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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 6.092
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 1169  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 24377 - 24378
      Abstract: Early evidence of insect pollination of flowering plants Artist’s reconstruction of A. burmitina feeding on eudicot flowers. Colors of beetles and flowers are artistic only. Insects are thought to have pollinated flowering plants during the Cretaceous Period, when flowering plants rapidly diversified. However, direct evidence of insect pollination of Cretaceous...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti4919116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Core Concept: The rise of bioelectric medicine sparks interest among
           researchers, patients, and industry [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Lynne Peeples
      Pages: 24379 - 24382
      Abstract: In the corner of Kevin Tracey’s office, behind a long shelf lined with medical books, rests “Rosie,” a pink cane adorned with roses. It once belonged to Kelly Owens, who spent her teens and 20s crippled by inflammatory arthritis and Crohn’s disease. Today, she no longer needs Rosie’s help. Silicon...
      Keywords: Core Concepts, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919040116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Smallest water clusters supporting the ice I structure [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Kenneth D. Jordan
      Pages: 24383 - 24385
      Abstract: The article by Moberg et al. (1) addresses the fundamental question of the number of molecules a water cluster must contain in order to find a significant fraction of the molecules with a hydrogen-bonding arrangement characteristic of ice I, which is a mixture of the structurally similar hexagonal ice Ih...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918178116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Tunable superlubricity of 2-dimensional materials [Engineering]
    • Authors: Daniel Bonn; Joost Frenken
      Pages: 24386 - 24387
      Abstract: Friction is responsible for an estimated 20 to 30% of world energy consumption (1). It is a major source of wear for both man and machine and causes most of the noise around us. But friction is also useful or even necessary, for example, to walk, drive, or skate, or...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918084116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Glia modulate growth of the fly neurovascular unit [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Amin Ghabrial
      Pages: 24388 - 24389
      Abstract: The last decade has seen an explosion of research on exosomes, small (30 to 100 nm) vesicles that are trafficked to the extracellular environment by the fusion of the multivesicular body to the plasma membrane (1, 2). Exosomes arise from endosomal microdomains that, through the agency of ESCRT proteins and...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918086116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • The scientific challenge of understanding and estimating climate change
           [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Tim Palmer; Bjorn Stevens
      Pages: 24390 - 24395
      Abstract: Given the slow unfolding of what may become catastrophic changes to Earth’s climate, many are understandably distraught by failures of public policy to rise to the magnitude of the challenge. Few in the science community would think to question the scientific response to the unfolding changes. However, is the science...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906691116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Questionnaires and task-based measures assess different aspects of
           self-regulation: Both are needed [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Naomi P. Friedman; Marie T. Banich
      Pages: 24396 - 24397
      Abstract: While Enkavi et al.’s (1) examination of the reliability of self-regulation dependent variables (DVs) from online assessments is an important addition to the field, their conclusion that “survey DVs are more appropriate for individual differences analyses [than behavioral tasks]” (p. 5476) is likely overstated. Existing research indicates that task-based constructs...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915315116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Reply to Friedman and Banich: Right measures for the research question
           [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: A. Zeynep Enkavi; Ian W. Eisenberg, Patrick G. Bissett, Gina L. Mazza, David P. MacKinnon, Lisa A. Marsch, Russell A. Poldrack
      Pages: 24398 - 24399
      Abstract: In their Letter to the Editor, Friedman and Banich (1) suggest we (2) “overstate” the higher suitability of dependent variables (DVs) derived from surveys for individual difference analyses. We appreciate this opportunity for a continued discussion regarding the measurement of self-regulation. However, their critiques (1) do not provide evidence against...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917123116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Diversification rates, clade ages, and macroevolutionary methods
           [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: John J. Wiens; Joshua P. Scholl
      Pages: 24400 - 24400
      Abstract: Henao Diaz et al. (1), hereafter HDEA, claim to find a “hidden generality” about macroevolutionary rates, specifically, that diversification rates are faster in younger clades. However, this pattern was far from hidden. It was previously shown across the tree of life in a paper (2) cited by HDEA, but with...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915908116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Reply to Wiens and Scholl: The time dependency of diversification rates is
           a widely observed phenomenon [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: L. Francisco Henao Diaz; Luke J. Harmon, Mauro T. C. Sugawara, Eliot T. Miller, Matthew W. Pennell
      Pages: 24401 - 24401
      Abstract: In their comment on our recent paper (1), Wiens and Scholl (2) raise 2 points that are hard to reconcile with one another: First, they argue that one of our primary findings—of the time dependency of diversification rate estimates—was also reported by them and, second, that the methods we used...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917189116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Magnetic handshake materials as a scale-invariant platform for programmed
           self-assembly [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Ran Niu; Chrisy Xiyu Du, Edward Esposito, Jakin Ng, Michael P. Brenner, Paul L. McEuen, Itai Cohen
      Pages: 24402 - 24407
      Abstract: Programmable self-assembly of smart, digital, and structurally complex materials from simple components at size scales from the macro to the nano remains a long-standing goal of material science. Here, we introduce a platform based on magnetic encoding of information to drive programmable self-assembly that works across length scales. Our building...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910332116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Proof of concept for identifying cystic fibrosis from perspiration samples
           [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Zhenpeng Zhou; Daniel Alvarez, Carlos Milla, Richard N. Zare
      Pages: 24408 - 24412
      Abstract: The gold standard for cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis is the determination of chloride concentration in sweat. Current testing methodology takes up to 3 h to complete and has recognized shortcomings on its diagnostic accuracy. We present an alternative method for the identification of CF by combining desorption electrospray ionization mass...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909630116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • The end of ice I [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Daniel R. Moberg; Daniel Becker, Christoph W. Dierking, Florian Zurheide, Bernhard Bandow, Udo Buck, Arpa Hudait, Valeria Molinero, Francesco Paesani, Thomas Zeuch
      Pages: 24413 - 24419
      Abstract: The appearance of ice I in the smallest possible clusters and the nature of its phase coexistence with liquid water could not thus far be unraveled. The experimental and theoretical infrared spectroscopic and free-energy results of this work show the emergence of the characteristic hydrogen-bonding pattern of ice I in...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914254116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Thermal reaction and luminescence of long-lived N 2D in N2 ice [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Jen-Iu Lo; Sheng-Lung Chou, Yu-Chain Peng, Hsiao-Chi Lu, Bing-Ming Cheng
      Pages: 24420 - 24424
      Abstract: Photochemistry of an N2 ice and thermal reaction of the irradiated sample were studied with vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) light from a synchrotron. Concurrent detection of infrared absorption and visible emission spectra provide evidence for the generation of energetic products N (2D) and N (2P) atoms, N2 (A) molecule and linear-N3 (l-N3)...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910647116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Octahedral spinel electrocatalysts for alkaline fuel cells [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Yao Yang; Yin Xiong, Megan E. Holtz, Xinran Feng, Rui Zeng, Gary Chen, Francis J. DiSalvo, David A. Muller, Hector D. Abruna
      Pages: 24425 - 24432
      Abstract: Designing high-performance nonprecious electrocatalysts to replace Pt for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has been a key challenge for advancing fuel cell technologies. Here, we report a systematic study of 15 different AB2O4/C spinel nanoparticles with well-controlled octahedral morphology. The 3 most active ORR electrocatalysts were MnCo2O4/C, CoMn2O4/C, and CoFe2O4/C....
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906570116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • A diurnal carbon engine explains 13C-enriched carbonates without
           increasing the global production of oxygen [Earth, Atmospheric, and
           Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Emily C. Geyman; Adam C. Maloof
      Pages: 24433 - 24439
      Abstract: In the past 3 billion years, significant volumes of carbonate with high carbon-isotopic (δ13C) values accumulated on shallow continental shelves. These deposits frequently are interpreted as records of elevated global organic carbon burial. However, through the stoichiometry of primary production, organic carbon burial releases a proportional amount of O2, predicting...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1908783116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Extraterrestrial ribose and other sugars in primitive meteorites [Earth,
           Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Yoshihiro Furukawa; Yoshito Chikaraishi, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Nanako O. Ogawa, Daniel P. Glavin, Jason P. Dworkin, Chiaki Abe, Tomoki Nakamura
      Pages: 24440 - 24445
      Abstract: Sugars are essential molecules for all terrestrial biota working in many biological processes. Ribose is particularly essential as a building block of RNA, which could have both stored information and catalyzed reactions in primitive life on Earth. Meteorites contain a number of organic compounds including key building blocks of life,...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1907169116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Honeybees use their wings for water surface locomotion [Applied Biological
    • Authors: Chris Roh; Morteza Gharib
      Pages: 24446 - 24451
      Abstract: Honeybees display a unique biolocomotion strategy at the air–water interface. When water’s adhesive force traps them on the surface, their wetted wings lose ability to generate aerodynamic thrust. However, they adequately locomote, reaching a speed up to 3 body lengths·s−1. Honeybees use their wetted wings as hydrofoils for their water...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1908857116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Tuning friction to a superlubric state via in-plane straining
    • Authors: Shuai Zhang; Yuan Hou, Suzhi Li, Luqi Liu, Zhong Zhang, Xi-Qiao Feng, Qunyang Li
      Pages: 24452 - 24456
      Abstract: Controlling, and in many cases minimizing, friction is a goal that has long been pursued in history. From the classic Amontons–Coulomb law to the recent nanoscale experiments, the steady-state friction is found to be an inherent property of a sliding interface, which typically cannot be altered on demand. In this...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1907947116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Bone-inspired microarchitectures achieve enhanced fatigue life
    • Authors: Ashley M. Torres; Adwait A. Trikanad, Cameron A. Aubin, Floor M. Lambers, Marysol Luna, Clare M. Rimnac, Pablo Zavattieri, Christopher J. Hernandez
      Pages: 24457 - 24462
      Abstract: Microarchitectured materials achieve superior mechanical properties through geometry rather than composition. Although ultralightweight microarchitectured materials can have high stiffness and strength, application to durable devices will require sufficient service life under cyclic loading. Naturally occurring materials provide useful models for high-performance materials. Here, we show that in cancellous bone, a...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1905814116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Drivers of improved PM2.5 air quality in China from 2013 to 2017
           [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Qiang Zhang; Yixuan Zheng, Dan Tong, Min Shao, Shuxiao Wang, Yuanhang Zhang, Xiangde Xu, Jinnan Wang, Hong He, Wenqing Liu, Yihui Ding, Yu Lei, Junhua Li, Zifa Wang, Xiaoye Zhang, Yuesi Wang, Jing Cheng, Yang Liu, Qinren Shi, Liu Yan, Guannan Geng, Chaopeng Hong, Meng Li, Fei Liu, Bo Zheng, Junji Cao, Aijun Ding, Jian Gao, Qingyan Fu, Juntao Huo, Baoxian Liu, Zirui Liu, Fumo Yang, Kebin He, Jiming Hao
      Pages: 24463 - 24469
      Abstract: From 2013 to 2017, with the implementation of the toughest-ever clean air policy in China, significant declines in fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations occurred nationwide. Here we estimate the drivers of the improved PM2.5 air quality and the associated health benefits in China from 2013 to 2017 based on a measure-specific...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1907956116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Dichotomy of superconductivity between monolayer FeS and FeSe [Physics]
    • Authors: Koshin Shigekawa; Kosuke Nakayama, Masato Kuno, Giao N. Phan, Kenta Owada, Katsuaki Sugawara, Takashi Takahashi, Takafumi Sato
      Pages: 24470 - 24474
      Abstract: The discovery of high-temperature (Tc) superconductivity in monolayer FeSe on SrTiO3 raised a fundamental question: Whether high Tc is commonly realized in monolayer iron-based superconductors. Tetragonal FeS is a key material to resolve this issue because bulk FeS is a superconductor with Tc comparable to that of isostructural FeSe. However,...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912836116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • A nonlinear, geometric Hall effect without magnetic field [Physics]
    • Authors: Nicholas B. Schade; David I. Schuster, Sidney R. Nagel
      Pages: 24475 - 24479
      Abstract: The classical Hall effect, the traditional means of determining charge-carrier sign and density in a conductor, requires a magnetic field to produce transverse voltages across a current-carrying wire. We demonstrate a use of geometry to create transverse potentials along curved paths without any magnetic field. These potentials also reflect the...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916406116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Similarity in transgender and cisgender children’s gender development
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Selin Gulgoz; Jessica J. Glazier, Elizabeth A. Enright, Daniel J. Alonso, Lily J. Durwood, Anne A. Fast, Riley Lowe, Chonghui Ji, Jeffrey Heer, Carol Lynn Martin, Kristina R. Olson
      Pages: 24480 - 24485
      Abstract: Gender is one of the central categories organizing children’s social world. Clear patterns of gender development have been well-documented among cisgender children (i.e., children who identify as a gender that is typically associated with their sex assigned at birth). We present a comprehensive study of gender development (e.g., gender identity...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909367116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Stakeholder engagement increases transparency, satisfaction, and civic
           action [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Eric A. Coleman; Jacob Manyindo, A. Rani Parker, Bill Schultz
      Pages: 24486 - 24491
      Abstract: This study evaluates the effectiveness of a Stakeholder Engagement (SE) intervention in improving outcomes for communities affected by oil and gas extraction in Western Uganda. The study design is a randomized controlled trial where villages are randomly assigned to a treatment group (participating in SE) or a control group (not...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1908433116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Evidence that a national REDD+ program reduces tree cover loss and carbon
           emissions in a high forest cover, low deforestation country
           [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Anand Roopsind; Brent Sohngen, Jodi Brandt
      Pages: 24492 - 24499
      Abstract: Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is a climate change mitigation policy in which rich countries provide payments to developing countries for protecting their forests. In 2009, the countries of Norway and Guyana entered into one of the first bilateral REDD+ programs, with Norway offering to pay US$250...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904027116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • A high-affinity human PD-1/PD-L2 complex informs avenues for
           small-molecule immune checkpoint drug discovery [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Shaogeng Tang; Peter S. Kim
      Pages: 24500 - 24506
      Abstract: Immune checkpoint blockade of programmed death-1 (PD-1) by monoclonal antibody drugs has delivered breakthroughs in the treatment of cancer. Nonetheless, small-molecule PD-1 inhibitors could lead to increases in treatment efficacy, safety, and global access. While the ligand-binding surface of apo-PD-1 is relatively flat, it harbors a striking pocket in the...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916916116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Structures and single-molecule analysis of bacterial motor nuclease AdnAB
           illuminate the mechanism of DNA double-strand break resection
    • Authors: Ning Jia; Mihaela C. Unciuleac, Chaoyou Xue, Eric C. Greene, Dinshaw J. Patel, Stewart Shuman
      Pages: 24507 - 24516
      Abstract: Mycobacterial AdnAB is a heterodimeric helicase–nuclease that initiates homologous recombination by resecting DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The AdnA and AdnB subunits are each composed of an N-terminal motor domain and a C-terminal nuclease domain. Here we report cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of AdnAB in three functional states: in the absence...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913546116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Effects of ALS-associated TANK binding kinase 1 mutations on
           protein-protein interactions and kinase activity [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Junqiang Ye; Jonah Cheung, Valeria Gerbino, Goran Ahlsen, Christina Zimanyi, David Hirsh, Tom Maniatis
      Pages: 24517 - 24526
      Abstract: Exonic DNA sequence variants in the Tbk1 gene associate with both sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we examine functional defects in 25 missense TBK1 mutations, focusing on kinase activity and protein–protein interactions. We identified kinase domain (KD) mutations that abolish kinase activity or display substrate-specific defects in...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915732116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Vitamin D binding protein is required to utilize skin-generated vitamin D
    • Authors: Elizabeth G. Duchow; Nancy E. Cooke, Jeremy Seeman, Lori A. Plum, Hector F. DeLuca
      Pages: 24527 - 24532
      Abstract: Vitamin D is produced in the skin following exposure to sunlight. Ultraviolet (UV) B (UVB, 280–310 nm) results in isomerization of 7-dehydrocholesterol to previtamin D that spontaneously isomerizes to vitamin D. This pool of skin-derived vitamin D is the major source of vitamin D for animals. However, the mechanisms by...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915442116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Branched unwinding mechanism of the Pif1 family of DNA helicases
    • Authors: Saurabh P. Singh; Andrea Soranno, Melanie A. Sparks, Roberto Galletto
      Pages: 24533 - 24541
      Abstract: Members of the Pif1 family of helicases function in multiple pathways that involve DNA synthesis: DNA replication across G-quadruplexes; break-induced replication; and processing of long flaps during Okazaki fragment maturation. Furthermore, Pif1 increases strand-displacement DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase δ and allows DNA replication across arrays of proteins tightly bound...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915654116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • The conserved structure of plant telomerase RNA provides the missing link
           for an evolutionary pathway from ciliates to humans [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Jiarui Song; Dhenugen Logeswaran, Claudia Castillo–Gonzalez, Yang Li, Sreyashree Bose, Behailu Birhanu Aklilu, Zeyang Ma, Alexander Polkhovskiy, Julian J.–L. Chen, Dorothy E. Shippen
      Pages: 24542 - 24550
      Abstract: Telomerase is essential for maintaining telomere integrity. Although telomerase function is widely conserved, the integral telomerase RNA (TR) that provides a template for telomeric DNA synthesis has diverged dramatically. Nevertheless, TR molecules retain 2 highly conserved structural domains critical for catalysis: a template-proximal pseudoknot (PK) structure and a downstream stem-loop...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915312116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • ITPK1 mediates the lipid-independent synthesis of inositol phosphates
           controlled by metabolism [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Yann Desfougeres; Miranda S. C. Wilson, Debabrata Laha, Gregory J. Miller, Adolfo Saiardi
      Pages: 24551 - 24561
      Abstract: Inositol phosphates (IPs) comprise a network of phosphorylated molecules that play multiple signaling roles in eukaryotes. IPs synthesis is believed to originate with IP3 generated from PIP2 by phospholipase C (PLC). Here, we report that in mammalian cells PLC-generated IPs are rapidly recycled to inositol, and uncover the enzymology behind...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911431116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Clustering and dynamics of crowded proteins near membranes and their
           influence on membrane bending [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Grzegorz Nawrocki; Wonpil Im, Yuji Sugita, Michael Feig
      Pages: 24562 - 24567
      Abstract: Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of concentrated protein solutions in the presence of a phospholipid bilayer are presented to gain insights into the dynamics and interactions at the cytosol–membrane interface. The main finding is that proteins that are not known to specifically interact with membranes are preferentially excluded from the membrane,...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910771116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Protein-assisted RNA fragment docking (RnaX) for modeling RNA-protein
           interactions using ModelX [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Javier Delgado Blanco; Leandro G. Radusky, Damiano Cianferoni, Luis Serrano
      Pages: 24568 - 24573
      Abstract: RNA–protein interactions are crucial for such key biological processes as regulation of transcription, splicing, translation, and gene silencing, among many others. Knowing where an RNA molecule interacts with a target protein and/or engineering an RNA molecule to specifically bind to a protein could allow for rational interference with these cellular...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910999116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • RNA base-pairing complexity in living cells visualized by correlated
           chemical probing [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Anthony M. Mustoe; Nicole N. Lama, Patrick S. Irving, Samuel W. Olson, Kevin M. Weeks
      Pages: 24574 - 24582
      Abstract: RNA structure and dynamics are critical to biological function. However, strategies for determining RNA structure in vivo are limited, with established chemical probing and newer duplex detection methods each having deficiencies. Here we convert the common reagent dimethyl sulfate into a useful probe of all 4 RNA nucleotides. Building on...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1905491116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Combined mTORC1/mTORC2 inhibition blocks growth and induces catastrophic
           macropinocytosis in cancer cells [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Ritesh K. Srivastava; Changzhao Li, Jasim Khan, Nilam Sanjib Banerjee, Louise T. Chow, Mohammad Athar
      Pages: 24583 - 24592
      Abstract: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which plays a critical role in regulating cellular growth and metabolism, is aberrantly regulated in the pathogenesis of a variety of neoplasms. Here we demonstrate that dual mTORC1/mTORC2 inhibitors OSI-027 and PP242 cause catastrophic macropinocytosis in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells and cancers of the...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911393116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Differentiation of leukemic blasts is not completely blocked in acute
           myeloid leukemia [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Anupriya Agarwal; William J. Bolosky, David B. Wilson, Christopher A. Eide, Susan B. Olson, Guang Fan, Brian J. Druker
      Pages: 24593 - 24599
      Abstract: Hematopoiesis, the formation of blood cells, involves the hierarchical differentiation of immature blast cells into mature, functional cell types and lineages of the immune system. Hematopoietic stem cells precisely regulate self-renewal versus differentiation to balance the production of blood cells and maintenance of the stem cell pool. The canonical view...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904091116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Cell adhesion signals regulate the nuclear receptor activity [Cell
    • Authors: Kotaro Sugimoto; Naoki Ichikawa-Tomikawa, Korehito Kashiwagi, Chihiro Endo, Satoshi Tanaka, Norimasa Sawada, Tetsuya Watabe, Tomohito Higashi, Hideki Chiba
      Pages: 24600 - 24609
      Abstract: Cell adhesion is essential for proper tissue architecture and function in multicellular organisms. Cell adhesion molecules not only maintain tissue integrity but also possess signaling properties that contribute to diverse cellular events such as cell growth, survival, differentiation, polarity, and migration; however, the underlying molecular basis remains poorly defined. Here...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913346116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • ROS-mediated PI3K activation drives mitochondrial transfer from stromal
    • Authors: Jayna J. Mistry; Christopher R. Marlein, Jamie A. Moore, Charlotte Hellmich, Edyta E. Wojtowicz, James G. W. Smith, Iain Macaulay, Yu Sun, Adam Morfakis, Angela Patterson, Rebecca H. Horton, Devina Divekar, Christopher J. Morris, Anna Haestier, Federica Di Palma, Naiara Beraza, Kristian M. Bowles, Stuart A. Rushworth
      Pages: 24610 - 24619
      Abstract: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) undergo rapid expansion in response to stress stimuli. Here we investigate the bioenergetic processes which facilitate the HSC expansion in response to infection. We find that infection by Gram-negative bacteria drives an increase in mitochondrial mass in mammalian HSCs, which results in a metabolic transition from...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913278116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • HERES, a lncRNA that regulates canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling
           pathways via interaction with EZH2 [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Bo-Hyun You; Jung-Ho Yoon, Hoin Kang, Eun Kyung Lee, Sang Kil Lee, Jin-Wu Nam
      Pages: 24620 - 24629
      Abstract: Wnt signaling through both canonical and noncanonical pathways plays a core role in development. Dysregulation of these pathways often causes cancer development and progression. Although the pathways independently contribute to the core processes, a regulatory molecule that commonly activates both of them has not yet been reported. Here, we describe...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912126116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Four-dimensional analyses show that replication compartments are clonal
           factories in which Epstein-Barr viral DNA amplification is coordinated
           [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Thejaswi Nagaraju; Arthur U. Sugden, Bill Sugden
      Pages: 24630 - 24638
      Abstract: Herpesviruses must amplify their DNA to load viral particles and they do so in replication compartments. The development and functions of replication compartments during DNA amplification are poorly understood, though. Here we examine 2 functionally distinct replicons in the same cells to dissect DNA amplification within replication compartments. Using a...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913992116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • The proteasome regulator PI31 is required for protein homeostasis, synapse
           maintenance, and neuronal survival in mice [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Adi Minis; Jose A. Rodriguez, Avi Levin, Kai Liu, Eve-Ellen Govek, Mary E. Hatten, Hermann Steller
      Pages: 24639 - 24650
      Abstract: Proteasome-mediated degradation of intracellular proteins is essential for cell function and survival. The proteasome-binding protein PI31 (Proteasomal Inhibitor of 31kD) promotes 26S assembly and functions as an adapter for proteasome transport in axons. As localized protein synthesis and degradation is especially critical in neurons, we generated a conditional loss of...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911921116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Glia-derived exosomal miR-274 targets Sprouty in trachea and synaptic
           boutons to modulate growth and responses to hypoxia [Developmental
    • Authors: Yi-Wei Tsai; Hsin-Ho Sung, Jian-Chiuan Li, Chun-Yen Yeh, Pei-Yi Chen, Ying-Ju Cheng, Chun-Hong Chen, Yu-Chen Tsai, Cheng-Ting Chien
      Pages: 24651 - 24661
      Abstract: Secreted exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) mediate interorgan/tissue communications by modulating target gene expression, thereby regulating developmental and physiological functions. However, the source, route, and function in target cells have not been formally established for specific miRNAs. Here, we show that glial miR-274 non-cell-autonomously modulates the growth of synaptic boutons and tracheal...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1902537116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Pervasive decreases in living vegetation carbon turnover time across
           forest climate zones [Ecology]
    • Authors: Kailiang Yu; William K. Smith, Anna T. Trugman, Richard Condit, Stephen P. Hubbell, Jordi Sardans, Changhui Peng, Kai Zhu, Josep Penuelas, Maxime Cailleret, Tom Levanic, Arthur Gessler, Marcus Schaub, Marco Ferretti, William R. L. Anderegg
      Pages: 24662 - 24667
      Abstract: Forests play a major role in the global carbon cycle. Previous studies on the capacity of forests to sequester atmospheric CO2 have mostly focused on carbon uptake, but the roles of carbon turnover time and its spatiotemporal changes remain poorly understood. Here, we used long-term inventory data (1955 to 2018)...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1821387116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Defense of Scots pine against sawfly eggs (Diprion pini) is primed by
           exposure to sawfly sex pheromones [Ecology]
    • Authors: Norbert Bittner; Janik Hundacker, Ander Achotegui-Castells, Olle Anderbrant, Monika Hilker
      Pages: 24668 - 24675
      Abstract: Plants respond to insect infestation with defenses targeting insect eggs on their leaves and the feeding insects. Upon perceiving cues indicating imminent herbivory, such as damage-induced leaf odors emitted by neighboring plants, they are able to prime their defenses against feeding insects. Yet it remains unknown whether plants can amplify...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910991116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Production dynamics reveal hidden overharvest of inland recreational
           fisheries [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Holly S. Embke; Andrew L. Rypel, Stephen R. Carpenter, Greg G. Sass, Derek Ogle, Thomas Cichosz, Joseph Hennessy, Timothy E. Essington, M. Jake Vander Zanden
      Pages: 24676 - 24681
      Abstract: Recreational fisheries are valued at $190B globally and constitute the predominant way in which people use wild fish stocks in developed countries, with inland systems contributing the main fraction of recreational fisheries. Although inland recreational fisheries are thought to be highly resilient and self-regulating, the rapid pace of environmental change...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913196116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Molybdenum threshold for ecosystem scale alternative vanadium nitrogenase
           activity in boreal forests [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Romain Darnaȷoux; Nicolas Magain, Marie Renaudin, Francois Lutzoni, Jean–Philippe Bellenger, Xinning Zhang
      Pages: 24682 - 24688
      Abstract: Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by microorganisms associated with cryptogamic covers, such as cyanolichens and bryophytes, is a primary source of fixed nitrogen in pristine, high-latitude ecosystems. On land, low molybdenum (Mo) availability has been shown to limit BNF by the most common form of nitrogenase (Nase), which requires Mo in...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913314116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Chemical and microbial diversity covary in fresh water to influence
           ecosystem functioning [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Andrew J. Tanentzap; Amelia Fitch, Chloe Orland, Erik J. S. Emilson, Kurt M. Yakimovich, Helena Osterholz, Thorsten Dittmar
      Pages: 24689 - 24695
      Abstract: Invisible to the naked eye lies a tremendous diversity of organic molecules and organisms that make major contributions to important biogeochemical cycles. However, how the diversity and composition of these two communities are interlinked remains poorly characterized in fresh waters, despite the potential for chemical and microbial diversity to promote...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904896116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Origin of the avian predentary and evidence of a unique form of cranial
           kinesis in Cretaceous ornithuromorphs [Evolution]
    • Authors: Alida M. Bailleul; Zhiheng Li, Jingmai O’Connor, Zhonghe Zhou
      Pages: 24696 - 24706
      Abstract: The avian predentary is a small skeletal structure located rostral to the paired dentaries found only in Mesozoic ornithuromorphs. The evolution and function of this enigmatic element is unknown. Skeletal tissues forming the predentary and the lower jaws in the basal ornithuromorph Yanornis martini are identified using computed-tomography, scanning electron...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911820116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Pollination of Cretaceous flowers [Evolution]
    • Authors: Tong Bao; Bo Wang, Jianguo Li, David Dilcher
      Pages: 24707 - 24711
      Abstract: Insect pollination of flowering plants (angiosperms) is responsible for the majority of the world’s flowering plant diversity and is key to the Cretaceous radiation of angiosperms. Although both insects and angiosperms were common by the mid-Cretaceous, direct fossil evidence of insect pollination is lacking. Direct evidence of Cretaceous insect pollination...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916186116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Obligate bacterial endosymbionts limit thermal tolerance of insect host
           species [Evolution]
    • Authors: Bo Zhang; Sean P. Leonard, Yiyuan Li, Nancy A. Moran
      Pages: 24712 - 24718
      Abstract: The thermal tolerance of an organism limits its ecological and geographic ranges and is potentially affected by dependence on temperature-sensitive symbiotic partners. Aphid species vary widely in heat sensitivity, but almost all aphids are dependent on the nutrient-provisioning intracellular bacterium Buchnera, which has evolved with aphids for 100 million years...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915307116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • BMP signaling inhibition in Drosophila secondary cells remodels the
           seminal proteome and self and rival ejaculate functions [Evolution]
    • Authors: Ben R. Hopkins; Irem Sepil, Sarah Bonham, Thomas Miller, Philip D. Charles, Roman Fischer, Benedikt M. Kessler, Clive Wilson, Stuart Wigby
      Pages: 24719 - 24728
      Abstract: Seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) exert potent effects on male and female fitness. Rapidly evolving and molecularly diverse, they derive from multiple male secretory cells and tissues. In Drosophila melanogaster, most SFPs are produced in the accessory glands, which are composed of ∼1,000 fertility-enhancing “main cells” and ∼40 more functionally cryptic...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914491116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • The evolution and genomic basis of beetle diversity [Evolution]
    • Authors: Duane D. McKenna; Seunggwan Shin, Dirk Ahrens, Michael Balke, Cristian Beza–Beza, Dave J. Clarke, Alexander Donath, Hermes E. Escalona, Frank Friedrich, Harald Letsch, Shanlin Liu, David Maddison, Christoph Mayer, Bernhard Misof, Peyton J. Murin, Oliver Niehuis, Ralph S. Peters, Lars Podsiadlowski, Hans Pohl, Erin D. Scully, Evgeny V. Yan, Xin Zhou, Adam Ślipiłski, Rolf G. Beutel
      Pages: 24729 - 24737
      Abstract: The order Coleoptera (beetles) is arguably the most speciose group of animals, but the evolutionary history of beetles, including the impacts of plant feeding (herbivory) on beetle diversification, remain poorly understood. We inferred the phylogeny of beetles using 4,818 genes for 146 species, estimated timing and rates of beetle diversification...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909655116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Vertical transmission in Caenorhabditis nematodes of RNA molecules
           encoding a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase [Genetics]
    • Authors: Aurelien Richaud; Lise Frezal, Stephen Tahan, Hongbing Jiang, Joshua A. Blatter, Guoyan Zhao, Taniya Kaur, David Wang, Marie–Anne Felix
      Pages: 24738 - 24747
      Abstract: Here, we report on the discovery in Caenorhabditis nematodes of multiple vertically transmitted RNAs coding for putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Their sequences share similarity to distinct RNA viruses, including bunyaviruses, narnaviruses, and sobemoviruses. The sequences are present exclusively as RNA and are not found in DNA form. The RNAs persist...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1903903116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Contribution of proteasome-catalyzed peptide cis-splicing to viral
           targeting by CD8+ T cells in HIV-1 infection [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Wayne Paes; German Leonov, Thomas Partridge, Takayuki Chikata, Hayato Murakoshi, Anna Frangou, Simon Brackenridge, Annalisa Nicastri, Andrew G. Smith, Gerald H. Learn, Yingying Li, Robert Parker, Shinichi Oka, Pierre Pellegrino, Ian Williams, Barton F. Haynes, Andrew J. McMichael, George M. Shaw, Beatrice H. Hahn, Masafumi Takiguchi, Nicola Ternette, Persephone Borrow
      Pages: 24748 - 24759
      Abstract: Peptides generated by proteasome-catalyzed splicing of noncontiguous amino acid sequences have been shown to constitute a source of nontemplated human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) epitopes, but their role in pathogen-specific immunity remains unknown. CD8+ T cells are key mediators of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) control, and identification of novel...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911622116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Dichotomous regulation of group 3 innate lymphoid cells by nongastric
           Helicobacter species [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: John W. Bostick; Yetao Wang, Zeli Shen, Yong Ge, Jeffrey Brown, Zong-ming E. Chen, Mansour Mohamadzadeh, James G. Fox, Liang Zhou
      Pages: 24760 - 24769
      Abstract: Intestinal innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) contribute to the protective immunity and homeostasis of the gut, and the microbiota are critically involved in shaping ILC function. However, the role of the gut microbiota in regulating ILC development and maintenance still remains elusive. Here, we identified opposing effects on ILCs by two...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1908128116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • N-acyl taurines are endogenous lipid messengers that improve glucose
           homeostasis [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Trisha J. Grevengoed; Samuel A. J. Trammell, Michele K. McKinney, Natalia Petersen, Rebecca L. Cardone, Jens S. Svenningsen, Daisuke Ogasawara, Christina C. Nexoe–Larsen, Filip K. Knop, Thue W. Schwartz, Richard G. Kibbey, Benȷamin F. Cravatt, Matthew P. Gillum
      Pages: 24770 - 24778
      Abstract: Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) degrades 2 major classes of bioactive fatty acid amides, the N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) and N-acyl taurines (NATs), in central and peripheral tissues. A functional polymorphism in the human FAAH gene is linked to obesity and mice lacking FAAH show altered metabolic states, but whether these phenotypes...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916288116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • A high-resolution landscape of mutations in the BCL6 super-enhancer in
           normal human B cells [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Jiang-Cheng Shen; Ashwini S. Kamath-Loeb, Brendan F. Kohrn, Keith R. Loeb, Bradley D. Preston, Lawrence A. Loeb
      Pages: 24779 - 24785
      Abstract: The super-enhancers (SEs) of lineage-specific genes in B cells are off-target sites of somatic hypermutation. However, the inability to detect sufficient numbers of mutations in normal human B cells has precluded the generation of a high-resolution mutational landscape of SEs. Here we captured and sequenced 12 B cell SEs at...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914163116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • High-resolution view of the type III secretion export apparatus in situ
           reveals membrane remodeling and a secretion pathway [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Carmen Butan; Maria Lara–Teȷero, Wenwei Li, Jun Liu, Jorge E. Galan
      Pages: 24786 - 24795
      Abstract: Type III protein secretion systems are essential virulence factors for many important pathogenic bacteria. The entire protein secretion machine is composed of several substructures that organize into a holostructure or injectisome. The core component of the injectisome is the needle complex, which houses the export apparatus that serves as a...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916331116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Imaging the dynamic recruitment of monocytes to the blood-brain barrier
           and specific brain regions during Toxoplasma gondii infection
    • Authors: Christine A. Schneider; Dario X. Figueroa Velez, Ricardo Azevedo, Evelyn M. Hoover, Cuong J. Tran, Chelsie Lo, Omid Vadpey, Sunil P. Gandhi, Melissa B. Lodoen
      Pages: 24796 - 24807
      Abstract: Brain infection by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii in mice is thought to generate vulnerability to predation by mechanisms that remain elusive. Monocytes play a key role in host defense and inflammation and are critical for controlling T. gondii. However, the dynamic and regional relationship between brain-infiltrating monocytes and parasites is...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915778116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Self-identity barcodes encoded by six expansive polymorphic toxin families
           discriminate kin in myxobacteria [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Christopher N. Vassallo; Daniel Wall
      Pages: 24808 - 24818
      Abstract: Myxobacteria are an example of how single-cell individuals can transition into multicellular life by an aggregation strategy. For these and all organisms that consist of social groups of cells, discrimination against, and exclusion of, nonself is critical. In myxobacteria, TraA is a polymorphic cell surface receptor that identifies kin by...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912556116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • PPAR{alpha}-targeted mitochondrial bioenergetics mediate repair of
           intestinal barriers at the host-microbe intersection during SIV infection
    • Authors: Katti R. Crakes; Clarissa Santos Rocha, Irina Grishina, Lauren A. Hirao, Eleonora Napoli, Christopher A. Gaulke, Anne Fenton, Sandipan Datta, Juan Arredondo, Maria L. Marco, Sumathi Sankaran-Walters, Gino Cortopassi, Cecilia Giulivi, Satya Dandekar
      Pages: 24819 - 24829
      Abstract: Chronic gut inflammatory diseases are associated with disruption of intestinal epithelial barriers and impaired mucosal immunity. HIV-1 (HIV) causes depletion of mucosal CD4+ T cells early in infection and disruption of gut epithelium, resulting in chronic inflammation and immunodeficiency. Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective in suppressing viral replication, it...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1908977116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • A locomotor assay reveals deficits in heterozygous Parkinson’s disease
           model and proprioceptive mutants in adult Drosophila [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Aman Aggarwal; Heinrich Reichert, K. VijayRaghavan
      Pages: 24830 - 24839
      Abstract: Severe locomotor impairment is a common phenotype of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Drosophila models of PD, studied for more than a decade, have helped in understanding the interaction between various genetic factors, such as parkin and PINK1, in this disease. To characterize locomotor behavioral phenotypes for these...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807456116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Early epigenomic and transcriptional changes reveal Elk-1 transcription
           factor as a therapeutic target in Huntington’s disease [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Ferah Yildirim; Christopher W. Ng, Vincent Kappes, Tobias Ehrenberger, Siobhan K. Rigby, Victoria Stivanello, Theresa A. Gipson, Anthony R. Soltis, Peter Vanhoutte, Jocelyne Caboche, David E. Housman, Ernest Fraenkel
      Pages: 24840 - 24851
      Abstract: Huntington’s disease (HD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a late clinical onset despite ubiquitous expression of the mutant Huntingtin gene (HTT) from birth. Transcriptional dysregulation is a pivotal feature of HD. Yet, the genes that are altered in the prodromal period and their regulators, which present opportunities for...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1908113116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Roles of ErbB3-binding protein 1 (EBP1) in embryonic development and
           gene-silencing control [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Hyo Rim Ko; Inwoo Hwang, Eun-Ju Jin, Taegwan Yun, Dongryeol Ryu, Jong-Sun Kang, Kye Won Park, Joo-Ho Shin, Sung-Woo Cho, Kyung-Hoon Lee, Keqiang Ye, Jee-Yin Ahn
      Pages: 24852 - 24860
      Abstract: ErbB3-binding protein 1 (EBP1) is implicated in diverse cellular functions, including apoptosis, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Here, by generating genetic inactivation of Ebp1 mice, we identified the physiological roles of EBP1 in vivo. Loss of Ebp1 in mice caused aberrant organogenesis, including brain malformation, and death between E13.5 and 15.5...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916306116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Body map proto-organization in newborn macaques [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Michael J. Arcaro; Peter F. Schade, Margaret S. Livingstone
      Pages: 24861 - 24871
      Abstract: Topographic sensory maps are a prominent feature of the adult primate brain. Here, we asked whether topographic representations of the body are present at birth. Using functional MRI (fMRI), we find that the newborn somatomotor system, spanning frontoparietal cortex and subcortex, comprises multiple topographic representations of the body. The organization...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912636116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Learning optimal decisions with confidence [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Jan Drugowitsch; Andre G. Mendonca, Zachary F. Mainen, Alexandre Pouget
      Pages: 24872 - 24880
      Abstract: Diffusion decision models (DDMs) are immensely successful models for decision making under uncertainty and time pressure. In the context of perceptual decision making, these models typically start with two input units, organized in a neuron–antineuron pair. In contrast, in the brain, sensory inputs are encoded through the activity of large...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906787116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Inhibition of dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 2
           perturbs 26S proteasome-addicted neoplastic progression [Pharmacology]
    • Authors: Sourav Banerjee; Tiantian Wei, Jue Wang, Jenna J. Lee, Haydee L. Gutierrez, Owen Chapman, Sandra E. Wiley, Joshua E. Mayfield, Vasudha Tandon, Edwin F. Juarez, Lukas Chavez, Ruqi Liang, Robert L. Sah, Caitlin Costello, Jill P. Mesirov, Laureano de la Vega, Kimberly L. Cooper, Jack E. Dixon, Junyu Xiao, Xiaoguang Lei
      Pages: 24881 - 24891
      Abstract: Dependence on the 26S proteasome is an Achilles’ heel for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and multiple myeloma (MM). The therapeutic proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, successfully targets MM but often leads to drug-resistant disease relapse and fails in breast cancer. Here we show that a 26S proteasome-regulating kinase, DYRK2, is a therapeutic...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912033116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • A ligand-independent origin of abscisic acid perception [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Yufei Sun; Ben Harpazi, Akila Wijerathna-Yapa, Ebe Merilo, Jan de Vries, Daphna Michaeli, Maayan Gal, Andrew C. Cuming, Hannes Kollist, Assaf Mosquna
      Pages: 24892 - 24899
      Abstract: Land plants are considered monophyletic, descending from a single successful colonization of land by an aquatic algal ancestor. The ability to survive dehydration to the point of desiccation is a key adaptive trait enabling terrestrialization. In extant land plants, desiccation tolerance depends on the action of the hormone abscisic acid...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914480116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • The retrograde signaling protein GUN1 regulates tetrapyrrole biosynthesis
           [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Takayuki Shimizu; Sylwia M. Kacprzak, Nobuyoshi Mochizuki, Akira Nagatani, Satoru Watanabe, Tomohiro Shimada, Kan Tanaka, Yuuki Hayashi, Munehito Arai, Dario Leister, Haruko Okamoto, Matthew J. Terry, Tatsuru Masuda
      Pages: 24900 - 24906
      Abstract: The biogenesis of the photosynthetic apparatus in developing seedlings requires the assembly of proteins encoded on both nuclear and chloroplast genomes. To coordinate this process there needs to be communication between these organelles, but the retrograde signals by which the chloroplast communicates with the nucleus at this time are still...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911251116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Correction for Amirbeigiarab et al., Invariable stoichiometry of ribosomal
           proteins in mouse brain tissues with aging [Corrections]
    • Pages: 24907 - 24907
      Abstract: BIOCHEMISTRY Correction for “Invariable stoichiometry of ribosomal proteins in mouse brain tissues with aging,” by Susan Amirbeigiarab, Parnian Kiani, Ana Velazquez Sanchez, Christoph Krisp, Andriy Kazantsev, Lars Fester, Hartmut Schlüter, and Zoya Ignatova, which was first published October 21, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1912060116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 22567–22572). The authors...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919014116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
  • Retraction for Cifuentes-Rojas et al., Two RNA subunits and POT1a are
           components of Arabidopsis telomerase [Retractions]
    • Pages: 24908 - 24908
      Abstract: BIOCHEMISTRY Retraction for “Two RNA subunits and POT1a are components of Arabidopsis telomerase,” by Catherine Cifuentes-Rojas, Kalpana Kannan, Lin Tseng, and Dorothy E. Shippen, which was first published December 16, 2010; 10.1073/pnas.1013021107 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 73–78). The authors wish to note the following: “It has come to...
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T09:51:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918863116
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 49 (2019)
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