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Journal Cover Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  [SJR: 6.883]   [H-I: 604]   [906 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
   Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Our humanity contains multitudes: Dehumanization is more than overlooking
           mental capacities [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Katrina M. Fincher; Nour S. Kteily, Emile G. Bruneau
      Abstract: A longstanding conclusion of work on dehumanization is that the denial of humanity facilitates violence, in part by loosening restraints against harming others (1–3). Rai et al. (4) propose that dehumanization only begets instrumental violence. They claim that dehumanization does not facilitate moral violence because moral violence necessitates blame and...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800359115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Reply to Fincher et al.: Conceptual specificity in dehumanization research
           is a feature, not a bug [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Tage S. Rai; Piercarlo Valdesolo, Jesse Graham
      Abstract: Fincher et al. (1) argue that our conceptualization of dehumanization as “the failure to engage in social cognition of other human minds” (2) is too narrow. Importantly, Fincher et al. (1) do not dispute our actual findings. They agree that reduced perception of mental and emotional states in victims generates...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802004115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Water-like anomalies as a function of tetrahedrality [Applied Physical
    • Authors: John Russo; Kenji Akahane, Hajime Tanaka
      Abstract: Tetrahedral interactions describe the behavior of the most abundant and technologically important materials on Earth, such as water, silicon, carbon, germanium, and countless others. Despite their differences, these materials share unique common physical behaviors, such as liquid anomalies, open crystalline structures, and extremely poor glass-forming ability at ambient pressure. To...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722339115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Local protein solvation drives direct down-conversion in phycobiliprotein
           PC645 via incoherent vibronic transport [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Samuel M. Blau; Doran I. G. Bennett, Christoph Kreisbeck, Gregory D. Scholes, Alan Aspuru–Guzik
      Abstract: The mechanisms controlling excitation energy transport (EET) in light-harvesting complexes remain controversial. Following the observation of long-lived beats in 2D electronic spectroscopy of PC645, vibronic coherence, the delocalization of excited states between pigments supported by a resonant vibration, has been proposed to enable direct excitation transport from the highest-energy to...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800370115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Successful reprogramming of cellular protein production through mRNA
           delivered by functionalized lipid nanoparticles [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Marianna Yanez Arteta; Tomas Kȷellman, Stefano Bartesaghi, Simonetta Wallin, Xiaoqiu Wu, Alexander J. Kvist, Aleksandra Dabkowska, Noemi Szekely, Aurel Radulescu, Johan Bergenholtz, Lennart Lindfors
      Abstract: The development of safe and efficacious gene vectors has limited greatly the potential for therapeutic treatments based on messenger RNA (mRNA). Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) formed by an ionizable cationic lipid (here DLin-MC3-DMA), helper lipids (distearoylphosphatidylcholine, DSPC, and cholesterol), and a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) lipid have been identified as very promising...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720542115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Escalation of competition into conflict in competitive networks of Formula
           One drivers [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Henning Piezunka; Wonjae Lee, Richard Haynes, Matthew S. Bothner
      Abstract: This article investigates the factors that escalate competition into dangerous conflict. Recent sociological theorizing claims that such escalations are particularly likely in dyads of structurally equivalent people (i.e., actors who have the same relations with the same third parties). Using panel data on Formula One races from 1970 through 2014,...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717303115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • MDMX acidic domain inhibits p53 DNA binding in vivo and regulates
           tumorigenesis [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Qingling Huang; Lihong Chen, Leixiang Yang, Xiaoling Xie, Lin Gan, John L. Cleveland, Jiandong Chen
      Abstract: The MDM2 homolog MDMX oncoprotein is indispensable for inhibition of p53 during normal embryonic development and malignant transformation, yet how MDMX harnesses p53 functions is unclear. In addition to a canonical N-terminal p53-binding domain, recent work suggests the central acidic domain of MDMX regulates p53 interaction through intramolecular mimicry and...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719090115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • IpdAB, a virulence factor in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a cholesterol
           ring-cleaving hydrolase [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Adam M. Crowe; Sean D. Workman, Nobuhiko Watanabe, Liam J. Worrall, Natalie C. J. Strynadka, Lindsay D. Eltis
      Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) grows on host-derived cholesterol during infection. IpdAB, found in all steroid-degrading bacteria and a determinant of pathogenicity, has been implicated in the hydrolysis of the last steroid ring. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that IpdAB orthologs form a clade of CoA transferases (CoTs). In a coupled assay with a...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717015115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • S-nitrosylation drives cell senescence and aging in mammals by controlling
           mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Salvatore Rizza; Simone Cardaci, Costanza Montagna, Giuseppina Di Giacomo, Daniela De Zio, Matteo Bordi, Emiliano Maiani, Silvia Campello, Antonella Borreca, Annibale A. Puca, Jonathan S. Stamler, Francesco Cecconi, Giuseppe Filomeni
      Abstract: S-nitrosylation, a prototypic redox-based posttranslational modification, is frequently dysregulated in disease. S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) regulates protein S-nitrosylation by functioning as a protein denitrosylase. Deficiency of GSNOR results in tumorigenesis and disrupts cellular homeostasis broadly, including metabolic, cardiovascular, and immune function. Here, we demonstrate that GSNOR expression decreases in primary cells...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722452115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Cross-linking of Orai1 channels by STIM proteins [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Yandong Zhou; Robert M. Nwokonko, Xiangyu Cai, Natalia A. Loktionova, Raz Abdulqadir, Ping Xin, Barbara A. Niemeyer, Youjun Wang, Mohamed Trebak, Donald L. Gill
      Abstract: The transmembrane docking of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+-sensing STIM proteins with plasma membrane (PM) Orai Ca2+ channels is a critical but poorly understood step in Ca2+ signal generation. STIM1 protein dimers unfold to expose a discrete STIM–Orai activating region (SOAR1) that tethers and activates Orai1 channels within discrete ER–PM junctions....
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720810115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Single-nucleotide resolution dynamic repair maps of UV damage in
           Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Wentao Li; Ogun Adebali, Yanyan Yang, Christopher P. Selby, Aziz Sancar
      Abstract: We have adapted the eXcision Repair-sequencing (XR-seq) method to generate single-nucleotide resolution dynamic repair maps of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) pyrimidine–pyrimidone photoproducts in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. We find that these photoproducts are removed from the genome primarily by incisions 13–18 nucleotides 5′ and 6–7 nucleotides 3′ to...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801687115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Exploring the structural origins of cryptic sites on proteins [Biophysics
           and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Dmitri Beglov; David R. Hall, Amanda E. Wakefield, Lingqi Luo, Karen N. Allen, Dima Kozakov, Adrian Whitty, Sandor Vajda
      Abstract: Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of proteins reveal the existence of many transient surface pockets; however, the factors determining what small subset of these represent druggable or functionally relevant ligand binding sites, called “cryptic sites,” are not understood. Here, we examine multiple X-ray structures for a set of proteins with validated...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711490115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Loss of TDP43 inhibits progression of triple-negative breast cancer in
           coordination with SRSF3 [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Hao Ke; Limin Zhao, Honglei Zhang, Xu Feng, Haibo Xu, Junjun Hao, Shaowei Wang, Qin Yang, Li Zou, Xiaosan Su, Liqiong Wang, Chunlian Wu, Yang Wang, Jianyun Nie, Baowei Jiao
      Abstract: Aberrant alternative splicing has been highlighted as a potential hallmark of cancer. Here, we identify TDP43 (TAR DNA-binding protein 43) as an important splicing regulator responsible for the unique splicing profile in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Clinical data demonstrate that TDP43 is highly expressed in TNBC with poor prognosis. Knockdown...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714573115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Small proline-rich protein 2B drives stress-dependent p53 degradation and
           fibroblast proliferation in heart failure [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Ryan M. Burke, Janet K. Lighthouse, Pearl Quijada, Ronald A. Dirkx Jr; Alexander Rosenberg, Christine S. Moravec, Jeffrey D. Alexis, Eric M. Small
      Abstract: Heart disease is associated with the accumulation of resident cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) that secrete extracellular matrix (ECM), leading to the development of pathological fibrosis and heart failure. However, the mechanisms underlying resident CF proliferation remain poorly defined. Here, we report that small proline-rich protein 2b (Sprr2b) is among the most...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717423115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Molecular and structural architecture of polyQ aggregates in yeast [Cell
    • Authors: Anselm Gruber; Daniel Hornburg, Matthias Antonin, Natalie Krahmer, Javier Collado, Miroslava Schaffer, Greta Zubaite, Christian Luchtenborg, Timo Sachsenheimer, Britta Brugger, Matthias Mann, Wolfgang Baumeister, F. Ulrich Hartl, Mark S. Hipp, Ruben Fernandez–Busnadiego
      Abstract: Huntington’s disease is caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the N-terminal exon of huntingtin (HttEx1), but the cellular mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration remain poorly understood. Here we present in situ structural studies by cryo-electron tomography of an established yeast model system of polyQ toxicity. We find...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717978115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Phylogenetic homogenization of amphibian assemblages in human-altered
           habitats across the globe [Ecology]
    • Authors: A. Justin Nowakowski; Luke O. Frishkoff, Michelle E. Thompson, Tatiana M. Smith, Brian D. Todd
      Abstract: Habitat conversion is driving biodiversity loss and restructuring species assemblages across the globe. Responses to habitat conversion vary widely, however, and little is known about the degree to which shared evolutionary history underlies changes in species richness and composition. We analyzed data from 48 studies, comprising 438 species on five...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714891115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Global increase and geographic convergence in antibiotic consumption
           between 2000 and 2015 [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Eili Y. Klein; Thomas P. Van Boeckel, Elena M. Martinez, Suraj Pant, Sumanth Gandra, Simon A. Levin, Herman Goossens, Ramanan Laxminarayan
      Abstract: Tracking antibiotic consumption patterns over time and across countries could inform policies to optimize antibiotic prescribing and minimize antibiotic resistance, such as setting and enforcing per capita consumption targets or aiding investments in alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, we analyzed the trends and drivers of antibiotic consumption from 2000...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717295115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Embryophyte stress signaling evolved in the algal progenitors of land
           plants [Evolution]
    • Authors: Jan de Vries; Bruce A. Curtis, Sven B. Gould, John M. Archibald
      Abstract: Streptophytes are unique among photosynthetic eukaryotes in having conquered land. As the ancestors of land plants, streptophyte algae are hypothesized to have possessed exaptations to the environmental stressors encountered during the transition to terrestrial life. Many of these stressors, including high irradiance and drought, are linked to plastid biology. We...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719230115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • RNA-mediated gene regulation is less evolvable than transcriptional
           regulation [Evolution]
    • Authors: Joshua L. Payne; Fahad Khalid, Andreas Wagner
      Abstract: Much of gene regulation is carried out by proteins that bind DNA or RNA molecules at specific sequences. One class of such proteins is transcription factors, which bind short DNA sequences to regulate transcription. Another class is RNA binding proteins, which bind short RNA sequences to regulate RNA maturation, transport,...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719138115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Cooption of an appendage-patterning gene cassette in the head segmentation
           of arachnids [Evolution]
    • Authors: Emily V. W. Setton; Prashant P. Sharma
      Abstract: The jointed appendages of arthropods have facilitated the spectacular diversity and success of this phylum. Key to the regulation of appendage outgrowth is the Krüppel-like factor (KLF)/specificity protein (Sp) family of zinc finger transcription factors. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, the Sp6-9 homolog is activated by Wnt-1/wingless (wg) and...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720193115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Recombinant immunotoxins with albumin-binding domains have long half-lives
           and high antitumor activity [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Junxia Wei; Tapan K. Bera, Xiu Fen Liu, Qi Zhou, Masanori Onda, Mitchell Ho, Chin-Hsien Tai, Ira Pastan
      Abstract: Recombinant immunotoxins (RITs) are chimeric proteins consisting of a Fv that binds to a cancer cell and a portion of a protein toxin. One of these, Moxetumomab pasudotox, was shown to be effective in treating patients with some leukemias, where the cells are readily accessible to the RIT. However, their...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721780115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Inhibition of Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) induces natural killer
           cell-mediated eradication of hepatocellular carcinoma cells [Medical
    • Authors: Suresh Bugide; Michael R. Green, Narendra Wajapeyee
      Abstract: Natural killer (NK) cell-mediated tumor cell eradication could inhibit tumor initiation and progression. However, the factors that regulate NK cell-mediated cancer cell eradication remain unclear. We determined that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells exhibit transcriptional down-regulation of NK group 2D (NKG2D) ligands and are largely resistant to NK cell-mediated eradication. Because...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802691115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • A zipped-helix cap potentiates HAMP domain control of chemoreceptor
           signaling [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Caralyn E. Flack; John S. Parkinson
      Abstract: Environmental awareness is an essential attribute for all organisms. The chemotaxis system of Escherichia coli provides a powerful experimental model for the investigation of stimulus detection and signaling mechanisms at the molecular level. These bacteria sense chemical gradients with transmembrane proteins [methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs)] that have an extracellular ligand-binding...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721554115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Adeno-associated virus Rep proteins antagonize phosphatase PP1 to
           counteract KAP1 repression of the latent viral genome [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Sarah Smith-Moore; Stuart J. D. Neil, Cornel Fraefel, R. Michael Linden, Mathieu Bollen, Helen M. Rowe, Els Henckaerts
      Abstract: Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a small human Dependovirus whose low immunogenicity and capacity for long-term persistence have led to its widespread use as vector for gene therapy. Despite great recent successes in AAV-based gene therapy, further improvements in vector technology may be hindered by an inadequate understanding of various aspects...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721883115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Nonmonotonic spatial structure of interneuronal correlations in prefrontal
           microcircuits [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Shervin Safavi; Abhilash Dwarakanath, Vishal Kapoor, Joachim Werner, Nicholas G. Hatsopoulos, Nikos K. Logothetis, Theofanis I. Panagiotaropoulos
      Abstract: Correlated fluctuations of single neuron discharges, on a mesoscopic scale, decrease as a function of lateral distance in early sensory cortices, reflecting a rapid spatial decay of lateral connection probability and excitation. However, spatial periodicities in horizontal connectivity and associational input as well as an enhanced probability of lateral excitatory...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802356115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Antidepression action of BDNF requires and is mimicked by G{alpha}i1/3
           expression in the hippocampus [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: John Marshall; Xiao-zhong Zhou, Gang Chen, Su-qing Yang, Ya Li, Yin Wang, Zhi-qing Zhang, Qin Jiang, Lutz Birnbaumer, Cong Cao
      Abstract: Stress-related alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, a neurotrophin that plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, are believed to contribute to the pathophysiology of depression. Here, we show that in a chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression the Gαi1 and Gαi3 subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins are...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722493115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Kv4.2 autism and epilepsy mutation enhances inactivation of closed
           channels but impairs access to inactivated state after opening
    • Authors: Meng-chin A. Lin; Stephen C. Cannon, Diane M. Papazian
      Abstract: A de novo mutation in the KCND2 gene, which encodes the Kv4.2 K+ channel, was identified in twin boys with intractable, infant-onset epilepsy and autism. Kv4.2 channels undergo closed-state inactivation (CSI), a mechanism by which channels inactivate without opening during subthreshold depolarizations. CSI dynamically modulates neuronal excitability and action potential...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717082115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Endothelial GqPCR activity controls capillary electrical signaling and
           brain blood flow through PIP2 depletion [Physiology]
    • Authors: Osama F. Harraz; Thomas A. Longden, Fabrice Dabertrand, David Hill-Eubanks, Mark T. Nelson
      Abstract: Brain capillaries play a critical role in sensing neural activity and translating it into dynamic changes in cerebral blood flow to serve the metabolic needs of the brain. The molecular cornerstone of this mechanism is the capillary endothelial cell inward rectifier K+ (Kir2.1) channel, which is activated by neuronal activity–dependent...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800201115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • CSI1, PATROL1, and exocyst complex cooperate in delivery of cellulose
           synthase complexes to the plasma membrane [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Xiaoyu Zhu; Shundai Li, Songqin Pan, Xiaoran Xin, Ying Gu
      Abstract: Cellulose synthesis occurs exclusively at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs). Therefore, delivery of CSCs to discrete sites at the plasma membrane is critical for cellulose synthesis. Despite their significance, the delivery of CSCs is poorly understood. Here we used proteomics approaches, functional genetics, and live cell imaging...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800182115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Chloroplast SRP43 acts as a chaperone for glutamyl-tRNA reductase, the
           rate-limiting enzyme in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Peng Wang; Fu-Cheng Liang, Daniel Wittmann, Alex Siegel, Shu-ou Shan, Bernhard Grimm
      Abstract: Assembly of light-harvesting complexes requires synchronization of chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis with biogenesis of light-harvesting Chl a/b-binding proteins (LHCPs). The chloroplast signal recognition particle (cpSRP) pathway is responsible for transport of nucleus-encoded LHCPs in the stroma of the plastid and their integration into the thylakoid membranes. Correct folding and assembly of...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719645115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Correction for Bevan et al., Holocene fluctuations in human population
           demonstrate repeated links to food production and climate [Correction]
    • Abstract: ANTHROPOLOGY, SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE Correction for “Holocene fluctuations in human population demonstrate repeated links to food production and climate,” by Andrew Bevan, Sue Colledge, Dorian Fuller, Ralph Fyfe, Stephen Shennan, and Chris Stevens, which was first published November 20, 2017; 10.1073/pnas.1709190114 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114:E10524–E10531). The authors note that...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804206115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Correction for Paluck et al., Changing climates of conflict: A social
           network experiment in 56 schools [Correction]
    • Abstract: PSYCHOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES Correction for “Changing climates of conflict: A social network experiment in 56 schools,” by Elizabeth Levy Paluck, Hana Shepherd, and Peter M. Aronow, which was first published January 4, 2016; 10.1073/pnas.1514483113 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 113:566–571). The authors wish to note the following: “We reported...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804429115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Correction for Bernardo-Seisdedos et al., Structural basis and energy
           landscape for the Ca2+ gating and calmodulation of the Kv7.2 K+ channel
    • Abstract: BIOPHYSICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY Correction for “Structural basis and energy landscape for the Ca2+ gating and calmodulation of the Kv7.2 K+ channel,” by Ganeko Bernardo-Seisdedos, Eider Nuñez, Carolina Gomis, Covadonga Malo, Álvaro Villarroel, and Oscar Millet, which was first published February 20, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1800235115 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115:2395–2400)....
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804137115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Correction for Jiang et al., Proteins induced by telomere dysfunction and
           DNA damage represent biomarkers of human aging and disease [Correction]
    • Abstract: MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction for “Proteins induced by telomere dysfunction and DNA damage represent biomarkers of human aging and disease,” by Hong Jiang, Eric Schiffer, Zhangfa Song, Jianwei Wang, Petra Zürbig, Kathrin Thedieck, Suzette Moes, Heike Bantel, Nadja Saal, Justyna Jantos, Meiken Brecht, Paul Jenö, Michael N. Hall, Klaus Hager, Michael...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804185115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 3729 - 3730
      Abstract: Pheromone distinguishes termite royalty from worker castes Primary queen of R. flavipes with attendant workers. Image courtesy of Matt Bertone (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC). For eusocial insects, caste systems prescribe crucial social and reproductive division of labor. Nestmates primarily recognize one another and their roles within the colony...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti1518115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Opinion: How to achieve better flood-risk governance in the United States
           [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Desiree Tullos
      Pages: 3731 - 3734
      Abstract: Recent flood disasters (Fig. 1) have exposed issues with how flood risk is governed in the United States, raising questions about who owns responsibility for managing and paying for losses. In February 2017, 190,000 residents were evacuated as the primary and emergency spillways at Oroville Dam in California failed, a...
      Keywords: Opinions
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722412115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Profile of Dorothy L. Cheney and Robert M. Seyfarth [Profiles]
    • Authors: Jennifer Viegas
      Pages: 3735 - 3738
      Abstract: Field studies in Africa over the past four decades by ethologists Dorothy Cheney and Robert Seyfarth have uncovered a trove of insights into the behavior, communication, and social cognition of nonhuman primates. The pair’s research further reveals evolutionary antecedents of the human mind. University of Pennsylvania professors emeriti, Cheney and...
      Keywords: PNAS Profiles
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804145115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Global amphibian declines have winners and losers [Ecology]
    • Authors: R. Alexander Pyron
      Pages: 3739 - 3741
      Abstract: Global change imperils a large swath of the planet’s biodiversity, portending a future with decreasing species richness and functioning of natural ecosystems (1). However, the effects of global change are highly variable across scales (2). For example, while the data are contentious, patterns of local stability or increases in species...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803477115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • BDNF signaling: Harnessing stress to battle mood disorder [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Pawel Licznerski; Elizabeth A. Jonas
      Pages: 3742 - 3744
      Abstract: The link between the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) and loss of neurotrophins in the brain is of interest to clinicians and basic scientists. MDD is caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Trauma, chronic health problems, and substance abuse are risks (1), as are grief...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803645115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Good news and bad news of blue carbon [Ecology]
    • Authors: Christopher L. Sabine
      Pages: 3745 - 3746
      Abstract: Traditionally, ocean acidification researchers have focused on how secular changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) or pH will impact organisms. Global mean pH is estimated to have decreased by 0.1 pH units (representing a 28% increase in acidity) since the preindustrial age and may drop another 0.3 pH units by the...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803546115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Amide-forming chemical ligation via O-acyl hydroxamic acids [Biophysics
           and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Daniel L. Dunkelmann; Yuki Hirata, Kyle A. Totaro, Daniel T. Cohen, Chi Zhang, Zachary P. Gates, Bradley L. Pentelute
      Pages: 3752 - 3757
      Abstract: The facile rearrangement of “S-acyl isopeptides” to native peptide bonds via S,N-acyl shift is central to the success of native chemical ligation, the widely used approach for protein total synthesis. Proximity-driven amide bond formation via acyl transfer reactions in other contexts has proven generally less effective. Here, we show that...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718356115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Synergistic activity of cosecreted natural products from
           amoebae-associated bacteria [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Johannes Arp; Sebastian Gotze, Ruchira Mukherȷi, Derek J. Mattern, Maria Garcia–Altares, Martin Klapper, Debra A. Brock, Axel A. Brakhage, Joan E. Strassmann, David C. Queller, Bettina Bardl, Karsten Willing, Gundela Peschel, Pierre Stallforth
      Pages: 3758 - 3763
      Abstract: Investigating microbial interactions from an ecological perspective is a particularly fruitful approach to unveil both new chemistry and bioactivity. Microbial predator–prey interactions in particular rely on natural products as signal or defense molecules. In this context, we identified a grazing-resistant Pseudomonas strain, isolated from the bacterivorous amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Genome...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721790115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Catalyst design by scanning probe block copolymer lithography [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Liliang Huang; Peng-Cheng Chen, Mohan Liu, Xianbiao Fu, Pavlo Gordiichuk, Yanan Yu, Chris Wolverton, Yijin Kang, Chad A. Mirkin
      Pages: 3764 - 3769
      Abstract: Scanning probe block copolymer lithography (SPBCL), in combination with density-functional theory (DFT), has been used to design and synthesize hydrogen evolution catalysts. DFT was used to calculate the hydrogen adsorption energy on a series of single-element, bimetallic, and trimetallic (Au, Pt, Ni, and Cu) substrates to provide leads that could...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800884115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Continuous plating/stripping behavior of solid-state lithium metal anode
           in a 3D ion-conductive framework [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Chunpeng Yang; Lei Zhang, Boyang Liu, Shaomao Xu, Tanner Hamann, Dennis McOwen, Jiaqi Dai, Wei Luo, Yunhui Gong, Eric D. Wachsman, Liangbing Hu
      Pages: 3770 - 3775
      Abstract: The increasing demands for efficient and clean energy-storage systems have spurred the development of Li metal batteries, which possess attractively high energy densities. For practical application of Li metal batteries, it is vital to resolve the intrinsic problems of Li metal anodes, i.e., the formation of Li dendrites, interfacial instability,...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719758115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Light-induced dilation in nanosheets of charge-transfer complexes
    • Authors: Zhuolei Zhang; Richard C. Remsing, Himanshu Chakraborty, Wenxiu Gao, Guoliang Yuan, Michael L. Klein, Shenqiang Ren
      Pages: 3776 - 3781
      Abstract: We report the observation of a sizable photostrictive effect of 5.7% with fast, submillisecond response times, arising from a light-induced lattice dilation of a molecular nanosheet, composed of the molecular charge-transfer compound dibenzotetrathiafulvalene (DBTTF) and C60. An interfacial self-assembly approach is introduced for the thickness-controlled growth of the thin films....
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800234115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Rapid enhancement of chemical weathering recorded by extremely light
           seawater lithium isotopes at the Permian-Triassic boundary [Earth,
           Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: He Sun; Yilin Xiao, Yongjun Gao, Guijie Zhang, John F. Casey, Yanan Shen
      Pages: 3782 - 3787
      Abstract: Lithium (Li) isotope analyses of sedimentary rocks from the Meishan section in South China reveal extremely light seawater Li isotopic signatures at the Permian–Triassic boundary (PTB), which coincide with the most severe mass extinction in the history of animal life. Using a dynamic seawater lithium box model, we show that...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711862115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • South American monsoon response to iceberg discharge in the North Atlantic
           [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Nicolas M. Strikis; Francisco W. Cruz, Eline A. S. Barreto, Filipa Naughton, Mathias Vuille, Hai Cheng, Antȷe H. L. Voelker, Haiwei Zhang, Ivo Karmann, R. Lawrence Edwards, Augusto S. Auler, Roberto Ventura Santos, Hamilton Reis Sales
      Pages: 3788 - 3793
      Abstract: Heinrich Stadials significantly affected tropical precipitation through changes in the interhemispheric temperature gradient as a result of abrupt cooling in the North Atlantic. Here, we focus on changes in South American monsoon precipitation during Heinrich Stadials using a suite of speleothem records covering the last 85 ky B.P. from eastern...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717784115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Levy flight movements prevent extinctions and maximize population
           abundances in fragile Lotka-Volterra systems [Ecology]
    • Authors: Teodoro Dannemann; Denis Boyer, Octavio Miramontes
      Pages: 3794 - 3799
      Abstract: Multiple-scale mobility is ubiquitous in nature and has become instrumental for understanding and modeling animal foraging behavior. However, the impact of individual movements on the long-term stability of populations remains largely unexplored. We analyze deterministic and stochastic Lotka–Volterra systems, where mobile predators consume scarce resources (prey) confined in patches. In...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719889115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Reversal of orbital angular momentum arising from an extreme Doppler shift
    • Authors: Graham M. Gibson; Ermes Toninelli, Simon A. R. Horsley, Gabriel C. Spalding, Euan Hendry, David B. Phillips, Miles J. Padgett
      Pages: 3800 - 3803
      Abstract: The linear Doppler shift is familiar as the rise and fall in pitch of a siren as it passes by. Less well known is the rotational Doppler shift, proportional to the rotation rate between source and receiver, multiplied by the angular momentum carried by the beam. In extreme cases the...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720776115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • The opportunity cost of animal based diets exceeds all food losses
           [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Alon Shepon; Gidon Eshel, Elad Noor, Ron Milo
      Pages: 3804 - 3809
      Abstract: Food loss is widely recognized as undermining food security and environmental sustainability. However, consumption of resource-intensive food items instead of more efficient, equally nutritious alternatives can also be considered as an effective food loss. Here we define and quantify these opportunity food losses as the food loss associated with consuming...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1713820115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Divergent trends of open-surface water body area in the contiguous United
           States from 1984 to 2016 [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Zhenhua Zou; Xiangming Xiao, Jinwei Dong, Yuanwei Qin, Russell B. Doughty, Michael A. Menarguez, Geli Zhang, Jie Wang
      Pages: 3810 - 3815
      Abstract: The contiguous United States (CONUS), especially the West, faces challenges of increasing water stress and uncertain impacts of climate change. The historical information of surface water body distribution, variation, and multidecadal trends documented in remote-sensing images can aid in water-resource planning and management, yet is not well explored. Here, we...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719275115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Identifying psychological responses of stigmatized groups to referendums
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Andrew R. Flores; Mark L. Hatzenbuehler, Gary J. Gates
      Pages: 3816 - 3821
      Abstract: Public votes and referendums on the rights of marginalized communities are utilized in 27 states and occur with some regularity. However, research has only recently begun to examine the psychological consequences of these voter referendums for members of stigmatized groups, and a number of important questions remain regarding the internal...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712897115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Circadian clock activity of cryptochrome relies on tryptophan-mediated
           photoreduction [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Changfan Lin; Deniz Top, Craig C. Manahan, Michael W. Young, Brian R. Crane
      Pages: 3822 - 3827
      Abstract: Cryptochromes (CRYs) entrain the circadian clocks of plants and animals to light. Irradiation of the Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY) causes reduction of an oxidized flavin cofactor by a chain of conserved tryptophan (Trp) residues. However, it is unclear how redox chemistry within the Trp chain couples to dCRY-mediated signaling. Here, we...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719376115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Crystal structure of human lysyl oxidase-like 2 (hLOXL2) in a precursor
           state [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Xi Zhang; Qifan Wang, Jianping Wu, Jiawei Wang, Yigong Shi, Minhao Liu
      Pages: 3828 - 3833
      Abstract: Lysyl oxidases (LOXs), a type of copper- and lysyl tyrosylquinone (LTQ) -dependent amine oxidase, catalyze the oxidative deamination of lysine residues of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as elastins and collagens and generate aldehyde groups. The oxidative deamination of lysine represents the foundational step for the cross-linking of elastin and...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720859115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Sortase ligation enables homogeneous GPCR phosphorylation to reveal
           diversity in {beta}-arrestin coupling [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Dean P. Staus; Laura M. Wingler, Minjung Choi, Biswaranjan Pani, Aashish Manglik, Andrew C. Kruse, Robert J. Lefkowitz
      Pages: 3834 - 3839
      Abstract: The ability of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to initiate complex cascades of cellular signaling is governed by the sequential coupling of three main transducer proteins, G protein, GPCR kinase (GRK), and β-arrestin. Mounting evidence indicates these transducers all have distinct conformational preferences and binding modes. However, interrogating each transducer’s mechanism...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722336115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • OSR1 regulates a subset of inward rectifier potassium channels via a
           binding motif variant [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Clinton A. Taylor IV; Sung-Wan An, Sachith Gallolu Kankanamalage, Steve Stippec, Svetlana Earnest, Ashesh T. Trivedi, Jonathan Zijiang Yang, Hamid Mirzaei, Chou-Long Huang, Melanie H. Cobb
      Pages: 3840 - 3845
      Abstract: The with-no-lysine (K) (WNK) signaling pathway to STE20/SPS1-related proline- and alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-responsive 1 (OSR1) kinase is an important mediator of cell volume and ion transport. SPAK and OSR1 associate with upstream kinases WNK 1–4, substrates, and other proteins through their C-terminal domains which interact with linear...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802339115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Binding site for coenzyme A revealed in the structure of
           pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Moorella thermoacetica
    • Authors: Percival Yang-Ting Chen; Heather Aman, Mehmet Can, Stephen W. Ragsdale, Catherine L. Drennan
      Pages: 3846 - 3851
      Abstract: Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) is a microbial enzyme that uses thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), three [4Fe-4S] clusters, and coenzyme A (CoA) in the reversible oxidation of pyruvate to generate acetyl-CoA and carbon dioxide. The two electrons that are generated as a result of pyruvate decarboxylation are used in the reduction of low...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722329115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Water-mediated conformational preselection mechanism in substrate binding
           cooperativity to protein kinase A [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Piotr Setny; Marta D. Wiśniewska
      Pages: 3852 - 3857
      Abstract: Substrate binding cooperativity in protein kinase A (PKA) seems to involve allosteric coupling between the two binding sites. It received significant attention, but its molecular basis still remains not entirely clear. Based on long molecular dynamics of PKA and its complexes, we characterized an allosteric pathway that links ATP binding...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720024115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Structural basis for the ethanol action on G-protein-activated inwardly
           rectifying potassium channel 1 revealed by NMR spectroscopy [Biophysics
           and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Yuki Toyama; Hanaho Kano, Yoko Mase, Mariko Yokogawa, Masanori Osawa, Ichio Shimada
      Pages: 3858 - 3863
      Abstract: Ethanol consumption leads to a wide range of pharmacological effects by acting on the signaling proteins in the human nervous system, such as ion channels. Despite its familiarity and biological importance, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the ethanol action, due to extremely weak binding affinity and...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722257115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Fusogenic micropeptide Myomixer is essential for satellite cell fusion and
           muscle regeneration [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Pengpeng Bi; John R. McAnally, John M. Shelton, Efrain Sanchez–Ortiz, Rhonda Bassel–Duby, Eric N. Olson
      Pages: 3864 - 3869
      Abstract: Regeneration of skeletal muscle in response to injury occurs through fusion of a population of stem cells, known as satellite cells, with injured myofibers. Myomixer, a muscle-specific membrane micropeptide, cooperates with the transmembrane protein Myomaker to regulate embryonic myoblast fusion and muscle formation. To investigate the role of Myomixer in...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800052115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Seagrass habitat metabolism increases short-term extremes and long-term
           offset of CO2 under future ocean acidification [Earth, Atmospheric, and
           Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Stephen R. Pacella; Cheryl A. Brown, George G. Waldbusser, Rochelle G. Labiosa, Burke Hales
      Pages: 3870 - 3875
      Abstract: The role of rising atmospheric CO2 in modulating estuarine carbonate system dynamics remains poorly characterized, likely due to myriad processes driving the complex chemistry in these habitats. We reconstructed the full carbonate system of an estuarine seagrass habitat for a summer period of 2.5 months utilizing a combination of time-series...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703445115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Grassland biodiversity can pay [Economic Sciences]
    • Authors: Seth Binder; Forest Isbell, Stephen Polasky, Jane A. Catford, David Tilman
      Pages: 3876 - 3881
      Abstract: The biodiversity–ecosystem functioning (BEF) literature provides strong evidence of the biophysical basis for the potential profitability of greater diversity but does not address questions of optimal management. BEF studies typically focus on the ecosystem outputs produced by randomly assembled communities that only differ in their biodiversity levels, measured by indices...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712874115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Dependence of the evolution of carbon dynamics in the northern permafrost
           region on the trajectory of climate change [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: A. David McGuire; David M. Lawrence, Charles Koven, Joy S. Clein, Eleanor Burke, Guangsheng Chen, Elchin Jafarov, Andrew H. MacDougall, Sergey Marchenko, Dmitry Nicolsky, Shushi Peng, Annette Rinke, Philippe Ciais, Isabelle Gouttevin, Daniel J. Hayes, Duoying Ji, Gerhard Krinner, John C. Moore, Vladimir Romanovsky, Christina Schadel, Kevin Schaefer, Edward A. G. Schuur, Qianlai Zhuang
      Pages: 3882 - 3887
      Abstract: We conducted a model-based assessment of changes in permafrost area and carbon storage for simulations driven by RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 projections between 2010 and 2299 for the northern permafrost region. All models simulating carbon represented soil with depth, a critical structural feature needed to represent the permafrost carbon–climate feedback, but...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719903115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Identification of a queen and king recognition pheromone in the
           subterranean termite Reticulitermes flavipes [Evolution]
    • Authors: Colin F. Funaro; Katalin Boroczky, Edward L. Vargo, Coby Schal
      Pages: 3888 - 3893
      Abstract: Chemical communication is fundamental to success in social insect colonies. Species-, colony-, and caste-specific blends of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) and other chemicals have been well documented as pheromones, mediating important behavioral and physiological aspects of social insects. More specifically, royal pheromones used by queens (and kings in termites) enable workers...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721419115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • New tRNA contacts facilitate ligand binding in a Mycobacterium smegmatis T
           box riboswitch [Genetics]
    • Authors: Anna V. Sherwood; Jane K. Frandsen, Frank J. Grundy, Tina M. Henkin
      Pages: 3894 - 3899
      Abstract: T box riboswitches are RNA regulatory elements widely used by organisms in the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria to regulate expression of amino acid-related genes. Expression of T box family genes is down-regulated by transcription attenuation or inhibition of translation initiation in response to increased charging of the cognate tRNA. Three...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721254115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Split cGAL, an intersectional strategy using a split intein for refined
           spatiotemporal transgene control in Caenorhabditis elegans [Genetics]
    • Authors: Han Wang; Jonathan Liu, Kai P. Yuet, Andrew J. Hill, Paul W. Sternberg
      Pages: 3900 - 3905
      Abstract: Bipartite expression systems, such as the GAL4-UAS system, allow fine manipulation of gene expression and are powerful tools for interrogating gene function. Recently, we established cGAL, a GAL4-based bipartite expression system for transgene control in Caenorhabditis elegans, where a single promoter dictates the expression pattern of a cGAL driver, which...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720063115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • IRF9 and unphosphorylated STAT2 cooperate with NF-{kappa}B to drive IL6
           expression [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Jing Nan; Yuxin Wang, Jinbo Yang, George R. Stark
      Pages: 3906 - 3911
      Abstract: In response to IFNβ, the IL6 gene is activated, modestly at early times by ISGF3 (IRF9 plus tyrosine-phosphorylated STATs 1 and 2), and strongly at late times by U-ISGF3 (IRF9 plus U-STATs 1 and 2, lacking tyrosine phosphorylation). A classical IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) at −1,513 to −1,526 in the...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714102115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Anti-CTLA-4 therapy requires an Fc domain for efficacy [Immunology and
    • Authors: Jessica R. Ingram; Olga S. Blomberg, Mohammad Rashidian, Lestat Ali, Scott Garforth, Elena Fedorov, Alexander A. Fedorov, Jeffrey B. Bonanno, Camille Le Gall, Stephanie Crowley, Camilo Espinosa, Tamara Biary, Edmund J. Keliher, Ralph Weissleder, Steven C. Almo, Stephanie K. Dougan, Hidde L. Ploegh, Michael Dougan
      Pages: 3912 - 3917
      Abstract: Ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody that recognizes cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4, was the first approved “checkpoint”-blocking anticancer therapy. In mouse tumor models, the response to antibodies against CTLA-4 depends entirely on expression of the Fcγ receptor (FcγR), which may facilitate antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis, but the contribution of simple CTLA-4 blockade...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801524115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Rlip depletion prevents spontaneous neoplasia in TP53 null mice [Medical
    • Authors: Sanjay Awasthi; Joshua Tompkins, Jyotsana Singhal, Arthur D. Riggs, Sushma Yadav, Xiwei Wu, Sharda Singh, Charles Warden, Zheng Liu, Jinhui Wang, Thomas P. Slavin, Jeffrey N. Weitzel, Yate-Ching Yuan, Meenakshi Awasthi, Satish K. Srivastava, Yogesh C. Awasthi, Sharad S. Singhal
      Pages: 3918 - 3923
      Abstract: TP53 (p53) is a tumor suppressor whose functions are lost or altered in most malignancies. p53 homozygous knockout (p53−/−) mice uniformly die of spontaneous malignancy, typically T-cell lymphoma. RALBP1 (RLIP76, Rlip) is a stress-protective, mercapturic acid pathway transporter protein that also functions as a Ral effector involved in clathrin-dependent endocytosis....
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719586115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Establishment of human pluripotent stem cell-derived pancreatic
           {beta}-like cells in the mouse pancreas [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Haiting Ma; Katherine J. Wert, Dmitry Shvartsman, Douglas A. Melton, Rudolf Jaenisch
      Pages: 3924 - 3929
      Abstract: Type 1 diabetes is characterized by autoimmune destruction of β cells located in pancreatic islets. However, tractable in vivo models of human pancreatic β cells have been limited. Here, we generated xenogeneic human pancreatic β-like cells in the mouse pancreas by orthotopic transplantation of stem cell-derived β (SC-β) cells into...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702059115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • PUMA amplifies necroptosis signaling by activating cytosolic DNA sensors
           [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Dongshi Chen; Jingshan Tong, Liheng Yang, Liang Wei, Donna B. Stolz, Jian Yu, Jianke Zhang, Lin Zhang
      Pages: 3930 - 3935
      Abstract: Necroptosis, a form of regulated necrotic cell death, is governed by RIP1/RIP3-mediated activation of MLKL. However, the signaling process leading to necroptotic death remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that PUMA, a proapoptotic BH3-only Bcl-2 family member, is transcriptionally activated in an RIP3/MLKL-dependent manner following induction of...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717190115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Reduction of lipid accumulation rescues Bietti’s crystalline dystrophy
           phenotypes [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Masayuki Hata; Hanako O. Ikeda, Sachiko Iwai, Yuto Iida, Norimoto Gotoh, Isao Asaka, Kazutaka Ikeda, Yosuke Isobe, Aya Hori, Saori Nakagawa, Susumu Yamato, Makoto Arita, Nagahisa Yoshimura, Akitaka Tsujikawa
      Pages: 3936 - 3941
      Abstract: Bietti’s crystalline dystrophy (BCD) is an intractable and progressive chorioretinal degenerative disease caused by mutations in the CYP4V2 gene, resulting in blindness in most patients. Although we and others have shown that retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are primarily impaired in patients with BCD, the underlying mechanisms of RPE cell...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717338115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Mechanistic insights into staphylopine-mediated metal acquisition
    • Authors: Liqiang Song; Yifei Zhang, Weizhong Chen, Tongnian Gu, Shu-Yu Zhang, Quanjiang Ji
      Pages: 3942 - 3947
      Abstract: Metal acquisition is vital to pathogens for successful infection within hosts. Staphylopine (StP), a broad-spectrum metallophore biosynthesized by the major human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, plays a central role in transition-metal acquisition and bacterial virulence. The StP-like biosynthesis loci are present in various pathogens, and the proteins responsible for StP/metal transportation...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718382115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • LTP requires postsynaptic PDZ-domain interactions with glutamate
           receptor/auxiliary protein complexes [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Nengyin Sheng; Michael A. Bemben, Javier Diaz–Alonso, Wucheng Tao, Yun Stone Shi, Roger A. Nicoll
      Pages: 3948 - 3953
      Abstract: Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synaptic transmission in the brain and is arguably the most compelling cellular and molecular model for learning and memory. Previous work found that both AMPA receptors and exogenously expressed kainate receptors are equally capable of expressing LTP, despite their limited homology and...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800719115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • BACE1 SUMOylation increases its stability and escalates the protease
           activity in Alzheimer’s disease [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Jian Bao; Min Qin, Yacoubou Abdoul Razak Mahaman, Bin Zhang, Fang Huang, Kuan Zeng, Yiyuan Xia, Dan Ke, Qun Wang, Rong Liu, Jian-Zhi Wang, Keqiang Ye, Xiaochuan Wang
      Pages: 3954 - 3959
      Abstract: Amyloid beta (Aβ) is a major pathological marker in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is principally regulated by the rate-limiting β-secretase (i.e., BACE1) cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP). However, how BACE1 activity is posttranslationally regulated remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that BACE1 is predominantly SUMOylated at K501 residue, which...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800498115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Kruppel homolog 1 represses insect ecdysone biosynthesis by directly
           inhibiting the transcription of steroidogenic enzymes [Physiology]
    • Authors: Tianlei Zhang; Wei Song, Zheng Li, Wenliang Qian, Ling Wei, Yan Yang, Weina Wang, Xuan Zhou, Meng Meng, Jian Peng, Qingyou Xia, Norbert Perrimon, Daojun Cheng
      Pages: 3960 - 3965
      Abstract: In insects, juvenile hormone (JH) and the steroid hormone ecdysone have opposing effects on regulation of the larval–pupal transition. Although increasing evidence suggests that JH represses ecdysone biosynthesis during larval development, the mechanism underlying this repression is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of the Krüppel homolog...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800435115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum-localized CCX2 is required for osmotolerance by
           regulating ER and cytosolic Ca2+ dynamics in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Massimiliano Corso; Fabrizio G. Doccula, J. Romario F. de Melo, Alex Costa, Nathalie Verbruggen
      Pages: 3966 - 3971
      Abstract: Ca2+ signals in plant cells are important for adaptive responses to environmental stresses. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis CATION/Ca2+ EXCHANGER2 (CCX2), encoding a putative cation/Ca2+ exchanger that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is strongly induced by salt and osmotic stresses. Compared with the WT, AtCCX2 loss-of-function mutant was...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720422115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Cracking the social code of speech prosody using reverse correlation
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Emmanuel Ponsot; Juan Jose Burred, Pascal Belin, Jean–Julien Aucouturier
      Pages: 3972 - 3977
      Abstract: Human listeners excel at forming high-level social representations about each other, even from the briefest of utterances. In particular, pitch is widely recognized as the auditory dimension that conveys most of the information about a speaker’s traits, emotional states, and attitudes. While past research has primarily looked at the influence...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716090115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
  • Internal states and extrinsic factors both determine monkey vocal
           production [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Diana A. Liao; Yisi S. Zhang, Lili X. Cai, Asif A. Ghazanfar
      Pages: 3978 - 3983
      Abstract: A key question for understanding speech evolution is whether or not the vocalizations of our closest living relatives—nonhuman primates—represent the precursors to speech. Some believe that primate vocalizations are not volitional but are instead inextricably linked to internal states like arousal and thus bear little resemblance to human speech. Others...
      PubDate: 2018-04-10T12:01:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722426115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 15 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
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