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Journal Cover Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  [SJR: 6.883]   [H-I: 604]   [792 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
   Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • SUMOylation determines the voltage required to activate cardiac IKs
           channels [Physiology]
    • Authors: Dazhi Xiong; Tian Li, Hui Dai, Anthony F. Arena, Leigh D. Plant, Steve A. N. Goldstein
      Abstract: IKs channels open in response to depolarization of the membrane voltage during the cardiac action potential, passing potassium ions outward to repolarize ventricular myocytes and end each beat. Here, we show that the voltage required to activate IKs channels depends on their covalent modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins....
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706267114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • PIF3 is a negative regulator of the CBF pathway and freezing tolerance in
           Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Bochen Jiang; Yiting Shi, Xiaoyan Zhang, Xiaoyun Xin, Lijuan Qi, Hongwei Guo, Jigang Li, Shuhua Yang
      Abstract: Light and temperature are major environmental factors that coordinately control plant growth and survival. However, how plants integrate light and temperature signals to better adapt to environmental stresses is poorly understood. PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 3 (PIF3), a key transcription factor repressing photomorphogenesis, has been shown to play a pivotal role in...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706226114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Stem parasitic plant Cuscuta australis (dodder) transfers
           herbivory-induced signals among plants [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Christian Hettenhausen; Juan Li, Huifu Zhuang, Huanhuan Sun, Yuxing Xu, Jinfeng Qi, Jingxiong Zhang, Yunting Lei, Yan Qin, Guiling Sun, Lei Wang, Ian T. Baldwin, Jianqiang Wu
      Abstract: Cuscuta spp. (i.e., dodders) are stem parasites that naturally graft to their host plants to extract water and nutrients; multiple adjacent hosts are often parasitized by one or more Cuscuta plants simultaneously, forming connected plant clusters. Metabolites, proteins, and mRNAs are known to be transferred from hosts to Cuscuta, and...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704536114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • LEC1 sequentially regulates the transcription of genes involved in diverse
           developmental processes during seed development [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Julie M. Pelletier; Raymond W. Kwong, Soomin Park, Brandon H. Le, Russell Baden, Alexandro Cagliari, Meryl Hashimoto, Matthew D. Munoz, Robert L. Fischer, Robert B. Goldberg, John J. Harada
      Abstract: LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), an atypical subunit of the nuclear transcription factor Y (NF-Y) CCAAT-binding transcription factor, is a central regulator that controls many aspects of seed development including the maturation phase during which seeds accumulate storage macromolecules and embryos acquire the ability to withstand desiccation. To define the gene networks...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707957114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • The critical phase for visual control of human walking over complex
           terrain [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Jonathan Samir Matthis; Sean L. Barton, Brett R. Fajen
      Abstract: To walk efficiently over complex terrain, humans must use vision to tailor their gait to the upcoming ground surface without interfering with the exploitation of passive mechanical forces. We propose that walkers use visual information to initialize the mechanical state of the body before the beginning of each step so...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1611699114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Correction for Barry et al., Optical magnetic detection of single-neuron
           action potentials using quantum defects in diamond [Correction]
    • Abstract: NEUROSCIENCE, PHYSICS Correction for “Optical magnetic detection of single-neuron action potentials using quantum defects in diamond,” by John F. Barry, Matthew J. Turner, Jennifer M. Schloss, David R. Glenn, Yuyu Song, Mikhail D. Lukin, Hongkun Park, and Ronald L. Walsworth, which was first published November 22, 2016; 10.1073/pnas.1601513113 (Proc Natl...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712523114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Correction for Wu et al., Fibroblast growth factor signaling instructs
           ensheathing glia wrapping of Drosophila olfactory glomeruli [Correction]
    • Abstract: NEUROSCIENCE Correction for “Fibroblast growth factor signaling instructs ensheathing glia wrapping of Drosophila olfactory glomeruli,” by Bing Wu, Jiefu Li, Ya-Hui Chou, David Luginbuhl, and Liqun Luo, which was first published July 3, 2017; 10.1073/pnas.1706533114 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114:7505–7512). The authors note that an additional affiliation should be...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712520114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Correction for Breuer et al., System-wide organization of actin
           cytoskeleton determines organelle transport in hypocotyl plant cells
    • Abstract: SYSTEMS BIOLOGY, BIOPHYSICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY Correction for “System-wide organization of actin cytoskeleton determines organelle transport in hypocotyl plant cells,” by David Breuer, Jacqueline Nowak, Alexander Ivakov, Marc Somssich, Staffan Persson, and Zoran Nikoloski, which was first published June 27, 2017; 10.1073/pnas.1706711114 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114:E5741–E5749). The authors...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712371114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Helix instability and self-pairing prevent unnatural base pairs from
           expanding the genetic alphabet [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Thomas P. Hettinger
      Abstract: Several papers have described the use of hydrophobic unnatural base pairs (UBPs) to study mechanisms of DNA replication and transcription (1–7). In PNAS, the study by Zhang et al. (8) claims that UBPs can form stable complementary structures in the absence of hydrogen bonds between base pairs, and that UBPs...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703423114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Reply to Hettinger: Hydrophobic unnatural base pairs and the expansion of
           the genetic alphabet [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Aaron W. Feldman; Michael P. Ledbetter, Yorke Zhang, Floyd E. Romesberg
      Abstract: We have recently reported the successful creation of a semisynthetic organism that has an expanded genetic alphabet by virtue of the retention on a plasmid of either the dNaM-d5SICS or dNaM-dTPT3 unnatural base pair (UBP), the latter of which can be retained at natural-like levels with the use of a...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708259114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Solution structure of the TLR adaptor MAL/TIRAP reveals an intact BB loop
           and supports MAL Cys91 glutathionylation for signaling [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Mark M. Hughes; Peter Lavrencic, Rebecca C. Coll, Thomas Ve, Dylan G. Ryan, Niamh C. Williams, Deepthi Menon, Ashley Mansell, Philip G. Board, Mehdi Mobli, Bostȷan Kobe, Luke A. J. O’Neill
      Abstract: MyD88 adaptor-like (MAL) is a critical protein in innate immunity, involved in signaling by several Toll-like receptors (TLRs), key pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Crystal structures of MAL revealed a nontypical Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-domain fold stabilized by two disulfide bridges. We therefore undertook a structural and functional analysis of the role...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701868114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Lipophilic siRNA targets albumin in situ and promotes bioavailability,
           tumor penetration, and carrier-free gene silencing [Engineering]
    • Authors: Samantha M. Sarett; Thomas A. Werfel, Linus Lee, Meredith A. Jackson, Kameron V. Kilchrist, Dana Brantley-Sieders, Craig L. Duvall
      Abstract: Clinical translation of therapies based on small interfering RNA (siRNA) is hampered by siRNA's comprehensively poor pharmacokinetic properties, which necessitate molecule modifications and complex delivery strategies. We sought an alternative approach to commonly used nanoparticle carriers by leveraging the long-lived endogenous serum protein albumin as an siRNA carrier. We synthesized...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621240114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Genomic landscape of human diversity across Madagascar [Anthropology]
    • Authors: Denis Pierron; Margit Heiske, Harilanto Razafindrazaka, Ignace Rakoto, Nelly Rabetokotany, Bodo Ravololomanga, Lucien M.–A. Rakotozafy, Mireille Mialy Rakotomalala, Michel Razafiarivony, Bako Rasoarifetra, Miakabola Andriamampianina Rahariȷesy, Lolona Razafindralambo, Ramilisonina, Fulgence Fanony, Sendra Leȷamble, Olivier Thomas, Ahmed Mohamed Abdallah, Christophe Rocher, Amal Arachiche, Laure Tonaso, Veronica Pereda–loth, Stephanie Schiavinato, Nicolas Brucato, Francois–Xavier Ricaut, Pradiptaȷati Kusuma, Herawati Sudoyo, Shengyu Ni, Anne Boland, Jean–Francois Deleuze, Philippe Beauȷard, Philippe Grange, Sander Adelaar, Mark Stoneking, Jean–Aime Rakotoarisoa, Chantal Radimilahy, Thierry Letellier
      Abstract: Although situated ∼400 km from the east coast of Africa, Madagascar exhibits cultural, linguistic, and genetic traits from both Southeast Asia and Eastern Africa. The settlement history remains contentious; we therefore used a grid-based approach to sample at high resolution the genomic diversity (including maternal lineages, paternal lineages, and genome-wide...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704906114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Serum amyloid A forms stable oligomers that disrupt vesicles at lysosomal
           pH and contribute to the pathogenesis of reactive amyloidosis
    • Authors: Shobini Jayaraman; Donald L. Gantz, Christian Haupt, Olga Gursky
      Abstract: Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute-phase plasma protein that functions in innate immunity and lipid homeostasis. SAA is a protein precursor of reactive AA amyloidosis, the major complication of chronic inflammation and one of the most common human systemic amyloid diseases worldwide. Most circulating SAA is protected from proteolysis...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707120114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Effect of ATP and regulatory light-chain phosphorylation on the
           polymerization of mammalian nonmuscle myosin II [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Xiong Liu; Neil Billington, Shi Shu, Shu-Hua Yu, Grzegorz Piszczek, James R. Sellers, Edward D. Korn
      Abstract: Addition of 1 mM ATP substantially reduces the light scattering of solutions of polymerized unphosphorylated nonmuscle myosin IIs (NM2s), and this is reversed by phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC). It has been proposed that these changes result from substantial depolymerization of unphosphorylated NM2 filaments to monomers upon addition...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702375114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Structural basis of a histidine-DNA nicking/joining mechanism for gene
           transfer and promiscuous spread of antibiotic resistance [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Radoslaw Pluta; D. Roeland Boer, Fabian Lorenzo–Diaz, Silvia Russi, Hansel Gomez, Cris Fernandez–Lopez, Rosa Perez–Luque, Modesto Orozco, Manuel Espinosa, Miquel Coll
      Abstract: Relaxases are metal-dependent nucleases that break and join DNA for the initiation and completion of conjugative bacterial gene transfer. Conjugation is the main process through which antibiotic resistance spreads among bacteria, with multidrug-resistant staphylococci and streptococci infections posing major threats to human health. The MOBV family of relaxases accounts for...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702971114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Unique structural features of the AIPL1-FKBP domain that support prenyl
           lipid binding and underlie protein malfunction in blindness [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Ravi P. Yadav; Lokesh Gakhar, Liping Yu, Nikolai O. Artemyev
      Abstract: FKBP-domain proteins (FKBPs) are pivotal modulators of cellular signaling, protein folding, and gene transcription. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein-like 1 (AIPL1) is a distinctive member of the FKBP superfamily in terms of its biochemical properties, and it plays an important biological role as a chaperone of phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6), an effector...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704782114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Protein diversity in discrete structures at the distal tip of the
           trypanosome flagellum [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Vladimir Varga; Flavia Moreira-Leite, Neil Portman, Keith Gull
      Abstract: The distal end of the eukaryotic flagellum/cilium is important for axonemal growth and signaling and has distinct biomechanical properties. Specific flagellum tip structures exist, yet their composition, dynamics, and functions are largely unknown. We used biochemical approaches to identify seven constituents of the flagella connector at the tip of an...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703553114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • CDCP1 drives triple-negative breast cancer metastasis through reduction of
           lipid-droplet abundance and stimulation of fatty acid oxidation [Cell
    • Authors: Heather J. Wright; Jue Hou, Binzhi Xu, Marvin Cortez, Eric O. Potma, Bruce J. Tromberg, Olga V. Razorenova
      Abstract: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is notoriously aggressive with high metastatic potential, which has recently been linked to high rates of fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Here we report the mechanism of lipid metabolism dysregulation in TNBC through the prometastatic protein, CUB-domain containing protein 1 (CDCP1). We show that a “low-lipid” phenotype...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703791114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Embryo implantation evolved from an ancestral inflammatory attachment
           reaction [Evolution]
    • Authors: Oliver W. Griffith; Arun R. Chavan, Stella Protopapas, Jamie Maziarz, Roberto Romero, Gunter P. Wagner
      Abstract: The molecular changes that support implantation in eutherian mammals are necessary to establish pregnancy. In marsupials, pregnancy is relatively short, and although a placenta does form, it is present for only a few days before parturition. However, morphological changes in the uterus of marsupials at term mimic those that occur...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701129114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Two functionally distinct E2/E3 pairs coordinate sequential ubiquitination
           of a common substrate in Caenorhabditis elegans development [Genetics]
    • Authors: Katja K. Dove; Hilary A. Kemp, Kristin R. Di Bona, Katherine H. Reiter, Luke J. Milburn, David Camacho, David S. Fay, Dana L. Miller, Rachel E. Klevit
      Abstract: Ubiquitination, the crucial posttranslational modification that regulates the eukaryotic proteome, is carried out by a trio of enzymes, known as E1 [ubiquitin (Ub)-activating enzyme], E2 (Ub-conjugating enzyme), and E3 (Ub ligase). Although most E2s can work with any of the three mechanistically distinct classes of E3s, the E2 UBCH7 is...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705060114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Cortical actin recovery at the immunological synapse leads to termination
           of lytic granule secretion in cytotoxic T lymphocytes [Immunology and
    • Authors: Alex T. Ritter; Senta M. Kapnick, Sricharan Murugesan, Pamela L. Schwartzberg, Gillian M. Griffiths, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz
      Abstract: CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) eliminate virally infected cells through directed secretion of specialized lytic granules. Because a single CTL can kill multiple targets, degranulation must be tightly regulated. However, how CTLs regulate the termination of granule secretion remains unclear. Previous work demonstrated that centralized actin reduction at the immune...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710751114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Protein nanocages that penetrate airway mucus and tumor tissue [Medical
    • Authors: Xinglu Huang; Jane Chisholm, Jie Zhuang, Yanyu Xiao, Gregg Duncan, Xiaoyuan Chen, Jung Soo Suk, Justin Hanes
      Abstract: Reports on drug delivery systems capable of overcoming multiple biological barriers are rare. We introduce a nanoparticle-based drug delivery technology capable of rapidly penetrating both lung tumor tissue and the mucus layer that protects airway tissues from nanoscale objects. Specifically, human ferritin heavy-chain nanocages (FTn) were functionalized with polyethylene glycol...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705407114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Rho-associated kinase is a therapeutic target in neuroblastoma [Medical
    • Authors: Cecilia Dyberg; Susanne Fransson, Teodora Andonova, Baldur Sveinbȷornsson, Jessika Lannerholm–Palm, Thale K. Olsen, David Forsberg, Eric Herlenius, Tommy Martinsson, Bertha Brodin, Per Kogner, John Inge Johnsen, Malin Wickstrom
      Abstract: Neuroblastoma is a peripheral neural system tumor that originates from the neural crest and is the most common and deadly tumor of infancy. Here we show that neuroblastoma harbors frequent mutations of genes controlling the Rac/Rho signaling cascade important for proper migration and differentiation of neural crest cells during neuritogenesis....
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706011114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Mitogenic stimulation accelerates influenza-induced mortality by
           increasing susceptibility of alveolar type II cells to infection [Medical
    • Authors: Nikolaos M. Nikolaidis; John G. Noel, Lori B. Pitstick, Jason C. Gardner, Yasuaki Uehara, Huixing Wu, Atsushi Saito, Kara E. Lewnard, Huan Liu, Mitchell R. White, Kevan L. Hartshorn, Francis X. McCormack
      Abstract: Development of pneumonia is the most lethal consequence of influenza, increasing mortality more than 50-fold compared with uncomplicated infection. The spread of viral infection from conducting airways to the alveolar epithelium is therefore a pivotal event in influenza pathogenesis. We found that mitogenic stimulation with keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) markedly...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621172114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Therapeutically targeting glypican-2 via single-domain antibody-based
           chimeric antigen receptors and immunotoxins in neuroblastoma [Medical
    • Authors: Nan Li; Haiying Fu, Stephen M. Hewitt, Dimiter S. Dimitrov, Mitchell Ho
      Abstract: Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer that is fatal in almost half of patients despite intense multimodality treatment. This cancer is derived from neuroendocrine tissue located in the sympathetic nervous system. Glypican-2 (GPC2) is a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is important for neuronal cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth. In...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706055114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae releases DNA and DNABII proteins via a
           T4SS-like complex and ComE of the type IV pilus machinery [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Joseph A. Jurcisek; Kenneth L. Brockman, Laura A. Novotny, Steven D. Goodman, Lauren O. Bakaletz
      Abstract: Biofilms formed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) are central to the chronicity, recurrence, and resistance to treatment of multiple human respiratory tract diseases including otitis media, chronic rhinosinusitis, and exacerbations of both cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) and associated DNABII proteins are essential to the...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705508114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • HEMO, an ancestral endogenous retroviral envelope protein shed in the
           blood of pregnant women and expressed in pluripotent stem cells and tumors
    • Authors: Odile Heidmann; Anthony Beguin, Janio Paternina, Raphael Berthier, Marc Deloger, Olivia Bawa, Thierry Heidmann
      Abstract: Capture of retroviral envelope genes is likely to have played a role in the emergence of placental mammals, with evidence for multiple, reiterated, and independent capture events occurring in mammals, and be responsible for the diversity of present day placental structures. Here, we uncover a full-length endogenous retrovirus envelope protein,...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702204114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Antibacterial photosensitization through activation of coproporphyrinogen
           oxidase [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Matthew C. Surdel, Dennis J. Horvath Jr; Lisa J. Lojek, Audra R. Fullen, Jocelyn Simpson, Brendan F. Dutter, Kenneth J. Salleng, Jeremy B. Ford, J. Logan Jenkins, Raju Nagarajan, Pedro L. Teixeira, Matthew Albertolle, Ivelin S. Georgiev, E. Duco Jansen, Gary A. Sulikowski, D. Borden Lacy, Harry A. Dailey, Eric P. Skaar
      Abstract: Gram-positive bacteria cause the majority of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), resulting in the most common reason for clinic visits in the United States. Recently, it was discovered that Gram-positive pathogens use a unique heme biosynthesis pathway, which implicates this pathway as a target for development of antibacterial therapies....
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700469114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Thalamocortical synchronization during induction and emergence from
           propofol-induced unconsciousness [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Francisco J. Flores; Katharine E. Hartnack, Amanda B. Fath, Seong-Eun Kim, Matthew A. Wilson, Emery N. Brown, Patrick L. Purdon
      Abstract: General anesthesia (GA) is a reversible drug-induced state of altered arousal required for more than 60,000 surgical procedures each day in the United States alone. Sedation and unconsciousness under GA are associated with stereotyped electrophysiological oscillations that are thought to reflect profound disruptions of activity in neuronal circuits that mediate...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700148114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • SIK3-HDAC4 signaling regulates Drosophila circadian male sex drive rhythm
           via modulating the DN1 clock neurons [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Shinsuke Fujii; Patrick Emery, Hubert Amrein
      Abstract: The physiology and behavior of many organisms are subject to daily cycles. In Drosophila melanogaster the daily locomotion patterns of single flies are characterized by bursts of activity at dawn and dusk. Two distinct clusters of clock neurons—morning oscillators (M cells) and evening oscillators (E cells)—are largely responsible for these...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620483114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Structural organization of the actin-spectrin-based membrane skeleton in
           dendrites and soma of neurons [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Boran Han; Ruobo Zhou, Chenglong Xia, Xiaowei Zhuang
      Abstract: Actin, spectrin, and associated molecules form a membrane-associated periodic skeleton (MPS) in neurons. In the MPS, short actin filaments, capped by actin-capping proteins, form ring-like structures that wrap around the circumference of neurites, and these rings are periodically spaced along the neurite by spectrin tetramers, forming a quasi-1D lattice structure....
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705043114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 8433 - 8434
      Abstract: Parasitic plant acts as plant signaling network Rootless and leafless Cuscuta australis parasitizing a wild tomato plant. Dodders, which are parasitic plants of the genus Cuscuta, form tendrils that coil around and penetrate host plant stems to obtain nutrients and water. The tendrils branch into vines that often bridge gaps...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti3217114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Inner Workings: Climate change complicates fisheries modeling and
           management [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Gayathri Vaidyanathan
      Pages: 8435 - 8437
      Abstract: Denmark, Ireland, Norway, and multiple other nations didn’t see the fish war coming. In 2011, in the waters and fjords of east Greenland, fishermen began spotting a blue-green iridescent fish. It was mackerel, a species that had never before been caught so far north. By 2014, the fish was one...
      Keywords: Inner Workings, Front Matter, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710696114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • QnAs with Joe Lutkenhaus [QnAs]
    • Authors: Sandeep Ravindran
      Pages: 8438 - 8439
      Abstract: Bacterial cell division is an intricate process involving the highly coordinated interplay of many different proteins. Joe Lutkenhaus, a microbiology professor at Kansas University Medical Center, was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2014 for his key contributions to unraveling the complexities of this process. Among other findings,...
      Keywords: QnAs
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711478114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Extinction tsunami can be avoided [Ecology]
    • Authors: Thomas E. Lovejoy
      Pages: 8440 - 8441
      Abstract: In many senses, the recent publication in PNAS by Ceballos et al. (1) on population losses and declines in vertebrates can be traced back to efforts early in the 20th century led by the American Committee for International Wildlife Protection to document the extinction phenomenon (2–4). The focus at the...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711074114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Clash between energy landscape theory and foldon-dependent protein folding
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Robert L. Baldwin
      Pages: 8442 - 8443
      Abstract: In PNAS, Englander and Mayne (1) review their earlier published evidence that proteins fold and unfold by foldons. The foldon evidence indicates that protein folding follows single folding pathways because the pathways are foldon-directed. The authors point out an important clash between foldon-dependent folding and using energy landscape theory (ELT)...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1709133114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Haemophilus spills its guts to make a biofilm [Microbiology]
    • Authors: H Steven Seifert
      Pages: 8444 - 8446
      Abstract: Most bacteria do not live as single cells but form communities on surfaces called biofilms (1). Similar to human communities, some are fairly homogeneous, whereas others contain a diversity of microbes. Biofilms are important for the growth and survival of all sorts of bacteria: bacteria that live in water or...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711077114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Spatial gene drives and pushed genetic waves [Biophysics and Computational
    • Authors: Hidenori Tanaka; Howard A. Stone, David R. Nelson
      Pages: 8452 - 8457
      Abstract: Gene drives have the potential to rapidly replace a harmful wild-type allele with a gene drive allele engineered to have desired functionalities. However, an accidental or premature release of a gene drive construct to the natural environment could damage an ecosystem irreversibly. Thus, it is important to understand the spatiotemporal...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705868114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • On the question of fractal packing structure in metallic glasses [Applied
           Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Jun Ding; Mark Asta, Robert O. Ritchie
      Pages: 8458 - 8463
      Abstract: This work addresses the long-standing debate over fractal models of packing structure in metallic glasses (MGs). Through detailed fractal and percolation analyses of MG structures, derived from simulations spanning a range of compositions and quenching rates, we conclude that there is no fractal atomic-level structure associated with the packing of...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705723114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Design and synthesis of theranostic antibiotic nanodrugs that display
           enhanced antibacterial activity and luminescence [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Sheng Xie; Sesha Manuguri, Giampiero Proietti, Joakim Romson, Ying Fu, A. Ken Inge, Bin Wu, Yang Zhang, Daniel Hall, Olof Ramstrom, Mingdi Yan
      Pages: 8464 - 8469
      Abstract: We report the modular formulation of ciprofloxacin-based pure theranostic nanodrugs that display enhanced antibacterial activities, as well as aggregation-induced emission (AIE) enhancement that was successfully used to image bacteria. The drug derivatives, consisting of ciprofloxacin, a perfluoroaryl ring, and a phenyl ring linked by an amidine bond, were efficiently synthesized...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708556114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Cavitation onset caused by acceleration [Engineering]
    • Authors: Zhao Pan; Akihito Kiyama, Yoshiyuki Tagawa, David J. Daily, Scott L. Thomson, Randy Hurd, Tadd T. Truscott
      Pages: 8470 - 8474
      Abstract: Striking the top of a liquid-filled bottle can shatter the bottom. An intuitive interpretation of this event might label an impulsive force as the culprit in this fracturing phenomenon. However, high-speed photography reveals the formation and collapse of tiny bubbles near the bottom before fracture. This observation indicates that the...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702502114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Synthetic quorum sensing in model microcapsule colonies [Engineering]
    • Authors: Henry Shum; Anna C. Balazs
      Pages: 8475 - 8480
      Abstract: Biological quorum sensing refers to the ability of cells to gauge their population density and collectively initiate a new behavior once a critical density is reached. Designing synthetic materials systems that exhibit quorum sensing-like behavior could enable the fabrication of devices with both self-recognition and self-regulating functionality. Herein, we develop...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702288114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Rainforest-initiated wet season onset over the southern Amazon
           [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Jonathon S. Wright; Rong Fu, John R. Worden, Sudip Chakraborty, Nicholas E. Clinton, Camille Risi, Ying Sun, Lei Yin
      Pages: 8481 - 8486
      Abstract: Although it is well established that transpiration contributes much of the water for rainfall over Amazonia, it remains unclear whether transpiration helps to drive or merely responds to the seasonal cycle of rainfall. Here, we use multiple independent satellite datasets to show that rainforest transpiration enables an increase of shallow...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621516114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Revised M06-L functional for improved accuracy on chemical reaction
           barrier heights, noncovalent interactions, and solid-state physics
    • Authors: Ying Wang; Xinsheng Jin, Haoyu S. Yu, Donald G. Truhlar, Xiao He
      Pages: 8487 - 8492
      Abstract: We present the revM06-L functional, which we designed by optimizing against a larger database than had been used for Minnesota 2006 local functional (M06-L) and by using smoothness restraints. The optimization strategy reduced the number of parameters from 34 to 31 because we removed some large terms that increased the...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705670114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Nature does not rely on long-lived electronic quantum coherence for
           photosynthetic energy transfer [Physics]
    • Authors: Hong-Guang Duan; Valentyn I. Prokhorenko, Richard J. Cogdell, Khuram Ashraf, Amy L. Stevens, Michael Thorwart, R. J. Dwayne Miller
      Pages: 8493 - 8498
      Abstract: During the first steps of photosynthesis, the energy of impinging solar photons is transformed into electronic excitation energy of the light-harvesting biomolecular complexes. The subsequent energy transfer to the reaction center is commonly rationalized in terms of excitons moving on a grid of biomolecular chromophores on typical timescales
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702261114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Optimal decision making and matching are tied through diminishing returns
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Jan Kubanek
      Pages: 8499 - 8504
      Abstract: How individuals make decisions has been a matter of long-standing debate among economists and researchers in the life sciences. In economics, subjects are viewed as optimal decision makers who maximize their overall reward income. This framework has been widely influential, but requires a complete knowledge of the reward contingencies associated...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703440114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Exposure to and recall of violence reduce short-term memory and cognitive
           control [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Francesco Bogliacino; Gianluca Grimalda, Pietro Ortoleva, Patrick Ring
      Pages: 8505 - 8510
      Abstract: Previous research has investigated the effects of violence and warfare on individuals' well-being, mental health, and individual prosociality and risk aversion. This study establishes the short- and long-term effects of exposure to violence on short-term memory and aspects of cognitive control. Short-term memory is the ability to store information. Cognitive...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704651114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Dehumanization increases instrumental violence, but not moral violence
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Tage S. Rai; Piercarlo Valdesolo, Jesse Graham
      Pages: 8511 - 8516
      Abstract: Across five experiments, we show that dehumanization—the act of perceiving victims as not completely human—increases instrumental, but not moral, violence. In attitude surveys, ascribing reduced capacities for cognitive, experiential, and emotional states to victims predicted support for practices where victims are harmed to achieve instrumental goals, including sweatshop labor, animal...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705238114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Implications of life-history strategies for obesity [Psychological and
           Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Jon K. Maner; Andrea Dittmann, Andrea L. Meltzer, James K. McNulty
      Pages: 8517 - 8522
      Abstract: The association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity is well documented. In the current research, a life history theory (LHT) framework provided an explanation for this association. Derived from evolutionary behavioral science, LHT emphasizes how variability in exposure to unpredictability during childhood gives rise to individual differences in a...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620482114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Buying time promotes happiness [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Ashley V. Whillans; Elizabeth W. Dunn, Paul Smeets, Rene Bekkers, Michael I. Norton
      Pages: 8523 - 8527
      Abstract: Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada, Denmark, and The Netherlands...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706541114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Salate derivatives found in sunscreens block experimental autoimmune
           encephalomyelitis in mice [Applied Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Yanping Wang; Steven J. Marling, Lori A. Plum, Hector F. DeLuca
      Pages: 8528 - 8531
      Abstract: UV light suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely used animal model of MS, in mice and may be responsible for the decreased incidence of MS in equatorial regions. To test this concept further, we applied commercially available sunblock preparations to mice before exposing them to UV radiation. Surprisingly, some...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703995114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Conceptual framework of the eco-physiological phases of insect diapause
           development justified by transcriptomic profiling [Applied Biological
    • Authors: Vladimir Koštal; Tomaš Štětina, Rodolphe Poupardin, Jaroslava Korbelova, Alexander William Bruce
      Pages: 8532 - 8537
      Abstract: Insects often overcome unfavorable seasons in a hormonally regulated state of diapause during which their activity ceases, development is arrested, metabolic rate is suppressed, and tolerance of environmental stress is bolstered. Diapausing insects pass through a stereotypic succession of eco-physiological phases termed “diapause development.” The phasing is varied in the...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707281114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • A promiscuous split intein with expanded protein engineering applications
    • Authors: Adam J. Stevens; Giridhar Sekar, Neel H. Shah, Anahita Z. Mostafavi, David Cowburn, Tom W. Muir
      Pages: 8538 - 8543
      Abstract: The protein trans-splicing (PTS) activity of naturally split inteins has found widespread use in chemical biology and biotechnology. However, currently used naturally split inteins suffer from an “extein dependence,” whereby residues surrounding the splice junction strongly affect splicing efficiency, limiting the general applicability of many PTS-based methods. To address this,...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701083114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Interdomain conformational flexibility underpins the activity of UGGT, the
           eukaryotic glycoprotein secretion checkpoint [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Pietro Roversi; Lucia Marti, Alessandro T. Caputo, Dominic S. Alonzi, Johan C. Hill, Kyle C. Dent, Abhinav Kumar, Mikail D. Levasseur, Andrea Lia, Thomas Waksman, Souradeep Basu, Yentli Soto Albrecht, Kristin Qian, James Patrick McIvor, Colette B. Lipp, Dritan Siliqi, Snežana Vasilȷević, Shabaz Mohammed, Petra Lukacik, Martin A. Walsh, Angelo Santino, Nicole Zitzmann
      Pages: 8544 - 8549
      Abstract: Glycoproteins traversing the eukaryotic secretory pathway begin life in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where their folding is surveyed by the 170-kDa UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGGT). The enzyme acts as the single glycoprotein folding quality control checkpoint: it selectively reglucosylates misfolded glycoproteins, promotes their association with ER lectins and associated chaperones, and...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703682114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Crystal structure of an orthomyxovirus matrix protein reveals mechanisms
           for self-polymerization and membrane association [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Wenting Zhang; Wenjie Zheng, Yukimatsu Toh, Miguel A. Betancourt-Solis, Jiagang Tu, Yanlin Fan, Vikram N. Vakharia, Jun Liu, James A. McNew, Meilin Jin, Yizhi J. Tao
      Pages: 8550 - 8555
      Abstract: Many enveloped viruses encode a matrix protein. In the influenza A virus, the matrix protein M1 polymerizes into a rigid protein layer underneath the viral envelope to help enforce the shape and structural integrity of intact viruses. The influenza virus M1 is also known to mediate virus budding as well...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701747114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Effective intermediate-spin iron in O2-transporting heme proteins
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Nils Schuth; Stefan Mebs, Dennis Huwald, Pierre Wrzolek, Matthias Schwalbe, Anja Hemschemeier, Michael Haumann
      Pages: 8556 - 8561
      Abstract: Proteins carrying an iron-porphyrin (heme) cofactor are essential for biological O2 management. The nature of Fe-O2 bonding in hemoproteins is debated for decades. We used energy-sampling and rapid-scan X-ray Kβ emission and K-edge absorption spectroscopy as well as quantum chemistry to determine molecular and electronic structures of unligated (deoxy), CO-inhibited...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706527114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Molecular mechanism of photoactivation of a light-regulated adenylate
           cyclase [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Mio Ohki; Ayana Sato-Tomita, Shigeru Matsunaga, Mineo Iseki, Jeremy R. H. Tame, Naoya Shibayama, Sam-Yong Park
      Pages: 8562 - 8567
      Abstract: The photoactivated adenylate cyclase (PAC) from the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Oscillatoria acuminata (OaPAC) detects light through a flavin chromophore within the N-terminal BLUF domain. BLUF domains have been found in a number of different light-activated proteins, but with different relative orientations. The two BLUF domains of OaPAC are found in close...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704391114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Lipid rafts sense and direct electric field-induced migration [Cell
    • Authors: Bo-jian Lin; Shun-hao Tsao, Alex Chen, Shu-Kai Hu, Ling Chao, Pen-hsiu Grace Chao
      Pages: 8568 - 8573
      Abstract: Endogenous electric fields (EFs) are involved in developmental regulation and wound healing. Although the phenomenon is known for more than a century, it is not clear how cells perceive the external EF. Membrane proteins, responding to electrophoretic and electroosmotic forces, have long been proposed as the sensing molecules. However, specific...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702526114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Ubiquitination of exposed glycoproteins by SCFFBXO27 directs damaged
           lysosomes for autophagy [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Yukiko Yoshida; Sayaka Yasuda, Toshiharu Fujita, Maho Hamasaki, Arisa Murakami, Junko Kawawaki, Kazuhiro Iwai, Yasushi Saeki, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Noriyuki Matsuda, Keiji Tanaka
      Pages: 8574 - 8579
      Abstract: Ubiquitination functions as a signal to recruit autophagic machinery to damaged organelles and induce their clearance. Here, we report the characterization of FBXO27, a glycoprotein-specific F-box protein that is part of the SCF (SKP1/CUL1/F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complex, and demonstrate that SCFFBXO27 ubiquitinates glycoproteins in damaged lysosomes to regulate autophagic...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702615114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • An invasive foundation species enhances multifunctionality in a coastal
           ecosystem [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Aaron P. Ramus; Brian R. Silliman, Mads S. Thomsen, Zachary T. Long
      Pages: 8580 - 8585
      Abstract: While invasive species often threaten biodiversity and human well-being, their potential to enhance functioning by offsetting the loss of native habitat has rarely been considered. We manipulated the abundance of the nonnative, habitat-forming seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla in large plots (25 m2) on southeastern US intertidal landscapes to assess impacts on...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700353114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Functional characterization of odorant receptors in the ponerine ant,
           Harpegnathos saltator [Evolution]
    • Authors: Jesse D. Slone; Gregory M. Pask, Stephen T. Ferguson, Jocelyn G. Millar, Shelley L. Berger, Danny Reinberg, Jurgen Liebig, Anandasankar Ray, Laurence J. Zwiebel
      Pages: 8586 - 8591
      Abstract: Animals use a variety of sensory modalities—including visual, acoustic, and chemical—to sense their environment and interact with both conspecifics and other species. Such communication is especially critical in eusocial insects such as honey bees and ants, where cooperation is critical for survival and reproductive success. Various classes of chemoreceptors have...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704647114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Large numbers of explanatory variables, a semi-descriptive analysis
    • Authors: D. R. Cox; H. S. Battey
      Pages: 8592 - 8595
      Abstract: Data with a relatively small number of study individuals and a very large number of potential explanatory features arise particularly, but by no means only, in genomics. A powerful method of analysis, the lasso [Tibshirani R (1996) J Roy Stat Soc B 58:267–288], takes account of an assumed sparsity of...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703764114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Activin signaling mediates muscle-to-adipose communication in a
           mitochondria dysfunction-associated obesity model [Genetics]
    • Authors: Wei Song; Edward Owusu-Ansah, Yanhui Hu, Daojun Cheng, Xiaochun Ni, Jonathan Zirin, Norbert Perrimon
      Pages: 8596 - 8601
      Abstract: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with obesity and metabolic disorders. However, whether mitochondrial perturbation in a single tissue influences mitochondrial function and metabolic status of another distal tissue remains largely unknown. We analyzed the nonautonomous role of muscular mitochondrial dysfunction in Drosophila. Surprisingly, impaired muscle mitochondrial function via complex I...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708037114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Detection and quantification of inbreeding depression for complex traits
           from SNP data [Genetics]
    • Authors: Loic Yengo; Zhihong Zhu, Naomi R. Wray, Bruce S. Weir, Jian Yang, Matthew R. Robinson, Peter M. Visscher
      Pages: 8602 - 8607
      Abstract: Quantifying the effects of inbreeding is critical to characterizing the genetic architecture of complex traits. This study highlights through theory and simulations the strengths and shortcomings of three SNP-based inbreeding measures commonly used to estimate inbreeding depression (ID). We demonstrate that heterogeneity in linkage disequilibrium (LD) between causal variants and...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621096114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Deacetylase activity of histone deacetylase 3 is required for productive
           VDJ recombination and B-cell development [Genetics]
    • Authors: Kristy R. Stengel; Kelly R. Barnett, Jing Wang, Qi Liu, Emily Hodges, Scott W. Hiebert, Srividya Bhaskara
      Pages: 8608 - 8613
      Abstract: Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is the catalytic component of NCoR/SMRT corepressor complexes that mediate the actions of transcription factors implicated in the regulation of B-cell development and function. We crossed Hdac3 conditional knockout mice with Mb1-Cre knockin animals to delete Hdac3 in early progenitor B cells. The spleens of Hdac3F/−Mb1-Cre+/−...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701610114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Sequence intrinsic somatic mutation mechanisms contribute to affinity
           maturation of VRC01-class HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies
           [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Joyce K. Hwang; Chong Wang, Zhou Du, Robin M. Meyers, Thomas B. Kepler, Donna Neuberg, Peter D. Kwong, John R. Mascola, M. Gordon Joyce, Mattia Bonsignori, Barton F. Haynes, Leng-Siew Yeap, Frederick W. Alt
      Pages: 8614 - 8619
      Abstract: Variable regions of Ig chains provide the antigen recognition portion of B-cell receptors and derivative antibodies. Ig heavy-chain variable region exons are assembled developmentally from V, D, J gene segments. Each variable region contains three antigen-contacting complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), with CDR1 and CDR2 encoded by the V segment and CDR3...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1709203114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Nuclear carbonic anhydrase 6B associates with PRMT5 to epigenetically
    • Authors: Jia Xu; Xiaoqing Xu, Bingjing Wang, Yuanwu Ma, Lianfeng Zhang, Henan Xu, Ye Hu, Jiacheng Wu, Xuetao Cao
      Pages: 8620 - 8625
      Abstract: Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is critical for induction of protective immunity against intracellular bacterial infection. However, the mechanisms for efficient induction of IL-12 in innate response remain poorly understood. Here we report that the B type of carbonic anhydrase 6 (Car6-b, which encoded CA-VI B) is essential for host defense against Listeria...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700917114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Medial temporal lobe and topographical memory [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Zhisen J. Urgolites; Ramona O. Hopkins, Larry R. Squire
      Pages: 8626 - 8630
      Abstract: There has been interest in the idea that medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures might be especially important for spatial processing and spatial memory. We tested the proposal that the MTL has a specific role in topographical memory as assessed in tasks of scene memory where the viewpoint shifts from study...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708963114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • BACE inhibition-dependent repair of Alzheimer’s pathophysiology
    • Authors: Aylin D. Keskin; Maȷa Kekuš, Helmuth Adelsberger, Ulf Neumann, Derya R. Shimshek, Beomȷong Song, Benedikt Zott, Tingying Peng, Hans Forstl, Matthias Staufenbiel, Israel Nelken, Bert Sakmann, Arthur Konnerth, Marc Aurel Busche
      Pages: 8631 - 8636
      Abstract: Amyloid-β (Aβ) is thought to play an essential pathogenic role in Alzheimer´s disease (AD). A key enzyme involved in the generation of Aβ is the β-secretase BACE, for which powerful inhibitors have been developed and are currently in use in human clinical trials. However, although BACE inhibition can reduce cerebral...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708106114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Interactions between feedback and lateral connections in the primary
           visual cortex [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Hualou Liang; Xiajing Gong, Minggui Chen, Yin Yan, Wu Li, Charles D. Gilbert
      Pages: 8637 - 8642
      Abstract: Perceptual grouping of line segments into object contours has been thought to be mediated, in part, by long-range horizontal connectivity intrinsic to the primary visual cortex (V1), with a contribution by top-down feedback projections. To dissect the contributions of intraareal and interareal connections during contour integration, we applied conditional Granger...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706183114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Neural basis for hand muscle synergies in the primate spinal cord
    • Authors: Tomohiko Takei; Joachim Confais, Saeka Tomatsu, Tomomichi Oya, Kazuhiko Seki
      Pages: 8643 - 8648
      Abstract: Grasping is a highly complex movement that requires the coordination of multiple hand joints and muscles. Muscle synergies have been proposed to be the functional building blocks that coordinate such complex motor behaviors, but little is known about how they are implemented in the central nervous system. Here we demonstrate...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704328114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Mapping of human brown adipose tissue in lean and obese young men
    • Authors: Brooks P. Leitner; Shan Huang, Robert J. Brychta, Courtney J. Duckworth, Alison S. Baskin, Suzanne McGehee, Ilan Tal, William Dieckmann, Garima Gupta, Gerald M. Kolodny, Karel Pacak, Peter Herscovitch, Aaron M. Cypess, Kong Y. Chen
      Pages: 8649 - 8654
      Abstract: Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) can be activated to increase glucose uptake and energy expenditure, making it a potential target for treating obesity and metabolic disease. Data on the functional and anatomic characteristics of BAT are limited, however. In 20 healthy young men [12 lean, mean body mass index (BMI)...
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705287114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
  • Rainforest metropolis casts 1,000-km defaunation shadow [Sustainability
    • Authors: Daniel J. Tregidgo; Jos Barlow, Paulo S. Pompeu, Mayana de Almeida Rocha, Luke Parry
      Pages: 8655 - 8659
      Abstract: Tropical rainforest regions are urbanizing rapidly, yet the role of emerging metropolises in driving wildlife overharvesting in forests and inland waters is unknown. We present evidence of a large defaunation shadow around a rainforest metropolis. Using interviews with 392 rural fishers, we show that fishing has severely depleted a large-bodied...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:05:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1614499114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 32 (2017)
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