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Journal Cover Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  [SJR: 6.883]   [H-I: 604]   [775 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
   Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Limitations and challenges of using Raman spectroscopy to detect the
           abiotic plant stress response [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Daming Dong; Chunjiang Zhao
      Abstract: Altangerel et al. (1) suggest that Raman spectroscopy can be used to detect the early abiotic stress response in plants through the measurement of anthocyanins and carotenoids in plant tissues. However, we believe there are some problems that need to be considered. First, there is insufficient evidence that Raman spectroscopy...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707408114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Reply to Dong and Zhao: Plant stress via Raman spectroscopy [Biological
    • Authors: Narangerel Altangerel; Gombojav O. Ariunbold, Connor Gorman, Masfer H. Alkahtani, Eli J. Borrego, Dwight Bohlmeyer, Philip Hemmer, Michael V. Kolomiets, Joshua S. Yuan, Marlan O. Scully
      Abstract: Dong and Zhao (1) attempt to provide perspective on our use of Raman spectroscopy in plant stress studies (2). Unfortunately, their experimental criticism is incorrect and their technical suggestions won’t work. The following points support these strong statements. Dong and Zhao claim that Raman spectroscopy is limited by its “poor...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707722114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Protect coastal wetlands in China to save endangered migratory birds
           [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Hong Yang; Mingguo Ma, Julian R. Thompson, Roger J. Flower
      Abstract: Evaluating the significance of protected areas for biodiversity and ecosystem services is important for nature conservation. In a recent issue of PNAS, Xu et al. (1) present valuable information on provision of biodiversity and ecosystem services by China’s nature reserves. They conclude that reserves serve bird populations moderately well. However,...
      Keywords: Letters, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706111114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Reply to Yang et al.: Coastal wetlands are not well represented by
           protected areas for endangered birds [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Weihua Xu; Yi Xiao, Jingjing Zhang, Wu Yang, Lu Zhang, Vanessa Hull, Zhi Wang, Hua Zheng, Jianguo Liu, Stephen Polasky, Ling Jiang, Yang Xiao, Xuewei Shi, Enming Rao, Fei Lu, Xiaoke Wang, Gretchen C. Daily, Zhiyun Ouyang
      Abstract: We thank Yang et al. (1) for their perspective. We are aware of the importance of coastal wetland protection for endangered migratory birds. Our paper in PNAS (2) focuses on the general representation of protected areas for endangered species (e.g., endangered birds) and ecosystem services. Thus, we did not emphasize...
      Keywords: Letters, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706515114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Intrinsic map dynamics exploration for uncharted effective free-energy
           landscapes [Applied Mathematics]
    • Authors: Eliodoro Chiavazzo; Roberto Covino, Ronald R. Coifman, C. William Gear, Anastasia S. Georgiou, Gerhard Hummer, Ioannis G. Kevrekidis
      Abstract: We describe and implement a computer-assisted approach for accelerating the exploration of uncharted effective free-energy surfaces (FESs). More generally, the aim is the extraction of coarse-grained, macroscopic information from stochastic or atomistic simulations, such as molecular dynamics (MD). The approach functionally links the MD simulator with nonlinear manifold learning techniques....
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621481114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Tetragonal CH3NH3PbI3 is ferroelectric [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Yevgeny Rakita; Omri Bar-Elli, Elena Meirzadeh, Hadar Kaslasi, Yagel Peleg, Gary Hodes, Igor Lubomirsky, Dan Oron, David Ehre, David Cahen
      Abstract: Halide perovskite (HaP) semiconductors are revolutionizing photovoltaic (PV) solar energy conversion by showing remarkable performance of solar cells made with HaPs, especially tetragonal methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI3). In particular, the low voltage loss of these cells implies a remarkably low recombination rate of photogenerated carriers. It was suggested that low...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702429114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Triplet-triplet energy transfer in artificial and natural photosynthetic
           antennas [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Junming Ho; Elizabeth Kish, Dalvin D. Mendez–Hernandez, Katherine WongCarter, Smitha Pillai, Gerdenis Kodis, Jens Niklas, Oleg G. Poluektov, Devens Gust, Thomas A. Moore, Ana L. Moore, Victor S. Batista, Bruno Robert
      Abstract: In photosynthetic organisms, protection against photooxidative stress due to singlet oxygen is provided by carotenoid molecules, which quench chlorophyll triplet species before they can sensitize singlet oxygen formation. In anoxygenic photosynthetic organisms, in which exposure to oxygen is low, chlorophyll-to-carotenoid triplet–triplet energy transfer (T-TET) is slow, in the tens of...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1614857114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Materials and processing approaches for foundry-compatible transient
           electronics [Engineering]
    • Authors: Jan-Kai Chang; Hui Fang, Christopher A. Bower, Enming Song, Xinge Yu, John A. Rogers
      Abstract: Foundry-based routes to transient silicon electronic devices have the potential to serve as the manufacturing basis for “green” electronic devices, biodegradable implants, hardware secure data storage systems, and unrecoverable remote devices. This article introduces materials and processing approaches that enable state-of-the-art silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) foundries to be leveraged for...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707849114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Grc3 programs the essential endoribonuclease Las1 for specific RNA
           cleavage [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Monica C. Pillon; Mack Sobhany, Mario J. Borgnia, Jason G. Williams, Robin E. Stanley
      Abstract: Las1 is a recently discovered endoribonuclease that collaborates with Grc3–Rat1–Rai1 to process precursor ribosomal RNA (rRNA), yet its mechanism of action remains unknown. Disruption of the mammalian Las1 gene has been linked to congenital lethal motor neuron disease and X-linked intellectual disability disorders, thus highlighting the necessity to understand Las1...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703133114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • TraR directly regulates transcription initiation by mimicking the combined
           effects of the global regulators DksA and ppGpp [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Saumya Gopalkrishnan; Wilma Ross, Albert Y. Chen, Richard L. Gourse
      Abstract: The Escherichia coli F element-encoded protein TraR is a distant homolog of the chromosome-encoded transcription factor DksA. Here we address the mechanism by which TraR acts as a global regulator, inhibiting some promoters and activating others. We show that TraR regulates transcription directly in vitro by binding to the secondary...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704105114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Structure of human nSMase2 reveals an interdomain allosteric activation
           mechanism for ceramide generation [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Michael V. Airola; Prajna Shanbhogue, Achraf A. Shamseddine, Kip E. Guja, Can E. Senkal, Rohan Maini, Nana Bartke, Bill X. Wu, Lina M. Obeid, Miguel Garcia-Diaz, Yusuf A. Hannun
      Abstract: Neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2, product of the SMPD3 gene) is a key enzyme for ceramide generation that is involved in regulating cellular stress responses and exosome-mediated intercellular communication. nSMase2 is activated by diverse stimuli, including the anionic phospholipid phosphatidylserine. Phosphatidylserine binds to an integral-membrane N-terminal domain (NTD); however, how the...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705134114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Nucleotide-dependent farnesyl switch orchestrates polymerization and
           membrane binding of human guanylate-binding protein 1 [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Sergii Shydlovskyi; Anke Y. Zienert, Semra Ince, Christine Dovengerds, Annika Hohendahl, Julia M. Dargazanli, Ailisa Blum, Saskia D. Gunther, Nikolay Kladt, Michael Sturzl, Astrid C. Schauss, Miriam Kutsch, Aurelien Roux, Gerrit J. K. Praefcke, Christian Herrmann
      Abstract: Dynamin-like proteins (DLPs) mediate various membrane fusion and fission processes within the cell, which often require the polymerization of DLPs. An IFN-inducible family of DLPs, the guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), is involved in antimicrobial and antiviral responses within the cell. Human guanylate-binding protein 1 (hGBP1), the founding member of GBPs, is...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620959114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Vascular disease-causing mutation, smooth muscle {alpha}-actin R258C,
           dominantly suppresses functions of {alpha}-actin in human patient
           fibroblasts [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Zhenan Liu; Audrey N. Chang, Frederick Grinnell, Kathleen M. Trybus, Dianna M. Milewicz, James T. Stull, Kristine E. Kamm
      Abstract: The most common genetic alterations for familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD) are missense mutations in vascular smooth muscle (SM) α-actin encoded by ACTA2. We focus here on ACTA2–R258C, a recurrent mutation associated with early onset of TAAD and occlusive moyamoya-like cerebrovascular disease. Recent biochemical results with SM α-actin–R258C...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703506114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Muscarinic receptor regulates extracellular signal regulated kinase by two
           modes of arrestin binding [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Seung-Ryoung Jung; Christopher Kushmerick, Jong Bae Seo, Duk-Su Koh, Bertil Hille
      Abstract: Binding of agonists to G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) activates heterotrimeric G proteins and downstream signaling. Agonist-bound GPCRs are then phosphorylated by protein kinases and bound by arrestin to trigger desensitization and endocytosis. Arrestin plays another important signaling function. It recruits and regulates activity of an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. However,...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700331114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Notch1 maintains dormancy of olfactory horizontal basal cells, a reserve
           neural stem cell [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Daniel B. Herrick; Brian Lin, Jesse Peterson, Nikolai Schnittke, James E. Schwob
      Abstract: The remarkable capacity of the adult olfactory epithelium (OE) to regenerate fully both neurosensory and nonneuronal cell types after severe epithelial injury depends on life-long persistence of two stem cell populations: the horizontal basal cells (HBCs), which are quiescent and held in reserve, and mitotically active globose basal cells. It...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701333114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • The doublesex-related Dmrta2 safeguards neural progenitor maintenance
           involving transcriptional regulation of Hes1 [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Fraser I. Young; Marc Keruzore, Xinsheng Nan, Nicole Gennet, Eric J. Bellefroid, Meng Li
      Abstract: The mechanisms that determine whether a neural progenitor cell (NPC) reenters the cell cycle or exits and differentiates are pivotal for generating cells in the correct numbers and diverse types, and thus dictate proper brain development. Combining gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches in an embryonic stem cell-derived cortical differentiation model, we...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705186114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Antagonistic BMP-cWNT signaling in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis
           reveals insight into the evolution of mesoderm [Evolution]
    • Authors: Naveen Wijesena; David K. Simmons, Mark Q. Martindale
      Abstract: Gastrulation was arguably the key evolutionary innovation that enabled metazoan diversification, leading to the formation of distinct germ layers and specialized tissues. Differential gene expression specifying cell fate is governed by the inputs of intracellular and/or extracellular signals. Beta-catenin/Tcf and the TGF-beta bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) provide critical molecular signaling...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701607114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Disentangling the effects of selection and loss bias on gene dynamics
    • Authors: Jaime Iranzo; Jose A. Cuesta, Susanna Manrubia, Mikhail I. Katsnelson, Eugene V. Koonin
      Abstract: We combine mathematical modeling of genome evolution with comparative analysis of prokaryotic genomes to estimate the relative contributions of selection and intrinsic loss bias to the evolution of different functional classes of genes and mobile genetic elements (MGE). An exact solution for the dynamics of gene family size was obtained...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704925114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Quantitative proteomics identify Tenascin-C as a promoter of lung cancer
           progression and contributor to a signature prognostic of patient survival
    • Authors: Vasilena Gocheva; Alexandra Naba, Arjun Bhutkar, Talia Guardia, Kathryn M. Miller, Carman Man-Chung Li, Talya L. Dayton, Francisco J. Sanchez-Rivera, Caroline Kim-Kiselak, Noor Jailkhani, Monte M. Winslow, Amanda Del Rosario, Richard O. Hynes, Tyler Jacks
      Abstract: The extracellular microenvironment is an integral component of normal and diseased tissues that is poorly understood owing to its complexity. To investigate the contribution of the microenvironment to lung fibrosis and adenocarcinoma progression, two pathologies characterized by excessive stromal expansion, we used mouse models to characterize the extracellular matrix (ECM)...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707054114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Intact piRNA pathway prevents L1 mobilization in male meiosis [Genetics]
    • Authors: Simon J. Newkirk; Suman Lee, Fiorella C. Grandi, Valeriya Gaysinskaya, James M. Rosser, Nicole Vanden Berg, Cathryn A. Hogarth, Maria C. N. Marchetto, Alysson R. Muotri, Michael D. Griswold, Ping Ye, Alex Bortvin, Fred H. Gage, Jef D. Boeke, Wenfeng An
      Abstract: The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for retrotransposon silencing. In piRNA-deficient mice, L1-overexpressing male germ cells exhibit excessive DNA damage and meiotic defects. It remains unknown whether L1 expression simply highlights piRNA deficiency or actually drives the germ-cell demise. Specifically, the sheer abundance of genomic L1 copies prevents reliable...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701069114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Transmembrane features governing Fc receptor CD16A assembly with CD16A
           signaling adaptor molecules [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Alfonso Blazquez–Moreno; Soohyung Park, Wonpil Im, Melissa J. Call, Matthew E. Call, Hugh T. Reyburn
      Abstract: Many activating immunoreceptors associate with signaling adaptor molecules like FcεR1γ or CD247. FcεR1γ and CD247 share high sequence homology and form disulphide-linked homodimers that contain a pair of acidic aspartic acid residues in their transmembrane (TM) domains that mediate assembly, via interaction with an arginine residue at a similar register...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706483114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Targeting cancer cell integrins using gold nanorods in photothermal
           therapy inhibits migration through affecting cytoskeletal proteins
           [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Moustafa R. K. Ali; Yue Wu, Yan Tang, Haopeng Xiao, Kuangcai Chen, Tiegang Han, Ning Fang, Ronghu Wu, Mostafa A. El-Sayed
      Abstract: Metastasis is responsible for most cancer-related deaths, but the current clinical treatments are not effective. Recently, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were discovered to inhibit cancer cell migration and prevent metastasis. Rationally designed AuNPs could greatly benefit their antimigration property, but the molecular mechanisms need to be explored. Cytoskeletons are cell structural...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703151114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • IGF2BP1 overexpression causes fetal-like hemoglobin expression patterns in
           cultured human adult erythroblasts [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Jaira F. de Vasconcellos; Laxminath Tumburu, Colleen Byrnes, Y. Terry Lee, Pauline C. Xu, May Li, Antoinette Rabel, Benjamin A. Clarke, Nicholas R. Guydosh, Richard L. Proia, Jeffery L. Miller
      Abstract: Here we investigated in primary human erythroid tissues a downstream element of the heterochronic let-7 miRNA pathway, the insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1), for its potential to affect the hemoglobin profiles in human erythroblasts. Comparison of adult bone marrow to fetal liver lysates demonstrated developmental silencing in...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1609552114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Multiparity improves outcomes after cerebral ischemia in female mice
           despite features of increased metabovascular risk [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Rodney M. Ritzel; Anita R. Patel, Monica Spychala, Rajkumar Verma, Joshua Crapser, Edward C. Koellhoffer, Anna Schrecengost, Evan R. Jellison, Liang Zhu, Venugopal Reddy Venna, Louise D. McCullough
      Abstract: Females show a varying degree of ischemic sensitivity throughout their lifespan, which is not fully explained by hormonal or genetic factors. Epidemiological data suggest that sex-specific life experiences such as pregnancy increase stroke risk. This work evaluated the role of parity on stroke outcome. Age-matched virgin (i.e., nulliparous) and multiparous...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1607002114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Neural mechanism for hypothalamic-mediated autonomic responses to light
           during migraine [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Rodrigo Noseda; Alice J. Lee, Rony-Reuven Nir, Carolyn A. Bernstein, Vanessa M. Kainz, Suzanne M. Bertisch, Catherine Buettner, David Borsook, Rami Burstein
      Abstract: Migraineurs avoid light because it intensifies their headache. However, this is not the only reason for their aversion to light. Studying migraineurs and control subjects, we found that lights triggered more changes in autonomic functions and negative emotions during, rather than in the absence of, migraine or in control subjects,...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708361114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Simulating tactile signals from the whole hand with millisecond precision
    • Authors: Hannes P. Saal; Benoit P. Delhaye, Brandon C. Rayhaun, Sliman J. Bensmaia
      Abstract: When we grasp and manipulate an object, populations of tactile nerve fibers become activated and convey information about the shape, size, and texture of the object and its motion across the skin. The response properties of tactile fibers have been extensively characterized in single-unit recordings, yielding important insights into how...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704856114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Protein homeostasis of a metastable subproteome associated with
           Alzheimer’s disease [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Rishika Kundra; Prajwal Ciryam, Richard I. Morimoto, Christopher M. Dobson, Michele Vendruscolo
      Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia. A hallmark of this disease is the presence of aberrant deposits containing by the Aβ peptide (amyloid plaques) and the tau protein (neurofibrillary tangles) in the brains of affected individuals. Increasing evidence suggests that the formation of these deposits is closely...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618417114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Arabidopsis ABCG34 contributes to defense against necrotrophic pathogens
           by mediating the secretion of camalexin [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Deepa Khare; Hyunju Choi, Sung Un Huh, Barbara Bassin, Jeongsik Kim, Enrico Martinoia, Kee Hoon Sohn, Kyung-Hee Paek, Youngsook Lee
      Abstract: Plant pathogens cause huge yield losses. Plant defense often depends on toxic secondary metabolites that inhibit pathogen growth. Because most secondary metabolites are also toxic to the plant, specific transporters are needed to deliver them to the pathogens. To identify the transporters that function in plant defense, we screened Arabidopsis...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702259114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Phosphosite charge rather than shootward localization determines OCTOPUS
           activity in root protophloem [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Alice S. Breda; Ora Hazak, Christian S. Hardtke
      Abstract: Polar cellular localization of proteins is often associated with their function and activity. In plants, relatively few polar-localized factors have been described. Among them, the plasma membrane-associated Arabidopsis proteins OCTOPUS (OPS) and BREVIS RADIX (BRX) display shootward and rootward polar localization, respectively, in developing root protophloem cells. Both ops and...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703258114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Constrained sampling experiments reveal principles of detection in natural
           scenes [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Stephen Sebastian; Jared Abrams, Wilson S. Geisler
      Abstract: A fundamental everyday visual task is to detect target objects within a background scene. Using relatively simple stimuli, vision science has identified several major factors that affect detection thresholds, including the luminance of the background, the contrast of the background, the spatial similarity of the background to the target, and...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619487114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • System-wide organization of actin cytoskeleton determines organelle
           transport in hypocotyl plant cells [Systems Biology]
    • Authors: David Breuer; Jacqueline Nowak, Alexander Ivakov, Marc Somssich, Staffan Persson, Zoran Nikoloski
      Abstract: The actin cytoskeleton is an essential intracellular filamentous structure that underpins cellular transport and cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. However, the system-level properties of actin-based cellular trafficking remain tenuous, largely due to the inability to quantify key features of the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we developed an automated image-based, network-driven framework...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706711114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Mechanochemical feedback underlies coexistence of qualitatively distinct
           cell polarity patterns within diverse cell populations [Systems Biology]
    • Authors: JinSeok Park; William R. Holmes, Sung Hoon Lee, Hong-Nam Kim, Deok-Ho Kim, Moon Kyu Kwak, Chiaochun Joanne Wang, Leah Edelstein-Keshet, Andre Levchenko
      Abstract: Cell polarization and directional cell migration can display random, persistent, and oscillatory dynamic patterns. However, it is not clear whether these polarity patterns can be explained by the same underlying regulatory mechanism. Here, we show that random, persistent, and oscillatory migration accompanied by polarization can simultaneously occur in populations of...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700054114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Correction for Rodesney et al., Mechanosensing of shear by Pseudomonas
           aeruginosa leads to increased levels of the cyclic-di-GMP signal
           initiating biofilm development [Corrections]
    • Abstract: BIOPHYSICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY, MICROBIOLOGY Correction for “Mechanosensing of shear by Pseudomonas aeruginosa leads to increased levels of the cyclic-di-GMP signal initiating biofilm development,” by Christopher A. Rodesney, Brian Roman, Numa Dhamani, Benjamin J. Cooley, Ahmed Touhami, and Vernita D. Gordon, which appeared in issue 23, June 6, 2017, of...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710411114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Correction to Supporting Information for Mao et al., Disruption of
           quercetin metabolism by fungicide affects energy production in honey bees
           (Apis mellifera) [SI Corrections]
    • Abstract: AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES Correction to Supporting Information for “Disruption of quercetin metabolism by fungicide affects energy production in honey bees (Apis mellifera),” by Wenfu Mao, Mary A. Schuler, and May R. Berenbaum, which appeared in issue 10, March 7, 2017, of Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (114:2538–2543; first published February 13,...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710602114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Correction to Supporting Information for Conos et al., Active MLKL
           triggers the NLRP3 inflammasome in a cell-intrinsic manner [SI
    • Abstract: IMMUNOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION Correction to Supporting Information for “Active MLKL triggers the NLRP3 inflammasome in a cell-intrinsic manner,” by Stephanie A. Conos, Kaiwen W. Chen, Dominic De Nardo, Hideki Hara, Lachlan Whitehead, Gabriel Núñez, Seth L. Masters, James M. Murphy, Kate Schroder, David L. Vaux, Kate E. Lawlor, Lisa M....
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710668114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 7173 - 7175
      Abstract: Collective action and quid pro quo among chimpanzees Chimpanzees engage in reciprocal cooperation. Chimpanzees are remarkably social primates, grooming reciprocally, fighting in groups, and sharing the spoils of hunts. Yet whether chimpanzees engage in collective action and reciprocal cooperation when doing so exacts a toll remains unclear. Kevin Langergraber et...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti2817114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • News Feature: Special agents offer modeling upgrade [Applied Mathematics]
    • Authors: M. Mitchell Waldrop
      Pages: 7176 - 7179
      Abstract: After playing a key role in the fight against Ebola, agent-based models are poised to help decision-makers tackle other disease outbreaks, economic turbulence, and more. When news of West Africa’s Ebola outbreak first appeared in the spring of 2014, “the world wasn’t paying a lot of attention,” says Bryan Lewis....
      Keywords: News Features, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710350114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • QnAs with Karel Svoboda [QnAs]
    • Authors: Prashant Nair
      Pages: 7180 - 7182
      Abstract: When Karel Svoboda describes his decades-long efforts to visualize the brain with ever-greater precision, the unmistakable impression is that of a man driven by an insatiable urge to expand the frontiers of technology in the service of science. Since the mid-1990s, when he and his colleagues developed transformative imaging techniques...
      Keywords: QnAs
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710344114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • QnAs with Rodolphe Barrangou [QnAs]
    • Authors: Prashant Nair
      Pages: 7183 - 7184
      Abstract: The past decade in biological research might well be christened the age of CRISPR, a once-curious feature of bacterial genomes that spawned a handy tool for editing genes. Using CRISPR-based tools, researchers are making leaps in basic clinical research, and biotechnology companies are racing to launch trials of gene therapies...
      Keywords: QnAs
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710348114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Profile of Raymond J. Deshaies [Profile]
    • Authors: Christopher Samoray
      Pages: 7185 - 7187
      Abstract: Protein homeostasis is crucial to the health of living cells, and dysregulated protein homeostasis can trigger diseases, including cancer. Biochemical cell biologist Raymond Deshaies has devoted his distinguished career to the analysis of protein homeostasis and the development of therapeutic approaches to counter diseases that result when homeostasis goes awry....
      Keywords: PNAS Profiles
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710346114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Profile of Xiang-Jin Meng [Profile]
    • Authors: Jennifer Viegas
      Pages: 7188 - 7190
      Abstract: Trained in both human medical and veterinary sciences, Xiang-Jin Meng has made numerous contributions to the field of comparative viral pathogenesis. His achievements concerning emerging, reemerging, and zoonotic viral diseases include the discovery of swine and avian hepatitis E viruses (HEV) and the invention of a commercial vaccine against porcine...
      Keywords: PNAS Profiles
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710342114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Getting a charge out of hybrid perovskites [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Andrew M. Rappe; Ilya Grinberg, Jonathan E. Spanier
      Pages: 7191 - 7193
      Abstract: Until now, metal–organic hybrid perovskites (MOHPs) have been known mainly for their remarkable electronic (1–3) and optical properties, generating immense interest worldwide and offering the potential to realize the goal of highly efficient and inexpensive solar power conversion (1, 4, 5) as well as a wide variety of other optoelectronic...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708154114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Tracking LINE1 retrotransposition in the germline [Genetics]
    • Authors: P. Jeremy Wang
      Pages: 7194 - 7196
      Abstract: Nearly half of the mammalian genome is occupied by repetitive transposon elements, including long-interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs), short-interspersed nuclear elements, and long terminal repeat retrotransposons. The ability of these transposable elements to propagate and insert randomly throughout the genome plays an important role in genome evolution (1). However, as transposon-mediated...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1709067114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Economics and computer science of a radio spectrum reallocation [Economic
    • Authors: Kevin Leyton-Brown; Paul Milgrom, Ilya Segal
      Pages: 7202 - 7209
      Abstract: The recent “incentive auction” of the US Federal Communications Commission was the first auction to reallocate radio frequencies between two different kinds of uses: from broadcast television to wireless Internet access. The design challenge was not just to choose market rules to govern a fixed set of potential trades but...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701997114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Optimal multivalent targeting of membranes with many distinct receptors
           [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Tine Curk; Jure Dobnikar, Daan Frenkel
      Pages: 7210 - 7215
      Abstract: Cells can often be recognized by the concentrations of receptors expressed on their surface. For better (targeted drug treatment) or worse (targeted infection by pathogens), it is clearly important to be able to target cells selectively. A good targeting strategy would result in strong binding to cells with the desired...
      Keywords: Inaugural Articles
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704226114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Spatially resolved multicolor CsPbX3 nanowire heterojunctions via anion
           exchange [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Letian Dou; Minliang Lai, Christopher S. Kley, Yiming Yang, Connor G. Bischak, Dandan Zhang, Samuel W. Eaton, Naomi S. Ginsberg, Peidong Yang
      Pages: 7216 - 7221
      Abstract: Halide perovskites are promising semiconductor materials for solution-processed optoelectronic devices. Their strong ionic bonding nature results in highly dynamic crystal lattices, inherently allowing rapid ion exchange at the solid–vapor and solid–liquid interface. Here, we show that the anion-exchange chemistry can be precisely controlled in single-crystalline halide perovskite nanomaterials when combined...
      Keywords: Inaugural Articles
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703860114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Reconstruction from limited single-particle diffraction data via
           simultaneous determination of state, orientation, intensity, and phase
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Jeffrey J. Donatelli; James A. Sethian, Peter H. Zwart
      Pages: 7222 - 7227
      Abstract: Free-electron lasers now have the ability to collect X-ray diffraction patterns from individual molecules; however, each sample is delivered at unknown orientation and may be in one of several conformational states, each with a different molecular structure. Hit rates are often low, typically around 0.1%, limiting the number of useful...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708217114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • DNA cytoskeleton for stabilizing artificial cells [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Chikako Kurokawa; Kei Fujiwara, Masamune Morita, Ibuki Kawamata, Yui Kawagishi, Atsushi Sakai, Yoshihiro Murayama, Shin-ichiro M. Nomura, Satoshi Murata, Masahiro Takinoue, Miho Yanagisawa
      Pages: 7228 - 7233
      Abstract: Cell-sized liposomes and droplets coated with lipid layers have been used as platforms for understanding live cells, constructing artificial cells, and implementing functional biomedical tools such as biosensing platforms and drug delivery systems. However, these systems are very fragile, which results from the absence of cytoskeletons in these systems. Here,...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702208114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Structure-based control of complex networks with nonlinear dynamics
           [Systems Biology]
    • Authors: Jorge Gomez Teȷeda Zanudo; Gang Yang, Reka Albert
      Pages: 7234 - 7239
      Abstract: What can we learn about controlling a system solely from its underlying network structure' Here we adapt a recently developed framework for control of networks governed by a broad class of nonlinear dynamics that includes the major dynamic models of biological, technological, and social processes. This feedback-based framework provides realizable...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617387114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Confined in-fiber solidification and structural control of silicon and
           silicon-germanium microparticles [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Alexander Gumennik; Etgar C. Levy, Benjamin Grena, Chong Hou, Michael Rein, Ayman F. Abouraddy, John D. Joannopoulos, Yoel Fink
      Pages: 7240 - 7245
      Abstract: Crystallization of microdroplets of molten alloys could, in principle, present a number of possible morphological outcomes, depending on the symmetry of the propagating solidification front and its velocity, such as axial or spherically symmetric species segregation. However, because of thermal or constitutional supercooling, resulting droplets often only display dendritic morphologies....
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707778114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Photoacoustic trace detection of gases at the parts-per-quadrillion level
           with a moving optical grating [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Lian Xiong; Wenyu Bai, Feifei Chen, Xian Zhao, Fapeng Yu, Gerald J. Diebold
      Pages: 7246 - 7249
      Abstract: The amplitude of the photoacoustic effect for an optical source moving at the sound speed in a one-dimensional geometry increases linearly in time without bound in the linear acoustic regime. Here, use of this principle is described for trace detection of gases, using two frequency-shifted beams from a CO2 laser...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706040114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • High-speed acoustic communication by multiplexing orbital angular momentum
           [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Chengzhi Shi; Marc Dubois, Yuan Wang, Xiang Zhang
      Pages: 7250 - 7253
      Abstract: Long-range acoustic communication is crucial to underwater applications such as collection of scientific data from benthic stations, ocean geology, and remote control of off-shore industrial activities. However, the transmission rate of acoustic communication is always limited by the narrow-frequency bandwidth of the acoustic waves because of the large attenuation for...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704450114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Traces of surfactants can severely limit the drag reduction of
           superhydrophobic surfaces [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Francois J. Peaudecerf; Julien R. Landel, Raymond E. Goldstein, Paolo Luzzatto–Fegiz
      Pages: 7254 - 7259
      Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) have the potential to achieve large drag reduction for internal and external flow applications. However, experiments have shown inconsistent results, with many studies reporting significantly reduced performance. Recently, it has been proposed that surfactants, ubiquitous in flow applications, could be responsible by creating adverse Marangoni stresses. However,...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702469114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • CRISPR-Cas9 conformational activation as elucidated from enhanced
           molecular simulations [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Giulia Palermo; Yinglong Miao, Ross C. Walker, Martin Jinek, J. Andrew McCammon
      Pages: 7260 - 7265
      Abstract: CRISPR-Cas9 has become a facile genome editing technology, yet the structural and mechanistic features underlying its function are unclear. Here, we perform extensive molecular simulations in an enhanced sampling regime, using a Gaussian-accelerated molecular dynamics (GaMD) methodology, which probes displacements over hundreds of microseconds to milliseconds, to reveal the conformational...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707645114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Force generation by groups of migrating bacteria [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Benedikt Sabass; Matthias D. Koch, Guannan Liu, Howard A. Stone, Joshua W. Shaevitz
      Pages: 7266 - 7271
      Abstract: From colony formation in bacteria to wound healing and embryonic development in multicellular organisms, groups of living cells must often move collectively. Although considerable study has probed the biophysical mechanisms of how eukaryotic cells generate forces during migration, little such study has been devoted to bacteria, in particular with regard...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621469114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Theory of long binding events in single-molecule-controlled rotation
           experiments on F1-ATPase [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Sandor Volkan–Kacso; Rudolph A. Marcus
      Pages: 7272 - 7277
      Abstract: The theory of elastic group transfer for the binding and release rate constants for nucleotides in F1-ATPase as a function of the rotor angle is further extended in several respects. (i) A method is described for predicting the experimentally observed lifetime distribution of long binding events in the controlled rotation...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705960114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Detergent-induced self-assembly and controllable photosensitizer activity
           of diester phenylene ethynylenes [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Patrick L. Donabedian; Matthew N. Creyer, Florencia A. Monge, Kirk S. Schanze, Eva Y. Chi, David G. Whitten
      Pages: 7278 - 7282
      Abstract: Photodynamic therapy, in which malignant tissue is killed by targeted light exposure following administration of a photosensitizer, can be a valuable treatment modality but currently relies on passive transport and local irradiation to avoid off-target oxidation. We present a system of excited-state control for truly local delivery of singlet oxygen....
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702513114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Microfluidic guillotine for single-cell wound repair studies [Engineering]
    • Authors: Lucas R. Blauch; Ya Gai, Jian Wei Khor, Pranidhi Sood, Wallace F. Marshall, Sindy K. Y. Tang
      Pages: 7283 - 7288
      Abstract: Wound repair is a key feature distinguishing living from nonliving matter. Single cells are increasingly recognized to be capable of healing wounds. The lack of reproducible, high-throughput wounding methods has hindered single-cell wound repair studies. This work describes a microfluidic guillotine for bisecting single Stentor coeruleus cells in a continuous-flow...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705059114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Local thermal energy as a structural indicator in glasses [Physics]
    • Authors: Jacques Zylberg; Edan Lerner, Yohai Bar-Sinai, Eran Bouchbinder
      Pages: 7289 - 7294
      Abstract: Identifying heterogeneous structures in glasses—such as localized soft spots—and understanding structure–dynamics relations in these systems remain major scientific challenges. Here, we derive an exact expression for the local thermal energy of interacting particles (the mean local potential energy change caused by thermal fluctuations) in glassy systems by a systematic low-temperature...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704403114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Zero-field magnetic response functions in Landau levels [Physics]
    • Authors: Yang Gao; Qian Niu
      Pages: 7295 - 7300
      Abstract: We present a fresh perspective on the Landau level quantization rule; that is, by successively including zero-field magnetic response functions at zero temperature, such as zero-field magnetization and susceptibility, the Onsager’s rule can be corrected order by order. Such a perspective is further reinterpreted as a quantization of the semiclassical...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702595114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Demotivating incentives and motivation crowding out in charitable giving
           [Economic Sciences]
    • Authors: Matthew Chao
      Pages: 7301 - 7306
      Abstract: Research has shown that extrinsic incentives can crowd out intrinsic motivation in many contexts. Despite this, many nonprofits offer conditional thank-you gifts, such as mugs or tote bags, in exchange for donations. In collaboration with a nonprofit, this study implements a direct mail field experiment and demonstrates that thank-you gifts...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616921114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Early phonology revealed by international adoptees' birth language
           retention [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Jiyoun Choi; Mirjam Broersma, Anne Cutler
      Pages: 7307 - 7312
      Abstract: Until at least 6 mo of age, infants show good discrimination for familiar phonetic contrasts (i.e., those heard in the environmental language) and contrasts that are unfamiliar. Adult-like discrimination (significantly worse for nonnative than for native contrasts) appears only later, by 9–10 mo. This has been interpreted as indicating that...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706405114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Emotion shapes the diffusion of moralized content in social networks
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: William J. Brady; Julian A. Wills, John T. Jost, Joshua A. Tucker, Jay J. Van Bavel
      Pages: 7313 - 7318
      Abstract: Political debate concerning moralized issues is increasingly common in online social networks. However, moral psychology has yet to incorporate the study of social networks to investigate processes by which some moral ideas spread more rapidly or broadly than others. Here, we show that the expression of moral emotion is key...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618923114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Poor caregiver mental health predicts mortality of patients with
           neurodegenerative disease [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Sandy J. Lwi; Brett Q. Ford, James J. Casey, Bruce L. Miller, Robert W. Levenson
      Pages: 7319 - 7324
      Abstract: Dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases cause profound declines in functioning; thus, many patients require caregivers for assistance with daily living. Patients differ greatly in how long they live after disease onset, with the nature and severity of the disease playing an important role. Caregiving can also be extremely stressful, and...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701597114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Free will beliefs predict attitudes toward unethical behavior and criminal
           punishment [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Nathan D. Martin; Davide Rigoni, Kathleen D. Vohs
      Pages: 7325 - 7330
      Abstract: Do free will beliefs influence moral judgments' Answers to this question from theoretical and empirical perspectives are controversial. This study attempted to replicate past research and offer theoretical insights by analyzing World Values Survey data from residents of 46 countries (n = 65,111 persons). Corroborating experimental findings, free will beliefs...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702119114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Aridity and hominin environments [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary
    • Authors: Scott A. Blumenthal; Naomi E. Levin, Francis H. Brown, Jean-Philip Brugal, Kendra L. Chritz, John M. Harris, Glynis E. Jehle, Thure E. Cerling
      Pages: 7331 - 7336
      Abstract: Aridification is often considered a major driver of long-term ecological change and hominin evolution in eastern Africa during the Plio-Pleistocene; however, this hypothesis remains inadequately tested owing to difficulties in reconstructing terrestrial paleoclimate. We present a revised aridity index for quantifying water deficit (WD) in terrestrial environments using tooth enamel...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700597114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Group augmentation, collective action, and territorial boundary patrols by
           male chimpanzees [Anthropology]
    • Authors: Kevin E. Langergraber; David P. Watts, Linda Vigilant, John C. Mitani
      Pages: 7337 - 7342
      Abstract: How can collective action evolve when individuals benefit from cooperation regardless of whether they pay its participation costs' According to one influential perspective, collective action problems are common, especially when groups are large, but may be solved when individuals who have more to gain from the collective good or can...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701582114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Chimpanzee super strength and human skeletal muscle evolution
    • Authors: Matthew C. O’Neill; Brian R. Umberger, Nicholas B. Holowka, Susan G. Larson, Peter J. Reiser
      Pages: 7343 - 7348
      Abstract: Since at least the 1920s, it has been reported that common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) differ from humans in being capable of exceptional feats of “super strength,” both in the wild and in captive environments. A mix of anecdotal and more controlled studies provides some support for this view; however, a...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619071114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Experimental evolution reveals an effective avenue to release catabolite
           repression via mutations in XylR [Applied Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Christian Sievert; Lizbeth M. Nieves, Larry A. Panyon, Taylor Loeffler, Chandler Morris, Reed A. Cartwright, Xuan Wang
      Pages: 7349 - 7354
      Abstract: Microbial production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass provides promising biorenewable alternatives to the conventional petroleum-based products. However, heterogeneous sugar composition of lignocellulosic biomass hinders efficient microbial conversion due to carbon catabolite repression. The most abundant sugar monomers in lignocellulosic biomass materials are glucose and xylose. Although industrial Escherichia...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700345114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Nonredox thiolation in tRNA occurring via sulfur activation by a [4Fe-4S]
           cluster [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Simon Arragain; Ornella Bimai, Pierre Legrand, Sylvain Caillat, Jean–Luc Ravanat, Nadia Touati, Laurent Binet, Mohamed Atta, Marc Fontecave, Beatrice Golinelli–Pimpaneau
      Pages: 7355 - 7360
      Abstract: Sulfur is present in several nucleosides within tRNAs. In particular, thiolation of the universally conserved methyl-uridine at position 54 stabilizes tRNAs from thermophilic bacteria and hyperthermophilic archaea and is required for growth at high temperature. The simple nonredox substitution of the C2-uridine carbonyl oxygen by sulfur is catalyzed by tRNA...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700902114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • CIDE domains form functionally important higher-order assemblies for DNA
           fragmentation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Jae Young Choi; Qi Qiao, Se-Hoon Hong, Chang Min Kim, Jae-Hee Jeong, Yeon-Gil Kim, Yong-Keun Jung, Hao Wu, Hyun Ho Park
      Pages: 7361 - 7366
      Abstract: Cell death-inducing DFF45-like effector (CIDE) domains, initially identified in apoptotic nucleases, form a family with diverse functions ranging from cell death to lipid homeostasis. Here we show that the CIDE domains of Drosophila and human apoptotic nucleases Drep2, Drep4, and DFF40 all form head-to-tail helical filaments. Opposing positively and negatively...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705949114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Cryo-EM structure of the DNA-PK holoenzyme [Biophysics and Computational
    • Authors: Humayun Sharif; Yang Li, Yuanchen Dong, Liyi Dong, Wei Li Wang, Youdong Mao, Hao Wu
      Pages: 7367 - 7372
      Abstract: DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a large protein complex central to the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA-repair pathway. It comprises the DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and the heterodimer of DNA-binding proteins Ku70 and Ku80. Here, we report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of human DNA-PKcs at 4.4-Å resolution and the...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707386114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Groundwater declines are linked to changes in Great Plains stream fish
           assemblages [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Joshuah S. Perkin; Keith B. Gido, Jeffrey A. Falke, Kurt D. Fausch, Harry Crockett, Eric R. Johnson, John Sanderson
      Pages: 7373 - 7378
      Abstract: Groundwater pumping for agriculture is a major driver causing declines of global freshwater ecosystems, yet the ecological consequences for stream fish assemblages are rarely quantified. We combined retrospective (1950–2010) and prospective (2011–2060) modeling approaches within a multiscale framework to predict change in Great Plains stream fish assemblages associated with groundwater...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618936114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Varying and unchanging whiteness on the wings of dusk-active and
           shade-inhabiting Carystoides escalantei butterflies [Evolution]
    • Authors: Dengteng Ge; Gaoxiang Wu, Lili Yang, Hye-Na Kim, Winnie Hallwachs, John M. Burns, Daniel H. Janzen, Shu Yang
      Pages: 7379 - 7384
      Abstract: Whiteness, although frequently apparent on the wings, legs, antennae, or bodies of many species of moths and butterflies, along with other colors and shades, has often escaped our attention. Here, we investigate the nanostructure and microstructure of white spots on the wings of Carystoides escalantei, a dusk-active and shade-inhabiting Costa...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701017114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Evolution of nonspectral rhodopsin function at high altitudes [Evolution]
    • Authors: Gianni M. Castiglione; Frances E. Hauser, Brian S. Liao, Nathan K. Lujan, Alexander Van Nynatten, James M. Morrow, Ryan K. Schott, Nihar Bhattacharyya, Sarah Z. Dungan, Belinda S. W. Chang
      Pages: 7385 - 7390
      Abstract: High-altitude environments present a range of biochemical and physiological challenges for organisms through decreases in oxygen, pressure, and temperature relative to lowland habitats. Protein-level adaptations to hypoxic high-altitude conditions have been identified in multiple terrestrial endotherms; however, comparable adaptations in aquatic ectotherms, such as fishes, have not been as extensively...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705765114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Insect outbreak shifts the direction of selection from fast to slow growth
           rates in the long-lived conifer Pinus ponderosa [Evolution]
    • Authors: Raul de la Mata; Sharon Hood, Anna Sala
      Pages: 7391 - 7396
      Abstract: Long generation times limit species’ rapid evolution to changing environments. Trees provide critical global ecosystem services, but are under increasing risk of mortality because of climate change-mediated disturbances, such as insect outbreaks. The extent to which disturbance changes the dynamics and strength of selection is unknown, but has important implications...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700032114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Evolution of immune chemoreceptors into sensors of the outside world
    • Authors: Quentin Dietschi; Joel Tuberosa, Lone Rosingh, Gregory Loichot, Manuel Ruedi, Alan Carleton, Ivan Rodriguez
      Pages: 7397 - 7402
      Abstract: Changes in gene expression patterns represent an essential source of evolutionary innovation. A striking case of neofunctionalization is the acquisition of neuronal specificity by immune formyl peptide receptors (Fprs). In mammals, Fprs are expressed by immune cells, where they detect pathogenic and inflammatory chemical cues. In rodents, these receptors are...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704009114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Nonenzymatic gluconeogenesis-like formation of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
           in ice [Evolution]
    • Authors: Christoph B. Messner; Paul C. Driscoll, Gabriel Piedrafita, Michael F. L. De Volder, Markus Ralser
      Pages: 7403 - 7407
      Abstract: The evolutionary origins of metabolism, in particular the emergence of the sugar phosphates that constitute glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the RNA and DNA backbone, are largely unknown. In cells, a major source of glucose and the large sugar phosphates is gluconeogenesis. This ancient anabolic pathway (re-)builds carbon bonds...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702274114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • DNA-PK facilitates piggyBac transposition by promoting paired-end complex
           formation [Genetics]
    • Authors: Yan Jin; Yaohui Chen, Shimin Zhao, Kun-Liang Guan, Yuan Zhuang, Wenhao Zhou, Xiaohui Wu, Tian Xu
      Pages: 7408 - 7413
      Abstract: The involvement of host factors is critical to our understanding of underlying mechanisms of transposition and the applications of transposon-based technologies. Modified piggyBac (PB) is one of the most potent transposon systems in mammals. However, varying transposition efficiencies of PB among different cell lines have restricted its application. We discovered...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1612980114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • DNA methylation markers for diagnosis and prognosis of common cancers
           [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Xiaoke Hao; Huiyan Luo, Michal Krawczyk, Wei Wei, Wenqiu Wang, Juan Wang, Ken Flagg, Jiayi Hou, Heng Zhang, Shaohua Yi, Maryam Jafari, Danni Lin, Christopher Chung, Bennett A. Caughey, Gen Li, Debanjan Dhar, William Shi, Lianghong Zheng, Rui Hou, Jie Zhu, Liang Zhao, Xin Fu, Edward Zhang, Charlotte Zhang, Jian-Kang Zhu, Michael Karin, Rui-Hua Xu, Kang Zhang
      Pages: 7414 - 7419
      Abstract: The ability to identify a specific cancer using minimally invasive biopsy holds great promise for improving the diagnosis, treatment selection, and prediction of prognosis in cancer. Using whole-genome methylation data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and machine learning methods, we evaluated the utility of DNA methylation for differentiating tumor...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703577114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Small mitochondrial Arf (smArf) protein corrects p53-independent
           developmental defects of Arf tumor suppressor-deficient mice [Medical
    • Authors: Jolieke G. van Oosterwijk; Chunliang Li, Xue Yang, Joseph T. Opferman, Charles J. Sherr
      Pages: 7420 - 7425
      Abstract: The mouse p19Arf (human p14ARF) tumor suppressor protein, encoded in part from an alternative reading frame of the Ink4a (Cdkn2a) gene, inhibits the Mdm2 E3 ubiquitin ligase to activate p53. Arf is not expressed in most normal tissues of young mice but is induced by high thresholds of aberrant hyperproliferative...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707292114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Exploiting the synthetic lethality between terminal respiratory oxidases
           to kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis and clear host infection [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Nitin P. Kalia; Erik J. Hasenoehrl, Nurlilah B. Ab Rahman, Vanessa H. Koh, Michelle L. T. Ang, Dannah R. Saȷorda, Kiel Hards, Gerhard Gruber, Sylvie Alonso, Gregory M. Cook, Michael Berney, Kevin Pethe
      Pages: 7426 - 7431
      Abstract: The recent discovery of small molecules targeting the cytochrome bc1:aa3 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis triggered interest in the terminal respiratory oxidases for antituberculosis drug development. The mycobacterial cytochrome bc1:aa3 consists of a menaquinone:cytochrome c reductase (bc1) and a cytochrome aa3-type oxidase. The clinical-stage drug candidate Q203 interferes with the function of...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706139114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Simulation of Deepwater Horizon oil plume reveals substrate specialization
           within a complex community of hydrocarbon degraders [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Ping Hu; Eric A. Dubinsky, Alexander J. Probst, Jian Wang, Christian M. K. Sieber, Lauren M. Tom, Piero R. Gardinali, Jillian F. Banfield, Ronald M. Atlas, Gary L. Andersen
      Pages: 7432 - 7437
      Abstract: The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident released an estimated 4.1 million barrels of oil and 1010 mol of natural gas into the Gulf of Mexico, forming deep-sea plumes of dispersed oil droplets and dissolved gases that were largely degraded by bacteria. During the course of this 3-mo disaster a series of...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703424114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Glutamate transporter GLAST controls synaptic wrapping by Bergmann glia
           and ensures proper wiring of Purkinje cells [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Taisuke Miyazaki; Miwako Yamasaki, Kouichi Hashimoto, Kazuhisa Kohda, Michisuke Yuzaki, Keiko Shimamoto, Kohichi Tanaka, Masanobu Kano, Masahiko Watanabe
      Pages: 7438 - 7443
      Abstract: Astrocytes regulate synaptic transmission through controlling neurotransmitter concentrations around synapses. Little is known, however, about their roles in neural circuit development. Here we report that Bergmann glia (BG), specialized cerebellar astrocytes that thoroughly enwrap Purkinje cells (PCs), are essential for synaptic organization in PCs through the action of the l-glutamate/l-aspartate...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617330114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Local auxin production underlies a spatially restricted neighbor-detection
           response in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Olivier Michaud; Anne-Sophie Fiorucci, Ioannis Xenarios, Christian Fankhauser
      Pages: 7444 - 7449
      Abstract: Competition for light triggers numerous developmental adaptations known as the “shade-avoidance syndrome” (SAS). Important molecular events underlying specific SAS responses have been identified. However, in natural environments light is often heterogeneous, and it is currently unknown how shading affecting part of a plant leads to local responses. To study this...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702276114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Neighbor detection at the leaf tip adaptively regulates upward leaf
           movement through spatial auxin dynamics [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Chrysoula K. Pantazopoulou; Franca J. Bongers, Jesse J. Kupers, Emilie Reinen, Debatosh Das, Jochem B. Evers, Niels P. R. Anten, Ronald Pierik
      Pages: 7450 - 7455
      Abstract: Vegetation stands have a heterogeneous distribution of light quality, including the red/far-red light ratio (R/FR) that informs plants about proximity of neighbors. Adequate responses to changes in R/FR are important for competitive success. How the detection and response to R/FR are spatially linked and how this spatial coordination between detection...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702275114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Pathogen exploitation of an abscisic acid- and jasmonate-inducible MAPK
           phosphatase and its interception by Arabidopsis immunity [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Akira Mine; Matthias L. Berens, Tatsuya Nobori, Shaȷahan Anver, Kaori Fukumoto, Thomas M. Winkelmuller, Atsushi Takeda, Dieter Becker, Kenichi Tsuda
      Pages: 7456 - 7461
      Abstract: Phytopathogens promote virulence by, for example, exploiting signaling pathways mediated by phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonate (JA). Some plants can counteract pathogen virulence by invoking a potent form of immunity called effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Here, we report that ABA and JA mediate inactivation of the immune-associated MAP...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702613114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
  • Chimpanzees return favors at a personal cost [Psychological and Cognitive
    • Authors: Martin Schmelz; Sebastian Grueneisen, Alihan Kabalak, Jurgen Jost, Michael Tomasello
      Pages: 7462 - 7467
      Abstract: Humans regularly provide others with resources at a personal cost to themselves. Chimpanzees engage in some cooperative behaviors in the wild as well, but their motivational underpinnings are unclear. In three experiments, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) always chose between an option delivering food both to themselves and a partner and one...
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:59:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700351114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 28 (2017)
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