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Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
Number of Followers: 437  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1363-951X - ISSN (Online) 1758-695X
This journal is no longer being updated because:
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  • Detecting spatial-temporal clusters of violent behavior in South Korea
           with space-time permutation scan statistics
    • Pages: 490 - 502
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Volume 42, Issue 3, Page 490-502, June 2019.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to detect spatial-temporal clusters of violence in Gwanak-gu, Seoul with space-time permutation scan statistics (STPSS) and identifies the temporal threshold for such detection to alert law enforcement officers quickly. Design/methodology/approach The case study was the Gwanak Police Station Call Database 2017 where civilian calls reporting violence were georeferenced with coordinated points. In analyzing the database, this study used the STPSS requiring only individual case data, such as time and location, to detect clusters of investigated phenomena. This study executed a series of experiments using different minimum and maximum temporal thresholds in detecting clusters of violence. Findings Results of the STPSS analyses with different temporal thresholds detected spatial-temporal clusters in Gwanak-gu. Number, location and duration of clusters depended on the temporal settings of the scanning window. Among four models, a model allowing the possible clusters to be detected within a 7-day minimum and 30-day maximum temporal threshold was more representative of reality than other models. Originality/value This study illustrates the clustering of violence with the STPSS by detecting spatial-temporal clusters of violence and identifying the appropriate temporal threshold in detecting such clusters. Identification of such a threshold is useful to alert law enforcement officers quickly and enables them to allocate their resources optimally.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-01-09T01:40:16Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-07-2018-0085
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 3 (2019)
  • Child care stress and anxiety in police officers moderated by work factors
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Balancing work and family in dual-earner households can be stressful. Research suggests that increased work-family conflict (WFC) significantly predicts poor psychological health and increased stress in police officers. The purpose of this paper is to assess whether child care stress was associated with anxiety symptoms and if stressful work events and shift work modified this relationship among 163 Buffalo, NY police officers. Design/methodology/approach Participants indicated child care stress by reporting how much stress they felt (0 – none to 10 – high) when making child care/daily living arrangements. Shiftwork was assessed from pay-roll data (1994 to date of exam) and by asking, “Do you work opposite shift from your spouse/partner to care for your children'” to assess partner’s shift. The Beck Anxiety Scale and Spielberger Police Stress Survey were used to assess anxiety and work stress, respectively. Effect modification was assessed by stratifying on police stress scores using their median values, and on partner’s shift. All models were adjusted for age, alcohol intake, sex and smoking status. Findings Results suggest that child care stress was positively associated with anxiety symptoms and that this relationship was moderated by high (>median) work stress factors and afternoon/midnight shift-work, but not having a partner who works opposite shift. These results indicate that child care stress is associated with anxiety symptoms and that this relationship may be modified by work factors. Research limitations/implications A number of limitations should be considered while interpreting the results. This study is cross-sectional, which prevents causal inferences; therefore, the temporal pattern between exposure and outcome cannot be determined. The independent, dependent and moderating variables are all self-report measures, which may introduce recall bias. Lastly, generalizability is limited to police departments of similar size and geographic area. Practical implications Police experience high stress as part of their jobs, these results indicate that similar to other professions, WFC can also affect police officers, and is associated with higher levels of anxiety. Originality/value Few research studies have evaluated the affects of family issues in police. Specifically, the relationship between child care stress and anxiety, and how this relationship may be modified by high work stress.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-06-19T12:29:47Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-10-2018-0159
  • Information sources used by local police to estimate the scope and nature
           of sex trafficking
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Although trafficking of persons for commercial sex has been increasingly recognized as a community level problem most estimates of the prevalence of sex trafficking in the USA are made by federal entities and vary depending on the data sources used. Little is known about how local police agencies assess and understand sex trafficking in their own communities. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach To help fill this gap, the current study using survey data from a sample of local police agencies across the USA (n=72) examines law enforcement agencies’ knowledge of and experience with addressing local sex trafficking problems in their jurisdiction. Findings The majority of police agencies reported that sex trafficking is a problem in their jurisdictions and that they have a special unit that has a primary responsibility for addressing sex trafficking issues. Agencies with a special unit tend to use multiple sources of information including official record, intelligence data and personal experience to estimate the community’s trafficking problems when compared to agencies without a unit; however, most of agencies primarily depend on their professional experience. Originality/value This is the first study to examine the data sources used by local police agencies to estimate the scope and nature of their community’s sex trafficking problem, and the findings have important policy implications for understanding the reliability and validity of these estimates, and for their potential use to develop and implement data driven responses to sex trafficking problems.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-06-10T10:02:23Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-12-2018-0173
  • Using cameras of automatic number plate recognition system for seat belt
           enforcement a case study of Sanliurfa (Turkey)
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to quantify the effect of the enforcement, which was carried out with ANPRs, on seat belt use. Though the Seat belt Act was enacted in 1992, it did not lead to an expected increase in seat belt use in Turkey including Sanliurfa, which is one of the immense provinces with a population of over 2m. The Sanliurfa Police Department set in an enforcement campaign, in which automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) cameras were used to facilitate an increment in using seat belts in the city center. Under the police leadership, seat belt use enforcement campaign was hugely publicized and sustained throughout the city. Design/methodology/approach The ANPRs did not have a feature to detect seat belt wearing automatically. Thus, this study tested whether automated plate recognition cameras have a deterrence effect on seat belt usage. To assess the efficacy of this enforcement project, the authors employed a pre/post-implementation design. For this study, the records of the 11 ANPR camera sites, 2 non-camera sites and 2 control sites were utilized. Findings The results of this study revealed that the seat belt use rate was around 8 percent, before camera enforcement in Sanliurfa. Overall increases were 12 percent during the warning period, 60 percent for the beginning period and 78 percent three months after enforcement began at camera sites. One-way ANOVA results suggested the differences between means of seat belt use counts were statistically significant F (3, 61,596)=15,456, p=0.000. Research limitations/implications The findings suggest that there are several reasons for the substantial increase in the seat belt use rate. The first reason for the success of the cameras was their deterrent effect on the drivers, because the drivers were aware that the traffic offense had become readily observable via camera detection in the intersections, and the drivers did not want to be penalized. Second, it is considered that a well-organized publicity of the cameras made a significant contribution to the effectiveness of the enforcement by increasing perceived detection risk. Finally, it is considered that the reason behind the sudden increase in seat belt use was the red-light cameras that had been already in use in Sanliurfa. Namely, the experience of the drivers about camera enforcement gave rise to the rapid decrease in seat belt violation rate in the warning period. Practical implications Using cameras (automatic or not) for seat belt enforcement and publicizing this enforcement can help to save resources and lives. Originality/value This study found a lot of news about similar enforcement on the internet, but no study was found in the literature that reveals if the enforcement can produce an effective result. Thus, this is the first study in Turkey, may be in the world, that evaluated if cameras of the ANPRS can generate effective seat belt enforcement. Furthermore, the study betokened that traffic violations, which cannot be automatically detected by cameras such as cell phone use and smoking in a vehicle can be effectively enforced by non-automatic cameras. Therefore, we believe that the study will contribute policing and the traffic safety literature.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-05-30T12:59:05Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-07-2018-0093
  • Procedural justice concerns and support for BWCs: turning the lens to
           officer perceptions
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore factors that drive officer support for body-worn cameras (BWCs). Design/methodology/approach Results of an officer perceptions survey completed as part of an evaluation of the Chicago Police Department’s BWC project are presented. The influence of treatment- and outcome-oriented justice concerns on officer support for BWCs is explored with a variety of covariates. Findings Outcome-oriented concerns are a significant predictor of officer support for BWCs, while treatment-oriented concerns are not. Practical implications The research enhances understandings of the applicability of procedural justice theorizing in policing generally, and offers direction important to the meaningful use of BWCs. Originality/value This finding runs counter to dominant relational models of procedural justice that concentrate on the perspective of subordinates, but lends support to arguments advocating the centrality of role (authority vs subordinate) in the formation of justice evaluations.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-05-30T12:56:03Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-09-2018-0137
  • Cross-lagged effects of resilience and indicators of sustainable
           employability; a study among Dutch police officers
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Sustainable employability is an important goal for individuals and organizations alike. However, scarce knowledge is available on possible cross-lagged relations of resilience among police officers and different aspects of their sustainable employability over time. Based on assumptions of COR theory, the purpose of this paper is to test these relations in a two-wave design. Design/methodology/approach A total of 532 police officers participated in a time-lagged survey design (time interval of six months) concerning their resilience and relevant aspects, i.e., self-reported vitality, workability and organization-reported individual absenteeism rates. Data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Findings Results indicate cross-lagged effects between resilience and vitality with an acceptable model fit. Thus, the level of resilience at T1 affected the level of vitality at T2 and vice versa. In addition, a nearly significant negative effect of vitality on T1 was found on absenteeism on T2. Research limitations/implications More measurements over time are needed to test reciprocal relations and possible gain spirals. Different samples are needed to assess generalizability. Cross-lagged effects may indicate a reciprocal relation between resilience and vitality that can be further facilitated. Practical implications For example, resilience can be addressed explicitly in training. Originality/value This study is the first to test the cross-lagged relations between resilience and indicators of sustainable employability among police officers. It is important to further study this for the sake of both police officers, as well as society as a whole.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-05-30T01:08:29Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-01-2019-0003
  • Understanding the effectiveness of performance management system
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore factors that can influence on the police officer’s perception of the effectiveness of the performance management system (PMS). This study examines the effect of the attitude of employees and causal relationships between organizational/individual factors and the effectiveness of PMS during the implementation process. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a nationwide online survey of 10,619 police officers in South Korea. Structural equation modeling was employed to analyze multiple relationships simultaneously. The authors constructed a baseline model and also examined an alternative model in order to increase the model’s explanatory power. Findings Police officers’ perception of the understanding of the PMS, manager’s concern, participation and performance information (PI) usage exerted significant effects on the perceived effectiveness of the PMS. However, the relation between understanding of the PMS and PI usage was not significant. The study identified organizational and institutional settings for the success of the PMS. Overall, results support findings of previous studies that suggest an important role of common consensus on performance indicators and agreement between managers and employees. Research limitations/implications While the data size of this study is quite large, it should be considered that the respondent’s preferences on the PMS might have influenced survey results. Findings are limited by the use of a cross-sectional design. Future studies may investigate changes in causal relationships over time by employing a panel design. In addition, various survey items related to the practices of the PMS within the police organization need to be included in future studies. Practical implications To improve the effectiveness of performance management in the police organization, decision makers and managers must emphasize behavioral aspects of the system, especially the causal relationship between practices and perception of the usefulness of the system. Originality/value Despite the wide use of PMS in police management practice, police officers’ perception of the effectiveness of these systems has received little attention in the field. This study indicated a causal link between the factors in the PMS and the perception of the police officers.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-05-30T01:04:50Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-11-2018-0168
  • Beyond police culture
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Combining insights from the traditional literature on police culture with insights from the broader literature on organisational culture and on grid-group cultural theory (Douglas, 1970), the purpose of this paper is to introduce a new 15-dimensional framework of “organisational culture in the police” and test this framework via a survey instrument. This new conceptualisation is broader than the traditional police culture concept and allows for comparisons of the police with other organisations. Design/methodology/approach A newly developed instrument to measure the 15-dimensional framework, called the “Leuven Organisational Culture Questionnaire (LOCQ)”, was tested in 64 local police forces in Belgium (n=3,847). Findings The hypothesised 15-dimensional model is largely confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Assessments of between-unit variation show that the LOCQ is sufficiently sensitive to identify differences between work units in police organisations. The authors also find that traditional police culture characteristics tend to vary slightly less between units than the other characteristics. Also, there is less variation for characteristics related to police work (e.g. law enforcement orientation and citizen orientation) than for characteristics associated with the unit level (e.g. weak supervisory support and internal solidarity) or the organisational level (e.g. rule orientation and results orientation). Originality/value This paper expands the traditional “police culture” concept to a more generic and theory-driven conceptualisation of “organisational culture in the police”. The survey instrument offers a standardised way to map and compare culture within police organisations, and to compare it with the culture of other organisations both within and outside law enforcement.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-05-28T01:30:21Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-12-2018-0171
  • Expert officer perceptions of de-escalation in policing
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine perceptions of de-escalation among police officers who were nominated by peers as the most skilled at this strategy. Design/methodology/approach A peer nomination process identified eight skilled de-escalators in one department. Interviews were conducted with the officers individually. Additionally, in a focus group, the officers watched and debriefed body-worn camera videos for themes related to de-escalation. Findings Officers defined de-escalation as bringing calm to a conflict using the least amount of force possible. They said it could also be used preventatively. They identified de-escalation tactics, characteristics of skilled de-escalators and situations in which de-escalation is less effective. Originality/value This study initiates research into a much discussed but rarely researched topic. Future studies should continue to work toward a definition of de-escalation and understand how it can be used in policing to reduce violence, protect life and enhance police legitimacy.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-05-13T07:56:25Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-12-2018-0185
  • Police crackdowns in Mexico City
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze the design and implementation of the police crackdown strategy employed in Mexico City and to discuss its limitations toward a medium-to-long-term reduction of crime rates for six types of robberies. Design/methodology/approach The present work employs generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH) models to estimate the effect of police operations on the volatility of the rates of six types of robberies in Mexico City, as well as their persistence over time. Findings Results suggest that the concentration of policing in certain high-criminality spaces reduces crime rates in the immediate term; however, its permanence is contingent on policing design and behavioral characteristics of the targeted crime. Specifically, the Mexico City police crackdown strategy seems to be better suited for combating crimes of a “non-static” nature than those of a “static” nature. Research limitations/implications Due to the nature of the data used for this research, the performed analysis does not enable a precise determination of whether the crime rates respond to temporal or spatial displacement. Practical implications Considering the obtained results, a re-design of Mexico City’s police crackdown strategy is suggested for the sustained reduction of the number of reported cases of robberies of a static nature. Originality/value Despite their importance, few studies have measured the impact of police crackdowns on city-level crime rates and whether their effect is temporary or permanent. The present study proposes the use of GARCH models in order to integrate the study of this phenomenon into criminal time series models.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-05-13T07:53:46Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-11-2018-0165
  • Confidence in the police among immigrants in South Korea
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test the dual frames of reference theory. For the test, the reference point hypothesis examines whether the difference in the quality of social conditions between the home and host countries determines the variations of immigrants’ trust in the institutions of their host country. Design/methodology/approach By using hierarchical linear modeling analysis, the current study examines whether “difference of homicide rate from South Korea” or “difference of level of democracy from South Korea” influences immigrants’ confidence in the police. Using data collected from nine different immigrant groups in South Korea, the current study examined both country-level factors as well as individual-level factors. Findings According to the analysis results, the difference of level of democracy from South Korea significantly influenced immigrants’ confidence in the South Korean police. Specifically, when immigrants came from democratically under-developed countries, they showed a relatively high level of confidence in the South Korean police. Originality/value Confidence in the police among the first generation of immigrants has recently attracted increasing attention. However, no previous studies have examined immigrants’ confidence in the police within an Asian country. Thus, the current study might contribute to generating better police performances toward first-generation immigrants who tend to be discriminated against and are also vulnerable to various forms of victimization because of their new status in a new society.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-04-30T09:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-11-2018-0167
  • Police perception of citizens and its impact on police effectiveness and
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the similarities and differences in police officers’ attitudes toward citizens between China and Ghana, and explore the extent to which officers’ perceptions of citizens influence their effectiveness and behavior. Design/methodology/approach In total, 271 Chinese police officers were surveyed representing those attending in-service training program at a national police university in China in 2014, and a random sample of 145 Ghanaian police officers was surveyed in 2013, representing those from five police districts in the Accra region of Ghana Police service. Findings Results revealed significant perceptual variations across the two countries. While Ghanaian officers were found to have more favorable perceptions of citizens’ cooperation and recognition, Chinese officers reported greater levels of citizens’ compliance and disrespectfulness. Moreover, results indicated significant relationships between officers’ attitudes and their sense of effectiveness and behavior in the two countries. Research limitations/implications This study is based on a convenient sample of Chinese police officers, which restricts the generalizability of the results. Practical implications Findings offer insights for police administrators to reform the police with a focus on improving police perceptions of citizens. Originality/value Although there are a few comparative studies that compare police attitudes toward citizens between developing and developed countries, and between western democracies, there is a profound lack of studies comparing these attitudes between developing/transitional countries. This study is an initial attempt to identify variations in officers’ perceptions of the public between two developing/transitional countries.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T01:26:17Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-07-2018-0099
  • Police work-family nexus, work engagement and turnover intention
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Around 87 percent of employees are not engaged in their work and 82 percent have withdrawal intentions across the globe. Considering these emerging challenges the purpose of this paper is to investigate the associations between inter-role conflicts, work engagement and turnover intention considering person-job-fit (PJF) as a moderator. Design/methodology/approach The data from 343 Punjab police employees were collected on a convenience basis through a questionnaire-based survey. The study used the second generation data analysis technique (i.e. structural equation modeling) in two stages. Findings The results found work engagement as a mediator between inter-role conflicts and turnover intention. In addition, PJF was found to moderate these relations. Research limitations/implications This study collected data from a single province of the county. The study has implications for the academicians and policymakers. Originality/value Considering the emerging challenges to policing, this study is first of its kind to examine the moderating role of PJF. This theoretical model is developed on the basis of conservation of resource theory and field theory.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T01:19:58Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-09-2018-0138
  • Assessing best practices in crime labs structure, processes, and
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Forensic crime labs play an important role in the criminal justice system’s response to violent gun crimes in the USA. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods of firearms analysis including ballistics imaging and proposed best practices for investigating gun crimes. A separate line of research has begun to explore the structure of forensic labs and how structure impacts lab performance. Design/methodology/approach To date, however, proposed best practices in firearms investigation have not been empirically tested within crime labs. The authors address this gap in the literature by using a mediation model examining organizational correlates of a limited number of tasks (identified by Peter Gagliardi’s 13 Critical Tasks) believed to enhance our final dependent measures, forensic crime lab outcomes (NIBIN acquisitions and hits). The authors examine, therefore, the relationship between organizational correlates, collected from a sample of publicly funded labs in the USA, on several of Gagliardi’s tasks and then explore the relationship of those tasks on our outcome variables: NIBIN acquisitions and hits. Findings Results indicate agency size and number of agencies serviced by a lab are significant factors associated with our mediating variables (Gagliardi’s tasks). Communication was identified as a significant task associated with achieving NIBIN acquisitions and hits. In general, this study underscores the importance of communication between labs and other institutional constituents for increasing ballistics imaging outputs. Furthermore, findings provide partial support for Gagliard’s tasks, by highlighting the role of enhanced communication on organization-based performance outcomes. Originality/value This study is the first to examine the mediating effect of Gagliardi’s tasks on the organizational performance of ballistics imaging systems within crime labs. In addition, this study examines the influence of organizational correlates on these mediating tasks.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-04-04T08:14:58Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-12-2018-0181
  • Measuring perspective taking among police recruits
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Perspective taking (PT), as part of the empathy concept, is an important ability in the police profession. It is important to understand how PT can be measured, but also whether it changes over time. The purpose of this paper is to compare the outcomes of three different measures of PT, and to see whether police students’ PT changes at different stages of their education. Design/methodology/approach Three measures, one self-reported and two objective tests, were administered to Swedish National Police recruits at three distinct stages of their police training. The outcomes of the measures were psychometrically analyzed, after which associations between measures and between-group differences were assessed. Findings The result showed that the measures provided results that were in line with what had been reported in earlier studies. There were no significant correlations between the total scores of the three measures, yet students who graded their abilities higher on the subjective instrument did perform better on one of the objective tests. The findings also showed that recruits in later parts of their training self-reported significantly lower PT values than recruits at the beginning of their training. Originality/value This study adds knowledge on the ability of different types of instruments to measure PT and how this construct may develop over time among police recruits.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-03-01T12:33:13Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-09-2018-0129
  • The feasibility of using real-time, objective measurements of
           physiological stress among law enforcement officers in Dallas, Texas
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Law enforcement officers (LEOs) suffer from premature mortality, intentional and unintentional injury, suicide and are at an increased risk for several non-communicable disease outcomes including cardiovascular disease and several cancers, compared to those employed in other occupations. Repeated exposure to stressful and traumatic stimuli is a possible mechanism driving these adverse health outcomes among LEOs. To better identify the sources of these health problems, the purpose of this paper is to determine the feasibility of conducting a cohort study using physiological measures of stress (e.g. heart rate) with LEOs; perceptions of the FitBit device, including LEO buy-in and attitudes associated with the protocol. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from ten recent graduates of the Dallas Police Training Academy. Findings Results suggest that officer buy-in and protocol compliance was high. Officers were eager to participate in this study, and completion of weekly surveys was 100 percent. Minute-level missing data from wearable devices was relatively low (25 percent), and 90 percent of participants wore the FitBit devices on more than 90 percent of study days. Originality/value Results from this study suggest that wearable physiological devices can be effectively used in law enforcement populations to measure stress.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-03-01T10:23:15Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-12-2018-0184
  • A multilevel study on the causal relationship in association network of
           work stress
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the causal correlation between the work stress of immigration officers (IOs) and the cross-level effect of social support. Design/methodology/approach A multilevel model was used to analyze the quantitative data obtained from 231 IOs in Taiwan, who served as the research objects. Findings From the results of this study, it was found that a positive significant relationship existed between role conflict and work stress, as well as between work stress and job burnout. Also, cross-level context and moderating effect for the relationship between social support and work stress, as well as between social support, work stress and job burnout were obtained. Originality/value This study only considered IOs in airports and ports. Therefore, it is necessary to determine if other topics of organizational behavior, such as the leadership of supervisors, organizational climate and work values of IOs, have a positive moderating effect. In this regard, it is recommended that a longitudinal study should be conducted in the future.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-03-01T09:56:13Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-07-2018-0086
  • Group position, consciousness and perception of police fairness among
           urban residents in China
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the importance of group position and consciousness in predicting people’s perceptions of police fairness in China. Design/methodology/approach This study used survey data collected from 1,095 respondents in Shanghai. Multivariate regression was used to analyze the effects of group positions and group consciousness variables on perceived police fairness, controlling for personal, experiential and neighborhood factors. Findings Regardless of their own hukou status, individuals who live in high migrant areas expressed less favorable attitudes toward police fairness. Meanwhile, people who displayed greater degrees of sensitivity to bias in law rated police fairness less favorably, whereas people who expressed higher levels of moral alignment with the law and belief in no choice but to obey the police rated police fairness more favorably. Lower levels of neighborhood disorder and higher degrees of cohesion were also associated with more positive evaluations of police fairness. Research limitations/implications The authors’ measure of migrant concentration was constructed based on respondents’ own assessments of this neighborhood feature. Future studies should consider using objective measures to supplement the construction of migrant concentration variables. The authors’ group consciousness variables are limited as they are general, non-residential status specific and only capture part of the traditionally conceptualized variable of group consciousness. Future study should employ better-worded items that can tap precisely into people’s various dimensions of social consciousness based on their group status. Practical implications Training officers has to give a high priority to the principles of both procedural and distributive justice, and implement performance and evaluation policies that support fair and responsive police behavior, particularly during situations where citizens report crime to and seek help from the police. Originality/value Despite their high relevance, variables reflecting group position have received marginal attention in previous research on public evaluations of the police in China. This study represents a first attempt to examine how the interactions between residence status and the level of neighborhood migrant concentration influence Chinese attitudes toward police fairness.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-03-01T09:36:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-09-2018-0135
  • Effects of police officer exposure to traumatic experiences and
           recognizing the stigma associated with police officer mental health
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review current research on police officer mental health and to explore the reasons why police officers do not seek mental health treatment. Design/methodology/approach A comprehensive, systematic search of multiple academic databases (e.g. EBSCO Host) were used to identify studies conducted within the USA, identified definitions of first responders, identified the type of duty-related trauma expected by police officers, how influential stigma is amongst the police culture and what current intervention strategies are employed to assist police officer mental health wellness. Findings This research was conducted to identify police officer trauma-related mental health and the stigma behind seeking treatment. The research highlights job-related trauma and stress leads to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, substance use disorder and suicide or suicide ideation. The stigma behind seeking mental health treatment is associated with law enforcement organizations and environmental factors. Organizational factors include occupational stress characteristics such as day-to-day of the job and environmental factors such as abiding by social and law enforcement culture ideologies. Further research should be conducted to understand why law enforcing agencies and personnel are unknowingly promoting stigmas. Originality/value This is the most current meta-review of research examining the severity of mental health in police officers, the stigma behind acquiring treatment and innovative treatment approaches in police officer mental health. This study will provide a useful resource for those researchers interested in continuing to examine the different aspects of police officer mental health and how to potently approach innovative interventions to help law enforcement personals mental wellness thrive in a field where trauma is experienced daily.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-02-21T10:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-09-2018-0147
  • Emotional self-efficacy and psychological health of police officers
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The evaluation of emotional management in police environments has impacts on their health and on their interventions (Monier, 2014; Van Hoorebeke, 2003). There are significant costs related to occupational diseases in the police force: absenteeism, turnover, deterioration of the work climate (Al Ali et al., 2012). Considering that policing involves a high level of emotional control and management (Monier, 2014; Al Ali et al., 2012; Dar, 2011) and that no study has yet examined the relationship between police officers’ emotional competencies and their psychological health at work (PHW), the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship and influence of emotional self-efficacy (ESE) on PHW in policing. Design/methodology/approach PHW results from psychological distress at work (PDW) (irritability, anxiety, disengagement) and psychological well-being at work (PWBW) (social harmony, serenity and commitment at work) (Gilbert et al., 2011). ESE is defined as the individual’s belief in his or her own emotional skills and effectiveness in producing desired results (Bandura, 1997), conceptualized through seven emotional skills: the use of emotions; the perception of one’s own emotions and that of others; the understanding of one’s emotions and that of others; and the management of one’s emotions and that of others (Deschênes et al., 2016). A correlational estimate was used with a sample of 990 employed police officers, 26 percent of whom were under 34 years of age and 74 percent over 35. The ESE scales (a=0.97) of Deschênes et al. (2018) and Gilbert et al. (2011) on PWBW (a=0.91) and PDW (a=0.94) are used to measure the concepts under study. Findings The results of the regression analyses confirm links between police officers’ emotional skills and PHW. The results show that self-efficacy in managing emotions, self-efficacy in managing emotions that others feel, self-efficacy in using emotions and self-efficacy in understanding emotions partially explain PWBW (R2=0.30, p
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-02-21T10:43:41Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2018-0076
  • Does work and family imbalance impact the satisfaction of police force
           employees' A “net or a web” model
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of work–family conflict (WFC) and family–work conflict (FWC) on the level of job satisfaction for the police force employees, considering organizational and community embeddedness as the two moderators. Design/methodology/approach A convenience-based sample of 345 employees working in the capital city police force was collected using a questionnaire-based survey. Findings A negative association was found between WFC and the employees’ job satisfaction, and both organizational and community embeddedness were found to moderate these associations. Research limitations/implications The study suggests policymakers to develop HR strategies to mitigate work and family imbalances in order to enhance job satisfaction among the police force employees. Practical implications Practically, this study contributes by suggesting flexible working hours and reducing the workload of the police force. Originality/value This study highlights the importance of the effects of community and organizational embeddedness on the associations between inter-role conflicts and job satisfaction among police force employees. The study adds to the limited literature on the constructs of WFC and FWC to elucidate the moderating role of embeddedness.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-02-21T10:39:29Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2018-0061
  • Social media and the police
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Most police agencies in the USA make the claim that they use social media, and such use is drawing a great academic attention. Most studies on police use of social media focus on the content of police social media websites. Little research, however, has been conducted regarding what types of police agencies are in fact making use of social media. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap in the knowledge. Design/methodology/approach The study reported here analyzes the 2013 Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) data set to identify the principal organizational characteristics of police agencies associated with the use of social media. Binary logistic regression is used to identify significant independent predictors of police use of social media, viewed here as a form of innovation. Findings The findings indicate that the workforce size (commissioned and civilian personnel) of a police agency, the level of participation in multi-jurisdictional task forces and the early use of an official agency website to communicate with the public are the predictors of police use of social media. Research limitations/implications Three theories pertaining to organizational behavior (i.e. contingency theory, institutional theory, and resource dependency theory), as well as Maguire’s (2003) study, are used to establish the theoretical framework for the research reported here. Originality/value Viewed as a pioneering study testing organizational theories related to police use of social media, the current study sets forth findings that help deepen the collective understanding of contingency theory, institutional theory and resource dependency theory as frameworks for explaining organizational behavior in policing.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-02-21T10:34:10Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-09-2018-0139
  • Consent searches: understanding the role of race and what occurs during
           the traffic stop
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to apply focal concerns theory as a theoretical explanation for police officer decision making during a traffic stop that results in a consent search. The study uses coefficients testing to better examine the issue of racial profiling through the use of a race-specific model. Design/methodology/approach The data for this study come from traffic stops conducted by the Louisville Police Department between January 1 and December 31, 2002. Findings The results show that the three components of focal concerns theory can explain police officer decision making for consent searches. Yet, the components of focal concerns theory play a greater role in stops of Caucasian male drivers. Research limitations/implications The data for this study are cross-sectional and self-reported from police officers. Practical implications This paper shows the utility of applying focal concerns theory as a theoretical explanation for police officer decision making on consent searches and how the effects of focal concerns vary depending on driver race. Social implications The findings based on focal concerns theory can provide an opportunity for police officers or departments to explain what factors impact the decision making during consent searches. Originality/value This is the first study (to the researchers’ knowledge) that examines the racial effects of focal concerns on traffic stop consent searchers using coefficients testing.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-02-13T09:23:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-11-2018-0162
  • Understanding public satisfaction with the police
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Building upon prior research, the purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of public satisfaction with the police by examining the effects of one’s military background and the interactions between one’s education and perceptions about prior contact with the police. Design/methodology/approach This study statistically analyzes the 2012 citizen survey data collected in the Hampton Roads area of Virginia, USA, and the theoretical framework includes the major models of citizen satisfaction with the police (i.e. demographic, prior contact with the police and neighborhood conditions). Findings Findings show that being a military family member is significantly positively related to satisfaction with the police. In addition, there are significant interactions between higher education and prior contact with the police, suggesting that people with different educational backgrounds tend to consider their prior experiences (either positive or negative) differently in their general evaluations of the police. Originality/value The study expands the literature by empirically assessing two often omitted factors that could have significant impacts on how the public evaluate the police.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-01-25T10:52:54Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2018-0110
  • Demeanor and police culture
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to revisit classic theoretical arguments regarding the broad effects of civilian demeanor on policing and extend associated findings. Design/methodology/approach The theoretical framework draws on insights from the literatures on police culture, the group engagement model and fairness heuristic theory. The authors argue that demeanor is best conceptualized as the degree of procedural justice exhibited by civilians toward police. Theoretically, procedurally just cooperation should influence officers’ adherence to police culture by affecting their social identification and assessments of civilians’ motives and moral deservingness. To test the hypotheses, the authors surveyed sworn officers from a large metropolitan police department in the southeastern USA in the Fall of 2016. Findings Results reveal that officers use their procedural justice judgments as heuristics to assess civilians’ trustworthiness, dangerousness, and moral deservingness, and these judgments influence their policing style. Officers who perceive greater procedurally just cooperation by civilians feel less threatened by the public, are more willing to use procedural justice themselves, and are less supportive of a “tough cop” policing style. Originality/value The authors propose that: civilian demeanor is best conceptualized as the extent to which civilians exhibit procedural fairness toward the police; and in order for meaningful police reform to occur, it is important to acknowledge the role of civilian demeanor in shaping officers’ attitudes, beliefs and behaviors.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-01-09T09:58:37Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-09-2018-0133
  • The effect of community-oriented policing on police use of force: does
           community matter'
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine whether community-oriented policing (COP) influences rates of police use of force across communities, and whether the impact of COP varies according to the level of violent crime in communities. Design/methodology/approach A range of data sources including police use of force reports, online surveys of Officers-in-Charge and recorded crime data was used to examine the association between formal and informal community consultation and the frequency of police use of force, across 64 socially challenged communities in Australia. Findings Poisson multilevel modelling indicated no overall association between informal or formal community engagement and rates of police use of force. However, significant interaction terms for both informal and formal community consultation with violent crime rates indicated that higher levels of informal and formal community consultation were associated with lower rates of police use of force in communities with higher levels of violent crime. This relationship was not evident in low violent crime areas. Research limitations/implications Communities were purposively sampled to have a high propensity for police use of force, on the basis that they had high rates of violent crime, or high levels of socio-economic disadvantage, or both. This research should be replicated with a representative sample of communities. Practical implications The findings extend the potential benefits of COP to reducing the use of coercive policing tactics in high violent crime communities. Originality/value This study finds that COP can reduce the frequency of violent encounters between police and community members in high violent crime communities.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-01-09T09:45:17Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-10-2018-0148
  • Impact of leader–member exchange and perceived organisational
           support on turnover intention
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between leader–member exchange (LMX), perceived organisational support (POS) and turnover intention (TI) through the mediating effect of psychological stress in the police personnel of United Arab Emirates (UAE). Design/methodology/approach A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data from police personnel (n=800) deployed in different positions in UAE police departments. The structural equation modelling analyses were consistent with the full and partial mediation models in which LMX, POS and PS predict TI. Specifically, several alternative models were compared to confirm the mediation effects. Findings The results revealed that while LMX had a direct negative effect on police force TI, POS had no indirect impact on police force TI. Furthermore, LMX did positively influence police personnel’s POS. PS acted as a full mediator between police personnel’s POS and TIs. Additionally, the direct positive effects of PS on police personnel’s TIs were confirmed. Research limitations/implications The findings will help policymakers and practitioners to better understand the influences of the LMX, POS and PS factors on police force TI and will help in formulating strategies to minimise TI and retain talented police personnel for effective safety and law enforcement in the country. Originality/value The study contributes to the literature by being one of the first to study the LMX, POS, PS and TIs of police personnel within the context of an emerging Arab country.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-01-07T02:34:51Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2018-0081
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