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Journal Cover Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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   ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
   Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Vulnerability of Amazonian floodplains to wildfires differs according to
           their typologies impeding generalizations [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Jochen Schongart; Florian Wittmann, Wolfgang J. Junk, Maria Teresa F. Piedade
      Abstract: Flores et al. (1) suggest that large Amazonian floodplains are vulnerable to fire and that a future, drier climate will trigger wide-spread conversion of floodplain forests into fire-dominated savanna. Furthermore, the authors argue that fires in fluvial networks will cascade through nonflooded communities and spearhead fire-induced change in the wider...
      Keywords: Letters, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1713734114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Reply to Schongart et al.: Forest resilience variation across Amazonian
           floodplains [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Bernardo M. Flores; Milena Holmgren, Chi Xu, Egbert H. van Nes, Catarina C. Jakovac, Rita C. G. Mesquita, Marten Scheffer
      Abstract: Our recent findings that floodplain ecosystems harbor the most fragile forests of the Amazon (1) was seen by Schöngart et al. (2) as an oversimplification of a complex ecosystem. They argue that the majority of floodplain forests are associated with fertile soils, and should therefore be highly resilient. Indeed, the...
      Keywords: Letters, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714595114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Studying folktale diffusion needs unbiased dataset [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Julien d’Huy; Jean–Loic Le Quellec, Yuri Berezkin, Patrice Laȷoye, Hans–Jorg Uther
      Abstract: Bortolini et al. (1) claim to infer patterns of folktale diffusion using genomic data. What is not said in their paper is that such a proposal is not new. For example, Korotayev and Khaltourina (2) showed statistical correlation between spatial distributions of mythological motifs and genetic markers, considerably above the...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714884114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Reply to d’Huy et al.: Navigating biases and charting new ground in the
           cultural diffusion of folktales [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Eugenio Bortolini; Luca Pagani, Enrico R. Crema, Stefania Sarno, Chiara Barbieri, Alessio Boattini, Marco Sazzini, Sara Graca da Silva, Gessica Martini, Mait Metspalu, Davide Pettener, Donata Luiselli, Jamshid J. Tehrani
      Abstract: In their letter, d’Huy et al. (1) challenge the novelty of our study (2), and question the reliability of some our results in the light of previous folkloric research and geographic biases in the Aarne Thompson Uther (ATU) index (3). In our reply we explain how their criticisms are already...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715139114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Flow-induced gelation of microfiber suspensions [Applied Physical
    • Authors: Antonio Perazzo; Janine K. Nunes, Stefano Guido, Howard A. Stone
      Abstract: The flow behavior of fiber suspensions has been studied extensively, especially in the limit of dilute concentrations and rigid fibers; at the other extreme, however, where the suspensions are concentrated and the fibers are highly flexible, much less is understood about the flow properties. We use a microfluidic method to...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710927114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Lipidomics reveals diurnal lipid oscillations in human skeletal muscle
           persisting in cellular myotubes cultured in vitro [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Ursula Loizides–Mangold; Laurent Perrin, Bart Vandereycken, James A. Betts, Jean–Philippe Walhin, Iain Templeman, Stephanie Chanon, Benȷamin D. Weger, Christine Durand, Maud Robert, Jonathan Paz Montoya, Marc Moniatte, Leonidas G. Karagounis, Jonathan D. Johnston, Frederic Gachon, Etienne Lefai, Howard Riezman, Charna Dibner
      Abstract: Circadian clocks play an important role in lipid homeostasis, with impact on various metabolic diseases. Due to the central role of skeletal muscle in whole-body metabolism, we aimed at studying muscle lipid profiles in a temporal manner. Moreover, it has not been shown whether lipid oscillations in peripheral tissues are...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705821114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • A peptide extension dictates IgM assembly [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Dzana Pasalic; Benedikt Weber, Chiara Giannone, Tiziana Anelli, Roger Muller, Claudio Fagioli, Manuel Felkl, Christine John, Maria Francesca Mossuto, Christian F. W. Becker, Roberto Sitia, Johannes Buchner
      Abstract: Professional secretory cells can produce large amounts of high-quality complex molecules, including IgM antibodies. Owing to their multivalency, polymeric IgM antibodies provide an efficient first-line of defense against pathogens. To decipher the mechanisms of IgM assembly, we investigated its biosynthesis in living cells and faithfully reconstituted the underlying processes in...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701797114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • A protean clamp guides membrane targeting of tail-anchored proteins
    • Authors: Un Seng Chio; SangYoon Chung, Shimon Weiss, Shu-ou Shan
      Abstract: Proper localization of proteins to target membranes is a fundamental cellular process. How the nature and dynamics of the targeting complex help guide substrate proteins to the target membrane is not understood for most pathways. Here, we address this question for the conserved ATPase guided entry of tail-anchored protein 3...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708731114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • TPC2 polymorphisms associated with a hair pigmentation phenotype in humans
           result in gain of channel function by independent mechanisms [Biophysics
           and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Yu–Kai Chao; Verena Schludi, Cheng–Chang Chen, Elisabeth Butz, O. N. Phuong Nguyen, Martin Muller, Jens Kruger, Claudia Kammerbauer, Manu Ben–Johny, Angelika M. Vollmar, Carola Berking, Martin Biel, Christian A. Wahl–Schott, Christian Grimm
      Abstract: Two-pore channels (TPCs) are endolysosomal cation channels. Two members exist in humans, TPC1 and TPC2. Functional roles associated with the ubiquitously expressed TPCs include VEGF-induced neoangiogenesis, LDL-cholesterol trafficking and degradation, physical endurance under fasting conditions, autophagy regulation, the acrosome reaction in sperm, cancer cell migration, and intracellular trafficking of pathogens...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705739114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Miscoding-induced stalling of substrate translocation on the bacterial
           ribosome [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Jose L. Alejo; Scott C. Blanchard
      Abstract: Directional transit of the ribosome along the messenger RNA (mRNA) template is a key determinant of the rate and processivity of protein synthesis. Imaging of the multistep translocation mechanism using single-molecule FRET has led to the hypothesis that substrate movements relative to the ribosome resolve through relatively long-lived late intermediates...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707539114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Molecular origin of the weak susceptibility of kinesin velocity to loads
           and its relation to the collective behavior of kinesins [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Qian Wang; Michael R. Diehl, Biman Jana, Margaret S. Cheung, Anatoly B. Kolomeisky, Jose N. Onuchic
      Abstract: Motor proteins are active enzymatic molecules that support important cellular processes by transforming chemical energy into mechanical work. Although the structures and chemomechanical cycles of motor proteins have been extensively investigated, the sensitivity of a motor’s velocity in response to a force is not well-understood. For kinesin, velocity is weakly...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710328114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Cell volume change through water efflux impacts cell stiffness and stem
           cell fate [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Ming Guo; Adrian F. Pegoraro, Angelo Mao, Enhua H. Zhou, Praveen R. Arany, Yulong Han, Dylan T. Burnette, Mikkel H. Jensen, Karen E. Kasza, Jeffrey R. Moore, Frederick C. Mackintosh, Jeffrey J. Fredberg, David J. Mooney, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, David A. Weitz
      Abstract: Cells alter their mechanical properties in response to their local microenvironment; this plays a role in determining cell function and can even influence stem cell fate. Here, we identify a robust and unified relationship between cell stiffness and cell volume. As a cell spreads on a substrate, its volume decreases,...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705179114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Critical role for PI3-kinase in regulating the use of proteins as an amino
           acid source [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Wilhelm Palm; Jingwen Araki, Bryan King, Raymond G. DeMatteo, Craig B. Thompson
      Abstract: Ras-transformed cells can grow in amino acid-poor environments by recovering amino acids through macropinocytosis and lysosomal catabolism of extracellular proteins. However, when studying nontransformed fibroblasts, we found that Ras GTPases are dispensable for growth-factor–stimulated macropinocytosis and lysosomal catabolism of extracellular proteins. Instead, we establish a critical role for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712726114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Rewiring a Rab regulatory network reveals a possible inhibitory role for
           the vesicle tether, Uso1 [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Hua Yuan; Saralin Davis, Susan Ferro-Novick, Peter Novick
      Abstract: Ypt1 and Sec4 are essential Rab GTPases that control the early and late stages of the yeast secretory pathway, respectively. A chimera consisting of Ypt1 with the switch I domain of Sec4, Ypt1-SW1Sec4, is efficiently activated in vitro by the Sec4 exchange factor, Sec2. This should lead to its ectopic...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708394114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Speed regulation of genetic cascades allows for evolvability in the body
           plan specification of insects [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Xin Zhu; Heike Rudolf, Lucas Healey, Paul Francois, Susan J. Brown, Martin Klingler, Ezzat El–Sherif
      Abstract: During the anterior−posterior fate specification of insects, anterior fates arise in a nonelongating tissue (called the “blastoderm”), and posterior fates arise in an elongating tissue (called the “germband”). However, insects differ widely in the extent to which anterior−posterior fates are specified in the blastoderm versus the germband. Here we present...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702478114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Ideal crop plant architecture is mediated by tassels replace upper ears1,
           a BTB/POZ ankyrin repeat gene directly targeted by TEOSINTE BRANCHED1
           [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Zhaobin Dong; Wei Li, Erica Unger-Wallace, Jinliang Yang, Erik Vollbrecht, George Chuck
      Abstract: Axillary branch suppression is a favorable trait bred into many domesticated crop plants including maize compared with its highly branched wild ancestor teosinte. Branch suppression in maize was achieved through selection of a gain of function allele of the teosinte branched1 (tb1) transcription factor that acts as a repressor of...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714960114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Network of nutrient-sensing pathways and a conserved kinase cascade
           integrate osmolarity and carbon sensing in Neurospora crassa [Genetics]
    • Authors: Lori B. Huberman; Samuel T. Coradetti, N. Louise Glass
      Abstract: Identifying nutrients available in the environment and utilizing them in the most efficient manner is a challenge common to all organisms. The model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa is capable of utilizing a variety of carbohydrates, from simple sugars to the complex carbohydrates found in plant cell walls. The zinc binuclear...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707713114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Autophagy is required for endothelial cell alignment and atheroprotection
           under physiological blood flow [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Anne-Clemence Vion; Marouane Kheloufi, Adel Hammoutene, Johanne Poisson, Juliette Lasselin, Cecile Devue, Isabelle Pic, Nicolas Dupont, Johanna Busse, Konstantin Stark, Julie Lafaurie-Janvore, Abdul I. Barakat, Xavier Loyer, Michele Souyri, Benoit Viollet, Pierre Julia, Alain Tedgui, Patrice Codogno, Chantal M. Boulanger, Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou
      Abstract: It has been known for some time that atherosclerotic lesions preferentially develop in areas exposed to low SS and are characterized by a proinflammatory, apoptotic, and senescent endothelial phenotype. Conversely, areas exposed to high SS are protected from plaque development, but the mechanisms have remained elusive. Autophagy is a protective...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702223114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Cross-activating c-Met/{beta}1 integrin complex drives metastasis and
           invasive resistance in cancer [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Arman Jahangiri; Alan Nguyen, Ankush Chandra, Maxim K. Sidorov, Garima Yagnik, Jonathan Rick, Sung Won Han, William Chen, Patrick M. Flanigan, Dina Schneidman-Duhovny, Smita Mascharak, Michael De Lay, Brandon Imber, Catherine C. Park, Kunio Matsumoto, Kan Lu, Gabriele Bergers, Andrej Sali, William A. Weiss, Manish K. Aghi
      Abstract: The molecular underpinnings of invasion, a hallmark of cancer, have been defined in terms of individual mediators but crucial interactions between these mediators remain undefined. In xenograft models and patient specimens, we identified a c-Met/β1 integrin complex that formed during significant invasive oncologic processes: breast cancer metastases and glioblastoma invasive...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701821114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Mapping allele with resolved carrier status of Robertsonian and reciprocal
           translocation in human preimplantation embryos [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Jiawei Xu; Zhen Zhang, Wenbin Niu, Qingling Yang, Guidong Yao, Senlin Shi, Haixia Jin, Wenyan Song, Lei Chen, Xiangyang Zhang, Yihong Guo, Yingchun Su, Linli Hu, Jun Zhai, Yile Zhang, Fangli Dong, Yumei Gao, Wenhui Li, Shiping Bo, Mintao Hu, Jun Ren, Lei Huang, Sijia Lu, X. Sunney Xie, Yingpu Sun
      Abstract: Reciprocal translocations (RecT) and Robertsonian translocations (RobT) are among the most common chromosomal abnormalities that cause infertility and birth defects. Preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy using comprehensive chromosome screening for in vitro fertilization enables embryo selection with balanced chromosomal ploidy; however, it is normally unable to determine whether an embryo...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715053114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Inhibition of EBV-mediated membrane fusion by anti-gHgL antibodies
    • Authors: Karthik Sathiyamoorthy; Jiansen Jiang, Britta S. Mohl, Jia Chen, Z. Hong Zhou, Richard Longnecker, Theodore S. Jardetzky
      Abstract: Herpesvirus entry into cells requires the coordinated action of multiple virus envelope glycoproteins, including gH, gL, and gB. For EBV, the gp42 protein assembles into complexes with gHgL heterodimers and binds HLA class II to activate gB-mediated membrane fusion with B cells. EBV tropism is dictated by gp42 levels in...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704661114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis is protected from NADPH oxidase and
           LC3-associated phagocytosis by the LCP protein CpsA [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Stefan Koster; Sandeep Upadhyay, Pallavi Chandra, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Guozhe Yang, Amir Hassan, Steven J. Grigsby, Ekansh Mittal, Heidi S. Park, Victoria Jones, Fong–Fu Hsu, Mary Jackson, Christopher M. Sassetti, Jennifer A. Philips
      Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis’ success as a pathogen comes from its ability to evade degradation by macrophages. Normally macrophages clear microorganisms that activate pathogen-recognition receptors (PRRs) through a lysosomal-trafficking pathway called “LC3-associated phagocytosis” (LAP). Although M. tuberculosis activates numerous PRRs, for reasons that are poorly understood LAP does not substantially contribute to...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707792114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Catheterization alters bladder ecology to potentiate Staphylococcus aureus
           infection of the urinary tract [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Jennifer N. Walker; Ana L. Flores-Mireles, Chloe L. Pinkner, Henry L. Schreiber IV, Matthew S. Joens, Alyssa M. Park, Aaron M. Potretzke, Tyler M. Bauman, Jerome S. Pinkner, James A. J. Fitzpatrick, Alana Desai, Michael G. Caparon, Scott J. Hultgren
      Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an emerging cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), which frequently progresses to more serious invasive infections. We adapted a mouse model of CAUTI to investigate how catheterization increases an individual’s susceptibility to MRSA UTI. This analysis revealed that catheterization was required for MRSA to...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707572114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Limits of variation, specific infectivity, and genome packaging of
           massively recoded poliovirus genomes [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Yutong Song; Oleksandr Gorbatsevych, Ying Liu, JoAnn Mugavero, Sam H. Shen, Charles B. Ward, Emmanuel Asare, Ping Jiang, Aniko V. Paul, Steffen Mueller, Eckard Wimmer
      Abstract: Computer design and chemical synthesis generated viable variants of poliovirus type 1 (PV1), whose ORF (6,189 nucleotides) carried up to 1,297 “Max” mutations (excess of overrepresented synonymous codon pairs) or up to 2,104 “SD” mutations (randomly scrambled synonymous codons). “Min” variants (excess of underrepresented synonymous codon pairs) are nonviable except...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714385114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Substance P induces plasticity and synaptic tagging/capture in rat
           hippocampal area CA2 [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Ananya Dasgupta; Nimmi Baby, Kumar Krishna, Muhammad Hakim, Yuk Peng Wong, Thomas Behnisch, Tuck Wah Soong, Sreedharan Sajikumar
      Abstract: The hippocampal area Cornu Ammonis (CA) CA2 is important for social interaction and is innervated by Substance P (SP)-expressing supramammillary (SuM) nucleus neurons. SP exerts neuromodulatory effects on pain processing and central synaptic transmission. Here we provide evidence that SP can induce a slowly developing NMDA receptor- and protein synthesis-dependent...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711267114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Nucleus accumbens feedforward inhibition circuit promotes cocaine
           self-administration [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Jun Yu; Yiȷin Yan, King–Lun Li, Yao Wang, Yanhua H. Huang, Nathaniel N. Urban, Eric J. Nestler, Oliver M. Schluter, Yan Dong
      Abstract: The basolateral amygdala (BLA) sends excitatory projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and regulates motivated behaviors partially by activating NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Here, we characterized a feedforward inhibition circuit, through which BLA-evoked activation of NAc shell (NAcSh) MSNs was fine-tuned by GABAergic monosynaptic innervation from adjacent fast-spiking interneurons...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707822114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Proteasome-independent polyubiquitin linkage regulates synapse
           scaffolding, efficacy, and plasticity [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Qi Ma; Hongyu Ruan, Lisheng Peng, Mingjie Zhang, Michaela U. Gack, Wei-Dong Yao
      Abstract: Ubiquitination-directed proteasomal degradation of synaptic proteins, presumably mediated by lysine 48 (K48) of ubiquitin, is a key mechanism in synapse and neural circuit remodeling. However, more than half of polyubiquitin (polyUb) species in the mammalian brain are estimated to be non-K48; among them, the most abundant is Lys 63 (K63)-linked...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620153114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Simultaneous two-photon imaging of intracellular chloride concentration
           and pH in mouse pyramidal neurons in vivo [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Sebastian Sulis Sato; Pietro Artoni, Silvia Landi, Olga Cozzolino, Riccardo Parra, Enrico Pracucci, Francesco Trovato, Joanna Szczurkowska, Stefano Luin, Daniele Arosio, Fabio Beltram, Laura Cancedda, Kai Kaila, Gian Michele Ratto
      Abstract: Intracellular chloride ([Cl−]i) and pH (pHi) are fundamental regulators of neuronal excitability. They exert wide-ranging effects on synaptic signaling and plasticity and on development and disorders of the brain. The ideal technique to elucidate the underlying ionic mechanisms is quantitative and combined two-photon imaging of [Cl−]i and pHi, but this...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702861114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Temporal calcium profiling of specific circadian neurons in freely moving
           flies [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Fang Guo; Xiao Chen, Michael Rosbash
      Abstract: There are no general methods for reliably assessing the firing properties or even calcium profiles of specific neurons in freely moving flies. To this end, we adapted a GFP-based calcium reporter to luciferase that was expressed in small subsets of circadian neurons. This Tric-LUC reporter allowed a direct comparison of...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706608114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • RIPK1 mediates a disease-associated microglial response in
           Alzheimer’s disease [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Dimitry Ofengeim; Sonia Mazzitelli, Yasushi Ito, Judy Park DeWitt, Lauren Mifflin, Chengyu Zou, Sudeshna Das, Xian Adiconis, Hongbo Chen, Hong Zhu, Michelle A. Kelliher, Joshua Z. Levin, Junying Yuan
      Abstract: Dysfunction of microglia is known to play an important role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we investigated the role of RIPK1 in microglia mediating the pathogenesis of AD. RIPK1 is highly expressed by microglial cells in human AD brains. Using the amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic mouse model,...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714175114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Correction for Lederer et al., Superconductivity and non-Fermi liquid
           behavior near a nematic quantum critical point [Correction]
    • Abstract: PHYSICS Correction for “Superconductivity and non-Fermi liquid behavior near a nematic quantum critical point,” by Samuel Lederer, Yoni Schattner, Erez Berg, and Steven A. Kivelson, which was first published April 24, 2017; 10.1073/pnas.1620651114 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114:4905–4910). The authors note that the National Science Foundation grant number DMR...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716513114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Correction for Perry and Daly, A model explaining the matrilateral bias in
           alloparental investment [Correction]
    • Abstract: ANTHROPOLOGY, EVOLUTION Correction for “A model explaining the matrilateral bias in alloparental investment,” by Gretchen Perry and Martin Daly, which was first published August 15, 2017; 10.1073/pnas.1705910114 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114:9290–9295). The authors note that, due to a printer’s error, some of the text in the article appeared...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716238114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Correction for Lippert et al., Identification of individuals by trait
           prediction using whole-genome sequencing data [Correction]
    • Abstract: GENETICS Correction for “Identification of individuals by trait prediction using whole-genome sequencing data,” by Christoph Lippert, Riccardo Sabatini, M. Cyrus Maher, Eun Yong Kang, Seunghak Lee, Okan Arikan, Alena Harley, Axel Bernal, Peter Garst, Victor Lavrenko, Ken Yocum, Theodore Wong, Mingfu Zhu, Wen-Yun Yang, Chris Chang, Tim Lu, Charlie W....
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716166114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Correction to Supporting Information for Eser et al., Form and function of
           topologically associating genomic domains in budding yeast [SI Correction]
    • Abstract: CELL BIOLOGY Correction to Supporting Information for “Form and function of topologically associating genomic domains in budding yeast,” by Umut Eser, Devon Chandler-Brown, Ferhat Ay, Aaron F. Straight, Zhijun Duan, William Stafford Noble, and Jan M. Skotheim, which was first published March 27, 2017; 10.1073/pnas.1612256114 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716156114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 10803 - 10804
      Abstract: Genetic variations in ion channels influence human hair color Genetic variations in TPC ion channels influence hair color. Image courtesy of iStockphoto/Sasha_Litt. Levels of the human hair color pigment eumelanin, produced by cells found in the skin’s basal epidermis and hair follicles, depend on the cells’ internal pH. Previous studies...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti4117114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Inner Workings: CubeSats set to tackle living systems, effects of deep
           space radiation [Astronomy]
    • Authors: Stephen Battersby
      Pages: 10805 - 10807
      Abstract: Human beings will soon be heading into deep space again, decades after the Apollo missions. Out there, beyond Earth’s magnetic shield, they will be exposed to intense radiation for months or years, a cosmic onslaught that could cause all sorts of damage. But a fleet of tiny bio-laboratories may offer...
      Keywords: Inner Workings, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712815114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Thomas E. Starzl: Transplantation pioneer [Retrospectives]
    • Authors: David A. Brenner
      Pages: 10808 - 10809
      Abstract: Thomas E. Starzl, MD, PhD was born on March 11, 1926 in Le Mars, Iowa, the second son of Roman Frederick Starzl and Anna Laura Starzl. His parents were first-generation Americans, the children of Czechoslovakian and Irish immigrants. Roman Starzl was an editor, publisher, and owner of a newspaper. Anna...
      Keywords: Retrospectives
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714008114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • New roles for old actors, ROS and PRMT1 [Physiology]
    • Authors: Subba Reddy Palli
      Pages: 10810 - 10812
      Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and enzymes (e.g., arginine methyltransferase 1, PRMT1) involved in the modification of DNA and histones have been the subject of intense research during the last decade. In PNAS, a paper entitled “Reactive oxygen species extend insect life span using components of the insulin-signaling pathway” by Zhang...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715062114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • RIPK1 promotes inflammation and {beta}-amyloid accumulation in
           Alzheimer’s disease [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: David C. Rubinsztein
      Pages: 10813 - 10814
      Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia, is a major cause of death and a significant economic burden. In 2016, ∼700,000 Americans aged 65 and over died of AD, and the total health and social care payments for AD in the United States alone exceeded $230 billion (1). Currently,...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715241114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Measuring trends in discrimination with field experiment data [Social
    • Authors: Stephen L. Ross
      Pages: 10815 - 10817
      Abstract: The passage of major civil rights legislation was accompanied by a large improvement in the economic circumstances of African-Americans (1), and the public consensus against discrimination has grown over time (2). However, the significant postwar progress of African-Americans appears to have slowed or even stagnated over the last several decades...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715243114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • RPE65 takes on another role in the vertebrate retina [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: T. Michael Redmond
      Pages: 10818 - 10820
      Abstract: The high-acuity central vision of humans, and other primates, depends on a region of the central retina called the macula lutea (Latin: yellow spot), containing not only a high concentration of both cone and rod photoreceptors but also a high concentration of xanthophyll carotenoids; hence, its name (1). At the...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715064114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Bridge between type 1 diabetes in mouse and man [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Defu Zeng
      Pages: 10821 - 10823
      Abstract: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) manifested with hyperglycemia is an autoimmune disease resulting from destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells (1, 2). The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is the preclinical model closest to T1D in man and has provided an invaluable understanding of basic immune pathogenesis, genetic and environmental risk factors,...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715058114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Fluctuation-enhanced electric conductivity in electrolyte solutions
           [Applied Mathematics]
    • Authors: Jean–Philippe Peraud; Andrew J. Nonaka, John B. Bell, Aleksandar Donev, Aleȷandro L. Garcia
      Pages: 10829 - 10833
      Abstract: We analyze the effects of an externally applied electric field on thermal fluctuations for a binary electrolyte fluid. We show that the fluctuating Poisson–Nernst–Planck (PNP) equations for charged multispecies diffusion coupled with the fluctuating fluid momentum equation result in enhanced charge transport via a mechanism distinct from the well-known enhancement...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714464114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Super-swelled lyotropic single crystals [Biophysics and Computational
    • Authors: Hojun Kim; Ziyuan Song, Cecilia Leal
      Pages: 10834 - 10839
      Abstract: Lipids self-assemble into diverse supramolecular structures that exhibit thermotropic and/or lyotropic behavior. Lyotropic mesophases, where membranes conform to periodic minimal surfaces dividing two nonpenetrating aqueous subspaces, are arguably one of the most intriguing phases of lipid materials. Traditional 3D bicontinuous cubic lipid materials appear as a polycrystal of varying degrees...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710774114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Time-resolved measurements of an ion channel conformational change driven
           by a membrane phase transition [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Paul Stevenson; Andrei Tokmakoff
      Pages: 10840 - 10845
      Abstract: Using temperature-jump infrared spectroscopy, we are able to trigger a gel-to-fluid phase transition in lipid vesicles and monitor in real time how a membrane protein responds to structural changes in the membrane. The melting of lipid domains in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine vesicles is observed to occur in as fast as 50 ns,...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708070114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Ab initio theory and modeling of water [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Mohan Chen; Hsin-Yu Ko, Richard C. Remsing, Marcos F. Calegari Andrade, Biswajit Santra, Zhaoru Sun, Annabella Selloni, Roberto Car, Michael L. Klein, John P. Perdew, Xifan Wu
      Pages: 10846 - 10851
      Abstract: Water is of the utmost importance for life and technology. However, a genuinely predictive ab initio model of water has eluded scientists. We demonstrate that a fully ab initio approach, relying on the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) density functional, provides such a description of water. SCAN accurately describes...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712499114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • De novo design of covalently constrained mesosize protein scaffolds with
           unique tertiary structures [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Bobo Dang; Haifan Wu, Vikram Khipple Mulligan, Marco Mravic, Yibing Wu, Thomas Lemmin, Alexander Ford, Daniel-Adriano Silva, David Baker, William F. DeGrado
      Pages: 10852 - 10857
      Abstract: The folding of natural proteins typically relies on hydrophobic packing, metal binding, or disulfide bond formation in the protein core. Alternatively, a 3D structure can be defined by incorporating a multivalent cross-linking agent, and this approach has been successfully developed for the selection of bicyclic peptides from large random-sequence libraries....
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710695114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Katabatic winds diminish precipitation contribution to the Antarctic ice
           mass balance [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Jacopo Grazioli; Jean–Baptiste Madeleine, Hubert Gallee, Richard M. Forbes, Christophe Genthon, Gerhard Krinner, Alexis Berne
      Pages: 10858 - 10863
      Abstract: Snowfall in Antarctica is a key term of the ice sheet mass budget that influences the sea level at global scale. Over the continental margins, persistent katabatic winds blow all year long and supply the lower troposphere with unsaturated air. We show that this dry air leads to significant low-level...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707633114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Why pens have rubbery grips [Engineering]
    • Authors: Brygida Dzidek; Serena Bochereau, Simon A. Johnson, Vincent Hayward, Michael J. Adams
      Pages: 10864 - 10869
      Abstract: The process by which human fingers gives rise to stable contacts with smooth, hard objects is surprisingly slow. Using high-resolution imaging, we found that, when pressed against glass, the actual contact made by finger pad ridges evolved over time following a first-order kinetics relationship. This evolution was the result of...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706233114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial
           discrimination in hiring over time [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Lincoln Quillian; Devah Pager, Ole Hexel, Arnfinn H. Midtboen
      Pages: 10870 - 10875
      Abstract: This study investigates change over time in the level of hiring discrimination in US labor markets. We perform a meta-analysis of every available field experiment of hiring discrimination against African Americans or Latinos (n = 28). Together, these studies represent 55,842 applications submitted for 26,326 positions. We focus on trends...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706255114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Engineering of tomato for the sustainable production of ketocarotenoids
           and its evaluation in aquaculture feed [Applied Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Marilise Nogueira; Eugenia M. A. Enfissi, Maria E. Martinez Valenzuela, Guillaume N. Menard, Richard L. Driller, Peter J. Eastmond, Wolfgang Schuch, Gerhard Sandmann, Paul D. Fraser
      Pages: 10876 - 10881
      Abstract: Ketocarotenoids are high-value pigments used commercially across multiple industrial sectors as colorants and supplements. Chemical synthesis using petrochemical-derived precursors remains the production method of choice. Aquaculture is an example where ketocarotenoid supplementation of feed is necessary to achieve product viability. The biosynthesis of ketocarotenoids, such as canthaxanthin, phoenicoxanthin, or astaxanthin...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708349114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • RPE65 has an additional function as the lutein to meso-zeaxanthin
           isomerase in the vertebrate eye [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Rajalekshmy Shyam; Aruna Gorusupudi, Kelly Nelson, Martin P. Horvath, Paul S. Bernstein
      Pages: 10882 - 10887
      Abstract: Carotenoids are plant-derived pigment molecules that vertebrates cannot synthesize de novo that protect the fovea of the primate retina from oxidative stress and light damage. meso-Zeaxanthin is an ocular-specific carotenoid for which there are no common dietary sources. It is one of the three major carotenoids present at the foveal...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706332114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Mechanics dictate where and how freshwater planarians fission [Physics]
    • Authors: Paul T. Malinowski; Olivier Cochet-Escartin, Kelson J. Kaj, Edward Ronan, Alexander Groisman, Patrick H. Diamond, Eva-Maria S. Collins
      Pages: 10888 - 10893
      Abstract: Asexual freshwater planarians reproduce by tearing themselves into two pieces by a process called binary fission. The resulting head and tail pieces regenerate within about a week, forming two new worms. Understanding this process of ripping oneself into two parts poses a challenging biomechanical problem. Because planarians stop “doing it”...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700762114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Kinesin rotates unidirectionally and generates torque while walking on
           microtubules [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Avin Ramaiya; Basudev Roy, Michael Bugiel, Erik Schaffer
      Pages: 10894 - 10899
      Abstract: Cytoskeletal motors drive many essential cellular processes. For example, kinesin-1 transports cargo in a step-wise manner along microtubules. To resolve rotations during stepping, we used optical tweezers combined with an optical microprotractor and torsion balance using highly birefringent microspheres to directly and simultaneously measure the translocation, rotation, force, and torque...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706985114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Principles for computational design of binding antibodies [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Dror Baran; M. Gabriele Pszolla, Gideon D. Lapidoth, Christoffer Norn, Orly Dym, Tamar Unger, Shira Albeck, Michael D. Tyka, Sarel J. Fleishman
      Pages: 10900 - 10905
      Abstract: Natural proteins must both fold into a stable conformation and exert their molecular function. To date, computational design has successfully produced stable and atomically accurate proteins by using so-called “ideal” folds rich in regular secondary structures and almost devoid of loops and destabilizing elements, such as cavities. Molecular function, such...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707171114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Probing structure-function relationships in early events in photosynthesis
           using a chimeric photocomplex [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Kenji V. P. Nagashima; Mai Sasaki, Kanako Hashimoto, Shinichi Takaichi, Sakiko Nagashima, Long-Jiang Yu, Yuto Abe, Kenta Gotou, Tomoaki Kawakami, Mizuki Takenouchi, Yuuta Shibuya, Akira Yamaguchi, Takashi Ohno, Jian-Ren Shen, Kazuhito Inoue, Michael T. Madigan, Yukihiro Kimura, Zheng-Yu Wang-Otomo
      Pages: 10906 - 10911
      Abstract: The native core light-harvesting complex (LH1) from the thermophilic purple phototrophic bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum requires Ca2+ for its thermal stability and characteristic absorption maximum at 915 nm. To explore the role of specific amino acid residues of the LH1 polypeptides in Ca-binding behavior, we constructed a genetic system for heterologously...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703584114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • CTCF prevents genomic instability by promoting homologous
           recombination-directed DNA double-strand break repair [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Fengchao Lang; Xin Li, Wenhai Zheng, Zhuoran Li, Danfeng Lu, Guijun Chen, Daohua Gong, Liping Yang, Jinlin Fu, Peng Shi, Jumin Zhou
      Pages: 10912 - 10917
      Abstract: CTCF is an essential epigenetic regulator mediating chromatin insulation, long-range regulatory interactions, and the organization of large topological domains in the nucleus. Phenotypes of CTCF haploinsufficient mutations in humans, knockout in mice, and depletion in cells are often consistent with impaired genome stability, but a role of CTCF in genome...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704076114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • YAP/TAZ-CDC42 signaling regulates vascular tip cell migration
           [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Masahide Sakabe; Jieqing Fan, Yoshinobu Odaka, Ning Liu, Aishlin Hassan, Xin Duan, Paige Stump, Luke Byerly, Megan Donaldson, Jiukuan Hao, Marcus Fruttiger, Qing Richard Lu, Yi Zheng, Richard A. Lang, Mei Xin
      Pages: 10918 - 10923
      Abstract: Angiogenesis and vascular remodeling are essential for the establishment of vascular networks during organogenesis. Here we show that the Hippo signaling pathway effectors YAP and TAZ are required, in a gene dosage-dependent manner, for the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) during retinal angiogenesis. Intriguingly, nuclear translocation of...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704030114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Metamorphosis is induced by food absence rather than a critical weight in
           the solitary bee, Osmia lignaria [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Bryan R. Helm; Joseph P. Rinehart, George D. Yocum, Kendra J. Greenlee, Julia H. Bowsher
      Pages: 10924 - 10929
      Abstract: Body size is an important phenotypic trait that correlates with performance and fitness. For determinate growing insects, body size variation is determined by growth rate and the mechanisms that stop growth at the end of juvenile growth. Endocrine mechanisms regulate growth cessation, and their relative timing along development shapes phenotypic...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703008114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Heterochronic truncation of odontogenesis in theropod dinosaurs provides
           insight into the macroevolution of avian beaks [Evolution]
    • Authors: Shuo Wang; Josef Stiegler, Ping Wu, Cheng-Ming Chuong, Dongyu Hu, Amy Balanoff, Yachun Zhou, Xing Xu
      Pages: 10930 - 10935
      Abstract: Beaks are innovative structures characterizing numerous tetrapod lineages, including birds, but little is known about how developmental processes influenced the macroevolution of these important structures. Here we provide evidence of ontogenetic vestigialization of alveoli in two lineages of theropod dinosaurs and show that these are transitional phenotypes in the evolution...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708023114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Assortative mating and persistent reproductive isolation in hybrids
    • Authors: Molly Schumer; Daniel L. Powell, Pablo J. Delclos, Mattie Squire, Rongfeng Cui, Peter Andolfatto, Gil G. Rosenthal
      Pages: 10936 - 10941
      Abstract: The emergence of new species is driven by the establishment of mechanisms that limit gene flow between populations. A major challenge is reconciling the theoretical and empirical importance of assortative mating in speciation with the ease with which it can fail. Swordtail fish have an evolutionary history of hybridization and...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711238114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Physical proximity of chromatin to nuclear pores prevents harmful R loop
           accumulation contributing to maintain genome stability [Genetics]
    • Authors: Francisco Garcia–Benitez; Helene Gaillard, Andres Aguilera
      Pages: 10942 - 10947
      Abstract: During transcription, the mRNA may hybridize with DNA, forming an R loop, which can be physiological or pathological, constituting in this case a source of genomic instability. To understand the mechanism by which eukaryotic cells prevent harmful R loops, we used human activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to identify genes preventing...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707845114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Complement-activation fragment C4a mediates effector functions by binding
           as untethered agonist to protease-activated receptors 1 and 4 [Immunology
           and Inflammation]
    • Authors: HongBin Wang; Daniel Ricklin, John D. Lambris
      Pages: 10948 - 10953
      Abstract: C4a is a small protein released from complement component C4 upon activation of the complement system’s classical and lectin pathways, which are important constituents of innate immune surveillance. Despite the structural similarity between C4a and well-described anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a, the binding partner and biological function of C4a have remained...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707364114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Type 1 diabetes induction in humanized mice [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Shulian Tan; Yang Li, Jinxing Xia, Chun-Hui Jin, Zheng Hu, Gaby Duinkerken, Yuying Li, Mohsen Khosravi Maharlooei, Estefania Chavez, Grace Nauman, Nichole Danzl, Maki Nakayama, Bart O. Roep, Megan Sykes, Yong-Guang Yang
      Pages: 10954 - 10959
      Abstract: There is an urgent and unmet need for humanized in vivo models of type 1 diabetes to study immunopathogenesis and immunotherapy, and in particular antigen-specific therapy. Transfer of patient blood lymphocytes to immunodeficient mice is associated with xenogeneic graft-versus-host reactivity that complicates assessment of autoimmunity. Improved models could identify which...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710415114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Butyrylcholinesterase gene transfer in obese mice prevents postdieting
           body weight rebound by suppressing ghrelin signaling [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Vicky Ping Chen; Yang Gao, Liyi Geng, Stephen Brimijoin
      Pages: 10960 - 10965
      Abstract: The worldwide prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate but treatment options remain limited. Despite initial success, weight loss by calorie restriction (CR) often fails because of rebound weight gain. Postdieting hyperphagia along with altered hypothalamic neuro-architecture appears to be one direct cause of this undesirable outcome. In...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706517114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Molecular architecture of the sheathed polar flagellum in Vibrio
           alginolyticus [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Shiwei Zhu; Tatsuro Nishikino, Bo Hu, Seiji Kojima, Michio Homma, Jun Liu
      Pages: 10966 - 10971
      Abstract: Vibrio species are Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous and often highly motile in aqueous environments. Vibrio swimming motility is driven by a polar flagellum covered with a membranous sheath, but this sheathed flagellum is not well understood at the molecular level because of limited structural information. Here, we use...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712489114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • CLOCK stabilizes CYCLE to initiate clock function in Drosophila
    • Authors: Tianxin Liu; Guruswamy Mahesh, Wangjie Yu, Paul E. Hardin
      Pages: 10972 - 10977
      Abstract: The Drosophila circadian clock keeps time via transcriptional feedback loops. These feedback loops are initiated by CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) heterodimers, which activate transcription of genes encoding the feedback repressors PERIOD and TIMELESS. Circadian clocks normally operate in ∼150 brain pacemaker neurons and in many peripheral tissues in the head and body,...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707143114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Echolocating bats rely on audiovocal feedback to adapt sonar signal design
    • Authors: Jinhong Luo; Cynthia F. Moss
      Pages: 10978 - 10983
      Abstract: Many species of bat emit acoustic signals and use information carried by echoes reflecting from nearby objects to navigate and forage. It is widely documented that echolocating bats adjust the features of sonar calls in response to echo feedback; however, it remains unknown whether audiovocal feedback contributes to sonar call...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711892114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Drk-mediated signaling to Rho kinase is required for anesthesia-resistant
           memory in Drosophila [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Vasileia Kotoula; Anastasios Moressis, Ourania Semelidou, Efthimios M. C. Skoulakis
      Pages: 10984 - 10989
      Abstract: Anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) was described decades ago, but the mechanisms that underlie this protein synthesis-independent form of consolidated memory in Drosophila remain poorly understood. Whether the several signaling molecules, receptors, and synaptic proteins currently implicated in ARM operate in one or more pathways and how they function in the process...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704835114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
  • Systems biology analysis of longitudinal functional response of
           endothelial cells to shear stress [Systems Biology]
    • Authors: Nassim E. Ajami; Shakti Gupta, Mano R. Maurya, Phu Nguyen, Julie Yi-Shuan Li, John Y.-J. Shyy, Zhen Chen, Shu Chien, Shankar Subramaniam
      Pages: 10990 - 10995
      Abstract: Blood flow and vascular shear stress patterns play a significant role in inducing and modulating physiological responses of endothelial cells (ECs). Pulsatile shear (PS) is associated with an atheroprotective endothelial phenotype, while oscillatory shear (OS) is associated with an atheroprone endothelial phenotype. Although mechanisms of endothelial shear response have been...
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T12:26:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707517114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 41 (2017)
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