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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 6.092
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 1217  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 10615 - 10615
      Abstract: How desert microbes extract water from rocks Scanning electron micrograph of cyanobacteria living in the gypsum rocks collected from the Atacama Desert. Several microbes in desert environments live inside rocks. To survive, such endolithic microbes rely on the ability of rocks to retain water. However, it is unclear how microbes...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti2020117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • News Feature: To counter the pandemic, clinicians bank on repurposed drugs
    • Authors: Jyoti Madhusoodanan
      Pages: 10616 - 10620
      Abstract: Teams are pursuing a dizzying array of therapeutic strategies to stymie COVID-19. It’s not yet clear which approach, or combination of approaches, will work best. **Due to new and rapidly moving developments related to COVID-19 therapies, we updated this article with additional clinical study details on May 1. In late...
      Keywords: News Features, Pharmacology, Front Matter, Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2007346117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Resolvins resolve to heal mucosal wounds [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Sean P. Colgan
      Pages: 10621 - 10622
      Abstract: Surfaces lined by single or multiple layers of epithelial cells, termed mucosal surfaces, function as selectively permeable barriers that partition the host from the outside world. Given their proximity to microbes and microbial antigens, intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have evolved mechanisms to maintain barrier function and to aid in promoting...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2005652117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • On the discovery of an endomembrane compartment in plants [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: David Scheuring; Jurgen Kleine–Vehn
      Pages: 10623 - 10624
      Abstract: To maintain homeostasis and to react to external stimuli, eukaryotic cells have evolved a complex internal membrane system. Among them, lytic compartments are hallmarks of eukaryotic cells: Animals possess lysosomes, whereas fungi and plants build up vacuoles. Although largely molecularly conserved, the plant endomembrane system displays unique features, among them...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2006766117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • A brief prehistory of double descent [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Marco Loog; Tom Viering, Alexander Mey, Jesse H. Krijthe, David M. J. Tax
      Pages: 10625 - 10626
      Abstract: In their thought-provoking paper, Belkin et al. (1) illustrate and discuss the shape of risk curves in the context of modern high-complexity learners. Given a fixed training sample size n, such curves show the risk of a learner as a function of some (approximate) measure of its complexity N. With...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001875117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Reply to Loog et al.: Looking beyond the peaking phenomenon [Physical
    • Authors: Mikhail Belkin; Daniel Hsu, Siyuan Ma, Soumik Mandal
      Pages: 10627 - 10627
      Abstract: The letter “A brief prehistory of double descent” (1) written in response to our article “Reconciling modern machine-learning practice and the classical bias–variance trade-off” (2) brings a number of interesting points and important references. We agree that the “peaking phenomenon”—which is one of the more visually striking features of the...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003206117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Reexamining research on motivations and perspectives of scientists
           relating to public engagement [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Eric Allen Jensen
      Pages: 10628 - 10628
      Abstract: Rose et al. (1) make a valuable contribution to the literature on scientists’ engagement with publics. Here, I highlight two issues that may help clarify the precise nature of this contribution. First, we should consider whether sampling only tenure-track or tenured faculty in physical, biological, and social sciences in US...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2000633117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Social tipping intervention strategies for rapid decarbonization need to
           consider how change happens [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Steven R. Smith; Ian Christie, Rebecca Willis
      Pages: 10629 - 10630
      Abstract: Otto et al.’s (1) evaluation of “social tipping interventions” (STIs) for accelerating a global transformation to carbon neutrality by 2050 is an important sociopolitical contribution to a debate that is all-too-often technocentric in focus. Otto et al.’s (1) expert panel identified six social tipping elements—within energy production/storage, human settlement, financial...
      Keywords: Letters, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2002331117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Reply to Smith et al.: Social tipping dynamics in a world constrained by
           conflicting interests [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Ilona M. Otto; Jonathan F. Donges, Wolfgang Lucht, Hans Joachim Schellnhuber
      Pages: 10631 - 10632
      Abstract: We fully agree that, in analyzing social tipping interventions (STIs) for accelerating a global transformation to carbon neutrality by 2050 (1), there is a need to analyze social change processes and social movements in greater depth (2). We hope that more research will follow and each of the identified STIs...
      Keywords: Letters, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2002648117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • There is no privileged link between kinds and essences early in
           development [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Alexander Noyes; Frank C. Keil
      Pages: 10633 - 10635
      Abstract: According to the dominant view of category representation, people preferentially infer that kinds (richly structured categories) reflect essences. Generic language (“Boys like blue”) often occupies the central role in accounts of the formation of essentialist interpretations—especially in the context of social categories. In a preregistered study (n = 240 American...
      Keywords: Brief Reports
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003627117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Stentian structural plasticity in the developing visual system
    • Authors: Tasnia N. Rahman; Martin Munz, Elena Kutsarova, Olesia M. Bilash, Edward S. Ruthazer
      Pages: 10636 - 10638
      Abstract: In a small fraction of Xenopus tadpoles, a single retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon misprojects to the ipsilateral optic tectum. Presenting flashes of light to the ipsilateral eye causes that ipsilateral axon to fire, whereas stimulating the contralateral eye excites all other RGC inputs to the tectum. We performed time-lapse...
      Keywords: Brief Reports
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001107117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • All-electrical monitoring of bacterial antibiotic susceptibility in a
           microfluidic device [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Yichao Yang; Kalpana Gupta, Kamil L. Ekinci
      Pages: 10639 - 10644
      Abstract: The lack of rapid antibiotic susceptibility tests adversely affects the treatment of bacterial infections and contributes to increased prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Here, we describe an all-electrical approach that allows for ultrasensitive measurement of growth signals from only tens of bacteria in a microfluidic device. Our device is essentially a...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922172117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Photo-printing of faceted DNA patchy particles [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Jairo A. Diaz A; Joon Suk Oh, Gi-Ra Yi, David J. Pine
      Pages: 10645 - 10653
      Abstract: Patchy particles with shape complementarity can serve as building blocks for assembling colloidal superstructures. Alternatively, encoding information on patches using DNA can direct assembly into a variety of crystalline or other preprogrammed structures. Here, we present a tool where DNA is used both to engineer shape and to encode information...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918504117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Electronic nematicity in Sr2RuO4 [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Jie Wu; Hari P. Nair, Anthony T. Bollinger, Xi He, Ian Robinson, Nathaniel J. Schreiber, Kyle M. Shen, Darrell G. Schlom, Ivan Božović
      Pages: 10654 - 10659
      Abstract: We have measured the angle-resolved transverse resistivity (ARTR), a sensitive indicator of electronic anisotropy, in high-quality thin films of the unconventional superconductor Sr2RuO4 grown on various substrates. The ARTR signal, heralding the electronic nematicity or a large nematic susceptibility, is present and substantial already at room temperature and grows by...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1921713117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Metabolic cost of rapid adaptation of single yeast cells [Applied Physical
    • Authors: Gabrielle Woronoff; Philippe Nghe, Jean Baudry, Laurent Boitard, Erez Braun, Andrew D. Griffiths, Jerome Bibette
      Pages: 10660 - 10666
      Abstract: Cells can rapidly adapt to changing environments through nongenetic processes; however, the metabolic cost of such adaptation has never been considered. Here we demonstrate metabolic coupling in a remarkable, rapid adaptation process (1 in 1,000 cells adapt per hour) by simultaneously measuring metabolism and division of thousands of individual Saccharomyces...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913767117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Sensitive magnetometry reveals inhomogeneities in charge storage and weak
           transient internal currents in Li-ion cells [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Yinan Hu; Geoffrey Z. Iwata, Mohaddese Mohammadi, Emilia V. Silletta, Arne Wickenbrock, John W. Blanchard, Dmitry Budker, Alexej Jerschow
      Pages: 10667 - 10672
      Abstract: The ever-increasing demand for high-capacity rechargeable batteries highlights the need for sensitive and accurate diagnostic technology for determining the state of a cell, for identifying and localizing defects, and for sensing capacity loss mechanisms. Here, we leverage atomic magnetometry to map the weak induced magnetic fields around Li-ion battery cells...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917172117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Genome organization and interaction with capsid protein in a multipartite
           RNA virus [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Christian Beren; Yanxiang Cui, Antara Chakravarty, Xue Yang, A. L. N. Rao, Charles M. Knobler, Z. Hong Zhou, William M. Gelbart
      Pages: 10673 - 10680
      Abstract: We report the asymmetric reconstruction of the single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) content in one of the three otherwise identical virions of a multipartite RNA virus, brome mosaic virus (BMV). We exploit a sample consisting exclusively of particles with the same RNA content—specifically, RNAs 3 and 4—assembled in planta by agrobacterium-mediated transient...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915078117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Mechanism of water extraction from gypsum rock by desert colonizing
           microorganisms [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Wei Huang; Emine Ertekin, Taifeng Wang, Luz Cruz, Micah Dailey, Jocelyne DiRuggiero, David Kisailus
      Pages: 10681 - 10687
      Abstract: Microorganisms, in the most hyperarid deserts around the world, inhabit the inside of rocks as a survival strategy. Water is essential for life, and the ability of a rock substrate to retain water is essential for its habitability. Here we report the mechanism by which gypsum rocks from the Atacama...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001613117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Prodrugs of PKC modulators show enhanced HIV latency reversal and an
           expanded therapeutic window [Applied Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Jack L. Sloane; Nancy L. Benner, Katherine N. Keenan, Xiaoyu Zang, Mohamed S. A. Soliman, Xiaomeng Wu, Melanie Dimapasoc, Tae-Wook Chun, Matthew D. Marsden, Jerome A. Zack, Paul A. Wender
      Pages: 10688 - 10698
      Abstract: AIDS is a pandemic disease caused by HIV that affects 37 million people worldwide. Current antiretroviral therapy slows disease progression but does not eliminate latently infected cells, which resupply active virus, thus necessitating lifelong treatment with associated compliance, cost, and chemoexposure issues. Latency-reversing agents (LRAs) activate these cells, allowing for...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919408117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Spontaneous formation of autocatalytic sets with self-replicating
           inorganic metal oxide clusters [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Haralampos N. Miras; Cole Mathis, Weimin Xuan, De-Liang Long, Robert Pow, Leroy Cronin
      Pages: 10699 - 10705
      Abstract: Here we show how a simple inorganic salt can spontaneously form autocatalytic sets of replicating inorganic molecules that work via molecular recognition based on the {PMo12} ≡ [PMo12O40]3– Keggin ion, and {Mo36} ≡ [H3Mo57M6(NO)6O183(H2O)18]22– cluster. These small clusters are able to catalyze their own formation via an autocatalytic network, which...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1921536117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Detected climatic change in global distribution of tropical cyclones
           [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Hiroyuki Murakami; Thomas L. Delworth, William F. Cooke, Ming Zhao, Baoqiang Xiang, Pang-Chi Hsu
      Pages: 10706 - 10714
      Abstract: Owing to the limited length of observed tropical cyclone data and the effects of multidecadal internal variability, it has been a challenge to detect trends in tropical cyclone activity on a global scale. However, there is a distinct spatial pattern of the trends in tropical cyclone frequency of occurrence on...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922500117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Quantum Fourier analysis [Mathematics]
    • Authors: Arthur Jaffe; Chunlan Jiang, Zhengwei Liu, Yunxiang Ren, Jinsong Wu
      Pages: 10715 - 10720
      Abstract: Quantum Fourier analysis is a subject that combines an algebraic Fourier transform (pictorial in the case of subfactor theory) with analytic estimates. This provides interesting tools to investigate phenomena such as quantum symmetry. We establish bounds on the quantum Fourier transform F, as a map between suitably defined Lp spaces,...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2002813117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Noncollinear phases in moire magnets [Physics]
    • Authors: Kasra Hejazi; Zhu-Xi Luo, Leon Balents
      Pages: 10721 - 10726
      Abstract: We introduce a general framework to study moiré structures of two-dimensional Van der Waals magnets using continuum field theory. The formalism eliminates quasiperiodicity and allows a full understanding of magnetic structures and their excitations. In particular, we analyze in detail twisted bilayers of Néel antiferromagnets on the honeycomb lattice. A...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2000347117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Controlling photoionization using attosecond time-slit interferences
    • Authors: Yu–Chen Cheng; Sara Mikaelsson, Saikat Nandi, Lisa Ramisch, Chen Guo, Stefanos Carlstrom, Anne Harth, Jan Vogelsang, Miguel Miranda, Cord L. Arnold, Anne L’Huillier, Mathieu Gisselbrecht
      Pages: 10727 - 10732
      Abstract: When small quantum systems, atoms or molecules, absorb a high-energy photon, electrons are emitted with a well-defined energy and a highly symmetric angular distribution, ruled by energy quantization and parity conservation. These rules are based on approximations and symmetries which may break down when atoms are exposed to ultrashort and...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1921138117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Cavitation in lipid bilayers poses strict negative pressure stability
           limit in biological liquids [Physics]
    • Authors: Mateȷ Kanduč; Emanuel Schneck, Philip Loche, Steven Jansen, H. Jochen Schenk, Roland R. Netz
      Pages: 10733 - 10739
      Abstract: Biological and technological processes that involve liquids under negative pressure are vulnerable to the formation of cavities. Maximal negative pressures found in plants are around −100 bar, even though cavitation in pure bulk water only occurs at much more negative pressures on the relevant timescales. Here, we investigate the influence...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917195117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • The protective benefits of tsunami mitigation parks and ramifications for
           their strategic design [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Brent Lunghino; Adrian F. Santiago Tate, Miho Mazereeuw, Abdul Muhari, Francis X. Giraldo, Simone Marras, Jenny Suckale
      Pages: 10740 - 10745
      Abstract: Nature-based solutions are becoming an increasingly important component of sustainable coastal risk management. For particularly destructive hazards like tsunamis, natural elements like vegetation are often combined with designed elements like seawalls or dams to augment the protective benefits of each component. One example of this kind of hybrid approach is...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911857117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Paternal provisioning results from ecological change [Anthropology]
    • Authors: Ingela Alger; Paul L. Hooper, Donald Cox, Jonathan Stieglitz, Hillard S. Kaplan
      Pages: 10746 - 10754
      Abstract: Paternal provisioning among humans is puzzling because it is rare among primates and absent in nonhuman apes and because emergent provisioning would have been subject to paternity theft. A provisioning “dad” loses fitness at the hands of nonprovisioning, mate-seeking “cads.” Recent models require exacting interplay between male provisioning and female...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917166117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Early investments in state capacity promote persistently higher levels of
           social capital [Political Sciences]
    • Authors: Jeffrey L. Jensen; Adam J. Ramey
      Pages: 10755 - 10761
      Abstract: Social capital has been shown to positively influence a multitude of economic, political, and social outcomes. Yet the factors that affect long-run social capital formation remain poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that early state formation, especially investments in state capacity, are positively associated with higher levels of contemporary social capital...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919972117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Estimating the deep replicability of scientific findings using human and
           artificial intelligence [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Yang Yang; Wu Youyou, Brian Uzzi
      Pages: 10762 - 10768
      Abstract: Replicability tests of scientific papers show that the majority of papers fail replication. Moreover, failed papers circulate through the literature as quickly as replicating papers. This dynamic weakens the literature, raises research costs, and demonstrates the need for new approaches for estimating a study’s replicability. Here, we trained an artificial...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909046117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Testing the utility of dental morphological trait combinations for
           inferring human neutral genetic variation [Anthropology]
    • Authors: Hannes Rathmann; Hugo Reyes-Centeno
      Pages: 10769 - 10777
      Abstract: Researchers commonly rely on human dental morphological features in order to reconstruct genetic affinities among past individuals and populations, particularly since teeth are often the best preserved part of a human skeleton. Tooth form is considered to be highly heritable and selectively neutral and, therefore, to be an excellent proxy...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914330117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Five enzymes of the Arg/N-degron pathway form a targeting complex: The
           concept of superchanneling [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Jang-Hyun Oh; Ju-Yeon Hyun, Shun-Jia Chen, Alexander Varshavsky
      Pages: 10778 - 10788
      Abstract: The Arg/N-degron pathway targets proteins for degradation by recognizing their N-terminal (Nt) residues. If a substrate bears, for example, Nt-Asn, its targeting involves deamidation of Nt-Asn, arginylation of resulting Nt-Asp, binding of resulting (conjugated) Nt-Arg to the UBR1-RAD6 E3-E2 ubiquitin ligase, ligase-mediated synthesis of a substrate-linked polyubiquitin chain, its capture...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003043117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Facultative protein selenation regulates redox sensitivity, adipose tissue
           thermogenesis, and obesity [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Mark P. Jedrychowski; Gina Z. Lu, John Szpyt, Marco Mariotti, Ryan Garrity, Joao A. Paulo, Devin K. Schweppe, Dina Laznik-Bogoslavski, Lawrence Kazak, Michael P. Murphy, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Steven P. Gygi, Edward T. Chouchani, Bruce M. Spiegelman
      Pages: 10789 - 10796
      Abstract: Oxidation of cysteine thiols by physiological reactive oxygen species (ROS) initiates thermogenesis in brown and beige adipose tissues. Cellular selenocysteines, where sulfur is replaced with selenium, exhibit enhanced reactivity with ROS. Despite their critical roles in physiology, methods for broad and direct detection of proteogenic selenocysteines are limited. Here we...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001387117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Hydrogen deuterium exchange defines catalytically linked regions of
           protein flexibility in the catechol O-methyltransferase reaction
    • Authors: Jianyu Zhang; Jeremy L. Balsbaugh, Shuaihua Gao, Natalie G. Ahn, Judith P. Klinman
      Pages: 10797 - 10805
      Abstract: Human catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) has emerged as a model for understanding enzyme-catalyzed methyl transfer from S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to small-molecule catecholate acceptors. Mutation of a single residue (tyrosine 68) behind the methyl-bearing sulfonium of AdoMet was previously shown to impair COMT activity by interfering with methyl donor–acceptor compaction within the activated...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917219117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Structural basis for divergent and convergent evolution of catalytic
           machineries in plant aromatic amino acid decarboxylase proteins
    • Authors: Michael P. Torrens-Spence; Ying-Chih Chiang, Tyler Smith, Maria A. Vicent, Yi Wang, Jing-Ke Weng
      Pages: 10806 - 10817
      Abstract: Radiation of the plant pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) family has yielded an array of paralogous enzymes exhibiting divergent substrate preferences and catalytic mechanisms. Plant AAADs catalyze either the decarboxylation or decarboxylation-dependent oxidative deamination of aromatic l-amino acids to produce aromatic monoamines or aromatic acetaldehydes, respectively. These...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920097117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Neutron crystallography of copper amine oxidase reveals keto/enolate
           interconversion of the quinone cofactor and unusual proton sharing
    • Authors: Takeshi Murakawa; Kazuo Kurihara, Mitsuo Shoji, Chie Shibazaki, Tomoko Sunami, Taro Tamada, Naomine Yano, Taro Yamada, Katsuhiro Kusaka, Mamoru Suzuki, Yasuteru Shigeta, Ryota Kuroki, Hideyuki Hayashi, Takato Yano, Katsuyuki Tanizawa, Motoyasu Adachi, Toshihide Okajima
      Pages: 10818 - 10824
      Abstract: Recent advances in neutron crystallographic studies have provided structural bases for quantum behaviors of protons observed in enzymatic reactions. Thus, we resolved the neutron crystal structure of a bacterial copper (Cu) amine oxidase (CAO), which contains a prosthetic Cu ion and a protein-derived redox cofactor, topa quinone (TPQ). We solved...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922538117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • The role of the Arp2/3 complex in shaping the dynamics and structures of
           branched actomyosin networks [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: James Liman; Carlos Bueno, Yossi Eliaz, Nicholas P. Schafer, M. Neal Waxham, Peter G. Wolynes, Herbert Levine, Margaret S. Cheung
      Pages: 10825 - 10831
      Abstract: Actomyosin networks give cells the ability to move and divide. These networks contract and expand while being driven by active energy-consuming processes such as motor protein walking and actin polymerization. Actin dynamics is also regulated by actin-binding proteins, such as the actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex. This complex generates branched...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922494117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Matrix-transmitted paratensile signaling enables myofibroblast-fibroblast
           cross talk in fibrosis expansion [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Longwei Liu; Hongsheng Yu, Hui Zhao, Zhaozhao Wu, Yi Long, Jingbo Zhang, Xiaojun Yan, Zhifeng You, Lyu Zhou, Tie Xia, Yan Shi, Bailong Xiao, Yingxiao Wang, Chenyu Huang, Yanan Du
      Pages: 10832 - 10838
      Abstract: While the concept of intercellular mechanical communication has been revealed, the mechanistic insights have been poorly evidenced in the context of myofibroblast–fibroblast interaction during fibrosis expansion. Here we report and systematically investigate the mechanical force-mediated myofibroblast–fibroblast cross talk via the fibrous matrix, which we termed paratensile signaling. Paratensile signaling enables...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910650117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Allosteric conformational change of a cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel
           revealed by DEER spectroscopy [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Eric G. B. Evans; Jacob L. W. Morgan, Frank DiMaio, William N. Zagotta, Stefan Stoll
      Pages: 10839 - 10847
      Abstract: Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels are essential components of mammalian visual and olfactory signal transduction. CNG channels open upon direct binding of cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and/or cGMP), but the allosteric mechanism by which this occurs is incompletely understood. Here, we employed double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy to measure intersubunit distance...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916375117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Structural basis of nanobody recognition of grapevine fanleaf virus and of
           virus resistance loss [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Igor Orlov; Caroline Hemmer, Lea Ackerer, Bernard Lorber, Ahmed Ghannam, Vianney Poignavent, Kamal Hleibieh, Claude Sauter, Corinne Schmitt–Keichinger, Lorene Belval, Jean–Michel Hily, Aurelie Marmonier, Veronique Komar, Sophie Gersch, Pascale Schellenberger, Patrick Bron, Emmanuelle Vigne, Serge Muyldermans, Olivier Lemaire, Gerard Demangeat, Christophe Ritzenthaler, Bruno P. Klaholz
      Pages: 10848 - 10855
      Abstract: Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is a picorna-like plant virus transmitted by nematodes that affects vineyards worldwide. Nanobody (Nb)-mediated resistance against GFLV has been created recently, and shown to be highly effective in plants, including grapevine, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we present the high-resolution cryo electron microscopy structure...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913681117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Direct observation of helicase-topoisomerase coupling within reverse
           gyrase [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Xi Yang; Florence Garnier, Helene Debat, Terence R. Strick, Marc Nadal
      Pages: 10856 - 10864
      Abstract: Reverse gyrases (RGs) are the only topoisomerases capable of generating positive supercoils in DNA. Members of the type IA family, they do so by generating a single-strand break in substrate DNA and then manipulating the two single strands to generate positive topology. Here, we use single-molecule experimentation to reveal the...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1921848117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • A myosin-7B-dependent endocytosis pathway mediates cellular entry of
           {alpha}-synuclein fibrils and polycation-bearing cargos [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Qi Zhang; Yue Xu, Juhyung Lee, Michal Jarnik, Xufeng Wu, Juan S. Bonifacino, Jingshi Shen, Yihong Ye
      Pages: 10865 - 10875
      Abstract: Cell-to-cell transmission of misfolding-prone α-synuclein (α-Syn) has emerged as a key pathological event in Parkinson’s disease. This process is initiated when α-Syn–bearing fibrils enter cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Using a CRISPR-mediated knockout screen, we identify SLC35B2 and myosin-7B (MYO7B) as critical endocytosis regulators for...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918617117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Single-cell resolution analysis of the human pancreatic ductal progenitor
           cell niche [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Mirza Muhammad Fahd Qadir; Silvia Alvarez–Cubela, Dagmar Klein, Jasmiȷn van Diȷk, Rocio Muniz–Anquela, Yaisa B. Moreno–Hernandez, Giacomo Lanzoni, Saad Sadiq, Belen Navarro–Rubio, Michael T. Garcia, Angela Diaz, Kevin Johnson, David Sant, Camillo Ricordi, Anthony Griswold, Ricardo Luis Pastori, Juan Dominguez–Bendala
      Pages: 10876 - 10887
      Abstract: We have described multipotent progenitor-like cells within the major pancreatic ducts (MPDs) of the human pancreas. They express PDX1, its surrogate surface marker P2RY1, and the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor 1A (BMPR1A)/activin-like kinase 3 (ALK3), but not carbonic anhydrase II (CAII). Here we report the single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq)...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918314117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Mutation of a PER2 phosphodegron perturbs the circadian phosphoswitch
           [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Shusaku Masuda; Rajesh Narasimamurthy, Hikari Yoshitane, Jae Kyoung Kim, Yoshitaka Fukada, David M. Virshup
      Pages: 10888 - 10896
      Abstract: Casein kinase 1 (CK1) plays a central role in regulating the period of the circadian clock. In mammals, PER2 protein abundance is regulated by CK1-mediated phosphorylation and proteasomal degradation. On the other hand, recent studies have questioned whether the degradation of the core circadian machinery is a critical step in...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2000266117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • A unifying framework for the transient parasite dynamics of migratory
           hosts [Ecology]
    • Authors: Stephanie J. Peacock; Martin Krkošek, Mark A. Lewis, Peter K. Molnar
      Pages: 10897 - 10903
      Abstract: Migrations allow animals to track seasonal changes in resources, find mates, and avoid harsh climates, but these regular, long-distance movements also have implications for parasite dynamics and animal health. Migratory animals have been dubbed “superspreaders” of infection, but migration can also reduce parasite burdens within host populations via migratory escape...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1908777117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Darwin’s naturalization conundrum can be explained by spatial scale
    • Authors: Daniel S. Park; Xiao Feng, Brian S. Maitner, Kacey C. Ernst, Brian J. Enquist
      Pages: 10904 - 10910
      Abstract: Darwin proposed two seemingly contradictory hypotheses regarding factors influencing the outcome of biological invasions. He initially posited that nonnative species closely related to native species would be more likely to successfully establish, because they might share adaptations to the local environment (preadaptation hypothesis). However, based on observations that the majority...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918100117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • The origin and diversification of a novel protein family in venomous
           snakes [Evolution]
    • Authors: Matt W. Giorgianni; Noah L. Dowell, Sam Griffin, Victoria A. Kassner, Jane E. Selegue, Sean B. Carroll
      Pages: 10911 - 10920
      Abstract: The genetic origins of novelty are a central interest of evolutionary biology. Most new proteins evolve from preexisting proteins but the evolutionary path from ancestral gene to novel protein is challenging to trace, and therefore the requirements for and order of coding sequence changes, expression changes, or gene duplication are...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920011117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • The maleness of larger angiosperm flowers [Evolution]
    • Authors: Gustavo Brant Paterno; Carina Lima Silveira, Johannes Kollmann, Mark Westoby, Carlos Roberto Fonseca
      Pages: 10921 - 10926
      Abstract: Flower biomass varies widely across the angiosperms. Each plant species invests a given amount of biomass to construct its sex organs. A comparative understanding of how this limited resource is partitioned among primary (male and female structures) and secondary (petals and sepals) sexual organs on hermaphrodite species can shed light...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910631117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • The evolutionary history of extinct and living lions [Genetics]
    • Authors: Marc de Manuel; Ross Barnett, Marcela Sandoval–Velasco, Nobuyuki Yamaguchi, Filipe Garrett Vieira, M. Lisandra Zepeda Mendoza, Shiping Liu, Michael D. Martin, Mikkel–Holger S. Sinding, Sarah S. T. Mak, Christian Caroe, Shanlin Liu, Chunxue Guo, Jiao Zheng, Grant Zazula, Gennady Baryshnikov, Eduardo Eizirik, Klaus–Peter Koepfli, Warren E. Johnson, Agostinho Antunes, Thomas Sicheritz–Ponten, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, Greger Larson, Huanming Yang, Stephen J. O’Brien, Anders J. Hansen, Guoȷie Zhang, Tomas Marques–Bonet, M. Thomas P. Gilbert
      Pages: 10927 - 10934
      Abstract: Lions are one of the world’s most iconic megafauna, yet little is known about their temporal and spatial demographic history and population differentiation. We analyzed a genomic dataset of 20 specimens: two ca. 30,000-y-old cave lions (Panthera leo spelaea), 12 historic lions (Panthera leo leo/Panthera leo melanochaita) that lived between...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919423117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Circadian clock control of eIF2{alpha} phosphorylation is necessary for
           rhythmic translation initiation [Genetics]
    • Authors: Shanta Karki; Kathrina Castillo, Zhaolan Ding, Olivia Kerr, Teresa M. Lamb, Cheng Wu, Matthew S. Sachs, Deborah Bell-Pedersen
      Pages: 10935 - 10945
      Abstract: The circadian clock in eukaryotes controls transcriptional and posttranscriptional events, including regulation of the levels and phosphorylation state of translation factors. However, the mechanisms underlying clock control of translation initiation, and the impact of this potential regulation on rhythmic protein synthesis, were not known. We show that inhibitory phosphorylation of...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:58-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918459117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • NOD2 modulates immune tolerance via the GM-CSF-dependent generation of
           CD103+ dendritic cells [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: David Prescott; Charles Maisonneuve, Jitender Yadav, Stephen J. Rubino, Stephen E. Girardin, Dana J. Philpott
      Pages: 10946 - 10957
      Abstract: Four decades ago, it was identified that muramyl dipeptide (MDP), a peptidoglycan-derived bacterial cell wall component, could display immunosuppressive functions in animals through mechanisms that remain unexplored. We sought to revisit these pioneering observations because mutations in NOD2, the gene encoding the host sensor of MDP, are associated with increased...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912866117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Targeted inhibition of thrombin attenuates murine neonatal necrotizing
           enterocolitis [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Kopperuncholan Namachivayam; Krishnan MohanKumar, Darla R. Shores, Sunil K. Jain, Jennifer Fundora, Allen D. Everett, Ling He, Hua Pan, Samuel A. Wickline, Akhil Maheshwari
      Pages: 10958 - 10969
      Abstract: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory bowel necrosis of premature infants and an orphan disease with no specific treatment. Most patients with confirmed NEC develop moderate-severe thrombocytopenia requiring one or more platelet transfusions. Here we used our neonatal murine model of NEC-related thrombocytopenia to investigate mechanisms of platelet depletion associated...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912357117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Effective treatment of severe COVID-19 patients with tocilizumab
           [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Xiaoling Xu; Mingfeng Han, Tiantian Li, Wei Sun, Dongsheng Wang, Binqing Fu, Yonggang Zhou, Xiaohu Zheng, Yun Yang, Xiuyong Li, Xiaohua Zhang, Aijun Pan, Haiming Wei
      Pages: 10970 - 10975
      Abstract: After analyzing the immune characteristics of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we have identified that pathogenic T cells and inflammatory monocytes with large amount of interleukin 6 secreting may incite the inflammatory storm, which may potentially be curbed through monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 pathways. Here, we...
      Keywords: Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2005615117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Acoustofluidic sonoporation for gene delivery to human hematopoietic stem
           and progenitor cells [Engineering]
    • Authors: Jason N. Belling; Liv K. Heidenreich, Zhenhua Tian, Alexandra M. Mendoza, Tzu-Ting Chiou, Yao Gong, Natalie Y. Chen, Thomas D. Young, Natcha Wattanatorn, Jae Hyeon Park, Leonardo Scarabelli, Naihao Chiang, Jack Takahashi, Stephen G. Young, Adam Z. Stieg, Satiro De Oliveira, Tony Jun Huang, Paul S. Weiss, Steven J. Jonas
      Pages: 10976 - 10982
      Abstract: Advances in gene editing are leading to new medical interventions where patients’ own cells are used for stem cell therapies and immunotherapies. One of the key limitations to translating these treatments to the clinic is the need for scalable technologies for engineering cells efficiently and safely. Toward this goal, microfluidic...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917125117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Human sleep consolidates allergic responses conditioned to the
           environmental context of an allergen exposure [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Luciana Besedovsky; Mona Benischke, Jorg Fischer, Amir S. Yazdi, Jan Born
      Pages: 10983 - 10988
      Abstract: Allergies are highly prevalent, and allergic responses can be triggered even in the absence of allergens due to Pavlovian conditioning to a specific cue. Here we show in humans suffering from allergic rhinitis that merely reencountering the environmental context in which an allergen was administered a week earlier is sufficient...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920564117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • The SrrAB two-component system regulates Staphylococcus aureus
           pathogenicity through redox sensitive cysteines [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Nitiȷa Tiwari; Marisa Lopez–Redondo, Laura Miguel–Romero, Katarina Kulhankova, Michael P. Cahill, Phuong M. Tran, Kyle J. Kinney, Samuel H. Kilgore, Hassan Al–Tameemi, Christine A. Herfst, Stephen W. Tuffs, John R. Kirby, Jeffery M. Boyd, John K. McCormick, Wilmara Salgado–Pabon, Alberto Marina, Patrick M. Schlievert, Ernesto J. Fuentes
      Pages: 10989 - 10999
      Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus infections can lead to diseases that range from localized skin abscess to life-threatening toxic shock syndrome. The SrrAB two-component system (TCS) is a global regulator of S. aureus virulence and critical for survival under environmental conditions such as hypoxic, oxidative, and nitrosative stress found at sites of infection....
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1921307117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • The structural basis of African swine fever virus pA104R binding to DNA
           and its inhibition by stilbene derivatives [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Ruili Liu; Yeping Sun, Yan Chai, Su Li, Shihua Li, Liang Wang, Jiaqi Su, Shaoxiong Yu, Jinghua Yan, Feng Gao, Gaiping Zhang, Hua-Ji Qiu, George F. Gao, Jianxun Qi, Han Wang
      Pages: 11000 - 11009
      Abstract: African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a highly contagious nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) that causes nearly 100% mortality in swine. The development of effective vaccines and drugs against this virus is urgently needed. pA104R, an ASFV-derived histone-like protein, shares sequence and functional similarity with bacterial HU/IHF family members and...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922523117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Upregulation of virulence genes promotes Vibrio cholerae biofilm
           hyperinfectivity [Microbiology]
    • Authors: A. L. Gallego-Hernandez; W. H. DePas, J. H. Park, J. K. Teschler, R. Hartmann, H. Jeckel, K. Drescher, S. Beyhan, D. K. Newman, F. H. Yildiz
      Pages: 11010 - 11017
      Abstract: Vibrio cholerae remains a major global health threat, disproportionately impacting parts of the world without adequate infrastructure and sanitation resources. In aquatic environments, V. cholerae exists both as planktonic cells and as biofilms, which are held together by an extracellular matrix. V. cholerae biofilms have been shown to be hyperinfective,...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916571117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Agricultural intensification and the evolution of host specialism in the
           enteric pathogen Campylobacter jejuni [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Evangelos Mourkas; Aidan J. Taylor, Guillaume Meric, Sion C. Bayliss, Ben Pascoe, Leonardos Mageiros, Jessica K. Calland, Matthew D. Hitchings, Anne Ridley, Ana Vidal, Ken J. Forbes, Norval J. C. Strachan, Craig T. Parker, Julian Parkhill, Keith A. Jolley, Alison J. Cody, Martin C. J. Maiden, David J. Kelly, Samuel K. Sheppard
      Pages: 11018 - 11028
      Abstract: Modern agriculture has dramatically changed the distribution of animal species on Earth. Changes to host ecology have a major impact on the microbiota, potentially increasing the risk of zoonotic pathogens being transmitted to humans, but the impact of intensive livestock production on host-associated bacteria has rarely been studied. Here, we...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917168117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Hydrocarbon seepage in the deep seabed links subsurface and seafloor
           biospheres [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Anirban Chakraborty; S. Emil Ruff, Xiyang Dong, Emily D. Ellefson, Carmen Li, James M. Brooks, Jayme McBee, Bernie B. Bernard, Casey R. J. Hubert
      Pages: 11029 - 11037
      Abstract: Marine cold seeps transmit fluids between the subseafloor and seafloor biospheres through upward migration of hydrocarbons that originate in deep sediment layers. It remains unclear how geofluids influence the composition of the seabed microbiome and if they transport deep subsurface life up to the surface. Here we analyzed 172 marine...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2002289117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Positive epistasis between viral polymerase and the 3' untranslated region
           of its genome reveals the epidemiologic fitness of dengue virus
    • Authors: Ayesa Syenina; Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna, Esther Shuyi Gan, Hwee Cheng Tan, Milly M. Choy, Tanamas Siriphanitchakorn, Colin Cheng, Subhash G. Vasudevan, Eng Eong Ooi
      Pages: 11038 - 11047
      Abstract: Dengue virus (DENV) is a global health threat, causing repeated epidemics throughout the tropical world. While low herd immunity levels to any one of the four antigenic types of DENV predispose populations to outbreaks, viral genetic determinants that confer greater fitness for epidemic spread is an important but poorly understood...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919287117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Seizure pathways change on circadian and slower timescales in individual
           patients with focal epilepsy [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Gabrielle M. Schroeder; Beate Diehl, Fahmida A. Chowdhury, John S. Duncan, Jane de Tisi, Andrew J. Trevelyan, Rob Forsyth, Andrew Jackson, Peter N. Taylor, Yujiang Wang
      Pages: 11048 - 11058
      Abstract: Personalized medicine requires that treatments adapt to not only the patient but also changing factors within each individual. Although epilepsy is a dynamic disorder characterized by pathological fluctuations in brain state, surprisingly little is known about whether and how seizures vary in the same patient. We quantitatively compared within-patient seizure...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922084117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Rapid topographic reorganization in adult human primary visual cortex (V1)
           during noninvasive and reversible deprivation [Psychological and Cognitive
    • Authors: Yaseen A. Jamal; Daniel D. Dilks
      Pages: 11059 - 11067
      Abstract: Can the primary visual cortex (V1), once wired up in development, change in adulthood' Although numerous studies have demonstrated topographic reorganization in adult V1 following the loss of bottom-up input, others have challenged such findings, offering alternative explanations. Here we use a noninvasive and reversible deprivation paradigm and converging neural...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1921860117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Mapping mesoscale axonal projections in the mouse brain using a 3D
           convolutional network [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Drew Friedmann; Albert Pun, Eliza L. Adams, Jan H. Lui, Justus M. Kebschull, Sophie M. Grutzner, Caitlin Castagnola, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Liqun Luo
      Pages: 11068 - 11075
      Abstract: The projection targets of a neuronal population are a key feature of its anatomical characteristics. Historically, tissue sectioning, confocal microscopy, and manual scoring of specific regions of interest have been used to generate coarse summaries of mesoscale projectomes. We present here TrailMap, a three-dimensional (3D) convolutional network for extracting axonal...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918465117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • A neuronal signature for monogamous reunion [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Jennifer L. Scribner; Eric A. Vance, David S. W. Protter, William M. Sheeran, Elliott Saslow, Ryan T. Cameron, Eric M. Klein, Jessica C. Jimenez, Mazen A. Kheirbek, Zoe R. Donaldson
      Pages: 11076 - 11084
      Abstract: Pair-bond formation depends vitally on neuromodulatory signaling within the nucleus accumbens, but the neuronal dynamics underlying this behavior remain unclear. Using 1-photon in vivo Ca2+ imaging in monogamous prairie voles, we found that pair bonding does not elicit differences in overall nucleus accumbens Ca2+ activity. Instead, we identified distinct ensembles...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917287117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • The dopamine receptor antagonist trifluoperazine prevents phenotype
           conversion and improves survival in mouse models of glioblastoma
    • Authors: Kruttika Bhat; Mohammad Saki, Erina Vlashi, Fei Cheng, Sara Duhachek-Muggy, Claudia Alli, Garrett Yu, Paul Medina, Ling He, Robert Damoiseaux, Matteo Pellegrini, Nathan R. Zemke, Phioanh Leia Nghiemphu, Timothy F. Cloughesy, Linda M. Liau, Harley I. Kornblum, Frank Pajonk
      Pages: 11085 - 11096
      Abstract: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the deadliest adult brain cancer, and all patients ultimately succumb to the disease. Radiation therapy (RT) provides survival benefit of 6 mo over surgery alone, but these results have not improved in decades. We report that radiation induces a glioma-initiating cell phenotype, and we have identified trifluoperazine...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920154117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Influence of spatially segregated IP3-producing pathways on spike
           generation and transmitter release in Purkinje cell axons [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Laura C. Gomez; Shin-ya Kawaguchi, Thibault Collin, Abdelali Jalil, Maria del Pilar Gomez, Enrico Nasi, Alain Marty, Isabel Llano
      Pages: 11097 - 11108
      Abstract: It has been known for a long time that inositol-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors are present in the axon of certain types of mammalian neurons, but their functional role has remained unexplored. Here we show that localized photolysis of IP3 induces spatially constrained calcium rises in Purkinje cell axons. Confocal immunohistology reveals...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2000148117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Distinct roles of stereociliary links in the nonlinear sound processing
           and noise resistance of cochlear outer hair cells [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Woongsu Han; Jeong-Oh Shin, Ji-Hyun Ma, Hyehyun Min, Jinsei Jung, Jinu Lee, Un-Kyung Kim, Jae Young Choi, Seok Jun Moon, Dae Won Moon, Jinwoong Bok, Chul Hoon Kim
      Pages: 11109 - 11117
      Abstract: Outer hair cells (OHCs) play an essential role in hearing by acting as a nonlinear amplifier which helps the cochlea detect sounds with high sensitivity and accuracy. This nonlinear sound processing generates distortion products, which can be measured as distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The OHC stereocilia that respond to sound...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920229117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Antiepileptic drugs induce subcritical dynamics in human cortical networks
    • Authors: Christian Meisel
      Pages: 11118 - 11125
      Abstract: Cortical network functioning critically depends on finely tuned interactions to afford neuronal activity propagation over long distances while avoiding runaway excitation. This importance is highlighted by the pathological consequences and impaired performance resulting from aberrant network excitability in psychiatric and neurological diseases, such as epilepsy. Theory and experiment suggest that...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911461117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Chronic mild hypoxia accelerates recovery from preexisting EAE by
           enhancing vascular integrity and apoptosis of infiltrated monocytes
    • Authors: Sebok K. Halder; Richard Milner
      Pages: 11126 - 11135
      Abstract: While several studies have shown that hypoxic preconditioning suppresses development of the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis (MS), no one has yet examined the important clinically relevant question of whether mild hypoxia can impact the progression of preexisting disease. Using a relapsing–remitting model of EAE, here we...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920935117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Essential role for autophagy protein ATG7 in the maintenance of intestinal
           stem cell integrity [Physiology]
    • Authors: Coralie Trentesaux; Marie Fraudeau, Caterina Luana Pitasi, Julie Lemarchand, Sebastien Jacques, Angeline Duche, Franck Letourneur, Emmanuelle Naser, Karine Bailly, Alain Schmitt, Christine Perret, Beatrice Romagnolo
      Pages: 11136 - 11146
      Abstract: The intestinal epithelium acts as a barrier between the organism and its microenvironment, including the gut microbiota. It is the most rapidly regenerating tissue in the human body thanks to a pool of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) expressing Lgr5. The intestinal epithelium has to cope with continuous stress linked to...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917174117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Regulators of nitric oxide signaling triggered by host perception in a
           plant pathogen [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Yi Ding; Donald M. Gardiner, Di Xiao, Kemal Kazan
      Pages: 11147 - 11157
      Abstract: The rhizosphere interaction between plant roots or pathogenic microbes is initiated by mutual exchange of signals. However, how soil pathogens sense host signals is largely unknown. Here, we studied early molecular events associated with host recognition in Fusarium graminearum, an economically important fungal pathogen that can infect both roots and...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918977117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Increased variability but intact integration during visual navigation in
           Autism Spectrum Disorder [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Jean-Paul Noel; Kaushik J. Lakshminarasimhan, Hyeshin Park, Dora E. Angelaki
      Pages: 11158 - 11166
      Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disturbance afflicting a variety of functions. The recent computational focus suggesting aberrant Bayesian inference in ASD has yielded promising but conflicting results in attempting to explain a wide variety of phenotypes by canonical computations. Here, we used a naturalistic visual path integration...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2000216117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Exemplar learning reveals the representational origins of expert category
           perception [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Elliot Collins; Marlene Behrmann
      Pages: 11167 - 11177
      Abstract: Irrespective of whether one has substantial perceptual expertise for a class of stimuli, an observer invariably encounters novel exemplars from this class. To understand how novel exemplars are represented, we examined the extent to which previous experience with a category constrains the acquisition and nature of representation of subsequent exemplars...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912734117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Modulations of foveal vision associated with microsaccade preparation
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Natalya Shelchkova; Martina Poletti
      Pages: 11178 - 11183
      Abstract: It is known that attention shifts prior to a saccade to start processing the saccade target before it lands in the foveola, the high-resolution region of the retina. Yet, once the target is foveated, microsaccades, tiny saccades maintaining the fixated object within the fovea, continue to occur. What is the...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919832117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
  • Correction for Allen et al., A comparative genomics approach identifies
           contact-dependent growth inhibition as a virulence determinant
    • Pages: 11184 - 11184
      Abstract: MICROBIOLOGY Correction for “A comparative genomics approach identifies contact-dependent growth inhibition as a virulence determinant,” by Jonathan P. Allen, Egon A. Ozer, George Minasov, Ludmilla Shuvalova, Olga Kiryukhina, Karla J. F. Satchell, and Alan R. Hauser, which was first published March 10, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.1919198117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117,...
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T09:06:59-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2006680117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 20 (2020)
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