol-based mechanism. Among the 11 enzymes of the CB cycle, the TRX target...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1820639116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Structural analysis of Phytophthora suppressor of RNA silencing 2 (PSR2)
           reveals a conserved modular fold contributing to virulence [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Jinqiu He; Wenwu Ye, Du Seok Choi, Baixing Wu, Yi Zhai, Baodian Guo, Shuyi Duan, Yuanchao Wang, Jianhua Gan, Wenbo Ma, Jinbiao Ma
      Pages: 8054 - 8059
      Abstract: Phytophthora are eukaryotic pathogens that cause enormous losses in agriculture and forestry. Each Phytophthora species encodes hundreds of effector proteins that collectively have essential roles in manipulating host cellular processes and facilitating disease development. Here we report the crystal structure of the effector Phytophthora suppressor of RNA silencing 2 (PSR2)....
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1819481116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Histone 2B monoubiquitination complex integrates transcript elongation
           with RNA processing at circadian clock and flowering regulators [Plant
    • Authors: Magdalena Woloszynska; Sabine Le Gall, Pia Neyt, Tommaso M. Boccardi, Marion Grasser, Gernot Langst, Stiȷn Aesaert, Griet Coussens, Stiȷn Dhondt, Eveline Van De Sliȷke, Leonardo Bruno, Jorge Fung–Uceda, Paloma Mas, Marc Van Montagu, Dirk Inze, Kristiina Himanen, Geert De Jaeger, Klaus D. Grasser, Mieke Van Liȷsebettens
      Pages: 8060 - 8069
      Abstract: HISTONE MONOUBIQUITINATION1 (HUB1) and its paralog HUB2 act in a conserved heterotetrameric complex in the chromatin-mediated transcriptional modulation of developmental programs, such as flowering time, dormancy, and the circadian clock. The KHD1 and SPEN3 proteins were identified as interactors of the HUB1 and HUB2 proteins with in vitro RNA-binding activity....
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806541116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Chemical synthesis rewriting of a bacterial genome to achieve design
           flexibility and biological functionality [Systems Biology]
    • Authors: Jonathan E. Venetz; Luca Del Medico, Alexander Wolfle, Philipp Schachle, Yves Bucher, Donat Appert, Flavia Tschan, Carlos E. Flores–Tinoco, Marielle van Kooten, Rym Guennoun, Samuel Deutsch, Matthias Christen, Beat Christen
      Pages: 8070 - 8079
      Abstract: Understanding how to program biological functions into artificial DNA sequences remains a key challenge in synthetic genomics. Here, we report the chemical synthesis and testing of Caulobacter ethensis-2.0 (C. eth-2.0), a rewritten bacterial genome composed of the most fundamental functions of a bacterial cell. We rebuilt the essential genome of...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1818259116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Correction for Andexer et al., Biosynthesis of the immunosuppressants
           FK506, FK520, and rapamycin involves a previously undescribed family of
           enzymes acting on chorismate [Correction]
    • Pages: 8080 - 8080
      Abstract: BIOCHEMISTRY, CHEMISTRY Correction for “Biosynthesis of the immunosuppressants FK506, FK520, and rapamycin involves a previously undescribed family of enzymes acting on chorismate,” by Jennifer N. Andexer, Steven G. Kendrew, Mohammad Nur-e-Alam, Orestis Lazos, Teresa A. Foster, Anna-Sophie Zimmermann, Tony D. Warneck, Dipen Suthar, Nigel J. Coates, Frank E. Koehn, Jerauld...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904551116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Correction for Rodriguez-Iturbe et al., Tree clusters in savannas result
           from islands of soil moisture [Correction]
    • Pages: 8081 - 8081
      Abstract: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Correction for “Tree clusters in savannas result from islands of soil moisture,” by Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe, Zijuan Chen, Ann Carla Stave, and Simon Asher Levin, which was first published March 14, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1819389116 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 116:6679–6683). The authors note that the author name Ann Carla Stave...
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904999116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
  • Correction to Supporting Information for Thomson et al., Relational
           mobility predicts social behaviors in 39 countries and is tied to
           historical farming and threat [SI Correction]
    • Pages: 8082 - 8082
      Abstract: PSYCHOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES Correction to Supporting Information for “Relational mobility predicts social behaviors in 39 countries and is tied to historical farming and threat,” by Robert Thomson, Masaki Yuki, Thomas Talhelm, Joanna Schug, Mie Kito, Arin H. Ayanian, Julia C. Becker, Maja Becker, Chi-yue Chiu, Hoon-Seok Choi, Carolina M....
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T09:06:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904483116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 16 (2019)
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