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Journal Cover Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  [SJR: 6.883]   [H-I: 604]   [860 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
   Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Still Bay and Howiesons Poort sites (South Africa) are consistent with the
           risk hypothesis [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Dwight W. Read
      Abstract: d’Errico et al.’s (1) conclusion that cultural differences between the Still Bay (SB) and the Howiesons Poort (HP) sites in South Africa (SA) are not accounted for by the risk hypothesis (2) is premature. The risk hypothesis is well-modeled by interaction between risk and mobility as a driver for artifact...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1713753114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Reply to Read: Middle Stone Age cultural variability and the risk
           hypothesis [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Francesco d’Errico; William E. Banks
      Abstract: Read’s letter (1) on our article (2) unfortunately misinterprets the conclusions we reached and hypotheses we proposed. We struggle to find a passage in which we state that the risk hypothesis does not account for the material culture differences that we observe between the Still Bay and Howiesons Poort cultural...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717505114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Transcription start site-associated small RNAs in the PTEN gene
           [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Ji-Long Liu; Wen-Qian Zhang, Ming-Yu Huang
      Abstract: The PTEN gene is inactivated in various cancers. PTEN has a pseudogene in the human genome, PTENpg1, which up-regulates PTEN expression by acting as a miRNA sponge. Interestingly, one of the antisense RNAs from the PTENpg1 locus, PTENpg1 asRNA α, is found to epigenetically down-regulate PTEN transcription by recruitment of...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718027114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Reply to Liu et al.: Yin and yang of PTEN regulation [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Per Johnsson; Nicholas Lister, Galina Shevchenko, James Walshe, Sandro F. Ataide, Kevin V. Morris
      Abstract: In a letter to the editor, Liu et al. (1) find that PTEN contains some transcript variants that are polyadenylated and prematurely terminated in the first intron of PTEN. These transcripts are suggested to be 5′-UTR–containing promoter-spanning and to encode for three small RNAs (sRNAs), with one of these (sRNA3)...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718258114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Equilibration of energy in slow-fast systems [Applied Mathematics]
    • Authors: Kushal Shah; Dmitry Turaev, Vassili Gelfreich, Vered Rom-Kedar
      Abstract: Ergodicity is a fundamental requirement for a dynamical system to reach a state of statistical equilibrium. However, in systems with several characteristic timescales, the ergodicity of the fast subsystem impedes the equilibration of the whole system because of the presence of an adiabatic invariant. In this paper, we show that...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706341114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Holocene fluctuations in human population demonstrate repeated links to
           food production and climate [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Andrew Bevan; Sue Colledge, Dorian Fuller, Ralph Fyfe, Stephen Shennan, Chris Stevens
      Abstract: We consider the long-term relationship between human demography, food production, and Holocene climate via an archaeological radiocarbon date series of unprecedented sampling density and detail. There is striking consistency in the inferred human population dynamics across different regions of Britain and Ireland during the middle and later Holocene. Major cross-regional...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1709190114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • EMT programs promote basal mammary stem cell and tumor-initiating cell
           stemness by inducing primary ciliogenesis and Hedgehog signaling [Cell
    • Authors: Vincent J. Guen; Tony E. Chavarria, Cornelia Kroger, Xin Ye, Robert A. Weinberg, Jacqueline A. Lees
      Abstract: Tissue regeneration relies on adult stem cells (SCs) that possess the ability to self-renew and produce differentiating progeny. In an analogous manner, the development of certain carcinomas depends on a small subset of tumor cells, called “tumor-initiating cells” (TICs), with SC-like properties. Mammary SCs (MaSCs) reside in the basal compartment...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711534114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Germline Cas9 expression yields highly efficient genome engineering in a
           major worldwide disease vector, Aedes aegypti [Genetics]
    • Authors: Ming Li; Michelle Bui, Ting Yang, Christian S. Bowman, Bradley J. White, Omar S. Akbari
      Abstract: The development of CRISPR/Cas9 technologies has dramatically increased the accessibility and efficiency of genome editing in many organisms. In general, in vivo germline expression of Cas9 results in substantially higher activity than embryonic injection. However, no transgenic lines expressing Cas9 have been developed for the major mosquito disease vector Aedes...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711538114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Tracking the genome-wide outcomes of a transposable element burst over
           decades of amplification [Genetics]
    • Authors: Lu Lu; Jinfeng Chen, Sofia M. C. Robb, Yutaka Okumoto, Jason E. Stajich, Susan R. Wessler
      Abstract: To understand the success strategies of transposable elements (TEs) that attain high copy numbers, we analyzed two pairs of rice (Oryza sativa) strains, EG4/HEG4 and A119/A123, undergoing decades of rapid amplification (bursts) of the class 2 autonomous Ping element and the nonautonomous miniature inverted repeat transposable element (MITE) mPing. Comparative...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716459114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Histone methyltransferase MMSET promotes AID-mediated DNA breaks at the
           donor switch region during class switch recombination [Immunology and
    • Authors: Hai Vu Nguyen; Junchao Dong, Rohit A. Panchakshari, Vipul Kumar, Frederick W. Alt, Jean-Christophe Bories
      Abstract: In B cells, Ig class switch recombination (CSR) is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), the activity of which leads to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) within IgH switch (S) regions. Preferential targeting of AID-mediated DSBs to S sequences is critical for allowing diversification of antibody functions, while minimizing potential off-target...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701366114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Atypical activation of dendritic cells by Plasmodium falciparum
           [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Anton Gotz; Mei San Tang, Maureen C. Ty, Charles Arama, Aissata Ongoiba, Didier Doumtabe, Boubacar Traore, Peter D. Crompton, P’ng Loke, Ana Rodriguez
      Abstract: Dendritic cells (DCs) are activated by pathogens to initiate and shape immune responses. We found that the activation of DCs by Plasmodium falciparum, the main causative agent of human malaria, induces a highly unusual phenotype by which DCs up-regulate costimulatory molecules and secretion of chemokines, but not of cytokines typical...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708383114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Anti-SIRP{alpha} antibody immunotherapy enhances neutrophil and macrophage
           antitumor activity [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Nan Guo Ring; Dietmar Herndler-Brandstetter, Kipp Weiskopf, Liang Shan, Jens-Peter Volkmer, Benson M. George, Melanie Lietzenmayer, Kelly M. McKenna, Tejaswitha J. Naik, Aaron McCarty, Yunjiang Zheng, Aaron M. Ring, Richard A. Flavell, Irving L. Weissman
      Abstract: Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a promising therapeutic intervention. However, complete and durable responses are only seen in a fraction of patients who have cancer. A key factor that limits therapeutic success is the infiltration of tumors by cells of the myeloid lineage. The inhibitory receptor signal regulatory protein-α (SIRPα)...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710877114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Transcriptome-wide characterization of human cytomegalovirus in natural
           infection and experimental latency [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Shu Cheng; Katie Caviness, Jason Buehler, Megan Smithey, Janko Nikolich–Žugich, Felicia Goodrum
      Abstract: The transcriptional program associated with herpesvirus latency and the viral genes regulating entry into and exit from latency are poorly understood and controversial. Here, we developed and validated a targeted enrichment platform and conducted large-scale transcriptome analyses of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. We used both an experimental hematopoietic cell model...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710522114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Origin, evolution, and global transmission of community-acquired
           Staphylococcus aureus ST8 [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Lena Strauss; Marc Stegger, Patrick Eberechi Akpaka, Abraham Alabi, Sebastien Breurec, Geoffrey Coombs, Beverly Egyir, Anders Rhod Larsen, Frederic Laurent, Stefan Monecke, Georg Peters, Robert Skov, Birgit Strommenger, Francois Vandenesch, Frieder Schaumburg, Alexander Mellmann
      Abstract: USA300 is a pandemic clonal lineage of hypervirulent, community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) with specific molecular characteristics. Despite its high clinical relevance, the evolutionary origin of USA300 remained unclear. We used comparative genomics of 224 temporal and spatial diverse S. aureus isolates of multilocus sequence type (ST) 8 to reconstruct...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702472114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Correction to Supporting Information for Sculley et al., Eighty years of
           food-web response to interannual variation in discharge recorded in river
           diatom frustules from an ocean sediment core [SI Correction]
    • Abstract: ECOLOGY Correction to Supporting Information for “Eighty years of food-web response to interannual variation in discharge recorded in river diatom frustules from an ocean sediment core,” by John B. Sculley, Rex L. Lowe, Charles A. Nittrouer, Tina M. Drexler, and Mary E. Power, which was first published September 5, 2017;...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719574114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 12839 - 12840
      Abstract: Cas9-expressing mosquito strains pave the way toward gene drives SEM image of genome-edited adult female mosquito. Left compound eye is split up, and there are three maxillary palps instead of the normal two. Image courtesy of Michelle Bui and Alexander Knyshov (University of California, Riverside, CA). Previous efforts to use...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti4917114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Opinion: Building a better past with the help of agent-based modeling
    • Authors: J. Daniel Rogers; Wendy H. Cegielski
      Pages: 12841 - 12844
      Abstract: With a few exceptions, the distant past is an anonymous land occupied by people who made things and left behind a cryptic record of broken pieces. Even when the written word comes into play in human history and we can read the hieroglyphs naming an Egyptian pharaoh and describing royal...
      Keywords: Opinions, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718277114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Differential effects of global and local climate data in assessing
           environmental drivers of epidemic outbreaks [Ecology]
    • Authors: Timothy Brook
      Pages: 12845 - 12847
      Abstract: This Commentary is the response of a China historian to the paper by the team of biologists headed by Huidong Tian (1) on the differential effects of using long-term or short-term data to reconstruct climatic drivers of human epidemics. The Tian et al. paper is a response to an anomaly...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717723114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Shifts in time and space interact as climate warms [Ecology]
    • Authors: Michael C. Singer
      Pages: 12848 - 12850
      Abstract: Beetles found on Mediterranean shores in cold periods turned up in Finland in mild interglacials (1). Paleontologists see such range shifts as systematic responses to changing climate. No surprise, then, that recent global trends for poleward and upward range shifts are attributed to current warming (2, 3). However, range shifts...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718334114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • The power of negative [theoretical] results [Evolution]
    • Authors: Gunter P. Wagner
      Pages: 12851 - 12852
      Abstract: In PNAS, Paul Nelson and Joanna Masel present a theoretical result showing that aging in multicellular organisms is inevitable (1). The argument is as simple as it is powerful. Cellular senescence is a well-known consequence of the second law of thermodynamics, due to mutations, epigenetic misregulation, and protein misfolding. Molecular...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718862114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Dabbling with Piezo2 for mechanosensation [Physiology]
    • Authors: Ruhma Syeda
      Pages: 12853 - 12855
      Abstract: Nature has devised various strategies for sensing food so species can coexist and exploit different types of prey. Sharks can detect amino acids in blood as low as 1 ppb, while hawks and buzzards scan the Earth from a height of ∼10,000 feet looking for rodents. However, not all birds...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718337114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Dynamics of a rolling robot [Applied Mathematics]
    • Authors: K. I. Ilin; H. K. Moffatt, V. A. Vladimirov
      Pages: 12858 - 12863
      Abstract: Equations describing the rolling of a spherical ball on a horizontal surface are obtained, the motion being activated by an internal rotor driven by a battery mechanism. The rotor is modeled as a point mass mounted inside a spherical shell and caused to move in a prescribed circular orbit relative...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1713685114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Beating the curse of dimension with accurate statistics for the
    • Authors: Nan Chen; Andrew J. Majda
      Pages: 12864 - 12869
      Abstract: Solving the Fokker–Planck equation for high-dimensional complex dynamical systems is an important issue. Recently, the authors developed efficient statistically accurate algorithms for solving the Fokker–Planck equations associated with high-dimensional nonlinear turbulent dynamical systems with conditional Gaussian structures, which contain many strong non-Gaussian features such as intermittency and fat-tailed probability density...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717017114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Active turbulence in a gas of self-assembled spinners [Applied Physical
    • Authors: Gašper Kokot; Shibananda Das, Roland G. Winkler, Gerhard Gompper, Igor S. Aranson, Alexey Snezhko
      Pages: 12870 - 12875
      Abstract: Colloidal particles subject to an external periodic forcing exhibit complex collective behavior and self-assembled patterns. A dispersion of magnetic microparticles confined at the air–liquid interface and energized by a uniform uniaxial alternating magnetic field exhibits dynamic arrays of self-assembled spinners rotating in either direction. Here, we report on experimental and...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710188114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Dynamics and control of gold-encapped gallium arsenide nanowires imaged by
           4D electron microscopy [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Bin Chen; Xuewen Fu, Jau Tang, Mykhaylo Lysevych, Hark Hoe Tan, Chennupati Jagadish, Ahmed H. Zewail
      Pages: 12876 - 12881
      Abstract: Eutectic-related reaction is a special chemical/physical reaction involving multiple phases, solid and liquid. Visualization of a phase reaction of composite nanomaterials with high spatial and temporal resolution provides a key understanding of alloy growth with important industrial applications. However, it has been a rather challenging task. Here, we report the...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708761114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Model-driven engineering of supramolecular buffering by multivalency
    • Authors: Tim F. E. Paffen; Abraham J. P. Teunissen, Tom F. A. de Greef, E. W. Meijer
      Pages: 12882 - 12887
      Abstract: A supramolecular system in which the concentration of a molecule is buffered over several orders of magnitude is presented. Molecular buffering is achieved as a result of competition in a ring–chain equilibrium of multivalent ureidopyrimidinone monomers and a monovalent naphthyridine molecule which acts as an end-capper. While we previously only...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710993114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Wetter subtropics in a warmer world: Contrasting past and future
           hydrological cycles [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Natalie J. Burls; Alexey V. Fedorov
      Pages: 12888 - 12893
      Abstract: During the warm Miocene and Pliocene Epochs, vast subtropical regions had enough precipitation to support rich vegetation and fauna. Only with global cooling and the onset of glacial cycles some 3 Mya, toward the end of the Pliocene, did the broad patterns of arid and semiarid subtropical regions become fully...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703421114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Multiple pathways in pressure-induced phase transition of coesite [Earth,
           Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Wei Liu; Xuebang Wu, Yunfeng Liang, Changsong Liu, Caetano R. Miranda, Sandro Scandolo
      Pages: 12894 - 12899
      Abstract: High-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction method with precise control of hydrostatic conditions, typically with helium or neon as the pressure-transmitting medium, has significantly changed our view on what happens with low-density silica phases under pressure. Coesite is a prototype material for pressure-induced amorphization. However, it was found to transform into a...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710651114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Fishnet model for failure probability tail of nacre-like imbricated
           lamellar materials [Engineering]
    • Authors: Wen Luo; Zdeněk P. Bažant
      Pages: 12900 - 12905
      Abstract: Nacre, the iridescent material of the shells of pearl oysters and abalone, consists mostly of aragonite (a form of CaCO3), a brittle constituent of relatively low strength (≈10 MPa). Yet it has astonishing mean tensile strength (≈150 MPa) and fracture energy (≈350 to 1,240 J/m2). The reasons have recently become...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714103114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Mixed-order phase transition in a colloidal crystal [Physics]
    • Authors: Ricard Alert; Pietro Tierno, Jaume Casademunt
      Pages: 12906 - 12909
      Abstract: Mixed-order phase transitions display a discontinuity in the order parameter like first-order transitions yet feature critical behavior like second-order transitions. Such transitions have been predicted for a broad range of equilibrium and nonequilibrium systems, but their experimental observation has remained elusive. Here, we analytically predict and experimentally realize a mixed-order...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712584114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Kinship structures create persistent channels for language transmission
    • Authors: J. Stephen Lansing; Cheryl Abundo, Guy S. Jacobs, Elsa G. Guillot, Stefan Thurner, Sean S. Downey, Lock Yue Chew, Tanmoy Bhattacharya, Ning Ning Chung, Herawati Sudoyo, Murray P. Cox
      Pages: 12910 - 12915
      Abstract: Languages are transmitted through channels created by kinship systems. Given sufficient time, these kinship channels can change the genetic and linguistic structure of populations. In traditional societies of eastern Indonesia, finely resolved cophylogenies of languages and genes reveal persistent movements between stable speech communities facilitated by kinship rules. When multiple...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706416114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Nature and origins of the lexicon in 6-mo-olds [Psychological and
           Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Elika Bergelson; Richard N. Aslin
      Pages: 12916 - 12921
      Abstract: Recent research reported the surprising finding that even 6-mo-olds understand common nouns [Bergelson E, Swingley D (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:3253–3258]. However, is their early lexicon structured and acquired like older learners' We test 6-mo-olds for a hallmark of the mature lexicon: cross-word relations. We also examine whether...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712966114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Molecular basis of selective resistance of the bumblebee BiNav1 sodium
           channel to tau-fluvalinate [Agricultural Sciences]
    • Authors: Shaoying Wu; Yoshiko Nomura, Yuzhe Du, Boris S. Zhorov, Ke Dong
      Pages: 12922 - 12927
      Abstract: Insecticides are widely used to control pests in agriculture and insect vectors that transmit human diseases. However, these chemicals can have a negative effect on nontarget, beneficial organisms including bees. Discovery and deployment of selective insecticides is a major mission of modern toxicology and pest management. Pyrethroids exert their toxic...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711699114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Structural insights into enzymatic [4+2] aza-cycloaddition in thiopeptide
           antibiotic biosynthesis [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Dillon P. Cogan; Graham A. Hudson, Zhengan Zhang, Taras V. Pogorelov, Wilfred A. van der Donk, Douglas A. Mitchell, Satish K. Nair
      Pages: 12928 - 12933
      Abstract: The [4+2] cycloaddition reaction is an enabling transformation in modern synthetic organic chemistry, but there are only limited examples of dedicated natural enzymes that can catalyze this transformation. Thiopeptides (or more formally thiazolyl peptides) are a class of thiazole-containing, highly modified, macrocyclic secondary metabolites made from ribosomally synthesized precursor peptides....
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716035114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Evidence for rRNA 2'-O-methylation plasticity: Control of intrinsic
           translational capabilities of human ribosomes [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Jenny Erales; Virginie Marchand, Baptiste Panthu, Sandra Gillot, Stephane Belin, Sandra E. Ghayad, Maxime Garcia, Florian Laforets, Virginie Marcel, Agnes Baudin–Baillieu, Pierre Bertin, Yohann Coute, Annie Adrait, Melanie Meyer, Gabriel Therizols, Marat Yusupov, Olivier Namy, Theophile Ohlmann, Yuri Motorin, Frederic Catez, Jean–Jacques Diaz
      Pages: 12934 - 12939
      Abstract: Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) are main effectors of messenger RNA (mRNA) decoding, peptide-bond formation, and ribosome dynamics during translation. Ribose 2′-O-methylation (2′-O-Me) is the most abundant rRNA chemical modification, and displays a complex pattern in rRNA. 2′-O-Me was shown to be essential for accurate and efficient protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells....
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707674114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Metal transporter Slc39a10 regulates susceptibility to inflammatory
           stimuli by controlling macrophage survival [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Hong Gao; Lu Zhao, Hao Wang, Enjun Xie, Xinhui Wang, Qian Wu, Yingying Yu, Xuyan He, Hongbin Ji, Lothar Rink, Junxia Min, Fudi Wang
      Pages: 12940 - 12945
      Abstract: Zn plays a key role in controlling macrophage function during an inflammatory event. Cellular Zn homeostasis is regulated by two families of metal transporters, the SLC39A family of importers and the SLC30A family of exporters; however, the precise role of these transporters in maintaining macrophage function is poorly understood. Using...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708018114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Cholesterol-binding site of the influenza M2 protein in lipid bilayers
           from solid-state NMR [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Matthew R. Elkins; Jonathan K. Williams, Martin D. Gelenter, Peng Dai, Byungsu Kwon, Ivan V. Sergeyev, Bradley L. Pentelute, Mei Hong
      Pages: 12946 - 12951
      Abstract: The influenza M2 protein not only forms a proton channel but also mediates membrane scission in a cholesterol-dependent manner to cause virus budding and release. The atomic interaction of cholesterol with M2, as with most eukaryotic membrane proteins, has long been elusive. We have now determined the cholesterol-binding site of...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715127114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Catch bond drives stator mechanosensitivity in the bacterial flagellar
           motor [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Ashley L Nord; Emilie Gachon, Ruben Perez-Carrasco, Jasmine A. Nirody, Alessandro Barducci, Richard M. Berry, Francesco Pedaci
      Pages: 12952 - 12957
      Abstract: The bacterial flagellar motor (BFM) is the rotary motor that rotates each bacterial flagellum, powering the swimming and swarming of many motile bacteria. The torque is provided by stator units, ion motive force-powered ion channels known to assemble and disassemble dynamically in the BFM. This turnover is mechanosensitive, with the...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716002114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Kinesin-dependent mechanism for controlling triglyceride secretion from
           the liver [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Priyanka Rai; Mukesh Kumar, Geetika Sharma, Pradeep Barak, Saumitra Das, Siddhesh S. Kamat, Roop Mallik
      Pages: 12958 - 12963
      Abstract: Despite massive fluctuations in its internal triglyceride content, the liver secretes triglyceride under tight homeostatic control. This buffering function is most visible after fasting, when liver triglyceride increases manyfold but circulating serum triglyceride barely fluctuates. How the liver controls triglyceride secretion is unknown, but is fundamentally important for lipid and...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1713292114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Parallel epigenetic modifications induced by hatchery rearing in a Pacific
           salmon [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Jeremy Le Luyer; Martin Laporte, Terry D. Beacham, Karia H. Kaukinen, Ruth E. Withler, Jong S. Leong, Eric B. Rondeau, Ben F. Koop, Louis Bernatchez
      Pages: 12964 - 12969
      Abstract: Wild stocks of Pacific salmonids have experienced sharp declines in abundance over the past century. Consequently, billions of fish are released each year for enhancing abundance and sustaining fisheries. However, the beneficial role of this widely used management practice is highly debated since fitness decrease of hatchery-origin fish in the...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711229114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Scale-dependent climatic drivers of human epidemics in ancient China
    • Authors: Huidong Tian; Chuan Yan, Lei Xu, Ulf Buntgen, Nils C. Stenseth, Zhibin Zhang
      Pages: 12970 - 12975
      Abstract: A wide range of climate change-induced effects have been implicated in the prevalence of infectious diseases. Disentangling causes and consequences, however, remains particularly challenging at historical time scales, for which the quality and quantity of most of the available natural proxy archives and written documentary sources often decline. Here, we...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706470114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Phenological shifts conserve thermal niches in North American birds and
           reshape expectations for climate-driven range shifts [Ecology]
    • Authors: Jacob B. Socolar; Peter N. Epanchin, Steven R. Beissinger, Morgan W. Tingley
      Pages: 12976 - 12981
      Abstract: Species respond to climate change in two dominant ways: range shifts in latitude or elevation and phenological shifts of life-history events. Range shifts are widely viewed as the principal mechanism for thermal niche tracking, and phenological shifts in birds and other consumers are widely understood as the principal mechanism for...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705897114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Intercellular competition and the inevitability of multicellular aging
    • Authors: Paul Nelson; Joanna Masel
      Pages: 12982 - 12987
      Abstract: Current theories attribute aging to a failure of selection, due to either pleiotropic constraints or declining strength of selection after the onset of reproduction. These theories implicitly leave open the possibility that if senescence-causing alleles could be identified, or if antagonistic pleiotropy could be broken, the effects of aging might...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618854114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Drosophila protein phosphatases 2A B' Wdb and Wrd regulate meiotic
    • Authors: Belinda S. Pinto; Terry L. Orr-Weaver
      Pages: 12988 - 12993
      Abstract: Proper segregation of chromosomes in meiosis is essential to prevent miscarriages and birth defects. This requires that sister chromatids maintain cohesion at the centromere as cohesion is released on the chromatid arms when the homologs segregate at anaphase I. The Shugoshin proteins preserve centromere cohesion by protecting the cohesin complex...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718450114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Cancer cells induce interleukin-22 production from memory CD4+ T cells via
           interleukin-1 to promote tumor growth [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Cornelia Voigt; Peter May, Adrian Gottschlich, Anamariȷa Markota, Daniel Wenk, Inga Gerlach, Sebastian Voigt, Georgios T. Stathopoulos, Kristina A. M. Arendt, Constanze Heise, Felicitas Rataȷ, Klaus–Peter Janssen, Melanie Konigshoff, Hauke Winter, Isabelle Himsl, Wolfgang E. Thasler, Max Schnurr, Simon Rothenfusser, Stefan Endres, Sebastian Kobold
      Pages: 12994 - 12999
      Abstract: IL-22 has been identified as a cancer-promoting cytokine that is secreted by infiltrating immune cells in several cancer models. We hypothesized that IL-22 regulation would occur at the interface between cancer cells and immune cells. Breast and lung cancer cells of murine and human origin induced IL-22 production from memory...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705165114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • SNX8 mediates IFN{gamma}-triggered noncanonical signaling pathway and host
           defense against Listeria monocytogenes [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Jin Wei; Wei Guo, Huan Lian, Qing Yang, Heng Lin, Shu Li, Hong-Bing Shu
      Pages: 13000 - 13005
      Abstract: IFNγ is a cytokine that plays a key role in host defense against intracellular pathogens. In addition to the canonical JAK-STAT1 pathway, IFNγ also activates an IKKβ-mediated noncanonical signaling pathway that is essential for induction of a subset of downstream effector genes. The molecular mechanisms and functional significance of this...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1713462114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Burkholderia cenocepacia integrates cis-2-dodecenoic acid and cyclic
           dimeric guanosine monophosphate signals to control virulence
    • Authors: Chunxi Yang; Chaoyu Cui, Qiumian Ye, Jinhong Kan, Shuna Fu, Shihao Song, Yutong Huang, Fei He, Lian-Hui Zhang, Yantao Jia, Yong-Gui Gao, Caroline S. Harwood, Yinyue Deng
      Pages: 13006 - 13011
      Abstract: Quorum sensing (QS) signals are used by bacteria to regulate biological functions in response to cell population densities. Cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) regulates cell functions in response to diverse environmental chemical and physical signals that bacteria perceive. In Burkholderia cenocepacia, the QS signal receptor RpfR degrades intracellular c-di-GMP when it...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1709048114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Retrograde inhibition by a specific subset of interpeduncular {alpha}5
           nicotinic neurons regulates nicotine preference [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Jessica L. Ables; Andreas Gorlich, Beatriz Antolin–Fontes, Cuidong Wang, Sylvia M. Lipford, Michael H. Riad, Jing Ren, Fei Hu, Minmin Luo, Paul J. Kenny, Nathaniel Heintz, Ines Ibanez–Tallon
      Pages: 13012 - 13017
      Abstract: Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse can produce adaptive changes that lead to the establishment of dependence. It has been shown that allelic variation in the α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene CHRNA5 is associated with higher risk of tobacco dependence. In the brain, α5-containing nAChRs are expressed at very...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717506114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Amyloid polymorphisms constitute distinct clouds of conformational
           variants in different etiological subtypes of Alzheimer’s disease
    • Authors: Jay Rasmussen; Jasmin Mahler, Natalie Beschorner, Stephan A. Kaeser, Lisa M. Hasler, Frank Baumann, Sofie Nystrom, Erik Portelius, Kaȷ Blennow, Tammaryn Lashley, Nick C. Fox, Diego Sepulveda–Falla, Markus Glatzel, Adrian L. Oblak, Bernardino Ghetti, K. Peter R. Nilsson, Per Hammarstrom, Matthias Staufenbiel, Lary C. Walker, Mathias Jucker
      Pages: 13018 - 13023
      Abstract: The molecular architecture of amyloids formed in vivo can be interrogated using luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs), a unique class of amyloid dyes. When bound to amyloid, LCOs yield fluorescence emission spectra that reflect the 3D structure of the protein aggregates. Given that synthetic amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) has been shown to...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1713215114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Solving visual correspondence between the two eyes via domain-based
           population encoding in nonhuman primates [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Gang Chen; Haidong D. Lu, Hisashi Tanigawa, Anna W. Roe
      Pages: 13024 - 13029
      Abstract: Stereoscopic vision depends on correct matching of corresponding features between the two eyes. It is unclear where the brain solves this binocular correspondence problem. Although our visual system is able to make correct global matches, there are many possible false matches between any two images. Here, we use optical imaging...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1614452114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Coexpression of NOS2 and COX2 accelerates tumor growth and reduces
           survival in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer [Pharmacology]
    • Authors: Debashree Basudhar; Sharon A. Glynn, Madison Greer, Veena Somasundaram, Jae Hong No, David A. Scheiblin, Pablo Garrido, William F. Heinz, Aideen E. Ryan, Jonathan M. Weiss, Robert Y. S. Cheng, Lisa A. Ridnour, Stephen J. Lockett, Daniel W. McVicar, Stefan Ambs, David A. Wink
      Pages: 13030 - 13035
      Abstract: Proinflammatory signaling pathways are commonly up-regulated in breast cancer. In estrogen receptor-negative (ER−) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) have been described as independent predictors of disease outcome. We further explore these findings by investigating the impact of their coexpression on breast cancer survival....
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1709119114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Molecular basis of tactile specialization in the duck bill [Physiology]
    • Authors: Eve R. Schneider; Evan O. Anderson, Marco Mastrotto, Jon D. Matson, Vincent P. Schulz, Patrick G. Gallagher, Robert H. LaMotte, Elena O. Gracheva, Sviatoslav N. Bagriantsev
      Pages: 13036 - 13041
      Abstract: Tactile-foraging ducks are specialist birds known for their touch-dependent feeding behavior. They use dabbling, straining, and filtering to find edible matter in murky water, relying on the sense of touch in their bill. Here, we present the molecular characterization of embryonic duck bill, which we show contains a high density...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708793114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • Maternal prolactin during late pregnancy is important in generating
           nurturing behavior in the offspring [Physiology]
    • Authors: Taku James Sairenji; Jun Ikezawa, Ryosuke Kaneko, Shinnosuke Masuda, Kaoru Uchida, Yurie Takanashi, Hiroko Masuda, Tomoko Sairenji, Izuki Amano, Yusuke Takatsuru, Kazutoshi Sayama, Kaisa Haglund, Ivan Dikic, Noriyuki Koibuchi, Noriaki Shimokawa
      Pages: 13042 - 13047
      Abstract: Although maternal nurturing behavior is extremely important for the preservation of a species, our knowledge of the biological underpinnings of these behaviors is insufficient. Here we show that the degree of a mother’s nurturing behavior is regulated by factors present during her own fetal development. We found that Cin85-deficient (Cin85−/−)...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621196114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
  • High postural costs and anaerobic metabolism during swimming support the
           hypothesis of a U-shaped metabolism-speed curve in fishes [Physiology]
    • Authors: Valentina Di Santo; Christopher P. Kenaley, George V. Lauder
      Pages: 13048 - 13053
      Abstract: Swimming performance is considered a key trait determining the ability of fish to survive. Hydrodynamic theory predicts that the energetic costs required for fishes to swim should vary with speed according to a U-shaped curve, with an expected energetic minimum at intermediate cruising speeds and increasing expenditure at low and...
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T12:21:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715141114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 49 (2017)
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