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Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.738
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 427  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1363-951X
Published by Emerald Homepage  [341 journals]
  • Place-based policing: new directions, new challenges
    • Pages: 310 - 313
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Volume 41, Issue 3, Page 310-313, June 2018.

      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-05-04T08:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2018-178
  • Evaluating the impact of police foot patrol at the micro-geographic level
    • Pages: 314 - 324
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Volume 41, Issue 3, Page 314-324, June 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of a police foot patrol considering micro-geographic units of analysis. Design/methodology/approach Six years of monthly crime counts for eight violent and property crime types are analyzed. Negative binomial and binary logistic regressions were used to evaluate the impact of the police foot patrol. Findings The impact of police foot patrol is in a small number of micro-geographic areas. Specifically, only 5 percent of the spatial units of analysis exhibit a statistically significant impact from the foot patrol. Originality/value These analyses show the importance of undertaking evaluations at the micro-scale in order to identify the impact of police patrol initiative because a small number of places are driving the overall result. Moreover, care must be taken with how small the units of analysis are because as the units of analysis become smaller and smaller, criminal events become rarer and, potentially, identifying statistically significant change becomes more difficult.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-13T08:12:02Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-01-2018-0012
  • Collaborative problem-solving at youth crime hot spots: a pilot study
    • Pages: 325 - 338
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Volume 41, Issue 3, Page 325-338, June 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe a case study of a pilot program in which a collaborative problem-solving approach was implemented at hot spots of juvenile and youth crime in downtown Seattle, Washington. Design/methodology/approach Two matched pairs of youth crime hot spots were allocated at random to treatment (“non-enforcement problem-solving”) or comparison (“policing-as-usual”) conditions within matched pairs. In the treatment condition, police collaborated with community and local government partners to develop problem-solving strategies that deemphasized arrests and other traditional law enforcement approaches. Impacts on crime incidents, calls for service, and police activity were assessed using difference-in-differences Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Findings No significant impact on crime or calls for service was observed at one site, where several problem-solving approaches were successfully implemented. However, crime and calls for service were significantly lower at the other site, where some enforcement activity took place but non-enforcement problem-solving was limited. Research limitations/implications The authors find mixed support for non-enforcement problem-solving at hot spots. The enforcement may be necessary for stabilization, and must be balanced with the risks of justice system involvement for youth. Political support at the city level is necessary for collaboration. Limitations include the small number of sites in this pilot study and key differences between treatment and comparison locations. Originality/value This study is one of the first to assess the impact of primarily non-enforcement problem-solving specifically at youth crime hot spots.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-27T02:19:16Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-12-2017-0152
  • Data and evidence challenges facing place-based policing
    • Pages: 339 - 351
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Volume 41, Issue 3, Page 339-351, June 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to use an evaluation of a micro-place-based hot-spot policing implementation to highlight the potential issues raised by data quality standards in the recording and measurement of crime data and police officer movements. Design/methodology/approach The study focusses on an area of London (UK) which used a predictive algorithm to designate micro-place patrol zones for each police shift over a two-month period. Police officer movements are measured using GPS data from officer-worn radios. Descriptive statistics regarding the crime data commonly used to evaluate this type of implementation are presented, and simple analyses are presented to examine the effects of officer patrol duration (dosage) on crime in micro-place hot-spots. Findings The results suggest that patrols of 10-20 minutes in a given police shift have a significant impact on reducing crime; however, patrols of less than about 10 minutes and more than about 20 minutes are ineffective at deterring crime. Research limitations/implications Due to the sparseness of officer GPS data, their paths have to be interpolated which could introduce error to the estimated patrol dosages. Similarly, errors and uncertainty in recorded crime data could have substantial impact on the designation of micro-place interventions and evaluations of their effectiveness. Originality/value This study is one of the first to use officer GPS data to estimate patrol dosage and places particular emphasis on the issue of data quality when evaluating micro-place interventions.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-12T07:58:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-09-2017-0117
  • Spatiotemporal patterns and distributions of harm within street segments
    • Pages: 352 - 371
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Volume 41, Issue 3, Page 352-371, June 2018.
      Purpose Virtually all analyses of hotspots have been devoted to a crude counting system, i.e. tallying the number of occurrences that take place in pre-specified units of space and time. Recent research shows that while usually half of all criminal events are concentrated in about 3 percent of places commonly referred to as “hotspots” of crime, similar proportions of harm concentrate in only 1 percent of places. These are “harmspots.” Identifying that harm is a more concentrated issue suggests wide policy and research implications, but what are the dynamics of these harmspots' The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach This paper provides a descriptive framework for measuring, as well as evidence about, these patterns and concentrations, harmspots in Sussex, England. Findings There are four discrete offense categories that account for 80 percent of all the harm within harmspots. These categories include: sexual offenses, violence against the person, robbery and theft. Within these high harmspots, crime counts and harm are strongly correlated (r=0.82, p=0.001). Temporal analyses show that harmspots are not evenly spread across time and place, with night time and weekends becoming substantially more susceptible to harm – more than count-based models. Harmspot trajectory analysis suggests evidence of stability over time within the high harmspots; most harmspots remain chronically inflicted with harm. Violence and sexual offenses are random in their spatial distribution between the harmspots, but robberies and theft are more closely coupled to particular harmspots than others. Originality/value Implications of these findings are discussed in terms of future research avenues and crime policy.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-23T10:38:14Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-03-2017-0041
  • Institutionalizing place-based policing: the adoption of a Case of Place
    • Pages: 372 - 385
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Volume 41, Issue 3, Page 372-385, June 2018.
      Purpose Research shows that crime and disorder tend to concentrate in small, geographic locations and that place-based and problem-solving policing strategies can impact crime and disorder without displacing it to neighboring areas. However, implementation of problem-solving is a challenge. Loosely defined locations, shallow problem analysis, and distractions to problem-solving are cited implementation shortcomings. These shortcomings may be overcome by using the Case of Place approach, a case management strategy focused on documenting and analyzing place-based dynamics and characteristics to inform and direct policing strategies. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach The current study describes the adoption of the Case of Place approach in an urban police agency’s operations and performance management system. The authors utilize implementation theory to explore and explain the adoption of this new place-based strategy. Findings Key findings reveal important structural and cultural challenges to implementation. Structural challenges included modifying supervision structures, creating new positions, decentralizing analytical functions, and redirecting resources to problem-solving. Cultural challenges observed included emphasizing problem-solving as an organizational priority, integrating crime analysts into neighborhood precincts, and centering performance management processes around problem-solving. Originality/value The authors explore how implementation dynamics impact the adoption of new policies and practices, and offer a number of propositions for the use of the Case of Place approach within a place-based strategy portfolio.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-18T07:03:18Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-09-2017-0119
  • Offender and family member perceptions after an offender-focused hot spots
           policing strategy
    • Pages: 386 - 400
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Volume 41, Issue 3, Page 386-400, June 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how both offenders and their families perceived their interactions with police and whether there were negative consequences of the offender-focused strategy that was implemented in a hot spots policing experiment. Design/methodology/approach Data from interviews of 32 offenders and 29 family members are examined qualitatively for themes to evaluate how the strategy was carried out and how it impacted offenders’ behavior and both groups’ perceptions of the police detectives and the strategy overall. Findings The results show that there was overwhelming agreement by both offenders and their family members that the police detectives who contacted them treated both groups with dignity and respect. After the contact was over, the offenders appeared to commit less crime, followed probation more closely, and had positive feelings about what the police detectives were trying to do. Improvement of the offenders’ relationships with their families was an unanticipated finding indicating a diffusion of benefits of the strategy. Practical implications The results suggest that when procedural justice principles are used in an offender-focused police intervention, positive impact can be achieved without negative consequences. Originality/value This is a rare example of an in-depth evaluation of the perceptions of offenders and family members contacted through a hot spots policing offender-focused strategy.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-18T07:06:16Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-10-2017-0120
  • Hot spots of mental health crises
    • Pages: 401 - 414
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Volume 41, Issue 3, Page 401-414, June 2018.
      Purpose A strong body of research has established the concentration of crime in a small number of street segments or “hot spots” throughout urban cities, but the spatial distribution of mental health-related calls for services is less well known. The extent to which these calls are concentrated on a small number of street segments, similar to traditional crime calls for service is understudied. The purpose of this paper is to examine the concentration of mental health calls and the spatial distribution of street segments with mental health calls to provide directions for law enforcement and place-based policing. Design/methodology/approach Using call for service data from a large city on the East coast, the current study examines whether mental health calls for service are concentrated on street segments, and tests spatial dispersion to whether these “mental health hot spots” are spread throughout the city or clustered in space. Finally, the authors explore the relationship between mental health calls and violent and drug calls by calculating the correlation and using a spatial point pattern test to determine if mental health calls are spatially similar to violent and drug calls. Findings The authors found that mental health calls are concentrated on street segments; specifically 22.4 percent of calls are located on 0.5 percent of city street segments. Additionally, these street segments are fairly dispersed throughout the city. When comparing the spatial similarity of mental health calls to violent and drug calls, they are highly correlated suggesting a relationship between the calls types, but the location of mental health calls appears to be different from violet and drug calls. Originality/value Very few studies have examined the location of mental health calls and whether they are concentrated in small areas similar to crime, but such research can provide police officers new approaches to working with people with mental health problems. The police are the primary emergency response for calls involving someone with a mental illness or experiencing a mental health crisis and the authors provide suggestions for policing that draw from strategies used in hot spot policing and mental health responses, like CIT, to address challenges of modern policing and working with people with mental health problems.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-27T07:55:33Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-12-2017-0155
  • Officer views in contracting, merger, and hybrid agencies
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess officer perceptions of consolidation of law enforcement agencies under three specific models: contracting, merger and a hybrid of regionalization and contracting. Design/methodology/approach A survey was administered to 139 officers employed by four agencies using one of the models of interest. The survey asked officers their views on consolidation and how it has affected organizational and employment characteristics. Findings Officers generally support consolidation, but views vary by agency type. Officers in the contracting agencies, for example, generally viewed consolidation as less cost effective than officers in other agencies viewed it, but were more likely to say crime decreased and job security and workload improved after consolidation. Officers in the hybrid agency were less positive about changes in some employment and organizational characteristics. Research limitations/implications The sample size and response rates are low, and no comparison to other agencies is available, but the examination offers new information and lessons. Practical implications Communities considering police consolidation must consider a specific model and how to communicate changes to officers. This research illuminates officer perspectives on each. Originality/value This is the first investigation of views of shared services by specific model of consolidation. Such work is particularly valuable given increased interest in consolidation in recent years.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-07-17T06:42:10Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-03-2018-0034
  • Detention or diversion' The influence of training and education on
           school police officer discretion
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The growing concern about school violence and security has led to a dramatic increase in the number of police officers working in schools. This increase has been accompanied by a focus on the training of school-based law enforcement, the discretion that they exercise when interacting with youth, and the concern that these factors may lead to more youths facing arrest and formal processing by the juvenile and criminal justice system. What is not well understood is whether or not having formal school resource officer (SRO) training or higher education impacts the officer’s decision making when responding to an incident involving a student. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses survey data from school police officers within the USA (n=179) to examine the officer’s preferred post-incident method of disciplining the youth, from the most punitive and formal approach of suspension or referral to juvenile authorities, to the less punitive and informal approach such as diversion or warn and release. Findings Overall, the study found that officers who have received formal SRO training were more likely to prefer a formal resolution to the incidents, and more highly educated officers tended to favor less punitive and informal responses. Originality/value These findings question the current state of the effectiveness of SRO training at using diversionary tactics for conflict resolution in a school setting.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-07-17T06:36:28Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-01-2018-0007
  • Neighborhood by neighborhood: community policing in a rust belt city
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine citizen satisfaction with police services and perceived safety using survey research in two high crime neighborhoods. Problem-oriented crime deterrence strategies were used in one neighborhood, the other served as a control group. Design/methodology/approach Mixed-methods approach was used to measure the effectiveness of problem-oriented approaches in persistent high-crime areas. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were conducted by sampling addresses in both neighborhoods and analyzing results. Findings No between-neighborhood differences were reported regarding the satisfaction with police services or improvement in perceived safety. Originality/value These findings suggest that this deterrence strategy is a promising approach to reducing crime while not damaging community perceptions. However, departments must vary place-based strategies, and prevention is difficult given historical contexts, the absence of credible community partners and limited resources in a declining city.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-07-09T10:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-01-2018-0002
  • Shaping community support for vigilantism: a Nigerian case study
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose In Nigeria, vigilantism appears to be a common response to dissatisfaction about the state police in the recent time. Using survey data of residents in Lagos, Nigeria, the purpose of this paper, therefore, is to explore whether what is already known about perceptions of procedural (in) justice of state police also applies to self-help security groups in Nigeria. This is with a view to influencing community support for and satisfaction with non-state policing in the country. Design/methodology/approach The study adopted a case study approach. Lagos, Nigeria was stratified into the high, medium and low densities. Systematic sampling technique was used in selecting 1 out of every 20 buildings (5 percent) in each area. Household representative person on each floor of the selected building who had contact with vigilante corps in the last 12 months were targeted. Of 768 copies of questionnaires administered, a sample of 386 was effectively returned (representing 50 percent response rate). Six categories of variables were analyzed. These are procedural justice, distributive justice, vigilante corps’ performance, legitimacy, residents’ satisfaction with vigilante corps activities and socio-economic characteristics. Findings Results reveal that respondents are not primarily instrumental in their support for vigilantisms. Instead, their support is associated with their basic communal values. More than effectiveness in controlling crime, vigilantisms receive community support provided they use procedural justice in dealings with the public. Respondents who perceive vigilantisms use procedural justice also view them as legitimate, and as well satisfy with their activities and services. Besides, results show that support for and satisfaction with vigilantisms are associated with environmental, social and economic characteristics of the residents in the community they serve. The thesis supported in this research paper is that public support for and satisfaction with vigilantisms can be influenced significantly through policing strategies that builds legitimacy. Originality/value Vigilantism pervades contemporary policing strategies. It is supported by national crime prevention policies, according to the logic that the use of community self-help security strategies could contribute to sustainable crime prevention. This study extends research on legitimacy, with an empirical focus on Nigerian vigilantism. Understanding factors that shape public support for vigilantism may enhance safer communities.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-07-09T02:14:12Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2017-0101
  • Examining police use of force and citizen complaints
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between police use of force and citizen complaints alleging improper use of force. Design/methodology/approach The current study utilizes official use of force and citizen complaint data, as well as surveys of patrol officers, from the Assessing Police Use of Force Policy and Outcomes Project, a multimethod National Institute of Justice funded study. Findings Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the number of use of force incidents that officers were involved in, as well as the types and levels of resistance they encountered from citizens, was related to use of force complaints from citizens. That is, those officers that were involved in more use of force situations were engaged in force encounters where the highest level of citizen resistance was “failure to comply,” and faced higher cumulative levels of citizen resistance, received more complaints alleging improper use of force. Research limitations/implications Studies of citizen complaints against police officers, especially those alleging improper use of force, should consider the number of force incidents officers are involved in, as well as other theoretically relevant force correlates. Practical implications Administrators, concerned with citizen allegations for improper use of force against their officers, should work to encourage their personnel to minimize the number of use of force applications, or at least less cumulative force, to resolve encounters with citizens. Originality/value While prior studies have examined police use of force and citizen complaints independently, the current study examines the empirical connection between use of force behavior and the generation of complaints from citizens.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-07-02T12:16:25Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-01-2018-0024
  • Understanding police officer resistance to body-worn cameras
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Body-worn cameras (BWCs) have been adopted in police agencies across the USA in efforts to increase police transparency and accountability. This widespread implementation has occurred despite some notable resistance to BWCs from police officers in some jurisdictions. This resistance poses a threat to the appropriate implementation of this technology and adherence to BWC policies. The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that could explain variation in officer receptivity to BWCs. Design/methodology/approach The authors assess differences between officers who volunteered to wear a BWC and officers who resisted wearing a BWC as part of a larger randomized controlled trial of BWCs in the Phoenix Police Department. The authors specifically examine whether officer educational attainment, prior use of a BWC, attitudes toward BWCs, perceptions of organizational justice, support for procedural justice, noble cause beliefs, and official measures of officer activity predict receptivity to BWCs among 125 officers using binary logistic regression. Findings The findings indicate limited differences between BWC volunteers and resistors. Volunteers did have higher levels of educational attainment and were more likely to agree that BWCs improve citizen behaviors, relative to their resistant counterparts. Interestingly, there were no differences in perceptions of organizational justice, self-initiated activities, use of force, or citizen complaints between these groups. Originality/value Though a growing body of research has examined the impact of BWCs on officer use of force and citizen complaints, less research has examined officer attitudes toward the adoption of this technology. Extant research in this area largely focusses on general perceptions of BWCs, as opposed to officer characteristics that could predict receptivity to BWCs. This paper addresses this limitation in the research.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-07-02T01:17:36Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-03-2018-0038
  • Perspectives of directors of civilian oversight of law enforcement
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to involve interviews with civilian oversight of law enforcement (COLE) directors from throughout the USA with the purpose of obtaining their perspectives on what it takes to create and sustain successful COLE programs. Design/methodology/approach The project involved 24 semi-structured interviews with experienced COLE directors. The interviews were transcribed and coded and this paper presents these perspectives according to patterns identified during analysis. Findings The research identified themes and patterns in the attitudes of the oversight directors which included numerous conditions necessary for success of an oversight agency. Amongst the most important conditions included agency independence, director job security, the need for professional qualified staff, unfettered access to information, the ability to publicly report on the agency’s work and a willingness on the part of government officials to tolerate criticism of the police. Originality/value This is the first study to identify the challenges and impediments to sustainable COLE mechanisms from the point-of-view of experienced agency directors. The findings can be used by future practitioners to learn from past experiences.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-06-29T10:28:54Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-01-2018-0018
  • Police officers’ attitudes toward citizen advisory councils
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the antecedents of sheriff deputies’ perceived legitimacy of their agency’s citizen advisory council (CAC). Design/methodology/approach The authors obtained survey data from 567 sheriff deputies in a southeastern state. The authors first asked whether respondents knew their agency had a CAC, and then asked those who responded affirmatively a series of questions about the legitimacy of the council. The authors then ran an ordinary least squares regression that included organizational justice, self-legitimacy and public scrutiny as independent variables predicting perceived legitimacy of the CAC. Findings Deputies who perceived greater organizational justice from command staff were significantly more likely to perceive the CAC as legitimate. Originality/value In response to strained police/community relations, reform advocates have urged the police to embrace a more democratic style of policing, including allowing for more citizen oversight of agencies. The study sheds light on how line-level officers perceive such oversight.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-06-22T08:23:52Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-01-2018-0019
  • The importance of external stakeholders for police body-worn camera
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The diffusion of innovations paradigm suggests that stakeholders’ acceptance of a police innovation shapes how it spreads and impacts the larger criminal justice system. A lack of support by external stakeholders for police body-worn cameras (BWCs) can short-circuit their intended benefits. The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceptions of BWCs among non-police stakeholders who are impacted by the technology as well as how BWCs influence their daily work processes. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted interviews and focus groups (n=41) in two US cities where the police department implemented BWCs. The interviewees range from courtroom actors (e.g. judges, prosecutors) to those who work with police in the field (e.g. fire and mental health), city leaders, civilian oversight members, and victim advocates. Findings External stakeholders are highly supportive of the new technology. Within the diffusion of innovations framework, this support suggests that the adoption of BWCs will continue. However, the authors also found the decision to implement BWCs carries unique consequences for external stakeholders, implying that a comprehensive planning process that takes into account the views of all stakeholders is critical. Originality/value Despite the recent diffusion of BWCs in policing, this is the first study to examine the perceptions of external stakeholders. More broadly, few criminologists have applied the diffusion of innovations framework to understand how technologies and other changes emerge and take hold in the criminal justice system. This study sheds light on the spread of BWCs within this framework and offers insights on their continued impact and consequences.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T10:01:51Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2017-0091
  • Organizational correlates of police deviance
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Many examinations of police misconduct involve case study methodologies applied to a single agency, or a handful of agencies. Consequently, there is little evidence regarding the types of misconduct across agencies, or the impact of department-level characteristics on the nature and prevalence of officer deviance. The purpose of this paper is to address this research gap using statewide data of over 1,500 charges of police misconduct filed with the Arizona Peace Officer Standards and Training Board (AZPOST) from 2000 to 2011. Design/methodology/approach This study examines variation in the prevalence and forms of misconduct across 100+ agencies based on agency type and size. Difference scores were calculated for every agency in the state to determine whether an agency’s level of misconduct was proportionate to the number of officers employed by that agency. AZPOST data were supplemented with Law Enforcement Management and Statistics data to identify organizational correlates of misconduct in agencies generating disproportionately low and high levels of misconduct. Findings Results identify variation in officer misconduct across different types of agencies. Tribal agencies generally experience higher rates of domestic violence and drug/alcohol-related incidents. Smaller agencies have more misconduct allegations involving supervisors. Organizational characteristics including pre-hiring screening, accountability mechanisms and community relationships are associated with lower levels of agency misconduct. Originality/value The use of AZPOST data enables a statewide examination of misconduct while accounting for organizational context. This study identifies organizational features that might serve to protect agencies against disproportionate rates of officer misbehavior.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-06-18T08:20:30Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2017-0092
  • Race/ethnicity, discrimination, and confidence in order institutions
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a conceptual model that explains racially/ethnically differential confidence in order institutions through a mediating mechanism of perception of discrimination. Design/methodology/approach This study relies on a nationally representative sample of 1,001 respondents and path analysis to test the relationships between race/ethnicity, multiple mediating factors, and confidence in order institutions. Findings Both African and Latino Americans reported significantly lower levels of confidence compared to White Americans. People who have stronger senses of being discriminated against, regardless of their races, have reduced confidence. A range of other cognitive/evaluative variables have promoted or inhibited people’s confidence in order institutions. Research limitations/implications This study relies on cross-sectional data which preclude definite inferences regarding causal relationships among the variables. Some measures are limited due to constraint of data. Practical implications To lessen discrimination, both actual and perceived, officials from order institutions should act fairly and impartially, recognize citizen rights, and treat people with respect and dignity. In addition, comprehensive measures involving interventions throughout the entire criminal justice system to reduce racial inequalities should be in place. Social implications Equal protection and application of the law by order institutions are imperative, so are social policies that aim to close the structural gaps among all races and ethnicities. Originality/value This paper takes an innovative effort of incorporating the currently dominant group position perspective and the injustice perspective into an integrated account of the process by which race and ethnicity affect the perception of discrimination, which, in turn, links to confidence in order institutions.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:34:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-03-2017-0031
  • Officers’ views on women in policing
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how receptive police officers are to having women as partners and supervisors at work in a cross-national context. Specifically, it compares male and female police officers’ views on women in policing along three dimensions in Dubai and Taipei: perceived efficacy of women in policing; receptiveness of women at work (as partners and supervisor); and perceived women’s role in police work. Design/methodology/approach Surveys (with the same instrument) were conducted with 622 officers (344 male and 278 female officers) in Dubai, the United Arab Emirates and 391 officers (297 male and 94 female officers) in Taipei, Taiwan. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were employed to compare male and female officers’ views on women in policing in both countries. Findings It was found that female officers (in Dubai and Taipei) were more likely than their male colleagues to see women as capable and effective in performing police duties. Compared to their colleagues in Taiwan, the Emirati male and female officers were more likely to be supportive of women’s restricted role in policing. Dubai male officers were less likely to be receptive to working at a unit with a female as their supervisor in comparison to their female colleagues in both countries. Research limitations/implications Although this study provides important information from a cross-national perspective, caution should be taken while interpreting these findings. The gender roles embedded in Islamic cultures seem to explain Dubai officers’ favorable attitudes toward women’s restricted role in policing. Future studies should incorporate in-depth interviews to explain why officers in Dubai prefer women’s restricted roles in policing. Practical implications The statistical analyses show that officers with higher levels of confidence not only held more positive attitudes toward women in policing, but also were more receptive to having women as their partners and supervisors. It suggests that confident officers would be more open-minded and welcome the entry of women into police work. By offering training courses that enhance officers’ work confidence, police organizations in both countries might well cultivate a welcoming work environment for women. Social implications If police organizations in Taiwan and the UAE instill cultures with an emphasis less on masculine traits than on collaborative style, male officers might free themselves from traditional gender norms and become more welcoming to women who work in policing. Originality/value Previous scholarly efforts on examining different areas of women in policing have mainly focused on police officers in western countries, leaving a relative scarcity of information about how officers perceive women’s role in policing in the other parts of the globe. Female officers have to work hand in hand with male officers in policing. To enhance the efficiency of deployment and cohesion of work relationship among male and female officers, it is important to understand how male officers perceive women’s roles in policing and how receptive they are to having women as partners. Understanding their perceptions from both sides can help administrations initiate effective training and educational programs.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-05-14T10:37:31Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-12-2016-0174
  • Apartheid and post-apartheid analysis of public confidence in the police
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Given the tumultuous history of policing in South Africa, the historic relationship between the police and the public, and the continuous rising crime rates, it is perplexing that little quantitative research has been conducted on legitimacy and the SAPS. The current study assesses public confidence in police in South Africa by analyzing data from a more than three-decade-old public opinion survey. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to examine changes in public confidence since 1981; and second, to determine factors that cause variations in confidence during a given period. Design/methodology/approach To achieve the objectives, the authors analyzed longitudinal data collected from 1981 to 2014 as part of the world Value Survey program. ANOVA and multivariate regression analyses were conducted. Findings Findings indicate that confidence in SAPS was highest during the period immediately after apartheid and then dwindled from 1999 onwards. Moreover, race, happiness and education have historically influenced public confidence in the police. Originality/value These findings provide information that could be useful for transforming the SAPS, especially in developing viable strategies to strengthen the police’s relationship with citizens. Additionally, the manuscript provides an original contribution to the study of public attitudes toward the police and police legitimacy, especially in a non-western society.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-05-04T07:42:14Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2017-0074
  • Resilience of public and private security providers: a state-of-the-art
           literature review
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the empirical literature on the resilience of public police officers and private security guards in stressful situations involving threats, violence, accidents or death. This paper studies the definitions of resilience used in these professions, identifies trends in applied research methods and examines the main topics addressed in previous research. Design/methodology/approach A scoping review was carried out, with searches in Web of Science and Google Scholar, as well as a secondary manual screening in Dutch academic journals. Based on this review, 33 empirical studies were included in the current paper. Findings First, it was revealed that a clear-cut definition of resilience applied to public police and private security guards is currently lacking. Second, predominantly quantitative designs were found to be used in the selected studies. Third, the 33 empirical studies provided insights on four main topics: demographic factors, personal characteristics, interpersonal aspects and resilience training programs. Remarkably, this scoping review did not find any empirical research on the resilience of private security guards. Originality/value This study systematically integrates the findings of empirical research on the resilience of security providers to stressful situations. The documentation of research activity, gaps and inconsistencies in the literature offer direction for future research in this relatively new field of study.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-05-02T08:24:15Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-09-2017-0114
  • Examining officer support for and perceived effects of police
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review officer support for the consolidation of law enforcement agencies. Design/methodology/approach The current study surveys 139 officers employed by four agencies that have recently undergone a consolidation of police services. The survey asked officers their level of support for consolidation of services as well as their views of how consolidation has affected employment conditions, organizational characteristics, and the delivery of police services. Findings While officers generally support consolidation, views on the effects of shared services vary significantly by level of support. Officers who most strongly support consolidation are also most likely to view it as leading to improvements in some working conditions (e.g. job satisfaction, morale), elements of organizational capacity (e.g. professionalism, investigative/intelligence capacity, recruitment), and the delivery of services (e.g. cost-effectiveness, quality and efficiency of services, and reductions in crime). Research limitations/implications The sample size and response rate are low. Still, the study offers insights into officer views of consolidation not previously available. Practical implications This research offers insights to communities considering the consolidation of police services regarding what organizational, employment, and service conditions are most likely to appeal to officers, whose support is necessary for successful implementation. Originality/value While single case studies previously considered officer attitudes on these issues, this work is the first to comparatively examine views of shared services across varying levels of support for consolidation.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-05-02T08:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-07-2017-0086
  • The influence of procedural justice on citizen satisfaction with state law
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose There are a number of individual and contextual variables that influence public opinion of the police but we know little about the public opinion regarding state law enforcement agencies. Prior studies involving municipal police and other criminal justice agencies indicate that the perceptions of procedural justice, or fair treatment, are important predictors of citizen satisfaction with police services. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether individuals who perceive procedurally just treatment during their contact with a state patrol officer improve the levels of satisfaction with the state patrol. Design/methodology/approach This paper presents the results of a public opinion study (n=846) regarding the Colorado State Patrol conducted in 2009. A subsample of 393 individuals who had contact with the state patrol and were further surveyed about their contact with the officer. Logistic regression models were used to examine individual- and contextual-level variables influence satisfaction with the state patrol and whether this relationship was mediated by the perceptions of procedural justice. Findings The authors found that individuals who perceive higher levels of procedural justice expressed higher satisfaction with the state patrol. Females, older respondents, and non-white respondents expressed greater satisfaction, as well as those who had voluntary contact or were not arrested. More importantly, procedural justice mediated the effect of involuntary contact and arrest on levels of satisfaction, and while non-white respondents were less likely to experience procedural justice, when levels of procedural justice are controlled for, they have higher levels of satisfaction. Originality/value The findings emphasize the significance of citizen perceptions of procedural justice during contacts with members of the state patrol. The current study contributes to our knowledge of procedural justice and citizen satisfaction with police encounters given previous research on citizen satisfaction with police focuses almost exclusively on local-level agencies, and research on procedural justice asks the respondents almost exclusively about the police in general.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-05-02T07:50:11Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-02-2017-0026
  • Fear, victimization, and community characteristics on citizen satisfaction
           with the police
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between fear of victimization, actual victimization, and community-level characteristics on citizen satisfaction with police. This study attempts to clarify important factors in how citizens view the police, while accounting for contextual, neighborhood-level variables. Design/methodology/approach This study utilized a representative victimization survey conducted in Saginaw, MI in 2015. Utilizing a sample of 824 individuals, an ordinary least-squares model was fit in order to determine the effects of reported victimization, fear of victimization, and neighborhood characteristics on satisfaction with police. The authors utilized interaction terms to model varying effects between the East and West sides of the city. Findings The study found that fear of victimization was related to lower satisfaction with police, while actual victimization had an inconsistent effect when community satisfaction and collective efficacy were accounted for. The authors found the effect was present only in the more affluent western portion of the city. Furthermore, the authors found that non-white residents reported much lower satisfaction with police than white residents. Research limitations/implications The authors were unable to disaggregate respondents to smaller geographical units than an East\West measure, which limits the authors’ ability to discuss small-scale contexts at the block, or block-group level. Practical implications This study suggests that concerted efforts to reduce fear of crime may increase satisfaction with police, but this effect may be based on neighborhood context. Improving collective efficacy and community satisfaction may provide additional ways to improve citizen satisfaction with police. Originality/value This paper adds to the literature examining the relationship between victimization, fear of crime, and satisfaction with police.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-30T11:01:51Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2017-0097
  • How commitment and satisfaction explain leave intention in police
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of professional commitment and job satisfaction on leave intention considering alternative job opportunities as a moderator. Design/methodology/approach The authors collected data from 147 patrolling police officers on the basis of convenience sampling using a questionnaire-based survey. Findings The study noted that professionally committed and satisfied police officers are less likely to leave their organization. In addition, alternative job opportunities strengthen the negative association of professional commitment and job satisfaction with leave intention. Research limitations/implications This study was conducted at one point of time and the majority of the respondents were male, therefore, the results might be gender biased. This study has implications for policymakers and HR managers. Practical implications Law enforcement agencies and organizations should develop and sustain workplace environments where professional commitment and job satisfaction can positively influence the leave intentions of their employees. More specifically, it provides insight to the managers to retain talented and commitment employees in their organizations. Originality/value This study adds to the scant literature on professional commitment and alternative job opportunity in the context of police.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-30T10:52:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-12-2017-0154
  • Show cause analysis
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to detect and examine any trends in the self-reported causation of misconduct among officers being considered for dismissal. Design/methodology/approach The data utilised in this study consisted of show cause notice (SCN) responses. In the process of being considered for dismissal, officers’ may offer the causes of or mitigating factors to their misconduct as a means of avoiding dismissal. This study utilised these responses as a data source. Data collection occurred between January 2013 and October 2016, resulting in a cohort of n=100 responses comprised of between 1 and ~1,000 pages of free text. Qualitative methods were preferred, a conventional content analysis was performed with coding categories derived from SCN response text. Findings The results of this study indicate noteworthy levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related mental health issues amongst this cohort, as well as pervasive financial and workplace stressors, which officers frequently link to the causation of their misconduct. Of particular note is the consistent co-occurrence of work-related stressors and health issues, most commonly through formally diagnosed PTSD. Research limitations/implications This study indicates an opportunity for support services to impact positively on mental health and stress, and subsequently misconduct among police officers. Originality/value There is still very little understanding of the causation of misconduct among police officers. This is the first time that this data have been utilised in any form of the research, it provides valuable insight into a potential alternative method of addressing misconduct to reactionary investigative action.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-30T10:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2017-0079
  • Secondary traumatic stress in police officers investigating childhood
           sexual abuse
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Previous research has indicated that helping professionals working with traumatised individuals are susceptible to adverse effects which can be recognised as secondary traumatic stress (STS). The purpose of this paper is to explore STS in police officer’s investigating childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in the UK. Design/methodology/approach This study employed a cross-sectional, quantitative design. An online questionnaire was completed by 101 Child Abuse Investigation Unit (CAIU) police officers in England and Wales. STS, coping strategies, anxiety, depression and demographic information was collected for all participants. Findings It was indicated that increased exposure to CSA, measured by number of interviews in the past six months, was associated with higher levels of STS. Positive coping strategies, negative coping strategies, anxiety and depression all had a strong, positive relationship with STS. Research limitations/implications This paper is a first step to understanding STS in CAIU police officers in the England and Wales. This area of research remains under-developed and would benefit from further attention in the future. Originality/value This is the first known study of its kind in the UK.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-30T10:40:37Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2016-0131
  • Police integrity in China
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the contours of police integrity among Chinese police officers. Specifically, this study explores how Chinese police evaluate integrity based on official policy governing interactions, discipline governing infractions, views of seriousness, and willingness to inform when others engage in misconduct. Design/methodology/approach In total, 353 police officers were surveyed representing those attending in-service training program at a Chinese police university in May 2015. Questionnaires containing 11 scenarios describing police misbehaviors were distributed to officers during classes. Findings There was a strong correlation between officers’ perceptions of rule-violation, misconduct seriousness, discipline, and willingness to report. Additionally, preliminary results suggest there exists a code of silence among Chinese officers, and that Chinese officers hold a lenient attitude toward the use of excessive force. Research limitations/implications This study utilizes a convenient sample, which restricts the generalizability of the results. Practical implications The results indicate the existence of code of silence among Chinese officers and their lenient attitude toward the use of excessive force. Originality/value Although there has been a growing body of research examining police integrity in both western democracies and transitional societies, China as the largest developing nation in the world and with a unique police system (falls somewhere between the centralized model and the integrated model) is understudied. This study addresses this gap in previous literature by exploring the contours of police integrity among Chinese police officers.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-30T10:36:37Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-01-2017-0008
  • Examining the extent to which repeat and near repeat patterns can prevent
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent and variation in the estimates to which crime can be prevented using patterns of repeats and near repeats, and whether hotspot analysis complements these patterns. Design/methodology/approach Crime data for four study areas in New Zealand are used to examine differences in the extent of burglary repeat and near repeat victimisation. Hotspots of burglary are also created to determine the extent to which burglary repeats and near repeats spatially intersect hotspots. Findings The extent of repeats and near repeats varies, meaning there is variation in the estimated prevention benefits that repeat and near repeat patterns offer. In addition, at least half of the burglaries repeats and near repeats were not located within hotspots. Research limitations/implications The use of other techniques for examining crime concentration could be used to improve the research observations. Practical implications By showing that levels of repeats and near repeats vary, the extent to which these observations coincide in hotspots offers practitioners a better means of determining whether repeat and near repeat patterns are reliable for informing crime prediction and crime prevention activities. Originality/value The paper is the first known research study that explicitly measures the variation in the extent of repeats and near repeats and the spatial intersection of these patterns within crime hotspots. The results suggest that rather than considering the use of repeat and near repeat patterns as a superior method for predicting and preventing crime, value remains in using hotspot analysis for determining where crime is likely to occur, particularly when hotspot analysis emphasises other locations for resource targeting.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-30T10:30:15Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-12-2016-0172
  • Law enforcement suicide: a review
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of law enforcement suicide research from 1997 to 2016. Design/methodology/approach The PRISMA systematic review methodology was implemented. A SCOPUS search identified a total of 97 documents. After applying all exclusion criteria, the results included a list of 44 articles in the review. Findings Overall, studies investigating law enforcement suicide rates show conflicting results, with some studies showing lower suicide rates among law enforcement, some showing higher rates, and some showing no difference to comparison populations. Recurring research themes were lack of an appropriate comparison group, and small statistical power, particularly for minority and female officers. Stressors related to suicide among police included lack of organizational support, traumatic events, shift work, stigma associated with asking for help, or problems associated with fitting in with the police culture. Problems associated with domestic relationships and alcohol use were commonly mentioned as precursors to suicide or as correlates of suicidal ideation and were hypothesized to arise from stressful working conditions. Research limitations/implications Some limitations in law enforcement suicide research include the lack of theory, under-reporting of suicides, and guarded survey responses from police officers. Future directions in police suicide research include investigating etiological factors such as past adverse life and family experiences, social-ecological variation in suicide, or differences in suicide rates within the law enforcement occupation. Practical implications Police work, given chronic and traumatic stress, lack of support, danger, and close public scrutiny is a fertile occupation for increased suicide risk. Awareness of the scope of the problem and associated risk factors can help to initiate prevention programs. Originality/value This paper provides a long-term review of literature regarding police suicidality, with suggestions for research and prevention.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-30T01:31:14Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2017-0061
  • Police management reform, labor productivity, and citizens’
           evaluation of police services
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This study tracks changes in labor productivity of the Finnish police force over a period of thorough management reforms (2009-2014). Theoretically, the study is based on the cost disease hypothesis. It was assumed that police management reforms have had no noticeable effect on labor productivity and that, therefore, the fact that both physical police facilities and frontline employees have been reduced during the reform years has been reflected on the output side: on the number of outputs, accessibility, and quality of police services. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach The study was conducted as a series of longitudinal function-specific output-input analyses (2000-2015). The project employed data from the Police Performance Management database, Police Citizen Surveys (PCSs, 1999-2016), and Police Personnel Surveys (1999-2015). Methodologically, it relied on two different compounded annual growth rate concepts, linear regressions and likelihood ratio analyses. Findings The rate of growth of labor productivity was unaffected by the management reform period. In fact, productivity may have declined during the reform process. Citizens’ evaluations of police services have slightly deteriorated over the management reform period. Research limitations/implications PCS data are based on quota sampling. The procedure contains random sampling elements but is not fully random. The earliest PCS data lack satisfactory population weights, which is why unweighted data had to be used in this study. Originality/value Longitudinal studies on police productivity and, relatedly, on the cost disease phenomenon are rare. Yet, the themata are potentially very significant for both citizens and policy makers.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-27T11:35:05Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-02-2017-0025
  • “Neighborhood” influence on police use of force:
           state-of-the-art review
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a state-of-the-art review on the topic of neighborhood/ecological influence on police use of force. In doing so, it provides an overview of the theoretical formulation and early ethnographic work on the topic as well as an in-depth critique of the issues that require further discussion. Design/methodology/approach Using several databases, a literature search was performed to collect the available empirical studies on the topic. Findings An analysis of the extant literature suggests that neighborhood/ecological influence on police use of force might not be as uniform as previously discussed, and it suffers from the ability to make sufficient comparisons. Tests vary based on the use of force measures, units of analysis, and the neighborhood-level variables examined. Originality/value This review should serve as a point of departure for scholars working in this area moving forward. It is hoped that the review provides thought-provoking commentary on the limitations of previous studies and the challenges facing this line of inquiry in the future.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-27T08:31:22Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-07-2017-0087
  • Going to the dogs' Police, donations, and K9s
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Most existing literature on K9 units has focused on the relationship between police handler and canine, or questions about use of force. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between private donations to public police departments, an increasingly accepted institutional practice in the policing world, and K9 units. Specifically, the authors examine rationales for sponsoring and financially supporting K9 units in Canada and the USA. Design/methodology/approach The authors focus on four main themes that emerged in analysis of media articles, interview transcripts, and the results of freedom of information requests. Findings These four rationales or repertoires of discourse are: police dogs as heroes; dogs as crime fighters; cute K9s; and police dogs as uncontroversial donation recipients. Originality/value After drawing attention to the expanding role of police foundations in these funding endeavors, the authors reflect on what these findings mean for understanding private sponsorship of public police as well as K9 units in North America and elsewhere. The authors draw attention to the possibility of perceived and actual corruption when private, corporate monies become the main channel through which K9 and other police units are funded.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-27T08:27:59Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2017-0066
  • Mental toughness and perceived stress in police and fire officers
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Mental toughness describes a set of attributes relating to how individuals deal with challenges, stressors, and pressure. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between mental toughness and perceived stress in police and fire officers. Design/methodology/approach The participants were 247 police officers and 130 fire fighters. Participants completed questionnaire measures of mental toughness and perceived stress, and provided information about their age, rank, and length of service within the force. Findings Mental toughness was found to be significantly related to perceived stress, with control of emotion, control of life, and confidence in abilities being particularly important. There was no consistent relationship of age, rank, or length of service with mental toughness and perceived stress. However, police officers reported lower levels of mental toughness and higher levels of perceived stress than fire officers. Practical implications The results suggest that assessing police and fire officers on a measure of mental toughness could provide a means of identifying individuals more likely to suffer from stress and stress-related physical and psychological illness. In addition, interventions that may enhance mental toughness could have beneficial effects within this population. Originality/value This is the first study to examine mental toughness and perceived stress within this population, and the findings have important implications for the management of stress.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-27T08:22:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-01-2017-0013
  • Sex differences in posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms in police
           officers following exposure to violence in Ferguson
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Women comprise a significant and growing proportion of the law enforcement population. Despite this, their potentially unique reactions to job-related posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depression have been underrepresented in the relevant literature, particularly within the context of exposure to community violence. Also understudied is the role of empathy in the development of post-trauma reactions, which has been a risk factor for the development of posttraumatic distress in previous studies. With the recent endorsement of empathy training by the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, it is important to examine ways in which empathy may contribute to differences in PTSS and depression for male and female officers. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach Male and female police officers (n=189) exposed to violence during the 2014 Ferguson protests completed a battery of measures designed to assess demographic information, prior trauma history, and mental health outcomes. Findings Moderation analyses showed that empathy moderated the relationships between exposure and PTSS and exposure and depression in female officers, such that exposure was associated with higher posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms only for female officers with high levels of empathy. These relationships were not found for men. Originality/value This study is the first to examine sex differences and the role of empathy in the mental health effects of law enforcement secondary to violence during community protests against policing.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-27T08:03:37Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-01-2017-0007
  • Measurement issues in police use of force: a state-of-the-art review
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to systematically and comprehensively review the extant literature on measurement issues in police use of force. Design/methodology/approach The current study uses a narrative meta-review of measurement issues in police use of force through a systematic and exhaustive search of several academic databases (e.g. Criminal Justice s, EBSCO Host, PsychInfo, etc.). Findings The current meta-review identified 56 studies that matched the inclusion criteria. These studies examined public and police officer perceptions of use of force, rates of use of force, types of force used, neighborhood contextual correlates of use of force, and severity of force used. A wide variety of approaches were used to measure use of force, and operationalization of use of force was inconsistent across studies. This indicates a need for high-quality research focusing on comparable operationalization of variables, consistency in measurement, and use of more rigorous research techniques. The use of validated measures is essential moving forward. Practical implications The practical implications derived from this meta-review indicate a need for future researchers to carefully evaluate the measurement approaches used in use of force studies. The lack of consistency in measurement of use of force research is concerning, and a focused effort is required to validate measures. Originality/value The state-of-the-art review on measurement issues in police use of force is the first of its kind. This study comprehensively reviews the literature on measurement issues in police use of force. This study will be useful for those who wish to further explore measurement issues in police use of force issues in policing and those who wish to work toward validated use of force measures.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-27T07:59:53Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-11-2017-0137
  • News media and perceptions of police: a state-of-the-art-review
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the literature examining the role of news media consumption and awareness in shaping public attitudes about police. Design/methodology/approach A comprehensive, systematic search of multiple academic databases (e.g. EBSCO Host) was undertaken, supplemented by the use of Google Scholar to search among journals indicated as having cited the articles found in the databases. Findings A total of 42 studies were identified that met the selection criteria for this meta-review and examined exposure to high-profile incidents involving police, awareness of negative news coverage of police, and/or consumption of specific news mediums (e.g. newspapers). Overall, research supports a relationship between negative perceptions of police and both exposure to high-profile incidents and awareness of negative coverage. Some support for the influence of consuming television news on attitudes exists, but more research is needed on the role of different news sources in shaping perceptions. Future research should also include determining causal pathways and how news about police is selected. Originality/value This is the first meta-review of the research examining how news media and attitudes about police are related. This study will provide a useful resource for those researchers wishing to continue to examine different aspects of news media consumption as a predictor of perceptions.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-27T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-11-2017-0134
  • Role reflections of police reservists: a study of volunteer reserve
           officers in Malaysia
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the work roles of the Royal Malaysia Police Volunteer Reserve officers. Design/methodology/approach A grounded theory approach was utilized for the generation and analysis of the data. Data were collected through interviews, observations and follow-ups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 male and female volunteer reserve officers and 5 regular police officers aged between 24 and 58 years of mixed socioeconomic backgrounds, ethnicities and ranking in the Royal Malaysia Police force. Two civilian respondents (spouses of the Police Volunteer Reserve officers) were also interviewed for this study for the purpose of theory sampling. Findings The data were analyzed qualitatively resulting in a model of Royal Malaysia Police Volunteer Reserve officer roles consisting of four orientations. Research limitations/implications Study outcomes are discussed theoretically and administratively. The four role orientations identified will assist researchers studying police reserve volunteerism. Practical implications Study outcomes allow administrators to utilize and deploy police reservists in consonance with the four role orientations identified. Social implications This study provides insight into how police reservists conceive of and execute their roles as they negotiate them in relation to the regular police officers they work with and the public from which they are drawn. Originality/value This is the first study of police volunteerism in Malaysia.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-27T02:25:18Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2017-0065
  • Special Weapons and Tactics operations
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test the effects of differential police training on hostage rescue effectiveness. More specifically, this study looks at the types of police trainings that are the most effective in preparing Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) officers in dealing with hostage rescue situations. Design/methodology/approach This study employs a cross-sectional design. The analyses are based on a national sample of 341 law enforcement agencies, which employed at least 50 sworn officers. Findings To improve the SWAT response effectiveness in hostage rescue situations, this study shows that two factors play a significant role, namely, the training for hostage rescue situations and an increase in the average training hours per month. Among the types of trainings that were thought to be effective but did not show a significant effect in this present study were training for crowd control/civil unrest, having military training, and training for building searches. Practical implications Increased training hours specifically designed to address hostage situations increases the likelihood of successful hostage extractions. Thus, police departments should have specific training hours set aside for hostage situations. Originality/value This study attempts to identify specific types of police trainings that have a positive effect on improving SWAT effectiveness in dealing with hostage situations. There is a very limited number of research works on SWAT operations. This study, therefore, adds to this very limited research area of policing.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-27T02:21:16Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-11-2016-0161
  • Can higher education reduce the negative consequences of police
           occupational culture amongst new recruits'
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose There is considerable evidence to illustrate police occupational culture can negatively influence service delivery and organizational reform. To counteract this, and to improve professionalism, the police services of England and Wales will become a graduate profession from 2020, although little empirical evidence exists as to what impact this will have. The purpose of this paper is to examine the implications of a police degree course on its students. Design/methodology/approach Initially, a survey was conducted with 383 university students studying for criminal justice-related undergraduate degrees in a UK university. This indicated Police Foundation degree students (n=84), identified themselves as being different, and behaving differently, to other university students. To explore the reasons for this, four focus groups were conducted with this cohort, during their two-year degree programme. Findings The study found that the Police Foundation degree students quickly assimilated a police identity, which affected their attitudes and behavior. The process led to a strengthening of ties within their own student group, at the expense of wider student socialization. Originality/value The study provides new findings in relation to undergraduate students who undertake a university-based degree programme, tailored to a future police career. The results have implications for both police policy makers and those in higher education as it highlights the strength of police occupational culture and the implications for the design of future police-related degree programmes.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-20T11:51:27Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-10-2016-0154
  • Shaping the police workforce: a state-of-the-art literature review
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence about the factors shaping the police workforce, commissioned by the Scottish Police Authority and Scottish Institute for Policing Research. Design/methodology/approach The paper uses the theory of strategic fit to assess the available evidence relating to reshaping the police workforce and brings together the most relevant recent reviews of police organisations and empirical studies on these issues. The use of the theory enabled the strategies that have been adopted by police agencies in recent years to be evaluated in relation to the current political and economic environment. Findings The authors find that here is considerable uncertainty and while there has been previous discussion on the benefits of larger or smaller forces there is not robust evidence that a particular force size is optimal for either efficacy or efficiency, although very small forces may struggle in some ways. There is also mixed evidence about whether increasing police organisation resourcing to allow more officers to be employed reduces crime levels, and there is a relative lack of evidence about the impact this has on the other areas of community life in which police are involved. Research limitations/implications There are major weaknesses in research relating to police organisational reform: there is no accepted theory of police reform, no accepted method as to how such a reform should be evaluated nor have there been any comparative studies of earlier police civilianisation programs (Braithwaite, Westbrook and Ledema, 2005). Originality/value Previous work on this topic often focuses on which organisational structure – whether in terms of workforce mix or size – is most efficient or effective. This research takes an alternative perspective and argues for a shift in the research agenda to take account of the friction involved in processes of organisational change, both in order to build a stronger research understanding of these important aspects of change and to more effectively inform policy. The paper provides a basis for the development of theories for understanding police reform in general – and workforce restructuring in particular – alongside appropriate methods for researching it.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-20T10:55:22Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-11-2017-0135
  • Analyzing racial profiling from traffic searches
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the issue of racial profiling when the traffic stop outcome is a search using focal concerns theory as a theoretical explanation for police officer decision making and propensity score matching (PSM) as a better analysis to understand the race of the driver. Design/methodology/approach The data for this study come from traffic stops conducted by the Louisville Police Department between January 1 and December 31, 2002. Findings The results show that the elements of focal concerns theory matter most when it comes to if a traffic stop that resulted in a search even though racial profiling was evident. The use of PSM provides evidence that it is a better statistical technique when studying racial profiling. The gender of the driver was significant for male drivers but not for female drivers. Research limitations/implications The data for this study are cross-sectional and are self-report data from the police officer. Practical implications This paper serves as a theoretical explanation that other researchers could use when studying racial profiling along with a better type of statistical analysis being PSM. Social implications The findings based on focal concerns theory could provide an explanation for police officer decision making that police departments could use to help citizens understand why a traffic stop search took place. Originality/value This is the first study of its kind to the researcher’s knowledge to apply focal concerns theory with PSM to understand traffic stop searches.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-20T10:53:43Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2017-0081
  • Police cynicism in Serbia: prevalence, nature and associations with job
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the first research on prevalence, nature and correlates of the police cynicism in Serbia, with particular attention to the associations of cynicism with job satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected using a paper-based survey, and obtained from 472 police officers from five police departments across the country. For the purpose of measuring of organizational and work aspects of police cynicism a new developed 24 five-level Likert-type items scale was used. Findings The results show that cynicism is normally distributed. No statistically significant gender, education or police rank differences were identified, and the length of service does not appear to influence cynical attitudes significantly. Cynicism scores statistically significantly varied across police departments and predicted job dissatisfaction. The underlying four-factor structure of police cynicism was identified. The factors include: general organizational cynicism; cynicism toward police hierarchy/superiors; cynicism toward public/citizen cooperation; and cynicism toward modernization of policing in the crime control field. Research limitations/implications The generalizability of the sample is limited, giving that participants come from only five out of a total of 27 police departments in the country, while the female police officers and officers with education higher than high school were somewhat overrepresented. Originality/value This research provides some more evidence on the nature and determinants of police cynicism that might inspire future research in this important but under-researched area. It implies that the need to explore more deeply relations between police cynicism and stress, burnout and particularly contextual and departmental factors that might be influential to police cynicism. It might also incite future research on the internal structure of police cynicism.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-20T10:51:22Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-09-2016-0147
  • Is bigger better' An analysis of economies of scale and market power
           in police departments
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the nature of policing services allows for economies of scale to be realized. It is also a replication of Southwick (2005). Design/methodology/approach This study replicates the methodology used by Southwick (2005) to estimate police production and demand in order to determine whether there are economies of scale among police departments in a western state. Southwick’s (2005) method is unique in that it incorporates measures of market power to predict police efficiency. The present study is unique in that it involves data from a low-density, low-population western state. Findings Southwick’s results for New York State are markedly different from the results found for Idaho, thus questioning the external validity of Southwick’s model as applied to a relatively low-population state. The findings also indicate that, controlling for relevant variables, crime in Idaho is highly correlated with population, suggesting that police departments in low density/population states would not achieve efficiency gains through consolidation. Research limitations/implications The implications of this study include validating police performance measures and evaluating applicability of market power to police departments. Practical implications No evidence was found to support the contention that consolidation of police departments results in efficiency gains. Originality/value This is the first study of economies of scale in policing to use data from a low-density, low-population western state.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-18T01:42:22Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2016-0135
  • Media consumption and perceptions of police legitimacy
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Given the heightened scrutiny of police by the media in the post-Ferguson era, the purpose of this paper is to test hypotheses derived from the cultivation theory regarding possible media-related effects on perceptions of police legitimacy. Design/methodology/approach A sample of 1,197 residents from a mid-size California city was surveyed. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the relative effects of media consumption and personal experience on perceptions of police legitimacy. Findings Partial support for the cultivation theory was found. Those who reported local TV as their most important news source saw police as more legitimate than those who reported the internet as most important. Consistent with past research, procedural justice was the strongest predictor of perceptions of police legitimacy for those recently stopped by the police. Awareness of negative media depictions of police, however, also had independent effects indicating that media consumption does impact perceptions of police legitimacy. Originality/value While a wealth of research on the relationship between procedural justice and perceptions of police legitimacy exists, no previous research has examined the role media consumption plays in shaping such perceptions.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-18T01:40:20Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-12-2016-0177
  • Social avoidance in policing
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the association of social avoidance among police, cardiovascular disease (CVD) (metabolic syndrome (MetSyn)), and social support. Design/methodology/approach Participants were officers from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress study (n=289). Social avoidance (defined as the tendency to avoid social contact) and other subscales from the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale were analyzed. The mean number of MetSyn components across tertiles of the Cook-Medley scales was computed using analysis of variance and analysis of covariance. Social support was measured with the Social Provisions Scale, categorized as high or low based on the median. Findings The mean number of MetSyn components increased significantly across tertiles of social avoidance (1.51±0.18, 1.52±0.12, and 1.81±0.12); the only Cook-Medley subscale that remained significantly associated with MetSyn following adjustment for age and gender. Participants high in social avoidance reported significantly lower social support (79.9±8.5 vs 85.8±8.6; p=0.001). Research limitations/implications The study is cross-sectional and therefore precludes causality. The authors were unable to determine the direction of associations between social avoidance and MetSyn. The measure of social support was unidimensional, including only perceived support; additional types of social support measures would be helpful. Practical implications This study suggests that occupational-based police social isolation is associated with health outcomes and lower support. Several suggestions are made which will help to improve communication between the police and public. Examples are the use of social media, training in communication techniques, and changing the police role to one of public guardians. Originality/value Social avoidance is the least studied the Cook-Medley subscale associated with CVD. It is important for the health of officers to maintain a social connection with others.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-13T08:20:47Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-02-2017-0017
  • Police officers’ experiences as victims of hate crime
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to fill a research and literature gap by examining the nature and impact of hate crime victimisation on police officers, and their responses to it. The research explores victimisation due to the occupational stigma of policing and the personal characteristics and identities of individual officers. Design/methodology/approach The research design is qualitative, based on 20 in-depth interviews with police officers in one English police force. Thematic analysis was applied to the data. Findings All participants had experienced hate crime arising from their occupational or personal identities. Initially shocked, officers became desensitized and responded in different ways. These include tolerating and accepting hate crime but also challenging it through communication and the force of law. Research limitations/implications This research is based on a small sample. It does not claim to be representative but it is exploratory, aiming to stimulate debate and further research on a contemporary policing issue. Practical implications If further research works were to confirm these findings, there are implications for police training, officer welfare and support, supervision and leadership. Originality/value The police occupy a problematic position within hate crime literature and UK legislation. This paper opens up debate on an under-researched area and presents the first published study of the hate crime experiences of police officers.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-13T08:18:03Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-12-2016-0176
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