Journal Cover Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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   ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
   Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Intranasal MSC-derived A1-exosomes ease inflammation, and prevent abnormal
           neurogenesis and memory dysfunction after status epilepticus
    • Authors: Qianfa Long; Dinesh Upadhya, Bharathi Hattiangady, Dong-Ki Kim, Su Yeon An, Bing Shuai, Darwin J. Prockop, Ashok K. Shetty
      Abstract: Status epilepticus (SE), a medical emergency that is typically terminated through antiepileptic drug treatment, leads to hippocampus dysfunction typified by neurodegeneration, inflammation, altered neurogenesis, as well as cognitive and memory deficits. Here, we examined the effects of intranasal (IN) administration of extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703920114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Dual optical control and mechanistic insights into photoswitchable group
           II and III metabotropic glutamate receptors [Physiology]
    • Authors: Joshua Levitz; Johannes Broichhagen, Philipp Leippe, David Konrad, Dirk Trauner, Ehud Y. Isacoff
      Abstract: G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling occurs in complex spatiotemporal patterns that are difficult to probe using standard pharmacological and genetic approaches. A powerful approach for dissecting GPCRs is to use light-controlled pharmacological agents that are tethered covalently and specifically to genetically engineered receptors. However, deficits in our understanding of the...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619652114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • PIF4-controlled auxin pathway contributes to hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis
           thaliana [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Li Wang; Li Min Wu, Ian K. Greaves, Anyu Zhu, Elizabeth S. Dennis, W. James Peacock
      Abstract: F1 hybrids in Arabidopsis and crop species are uniform and high yielding. The F2 generation loses much of the yield advantage and the plants have heterogeneous phenotypes. We generated pure breeding hybrid mimic lines by recurrent selection and also selected a pure breeding small phenotype line. The hybrid mimics are...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703179114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Malate-dependent Fe accumulation is a critical checkpoint in the root
           developmental response to low phosphate [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Javier Mora–Macias; Jonathan Odilon Oȷeda–Rivera, Dolores Gutierrez–Alanis, Lenin Yong–Villalobos, Araceli Oropeza–Aburto, Javier Raya–Gonzalez, Gabriel Jimenez–Dominguez, Gabriela Chavez–Calvillo, Ruben Rellan–Alvarez, Luis Herrera–Estrella
      Abstract: Low phosphate (Pi) availability constrains plant development and seed production in both natural and agricultural ecosystems. When Pi is scarce, modifications of root system architecture (RSA) enhance the soil exploration ability of the plant and lead to an increase in Pi uptake. In Arabidopsis, an iron-dependent mechanism reprograms primary root...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701952114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Variations in crowding, saccadic precision, and spatial localization
           reveal the shared topology of spatial vision [Psychological and Cognitive
    • Authors: John A. Greenwood; Martin Szinte, Bilge Sayim, Patrick Cavanagh
      Abstract: Visual sensitivity varies across the visual field in several characteristic ways. For example, sensitivity declines sharply in peripheral (vs. foveal) vision and is typically worse in the upper (vs. lower) visual field. These variations can affect processes ranging from acuity and crowding (the deleterious effect of clutter on object recognition)...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1615504114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Correction for Pishesha et al., Engineered erythrocytes covalently linked
    • Abstract: IMMUNOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION Correction for “Engineered erythrocytes covalently linked to antigenic peptides can protect against autoimmune disease,” by Novalia Pishesha, Angelina M. Bilate, Marsha C. Wibowo, Nai-Jia Huang, Zeyang Li, Rhogerry Dhesycka, Djenet Bousbaine, Hojun Li, Heide C. Patterson, Stephanie K. Dougan, Takeshi Maruyama, Harvey F. Lodish, and Hidde L....
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705149114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Correction for Padilla et al., AgRP to Kiss1 neuron signaling links
           nutritional state and fertility [Correction]
    • Abstract: PHYSIOLOGY Correction for “AgRP to Kiss1 neuron signaling links nutritional state and fertility,” by Stephanie L. Padilla, Jian Qiu, Casey C Nestor, Chunguang Zhang, Arik W. Smith, Benjamin B. Whiddon, Oline K. Rønnekleiv, Martin J. Kelly, and Richard D. Palmiter, which appeared in issue 9, February 28, 2017, of Proc...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704920114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Correction to Supporting Information for Falahati and Wieschaus,
           Independent active and thermodynamic processes govern the nucleolus
           assembly in vivo [SI Correction]
    • Abstract: CELL BIOLOGY, APPLIED PHYSICAL SCIENCES Correction to Supporting Information for “Independent active and thermodynamic processes govern the nucleolus assembly in vivo,” by Hanieh Falahati and Eric Wieschaus, which appeared in issue 6, February 7, 2017, of Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (114:1335–1340; first published January 23, 2017; 10.1073/pnas.1615395114). The authors...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705202114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Controversy in statistical analysis of functional magnetic resonance
           imaging data [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Emery N. Brown; Marlene Behrmann
      Abstract: To test the validity of statistical methods for fMRI data analysis, Eklund et al. (1) used, for the first time, large-scale experimental data rather than simulated data. Using resting-state fMRI measurements to represent a null hypothesis of no task-induced activation, the authors compare familywise error rates for voxel-based and cluster-based...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705513114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • fMRI clustering and false-positive rates [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Robert W. Cox; Gang Chen, Daniel R. Glen, Richard C. Reynolds, Paul A. Taylor
      Abstract: Recently, Eklund et al. (1) analyzed clustering methods in standard fMRI packages: AFNI (which we maintain), FSL, and SPM. They claim that (i) false-positive rates (FPRs) in traditional approaches are greatly inflated, questioning the validity of “countless published fMRI studies”; (ii) nonparametric methods produce valid, but slightly conservative, FPRs; (iii)...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1614961114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Reevaluating “cluster failure” in fMRI using nonparametric control of
           the false discovery rate [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Daniel Kessler; Mike Angstadt, Chandra S. Sripada
      Abstract: In a substantial contribution to the fMRI field, Eklund et al. (1) use nonparametric methods to demonstrate that random field theory (RFT)-based familywise error (FWE) correction for cluster inference does not control errors appropriately, and this discrepancy is more pronounced for lenient cluster-defining thresholds (CDT). Moreover, they point to violations...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1614502114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Reply to Brown and Behrmann, Cox, et al., and Kessler et al.: Data and
           code sharing is the way forward for fMRI [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Anders Eklund; Thomas E. Nichols, Hans Knutsson
      Abstract: We are glad that our paper (1) has generated intense discussions in the fMRI field (2–4), on how to analyze fMRI data, and how to correct for multiple comparisons. The goal of the paper was not to disparage any specific fMRI software, but to point out that parametric statistical methods...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620285114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Achiral symmetry breaking and positive Gaussian modulus lead to scalloped
           colloidal membranes [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Thomas Gibaud; C. Nadir Kaplan, Prerna Sharma, Mark J. Zakhary, Andrew Ward, Rudolf Oldenbourg, Robert B. Meyer, Randall D. Kamien, Thomas R. Powers, Zvonimir Dogic
      Abstract: In the presence of a nonadsorbing polymer, monodisperse rod-like particles assemble into colloidal membranes, which are one-rod-length–thick liquid-like monolayers of aligned rods. Unlike 3D edgeless bilayer vesicles, colloidal monolayer membranes form open structures with an exposed edge, thus presenting an opportunity to study elasticity of fluid sheets. Membranes assembled from...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617043114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Automated glycan assembly using the Glyconeer 2.1 synthesizer [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Heung Sik Hahm; Mark K. Schlegel, Mattan Hurevich, Steffen Eller, Frank Schuhmacher, Johanna Hofmann, Kevin Pagel, Peter H. Seeberger
      Abstract: Reliable and rapid access to defined biopolymers by automated DNA and peptide synthesis has fundamentally altered biological research and medical practice. Similarly, the procurement of defined glycans is key to establishing structure–activity relationships and thereby progress in the glycosciences. Here, we describe the rapid assembly of oligosaccharides using the commercially...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700141114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Pseudomagnetic fields for sound at the nanoscale [Physics]
    • Authors: Christian Brendel; Vittorio Peano, Oskar J. Painter, Florian Marquardt
      Abstract: There is a growing effort in creating chiral transport of sound waves. However, most approaches so far have been confined to the macroscopic scale. Here, we propose an approach suitable to the nanoscale that is based on pseudomagnetic fields. These pseudomagnetic fields for sound waves are the analogue of what...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1615503114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • The cryo-EM structure of YjeQ bound to the 30S subunit suggests a fidelity
           checkpoint function for this protein in ribosome assembly [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Aida Razi; Alba Guarne, Joaquin Ortega
      Abstract: Recent work suggests that bacterial YjeQ (RsgA) participates in the late stages of assembly of the 30S subunit and aids the assembly of the decoding center but also binds the mature 30S subunit with high affinity. To determine the function and mechanisms of YjeQ in the context of the mature...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618016114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Ubiquitinated proteins promote the association of proteasomes with the
           deubiquitinating enzyme Usp14 and the ubiquitin ligase Ube3c
    • Authors: Chueh-Ling Kuo; Alfred Lewis Goldberg
      Abstract: In mammalian cells, the 26S proteasomes vary in composition. In addition to the standard 28 subunits in the 20S core particle and 19 subunits in each 19S regulatory particle, a small fraction (about 10–20% in our preparations) also contains the deubiquitinating enzyme Usp14/Ubp6, which regulates proteasome activity, and the ubiquitin...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701734114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Altering the allosteric pathway in IGPS suppresses millisecond motions and
           catalytic activity [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: George P. Lisi; Kyle W. East, Victor S. Batista, J. Patrick Loria
      Abstract: Imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS) is a V-type allosteric enzyme, meaning that its catalytic rate is critically dependent on activation by its allosteric ligand, N′-[(5′-phosphoribulosyl)formimino]-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (PRFAR). The allosteric mechanism of IGPS is reliant on millisecond conformational motions for efficient catalysis. We engineered four mutants of IGPS designed to disrupt...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700448114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • SHPRH regulates rRNA transcription by recognizing the histone code in an
           mTOR-dependent manner [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Deokjae Lee; Jungeun An, Young-Un Park, Hungjiun Liaw, Roger Woodgate, Jun Hong Park, Kyungjae Myung
      Abstract: Many DNA repair proteins have additional functions other than their roles in DNA repair. In addition to catalyzing PCNA polyubiquitylation in response to the stalling of DNA replication, SHPRH has the additional function of facilitating rRNA transcription by localizing to the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) promoter in the nucleoli. SHPRH was...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701978114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • PIK3CA mutant tumors depend on oxoglutarate dehydrogenase [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Nina Ilic; Kıvanc Birsoy, Andrew J. Aguirre, Nora Kory, Michael E. Pacold, Shambhavi Singh, Susan E. Moody, Joseph D. DeAngelo, Nicole A. Spardy, Elizaveta Freinkman, Barbara A. Weir, Aviad Tsherniak, Glenn S. Cowley, David E. Root, John M. Asara, Francisca Vazquez, Hans R. Widlund, David M. Sabatini, William C. Hahn
      Abstract: Oncogenic PIK3CA mutations are found in a significant fraction of human cancers, but therapeutic inhibition of PI3K has only shown limited success in clinical trials. To understand how mutant PIK3CA contributes to cancer cell proliferation, we used genome scale loss-of-function screening in a large number of genomically annotated cancer cell...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617922114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Uplift-driven diversification in the Hengduan Mountains, a temperate
           biodiversity hotspot [Evolution]
    • Authors: Yaowu Xing; Richard H. Ree
      Abstract: A common hypothesis for the rich biodiversity found in mountains is uplift-driven diversification—that orogeny creates conditions favoring rapid in situ speciation of resident lineages. We tested this hypothesis in the context of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and adjoining mountain ranges, using the phylogenetic and geographic histories of multiple groups of...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616063114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Parallel adaptive evolution of geographically distant herring populations
           on both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean [Genetics]
    • Authors: Sangeet Lamichhaney; Angela P. Fuentes-Pardo, Nima Rafati, Nils Ryman, Gregory R. McCracken, Christina Bourne, Rabindra Singh, Daniel E. Ruzzante, Leif Andersson
      Abstract: Atlantic herring is an excellent species for studying the genetic basis of adaptation in geographically distant populations because of its characteristically large population sizes and low genetic drift. In this study we compared whole-genome resequencing data of Atlantic herring populations from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. An important finding...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617728114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Hepatitis C virus triggers Golgi fragmentation and autophagy through the
           immunity-related GTPase M [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Marianne D. Hansen; Ingvild B. Johnsen, Kim A. Stiberg, Tatyana Sherstova, Takaji Wakita, Gabriel Mary Richard, Richard K. Kandasamy, Eliane F. Meurs, Marit W. Anthonsen
      Abstract: Positive-stranded RNA viruses, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), assemble their viral replication complexes by remodeling host intracellular membranes to a membranous web. The precise composition of these replication complexes and the detailed mechanisms by which they are formed are incompletely understood. Here we show that the human immunity-related GTPase...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616683114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Flicr, a long noncoding RNA, modulates Foxp3 expression and autoimmunity
           [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: David Zemmour; Alvin Pratama, Scott M. Loughhead, Diane Mathis, Christophe Benoist
      Abstract: A combination of transcription factors, enhancers, and epigenetic marks determines the expression of the key transcription factor FoxP3 in regulatory T cells (Tregs). Adding an additional layer of complexity, the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) Flicr (Foxp3 long intergenic noncoding RNA) is a negative regulator that tunes Foxp3 expression, resulting in...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700946114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Roles of the TRAF6 and Pellino E3 ligases in MyD88 and RANKL signaling
           [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Sam Strickson; Christoph H. Emmerich, Eddy T. H. Goh, Jiazhen Zhang, Ian R. Kelsall, Thomas Macartney, C. James Hastie, Axel Knebel, Mark Peggie, Francesco Marchesi, J. Simon C. Arthur, Philip Cohen
      Abstract: It is widely accepted that the essential role of TRAF6 in vivo is to generate the Lys63-linked ubiquitin (K63-Ub) chains needed to activate the “master” protein kinase TAK1. Here, we report that TRAF6 E3 ligase activity contributes to but is not essential for the IL-1–dependent formation of K63-Ub chains, TAK1...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702367114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Plasma fibronectin stabilizes Borrelia burgdorferi-endothelial
           interactions under vascular shear stress by a catch-bond mechanism
    • Authors: Alexandra F. Niddam; Rhodaba Ebady, Anil Bansal, Anne Koehler, Boris Hinz, Tara J. Moriarty
      Abstract: Bacterial dissemination via the cardiovascular system is the most common cause of infection mortality. A key step in dissemination is bacterial interaction with endothelia lining blood vessels, which is physically challenging because of the shear stress generated by blood flow. Association of host cells such as leukocytes and platelets with...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1615007114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • SAGA complex mediates the transcriptional up-regulation of antiviral RNA
           silencing [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Ida Bagus Andika; Atif Jamal, Hideki Kondo, Nobuhiro Suzuki
      Abstract: Pathogen recognition and transcriptional activation of defense-related genes are crucial steps in cellular defense responses. RNA silencing (RNAi) functions as an antiviral defense in eukaryotic organisms. Several RNAi-related genes are known to be transcriptionally up-regulated upon virus infection in some host organisms, but little is known about their induction mechanism....
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701196114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Identification of a cono-RFamide from the venom of Conus textile that
           targets ASIC3 and enhances muscle pain [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Catharina Reimers; Cheng–Han Lee, Hubert Kalbacher, Yuemin Tian, Chih–Hsien Hung, Axel Schmidt, Lea Prokop, Silke Kauferstein, Dietrich Mebs, Chih–Cheng Chen, Stefan Grunder
      Abstract: Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated Na+ channels that are expressed throughout the nervous system. ASICs have been implicated in several neuronal disorders, like ischemic stroke, neuronal inflammation, and pathological pain. Several toxins from venomous animals have been identified that target ASICs with high specificity and potency. These toxins are...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616232114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Context-dependent spatially periodic activity in the human entorhinal
           cortex [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Zoltan Nadasdy; T. Peter Nguyen, Agoston Torok, Jason Y. Shen, Deborah E. Briggs, Pradeep N. Modur, Robert J. Buchanan
      Abstract: The spatially periodic activity of grid cells in the entorhinal cortex (EC) of the rodent, primate, and human provides a coordinate system that, together with the hippocampus, informs an individual of its location relative to the environment and encodes the memory of that location. Among the most defining features of...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701352114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe mediate the anticataplectic action
           of orexin neurons by reducing amygdala activity [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Emi Hasegawa; Takashi Maejima, Takayuki Yoshida, Olivia A. Masseck, Stefan Herlitze, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka, Takeshi Sakurai, Michihiro Mieda
      Abstract: Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder caused by the loss of orexin (hypocretin)-producing neurons and marked by excessive daytime sleepiness and a sudden weakening of muscle tone, or cataplexy, often triggered by strong emotions. In a mouse model for narcolepsy, we previously demonstrated that serotonin neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1614552114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 4267 - 4267
      Abstract: El Niño and cholera in Africa Cholera incidence rates between El Niño and non-El Niño years throughout Africa. Cholera outbreaks have long been linked to climatic factors, particularly the El Niño Southern Oscillation, but little evidence supports such a link in Africa. Using datasets comprising more than 17,000 annual observations...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti1717114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • News Feature: Is video game addiction really an addiction'
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Mark Zastrow
      Pages: 4268 - 4272
      Abstract: Adding video gaming to the list of recognized behavioral addictions could help millions in need. It could also pathologize a normal behavior and create a new stigma. Science fiction is replete with notions of losing oneself inside a digitally generated alternate reality. But for millions around the world, that dystopic...
      Keywords: News Features, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705077114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Ralph J. Cicerone: His scientific legacy and a long friendship
    • Authors: Veerabhadran Ramanathan
      Pages: 4273 - 4274
      Abstract: The discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole and anthropogenic climate change has thrust the atmospheric sciences into the forefront of scientific disciplines, and such findings routinely appear on the front pages of the media and on the desks of world leaders. Two events can be cited as examples of the...
      Keywords: Retrospectives
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703542114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Are there many different routes to becoming a global biodiversity
           hotspot' [Evolution]
    • Authors: Colin E. Hughes
      Pages: 4275 - 4277
      Abstract: A major question in evolution and ecology is why biodiversity is so unevenly distributed across the planet. The most obvious and salient diversity pattern is the order-of-magnitude greater species richness in the tropics compared with the temperate zones. Superimposed on this latitudinal diversity gradient is a much more complex and...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703798114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Bringing disorder and dynamics in protein allostery into focus [Biophysics
           and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: A. Joshua Wand
      Pages: 4278 - 4280
      Abstract: The intricacies of protein-mediated signaling continue to be revealed in exquisite detail. It therefore seems fitting to return to the fundamental and almost magical feature of protein molecules that makes it all possible: allostery, or action at a distance. This long-held concept arose and was refined during the explosive expansion...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703796114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Shining a light on the dark world of plant root-microbe interactions
           [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Philip Poole
      Pages: 4281 - 4283
      Abstract: Interactions between bacteria and roots are critical to the terrestrial ecosystem. The zone of soil immediately surrounding roots is known as the rhizosphere and the surface of the root the rhizoplane (1, 2). This region is of paramount importance to the growth and productivity of plants because it is the...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703800114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • A close-up look at the spliceosome, at last [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: John Abelson
      Pages: 4288 - 4293
      Abstract: Major developments in cryo-electron microscopy in the past three or four years have led to the solution of a number of spliceosome structures at high resolution, e.g., the fully assembled but not yet active spliceosome (Bact), the spliceosome just after the first step of splicing (C), and the spliceosome activated...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700390114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Enhanced hyperuniformity from random reorganization [Applied Physical
    • Authors: Daniel Hexner; Paul M. Chaikin, Dov Levine
      Pages: 4294 - 4299
      Abstract: Diffusion relaxes density fluctuations toward a uniform random state whose variance in regions of volume v=ℓd scales as σρ2≡⟨ρ2(ℓ)⟩−⟨ρ⟩2∼ℓ−d. Systems whose fluctuations decay faster, σρ2∼ℓ−λ with d
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619260114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Oncogene KRAS activates fatty acid synthase, resulting in specific ERK and
           lipid signatures associated with lung adenocarcinoma [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Arvin M. Gouw; Livia S. Eberlin, Katherine Margulis, Delaney K. Sullivan, Georgia G. Toal, Ling Tong, Richard N. Zare, Dean W. Felsher
      Pages: 4300 - 4305
      Abstract: KRAS gene mutation causes lung adenocarcinoma. KRAS activation has been associated with altered glucose and glutamine metabolism. Here, we show that KRAS activates lipogenesis, and this activation results in distinct proteomic and lipid signatures. By gene expression analysis, KRAS is shown to be associated with a lipogenesis gene signature and...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617709114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Formation of nucleobases in a Miller-Urey reducing atmosphere [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Martin Ferus; Fabio Pietrucci, Antonino Marco Saitta, Antonin Knižek, Petr Kubelik, Ondřeȷ Ivanek, Violetta Shestivska, Svatopluk Civiš
      Pages: 4306 - 4311
      Abstract: The Miller–Urey experiments pioneered modern research on the molecular origins of life, but their actual relevance in this field was later questioned because the gas mixture used in their research is considered too reducing with respect to the most accepted hypotheses for the conditions on primordial Earth. In particular, the...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700010114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Pressure dependence of viscosity in supercooled water and a unified
           approach for thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies of water [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Lokendra P. Singh; Bruno Issenmann, Frederic Caupin
      Pages: 4312 - 4317
      Abstract: The anomalous decrease of the viscosity of water with applied pressure has been known for over a century. It occurs concurrently with major structural changes: The second coordination shell around a molecule collapses onto the first shell. Viscosity is thus a macroscopic witness of the progressive breaking of the tetrahedral...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619501114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Tectonic controls on the long-term carbon isotope mass balance [Earth,
           Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Graham A. Shields; Benjamin J. W. Mills
      Pages: 4318 - 4323
      Abstract: The long-term, steady-state marine carbon isotope record reflects changes to the proportional burial rate of organic carbon relative to total carbon on a global scale. For this reason, times of high δ13C are conventionally interpreted to be oxygenation events caused by excess organic burial. Here we show that the carbon...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1614506114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Subduction zone forearc serpentinites as incubators for deep microbial
           life [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Oliver Plumper; Helen E. King, Thorsten Geisler, Yang Liu, Sonȷa Pabst, Ivan P. Savov, Detlef Rost, Thomas Zack
      Pages: 4324 - 4329
      Abstract: Serpentinization-fueled systems in the cool, hydrated forearc mantle of subduction zones may provide an environment that supports deep chemolithoautotrophic life. Here, we examine serpentinite clasts expelled from mud volcanoes above the Izu–Bonin–Mariana subduction zone forearc (Pacific Ocean) that contain complex organic matter and nanosized Ni–Fe alloys. Using time-of-flight secondary ion...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1612147114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Role of surface and subsurface processes in scaling N2O emissions along
           riverine networks [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Alessandra Marzadri; Martha M. Dee, Daniele Tonina, Alberto Bellin, Jennifer L. Tank
      Pages: 4330 - 4335
      Abstract: Riverine environments, such as streams and rivers, have been reported as sources of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere mainly via microbially mediated denitrification. Our limited understanding of the relative roles of the near-surface streambed sediment (hyporheic zone), benthic, and water column zones in controlling N2O...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617454114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Universal modal radiation laws for all thermal emitters [Physics]
    • Authors: David A. B. Miller; Linxiao Zhu, Shanhui Fan
      Pages: 4336 - 4341
      Abstract: We derive four laws relating the absorptivity and emissivity of thermal emitters. Unlike the original Kirchhoff radiation law derivations, these derivations include diffraction, and so are valid also for small objects, and can also cover nonreciprocal objects. The proofs exploit two recent approaches. First, we express all fields in terms...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701606114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Spontaneous emergence of catalytic cycles with colloidal spheres [Physics]
    • Authors: Zorana Zeravcic; Michael P. Brenner
      Pages: 4342 - 4347
      Abstract: Colloidal particles endowed with specific time-dependent interactions are a promising route for realizing artificial materials that have the properties of living ones. Previous work has demonstrated how this system can give rise to self-replication. Here, we introduce the process of colloidal catalysis, in which clusters of particles catalyze the creation...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1611959114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Eight-minute self-regulation intervention raises educational attainment at
           scale in individualist but not collectivist cultures [Psychological and
           Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Rene F. Kizilcec; Geoffrey L. Cohen
      Pages: 4348 - 4353
      Abstract: Academic credentials open up a wealth of opportunities. However, many people drop out of educational programs, such as community college and online courses. Prior research found that a brief self-regulation strategy can improve self-discipline and academic outcomes. Could this strategy support learners at large scale' Mental contrasting with implementation intentions...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1611898114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Life skills, wealth, health, and wellbeing in later life [Psychological
           and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Andrew Steptoe; Jane Wardle
      Pages: 4354 - 4359
      Abstract: Life skills play a key role in promoting educational and occupational success in early life, but their relevance at older ages is uncertain. Here we measured five life skills—conscientiousness, emotional stability, determination, control, and optimism—in 8,119 men and women aged 52 and older (mean 66.7 y). We show that the...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616011114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Increasing honesty in humans with noninvasive brain stimulation
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Michel Andre Marechal; Alain Cohn, Giuseppe Ugazio, Christian C. Ruff
      Pages: 4360 - 4364
      Abstract: Honesty plays a key role in social and economic interactions and is crucial for societal functioning. However, breaches of honesty are pervasive and cause significant societal and economic problems that can affect entire nations. Despite its importance, remarkably little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms supporting honest behavior. We demonstrate...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1614912114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Quantifying the driving factors for language shift in a bilingual region
           [Computer Sciences]
    • Authors: Katharina Prochazka; Gero Vogl
      Pages: 4365 - 4369
      Abstract: Many of the world’s around 6,000 languages are in danger of disappearing as people give up use of a minority language in favor of the majority language in a process called language shift. Language shift can be monitored on a large scale through the use of mathematical models by way...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617252114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Cyclooxygenase-derived proangiogenic metabolites of epoxyeicosatrienoic
           acids [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Amy A. Rand; Bogdan Barnych, Christophe Morisseau, Tomas Cajka, Kin Sing Stephen Lee, Dipak Panigrahy, Bruce D. Hammock
      Pages: 4370 - 4375
      Abstract: Arachidonic acid (ARA) is metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX) and cytochrome P450 to produce proangiogenic metabolites. Specifically, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) produced from the P450 pathway are angiogenic, inducing cancer tumor growth. A previous study showed that inhibiting soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) increased EET concentration and mildly promoted tumor growth. However, inhibiting...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616893114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Structural basis of Tie2 activation and Tie2/Tie1 heterodimerization
    • Authors: Veli–Matti Leppanen; Pipsa Saharinen, Kari Alitalo
      Pages: 4376 - 4381
      Abstract: The endothelial cell (EC)-specific receptor tyrosine kinases Tie1 and Tie2 are necessary for the remodeling and maturation of blood and lymphatic vessels. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) growth factor is a Tie2 agonist, whereas Ang2 functions as a context-dependent agonist/antagonist. The orphan receptor Tie1 modulates Tie2 activation, which is induced by association of...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616166114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Dimerization of Tie2 mediated by its membrane-proximal FNIII domains
    • Authors: Jason O. Moore; Mark A. Lemmon, Kathryn M. Ferguson
      Pages: 4382 - 4387
      Abstract: Tie1 and Tie2, members of the tyrosine kinase family with immunoglobulin and EGF homology domains, are receptor tyrosine kinases found primarily in endothelial cells with key roles in development and maintenance of the vasculature and in angiogenesis. They are attractive targets for therapeutic intervention in tumor angiogenesis, inflammation, and sepsis....
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617800114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Proteolytic control of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex
    • Authors: Chen-Wei Tsai; Yujiao Wu, Ping-Chieh Pao, Charles B. Phillips, Carole Williams, Christopher Miller, Matthew Ranaghan, Ming-Feng Tsai
      Pages: 4388 - 4393
      Abstract: The mitochondrial calcium uniporter is a Ca2+-activated Ca2+ channel complex mediating mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, a process crucial for Ca2+ signaling, bioenergetics, and cell death. The uniporter is composed of the pore-forming MCU protein, the gatekeeping MICU1 and MICU2 subunits, and EMRE, a single-pass membrane protein that links MCU and MICU1...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702938114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Molecular basis for the interaction between Integrator subunits IntS9 and
           IntS11 and its functional importance [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Yixuan Wu; Todd R. Albrecht, David Baillat, Eric J. Wagner, Liang Tong
      Pages: 4394 - 4399
      Abstract: The metazoan Integrator complex (INT) has important functions in the 3′-end processing of noncoding RNAs, including the uridine-rich small nuclear RNA (UsnRNA) and enhancer RNA (eRNA), and in the transcription of coding genes by RNA polymerase II. The INT contains at least 14 subunits, but its molecular mechanism of action...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616605114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Structure of a DNA glycosylase that unhooks interstrand cross-links
    • Authors: Elwood A. Mullins; Garrett M. Warren, Noah P. Bradley, Brandt F. Eichman
      Pages: 4400 - 4405
      Abstract: DNA glycosylases are important editing enzymes that protect genomic stability by excising chemically modified nucleobases that alter normal DNA metabolism. These enzymes have been known only to initiate base excision repair of small adducts by extrusion from the DNA helix. However, recent reports have described both vertebrate and microbial DNA...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703066114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Aggregation landscapes of Huntingtin exon 1 protein fragments and the
           critical repeat length for the onset of Huntington’s disease [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Mingchen Chen; Peter G. Wolynes
      Pages: 4406 - 4411
      Abstract: Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by an abnormal expansion in the polyglutamine (polyQ) track of the Huntingtin (HTT) protein. The severity of the disease depends on the polyQ repeat length, arising only in patients with proteins having 36 repeats or more. Previous studies have shown that the...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702237114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • In situ structural studies of tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPPII) reveal
           spatial association with proteasomes [Biophysics and Computational
    • Authors: Yoshiyuki Fukuda; Florian Beck, Jurgen M. Plitzko, Wolfgang Baumeister
      Pages: 4412 - 4417
      Abstract: Tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPPII) is a eukaryotic protease acting downstream of the 26S proteasome; it removes tripeptides from the degradation products released by the proteasome. Structural studies in vitro have revealed the basic architecture of TPPII, a two-stranded linear polymer that assembles to form a spindle-shaped complex of ∼6 MDa....
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701367114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Balance of microtubule stiffness and cortical tension determines the size
           of blood cells with marginal band across species [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Serge Dmitrieff; Adolfo Alsina, Aastha Mathur, Francois J. Nedelec
      Pages: 4418 - 4423
      Abstract: The fast bloodstream of animals is associated with large shear stresses. To withstand these conditions, blood cells have evolved a special morphology and a specific internal architecture to maintain their integrity over several weeks. For instance, nonmammalian red blood cells, mammalian erythroblasts, and platelets have a peripheral ring of microtubules,...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618041114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Entropy redistribution controls allostery in a metalloregulatory protein
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Daiana A. Capdevila; Joseph J. Braymer, Katherine A. Edmonds, Hongwei Wu, David P. Giedroc
      Pages: 4424 - 4429
      Abstract: Allosteric communication between two ligand-binding sites in a protein is a central aspect of biological regulation that remains mechanistically unclear. Here we show that perturbations in equilibrium picosecond–nanosecond motions impact zinc (Zn)-induced allosteric inhibition of DNA binding by the Zn efflux repressor CzrA (chromosomal zinc-regulated repressor). DNA binding leads to...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620665114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • CryoEM structure of a prokaryotic cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Zachary M. James; Andrew J. Borst, Yoni Haitin, Brandon Frenz, Frank DiMaio, William N. Zagotta, David Veesler
      Pages: 4430 - 4435
      Abstract: Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) and hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-regulated (HCN) ion channels play crucial physiological roles in phototransduction, olfaction, and cardiac pace making. These channels are characterized by the presence of a carboxyl-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD) that connects to the channel pore via a C-linker domain. Although cyclic nucleotide binding has...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700248114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • El Nino and the shifting geography of cholera in Africa [Statistics]
    • Authors: Sean M. Moore; Andrew S. Azman, Benjamin F. Zaitchik, Eric D. Mintz, Joan Brunkard, Dominique Legros, Alexandra Hill, Heather McKay, Francisco J. Luquero, David Olson, Justin Lessler
      Pages: 4436 - 4441
      Abstract: The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and other climate patterns can have profound impacts on the occurrence of infectious diseases ranging from dengue to cholera. In Africa, El Niño conditions are associated with increased rainfall in East Africa and decreased rainfall in southern Africa, West Africa, and parts of the...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617218114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Floodplains as an Achilles’ heel of Amazonian forest resilience
           [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Bernardo M. Flores; Milena Holmgren, Chi Xu, Egbert H. van Nes, Catarina C. Jakovac, Rita C. G. Mesquita, Marten Scheffer
      Pages: 4442 - 4446
      Abstract: The massive forests of central Amazonia are often considered relatively resilient against climatic variation, but this view is challenged by the wildfires invoked by recent droughts. The impact of such fires that spread from pervasive sources of ignition may reveal where forests are less likely to persist in a drier...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617988114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Experimental dispersal reveals characteristic scales of biodiversity in a
           natural landscape [Ecology]
    • Authors: Rachel M. Germain; Sharon Y. Strauss, Benjamin Gilbert
      Pages: 4447 - 4452
      Abstract: Ecological theory posits that dispersal among habitat patches links local communities and is a key “regional” process that maintains biological diversity. However, manipulations required to experimentally test regional processes are infeasible for most systems, and thus more work is needed to detect the scales at which regional processes manifest and...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1615338114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Salting our freshwater lakes [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Hilary A. Dugan; Sarah L. Bartlett, Samantha M. Burke, Jonathan P. Doubek, Flora E. Krivak-Tetley, Nicholas K. Skaff, Jamie C. Summers, Kaitlin J. Farrell, Ian M. McCullough, Ana M. Morales-Williams, Derek C. Roberts, Zutao Ouyang, Facundo Scordo, Paul C. Hanson, Kathleen C. Weathers
      Pages: 4453 - 4458
      Abstract: The highest densities of lakes on Earth are in north temperate ecosystems, where increasing urbanization and associated chloride runoff can salinize freshwaters and threaten lake water quality and the many ecosystem services lakes provide. However, the extent to which lake salinity may be changing at broad spatial scales remains unknown,...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620211114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Mechanosensation is evolutionarily tuned to locomotor mechanics
    • Authors: Brett R. Aiello; Mark W. Westneat, Melina E. Hale
      Pages: 4459 - 4464
      Abstract: The biomechanics of animal limbs has evolved to meet the functional demands for movement associated with different behaviors and environments. Effective movement relies not only on limb mechanics but also on appropriate mechanosensory feedback. By comparing sensory ability and mechanics within a phylogenetic framework, we show that peripheral mechanosensation has...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616839114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Determining the factors driving selective effects of new nonsynonymous
           mutations [Evolution]
    • Authors: Christian D. Huber; Bernard Y. Kim, Clare D. Marsden, Kirk E. Lohmueller
      Pages: 4465 - 4470
      Abstract: The distribution of fitness effects (DFE) of new mutations plays a fundamental role in evolutionary genetics. However, the extent to which the DFE differs across species has yet to be systematically investigated. Furthermore, the biological mechanisms determining the DFE in natural populations remain unclear. Here, we show that theoretical models...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619508114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Mutation in sorghum LOW GERMINATION STIMULANT 1 alters strigolactones and
           causes Striga resistance [Genetics]
    • Authors: Daniel Gobena; Mahdere Shimels, Patrick J. Rich, Carolien Ruyter-Spira, Harro Bouwmeester, Satish Kanuganti, Tesfaye Mengiste, Gebisa Ejeta
      Pages: 4471 - 4476
      Abstract: Striga is a major biotic constraint to sorghum production in semiarid tropical Africa and Asia. Genetic resistance to this parasitic weed is the most economically feasible control measure. Mutant alleles at the LGS1 (LOW GERMINATION STIMULANT 1) locus drastically reduce Striga germination stimulant activity. We provide evidence that the responsible...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618965114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Antigenicity-defined conformations of an extremely
           neutralization-resistant HIV-1 envelope spike [Immunology and
    • Authors: Yongfei Cai; Selen Karaca-Griffin, Jia Chen, Sai Tian, Nicholas Fredette, Christine E. Linton, Sophia Rits-Volloch, Jianming Lu, Kshitij Wagh, James Theiler, Bette Korber, Michael S. Seaman, Stephen C. Harrison, Andrea Carfi, Bing Chen
      Pages: 4477 - 4482
      Abstract: The extraordinary genetic diversity of the HIV-1 envelope spike [Env; trimeric (gp160)3, cleaved to (gp120/gp41)3] poses challenges for vaccine development. Envs of different clinical isolates exhibit different sensitivities to antibody-mediated neutralization. Envs of difficult-to-neutralize viruses are thought to be more stable and conformationally homogeneous trimers than those of easy-to-neutralize viruses,...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700634114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Endotoxin-induced autocrine ATP signaling inhibits neutrophil chemotaxis
           through enhancing myosin light chain phosphorylation [Immunology and
    • Authors: Xu Wang; Weiting Qin, Xiaohan Xu, Yuyun Xiong, Yisen Zhang, Huafeng Zhang, Bingwei Sun
      Pages: 4483 - 4488
      Abstract: Although the neutrophil recruitment cascade during inflammation has been well described, the molecular players that halt neutrophil chemotaxis remain unclear. In this study, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was a potent stop signal for chemotactic neutrophil migration. Treatment with an antagonist of the ATP receptor (P2X1) in primary human neutrophils...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616752114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Formation of neurodegenerative aggresome and death-inducing signaling
           complex in maternal diabetes-induced neural tube defects [Medical
    • Authors: Zhiyong Zhao; Lixue Cao, E. Albert Reece
      Pages: 4489 - 4494
      Abstract: Diabetes mellitus in early pregnancy increases the risk in infants of birth defects, such as neural tube defects (NTDs), known as diabetic embryopathy. NTDs are associated with hyperglycemia-induced protein misfolding and Caspase-8–induced programmed cell death. The present study shows that misfolded proteins are ubiquitinylated, suggesting that ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation is impaired....
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616119114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Enhanced respiration prevents drug tolerance and drug resistance in
           Mycobacterium tuberculosis [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Catherine Vilcheze; Travis Hartman, Brian Weinrick, Paras Jain, Torin R. Weisbrod, Lawrence W. Leung, Joel S. Freundlich, William R. Jacobs Jr.
      Pages: 4495 - 4500
      Abstract: Persistence, manifested as drug tolerance, represents a significant obstacle to global tuberculosis control. The bactericidal drugs isoniazid and rifampicin kill greater than 99% of exponentially growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cells, but the remaining cells are persisters, cells with decreased metabolic rate, refractory to killing by these drugs, and able to...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704376114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Convergence of DNA methylation and phosphorothioation epigenetics in
           bacterial genomes [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Chao Chen; Lianrong Wang, Si Chen, Xiaolin Wu, Meijia Gu, Xi Chen, Susu Jiang, Yunfu Wang, Zixin Deng, Peter C. Dedon, Shi Chen
      Pages: 4501 - 4506
      Abstract: Explosive growth in the study of microbial epigenetics has revealed a diversity of chemical structures and biological functions of DNA modifications in restriction–modification (R-M) and basic genetic processes. Here, we describe the discovery of shared consensus sequences for two seemingly unrelated DNA modification systems, 6mA methylation and phosphorothioation (PT), in...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702450114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Enterococcus faecalis bacteriocin EntV inhibits hyphal morphogenesis,
           biofilm formation, and virulence of Candida albicans [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Carrie E. Graham; Melissa R. Cruz, Danielle A. Garsin, Michael C. Lorenz
      Pages: 4507 - 4512
      Abstract: Enterococcus faecalis, a Gram-positive bacterium, and Candida albicans, a fungus, occupy overlapping niches as ubiquitous constituents of the gastrointestinal and oral microbiome. Both species also are among the most important and problematic, opportunistic nosocomial pathogens. Surprisingly, these two species antagonize each other’s virulence in both nematode infection and in vitro...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620432114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • APC/CCdh1-Rock2 pathway controls dendritic integrity and memory
    • Authors: Veronica Bobo–Jimenez; Maria Delgado–Esteban, Julie Angibaud, Irene Sanchez–Moran, Antonio de la Fuente, Javier Yaȷeya, U. Valentin Nagerl, Jose Castillo, Juan P. Bolanos, Angeles Almeida
      Pages: 4513 - 4518
      Abstract: Disruption of neuronal morphology contributes to the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that postnatal deletion of Cdh1, a cofactor of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase in neurons [Cdh1 conditional knockout (cKO)], disrupts dendrite arborization and...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616024114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Selective entrainment of gamma subbands by different slow network
           oscillations [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Weiwei Zhong; Mareva Ciatipis, Therese Wolfenstetter, Jakob Jessberger, Carola Muller, Simon Ponsel, Yevgeniȷ Yanovsky, Juriȷ Brankačk, Adriano B. L. Tort, Andreas Draguhn
      Pages: 4519 - 4524
      Abstract: Theta oscillations (4–12 Hz) are thought to provide a common temporal reference for the exchange of information among distant brain networks. On the other hand, faster gamma-frequency oscillations (30–160 Hz) nested within theta cycles are believed to underlie local information processing. Whether oscillatory coupling between global and local oscillations, as...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617249114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Orexin-driven GAD65 network of the lateral hypothalamus sets physical
           activity in mice [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Christin Kosse; Cornelia Schone, Edward Bracey, Denis Burdakov
      Pages: 4525 - 4530
      Abstract: Damage to the lateral hypothalamus (LH) causes profound physical inactivity in mammals. Several molecularly distinct types of LH neurons have been identified, including orexin cells and glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) cells, but their interplay in orchestrating physical activity is not fully understood. Here, using optogenetic circuit analysis and cell...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619700114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Size-selective opening of the blood-brain barrier by targeting endothelial
           sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 [Pharmacology]
    • Authors: Keisuke Yanagida; Catherine H. Liu, Giuseppe Faraco, Sylvain Galvani, Helen K. Smith, Nathalie Burg, Josef Anrather, Teresa Sanchez, Costantino Iadecola, Timothy Hla
      Pages: 4531 - 4536
      Abstract: The vasculature of the central nervous system (CNS) forms a selective barrier termed the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Disruption of the BBB may contribute to various CNS diseases. Conversely, the intact BBB restricts efficient penetration of CNS-targeted drugs. Here, we report the BBB-regulatory role of endothelial sphingosine 1–phosphate (S1P) receptor-1, a...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618659114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • The carbonic anhydrase CAH1 is an essential component of the
           carbon-concentrating mechanism in Nannochloropsis oceanica [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Christopher W. Gee; Krishna K. Niyogi
      Pages: 4537 - 4542
      Abstract: Aquatic photosynthetic organisms cope with low environmental CO2 concentrations through the action of carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs). Known eukaryotic CCMs consist of inorganic carbon transporters and carbonic anhydrases (and other supporting components) that culminate in elevated [CO2] inside a chloroplastic Rubisco-containing structure called a pyrenoid. We set out to determine the...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700139114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Ploidy-dependent changes in the epigenome of symbiotic cells correlate
           with specific patterns of gene expression [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Marianna Nagymihaly; Alaguraȷ Veluchamy, Zoltan Gyorgypal, Federico Ariel, Teddy Jegu, Moussa Benhamed, Attila Szűcs, Attila Kereszt, Peter Mergaert, Eva Kondorosi
      Pages: 4543 - 4548
      Abstract: The formation of symbiotic nodule cells in Medicago truncatula is driven by successive endoreduplication cycles and transcriptional reprogramming in different temporal waves including the activation of more than 600 cysteine-rich NCR genes expressed only in nodules. We show here that the transcriptional waves correlate with growing ploidy levels and have...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704211114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Live imaging of root-bacteria interactions in a microfluidics setup [Plant
    • Authors: Hassan Massalha; Elisa Korenblum, Sergey Malitsky, Orr H. Shapiro, Asaph Aharoni
      Pages: 4549 - 4554
      Abstract: Plant roots play a dominant role in shaping the rhizosphere, the environment in which interaction with diverse microorganisms occurs. Tracking the dynamics of root–microbe interactions at high spatial resolution is currently limited because of methodological intricacy. Here, we describe a microfluidics-based approach enabling direct imaging of root–bacteria interactions in real...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618584114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
  • Adaptation aftereffects reveal that tactile distance is a basic
           somatosensory feature [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Elena Calzolari; Elena Azanon, Matthew Danvers, Giuseppe Vallar, Matthew R. Longo
      Pages: 4555 - 4560
      Abstract: The stage at which processing of tactile distance occurs is still debated. We addressed this issue by implementing an adaptation-aftereffect paradigm with passive touch. We demonstrated the presence of a strong aftereffect, induced by the simultaneous presentation of pairs of tactile stimuli. After adaptation to two different distances, one on...
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:21:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1614979114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 17 (2017)
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