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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 6.092
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 1203  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 6279 - 6281
      Abstract: Signs of international trade in Chinese porcelain Xuande blue-and-white porcelain excavated in Jingdezhen, China. Image courtesy of the Jingdezhen Institute of Ceramic Archaeology. Blue-and-white porcelain made in Jingdezhen, China, during the Yuan and Ming dynasties is associated with imported cobalt pigment. However, it is unclear whether a pigment color imported...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti1220117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Opinion: Authors overestimate their contribution to scientific work,
           demonstrating a strong bias [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Noa Herz; Orrie Dan, Nitzan Censor, Yair Bar-Haim
      Pages: 6282 - 6285
      Abstract: Teamwork is an essential component of science. It affords the exchange of ideas and the execution of research that can entail high levels of complexity and scope. Collaborative science also leads to higher-impact publications relative to single-authored research projects (1). Published articles are a key product of scientific work, bearing...
      Keywords: Opinions, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003500117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Bruce McEwen, 1938-2020 [Retrospectives]
    • Authors: Huda Akil; Craig McEwen
      Pages: 6286 - 6288
      Abstract: The pioneering neuroscientist Bruce McEwen died on January 2, 2020 at the age of 81 following a brief illness. He was the Alfred E. Mirsky Professor and head of the Harold and Margaret Millikin Hatch Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology at The Rockefeller University. Born in Fort Collins, Colorado, Bruce grew up...
      Keywords: Retrospectives
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003097117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • A vital gene for modified vaccinia virus Ankara replication in human cells
    • Authors: Gerd Sutter
      Pages: 6289 - 6291
      Abstract: Vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype orthopoxvirus, is the first live viral vaccine used to protect against smallpox, one of the most feared infectious diseases of humans (1). This outstanding achievement was possible because even as the various orthopoxviruses evolved and diversified they often retained major parts of their virion composition...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001335117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Regulation of Cullin-RING E3 ligase dynamics by Inositol hexakisphosphate
    • Authors: Daniel C. Scott; Gary Kleiger
      Pages: 6292 - 6294
      Abstract: Perhaps in a decade or so, researchers may look back on current times and view it as an inflection point for the development of novel therapeutic modalities for the treatment of various human diseases. One particularly innovative approach involves targeting disease-modifying proteins for degradation by the proteasome, the large multisubunit...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001683117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Interactions between changing climate and biodiversity: Shaping
           humanity’s future [Ecology]
    • Authors: F. Stuart Chapin III; Sandra Diaz
      Pages: 6295 - 6296
      Abstract: Scientists have known for more than a century about potential human impacts on climate (1). In the last 30 y, estimates of these impacts have been confirmed and refined through increasingly precise climate assessments (2). Other global-scale human impacts, including land use change, overharvesting, air and water pollution, and increased...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001686117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Bacteria suit up with virus armor [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Yi-Wei Chang
      Pages: 6297 - 6299
      Abstract: Particularly with the recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), viruses have a bad reputation these days. However, it is important to note that viruses come in many types and can infect not only humans but almost all life forms, and their infections are not always detrimental to the host....
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001931117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Social dimensions of fertility behavior and consumption patterns in the
           Anthropocene [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Scott Barrett; Aisha Dasgupta, Partha Dasgupta, W. Neil Adger, John Anderies, Jeroen van den Bergh, Caroline Bledsoe, John Bongaarts, Stephen Carpenter, F. Stuart Chapin III, Anne–Sophie Crepin, Gretchen Daily, Paul Ehrlich, Carl Folke, Nils Kautsky, Eric F. Lambin, Simon A. Levin, Karl–Goran Maler, Rosamond Naylor, Karine Nyborg, Stephen Polasky, Marten Scheffer, Jason Shogren, Peter Sogaard Jorgensen, Brian Walker, James Wilen
      Pages: 6300 - 6307
      Abstract: We consider two aspects of the human enterprise that profoundly affect the global environment: population and consumption. We show that fertility and consumption behavior harbor a class of externalities that have not been much noted in the literature. Both are driven in part by attitudes and preferences that are not...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909857117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Are China’s water bodies (lakes) underestimated' [Physical
    • Authors: Guoqing Zhang; Wenfeng Chen, Guoxiong Zheng, Hongjie Xie, C. K. Shum
      Pages: 6308 - 6309
      Abstract: In their study of surface water bodies (WBs) in China, Feng et al. (1) used the global surface water dataset (GSWD) by Pekel et al. (2) to report that the abundance of WBs (>1 km2) and their total area were underestimated greatly by previous studies (3, 4). However, the incorrect...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922250117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Reply to Zhang et al.: Using long-term all-available Landsat data to study
           water bodies over large areas represents a paradigm shift [Physical
    • Authors: Shuailong Feng; Shuguang Liu, Zhihong Huang, Lei Jing, Meifang Zhao, Xi Peng, Wende Yan, Yiping Wu, Yihe Lv, Andrew R. Smith, Morag A. McDonald, Sopan D. Patil, Arbi J. Sarkissian, Zhihua Shi, Jun Xia, U. S. Ogbodo
      Pages: 6310 - 6311
      Abstract: Zhang et al. (1) raise concerns over the characteristics and change of surface water bodies (WBs) in China reported in our article in PNAS (2). We believe these concerns are not well grounded. The dynamic nature of WBs results in a constant change in their number and extent over large...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922868117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Rising economic damages of natural disasters: Trends in event intensity or
           capital intensity' [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Tobias Geiger; Alex Stomper
      Pages: 6312 - 6313
      Abstract: The recent paper by Coronese et al. (1) reports a rise in economic damages due to extreme natural disasters reported in the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) (2). While Coronese et al.’s (1) paper is timely and relevant, we have serious concerns regarding the analysis and the interpretation of the results....
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922152117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Reply to Geiger and Stomper: On capital intensity and observed increases
           in the economic damages of extreme natural disasters [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Matteo Coronese; Francesco Lamperti, Klaus Keller, Francesca Chiaromonte, Andrea Roventini
      Pages: 6314 - 6315
      Abstract: We thank Geiger and Stomper (1) for the opportunity to clarify and further test the robustness of the results in Coronese et al. (2). Their comments reveal misinterpretations of our study and propose an alternative (but untested) hypothesis. Here we redress these misinterpretations and test their hypothesis. Geiger and Stomper...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922722117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • High-throughput, combinatorial synthesis of multimetallic nanoclusters
           [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Yonggang Yao; Zhennan Huang, Tangyuan Li, Hang Wang, Yifan Liu, Helge S. Stein, Yimin Mao, Jinlong Gao, Miaolun Jiao, Qi Dong, Jiaqi Dai, Pengfei Xie, Hua Xie, Steven D. Lacey, Ichiro Takeuchi, John M. Gregoire, Rongzhong Jiang, Chao Wang, Andre D. Taylor, Reza Shahbazian-Yassar, Liangbing Hu
      Pages: 6316 - 6322
      Abstract: Multimetallic nanoclusters (MMNCs) offer unique and tailorable surface chemistries that hold great potential for numerous catalytic applications. The efficient exploration of this vast chemical space necessitates an accelerated discovery pipeline that supersedes traditional “trial-and-error” experimentation while guaranteeing uniform microstructures despite compositional complexity. Herein, we report the high-throughput synthesis of an...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1903721117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Frost-free zone on macrotextured surfaces [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Yuehan Yao; Tom Y. Zhao, Christian Machado, Emma Feldman, Neelesh A. Patankar, Kyoo-Chul Park
      Pages: 6323 - 6329
      Abstract: Numerous studies have focused on designing functional surfaces that delay frost formation or reduce ice adhesion. However, solutions to the scientific challenges of developing antiicing surfaces remain elusive because of degradation such as mechanical wearing. Inspired by the discontinuous frost pattern on natural leaves, here we report findings on the...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915959117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • How cortical waves drive fission of motile cells [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Sven Flemming; Francesc Font, Sergio Alonso, Carsten Beta
      Pages: 6330 - 6338
      Abstract: Cytokinesis—the division of a cell into two daughter cells—is a key step in cell growth and proliferation. It typically occurs in synchrony with the cell cycle to ensure that a complete copy of the genetic information is passed on to the next generation of daughter cells. In animal cells, cytokinesis...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912428117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • DNA origami protection and molecular interfacing through engineered
           sequence-defined peptoids [Applied Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Shih-Ting Wang; Melissa A. Gray, Sunting Xuan, Yiyang Lin, James Byrnes, Andy I. Nguyen, Nevena Todorova, Molly M. Stevens, Carolyn R. Bertozzi, Ronald N. Zuckermann, Oleg Gang
      Pages: 6339 - 6348
      Abstract: DNA nanotechnology has established approaches for designing programmable and precisely controlled nanoscale architectures through specific Watson−Crick base-pairing, molecular plasticity, and intermolecular connectivity. In particular, superior control over DNA origami structures could be beneficial for biomedical applications, including biosensing, in vivo imaging, and drug and gene delivery. However, protecting DNA origami...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919749117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Potential for release of pulmonary toxic ketene from vaping pyrolysis of
           vitamin E acetate [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Dan Wu; Donal F. O’Shea
      Pages: 6349 - 6355
      Abstract: A combined analytical, theoretical, and experimental study has shown that the vaping of vitamin E acetate has the potential to produce exceptionally toxic ketene gas, which may be a contributing factor to the upsurge in pulmonary injuries associated with using e-cigarette/vaping products. Additionally, the pyrolysis of vitamin E acetate also...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920925117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Anomalous hydrogen dynamics of the ice VII-VIII transition revealed by
           high-pressure neutron diffraction [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Kazuki Komatsu; Stefan Klotz, Shinichi Machida, Asami Sano-Furukawa, Takanori Hattori, Hiroyuki Kagi
      Pages: 6356 - 6361
      Abstract: Above 2 GPa the phase diagram of water simplifies considerably and exhibits only two solid phases up to 60 GPa, ice VII and ice VIII. The two phases are related to each other by hydrogen ordering, with the oxygen sublattice being essentially the same. Here we present neutron diffraction data...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920447117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Squeezed metallic droplet with tunable Kubo gap and charge injection in
           transition metal dichalcogenides [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Jiaren Yuan; Yuanping Chen, Yuee Xie, Xiaoyu Zhang, Dewei Rao, Yandong Guo, Xiaohong Yan, Yuan Ping Feng, Yongqing Cai
      Pages: 6362 - 6369
      Abstract: Shrinking the size of a bulk metal into nanoscale leads to the discreteness of electronic energy levels, the so-called Kubo gap δ. Renormalization of the electronic properties with a tunable and size-dependent δ renders fascinating photon emission and electron tunneling. In contrast with usual three-dimensional (3D) metal clusters, here we...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920036117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Vulnerable robots positively shape human conversational dynamics in a
           human-robot team [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Margaret L. Traeger; Sarah Strohkorb Sebo, Malte Jung, Brian Scassellati, Nicholas A. Christakis
      Pages: 6370 - 6375
      Abstract: Social robots are becoming increasingly influential in shaping the behavior of humans with whom they interact. Here, we examine how the actions of a social robot can influence human-to-human communication, and not just robot–human communication, using groups of three humans and one robot playing 30 rounds of a collaborative game...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910402117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Spatially separating redox centers on 2D carbon nitride with cobalt single
           atom for photocatalytic H2O2 production [Engineering]
    • Authors: Chiheng Chu; Qianhong Zhu, Zhenhua Pan, Srishti Gupta, Dahong Huang, Yonghua Du, Seunghyun Weon, Yueshen Wu, Christopher Muhich, Eli Stavitski, Kazunari Domen, Jae-Hong Kim
      Pages: 6376 - 6382
      Abstract: Redox cocatalysts play crucial roles in photosynthetic reactions, yet simultaneous loading of oxidative and reductive cocatalysts often leads to enhanced charge recombination that is detrimental to photosynthesis. This study introduces an approach to simultaneously load two redox cocatalysts, atomically dispersed cobalt for improving oxidation activity and anthraquinone for improving reduction...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913403117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Defects in nanosilica catalytically convert CO2 to methane without any
           metal and ligand [Engineering]
    • Authors: Amit K. Mishra; Rajesh Belgamwar, Rajkumar Jana, Ayan Datta, Vivek Polshettiwar
      Pages: 6383 - 6390
      Abstract: Active and stable metal-free heterogeneous catalysts for CO2 fixation are required to reduce the current high level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which is driving climate change. In this work, we show that defects in nanosilica (E′ centers, oxygen vacancies, and nonbridging oxygen hole centers) convert CO2 to methane...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917237117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Highly efficient organic photovoltaics with enhanced stability through the
           formation of doping-induced stable interfaces [Engineering]
    • Authors: Zhi Jiang; Fanji Wang, Kenjiro Fukuda, Akchheta Karki, Wenchao Huang, Kilho Yu, Tomoyuki Yokota, Keisuke Tajima, Thuc-Quyen Nguyen, Takao Someya
      Pages: 6391 - 6397
      Abstract: Flexible organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are promising power sources for wearable electronics. However, it is challenging to simultaneously achieve high efficiency as well as good stability under various stresses. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of highly efficient (efficiency, 13.2%) and stable OPVs based on nonfullerene blends by a single-step postannealing treatment....
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919769117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Higher-rank zeta functions and SLn-zeta functions for curves [Mathematics]
    • Authors: Lin Weng; Don Zagier
      Pages: 6398 - 6408
      Abstract: In earlier papers L.W. introduced two sequences of higher-rank zeta functions associated to a smooth projective curve over a finite field, both of them generalizing the Artin zeta function of the curve. One of these zeta functions is defined geometrically in terms of semistable vector bundles of rank n over...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912501117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Electron-phonon-driven three-dimensional metallicity in an insulating
           cuprate [Physics]
    • Authors: Edoardo Baldini; Michael A. Sentef, Swagata Acharya, Thomas Brumme, Evgeniia Sheveleva, Fryderyk Lyzwa, Ekaterina Pomȷakushina, Christian Bernhard, Mark van Schilfgaarde, Fabrizio Carbone, Angel Rubio, Cedric Weber
      Pages: 6409 - 6416
      Abstract: The role of the crystal lattice for the electronic properties of cuprates and other high-temperature superconductors remains controversial despite decades of theoretical and experimental efforts. While the paradigm of strong electronic correlations suggests a purely electronic mechanism behind the insulator-to-metal transition, recently the mutual enhancement of the electron–electron and the...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919451117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Tuning ferromagnetism at room temperature by visible light [Physics]
    • Authors: Balint Nafradi; Peter Szirmai, Massimo Spina, Andrea Pisoni, Xavier Mettan, Norbert M. Nemes, Laszlo Forro, Endre Horvath
      Pages: 6417 - 6423
      Abstract: Most digital information today is encoded in the magnetization of ferromagnetic domains. The demand for ever-increasing storage space fuels continuous research for energy-efficient manipulation of magnetism at smaller and smaller length scales. Writing a bit is usually achieved by rotating the magnetization of domains of the magnetic medium, which relies...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915370117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Novel electronic nematicity in heavily hole-doped iron pnictide
           superconductors [Physics]
    • Authors: Kousuke Ishida; Masaya Tsuȷii, Suguru Hosoi, Yuta Mizukami, Shigeyuki Ishida, Akira Iyo, Hiroshi Eisaki, Thomas Wolf, Kai Grube, Hilbert v. Lohneysen, Rafael M. Fernandes, Takasada Shibauchi
      Pages: 6424 - 6429
      Abstract: Electronic nematicity, a correlated state that spontaneously breaks rotational symmetry, is observed in several layered quantum materials. In contrast to their liquid-crystal counterparts, the nematic director cannot usually point in an arbitrary direction (XY nematics), but is locked by the crystal to discrete directions (Ising nematics), resulting in strongly anisotropic...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909172117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Fluctuation-response inequality out of equilibrium [Physics]
    • Authors: Andreas Dechant; Shin-ichi Sasa
      Pages: 6430 - 6436
      Abstract: We present an approach to response around arbitrary out-of-equilibrium states in the form of a fluctuation–response inequality (FRI). We study the response of an observable to a perturbation of the underlying stochastic dynamics. We find that the magnitude of the response is bounded from above by the fluctuations of the...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918386117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Electrically powered motions of toron crystallites in chiral liquid
           crystals [Physics]
    • Authors: Hayley R. O. Sohn; Ivan I. Smalyukh
      Pages: 6437 - 6445
      Abstract: Malleability of metals is an example of how the dynamics of defects like dislocations induced by external stresses alters material properties and enables technological applications. However, these defects move merely to comply with the mechanical forces applied on macroscopic scales, whereas the molecular and atomic building blocks behave like rigid...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922198117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Early globalized industrial chain revealed by residual submicron pigment
           particles in Chinese imperial blue-and-white porcelains [Anthropology]
    • Authors: Xiaochenyang Jiang; Yanjun Weng, Xiaohong Wu, Jianfeng Cui, Hongshu Lyu, Jianxin Jiang, Guodong Song, Hetian Jin, Dashu Qin, Changsui Wang
      Pages: 6446 - 6452
      Abstract: The success of early Chinese blue-and-white porcelains relied heavily on imported cobalt pigment from the West. In contrast to art-historical concept, which contains both typological evidence and literature records, it is assumed that imported Sumali blue was completely superseded by domestic Chinese asbolane ore based on the analytical results of...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916630117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Ostrich eggshell bead strontium isotopes reveal persistent macroscale
           social networking across late Quaternary southern Africa [Anthropology]
    • Authors: Brian A. Stewart; Yuchao Zhao, Peter J. Mitchell, Genevieve Dewar, James D. Gleason, Joel D. Blum
      Pages: 6453 - 6462
      Abstract: Hunter-gatherer exchange networks dampen subsistence and reproductive risks by building relationships of mutual support outside local groups that are underwritten by symbolic gift exchange. Hxaro, the system of delayed reciprocity between Ju/’hoãn individuals in southern Africa’s Kalahari Desert, is the best-known such example and the basis for most analogies and...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1921037117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Delayed negative effects of prosocial spending on happiness [Economic
    • Authors: Armin Falk; Thomas Graeber
      Pages: 6463 - 6468
      Abstract: Does prosocial behavior promote happiness' We test this longstanding hypothesis in a behavioral experiment that extends the scope of previous research. In our Saving a Life paradigm, every participant either saved one human life in expectation by triggering a targeted donation of 350 euros or received an amount of 100...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914324117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Common power laws for cities and spatial fractal structures [Economic
    • Authors: Tomoya Mori; Tony E. Smith, Wen-Tai Hsu
      Pages: 6469 - 6475
      Abstract: City-size distributions are known to be well approximated by power laws across a wide range of countries. But such distributions are also meaningful at other spatial scales, such as within certain regions of a country. Using data from China, France, Germany, India, Japan, and the United States, we first document...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913014117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Active learning narrows achievement gaps for underrepresented students in
           undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and math [Psychological
           and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Elli J. Theobald; Mariah J. Hill, Elisa Tran, Sweta Agrawal, E. Nicole Arroyo, Shawn Behling, Nyasha Chambwe, Dianne Laboy Cintron, Jacob D. Cooper, Gideon Dunster, Jared A. Grummer, Kelly Hennessey, Jennifer Hsiao, Nicole Iranon, Leonard Jones II, Hannah Jordt, Marlowe Keller, Melissa E. Lacey, Caitlin E. Littlefield, Alexander Lowe, Shannon Newman, Vera Okolo, Savannah Olroyd, Brandon R. Peecook, Sarah B. Pickett, David L. Slager, Itzue W. Caviedes–Solis, Kathryn E. Stanchak, Vasudha Sundaravardan, Camila Valdebenito, Claire R. Williams, Kaitlin Zinsli, Scott Freeman
      Pages: 6476 - 6483
      Abstract: We tested the hypothesis that underrepresented students in active-learning classrooms experience narrower achievement gaps than underrepresented students in traditional lecturing classrooms, averaged across all science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields and courses. We conducted a comprehensive search for both published and unpublished studies that compared the performance of underrepresented...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916903117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Visualizing the protons in a metalloenzyme electron proton transfer
           pathway [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Hanna Kwon; Jaswir Basran, Juliette M. Devos, Reynier Suardiaz, Marc W. van der Kamp, Adrian J. Mulholland, Tobias E. Schrader, Andreas Ostermann, Matthew P. Blakeley, Peter C. E. Moody, Emma L. Raven
      Pages: 6484 - 6490
      Abstract: In redox metalloenzymes, the process of electron transfer often involves the concerted movement of a proton. These processes are referred to as proton-coupled electron transfer, and they underpin a wide variety of biological processes, including respiration, energy conversion, photosynthesis, and metalloenzyme catalysis. The mechanisms of proton delivery are incompletely understood,...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918936117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Mild depolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane is a crucial
           component of an anti-aging program [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Mikhail Y. Vyssokikh; Susanne Holtze, Olga A. Averina, Konstantin G. Lyamzaev, Alisa A. Panteleeva, Maria V. Marey, Roman A. Zinovkin, Fedor F. Severin, Maxim V. Skulachev, Nicolas Fasel, Thomas B. Hildebrandt, Vladimir P. Skulachev
      Pages: 6491 - 6501
      Abstract: The mitochondria of various tissues from mice, naked mole rats (NMRs), and bats possess two mechanistically similar systems to prevent the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS): hexokinases I and II and creatine kinase bound to mitochondrial membranes. Both systems operate in a manner such that one of the...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916414117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • A photosynthetic antenna complex foregoes unity
           carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer efficiency to ensure
           photoprotection [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Dariusz M. Niedzwiedzki; David J. K. Swainsbury, Daniel P. Canniffe, C. Neil Hunter, Andrew Hitchcock
      Pages: 6502 - 6508
      Abstract: Carotenoids play a number of important roles in photosynthesis, primarily providing light-harvesting and photoprotective energy dissipation functions within pigment–protein complexes. The carbon–carbon double bond (C=C) conjugation length of carotenoids (N), generally between 9 and 15, determines the carotenoid-to-(bacterio)chlorophyll [(B)Chl] energy transfer efficiency. Here we purified and spectroscopically characterized light-harvesting complex...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920923117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • DBC1, p300, HDAC3, and Siah1 coordinately regulate ELL stability and
           function for expression of its target genes [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Subham Basu; Mahesh Barad, Dipika Yadav, Arijit Nandy, Bidisha Mukherjee, Jit Sarkar, Partha Chakrabarti, Satinath Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata Biswas
      Pages: 6509 - 6520
      Abstract: Among all of the Super Elongation Complex (SEC) components, ELL1 (also known as ELL) is the only bona fide elongation factor that directly stimulates transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II. However, the mechanism(s) of functional regulation of ELL1 (referred to as ELL hereafter), through its stabilization, is completely unknown. Here,...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912375117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Necroptosis-blocking compound NBC1 targets heat shock protein 70 to
           inhibit MLKL polymerization and necroptosis [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Andrea N. Johnston; Yuyong Ma, Hua Liu, Shuzhen Liu, Sarah Hanna-Addams, She Chen, Chuo Chen, Zhigao Wang
      Pages: 6521 - 6530
      Abstract: Necroptosis is a regulated necrotic cell death pathway involved in development and disease. Its signaling cascade results in the formation of disulfide bond-dependent amyloid-like polymers of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), which mediate proinflammatory cell membrane disruption. We screened compound libraries provided by the National Cancer Institute and identified...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916503117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Potent CRISPR-Cas9 inhibitors from Staphylococcus genomes [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Kyle E. Watters; Haridha Shivram, Christof Fellmann, Rachel J. Lew, Blake McMahon, Jennifer A. Doudna
      Pages: 6531 - 6539
      Abstract: Anti-CRISPRs (Acrs) are small proteins that inhibit the RNA-guided DNA targeting activity of CRISPR-Cas enzymes. Encoded by bacteriophage and phage-derived bacterial genes, Acrs prevent CRISPR-mediated inhibition of phage infection and can also block CRISPR-Cas-mediated genome editing in eukaryotic cells. To identify Acrs capable of inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SauCas9), an...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917668117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Stochastic activation and bistability in a Rab GTPase regulatory network
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Urban Bezeljak; Hrushikesh Loya, Beata Kaczmarek, Timothy E. Saunders, Martin Loose
      Pages: 6540 - 6549
      Abstract: The eukaryotic endomembrane system is controlled by small GTPases of the Rab family, which are activated at defined times and locations in a switch-like manner. While this switch is well understood for an individual protein, how regulatory networks produce intracellular activity patterns is currently not known. Here, we combine in...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1921027117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Molecular recognition of a host protein by NS1 of pandemic and seasonal
           influenza A viruses [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Jae-Hyun Cho; Baoyu Zhao, Jie Shi, Nowlan Savage, Qingliang Shen, James Byrnes, Lin Yang, Wonmuk Hwang, Pingwei Li
      Pages: 6550 - 6558
      Abstract: The 1918 influenza A virus (IAV) caused the most severe flu pandemic in recorded human history. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is an important virulence factor of the 1918 IAV. NS1 antagonizes host defense mechanisms through interactions with multiple host factors. One pathway by which NS1 increases virulence is through the...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920582117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Structural and mechanistic insights into secretagogin-mediated exocytosis
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Jiao Qin; Qi Liu, Zhe Liu, Yun-Zu Pan, Luis Sifuentes-Dominguez, Karolina P. Stepien, Yan Wang, Yingfeng Tu, Shuai Tan, Yuan Wang, Qingxiang Sun, Xianming Mo, Josep Rizo, Ezra Burstein, Da Jia
      Pages: 6559 - 6570
      Abstract: Secretagogin (SCGN) is a hexa–EF-hand protein that is highly expressed in the pancreas, brain, and gastrointestinal tract. SCGN is known to modulate regulated exocytosis in multiple cell lines and tissues; however, its exact functions and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report that SCGN interacts with the plasma membrane SNARE...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919698117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • An MXD1-derived repressor peptide identifies noncoding mediators of
           MYC-driven cell proliferation [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Philipp Raffeiner; Jonathan R. Hart, Daniel Garcia–Caballero, Liron Bar–Peled, Marc S. Weinberg, Peter K. Vogt
      Pages: 6571 - 6579
      Abstract: MYC controls the transcription of large numbers of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Since MYC is a ubiquitous oncoprotein, some of these lncRNAs probably play a significant role in cancer. We applied CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) to the identification of MYC-regulated lncRNAs that are required for MYC-driven cell proliferation in the P493-6...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1921786117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Mitotic and pheromone-specific intrinsic polarization cues interfere with
           gradient sensing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Gustavo Vasen; Paula Dunayevich, Alejandro Colman-Lerner
      Pages: 6580 - 6589
      Abstract: Polarity decisions are central to many processes, including mitosis and chemotropism. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, budding and mating projection (MP) formation use an overlapping system of cortical landmarks that converges on the small G protein Cdc42. However, pheromone-gradient sensing must override the Rsr1-dependent internal polarity cues used for budding. Using this...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912505117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Killer whale presence drives bowhead whale selection for sea ice in Arctic
           seascapes of fear [Ecology]
    • Authors: Cory J. D. Matthews; Greg A. Breed, Bernard LeBlanc, Steven H. Ferguson
      Pages: 6590 - 6598
      Abstract: The effects of predator intimidation on habitat use and behavior of prey species are rarely quantified for large marine vertebrates over ecologically relevant scales. Using state space movement models followed by a series of step selection functions, we analyzed movement data of concurrently tracked prey, bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus; n...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911761117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Laminarin is a major molecule in the marine carbon cycle [Environmental
    • Authors: Stefan Becker; Jan Tebben, Sarah Coffinet, Karen Wiltshire, Morten Hvitfeldt Iversen, Tilmann Harder, Kai-Uwe Hinrichs, Jan-Hendrik Hehemann
      Pages: 6599 - 6607
      Abstract: Marine microalgae sequester as much CO2 into carbohydrates as terrestrial plants. Polymeric carbohydrates (i.e., glycans) provide carbon for heterotrophic organisms and constitute a carbon sink in the global oceans. The quantitative contributions of different algal glycans to cycling and sequestration of carbon remain unknown, partly because of the analytical challenge...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917001117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Trait evolution is reversible, repeatable, and decoupled in the soldier
           caste of turtle ants [Evolution]
    • Authors: Scott Powell; Shauna L. Price, Daniel J. C. Kronauer
      Pages: 6608 - 6615
      Abstract: The scope of adaptive phenotypic change within a lineage is shaped by how functional traits evolve. Castes are defining functional traits of adaptive phenotypic change in complex insect societies, and caste evolution is expected to be phylogenetically conserved and developmentally constrained at broad phylogenetic scales. Yet how castes evolve at...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913750117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Strong selective effects of mitochondrial DNA on the nuclear genome
    • Authors: Timothy M. Healy; Ronald S. Burton
      Pages: 6616 - 6621
      Abstract: Oxidative phosphorylation, the primary source of cellular energy in eukaryotes, requires gene products encoded in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. As a result, functional integration between the genomes is essential for efficient adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation. Although within populations this integration is presumably maintained by coevolution, the importance of...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910141117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Men1 maintains exocrine pancreas homeostasis in response to inflammation
           and oncogenic stress [Genetics]
    • Authors: Amanda R. Wasylishen; Chang Sun, Gilda P. Chau, Yuan Qi, Xiaoping Su, Michael P. Kim, Jeannelyn S. Estrella, Guillermina Lozano
      Pages: 6622 - 6629
      Abstract: A more comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying pancreatic diseases, including pancreatitis and cancer, is essential to improve clinical management. MEN1 has established roles in epigenetic regulation and tumor suppression in the endocrine pancreas; however, intriguing recent data suggest MEN1 may also function in the exocrine pancreas. Using physiologically...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920017117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Suppression of age-related salivary gland autoimmunity by
           glycosylation-dependent galectin-1-driven immune inhibitory circuits
           [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Veronica C. Martinez Allo; Vanesa Hauk, Nicolas Sarbia, Nicolas A. Pinto, Diego O. Croci, Tomas Dalotto–Moreno, Rosa M. Morales, Sabrina G. Gatto, Montana N. Manselle Cocco, Juan C. Stupirski, Angel Deladoey, Esteban Maronna, Priscila Marcaida, Virginia Durigan, Anastasia Secco, Marta Mamani, Alicia Dos Santos, Antonio Catalan Pellet, Claudia Perez Leiros, Gabriel A. Rabinovich, Marta A. Toscano
      Pages: 6630 - 6639
      Abstract: Aging elicits quantitative and qualitative changes in different immune components, leading to disruption of tolerogenic circuits and development of autoimmune disorders. Galectin-1 (Gal1), an endogenous glycan-binding protein, has emerged as a regulator of immune cell homeostasis by shaping the fate of myeloid and lymphoid cells. Here, we demonstrate that aged...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922778117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Tumor cell-intrinsic PD-1 receptor is a tumor suppressor and mediates
           resistance to PD-1 blockade therapy [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Xiaodong Wang; Xiaohui Yang, Chang Zhang, Yang Wang, Tianyou Cheng, Liqiang Duan, Zhou Tong, Shuguang Tan, Hangjie Zhang, Phei Er Saw, Yinmin Gu, Jinhua Wang, Yibi Zhang, Lina Shang, Yajuan Liu, Siyuan Jiang, Bingxue Yan, Rong Li, Yue Yang, Jie Yu, Yunzhao Chen, George Fu Gao, Qinong Ye, Shan Gao
      Pages: 6640 - 6650
      Abstract: The programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor on the surface of immune cells is an immune checkpoint molecule that mediates the immune escape of tumor cells. Consequently, antibodies targeting PD-1 have shown efficacy in enhancing the antitumor activity of T cells in some types of cancers. However, the potential effects...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1921445117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • CD300f immunoreceptor is associated with major depressive disorder and
           decreased microglial metabolic fitness [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Natalia Lago; Fernanda N. Kaufmann, Maria Luciana Negro–Demontel, Daniela Ali–Ruiz, Gabriele Ghisleni, Natalia Rego, Andrea Arcas–Garcia, Nathalia Vitureira, Karen Jansen, Luciano M. Souza, Ricardo A. Silva, Diogo R. Lara, Bruno Pannunzio, Juan Andres Abin–Carriquiry, Jesus Amo–Aparicio, Celia Martin–Otal, Hugo Naya, Dorian B. McGavern, Joan Sayos, Ruben Lopez–Vales, Manuella P. Kaster, Hugo Peluffo
      Pages: 6651 - 6662
      Abstract: A role for microglia in neuropsychiatric diseases, including major depressive disorder (MDD), has been postulated. Regulation of microglial phenotype by immune receptors has become a central topic in many neurological conditions. We explored preclinical and clinical evidence for the role of the CD300f immune receptor in the fine regulation of...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911816117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Hydrogen sulfide dysregulates the immune response by suppressing central
           carbon metabolism to promote tuberculosis [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Md. Aejazur Rahman; Bridgette M. Cumming, Kelvin W. Addicott, Hayden T. Pacl, Shannon L. Russell, Kievershen Nargan, Threnesan Naidoo, Pratistadevi K. Ramdial, John H. Adamson, Rui Wang, Adrie J. C. Steyn
      Pages: 6663 - 6674
      Abstract: The ubiquitous gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized to play a crucial role in human health. Using cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE)-deficient mice, we demonstrate an unexpected role of H2S in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) pathogenesis. We showed that Mtb-infected CSE−/− mice survive longer than WT mice, and support reduced pathology and...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919211117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Longitudinal dynamics of the human B cell response to the yellow fever 17D
           vaccine [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Anna Z. Wec; Denise Haslwanter, Yasmina N. Abdiche, Laila Shehata, Nuria Pedreno–Lopez, Crystal L. Moyer, Zachary A. Bornholdt, Asparouh Lilov, Juergen H. Nett, Rohit K. Jangra, Michael Brown, David I. Watkins, Clas Ahlm, Mattias N. Forsell, Felix A. Rey, Giovanna Barba–Spaeth, Kartik Chandran, Laura M. Walker
      Pages: 6675 - 6685
      Abstract: A comprehensive understanding of the development and evolution of human B cell responses induced by pathogen exposure will facilitate the design of next-generation vaccines. Here, we utilized a high-throughput single B cell cloning technology to longitudinally track the human B cell response to the yellow fever virus 17D (YFV-17D) vaccine....
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1921388117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • CD29 identifies IFN-{gamma}-producing human CD8+ T cells with an increased
           cytotoxic potential [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Benoit P. Nicolet; Aurelie Guislain, Floris P. J. van Alphen, Raquel Gomez–Eerland, Ton N. M. Schumacher, Maartȷe van den Biggelaar, Monika C. Wolkers
      Pages: 6686 - 6696
      Abstract: Cytotoxic CD8+ T cells can effectively kill target cells by producing cytokines, chemokines, and granzymes. Expression of these effector molecules is however highly divergent, and tools that identify and preselect CD8+ T cells with a cytotoxic expression profile are lacking. Human CD8+ T cells can be divided into IFN-γ– and...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913940117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Alpaca (Vicugna pacos), the first nonprimate species with a
           phosphoantigen-reactive V{gamma}9V{delta}2 T cell subset [Immunology and
    • Authors: Alina S. Fichtner; Mohindar M. Karunakaran, Siyi Gu, Christopher T. Boughter, Marta T. Borowska, Lisa Starick, Anna Nohren, Thomas W. Gobel, Erin J. Adams, Thomas Herrmann
      Pages: 6697 - 6707
      Abstract: Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are a major γδ T cell population in the human blood expressing a characteristic Vγ9JP rearrangement paired with Vδ2. This cell subset is activated in a TCR-dependent and MHC-unrestricted fashion by so-called phosphoantigens (PAgs). PAgs can be microbial [(E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate, HMBPP] or endogenous (isopentenyl pyrophosphate, IPP) and...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909474117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Th17 lymphocytes drive vascular and neuronal deficits in a mouse model of
           postinfectious autoimmune encephalitis [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Maryann P. Platt; Kevin A. Bolding, Charlotte R. Wayne, Sarah Chaudhry, Tyler Cutforth, Kevin M. Franks, Dritan Agalliu
      Pages: 6708 - 6716
      Abstract: Antibodies against neuronal receptors and synaptic proteins are associated with a group of ill-defined central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune diseases termed autoimmune encephalitides (AE), which are characterized by abrupt onset of seizures and/or movement and psychiatric symptoms. Basal ganglia encephalitis (BGE), representing a subset of AE syndromes, is triggered in...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911097117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Complement C1q mediates the expansion of periportal hepatic progenitor
           cells in senescence-associated inflammatory liver [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Tung-Ching Ho; Er-Yea Wang, Kun-Huei Yeh, Yung-Ming Jeng, Jau-Hau Horng, Li-Ling Wu, Yi-Tzu Chen, Hsuan-Cheng Huang, Chia-Lang Hsu, Pei-Jer Chen, Shiou-Hwei Yeh, Ding-Shinn Chen
      Pages: 6717 - 6725
      Abstract: Most hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) develop in patients with chronic hepatitis, which creates a microenvironment for the growth of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) at the periportal area and subsequent development of HCCs. We investigated the signal from the inflammatory liver for this pathogenic process in the hepatic conditional β-catenin knockout mouse...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918028117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Splice variant of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor drives
           esophageal squamous cell carcinoma conferring a therapeutic target
           [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Xiao Xiong; Xiurong Ke, Lu Wang, Zhimeng Yao, Yi Guo, Xianyang Zhang, Yuping Chen, Chi Pui Pang, Andrew V. Schally, Hao Zhang
      Pages: 6726 - 6732
      Abstract: The extrahypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and its cognate receptors (GHRH-Rs) and splice variants are expressed in a variety of cancers. It has been shown that the pituitary type of GHRH-R (pGHRH-R) mediates the inhibition of tumor growth induced by GHRH-R antagonists. However, GHRH-R antagonists can also suppress some cancers...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913433117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Arrestin domain-containing 3 (Arrdc3) modulates insulin action and glucose
           metabolism in liver [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Thiago M. Batista; Sezin Dagdeviren, Shannon H. Carroll, Weikang Cai, Veronika Y. Melnik, Hye Lim Noh, Suchaorn Saengnipanthkul, Jason K. Kim, C. Ronald Kahn, Richard T. Lee
      Pages: 6733 - 6740
      Abstract: Insulin action in the liver is critical for glucose homeostasis through regulation of glycogen synthesis and glucose output. Arrestin domain-containing 3 (Arrdc3) is a member of the α-arrestin family previously linked to human obesity. Here, we show that Arrdc3 is differentially regulated by insulin in vivo in mice undergoing euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922370117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Disruption of cellular proteostasis by H1N1 influenza A virus causes
           {alpha}-synuclein aggregation [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Rita Marreiros; Andreas Muller–Schiffmann, Svenȷa V. Trossbach, Ingrid Prikulis, Sebastian Hansch, Stefanie Weidtkamp–Peters, Ana Raquel Moreira, Shriya Sahu, Irina Soloviev, Suganya Selvaraȷah, Vishwanath R. Lingappa, Carsten Korth
      Pages: 6741 - 6751
      Abstract: Neurodegenerative diseases feature specific misfolded or misassembled proteins associated with neurotoxicity. The precise mechanisms by which protein aggregates first arise in the majority of sporadic cases have remained unclear. Likely, a first critical mass of misfolded proteins starts a vicious cycle of a prion-like expansion. We hypothesize that viruses, having...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906466117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Chromosome-free bacterial cells are safe and programmable platforms for
           synthetic biology [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Catherine Fan; Paul A. Davison, Robert Habgood, Hong Zeng, Christoph M. Decker, Manuela Gesell Salazar, Khemmathin Lueangwattanapong, Helen E. Townley, Aidong Yang, Ian P. Thompson, Hua Ye, Zhanfeng Cui, Frank Schmidt, C. Neil Hunter, Wei E. Huang
      Pages: 6752 - 6761
      Abstract: A type of chromosome-free cell called SimCells (simple cells) has been generated from Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, and Ralstonia eutropha. The removal of the native chromosomes of these bacteria was achieved by double-stranded breaks made by heterologous I-CeuI endonuclease and the degradation activity of endogenous nucleases. We have shown that...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918859117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Natural diversity in the predatory behavior facilitates the establishment
           of a robust model strain for nematode-trapping fungi [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Ching–Ting Yang; Guillermo Vidal–Diez de Ulzurrun, A. Pedro Goncalves, Hung–Che Lin, Ching–Wen Chang, Tsung–Yu Huang, Sheng–An Chen, Cheng–Kuo Lai, Isheng J. Tsai, Frank C. Schroeder, Jason E. Staȷich, Yen–Ping Hsueh
      Pages: 6762 - 6770
      Abstract: Nematode-trapping fungi (NTF) are a group of specialized microbial predators that consume nematodes when food sources are limited. Predation is initiated when conserved nematode ascaroside pheromones are sensed, followed by the development of complex trapping devices. To gain insights into the coevolution of this interkingdom predator–prey relationship, we investigated natural...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919726117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Prophylactic and therapeutic remdesivir (GS-5734) treatment in the rhesus
           macaque model of MERS-CoV infection [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Emmie de Wit; Friederike Feldmann, Jacqueline Cronin, Robert Jordan, Atsushi Okumura, Tina Thomas, Dana Scott, Tomas Cihlar, Heinz Feldmann
      Pages: 6771 - 6776
      Abstract: The continued emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) cases with a high case fatality rate stresses the need for the availability of effective antiviral treatments. Remdesivir (GS-5734) effectively inhibited MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) replication in vitro, and showed efficacy against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV in a mouse model. Here,...
      Keywords: Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922083117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • The Tol-Pal system is required for peptidoglycan-cleaving enzymes to
           complete bacterial cell division [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Anastasiya A. Yakhnina; Thomas G. Bernhardt
      Pages: 6777 - 6783
      Abstract: Tol-Pal is a multiprotein system present in the envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. Inactivation of this widely conserved machinery compromises the outer membrane (OM) layer of these organisms, resulting in hypersensitivity to many antibiotics. Mutants in the tol-pal locus fail to complete division and form cell chains. This phenotype along with...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919267117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Cryo-EM structure of rhinovirus C15a bound to its cadherin-related protein
           3 receptor [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Yingyuan Sun; Kelly Watters, Marchel G. Hill, Qianglin Fang, Yue Liu, Richard J. Kuhn, Thomas Klose, Michael G. Rossmann, Ann C. Palmenberg
      Pages: 6784 - 6791
      Abstract: Infection by Rhinovirus-C (RV-C), a species of Picornaviridae Enterovirus, is strongly associated with childhood asthma exacerbations. Cellular binding and entry by all RV-C, which trigger these episodes, is mediated by the first extracellular domain (EC1) of cadherin-related protein 3 (CDHR3), a surface cadherin-like protein expressed primarily on the apical surfaces...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1921640117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Intestinal bile acids directly modulate the structure and function of C.
           difficile TcdB toxin [Microbiology]
    • Authors: John Tam; Simoun Icho, Evelyn Utama, Kathleen E. Orrell, Rodolfo F. Gomez–Biagi, Casey M. Theriot, Heather K. Kroh, Stacey A. Rutherford, D. Borden Lacy, Roman A. Melnyk
      Pages: 6792 - 6800
      Abstract: Intestinal bile acids are known to modulate the germination and growth of Clostridioides difficile. Here we describe a role for intestinal bile acids in directly binding and neutralizing TcdB toxin, the primary determinant of C. difficile disease. We show that individual primary and secondary bile acids reversibly bind and inhibit...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916965117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Lysosomal degradation products induce Coxiella burnetii virulence
    • Authors: Patrice Newton; David R. Thomas, Shawna C. O. Reed, Nicole Lau, Bangyan Xu, Sze Ying Ong, Shivani Pasricha, Piyush B. Madhamshettiwar, Laura E. Edgington-Mitchell, Kaylene J. Simpson, Craig R. Roy, Hayley J. Newton
      Pages: 6801 - 6810
      Abstract: Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular pathogen that replicates in a lysosome-like vacuole through activation of a Dot/Icm-type IVB secretion system and subsequent translocation of effectors that remodel the host cell. Here a genome-wide small interfering RNA screen and reporter assay were used to identify host proteins required for Dot/Icm effector...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1921344117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • A comparative genomics approach identifies contact-dependent growth
           inhibition as a virulence determinant [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Jonathan P. Allen; Egon A. Ozer, George Minasov, Ludmilla Shuvalova, Olga Kiryukhina, Karla J. F. Satchell, Alan R. Hauser
      Pages: 6811 - 6821
      Abstract: Emerging evidence suggests the Pseudomonas aeruginosa accessory genome is enriched with uncharacterized virulence genes. Identification and characterization of such genes may reveal novel pathogenic mechanisms used by particularly virulent isolates. Here, we utilized a mouse bacteremia model to quantify the virulence of 100 individual P. aeruginosa bloodstream isolates and performed...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919198117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Exploring histone loading on HIV DNA reveals a dynamic nucleosome
           positioning between unintegrated and integrated viral genome
    • Authors: Shinichi Machida; David Depierre, Heng–Chang Chen, Suzie Thenin–Houssier, Gael Petitȷean, Cecile M. Doyen, Motoki Takaku, Olivier Cuvier, Monsef Benkirane
      Pages: 6822 - 6830
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to understand the biology of unintegrated HIV-1 DNA and reveal the mechanisms involved in its transcriptional silencing. We found that histones are loaded on HIV-1 DNA after its nuclear import and before its integration in the host genome. Nucleosome positioning analysis along the...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913754117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Optofluidic control of rodent learning using cloaked caged glutamate
    • Authors: Romain Durand–de Cuttoli; Pradeep S. Chauhan, Adriana Petriz Reyes, Philippe Faure, Alexandre Mourot, Graham C. R. Ellis–Davies
      Pages: 6831 - 6835
      Abstract: Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and photochemical release of glutamate (or uncaging) is a chemical technique widely used by biologists to interrogate its physiology. A basic prerequisite of these optical probes is bio-inertness before photolysis. However, all caged glutamates are known to have strong antagonism toward...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920869117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Central neurogenetic signatures of the visuomotor integration system
    • Authors: Elisenda Bueicheku; Maite Aznarez–Sanado, Ibai Diez, Federico d’Oleire Uquillas, Laura Ortiz–Teran, Abid Y. Qureshi, Maria Sunol, Silvia Basaia, Elena Ortiz–Teran, Maria A. Pastor, Jorge Sepulcre
      Pages: 6836 - 6843
      Abstract: Visuomotor impairments characterize numerous neurological disorders and neurogenetic syndromes, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Dravet, Fragile X, Prader–Willi, Turner, and Williams syndromes. Despite recent advances in systems neuroscience, the biological basis underlying visuomotor functional impairments associated with these clinical conditions is poorly understood. In this study, we used...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912429117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Early intraneuronal amyloid triggers neuron-derived inflammatory signaling
           in APP transgenic rats and human brain [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Lindsay A. Welikovitch; Sonia Do Carmo, Zsofia Magloczky, Janice C. Malcolm, Janos Lőke, William L. Klein, Tamas Freund, A. Claudio Cuello
      Pages: 6844 - 6854
      Abstract: Chronic inflammation during Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is most often attributed to sustained microglial activation in response to amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque deposits and cell death. However, cytokine release and microgliosis are consistently observed in AD transgenic animal models devoid of such pathologies, bringing into question the underlying processes that may be...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914593117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Cerebellar plasticity and associative memories are controlled by
           perineuronal nets [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Daniela Carulli; Robin Broersen, Fred de Winter, Elizabeth M. Muir, Maȷa Mešković, Matthiȷs de Waal, Sharon de Vries, Henk–Jan Boele, Cathrin B. Canto, Chris I. De Zeeuw, Joost Verhaagen
      Pages: 6855 - 6865
      Abstract: Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are assemblies of extracellular matrix molecules, which surround the cell body and dendrites of many types of neuron and regulate neural plasticity. PNNs are prominently expressed around neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN), but their role in adult cerebellar plasticity and behavior is far from clear....
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916163117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Unraveling the complexity of amyloid polymorphism using gold nanoparticles
           and cryo-EM [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Urszula Cendrowska; Paulo Jacob Silva, Nadine Ait–Bouziad, Marie Muller, Zekiye Pelin Guven, Sophie Vieweg, Anass Chiki, Lynn Radamaker, Senthil T. Kumar, Marcus Fandrich, Francesco Tavanti, Maria Cristina Menziani, Alfredo Alexander–Katz, Francesco Stellacci, Hilal A. Lashuel
      Pages: 6866 - 6874
      Abstract: Increasing evidence suggests that amyloid polymorphism gives rise to different strains of amyloids with distinct toxicities and pathology-spreading properties. Validating this hypothesis is challenging due to a lack of tools and methods that allow for the direct characterization of amyloid polymorphism in hydrated and complex biological samples. Here, we report...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916176117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Indexing brain state-dependent pupil dynamics with simultaneous fMRI and
           optical fiber calcium recording [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Patricia Pais–Roldan; Kengo Takahashi, Filip Sobczak, Yi Chen, Xiaoning Zhao, Hang Zeng, Yuanyuan Jiang, Xin Yu
      Pages: 6875 - 6882
      Abstract: Pupillometry, a noninvasive measure of arousal, complements human functional MRI (fMRI) to detect periods of variable cognitive processing and identify networks that relate to particular attentional states. Even under anesthesia, pupil dynamics correlate with brain-state fluctuations, and extended dilations mark the transition to more arousable states. However, cross-scale neuronal activation...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909937117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Distinct signaling and transcriptional pathways regulate peri-weaning
    • Authors: Yixuan Wu; Melissa A. Kinnebrew, Vassily I. Kutyavin, Ajay Chawla
      Pages: 6883 - 6889
      Abstract: Adipose tissue provides a defense against starvation and environmental cold. These dichotomous functions are performed by three distinct cell types: energy-storing white adipocytes, and thermogenic beige and brown adipocytes. Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to environmental cold stimulates the recruitment of beige adipocytes in the white adipose tissue (WAT)...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920419117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Spatiotemporal gating of SIRT1 functions by O-GlcNAcylation is essential
           for liver metabolic switching and prevents hyperglycemia [Physiology]
    • Authors: Tandrika Chattopadhyay; Babukrishna Maniyadath, Hema P. Bagul, Arindam Chakraborty, Namrata Shukla, Srikanth Budnar, Abinaya Rajendran, Arushi Shukla, Siddhesh S. Kamat, Ullas Kolthur-Seetharam
      Pages: 6890 - 6900
      Abstract: Inefficient physiological transitions are known to cause metabolic disorders. Therefore, investigating mechanisms that constitute molecular switches in a central metabolic organ like the liver becomes crucial. Specifically, upstream mechanisms that control temporal engagement of transcription factors, which are essential to mediate physiological fed–fast–refed transitions are less understood. SIRT1, a NAD+-dependent...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909943117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Molecular mechanisms of Evening Complex activity in Arabidopsis [Plant
    • Authors: Catarina S. Silva; Aditya Nayak, Xuelei Lai, Stephanie Hutin, Veronique Hugouvieux, Jae–Hoon Jung, Irene Lopez–Vidriero, Jose M. Franco–Zorrilla, Kishore C. S. Panigrahi, Max H. Nanao, Philip A. Wigge, Chloe Zubieta
      Pages: 6901 - 6909
      Abstract: The Evening Complex (EC), composed of the DNA binding protein LUX ARRHYTHMO (LUX) and two additional proteins EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) and ELF4, is a transcriptional repressor complex and a core component of the plant circadian clock. In addition to maintaining oscillations in clock gene expression, the EC also participates...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920972117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • IPyA glucosylation mediates light and temperature signaling to regulate
           auxin-dependent hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Lu Chen; Xu-Xu Huang, Shu-Man Zhao, Dong-Wang Xiao, Lang-Tao Xiao, Jian-Hua Tong, Wen-Shuai Wang, Yan-Jie Li, Zhaojun Ding, Bing-Kai Hou
      Pages: 6910 - 6917
      Abstract: Auxin is a class of plant hormone that plays a crucial role in the life cycle of plants, particularly in the growth response of plants to ever-changing environments. Since the auxin responses are concentration-dependent and higher auxin concentrations might often be inhibitory, the optimal endogenous auxin level must be closely...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2000172117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • The Arabidopsis SAFEGUARD1 suppresses singlet oxygen-induced stress
           responses by protecting grana margins [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Liangsheng Wang; Dario Leister, Li Guan, Yi Zheng, Katja Schneider, Martin Lehmann, Klaus Apel, Tatjana Kleine
      Pages: 6918 - 6927
      Abstract: Singlet oxygen (1O2), the major reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in chloroplasts, has been demonstrated recently to be a highly versatile signal that induces various stress responses. In the fluorescent (flu) mutant, its release causes seedling lethality and inhibits mature plant growth. However, these drastic phenotypes are suppressed when EXECUTER1...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918640117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Two systems for thinking about others’ thoughts in the developing brain
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Charlotte Grosse Wiesmann; Angela D. Friederici, Tania Singer, Nikolaus Steinbeis
      Pages: 6928 - 6935
      Abstract: Human social interaction crucially relies on the ability to infer what other people think. Referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM), this ability has long been argued to emerge around 4 y of age when children start passing traditional verbal ToM tasks. This developmental dogma has recently been questioned by...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916725117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Brain activity forecasts video engagement in an internet attention market
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Lester C. Tong; M. Yavuz Acikalin, Alexander Genevsky, Baba Shiv, Brian Knutson
      Pages: 6936 - 6941
      Abstract: The growth of the internet has spawned new “attention markets,” in which people devote increasing amounts of time to consuming online content, but the neurobehavioral mechanisms that drive engagement in these markets have yet to be elucidated. We used functional MRI (FMRI) to examine whether individuals’ neural responses to videos...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1905178117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • MicroRNAs organize intrinsic variation into stem cell states [Systems
    • Authors: Meenakshi Chakraborty; Sofia Hu, Erica Visness, Marco Del Giudice, Andrea De Martino, Carla Bosia, Phillip A. Sharp, Salil Garg
      Pages: 6942 - 6950
      Abstract: Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) contain the potential to form a diverse array of cells with distinct gene expression states, namely the cells of the adult vertebrate. Classically, diversity has been attributed to cells sensing their position with respect to external morphogen gradients. However, an alternative is that diversity arises...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920695117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Correction for Zhang et al., Tuning friction to a superlubric state via
           in-plane straining [Correction]
    • Pages: 6951 - 6951
      Abstract: ENGINEERING Correction for “Tuning friction to a superlubric state via in-plane straining,” by Shuai Zhang, Yuan Hou, Suzhi Li, Luqi Liu, Zhong Zhang, Xi-Qiao Feng, and Qunyang Li, which was first published October 28, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1907947116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 24452–24456). The authors wish to note the following:...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003623117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Correction for Xu et al., Structural elements regulating the
           photochromicity in a cyanobacteriochrome [Correction]
    • Pages: 6952 - 6952
      Abstract: BIOCHEMISTRY Correction for “Structural elements regulating the photochromicity in a cyanobacteriochrome,” by Xiuling Xu, Astrid Port, Christian Wiebeler, Kai-Hong Zhao, Igor Schapiro, and Wolfgang Gärtner, which was first published January 21, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.1910208117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 2432–2440). The authors note that the author name Astrid Port should...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003128117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
  • Correction for Morris et al., Biotic and anthropogenic forces rival
           climatic/abiotic factors in determining global plant population growth and
           fitness [Correction]
    • Pages: 6953 - 6953
      Abstract: ECOLOGY Correction for “Biotic and anthropogenic forces rival climatic/abiotic factors in determining global plant population growth and fitness,” by William F. Morris, Johan Ehrlén, Johan P. Dahlgren, Alexander K. Loomis, and Allison M. Louthan, which was first published December 30, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1918363117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 1107–1112). The...
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T10:36:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003371117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 12 (2020)
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