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Journal Cover Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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   ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
   Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Minimizing irreversible losses in quantum systems by local counterdiabatic
           driving [Physics]
    • Authors: Dries Sels; Anatoli Polkovnikov
      Abstract: Counterdiabatic driving protocols have been proposed [Demirplak M, Rice SA (2003) J Chem Phys A 107:9937–9945; Berry M (2009) J Phys A Math Theor 42:365303] as a means to make fast changes in the Hamiltonian without exciting transitions. Such driving in principle allows one to realize arbitrarily fast annealing protocols...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619826114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Compositional data supports decentralized model of production and
           circulation of artifacts in the pre-Columbian south-central Andes
           [Anthropology]
    • Authors: Marisa Lazzari; Lucas Pereyra Domingorena, Wesley D. Stoner, Maria Cristina Scattolin, Maria Aleȷandra Korstanȷe, Michael D. Glascock
      Abstract: The circulation and exchange of goods and resources at various scales have long been considered central to the understanding of complex societies, and the Andes have provided a fertile ground for investigating this process. However, long-standing archaeological emphasis on typological analysis, although helpful to hypothesize the direction of contacts, has...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1610494114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Molecular mechanism of multispecific recognition of Calmodulin through
           conformational changes [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Fei Liu; Xiakun Chu, H. Peter Lu, Jin Wang
      Abstract: Calmodulin (CaM) is found to have the capability to bind multiple targets. Investigations on the association mechanism of CaM to its targets are crucial for understanding protein–protein binding and recognition. Here, we developed a structure-based model to explore the binding process between CaM and skMLCK binding peptide. We found the...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1615949114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Spinal motor neuron protein supersaturation patterns are associated with
           inclusion body formation in ALS [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Prajwal Ciryam; Isabella A. Lambert-Smith, Daniel M. Bean, Rosie Freer, Fernando Cid, Gian Gaetano Tartaglia, Darren N. Saunders, Mark R. Wilson, Stephen G. Oliver, Richard I. Morimoto, Christopher M. Dobson, Michele Vendruscolo, Giorgio Favrin, Justin J. Yerbury
      Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a heterogeneous degenerative motor neuron disease linked to numerous genetic mutations in apparently unrelated proteins. These proteins, including SOD1, TDP-43, and FUS, are highly aggregation-prone and form a variety of intracellular inclusion bodies that are characteristic of different neuropathological subtypes of the disease. Contained within...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1613854114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Different phosphoisoforms of RNA polymerase II engage the Rtt103
           termination factor in a structurally analogous manner [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Corey M. Nemec; Fan Yang, Joshua M. Gilmore, Corinna Hintermair, Yi-Hsuan Ho, Sandra C. Tseng, Martin Heidemann, Ying Zhang, Laurence Florens, Audrey P. Gasch, Dirk Eick, Michael P. Washburn, Gabriele Varani, Aseem Z. Ansari
      Abstract: The carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) orchestrates dynamic recruitment of specific cellular machines during different stages of transcription. Signature phosphorylation patterns of Y1S2P3T4S5P6S7 heptapeptide repeats of the CTD engage specific “readers.” Whereas phospho-Ser5 and phospho-Ser2 marks are ubiquitous, phospho-Thr4 is reported to...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700128114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Pre/pro-B cells generate macrophage populations during homeostasis and
           inflammation [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Tatsiana Audzevich; Rachael Bashford-Rogers, Neil A. Mabbott, Dan Frampton, Tom C. Freeman, Alexandre Potocnik, Paul Kellam, Derek W. Gilroy
      Abstract: Most tissue-resident macrophages (Mφs) are believed to be derived prenatally and are assumed to maintain themselves throughout life by self-proliferation. However, in adult mice we identified a progenitor within bone marrow, early pro-B cell/fraction B, that differentiates into tissue Mφs. These Mφ precursors have non-rearranged B-cell receptor genes and coexpress...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616417114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • {Delta}Np63{alpha} is a common inhibitory target in oncogenic
           PI3K/Ras/Her2-induced cell motility and tumor metastasis [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Linshan Hu; Shan Liang, Hu Chen, Tao Lv, Junfeng Wu, Deshi Chen, Min Wu, Shengnan Sun, Haibo Zhang, Han You, Hongbin Ji, Yujun Zhang, Johann Bergholz, Zhi-Xiong Jim Xiao
      Abstract: Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), Ras, and Her2 signaling plays a critical role in cancer development. Hotspot constitutive activating mutations in oncogenes, such as PIK3CA encoding the p110α catalytic subunit or RAS, as well as overexpression of Her2, are frequently found in human tumors and cancers. It has been...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617816114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Molecular codes for cell type specification in Brn3 retinal ganglion cells
           [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Szilard Sajgo; Miruna Georgiana Ghinia, Matthew Brooks, Friedrich Kretschmer, Katherine Chuang, Suja Hiriyanna, Zhijian Wu, Octavian Popescu, Tudor Constantin Badea
      Abstract: Visual information is conveyed from the eye to the brain by distinct types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). It is largely unknown how RGCs acquire their defining morphological and physiological features and connect to upstream and downstream synaptic partners. The three Brn3/Pou4f transcription factors (TFs) participate in a combinatorial code...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618551114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Structural variants caused by Alu insertions are associated with risks for
           many human diseases [Genetics]
    • Authors: Lindsay M. Payer; Jared P. Steranka, Wan Rou Yang, Maria Kryatova, Sibyl Medabalimi, Daniel Ardeljan, Chunhong Liu, Jef D. Boeke, Dimitri Avramopoulos, Kathleen H. Burns
      Abstract: Interspersed repeat sequences comprise much of our DNA, although their functional effects are poorly understood. The most commonly occurring repeat is the Alu short interspersed element. New Alu insertions occur in human populations, and have been responsible for several instances of genetic disease. In this study, we sought to determine...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704117114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Brd4 modulates the innate immune response through Mnk2-eIF4E
           pathway-dependent translational control of I{kappa}B{alpha} [Immunology
           and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Yan Bao; Xuewei Wu, Jinjing Chen, Xiangming Hu, Fuxing Zeng, Jianjun Cheng, Hong Jin, Xin Lin, Lin-Feng Chen
      Abstract: Bromodomain-containing factor Brd4 has emerged as an important transcriptional regulator of NF-κB–dependent inflammatory gene expression. However, the in vivo physiological function of Brd4 in the inflammatory response remains poorly defined. We now demonstrate that mice deficient for Brd4 in myeloid-lineage cells are resistant to LPS-induced sepsis but are more susceptible...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700109114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • SP and IL-33 together markedly enhance TNF synthesis and secretion from
           human mast cells mediated by the interaction of their receptors
           [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Alexandra Taracanova; Mihail Alevizos, Anna Karagkouni, Zuiy Weng, Errol Norwitz, Pio Conti, Susan E. Leeman, Theoharis C. Theoharides
      Abstract: The peptide substance P (SP) and the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) have been implicated in inflammatory processes. Mast cells are recognized as important in inflammatory responses. Here, we report that IL-33 (30 ng/mL), a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines, administered in combination with SP (1 µM), markedly...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1524845114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Inducible Fgf13 ablation enhances caveolae-mediated cardioprotection
           during cardiac pressure overload [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Eric Q. Wei; Daniel S. Sinden, Lan Mao, Hailin Zhang, Chuan Wang, Geoffrey S. Pitt
      Abstract: The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) homologous factor FGF13, a noncanonical FGF, has been best characterized as a voltage-gated Na+ channel auxiliary subunit. Other cellular functions have been suggested, but not explored. In inducible, cardiac-specific Fgf13 knockout mice, we found—even in the context of the expected reduction in Na+ channel current—an...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616393114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • GRP78 haploinsufficiency suppresses acinar-to-ductal metaplasia,
           signaling, and mutant Kras-driven pancreatic tumorigenesis in mice
           [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Jieli Shen; Dat P. Ha, Genyuan Zhu, Daisy F. Rangel, Agnieszka Kobielak, Parkash S. Gill, Susan Groshen, Louis Dubeau, Amy S. Lee
      Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a highly lethal disease in critical need of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we report that the stress-inducible 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78/HSPA5), a key regulator of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis and PI3K/AKT signaling, is overexpressed in the acini and PDAC of Pdx1-Cre;KrasG12D/+;p53f/+ (PKC) mice as early as...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616060114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Suppressors and activators of JAK-STAT signaling at diagnosis and relapse
           of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Down syndrome [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Omer Schwartzman; Angela Maria Savino, Michael Gombert, Chiara Palmi, Gunnar Cario, Martin Schrappe, Cornelia Eckert, Arend von Stackelberg, Jin-Yan Huang, Michal Hameiri-Grossman, Smadar Avigad, Geertruy te Kronnie, Ifat Geron, Yehudit Birger, Avigail Rein, Giulia Zarfati, Ute Fischer, Zohar Mukamel, Martin Stanulla, Andrea Biondi, Giovanni Cazzaniga, Amedeo Vetere, Bridget K. Wagner, Zhu Chen, Sai-Juan Chen, Amos Tanay, Arndt Borkhardt, Shai Izraeli
      Abstract: Children with Down syndrome (DS) are prone to development of high-risk B-cell precursor ALL (DS-ALL), which differs genetically from most sporadic pediatric ALLs. Increased expression of cytokine receptor-like factor 2 (CRLF2), the receptor to thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), characterizes about half of DS-ALLs and also a subgroup of sporadic “Philadelphia-like”...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702489114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Protein-mediated viral latency is a novel mechanism for Merkel cell
           polyomavirus persistence [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Hyun Jin Kwun; Yuan Chang, Patrick S. Moore
      Abstract: Viral latency, in which a virus genome does not replicate independently of the host cell genome and produces no infectious particles, is required for long-term virus persistence. There is no known latency mechanism for chronic small DNA virus infections. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) causes an aggressive skin cancer after prolonged...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703879114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • MEF2D haploinsufficiency downregulates the NRF2 pathway and renders
           photoreceptors susceptible to light-induced oxidative stress
           [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Saumya Nagar; Sarah M. Noveral, Dorit Trudler, Kevin M. Lopez, Scott R. McKercher, Xuemei Han, John R. Yates III, Juan C. Pina–Crespo, Nobuki Nakanishi, Takumi Satoh, Shu–ichi Okamoto, Stuart A. Lipton
      Abstract: Gaining mechanistic insight into interaction between causative factors of complex multifactorial diseases involving photoreceptor damage might aid in devising effective therapies. Oxidative stress is one of the potential unifying mechanisms for interplay between genetic and environmental factors that contribute to photoreceptor pathology. Interestingly, the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2d...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1613067114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Universal transition from unstructured to structured neural maps
           [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Marvin Weigand; Fabio Sartori, Hermann Cuntz
      Abstract: Neurons sharing similar features are often selectively connected with a higher probability and should be located in close vicinity to save wiring. Selective connectivity has, therefore, been proposed to be the cause for spatial organization in cortical maps. Interestingly, orientation preference (OP) maps in the visual cortex are found in...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616163114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Evolutionarily conserved TRH neuropeptide pathway regulates growth in
           Caenorhabditis elegans [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Elien Van Sinay; Olivier Mirabeau, Geert Depuydt, Matthias Boris Van Hiel, Katleen Peymen, Jan Watteyne, Sven Zels, Liliane Schoofs, Isabel Beets
      Abstract: In vertebrates thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a highly conserved neuropeptide that exerts the hormonal control of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels as well as neuromodulatory functions. However, a functional equivalent in protostomian animals remains unknown, although TRH receptors are conserved in proto- and deuterostomians. Here we identify a TRH-like neuropeptide precursor...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617392114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Opposing roles of primate areas 25 and 32 and their putative rodent
           homologs in the regulation of negative emotion [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Chloe U. Wallis; Rudolf N. Cardinal, Laith Alexander, Angela C. Roberts, Hannah F. Clarke
      Abstract: Disorders of dysregulated negative emotion such as depression and anxiety also feature increased cardiovascular mortality and decreased heart-rate variability (HRV). These disorders are correlated with dysfunction within areas 25 and 32 of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), but a causal relationship between dysregulation of these areas and such symptoms has...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620115114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • A normalization model suggests that attention changes the weighting of
           inputs between visual areas [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Douglas A. Ruff; Marlene R. Cohen
      Abstract: Models of divisive normalization can explain the trial-averaged responses of neurons in sensory, association, and motor areas under a wide range of conditions, including how visual attention changes the gains of neurons in visual cortex. Attention, like other modulatory processes, is also associated with changes in the extent to which...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619857114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Folate rescues vitamin B12 depletion-induced inhibition of nuclear
           thymidylate biosynthesis and genome instability [Physiology]
    • Authors: Ashley M. Palmer; Elena Kamynina, Martha S. Field, Patrick J. Stover
      Abstract: Clinical vitamin B12 deficiency can result in megaloblastic anemia, which results from the inhibition of DNA synthesis by trapping folate cofactors in the form of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF) and subsequent inhibition of de novo thymidylate (dTMP) biosynthesis. In the cytosol, vitamin B12 functions in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine, which...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619582114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Evidence of strain structure in Plasmodium falciparum var gene repertoires
           in children from Gabon, West Africa [Population Biology]
    • Authors: Karen P. Day; Yael Artzy-Randrup, Kathryn E. Tiedje, Virginie Rougeron, Donald S. Chen, Thomas S. Rask, Mary M. Rorick, Florence Migot-Nabias, Philippe Deloron, Adrian J. F. Luty, Mercedes Pascual
      Abstract: Existing theory on competition for hosts between pathogen strains has proposed that immune selection can lead to the maintenance of strain structure consisting of discrete, weakly overlapping antigenic repertoires. This prediction of strain theory has conceptual overlap with fundamental ideas in ecology on niche partitioning and limiting similarity between coexisting...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1613018114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Correction for Dixon et al., Highly efficient delivery of functional
           cargoes by the synergistic effect of GAG binding motifs and
           cell-penetrating peptides [Correction]
    • Abstract: CELL BIOLOGY Correction for “Highly efficient delivery of functional cargoes by the synergistic effect of GAG binding motifs and cell-penetrating peptides,” by James E. Dixon, Gizem Osman, Gavin E. Morris, Hareklea Markides, Michael Rotherham, Zahia Bayoussef, Alicia J. El Haj, Chris Denning, and Kevin M. Shakesheff, which appeared in issue...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704696114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Correction for Chen et al., Intestinal NCoR1, a regulator of epithelial
           cell maturation, controls neonatal hyperbilirubinemia [Correction]
    • Abstract: DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Correction for “Intestinal NCoR1, a regulator of epithelial cell maturation, controls neonatal hyperbilirubinemia,” by Shujuan Chen, Wenqi Lu, Mei-Fei Yueh, Eva Rettenmeier, Miao Liu, Johan Auwerx, Ruth T. Yu, Ronald M. Evans, Kepeng Wang, Michael Karin, and Robert H. Tukey, which appeared in issue 8, February 21, 2017,...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705671114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Correction for Hobbie et al., Contrasting nitrogen and phosphorus budgets
           in urban watersheds and implications for managing urban water pollution
           [Correction]
    • Abstract: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES, SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE Correction for “Contrasting nitrogen and phosphorus budgets in urban watersheds and implications for managing urban water pollution,” by Sarah E. Hobbie, Jacques C. Finlay, Benjamin D. Janke, Daniel A. Nidzgorski, Dylan B. Millet, and Lawrence A. Baker, which appeared in issue 16, April 18, 2017, of...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706049114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Correction for Burak and Fiete, Fundamental limits on persistent activity
           in networks of noisy neurons [Correction]
    • Abstract: NEUROSCIENCE, PHYSICS Correction for “Fundamental limits on persistent activity in networks of noisy neurons,” by Yoram Burak and Ila R. Fiete, which appeared in issue 43, October 23, 2012, of Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (109:17645–17650; first published October 9, 2012; 10.1073/pnas.1117386109). The authors note that, due to a printer’s...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706051114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Failure to replicate a genetic signal for sex bias in the steppe migration
           into central Europe [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Iosif Lazaridis; David Reich
      Abstract: Goldberg et al. (1) used genome-wide ancient DNA data (2) from central European Bronze Age (BA) populations and their three ancestral sources of steppe pastoralists (SP), Anatolian farmers (AF), and European hunter-gatherers (HG) to investigate whether the SP migration into central Europe after 5,000 years ago (3, 4) was sex-biased....
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704308114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Reply to Lazaridis and Reich: Robust model-based inference of male-biased
           admixture during Bronze Age migration from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe
           [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Amy Goldberg; Torsten Gunther, Noah A. Rosenberg, Mattias Jakobsson
      Abstract: By comparing the sex-specifically inherited X chromosome to the autosomes in ancient genetic samples, we (1) studied sex-specific admixture for two prehistoric migrations. For each migration we used several admixture estimation procedures—including ADMIXTURE model-based clustering (2)—to compare X-chromosomal and autosomal ancestry in contemporaneous Central Europeans and we interpreted greater admixture...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704442114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • B vitamins and pollution, an interesting, emerging, yet incomplete picture
           of folate and the exposome [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Mark Lucock; Patrice Jones, Martin Veysey, Emma Beckett
      Abstract: We read the interesting article by Zhong et al. (1) describing how B-vitamin supplementation reduces the adverse epigenetic response to fine particles associated with air pollution. However, we feel it is extremely premature to suggest, as the authors do, that “individual-level prevention” via vitamin supplements “might be used as prevention...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704662114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Reply to Lucock et al.: Significance of interpretation and
           misinterpretation of a small mechanistic study [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Jia Zhong; Mary Speck, Bruce Urch, Frances Silverman, Diane R. Gold, Petros Koutrakis, Andrea A. Baccarelli
      Abstract: The aim of our small mechanistic study (1) was to test the biologic plausibility that ambient particle pollution might have epigenetic effects on DNA methylation that could be modulated by methyl donor supplements. We acknowledge in this letter and in our paper that generalizability of our results is limited not...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704718114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Cell geometry dictates TNF{alpha}-induced genome response [Applied
           Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Aninda Mitra; Saradha Venkatachalapathy, Prasuna Ratna, Yejun Wang, Doorgesh Sharma Jokhun, G. V. Shivashankar
      Abstract: Cells in physiology integrate local soluble and mechanical signals to regulate genomic programs. Whereas the individual roles of these signals are well studied, the cellular responses to the combined chemical and physical signals are less explored. Here, we investigated the cross-talk between cellular geometry and TNFα signaling. We stabilized NIH...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618007114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Shape-driven solid-solid transitions in colloids [Applied Physical
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Chrisy Xiyu Du; Greg van Anders, Richmond S. Newman, Sharon C. Glotzer
      Abstract: Solid–solid phase transitions are the most ubiquitous in nature, and many technologies rely on them. However, studying them in detail is difficult because of the extreme conditions (high pressure/temperature) under which many such transitions occur and the high-resolution equipment needed to capture the intermediate states of the transformations. These difficulties...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621348114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Stability of bound species during alkene reactions on solid acids
           [Engineering]
    • Authors: Michele L. Sarazen; Enrique Iglesia
      Abstract: This study reports the thermodynamics of bound species derived from ethene, propene, n-butene, and isobutene on solid acids with diverse strength and confining voids. Density functional theory (DFT) and kinetic data indicate that covalently bound alkoxides form C–C bonds in the kinetically relevant step for dimerization turnovers on protons within...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619557114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 5059 - 5059
      Abstract: Trade in the pre-Columbian Andes Vaquerías ware, Cajón Valley. The long-distance exchange of goods and resources is a key factor in the development of complex societies. To improve understanding of ancient trade practices, Marisa Lazzari et al. (pp. E3917–E3926) examined the exchange of ceramics, obsidian artifacts, and volcanic rock tools...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti2017114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Inner Workings: In search for “magic” nuclei, theory catches up to
           experiments [Physics]
    • Authors: Mark Zastrow
      Pages: 5060 - 5062
      Abstract: The bundle of 78 nucleons in a single nickel-78 nucleus are infinitesimal. And yet, calculating that nucleus’s structure entailed an enormous computing effort: 5 million CPU hours on the most powerful supercomputer in the United States. The results could offer key insights into the potential existence of the long-sought “island...
      Keywords: Inner Workings, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703620114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • QnAs with Angel Rubio [QnAs]
    • Authors: Paul Gabrielsen
      Pages: 5063 - 5064
      Abstract: Just as physics requires a different set of tools to explore phenomena at the quantum scale, chemistry requires a quantum paradigm. At the macroscale, the interaction of light with chemical entities can be observed in processes such as photosynthesis. But the actual interaction between photons and other matter occurs in...
      Keywords: QnAs
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706190114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Supersaturated proteins in ALS [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Elliott Hayden; Alan Cone, Shulin Ju
      Pages: 5065 - 5066
      Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by rapidly progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Although most forms of ALS are sporadic (sALS), ∼10% of cases are inherited in families (fALS). More than 50 ALS genes have been identified, with 16 of...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704885114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Long reach of inclusive fitness [Evolution]
    • Authors: Lee Alan Dugatkin
      Pages: 5067 - 5068
      Abstract: Inclusive fitness theory is one of the central paradigms of behavioral ecology (1, 2). Initially developed to explain the effect of genetic relatedness on prosocial behaviors such as altruism and cooperation, the power of inclusive fitness thinking became even more evident when modifications to the original models were applied to...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705324114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Compass in the data ocean: Toward chronotherapy [Systems Biology]
    • Authors: Rikuhiro G. Yamada; Hiroki R. Ueda
      Pages: 5069 - 5071
      Abstract: In the globalized modern society, the world is continuously moving 24 h a day 7 d a week. Prominent cities on the earth can be seen brightly lit at night from outer space. People on earth have daily (circadian) rhythms based more on their social circumstances than on natural cycles...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705326114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Optimal incentives for collective intelligence [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Richard P. Mann; Dirk Helbing
      Pages: 5077 - 5082
      Abstract: Collective intelligence is the ability of a group to perform more effectively than any individual alone. Diversity among group members is a key condition for the emergence of collective intelligence, but maintaining diversity is challenging in the face of social pressure to imitate one’s peers. Through an evolutionary game-theoretic model...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618722114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of the Markovian Mpemba effect and its
           inverse [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Zhiyue Lu; Oren Raz
      Pages: 5083 - 5088
      Abstract: Under certain conditions, it takes a shorter time to cool a hot system than to cool the same system initiated at a lower temperature. This phenomenon—the “Mpemba effect”—was first observed in water and has recently been reported in other systems. Whereas several detail-dependent explanations were suggested for some of these...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701264114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Chemotaxis and autochemotaxis of self-propelling droplet swimmers [Applied
           Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Chenyu Jin; Carsten Kruger, Corinna C. Maass
      Pages: 5089 - 5094
      Abstract: Chemotaxis and autochemotaxis play an important role in many essential biological processes. We present a self-propelling artificial swimmer system that exhibits chemotaxis as well as negative autochemotaxis. Oil droplets in an aqueous surfactant solution are driven by interfacial Marangoni flows induced by micellar solubilization of the oil phase. We demonstrate...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619783114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Single-stranded nucleic acid elasticity arises from internal electrostatic
           tension [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: David R. Jacobson; Dustin B. McIntosh, Mark J. Stevens, Michael Rubinstein, Omar A. Saleh
      Pages: 5095 - 5100
      Abstract: Understanding of the conformational ensemble of flexible polyelectrolytes, such as single-stranded nucleic acids (ssNAs), is complicated by the interplay of chain backbone entropy and salt-dependent electrostatic repulsions. Molecular elasticity measurements are sensitive probes of the statistical conformation of polymers and have elucidated ssNA conformation at low force, where electrostatic repulsion...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701132114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Enantiomerically enriched, polycrystalline molecular sieves [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Stephen K. Brand; Joel E. Schmidt, Michael W. Deem, Frits Daeyaert, Yanhang Ma, Osamu Terasaki, Marat Orazov, Mark E. Davis
      Pages: 5101 - 5106
      Abstract: Zeolite and zeolite-like molecular sieves are being used in a large number of applications such as adsorption and catalysis. Achievement of the long-standing goal of creating a chiral, polycrystalline molecular sieve with bulk enantioenrichment would enable these materials to perform enantioselective functions. Here, we report the synthesis of enantiomerically enriched...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704638114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Biocompatible and totally disintegrable semiconducting polymer for
           ultrathin and ultralightweight transient electronics [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Ting Lei; Ming Guan, Jia Liu, Hung-Cheng Lin, Raphael Pfattner, Leo Shaw, Allister F. McGuire, Tsung-Ching Huang, Leilai Shao, Kwang-Ting Cheng, Jeffrey B.-H. Tok, Zhenan Bao
      Pages: 5107 - 5112
      Abstract: Increasing performance demands and shorter use lifetimes of consumer electronics have resulted in the rapid growth of electronic waste. Currently, consumer electronics are typically made with nondecomposable, nonbiocompatible, and sometimes even toxic materials, leading to serious ecological challenges worldwide. Here, we report an example of totally disintegrable and biocompatible semiconducting...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701478114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Impact of backbone fluorination on nanoscale morphology and excitonic
           coupling in polythiophenes [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Zhongjian Hu; Ryan T. Haws, Zhuping Fei, Pierre Boufflet, Martin Heeney, Peter J. Rossky, David A. Vanden Bout
      Pages: 5113 - 5118
      Abstract: Fluorination represents an important strategy in developing high-performance conjugated polymers for photovoltaic applications. Here, we use regioregular poly(3-ethylhexylthiophene) (P3EHT) and poly(3-ethylhexyl-4-fluorothiophene) (F-P3EHT) as simplified model materials, using single-molecule/aggregate spectroscopy and molecular dynamic simulations, to elucidate the impacts of backbone fluorination on morphology and excitonic coupling on the molecular scale. Despite...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620722114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Paper-based plasma sanitizers [Engineering]
    • Authors: Jingjin Xie; Qiang Chen, Poornima Suresh, Subrata Roy, James F. White, Aaron D. Mazzeo
      Pages: 5119 - 5124
      Abstract: This work describes disposable plasma generators made from metallized paper. The fabricated plasma generators with layered and patterned sheets of paper provide a simple and flexible format for dielectric barrier discharge to create atmospheric plasma without an applied vacuum. The porosity of paper allows gas to permeate its bulk volume...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621203114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Photonic hypercrystals for control of light-matter interactions
           [Engineering]
    • Authors: Tal Galfsky; Jie Gu, Evgenii E. Narimanov, Vinod M. Menon
      Pages: 5125 - 5129
      Abstract: Photonic crystals (PCs) have emerged as one of the most widely used platforms for controlling light–matter interaction in solid-state systems. They rely on Bragg scattering from wavelength-sized periodic modulation in the dielectric environment for manipulating the electromagnetic field. A complementary approach to manipulate light–matter interaction is offered by artificial media...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702683114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • The role of momentum transfer during incoherent neutron scattering is
           explained by the energy landscape model [Biophysics and Computational
           Biology]
    • Authors: Hans Frauenfelder; Robert D. Young, Paul W. Fenimore
      Pages: 5130 - 5135
      Abstract: We recently introduced a model of incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) that treats the neutrons as wave packets of finite length and the protein as a random walker in the free energy landscape. We call the model ELM for “energy landscape model.” In ELM, the interaction of the wave packet...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1612267114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Mechanism of signal propagation in Physarum polycephalum [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Karen Alim; Natalie Andrew, Anne Pringle, Michael P. Brenner
      Pages: 5136 - 5141
      Abstract: Complex behaviors are typically associated with animals, but the capacity to integrate information and function as a coordinated individual is also a ubiquitous but poorly understood feature of organisms such as slime molds and fungi. Plasmodial slime molds grow as networks and use flexible, undifferentiated body plans to forage for...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618114114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Novel quantum phase transition from bounded to extensive entanglement
           [Physics]
    • Authors: Zhao Zhang; Amr Ahmadain, Israel Klich
      Pages: 5142 - 5146
      Abstract: The nature of entanglement in many-body systems is a focus of intense research with the observation that entanglement holds interesting information about quantum correlations in large systems and their relation to phase transitions. In particular, it is well known that although generic, many-body states have large, extensive entropy, ground states...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702029114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Revealing the frictional transition in shear-thickening suspensions
           [Physics]
    • Authors: Cecile Clavaud; Antoine Berut, Bloen Metzger, Yoel Forterre
      Pages: 5147 - 5152
      Abstract: Shear thickening in dense particulate suspensions was recently proposed to be driven by the activation of friction above an onset stress needed to overcome repulsive forces between particles. Testing this scenario represents a major challenge because classical rheological approaches do not provide access to the frictional properties of suspensions. Here...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703926114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Brain connectivity dynamics during social interaction reflect social
           network structure [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Ralf Schmalzle; Matthew Brook O’Donnell, Javier O. Garcia, Christopher N. Cascio, Joseph Bayer, Danielle S. Bassett, Jean M. Vettel, Emily B. Falk
      Pages: 5153 - 5158
      Abstract: Social ties are crucial for humans. Disruption of ties through social exclusion has a marked effect on our thoughts and feelings; however, such effects can be tempered by broader social network resources. Here, we use fMRI data acquired from 80 male adolescents to investigate how social exclusion modulates functional connectivity...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616130114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Effect of media presentations on willingness to commit to organ donation
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Inbal Harel; Tehila Kogut, Meir Pinchas, Paul Slovic
      Pages: 5159 - 5164
      Abstract: We examine how presentations of organ donation cases in the media may affect people's willingness to sign organ donation commitment cards, donate the organs of a deceased relative, support the transition to an “opt-out” policy, or donate a kidney while alive. We found that providing identifying information about the prospective...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703020114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Maize defective kernel mutant generated by insertion of a Ds element in a
           
    • Authors: Nelson Garcia; Yubin Li, Hugo K. Dooner, Joachim Messing
      Pages: 5165 - 5170
      Abstract: We have used the newly engineered transposable element Dsg to tag a gene that gives rise to a defective kernel (dek) phenotype. Dsg requires the autonomous element Ac for transposition. Upon excision, it leaves a short DNA footprint that can create in-frame and frameshift insertions in coding sequences. Therefore, we...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703498114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Efficient assignment and NMR analysis of an intact virus using sequential
           side-chain correlations and DNP sensitization [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Ivan V. Sergeyev; Boris Itin, Rivkah Rogawski, Loren A. Day, Ann E. McDermott
      Pages: 5171 - 5176
      Abstract: An experimental strategy has been developed to increase the efficiency of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in solid-state NMR studies. The method makes assignments simpler, faster, and more reliable via sequential correlations of both side-chain and Cα resonances. The approach is particularly suited to complex biomolecules and systems with significant chemical-shift...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701484114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Golgi apparatus self-organizes into the characteristic shape via
           postmitotic reassembly dynamics [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Masashi Tachikawa; Atsushi Mochizuki
      Pages: 5177 - 5182
      Abstract: The Golgi apparatus is a membrane-bounded organelle with the characteristic shape of a series of stacked flat cisternae. During mitosis in mammalian cells, the Golgi apparatus is once fragmented into small vesicles and then reassembled to form the characteristic shape again in each daughter cell. The mechanism and details of...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619264114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Elucidating interplay of speed and accuracy in biological error correction
           [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Kinshuk Banerjee; Anatoly B. Kolomeisky, Oleg A. Igoshin
      Pages: 5183 - 5188
      Abstract: One of the most fascinating features of biological systems is the ability to sustain high accuracy of all major cellular processes despite the stochastic nature of underlying chemical processes. It is widely believed that such low error values are the result of the error-correcting mechanism known as kinetic proofreading. However,...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1614838114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Sequential allosteric mechanism of ATP hydrolysis by the CCT/TRiC
           chaperone is revealed through Arrhenius analysis [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Ranit Gruber; Michael Levitt, Amnon Horovitz
      Pages: 5189 - 5194
      Abstract: Knowing the mechanism of allosteric switching is important for understanding how molecular machines work. The CCT/TRiC chaperonin nanomachine undergoes ATP-driven conformational changes that are crucial for its folding function. Here, we demonstrate that insight into its allosteric mechanism of ATP hydrolysis can be achieved by Arrhenius analysis. Our results show...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617746114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Vimentin fibers orient traction stress [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Nancy Costigliola; Liya Ding, Christoph J. Burckhardt, Sangyoon J. Han, Edgar Gutierrez, Andressa Mota, Alex Groisman, Timothy J. Mitchison, Gaudenz Danuser
      Pages: 5195 - 5200
      Abstract: The intermediate filament vimentin is required for cells to transition from the epithelial state to the mesenchymal state and migrate as single cells; however, little is known about the specific role of vimentin in the regulation of mesenchymal migration. Vimentin is known to have a significantly greater ability to resist...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1614610114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Human phosphatase CDC14A regulates actin organization through
           dephosphorylation of epithelial protein lost in neoplasm [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Nan-Peng Chen; Borhan Uddin, Robert Hardt, Wen Ding, Marko Panic, Ilaria Lucibello, Patricia Kammerer, Thomas Ruppert, Elmar Schiebel
      Pages: 5201 - 5206
      Abstract: CDC14 is an essential dual-specificity phosphatase that counteracts CDK1 activity during anaphase to promote mitotic exit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Surprisingly, human CDC14A is not essential for cell cycle progression. Instead, it regulates cell migration and cell adhesion. Little is known about the substrates of hCDC14A and the counteracting kinases. Here,...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619356114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Explaining negative kin discrimination in a cooperative mammal society
           [Evolution]
    • Authors: Faye J. Thompson; Michael A. Cant, Harry H. Marshall, Emma I. K. Vitikainen, Jennifer L. Sanderson, Hazel J. Nichols, Jason S. Gilchrist, Matthew B. V. Bell, Andrew J. Young, Sarah J. Hodge, Rufus A. Johnstone
      Pages: 5207 - 5212
      Abstract: Kin selection theory predicts that, where kin discrimination is possible, animals should typically act more favorably toward closer genetic relatives and direct aggression toward less closely related individuals. Contrary to this prediction, we present data from an 18-y study of wild banded mongooses, Mungos mungo, showing that females that are...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1612235114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • African genomes illuminate the early history and transition to selfing in
           Arabidopsis thaliana [Evolution]
    • Authors: Arun Durvasula; Andrea Fulgione, Rafal M. Gutaker, Selen Irez Alacakaptan, Padraic J. Flood, Celia Neto, Takashi Tsuchimatsu, Hernan A. Burbano, F. Xavier Pico, Carlos Alonso–Blanco, Angela M. Hancock
      Pages: 5213 - 5218
      Abstract: Over the past 20 y, many studies have examined the history of the plant ecological and molecular model, Arabidopsis thaliana, in Europe and North America. Although these studies informed us about the recent history of the species, the early history has remained elusive. In a large-scale genomic analysis of African...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616736114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • High-density lipoprotein receptor SCARB1 is required for carotenoid
           coloration in birds [Evolution]
    • Authors: Matthew B. Toomey; Ricardo J. Lopes, Pedro M. Arauȷo, James D. Johnson, Małgorzata A. Gazda, Sandra Afonso, Paulo G. Mota, Rebecca E. Koch, Geoffrey E. Hill, Joseph C. Corbo, Miguel Carneiro
      Pages: 5219 - 5224
      Abstract: Yellow, orange, and red coloration is a fundamental aspect of avian diversity and serves as an important signal in mate choice and aggressive interactions. This coloration is often produced through the deposition of diet-derived carotenoid pigments, yet the mechanisms of carotenoid uptake and transport are not well-understood. The white recessive...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700751114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALTs) support the recall but not
           priming of influenza virus-specific cytotoxic T cells [Immunology and
           Inflammation]
    • Authors: Angela Pizzolla; Zhongfang Wang, Joanna R. Groom, Katherine Kedzierska, Andrew G. Brooks, Patrick C. Reading, Linda M. Wakim
      Pages: 5225 - 5230
      Abstract: The lymphoid tissue that drains the upper respiratory tract represents an important induction site for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immunity to airborne pathogens and intranasal vaccines. Here, we investigated the role of the nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALTs), which are mucosal-associated lymphoid organs embedded in the submucosa of the nasal passage,...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620194114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • CXCR4 signaling and function require the expression of the IgD-class
           B-cell antigen receptor [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Martin Becker; Elias Hobeika, Hassan Jumaa, Michael Reth, Palash C. Maity
      Pages: 5231 - 5236
      Abstract: Mature B cells coexpress both IgM and IgD B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) classes, which are organized on the cell surface in distinct protein islands. The specific role of the IgD–BCR is still enigmatic, but it is colocalized with several other receptors on the B-cell surface, including the coreceptor CD19. Here,...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621512114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Conditional knockin of Dnmt3a R878H initiates acute myeloid leukemia with
           mTOR pathway involvement [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Yu-Jun Dai; Yue-Ying Wang, Jin-Yan Huang, Li Xia, Xiao-Dong Shi, Jie Xu, Jing Lu, Xian-Bin Su, Ying Yang, Wei-Na Zhang, Pan-Pan Wang, Song-Fang Wu, Ting Huang, Jian-Qing Mi, Ze-Guang Han, Zhu Chen, Sai-Juan Chen
      Pages: 5237 - 5242
      Abstract: DNMT3A is frequently mutated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To explore the features of human AML with the hotspot DNMT3A R882H mutation, we generated Dnmt3a R878H conditional knockin mice, which developed AML with enlarged Lin−Sca1+cKit+ cell compartments. The transcriptome and DNA methylation profiling of bulk leukemic cells and the single-cell...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703476114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Limitations of ex vivo measurements for in vivo neuroscience [Biophysics
           and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Alexander Opitz; Arnaud Falchier, Gary S. Linn, Michael P. Milham, Charles E. Schroeder
      Pages: 5243 - 5246
      Abstract: A long history of postmortem studies has provided significant insight into human brain structure and organization. Cadavers have also proven instrumental for the measurement of artifacts and nonneural effects in functional imaging, and more recently, the study of biophysical properties critical to brain stimulation. However, death produces significant changes in...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617024114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Oxytocin under opioid antagonism leads to supralinear enhancement of
           social attention [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Olga Dal Monte; Matthew Piva, Kevin M. Anderson, Marios Tringides, Avram J. Holmes, Steve W. C. Chang
      Pages: 5247 - 5252
      Abstract: To provide new preclinical evidence toward improving the efficacy of oxytocin (OT) in treating social dysfunction, we tested the benefit of administering OT under simultaneously induced opioid antagonism during dyadic gaze interactions in monkeys. OT coadministered with a μ-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, invoked a supralinear enhancement of prolonged and selective...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702725114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • High spatial correspondence at a columnar level between activation and
           resting state fMRI signals and local field potentials [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Zhaoyue Shi; Ruiqi Wu, Pai-Feng Yang, Feng Wang, Tung-Lin Wu, Arabinda Mishra, Li Min Chen, John C. Gore
      Pages: 5253 - 5258
      Abstract: Although blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has been widely used to map brain responses to external stimuli and to delineate functional circuits at rest, the extent to which BOLD signals correlate spatially with underlying neuronal activity, the spatial relationships between stimulus-evoked BOLD activations and local correlations of BOLD signals in...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620520114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Genetic rescue models refute nonautonomous rod cell death in retinitis
           pigmentosa [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Susanne F. Koch; Jimmy K. Duong, Chun-Wei Hsu, Yi-Ting Tsai, Chyuan-Sheng Lin, Christian A. Wahl-Schott, Stephen H. Tsang
      Pages: 5259 - 5264
      Abstract: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease, in which the death of mutant rod photoreceptors leads secondarily to the non-cell autonomous death of cone photoreceptors. Gene therapy is a promising treatment strategy. Unfortunately, current methods of gene delivery treat only a fraction of diseased cells, yielding retinas that are...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1615394114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Lsd1 prevents age-programed loss of beige adipocytes [Physiology]
    • Authors: Delphine Duteil; Milica Tosic, Dominica Willmann, Anastasia Georgiadi, Toufike Kanouni, Roland Schule
      Pages: 5265 - 5270
      Abstract: Aging is accompanied by major changes in adipose tissue distribution and function. In particular, with time, thermogenic-competent beige adipocytes progressively gain a white adipocyte morphology. However, the mechanisms controlling the age-related transition of beige adipocytes to white adipocytes remain unclear. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1) is an epigenetic eraser enzyme positively...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702641114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • ILDR1 is important for paracellular water transport and urine
           concentration mechanism [Physiology]
    • Authors: Yongfeng Gong; Nina Himmerkus, Abby Sunq, Susanne Milatz, Cosima Merkel, Markus Bleich, Jianghui Hou
      Pages: 5271 - 5276
      Abstract: Whether the tight junction is permeable to water remains highly controversial. Here, we provide evidence that the tricellular tight junction is important for paracellular water permeation and that Ig-like domain containing receptor 1 (ILDR1) regulates its permeability. In the mouse kidney, ILDR1 is localized to tricellular tight junctions of the...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701006114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Short tandem target mimic rice lines uncover functions of miRNAs in
           regulating important agronomic traits [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Hui Zhang; Jinshan Zhang, Jun Yan, Feng Gou, Yanfei Mao, Guiliang Tang, Jose Ramon Botella, Jian–Kang Zhu
      Pages: 5277 - 5282
      Abstract: Improvements in plant agricultural productivity are urgently needed to reduce the dependency on limited natural resources and produce enough food for a growing world population. Human intervention over thousands of years has improved the yield of important crops; however, it is increasingly difficult to find new targets for genetic improvement....
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703752114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Interspecies hormonal control of host root morphology by parasitic plants
           [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Thomas Spallek; Charles W. Melnyk, Takanori Wakatake, Jing Zhang, Yuki Sakamoto, Takatoshi Kiba, Satoko Yoshida, Sachihiro Matsunaga, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Ken Shirasu
      Pages: 5283 - 5288
      Abstract: Parasitic plants share a common anatomical feature, the haustorium. Haustoria enable both infection and nutrient transfer, which often leads to growth penalties for host plants and yield reduction in crop species. Haustoria also reciprocally transfer substances, such as RNA and proteins, from parasite to host, but the biological relevance for...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619078114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Molecular link between auxin and ROS-mediated polar growth [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Silvina Mangano; Silvina Paola Denita–Juarez, Hee–Seung Choi, Eliana Marzol, Youra Hwang, Philippe Ranocha, Silvia Melina Velasquez, Cecilia Borassi, Maria Laura Barberini, Ariel Aleȷandro Aptekmann, Jorge Prometeo Muschietti, Aleȷandro Daniel Nadra, Christophe Dunand, Hyung–Taeg Cho, Jose Manuel Estevez
      Pages: 5289 - 5294
      Abstract: Root hair polar growth is endogenously controlled by auxin and sustained by oscillating levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These cells extend several hundred-fold their original size toward signals important for plant survival. Although their final cell size is of fundamental importance, the molecular mechanisms that control it remain largely...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701536114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Complexity and compositionality in fluid intelligence [Psychological and
           Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: John Duncan; Daphne Chylinski, Daniel J. Mitchell, Apoorva Bhandari
      Pages: 5295 - 5299
      Abstract: Compositionality, or the ability to build complex cognitive structures from simple parts, is fundamental to the power of the human mind. Here we relate this principle to the psychometric concept of fluid intelligence, traditionally measured with tests of complex reasoning. Following the principle of compositionality, we propose that the critical...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621147114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Variation in the {beta}-endorphin, oxytocin, and dopamine receptor genes
           is associated with different dimensions of human sociality [Psychological
           and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Eiluned Pearce; Rafael Wlodarski, Anna Machin, Robin I. M. Dunbar
      Pages: 5300 - 5305
      Abstract: There is growing evidence that the number and quality of social relationships have substantial impacts on health, well-being, and longevity, and, at least in animals, on reproductive fitness. Although it is widely recognized that these outcomes are mediated by a number of neuropeptides, the roles these play remain debated. We...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700712114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • Visual working memory buffers information retrieved from visual long-term
           memory [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Keisuke Fukuda; Geoffrey F. Woodman
      Pages: 5306 - 5311
      Abstract: Human memory is thought to consist of long-term storage and short-term storage mechanisms, the latter known as working memory. Although it has long been assumed that information retrieved from long-term memory is represented in working memory, we lack neural evidence for this and need neural measures that allow us to...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617874114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
  • CYCLOPS reveals human transcriptional rhythms in health and disease
           [Systems Biology]
    • Authors: Ron C. Anafi; Lauren J. Francey, John B. Hogenesch, Junhyong Kim
      Pages: 5312 - 5317
      Abstract: Circadian rhythms modulate many aspects of physiology. Knowledge of the molecular basis of these rhythms has exploded in the last 20 years. However, most of these data are from model organisms, and translation to clinical practice has been limited. Here, we present an approach to identify molecular rhythms in humans...
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619320114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 20 (2017)
       
 
 
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