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Journal Cover Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
  [SJR: 0.675]   [H-I: 29]   [436 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1363-951X
   Published by Emerald Homepage  [335 journals]
  • Police stressors and health: a state-of-the-art review
    • Pages: 642 - 656
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Volume 40, Issue 4, Page 642-656, November 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a state-of-the-art review on the topic of police stressors and associated health outcomes. Recent empirical research is reviewed in the areas of workplace stress, shift work, traumatic stress, and health. The authors provide a comprehensive table outlining occupational exposures and related health effects in police officers. Design/methodology/approach A review of recent empirical research on police stress and untoward psychological and physiological health outcomes in police officers. Findings The results offer a conceptual idea of the empirical associations between stressful workplace exposures and their impact on the mental and physical well-being of officers. Research limitations/implications A key limitation observed in prior research is the cross-sectional study design; however, this serves as a motivator for researchers to explore these associations utilizing a longitudinal study design that will help determine causality. Originality/value This review provides empirical evidence of both mental and physical outcomes associated with police stress and the processes involved in both. Research findings presented in this paper are based on sound psychological and medical evidence among police officers
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T09:40:48Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2016-0097
  • The loosely coupled factors of organizational stress in police forces
    • Pages: 657 - 671
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Volume 40, Issue 4, Page 657-671, November 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the recursive perspective that emphasizes bureaucracy as a source of officers’ stress, explain officers’ stress as a loosely coupled effect, examine the positive effects of loose coupling and legitimize the necessity of improving context management as a stress-reduction factor. Design/methodology/approach The research methodology uses a quantitative perspective; the members of two police forces constituted the universe; the sampling technique was not random and accidental; and an exploratory factor analysis and an invariance measure were performed. Findings The stress phenomenon is common and similar in both police forces, which means that it is indifferent to their organizational differences and has common causes. Loose coupling is present in both police work settings and entails significant stress; and the search for an explanation of the stress caused by loosely coupled elements should focus on both the value chain and the processes. Practical implications Addressing this phenomenon should entail a twofold improvement strategy: the correction of loosely coupled organizational factors by revising the management processes that cause stress and the prevention of loosely coupled effects by using professional training to enhance adaptive behavior within specific contexts. Originality/value Police organizations are addressed as loosely coupled (anarchic organized) systems instead of tightly coupled (bureaucratic) systems. The loosely coupled factors that emerge inside bureaucratic organizations cause significant stress among officers and complementary research is necessary to analyze the fallacious nature of the recursive attribution of police stress to bureaucratic characteristics.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T09:41:03Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2016-0128
  • The effects of body-worn cameras (BWCs) on police and citizen outcomes
    • Pages: 672 - 688
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Volume 40, Issue 4, Page 672-688, November 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review the extant of the published literature on body-worn cameras (BWCs) in policing, specifically in the context of how BWCs affect both citizens and officers. Design/methodology/approach The current study is a narrative review of the impact of BWCs on police and citizens generated through a search of four repositories (Google Scholar, Criminal Justice s, EBSCO Host, PsychInfo). Findings The current narrative review identified 21 articles that matched the selection criteria. In general, this body of research demonstrates that: the police are supportive of BWC adoption; the evidence from BWC evaluations suggests that the use of BWCs can have benefits for police-public encounters. Practical implications The practical implications derived from this narrative review suggest police administrators that the adoption and effective implementation of BWCs are one mechanism that can strengthen police-community relationships and decrease police misconduct through enhanced legitimacy and accountability. Originality/value This study is useful for researchers who wish to further examine BWC issues in policing, for police managers/administrators who are currently utilizing BWC technology, and for those who are considering adopting BWC technology.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T09:40:59Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-03-2017-0032
  • Assessing citizen perceptions of body-worn cameras after encounters with
    • Pages: 689 - 703
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Volume 40, Issue 4, Page 689-703, November 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess perceptions of body-worn cameras (BWCs) among citizens who had BWC-recorded police encounters, and to explore the potential for a civilizing effect on citizen behavior. Design/methodology/approach From June to November 2015, the authors conducted telephone interviews with 249 citizens in Spokane (WA) who had a recent BWC-recorded police encounter. Findings Respondents were satisfied with how they were treated during the police encounter and, overall, had positive attitudes about BWCs. However, only 28 percent of respondents were actually aware of the BWC during their own encounter. The authors also found little evidence of a civilizing effect but did document a significant, positive connection between awareness of the BWC and enhanced perceptions of procedural justice. Research limitations/implications
      Authors only interviewed citizens who had encounters with officers wearing BWCs. However, variation in BWC awareness among citizens allowed the authors to construct a proxy “non-BWC condition” for comparison. Practical implications The pre-conditions necessary to produce a civilizing effect among citizens are complex and difficult to achieve. The intriguing relationship between BWC awareness and procedural justice suggests the technology may have the potential to improve police legitimacy. Originality/value The study is among the first to explore attitudes about BWCs among those who have their police encounters recorded, and results demonstrate high levels of support among this population. Findings bode well for continued adoption of BWCs in policing.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T09:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-07-2016-0105
  • Attempted suspect-provoked shootings in Victoria: prevalence and
    • Pages: 704 - 718
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Volume 40, Issue 4, Page 704-718, November 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the prevalence of attempted suspect-provoked shootings (SPS) in Victoria, Australia, and explore nonlethal tactics police officers use to resolve such incidents. Design/methodology/approach A random sample of 20 percent of police-attended incidents was sourced from a police contact-based database. The narrative of each incident was coded using established criteria for “suicide-by-cop.” Incidents that met the criteria were further analyzed to elucidate historical and situational characteristics. To supplement these data, operational police officers were invited to participate in a survey about particulars of an attempted SPS incident that they had attended and resolved non-fatally. Findings Police are encountering these incidents up to three times a week in Victoria, Australia. While they engage in a range of tactics, police report that communication and negotiation skills are the most effective means of successful resolution. Research limitations/implications Although the survey attempted to correct for the potential limitations of using administrative data for research purposes, its weakness is in the modest sample size that utilizes self-report data that may lead to recall biases. Further research would benefit from using complementary methodologies that seek to examine police tactics and elucidate decision-making processes using video-based or written vignettes. Practical implications Officers’ awareness of both the commonalty of this phenomenon and of the important situational characteristics may lead to greater skill and confidence in managing these. Originality/value This is one of the very few published studies investigating prevalence and characteristics of attempted SPS incidents.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T09:40:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-04-2016-0050
  • Correlates of subject(ive) resistance in police use-of-force situations
    • Pages: 719 - 732
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Volume 40, Issue 4, Page 719-732, November 2017.
      Purpose In most jurisdictions, resistance is the primary legal justification for police use of force. Identifying the correlates of resistance helps to anticipate non-compliance, increase officer safety, and maintain low rates of use of force. Following previous research on subject demeanor, the purpose of this paper is to argue that the presence of resistance is determined subjectively, based on an individual’s interpretation of a situation. Design/methodology/approach Binary and multinomial logistic regression models were used to analyze resistance reported in 878 interventions involving police use of force in a large Canadian city. A four-category measure similar to those commonly found in previous studies was used to build dependent variables and a series of 14 behaviors based on the actions of a subject was used as a predictor of reported resistance. Findings As expected, subject behavior was found to be a significant predictor of reported resistance. Officer and citizen characteristics (gender, race, age/experience) were weakly related to the outcome. Models were found to offer considerably better predictions when situational factors were included. Originality/value Perceptions of resistance were found to be influenced by a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, the subject’s actions.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T09:41:14Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2016-0081
  • SWAT mobilization trends: testing assumptions of police militarization
    • Pages: 733 - 747
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Volume 40, Issue 4, Page 733-747, November 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to empirically test common explanations for the growth of police militarization and to determine whether federal funding, such as Byrne grants, had a significant effect on the growth and normalization of SWAT teams. Design/methodology/approach Drawing from data spanning the years 1986-1998, an interrupted time series analysis is used to assess whether federal funding has a significant influence on the growth of SWAT teams and their mobilization for narcotics grants. Findings The findings of this analysis suggest that, at the time where federal funding was at its peak (the year 1990), there was a significant decrease in SWAT team creation compared to the years prior. There was likewise a significant decrease in SWAT mobilization for narcotics warrant in the years following 1990. Research limitations/implications The main limitation of this study is that unmeasured exogenous factors in the year 1990 may have influenced militarization trends. However, given the counterintuitive findings of this study, it is essential that more nuanced research is conducted regarding police militarization to gain a clearer understanding of trends in police culture. As this study finds that militarization is not significantly driven by federal funding, future research must incorporate other factors to explain police organizational change. Originality/value This paper provides an advanced empirical analysis that is one of the first to directly test commonly held explanations for police militarization. This analysis adds complexity to the issue of US police militarization and demonstrates that further research is essential in this area.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T09:40:47Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2016-0136
  • Minority representation in policing and racial profiling
    • Pages: 748 - 767
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Volume 40, Issue 4, Page 748-767, November 2017.
      Purpose Increasing minority representation in law enforcement has long been viewed as a primary means to improve police-citizen relations. The recommendation to diversify police departments was endorsed by the Kerner Commission and, most recently, the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. While these recommendations make intuitive sense, little scholarly attention has examined whether greater levels of minority representation translate into positive police-community relations. The purpose of this paper is to use the representative bureaucracy and minority threat frameworks to assess the impact of the racial/ethnic composition of both police departments and municipalities on disparities in traffic stops. Design/methodology/approach A series of ordinary least squares regression analyses are tested using a sample of more than 150 local police agencies from Illinois and Missouri. Findings Higher levels of departmental representativeness are not associated with fewer racial/ethnic disparities in stops. Instead, the racial/ethnic composition of municipalities is more predictive of racial patterns of traffic stops. Originality/value This study provides one of the few investigations of representative bureaucracy in law enforcement using individual departments as the unit of analysis. It examines Hispanic as well as black disparities in traffic stops, employing a more representative sample of different size agencies.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T09:40:43Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-09-2016-0145
  • On to the next one' Using social network data to inform police target
    • Pages: 768 - 782
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Volume 40, Issue 4, Page 768-782, November 2017.
      Purpose Target prioritization is routinely done among law enforcement agencies, but the criteria to establish which targets will lead to the most crime reduction are neither systematic, nor do they take into account the networks in which offenders are embedded. The purpose of this paper is to propose network capital as a guide for prioritization exercises. The approach simultaneously considers a participant’s network centrality and their crime-affiliated attributes. Design/methodology/approach Data on all police interactions are used to map the social networks of two mutually connected police targets from a mid-size city in British Columbia, Canada. Network capital is captured by combining the extent to which individuals act as brokers between otherwise unconnected individuals (betweenness centrality), their number of contacts in the network (degree centrality), and whether they have a criminal record, gang ties, and a firearm carrier status. Findings The network comprises 101 associates, with nine mutual contacts amongst the two targets, and half of the network having a crime-affiliated attribute. Network capital directed the prioritization process to seven associates who stood out. Targeting strategies from two different investigative outcomes are compared. Research limitations/implications The specific recommendations of the study can only be interpreted within the context of the initial targets around which the network was constructed. As a prioritization approach, however, network capital is generalizable to other contexts with implications for law enforcement officials and, more broadly, the community. Originality/value The study provides insights into the practical application of network analysis with already existing police data. Network capital is data driven, which comes with its own limitations, but which constitutes an improvement over purely informal approaches to target prioritization.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T09:41:19Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2016-0079
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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