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Journal Cover
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 6.092
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 948  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Transcriptional signature of the decidua in preeclampsia [Biological
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Ji-Long Liu; Wen-Qian Zhang, Ming-Yu Huang
      Abstract: An emerging concept is that the genesis of preeclampsia is rooted in dysregulated decidualization (1). In PNAS, Garrido-Gomez et al. (2) demonstrate a distinct transcriptional signature in the endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) of preeclampsia patients compared with control cells during in vitro decidualization (before pregnancy) and in vivo decidualization (after...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802234115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Electronic cigarette aerosols induce DNA damage and reduce DNA repair:
           Consistency across species [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Lurdes Queimado; Theodore Wagener, Vengatesh Ganapathy
      Abstract: We read with great interest the work of Lee et al. (1), in which the authors report that mice exposed to electronic cigarette aerosol have increased levels of DNA lesions and decreased DNA repair activity. This work sparked important discussion both in PNAS (2, 3) and science media (4). We...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807411115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Reply to Queimado et al.: E-cigarettes induce DNA damage and inhibit DNA
           repair in mice and human cells [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Moon-shong Tang
      Abstract: We believe that Queimado et al. (1) may have inadvertently missed several key details presented in our recent PNAS publication (2). First, for the determination of nicotine effects on DNA adduct formation and DNA repair activity, the nicotine concentrations used for 1-h treatments of human lung and bladder epithelial cells...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807971115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Two-way mixed-effects methods for joint association analysis using both
           host and pathogen genomes [Statistics]
    • Authors: Miaoyan Wang; Fabrice Roux, Claudia Bartoli, Carine Huard-Chauveau, Christopher Meyer, Hana Lee, Dominique Roby, Mary Sara McPeek, Joy Bergelson
      Abstract: Infectious diseases are often affected by specific pairings of hosts and pathogens and therefore by both of their genomes. The integration of a pair of genomes into genome-wide association mapping can provide an exquisitely detailed view of the genetic landscape of complex traits. We present a statistical method, ATOMM (Analysis...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710980115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Mapping an ancient city with a century of remotely sensed data
           [Anthropology]
    • Authors: David Stott; Soren Munch Kristiansen, Achim Lichtenberger, Rubina Raȷa
      Abstract: The rapidly growing global population places cultural heritage at great risk, and the encroachment of modern settlement on archaeological sites means that valuable information about how past societies worked and interacted with the environment is lost. To manage and mitigate these risks, we require knowledge about what has been lost...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721509115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Gene cluster conservation provides insight into cercosporin biosynthesis
           and extends production to the genus Colletotrichum [Agricultural Sciences]
           
    • Authors: Ronnie de Jonge; Malaika K. Ebert, Callie R. Huitt-Roehl, Paramita Pal, Jeffrey C. Suttle, Rebecca E. Spanner, Jonathan D. Neubauer, Wayne M. Jurick II, Karina A. Stott, Gary A. Secor, Bart P. H. J. Thomma, Yves Van de Peer, Craig A. Townsend, Melvin D. Bolton
      Abstract: Species in the genus Cercospora cause economically devastating diseases in sugar beet, maize, rice, soy bean, and other major food crops. Here, we sequenced the genome of the sugar beet pathogen Cercospora beticola and found it encodes 63 putative secondary metabolite gene clusters, including the cercosporin toxin biosynthesis (CTB) cluster....
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712798115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Potent and selective antitumor activity of a T cell-engaging bispecific
           antibody targeting a membrane-proximal epitope of ROR1 [Applied Biological
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Junpeng Qi; Xiuling Li, Haiyong Peng, Erika M. Cook, Eman L. Dadashian, Adrian Wiestner, HaJeung Park, Christoph Rader
      Abstract: T cell-engaging bispecific antibodies (biAbs) present a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy, and numerous bispecific formats have been developed for retargeting cytolytic T cells toward tumor cells. To explore the therapeutic utility of T cell-engaging biAbs targeting the receptor tyrosine kinase ROR1, which is expressed by tumor cells of various...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719905115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • In vitro reconstitution of sortase-catalyzed pilus polymerization reveals
           structural elements involved in pilin cross-linking [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Chungyu Chang; Brendan R. Amer, Jerzy Osipiuk, Scott A. McConnell, I-Hsiu Huang, Van Hsieh, Janine Fu, Hong H. Nguyen, John Muroski, Erika Flores, Rachel R. Ogorzalek Loo, Joseph A. Loo, John A. Putkey, Andrzej Joachimiak, Asis Das, Robert T. Clubb, Hung Ton-That
      Abstract: Covalently cross-linked pilus polymers displayed on the cell surface of Gram-positive bacteria are assembled by class C sortase enzymes. These pilus-specific transpeptidases located on the bacterial membrane catalyze a two-step protein ligation reaction, first cleaving the LPXTG motif of one pilin protomer to form an acyl-enzyme intermediate and then joining...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800954115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Sequential activation of human signal recognition particle by the ribosome
           and signal sequence drives efficient protein targeting [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Jae Ho Lee; Sowmya Chandrasekar, SangYoon Chung, Yu-Hsien Hwang Fu, Demi Liu, Shimon Weiss, Shu-ou Shan
      Abstract: Signal recognition particle (SRP) is a universally conserved targeting machine that mediates the targeted delivery of ∼30% of the proteome. The molecular mechanism by which eukaryotic SRP achieves efficient and selective protein targeting remains elusive. Here, we describe quantitative analyses of completely reconstituted human SRP (hSRP) and SRP receptor (SR)....
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802252115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Protein kinase C{alpha} gain-of-function variant in Alzheimer’s disease
           displays enhanced catalysis by a mechanism that evades down-regulation
           [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Julia A. Callender; Yimin Yang, Gema Lorden, Natalie L. Stephenson, Alexander C. Jones, John Brognard, Alexandra C. Newton
      Abstract: Conventional protein kinase C (PKC) family members are reversibly activated by binding to the second messengers Ca2+ and diacylglycerol, events that break autoinhibitory constraints to allow the enzyme to adopt an active, but degradation-sensitive, conformation. Perturbing these autoinhibitory constraints, resulting in protein destabilization, is one of many mechanisms by which...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805046115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Structural basis for MTR4-ZCCHC8 interactions that stimulate the MTR4
           helicase in the nuclear exosome-targeting complex [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: M. Rhyan Puno; Christopher D. Lima
      Abstract: The nuclear exosome-targeting (NEXT) complex functions as an RNA exosome cofactor and is involved in surveillance and turnover of aberrant transcripts and noncoding RNAs. NEXT is a ternary complex composed of the RNA-binding protein RBM7, the scaffold zinc-knuckle protein ZCCHC8, and the helicase MTR4. While RNA interactions with RBM7 are...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803530115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Dynamic action potential clamp predicts functional separation in mild
           familial and severe de novo forms of SCN2A epilepsy [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Geza Berecki; Katherine B. Howell, Yadeesha H. Deerasooriya, Maria Roberta Cilio, Megan K. Oliva, David Kaplan, Ingrid E. Scheffer, Samuel F. Berkovic, Steven Petrou
      Abstract: De novo variants in SCN2A developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) show distinctive genotype–phenotype correlations. The two most recurrent SCN2A variants in DEE, R1882Q and R853Q, are associated with different ages and seizure types at onset. R1882Q presents on day 1 of life with focal seizures, while infantile spasms is the...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800077115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Transcription factor profiling reveals molecular choreography and key
           regulators of human retrotransposon expression [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Xiaoȷi Sun; Xuya Wang, Zuoȷian Tang, Mark Grivainis, David Kahler, Chi Yun, Paolo Mita, David Fenyo, Jef D. Boeke
      Abstract: Transposable elements (TEs) represent a substantial fraction of many eukaryotic genomes, and transcriptional regulation of these factors is important to determine TE activities in human cells. However, due to the repetitive nature of TEs, identifying transcription factor (TF)-binding sites from ChIP-sequencing (ChIP-seq) datasets is challenging. Current algorithms are focused on...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722565115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Activated integrins identify functional antigen-specific CD8+ T cells
           within minutes after antigen stimulation [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Stoyan Dimitrov; Cecile Gouttefangeas, Luciana Besedovsky, Anȷa T. R. Jensen, P. Anoop Chandran, Elisa Rusch, Ramona Businger, Michael Schindler, Tanȷa Lange, Jan Born, Hans–Georg Rammensee
      Abstract: Immediate β2-integrin activation upon T cell receptor stimulation is critical for effective interaction between T cells and their targets and may therefore be used for the rapid identification and isolation of functional T cells. We present a simple and sensitive flow cytometry-based assay to assess antigen-specific T cells using fluorescent...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720714115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Mesenchymal MAPKAPK2/HSP27 drives intestinal carcinogenesis [Medical
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Ana Henriques; Vasiliki Koliaraki, George Kollias
      Abstract: Mesenchymal cells in the microenvironment of cancer exert important functions in tumorigenesis; however, little is known of intrinsic pathways that mediate these effects. MAPK signals, such as from MAPKAPK2 (MK2) are known to modulate tumorigenesis, yet their cell-specific role has not been determined. Here, we studied the cell-specific role of...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805683115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Role of CD40 and ADAMTS13 in von Willebrand factor-mediated endothelial
           cell-platelet-monocyte interaction [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Miruna Popa; Sibgha Tahir, Julia Elrod, Su Hwan Kim, Florian Leuschner, Thorsten Kessler, Peter Bugert, Ulrich Pohl, Andreas H. Wagner, Markus Hecker
      Abstract: Monocyte extravasation into the vessel wall is a key step in atherogenesis. It is still elusive how monocytes transmigrate through the endothelial cell (EC) monolayer at atherosclerosis predilection sites. Platelets tethered to ultra-large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF) multimers deposited on the luminal EC surface following CD40 ligand (CD154) stimulation may...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801366115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • KDM4B protects against obesity and metabolic dysfunction [Medical
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Yingduan Cheng; Quan Yuan, Laurent Vergnes, Xin Rong, Ji Youn Youn, Jiong Li, Yongxin Yu, Wei Liu, Hua Cai, Jiandie D. Lin, Peter Tontonoz, Christine Hong, Karen Reue, Cun-Yu Wang
      Abstract: Although significant progress has been made in understanding epigenetic regulation of in vitro adipogenesis, the physiological functions of epigenetic regulators in metabolism and their roles in obesity remain largely elusive. Here, we report that KDM4B (lysine demethylase 4B) in adipose tissues plays a critical role in energy balance, oxidation, lipolysis,...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721814115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Metaproteomics method to determine carbon sources and assimilation
           pathways of species in microbial communities [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Manuel Kleiner; Xiaoli Dong, Tjorven Hinzke, Juliane Wippler, Erin Thorson, Bernhard Mayer, Marc Strous
      Abstract: Measurements of stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) are widely used in biology to address questions regarding food sources and metabolic pathways used by organisms. The analysis of these so-called stable isotope fingerprints (SIFs) for microbes involved in biogeochemical cycling and microbiota of plants and animals has led to major discoveries...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722325115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Maturation of polycistronic mRNAs by the endoribonuclease RNase Y and its
           associated Y-complex in Bacillus subtilis [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Aaron DeLoughery; Jean–Benoit Lalanne, Richard Losick, Gene–Wei Li
      Abstract: Endonucleolytic cleavage within polycistronic mRNAs can lead to differential stability, and thus discordant abundance, among cotranscribed genes. RNase Y, the major endonuclease for mRNA decay in Bacillus subtilis, was originally identified for its cleavage activity toward the cggR-gapA operon, an event that differentiates the synthesis of a glycolytic enzyme from...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803283115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • NT3-chitosan enables de novo regeneration and functional recovery in
           monkeys after spinal cord injury [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Jia-Sheng Rao; Can Zhao, Aifeng Zhang, Hongmei Duan, Peng Hao, Rui-Han Wei, Junkui Shang, Wen Zhao, Zuxiang Liu, Juehua Yu, Kevin S. Fan, Zhaolong Tian, Qihua He, Wei Song, Zhaoyang Yang, Yi Eve Sun, Xiaoguang Li
      Abstract: Spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to permanent loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions. We have previously shown that neurotrophin3 (NT3)-loaded chitosan biodegradable material allowed for prolonged slow release of NT3 for 14 weeks under physiological conditions. Here we report that NT3-loaded chitosan, when inserted into a 1-cm gap...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804735115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Doc2-mediated superpriming supports synaptic augmentation [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Renhao Xue; David A. Ruhl, Joseph S. Briguglio, Alexander G. Figueroa, Robert A. Pearce, Edwin R. Chapman
      Abstract: Various forms of synaptic plasticity underlie aspects of learning and memory. Synaptic augmentation is a form of short-term plasticity characterized by synaptic enhancement that persists for seconds following specific patterns of stimulation. The mechanisms underlying this form of plasticity are unclear but are thought to involve residual presynaptic Ca2+. Here,...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802104115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • A theta rhythm in macaque visual cortex and its attentional modulation
           [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Georgios Spyropoulos; Conrado Arturo Bosman, Pascal Fries
      Abstract: Theta rhythms govern rodent sniffing and whisking, and human language processing. Human psychophysics suggests a role for theta also in visual attention. However, little is known about theta in visual areas and its attentional modulation. We used electrocorticography (ECoG) to record local field potentials (LFPs) simultaneously from areas V1, V2,...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719433115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Mediator subunit MED31 is required for radial patterning of Arabidopsis
           roots [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Xiaoyue Zhang; Wenkun Zhou, Qian Chen, Mingming Fang, Shuangshuang Zheng, Ben Scheres, Chuanyou Li
      Abstract: Stem cell specification in multicellular organisms relies on the precise spatiotemporal control of RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-dependent gene transcription, in which the evolutionarily conserved Mediator coactivator complex plays an essential role. In Arabidopsis thaliana, SHORTROOT (SHR) and SCARECROW (SCR) orchestrate a transcriptional program that determines the fate and asymmetrical...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800592115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Correction for Spence et al., Revealing the specificity of regulatory T
           cells in murine autoimmune diabetes [Correction]
    • Abstract: IMMUNOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION Correction for “Revealing the specificity of regulatory T cells in murine autoimmune diabetes,” by Allyson Spence, Whitney Purtha, Janice Tam, Shen Dong, Youmin Kim, Chia-Hsin Ju, Teague Sterling, Maki Nakayama, William H. Robinson, Jeffrey A. Bluestone, Mark S. Anderson, and Qizhi Tang, which was first published April...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808331115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Correction for Zhu et al., CSI1, PATROL1, and exocyst complex cooperate in
           delivery of cellulose synthase complexes to the plasma membrane
           [Correction]
    • Abstract: PLANT BIOLOGY Correction for “CSI1, PATROL1, and exocyst complex cooperate in delivery of cellulose synthase complexes to the plasma membrane,” by Xiaoyu Zhu, Shundai Li, Songqin Pan, Xiaoran Xin, and Ying Gu, which was first published March 26, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1800182115 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115:E3578–E3587). The authors note that...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808743115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 6095 - 6097
      Abstract: Mongooses recall cooperation to reciprocate in kind Dwarf mongooses. Image courtesy of Shannon Wild (photographer). Social animals exchange services, such as grooming, in return for others, such as enabling access to food and mates and warding off rival groups. However, whether nonhuman animals reciprocate based on a memory of recent...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti2418115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Joint statement on EPA proposed rule and public availability of data
           [Editorials]
    • Authors: Jeremy Berg; Philip Campbell, Veronique Kiermer, Natasha Raikhel, Deborah Sweet
      Pages: 6098 - 6098
      Abstract: We are writing in response to a proposed rule announced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in a 24 April 2018 press release (1). The release reads, “The rule will ensure that the regulatory science underlying Agency actions is fully transparent, and that underlying scientific information is publicly available in...
      Keywords: Editorials
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807459115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Inner Workings: Microscopy lights up stem cells in action [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Carolyn Beans
      Pages: 6099 - 6101
      Abstract: As developmental and cell biologist Valentina Greco stood on a stage in Philadelphia last December, candid time-lapse shots of some of the body’s most elusive cells flashed behind her in quick succession. These stem cells, photographed in a living mouse, were caught in the acts of dividing, differentiating, and interacting...
      Keywords: Inner Workings, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805771115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • QnAs with Joanne Chory [QnAs]
    • Authors: Paul Gabrielsen
      Pages: 6102 - 6103
      Abstract: Few plant biologists would imagine the honor of a walk down a glitzy red carpet. However, that is where Joanne Chory, a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, found herself in December 2017. She, along...
      Keywords: QnAs
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807544115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Astronomical metronome of geological consequence [Earth, Atmospheric, and
           Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Linda A. Hinnov
      Pages: 6104 - 6106
      Abstract: In PNAS, Kent et al. (1) describe a remarkable geochronologic correlation arising between the continental Triassic–Jurassic Newark Basin strata of eastern North America and the time-equivalent Chinle Formation of western North America that has far-reaching consequences for geology and astronomy, as follows. A Brief Retrospective In geology, a reliable “metronome”...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807020115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Resolving the ray-finned fish tree of life [Evolution]
    • Authors: Michael E. Alfaro
      Pages: 6107 - 6109
      Abstract: The Challenge of Reconstructing Fish Phylogeny When it comes to vertebrate evolutionary history, our understanding of lobe-finned fishes—the branch of the vertebrate tree leading to coelacanths plus the tetrapods (amphibians, turtles, birds, crocodiles, lizards, snakes, and mammals)—far outstrips our knowledge of ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii). Actinopterygians exhibit extraordinary species richness (>33,000...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807018115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Recombinant cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B vaccine: Rethinking the
           immunological basis of protection [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Mark R. Schleiss
      Pages: 6110 - 6112
      Abstract: Development and licensure of a vaccine against human CMV infection is a major public health priority. Although the major driving force for a CMV vaccine is prevention of congenital infection—since CMV is the most common viral cause of permanent neurodevelopmental disability in infants globally (1)—other patient populations, in particular recipients...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806420115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • MINFLUX monitors rapid molecular jumps with superior spatiotemporal
           resolution [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Yvan Eilers; Haisen Ta, Klaus C. Gwosch, Francisco Balzarotti, Stefan W. Hell
      Pages: 6117 - 6122
      Abstract: Compared with localization schemes solely based on evaluating patterns of molecular emission, the recently introduced single-molecule localization concept called MINFLUX and the fluorescence nanoscopies derived from it require up to orders of magnitude fewer emissions to attain single-digit nanometer resolution. Here, we demonstrate that the lower number of required fluorescence...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801672115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Metastable quasicrystal-induced nucleation in a bulk glass-forming liquid
           [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Guven Kurtuldu; Karl F. Shamlaye, Jorg F. Loffler
      Pages: 6123 - 6128
      Abstract: This study presents a unique Mg-based alloy composition in the Mg–Zn–Yb system which exhibits bulk metallic glass, metastable icosahedral quasicrystals (iQCs), and crystalline approximant phases in the as-cast condition. Microscopy revealed a smooth gradual transition from glass to QC. We also report the complete melting of a metastable eutectic phase...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717941115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Fluctuating hydrogen-bond networks govern anomalous electron transfer
           kinetics in a blue copper protein [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Joshua S. Kretchmer; Nicholas Boekelheide, Jeffrey J. Warren, Jay R. Winkler, Harry B. Gray, Thomas F. Miller III
      Pages: 6129 - 6134
      Abstract: We combine experimental and computational methods to address the anomalous kinetics of long-range electron transfer (ET) in mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin. ET rates and driving forces for wild type (WT) and three N47X mutants (X = L, S, and D) of Ru(2,2′-bipyridine)2 (imidazole)(His83) azurin are reported. An enhanced ET...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805719115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Unimolecular reaction of acetone oxide and its reaction with water in the
           atmosphere [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Bo Long; Junwei Lucas Bao, Donald G. Truhlar
      Pages: 6135 - 6140
      Abstract: Criegee intermediates (i.e., carbonyl oxides with two radical sites) are known to be important atmospheric reagents; however, our knowledge of their reaction kinetics is still limited. Although experimental methods have been developed to directly measure the reaction rate constants of stabilized Criegee intermediates, the experimental results cover limited temperature ranges...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804453115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Fluctuating radiocarbon offsets observed in the southern Levant and
           implications for archaeological chronology debates [Anthropology]
    • Authors: Sturt W. Manning; Carol Griggs, Brita Lorentzen, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, David Chivall, A. J. Timothy Jull, Todd E. Lange
      Pages: 6141 - 6146
      Abstract: Considerable work has gone into developing high-precision radiocarbon (14C) chronologies for the southern Levant region during the Late Bronze to Iron Age/early Biblical periods (∼1200–600 BC), but there has been little consideration whether the current standard Northern Hemisphere 14C calibration curve (IntCal13) is appropriate for this region. We measured 14C...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719420115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • A molecular perspective for global modeling of upper atmospheric NH3 from
           freezing clouds [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Cui Ge; Chongqin Zhu, Joseph S. Francisco, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Jun Wang
      Pages: 6147 - 6152
      Abstract: Ammonia plays a key role in the neutralization of atmospheric acids such as sulfate and nitrates. A few in situ observations have supported the theory that gas-phase NH3 concentrations should decrease sharply with altitude and be extremely low in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). This theory, however, seems...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719949115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Empirical evidence for stability of the 405-kiloyear Jupiter-Venus
           eccentricity cycle over hundreds of millions of years [Earth, Atmospheric,
           and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Dennis V. Kent; Paul E. Olsen, Cornelia Rasmussen, Christopher Lepre, Roland Mundil, Randall B. Irmis, George E. Gehrels, Dominique Giesler, John W. Geissman, William G. Parker
      Pages: 6153 - 6158
      Abstract: The Newark–Hartford astrochronostratigraphic polarity timescale (APTS) was developed using a theoretically constant 405-kiloyear eccentricity cycle linked to gravitational interactions with Jupiter–Venus as a tuning target and provides a major timing calibration for about 30 million years of Late Triassic and earliest Jurassic time. While the 405-ky cycle is both unimodal...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800891115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Dynamic regimes of electrified liquid filaments [Engineering]
    • Authors: Tiantian Kong; Howard A. Stone, Liqiu Wang, Ho Cheung Shum
      Pages: 6159 - 6164
      Abstract: We investigate the dynamics of an electrified liquid filament in a nozzle-to-substrate configuration with a close separation. The interplay between compressive viscous and electrostatic stresses dictates previously undocumented transitions between dynamic regimes of “jetting,” “coiling,” and “whipping.” In particular, the onsets of both coiling and whipping instabilities are significantly influenced...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801053115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Geometric hydrodynamics via Madelung transform [Mathematics]
    • Authors: Boris Khesin; Gerard Misiolek, Klas Modin
      Pages: 6165 - 6170
      Abstract: We introduce a geometric framework to study Newton’s equations on infinite-dimensional configuration spaces of diffeomorphisms and smooth probability densities. It turns out that several important partial differential equations of hydrodynamical origin can be described in this framework in a natural way. In particular, the Madelung transform between the Schrödinger equation...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719346115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Face recognition accuracy of forensic examiners, superrecognizers, and
           face recognition algorithms [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: P. Jonathon Phillips; Amy N. Yates, Ying Hu, Carina A. Hahn, Eilidh Noyes, Kelsey Jackson, Jacqueline G. Cavazos, Geraldine Jeckeln, Raȷeev Ranȷan, Swami Sankaranarayanan, Jun–Cheng Chen, Carlos D. Castillo, Rama Chellappa, David White, Alice J. O’Toole
      Pages: 6171 - 6176
      Abstract: Achieving the upper limits of face identification accuracy in forensic applications can minimize errors that have profound social and personal consequences. Although forensic examiners identify faces in these applications, systematic tests of their accuracy are rare. How can we achieve the most accurate face identification: using people and/or machines working...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721355115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Implications of Zika virus and congenital Zika syndrome for the number of
           live births in Brazil [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Marcia C. Castro; Qiuyi C. Han, Lucas R. Carvalho, Cesar G. Victora, Giovanny V. A. Franca
      Pages: 6177 - 6182
      Abstract: An increase in microcephaly, associated with an epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil, prompted the World Health Organization to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2016. While knowledge on biological and epidemiological aspects of ZIKV has advanced, demographic impacts remain poorly understood. This study uses...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718476115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Patterns of everyday activities across social contexts [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Giacomo Vagni; Benjamin Cornwell
      Pages: 6183 - 6188
      Abstract: Social-scientific theory and research give rise to conflicting expectations regarding the extent to which individuals’ everyday lives in modern society follow predictable patterns of behavior. Much previous research has addressed this issue implicitly by documenting widespread trends in patterns of “time use” or “time allocation,” including trends in time devoted...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718020115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Consequences of resistance evolution in a Cas9-based sex
           conversion-suppression gene drive for insect pest management [Applied
           Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Mohammad KaramiNeȷadRanȷbar, Kolȷa N. Eckermann, Hassan M. M. Ahmed, Hector M. Sanchez C; Stefan Dippel, John M. Marshall, Ernst A. Wimmer
      Pages: 6189 - 6194
      Abstract: The use of a site-specific homing-based gene drive for insect pest control has long been discussed, but the easy design of such systems has become possible only with the recent establishment of CRISPR/Cas9 technology. In this respect, novel targets for insect pest management are provided by new discoveries regarding sex...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1713825115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Heme redox potentials hold the key to reactivity differences between
           nitric oxide reductase and heme-copper oxidase [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Ambika Bhagi–Damodaran; Julian H. Reed, Qianhong Zhu, Yelu Shi, Parisa Hosseinzadeh, Braddock A. Sandoval, Kevin A. Harnden, Shuyan Wang, Madeline R. Sponholtz, Evan N. Mirts, Sudharsan Dwaraknath, Yong Zhang, Pierre Moenne–Loccoz, Yi Lu
      Pages: 6195 - 6200
      Abstract: Despite high structural homology between NO reductases (NORs) and heme-copper oxidases (HCOs), factors governing their reaction specificity remain to be understood. Using a myoglobin-based model of NOR (FeBMb) and tuning its heme redox potentials (E°′) to cover the native NOR range, through manipulating hydrogen bonding to the proximal histidine ligand...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720298115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Convergent evolution of tertiary structure in rhodopsin visual proteins
           
    • Authors: Elliot Gerrard; Eshita Mutt, Takashi Nagata, Mitsumasa Koyanagi, Tilman Flock, Elena Lesca, Gebhard F. X. Schertler, Akihisa Terakita, Xavier Deupi, Robert J. Lucas
      Pages: 6201 - 6206
      Abstract: Box jellyfish and vertebrates are separated by>500 million years of evolution yet have structurally analogous lens eyes that employ rhodopsin photopigments for vision. All opsins possess a negatively charged residue—the counterion—to maintain visible-light sensitivity and facilitate photoisomerization of their retinaldehyde chromophore. In vertebrate rhodopsins, the molecular evolution of the...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721333115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • How electrostatic networks modulate specificity and stability of collagen
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Hongning Zheng; Cheng Lu, Jun Lan, Shilong Fan, Vikas Nanda, Fei Xu
      Pages: 6207 - 6212
      Abstract: One-quarter of the 28 types of natural collagen exist as heterotrimers. The oligomerization state of collagen affects the structure and mechanics of the extracellular matrix, providing essential cues to modulate biological and pathological processes. A lack of high-resolution structural information limits our mechanistic understanding of collagen heterospecific self-assembly. Here, the...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802171115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • An intermediate along the recovery stroke of myosin VI revealed by X-ray
           crystallography and molecular dynamics [Biophysics and Computational
           Biology]
    • Authors: Florian Blanc; Tatiana Isabet, Hannah Benisty, H. Lee Sweeney, Marco Cecchini, Anne Houdusse
      Pages: 6213 - 6218
      Abstract: Myosins form a class of actin-based, ATPase motor proteins that mediate important cellular functions such as cargo transport and cell motility. Their functional cycle involves two large-scale swings of the lever arm: the force-generating powerstroke, which takes place on actin, and the recovery stroke during which the lever arm is...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711512115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • TAp73 contributes to the oxidative stress response by regulating protein
           synthesis [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Alberto Marini; Barak Rotblat, Thomas Sbarrato, Maria Victoria Niklison-Chirou, John R. P. Knight, Kate Dudek, Carolyn Jones, Martin Bushell, Richard A. Knight, Ivano Amelio, Anne E. Willis, Gerry Melino
      Pages: 6219 - 6224
      Abstract: TAp73 is a transcription factor that plays key roles in brain development, aging, and cancer. At the cellular level, TAp73 is a critical homeostasis-maintaining factor, particularly following oxidative stress. Although major studies focused on TAp73 transcriptional activities have indicated a contribution of TAp73 to cellular metabolism, the mechanisms underlying its...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718531115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • The glycerol backbone of phospholipids derives from noncarbohydrate
           precursors in starved lung cancer cells [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Katharina Leithner; Alexander Triebl, Martin Trotzmuller, Barbara Hinteregger, Petra Leko, Beatrix I. Wieser, Gabriele Grasmann, Alexandra L. Bertsch, Thomas Zullig, Elvira Stacher, Alessandro Valli, Ruth Prassl, Andrea Olschewski, Adrian L. Harris, Harald C. Kofeler, Horst Olschewski, Andelko Hrzenȷak
      Pages: 6225 - 6230
      Abstract: Cancer cells are reprogrammed to consume large amounts of glucose to support anabolic biosynthetic pathways. However, blood perfusion and consequently the supply with glucose are frequently inadequate in solid cancers. PEPCK-M (PCK2), the mitochondrial isoform of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), has been shown by us and others to be functionally expressed...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719871115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • {beta}-Catenin-dependent mechanotransduction dates back to the common
           ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Ekaterina Pukhlyakova; Andrew J. Aman, Kareem Elsayad, Ulrich Technau
      Pages: 6231 - 6236
      Abstract: Although the genetic regulation of cellular differentiation processes is well established, recent studies have revealed the role of mechanotransduction on a variety of biological processes, including regulation of gene expression. However, it remains unclear how universal and widespread mechanotransduction is in embryonic development of animals. Here, we investigate mechanosensitive gene...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1713682115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Global signal of top-down control of terrestrial plant communities by
           herbivores [Ecology]
    • Authors: Shihong Jia; Xugao Wang, Zuoqiang Yuan, Fei Lin, Ji Ye, Zhanqing Hao, Matthew Scott Luskin
      Pages: 6237 - 6242
      Abstract: The theory of “top-down” ecological regulation predicts that herbivory suppresses plant abundance, biomass, and survival but increases diversity through the disproportionate consumption of dominant species, which inhibits competitive exclusion. To date, these outcomes have been clear in aquatic ecosystems but not on land. We explicate this discrepancy using a meta-analysis...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707984115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Limiting global-mean temperature increase to 1.5-2 {degrees}C could reduce
           the incidence and spatial spread of dengue fever in Latin America
           [Sustainability Sciences]
    • Authors: Felipe J. Colon–Gonzalez; Ian Harris, Timothy J. Osborn, Christine Steiner Sao Bernardo, Carlos A. Peres, Paul R. Hunter, Iain R. Lake
      Pages: 6243 - 6248
      Abstract: The Paris Climate Agreement aims to hold global-mean temperature well below 2 °C and to pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5 °C above preindustrial levels. While it is recognized that there are benefits for human health in limiting global warming to 1.5 °C, the magnitude with which those societal...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718945115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Comprehensive phylogeny of ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) based on
           transcriptomic and genomic data [Evolution]
    • Authors: Lily C. Hughes, Guillermo Orti, Yu Huang, Ying Sun, Carole C. Baldwin, Andrew W. Thompson, Dahiana Arcila, Ricardo Betancur–R; Chenhong Li, Leandro Becker, Nicolas Bellora, Xiaomeng Zhao, Xiaofeng Li, Min Wang, Chao Fang, Bing Xie, Zhuocheng Zhou, Hai Huang, Songlin Chen, Byrappa Venkatesh, Qiong Shi
      Pages: 6249 - 6254
      Abstract: Our understanding of phylogenetic relationships among bony fishes has been transformed by analysis of a small number of genes, but uncertainty remains around critical nodes. Genome-scale inferences so far have sampled a limited number of taxa and genes. Here we leveraged 144 genomes and 159 transcriptomes to investigate fish evolution...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719358115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Experimental evidence for delayed contingent cooperation among wild dwarf
           mongooses [Evolution]
    • Authors: Julie M. Kern; Andrew N. Radford
      Pages: 6255 - 6260
      Abstract: Many animals participate in biological markets, with strong evidence existing for immediate cooperative trades. In particular, grooming is often exchanged for itself or other commodities, such as coalitionary support or access to food and mates. More contentious is the possibility that nonhuman animals can rely on memories of recent events,...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801000115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • CFH and VIPR2 as susceptibility loci in choroidal thickness and
           pachychoroid disease central serous chorioretinopathy [Genetics]
    • Authors: Yoshikatsu Hosoda; Munemitsu Yoshikawa, Masahiro Miyake, Yasuharu Tabara, Jeeyun Ahn, Se Joon Woo, Shigeru Honda, Yoichi Sakurada, Chieko Shiragami, Hideo Nakanishi, Akio Oishi, Sotaro Ooto, Akiko Miki, Nagahama Study Group, Tomohiro Iida, Hiroyuki Iijima, Makoto Nakamura, Chiea Chuen Khor, Tien Yin Wong, Kyuyoung Song, Kyu Hyung Park, Ryo Yamada, Fumihiko Matsuda, Akitaka Tsujikawa, Kenji Yamashiro
      Pages: 6261 - 6266
      Abstract: Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a common disease affecting younger people and may lead to vision loss. CSC shares phenotypic overlap with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). As recent studies have revealed a characteristic increase of choroidal thickness in CSC, we conducted a genome-wide association study on choroidal thickness in 3,418...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802212115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • HCMV glycoprotein B subunit vaccine efficacy mediated by nonneutralizing
           antibody effector functions [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Cody S. Nelson; Tori Huffman, Jennifer A. Jenks, Eduardo Cisneros de la Rosa, Guanhua Xie, Nathan Vandergrift, Robert F. Pass, Justin Pollara, Sallie R. Permar
      Pages: 6267 - 6272
      Abstract: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common congenital infection worldwide, frequently causing hearing loss and brain damage in afflicted infants. A vaccine to prevent maternal acquisition of HCMV during pregnancy is necessary to reduce the incidence of infant disease. The glycoprotein B (gB) + MF59 adjuvant subunit vaccine platform is...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800177115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Protection from cytomegalovirus viremia following glycoprotein B
           vaccination is not dependent on neutralizing antibodies [Immunology and
           Inflammation]
    • Authors: Ilona Baraniak; Barbara Kropff, Lyn Ambrose, Megan McIntosh, Gary R. McLean, Sylvie Pichon, Claire Atkinson, Richard S. B. Milne, Michael Mach, Paul D. Griffiths, Matthew B. Reeves
      Pages: 6273 - 6278
      Abstract: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important pathogen in transplant patients and in congenital infection. Previously, we demonstrated that vaccination with a recombinant viral glycoprotein B (gB)/MF59 adjuvant formulation before solid organ transplant reduced viral load parameters post transplant. Reduced posttransplant viremia was directly correlated with antibody titers against gB consistent...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800224115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 activation prevents radiation-induced
           xerostomia by protecting salivary stem cells from toxic aldehydes [Medical
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Julie P. Saiki; Hongbin Cao, Lauren D. Van Wassenhove, Vignesh Viswanathan, Joshua Bloomstein, Dhanya K. Nambiar, Aaron J. Mattingly, Dadi Jiang, Che-Hong Chen, Matthew C. Stevens, Amanda L. Simmons, Hyun Shin Park, Rie von Eyben, Eric T. Kool, Davud Sirjani, Sarah M. Knox, Quynh Thu Le, Daria Mochly-Rosen
      Pages: 6279 - 6284
      Abstract: Xerostomia (dry mouth) is the most common side effect of radiation therapy in patients with head and neck cancer and causes difficulty speaking and swallowing. Since aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) is highly expressed in mouse salivary stem/progenitor cells (SSPCs), we sought to determine the role of ALDH3A1 in SSPCs using...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802184115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Selection of Plasmodium falciparum cytochrome B mutants by putative PfNDH2
           inhibitors [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Kristin D. Lane; Jianbing Mu, Jinghua Lu, Sean T. Windle, Anna Liu, Peter D. Sun, Thomas E. Wellems
      Pages: 6285 - 6290
      Abstract: Malaria control is threatened by a limited pipeline of effective pharmaceuticals against drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) are attractive targets for drug development, owing to exploitable differences between the parasite and human ETC. Disruption of ETC function interferes with metabolic processes including...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804492115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Increase in chemokine CXCL1 by ER{beta} ligand treatment is a key mediator
           in promoting axon myelination [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Hawra Karim; Sung Hoon Kim, Andrew S. Lapato, Norio Yasui, John A. Katzenellenbogen, Seema K. Tiwari-Woodruff
      Pages: 6291 - 6296
      Abstract: Estrogen receptor β (ERβ) ligands promote remyelination in mouse models of multiple sclerosis. Recent work using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has shown that ERβ ligands induce axon remyelination, but impact peripheral inflammation to varying degrees. To identify if ERβ ligands initiate a common immune mechanism in remyelination, central and peripheral...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721732115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Navigation of brain networks [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Caio Seguin; Martijn P. van den Heuvel, Andrew Zalesky
      Pages: 6297 - 6302
      Abstract: Understanding the mechanisms of neural communication in large-scale brain networks remains a major goal in neuroscience. We investigated whether navigation is a parsimonious routing model for connectomics. Navigating a network involves progressing to the next node that is closest in distance to a desired destination. We developed a measure to...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801351115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Local apoptotic-like mechanisms underlie complement-mediated synaptic
           pruning [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Balazs A. Gyorffy; Judit Kun, Gyorgy Torok, Eva Bulyaki, Zsolt Borhegyi, Peter Gulyassy, Viktor Kis, Peter Szocsics, Andras Micsonai, Janos Matko, Laszlo Drahos, Gabor Juhasz, Katalin A. Kekesi, Jozsef Kardos
      Pages: 6303 - 6308
      Abstract: C1q, a member of the immune complement cascade, is implicated in the selective pruning of synapses by microglial phagocytosis. C1q-mediated synapse elimination has been shown to occur during brain development, while increased activation and complement-dependent synapse loss is observed in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying C1q-controlled synaptic pruning...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722613115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
  • Functional diversification of Arabidopsis SEC1-related SM proteins in
           cytokinetic and secretory membrane fusion [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Matthias Karnahl; Misoon Park, Cornelia Krause, Ulrike Hiller, Ulrike Mayer, York–Dieter Stierhof, Gerd Jurgens
      Pages: 6309 - 6314
      Abstract: Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins contribute to membrane fusion by interacting with Qa-SNAREs or nascent trans-SNARE complexes. Gymnosperms and the basal angiosperm Amborella have only a single SEC1 gene related to the KEULE gene in Arabidopsis. However, the genomes of most angiosperms including Arabidopsis encode three SEC1-related SM proteins of which only...
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T09:36:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722611115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 24 (2018)
       
 
 
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