Journal Cover
Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.738
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 426  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1363-951X
Published by Emerald Homepage  [344 journals]
  • Suspicious preoperational activities and law enforcement interdiction of
           terrorist plots
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a metric for validating the Nationwide Suspicious Activity Reporting (SAR) Initiative’s (NSI) sixteen-category instrument, which is designed to guide law enforcement in the collection and analysis of suspicious behaviors preceding serious crimes, including terrorist attacks. Design/methodology/approach Data on suspicious preoperational activities and terrorism incident outcomes in the USA between 1972 and 2013 come from the American Terrorism Study (ATS). Using a mixed-method approach, the authors conduct descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine the frequencies of the least and most prevalent suspicious activities (or SAR indicators) and how they predict the likelihood of terrorism prevention. In addition, the authors contextualize how configurations of SAR indicators are associated with the successful thwarting of terrorism incidents by law enforcement using an analytical method known as conjunctive analysis of case configurations (CACC). Findings The study reveals several key findings. First, certain behaviors categorized as suspicious, such as making threats, occur more frequently than others. Second, making threats, conducting surveillance and terrorist recruitment/financing predict law enforcement interdiction in terrorism plots, while misrepresentation (or the manufacturing and use of false documents) is more associated with terrorist success. Third, prevalent SAR indicators operate differently in the context of various combinations of suspicious activities to shape the likelihood for law enforcement interdiction. Research limitations/implications The current study’s findings may not be generalizable to other forms of violent extremism and terrorism outside of the USA. Practical implications This study illuminates opportunities for the NSI to provide law enforcement with the necessary tools to reduce terrorism risk and prevent future attacks. Originality/value To our knowledge, no scholarly work to date has assessed how observable behavioral indicators of suspicious preoperational activities affect the outcomes of terrorist plots.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-11-06T12:09:25Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2018-0125
  • The benefit of intelligence officers
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which intelligence officers integrated at the patrol level contribute to successful case outcomes through information sharing. Design/methodology/approach This study utilizes multinomial logistic regression to analyze the outcomes of three years of Intelligence Officer Reports (IORs) submitted by officers trained in the Phoenix Police Department’s Intelligence Officer Program. Findings The majority of IORs are either tangible case successes or intelligence successes that have the capacity to become these, as opposed to non-successes. The type of success is impacted by a number of predictors. These include case categorization, nature of crime, information-gathering methods and perceived validity of information. Perceived reliability of information was the only non-significant predictor. Research limitations/implications The study suggests the benefits of looking at multiple predictors of success in understanding the value of information gathered by intelligence officers in the field. Limitations include a fair amount of missing data and potential lack of generalizability to other agencies. Future research will also consider alternative ways of measuring success and the nesting of reports within officers. Practical implications The study provides insight into key factors for optimizing tangible case outcomes when institutionalizing intelligence-led policing at the patrol level. Originality/value This is the first study to consider how intelligence-led policing at the patrol level may influence case outcomes, and, in turn, what factors may contribute to this. Findings provide some initial considerations for optimizing desirable case outcomes.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-11-06T12:06:26Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-07-2018-0088
  • Hitting (or missing) the mark
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine police shooting accuracy and the factors that influence whether officers hit, or miss, their intended target. Design/methodology/approach Descriptive statistics explore both incident-level and hit rate shooting accuracy in single officer/single suspect shooting incidents in the Dallas Police Department between 2003 and 2017. Multiple regression models analyze the predictive utility of officer, suspect and situational factors on the two accuracy outcomes. Findings Consistent with prior research, the results demonstrate that officers are often inaccurate in officer-involved shooting (OIS) incidents. Additionally, several factors emerged as significant predictors of shooting accuracy. Practical implications The results are discussed in terms of the practical implications for training and accountability. Originality/value It has been more than a decade since the last academic study investigated this important topic using actual OIS data. Acknowledging the general dearth of this literature, this study explores what factors contribute to shooting accuracy.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-10-31T04:00:43Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2018-0060
  • Patrol career interest and perceptions of barriers among African-American
           criminal justice students
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether black and African-American criminal justice students perceive barriers to a police patrol career differently than white students, and whether the perceptions of these barriers impact desire to enter a police patrol career. Design/methodology/approach The current inquiry uses a self-administered survey of over 630 undergraduate students in criminal justice classes across five public universities. Findings Findings suggest that African-American students differ significantly from white students in perceived social disapproval of patrol careers, respect for police and perceptions of whether the police engage in racial profiling. These perceptions display a significant indirect relationship indicating lower patrol career interest for black and African-American students compared to all other races. Research limitations/implications Research limitations of the current inquiry include the lack of a nationally representative sample, the use of four-year university students as a sample to represent the potential police patrol applicant pool, and the use of a survey instrument to gauge respondent beliefs about patrol careers as opposed to actions they would take in pursuit of a police career. Practical implications Findings from the current inquiry indicate that departments may need to focus more on improving global perceptions of the police and discussing the nature of the career with recruit social support structures. Police recruiters should focus on techniques such as addressing social isolation experienced by the police rather than on decreasing standards for background checks or simply increasing awareness of police careers. Originality/value The current inquiry is one of the first to explore perceptions of barriers to entering a patrol career among CJ students. It is also among the first to examine the impact these perceptions have on patrol career interest. The findings may also help criminal justice instructors more fully discuss these barriers with students of color.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-10-19T01:02:35Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2018-0078
  • Gendered messages in police recruitment
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Prior research established several important influences on the representation of women in policing, using a variety of secondary and primary data. The purpose of this paper is to examine how experimental manipulation of online recruitment materials impacts potential applicants. Design/methodology/approach The study relied on a census of 11 criminal justice courses taught at a public university, asking students to respond to an experimental vignette instrument (n=174). The 3×2 experimental vignette involved manipulation of two variables: the identification of recruits with diversity language (“individuals,” “women and men” or “a diverse group of individuals”) and mention or absence of discussion of physical fitness requirements. Findings Results largely run counter to prior research concerning women in policing, with women actually indicating increased probability of providing their contact information when encountering vignettes with physical fitness requirements. Originality/value This study demonstrates that small manipulations of recruitment content can have significant and gendered impact on potential applicants. This paper provides a foundation for empirical study of how changes in online recruitment materials impact a variety of relevant outcomes relating to applicant behaviors.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-10-02T02:11:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2018-0072
  • On the relationship between goals, membership and network design in
           multi-agency “fusion” centres
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to adopt an organisational network perspective to examine the structural properties underpinning the design and governance of multi-agency fusion centres and related environments, focussing particularly on how they are formed and internally managed. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted several focus groups and follow-up interviews with executive and operational members of Australia’s principal fusion centres and related environments. Findings The authors argue that in order to understand the internal dynamics of fusion centres, and the ways in which they form and function, the analysis of interrelationships between partners and potential partners is critical. The authors have demonstrated that a network model can assist in this type of analysis. For example, hub-and-spoke network structures appear to be a particularly effective solution to the centralisation-density trade-off for such inter-agency networks. Originality/value The authors use a novel approach that combines a goal-oriented network framework with the existing literature on fusion centres to synthesise key features of the network structure of fusion centres and associated processes of information sharing.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-10-02T01:58:03Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2018-0070
  • Giving voice to the victims of sexual assault: the role of police
           leadership in organisational change
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a long-term programme within a police service that sought to transform the policing of adult sexual assault cases through reforming case management and investigation practices, as well as cultural perspectives among staff. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on a case-study approach of change and reform within a single police service. Fieldwork consisted of more than 240 semi-structured interviews and focus groups with police officers, civilian staff, victim advocates, crown prosecutors, defence lawyers, doctors and staff from victim specialist support agencies. Extensive documentary analysis supplemented the primary findings. Findings Changes to investigations of sexual assault were perceived to be wide-ranging and deeply embedded, and were regarded positively by police officers, staff and external agencies. These are identified in terms of improvements to initial reporting of offences, the development of more rigorous case management and investigations, and enhanced relations with external support agencies. Research limitations/implications The study is necessarily limited to one case study and the analysis would be usefully developed through further application to other police services. Social implications The findings have considerable implications for police leaders and managers and wider society. Victim support and recovery agencies benefit from the reforms outlined, and there are considerable consequences for wider criminal justice that continues to disadvantage victims. Originality/value The paper has considerable originality since it offers a “deep” and “thick” understanding of reform within a particular context. The programme of reform was highly unusual since it was designed and delivered over a ten-year period and addressed many aspects of police organisation.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-09-24T10:35:08Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-03-2018-0037
  • Tattoos in policing: a survey of state police policies
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Policing agencies across the USA have cited difficulty recruiting qualified applicants, thus leaving many employment vacancies unfilled. One reason for this challenge may be that those who would make exceptional police officers are barred from employment because of their body art. Varying appearance policies exist concerning tattoos, yet little is known about these policies. The purpose of this paper is to survey the tattoo policies of policing agencies. Design/methodology/approach The tattoo policies of all 50 state-level policing agencies were reviewed to explore similarities and state-level correlates. Findings The majority, but not all, of state police have some type of appearance policy targeting tattoos. State policing agencies that have a “no visibility” policy regarding tattoos more often were in states with a low percentage of millennial residents, high percentage of young veterans, men and non-Hispanic white citizens, and low crime; t-tests indicate “no visibility” policy states significantly differed from other states in the percentage of non-Hispanic whites and crime. Further, state policing agencies with a “no visibility” policy tended to be in northeastern states, with southern states having the fewest state policing agencies with such policies, although the χ2 test was non-significant. Originality/value Despite the ubiquity of tattoos in the American society, the literature is scant with studies of police appearance policies regarding tattoos. This study provides a partial summary of tattoo policies at the state policing level.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-09-21T01:53:15Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2018-0067
  • Can threat assessment help police prevent mass public shootings'
           Testing an intelligence-led policing tool
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine whether threat assessment, an intelligence-led policing (ILP) tool, can prevent mass public shootings. Design/methodology/approach In order to gauge the potential effectiveness of this ILP tool, the authors conduct a retrospective analysis of 278 mass public shootings that occurred in the USA between 1966 and 2016. This retrospective analysis allows us to determine how successful threat assessment protocols could be in preventing mass public shootings by examining how successful this tool would have been in identifying the offenders in the data. Findings The results show that threat assessment has the potential to be an effective tool in the ILP arsenal to identify and prevent impending mass public shootings. However, the results also point to several obstacles for the effective implementation of this ILP tool. The underreporting of threats and using the content of threats and characteristics of threateners are problematic in correctly assigning risk. The authors make suggestions for how to overcome these obstacles. Originality/value This study makes several contributions to the ILP and mass murder field. This is the first study to test the potential effectiveness of an ILP tool to prevent mass public shootings. Additionally, this is one of the first studies to examine the leaks, types, context and follow-though of threats made by mass public shooters in the USA. Consequently, it provides unique information on the foreshowing behaviors of mass public shooters.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-09-12T01:49:46Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-07-2018-0089
  • Documenting current practices in the management of deaf suspects in the
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to combine previous research on deaf suspects with the findings from data gathered from law enforcement personnel nationwide to gain an understanding of the common practices of US law enforcement when arresting, interrogating and communicating with deaf suspects. Design/methodology/approach In light of the limited amount of research available on handling deaf suspects, a two-part sampling approach was used. Using critical case sampling, the author surveyed law enforcement via open-ended surveys designed to solicit information about their involvement with deaf suspects and any related questions and concerns. Guided by the Wave 1 data, Wave 2 surveys were administered to law enforcement nationwide (using expert sampling). Findings An analysis of the two waves of data collected was used to assemble the list of current practices. Originality/value This study combines previous research on deaf suspects, which has been published largely through the framework of deaf studies, with the insight of practitioners to identify a list of current practices used by US law enforcement when handling deaf suspects.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-09-07T01:08:55Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-02-2018-0026
  • The rapid diffusion of license plate readers in US law enforcement
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to documents the diffusion of license plate readers (LPRs) in the USA, examining the variety, evolution and tracking of their uses through a national survey. Design/methodology/approach This study employs a national, stratified, representative survey of US law enforcement agencies with 100 or more officers. Findings LPR technology is currently used by at least two-thirds of larger police agencies, which represents a more than threefold increase in LPR acquisition in the last 10 years. The number of LPRs per agency, while small (about eight on average), has also more than doubled. Federal and state funding, advocacy by law enforcement leaders, and the intuitive appeal of LPRs have likely contributed to this rapid adoption. While LPRs are still primarily used to detect and recover stolen automobiles in patrol, their use has expanded into other types of investigative and security functions. Despite the increased use and numbers of LPRs in policing, their use is highly discretionary and infrequently tracked. Practical implications LPRs continue to be widely used in law enforcement, despite a lack of strong research evidence for their crime prevention benefits. Further studies are needed on the most effective ways for agencies to utilize small numbers of LPRs and the potential return on investment for acquiring larger numbers of the devices. Originality/value This study tracks the history of LPR diffusion and use and goes beyond prior law enforcement surveys by examining specific uses of LPRs and the extent to which agencies track their uses and outcomes.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-08-20T12:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-04-2018-0054
  • Stalking: an examination of the correlates of subsequent police responses
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Few studies have explored the correlates of police responses to the crime of stalking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the correlates of nine specific police actions (no action, multiple actions, took a report, talked to perpetrator, arrested perpetrator, recommended PO or RO, recommended self-protection, referred to prosecutor’s office and referred to social services) to this type of crime. This study found three of the four incident measures (victim-offender relationship, intimidation and physical injury) and three of the four victim demographic measures (age, gender and marital status) significantly predicted seven of the nine police actions. Design/methodology/approach Data for this study came from the 2006 Stalking Victimization Supplement of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The sample included stalking cases that were reported to the police and all measures were constructed using victims’ responses to survey questionnaires. Nine logistic regression models were estimated and in each model, four incident characteristic variables and four victim demographic variables were regressed on each of the nine police actions. Findings This study found three of the four incident characteristic measures (victim-offender relationship, intimidation, and physical injury) and three of the four victim demographic variables (age, gender and marital status) were significantly related to seven of the nine specific police actions (no action, multiple actions, arrested perpetrator, recommended PO or RO, recommended self-protection, referred to prosecutor’s office and referred to social services). None of the incident characteristic and victim demographic measures were related to two of the nine specific police actions (took a report and talked to perpetrator). Research limitations/implications This study possesses the same shortcomings associated with the NCVS. The current study involves cross-sectional, official data that are over 10 years old. The measures employed in the current study are victims’ perceptions of how the officers acted. The study does not include information regarding how many times the victim contacted the police or the nature of the stalking episode. The study excludes other variables (suspect’s demeanor, the presence of witnesses) that may be relevant in examining subsequent police responses to stalking. Practical implications Frontline offices should be required to undertake stalking training. Further, stalking training needs to be conducted independently from domestic violence training. Mandatory stalking training for law enforcement officers will lead to a greater comprehension of existing stalking statute for the officers as well as help increase the number of offenders being identified and charged with this crime by the officers. Social implications Police inaction to reported stalking not only dissuade victims from reporting future victimizations, it will also result in stalking being an under-reported crime. Police inaction could potentially compromise victim safety and/or offender accountability. Police inaction also undermines the legitimacy of law enforcement and attenuates the relationship between citizens and police agencies. Originality/value To date, only one study has examined the correlates of subsequent police responses to the crime of stalking. However, this study employed broad measures of police actions (formal and informal). The current study involves specific police actions (e.g. taking a report, referring the victim to social service agencies). Contrary to the prior study that found none of the incident and victim characteristics was related to two broad measures of subsequent police responses, this study found several incident and victim measures significantly predicted seven specific police actions.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-08-14T09:03:13Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-12-2017-0157
  • Creating optimal patrol areas using the P-median model
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of the p-median model to construct optimal patrol areas. This can improve both time spent traveling to calls, as well as equalize call load between patrol areas. Design/methodology/approach The paper provides an introduction to the use of integer linear programs to create optimal patrol areas, as many analysts and researchers in the author’s field will not be familiar with such models. The analysis then introduces a set of linear constraints to the p-median problem that are applicable to police agencies, such as constraining call loads to be equal and making patrol areas geographically contiguous. Findings The analysis illustrates the technique on simplified simulated examples. The analysis then demonstrates the utility of the technique by showing how patrol areas in Carrollton, TX can be made both more efficient and equalize the call loads given the same number of patrol beats as currently in place. Originality/value Unlike prior applications of creating patrol areas, this paper introduces linear constraints into the p-median problem, making it much easier to solve than programs that have non-linear or multiple objective functions. Supplementary code using open source software is also provided, allowing other analysts or researchers to apply the model to their own data.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-08-14T08:59:49Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-02-2018-0027
  • Obstacles to problem-oriented policing in Montevideo
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose In the broad context of Uruguay’s police reform, the Ministry of Interior is implementing a problem-oriented policing (POP) program in Montevideo, Uruguay’s capital city. The purpose of this paper is to examine the obstacles confronted by this program over its implementation. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected through 20 semi-structured interviews conducted with members of the Uruguay National Police selected via purposeful sampling. The study relies on a grounded theory approach. Findings were interpreted based on five categories of analysis. Findings Findings point at obstacles confronted by the program associated with contextual organizational factors, a general misunderstanding of POP, leadership, resistance and motivation, and availability and sufficiency of resources. Originality/value Although POP has been implemented in a variety of settings, it is still rare in Latin America. As a consequence, research on POP is limited in this region. This study adds to the small but growing body of literature on the police reform in Latin America, and at the same time, is one the few pieces of research on the police reform in Uruguay.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-08-08T01:59:35Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-02-2018-0025
  • The impact of job and family factors on work stress and engagement among
           Hong Kong police officers
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of demands from three life domains: society, workplace and family and different resources at the individual, family and supervisor levels on occupational stress and work engagement among Hong Kong police officers. Design/methodology/approach A survey based on a random sample of 514 male and female police officers was conducted, and multivariate regression was employed to assess the effects of demands and resources on work stress and work engagement. Findings Family–work conflicts, organizational and operational factors affected work stress and work engagement among police officers. Constructive coping was found to be positively related to work stress and negatively associated with work engagement. Research limitations/implications Survey data collected from a single Chinese city may not be generalized to officers in other parts of China or Chinese societies with different social and political contexts. Originality/value The present study filled the knowledge gap about factors influencing police stress and engagement. This study provides insights into how to establish relevant contextual measures to reduce police work stress. This study represents one of the first attempts to use a random sample of police officers for the investigation of police stress in Hong Kong.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-08-08T01:56:55Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-01-2018-0015
  • Racialized perceptions of the police
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine differences in latent structures/dimensions in public perceptions of the police by race/ethnicity and level of identification with a given race/ethnic group. Design/methodology/approach To identify differences in dimensions of juveniles’ perceptions of the police by the sub-samples, factor analyses were conducted utilizing data from the Gang Resistance Education and Training program evaluation. Findings The results show that minority juveniles have a relatively fragmented dimensional structure for the construct of perceptions of the police, while white juveniles have a unidimensional structure. Furthermore, moderate within-group differences in structures were found among African–American juveniles. Research limitations/implications The results of the current study call for further examination of racial invariant assumptions in criminology. Since individual dimensions constituting perceptions of the police vary by race/ethnicity, those dimensions may potentially have unique associations with endogenous variables (e.g. criminality and cooperation with the police) according to individuals’ racial/ethnic membership. Practical implications Police should clearly understand individuals’ dimensions constituting perceptions of the police and should identify dimensions that greatly impact precursors to compliance and cooperation with police such as perceived police legitimacy or perceived risk of sanction. Originality/value Individuals’ dimensions constituting perceptions of the police have significant implications on the construction of measures and their associations with other variables; however, racial differences in these dimensions have not been explored since Sullivan et al.’s (1987) research about three decades ago. In addition, the current study examined within-race differences in the dimensions constituting perceptions of the police.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-08-08T01:53:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-11-2017-0144
  • Officer views in contracting, merger, and hybrid agencies
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess officer perceptions of consolidation of law enforcement agencies under three specific models: contracting, merger and a hybrid of regionalization and contracting. Design/methodology/approach A survey was administered to 139 officers employed by four agencies using one of the models of interest. The survey asked officers their views on consolidation and how it has affected organizational and employment characteristics. Findings Officers generally support consolidation, but views vary by agency type. Officers in the contracting agencies, for example, generally viewed consolidation as less cost effective than officers in other agencies viewed it, but were more likely to say crime decreased and job security and workload improved after consolidation. Officers in the hybrid agency were less positive about changes in some employment and organizational characteristics. Research limitations/implications The sample size and response rates are low, and no comparison to other agencies is available, but the examination offers new information and lessons. Practical implications Communities considering police consolidation must consider a specific model and how to communicate changes to officers. This research illuminates officer perspectives on each. Originality/value This is the first investigation of views of shared services by specific model of consolidation. Such work is particularly valuable given increased interest in consolidation in recent years.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-07-17T06:42:10Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-03-2018-0034
  • Detention or diversion' The influence of training and education on
           school police officer discretion
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The growing concern about school violence and security has led to a dramatic increase in the number of police officers working in schools. This increase has been accompanied by a focus on the training of school-based law enforcement, the discretion that they exercise when interacting with youth, and the concern that these factors may lead to more youths facing arrest and formal processing by the juvenile and criminal justice system. What is not well understood is whether or not having formal school resource officer (SRO) training or higher education impacts the officer’s decision making when responding to an incident involving a student. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses survey data from school police officers within the USA (n=179) to examine the officer’s preferred post-incident method of disciplining the youth, from the most punitive and formal approach of suspension or referral to juvenile authorities, to the less punitive and informal approach such as diversion or warn and release. Findings Overall, the study found that officers who have received formal SRO training were more likely to prefer a formal resolution to the incidents, and more highly educated officers tended to favor less punitive and informal responses. Originality/value These findings question the current state of the effectiveness of SRO training at using diversionary tactics for conflict resolution in a school setting.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-07-17T06:36:28Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-01-2018-0007
  • Neighborhood by neighborhood: community policing in a rust belt city
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine citizen satisfaction with police services and perceived safety using survey research in two high crime neighborhoods. Problem-oriented crime deterrence strategies were used in one neighborhood, the other served as a control group. Design/methodology/approach Mixed-methods approach was used to measure the effectiveness of problem-oriented approaches in persistent high-crime areas. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were conducted by sampling addresses in both neighborhoods and analyzing results. Findings No between-neighborhood differences were reported regarding the satisfaction with police services or improvement in perceived safety. Originality/value These findings suggest that this deterrence strategy is a promising approach to reducing crime while not damaging community perceptions. However, departments must vary place-based strategies, and prevention is difficult given historical contexts, the absence of credible community partners and limited resources in a declining city.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-07-09T10:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-01-2018-0002
  • Shaping community support for vigilantism: a Nigerian case study
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose In Nigeria, vigilantism appears to be a common response to dissatisfaction about the state police in the recent time. Using survey data of residents in Lagos, Nigeria, the purpose of this paper, therefore, is to explore whether what is already known about perceptions of procedural (in) justice of state police also applies to self-help security groups in Nigeria. This is with a view to influencing community support for and satisfaction with non-state policing in the country. Design/methodology/approach The study adopted a case study approach. Lagos, Nigeria was stratified into the high, medium and low densities. Systematic sampling technique was used in selecting 1 out of every 20 buildings (5 percent) in each area. Household representative person on each floor of the selected building who had contact with vigilante corps in the last 12 months were targeted. Of 768 copies of questionnaires administered, a sample of 386 was effectively returned (representing 50 percent response rate). Six categories of variables were analyzed. These are procedural justice, distributive justice, vigilante corps’ performance, legitimacy, residents’ satisfaction with vigilante corps activities and socio-economic characteristics. Findings Results reveal that respondents are not primarily instrumental in their support for vigilantisms. Instead, their support is associated with their basic communal values. More than effectiveness in controlling crime, vigilantisms receive community support provided they use procedural justice in dealings with the public. Respondents who perceive vigilantisms use procedural justice also view them as legitimate, and as well satisfy with their activities and services. Besides, results show that support for and satisfaction with vigilantisms are associated with environmental, social and economic characteristics of the residents in the community they serve. The thesis supported in this research paper is that public support for and satisfaction with vigilantisms can be influenced significantly through policing strategies that builds legitimacy. Originality/value Vigilantism pervades contemporary policing strategies. It is supported by national crime prevention policies, according to the logic that the use of community self-help security strategies could contribute to sustainable crime prevention. This study extends research on legitimacy, with an empirical focus on Nigerian vigilantism. Understanding factors that shape public support for vigilantism may enhance safer communities.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-07-09T02:14:12Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2017-0101
  • Resilience of public and private security providers: a state-of-the-art
           literature review
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the empirical literature on the resilience of public police officers and private security guards in stressful situations involving threats, violence, accidents or death. This paper studies the definitions of resilience used in these professions, identifies trends in applied research methods and examines the main topics addressed in previous research. Design/methodology/approach A scoping review was carried out, with searches in Web of Science and Google Scholar, as well as a secondary manual screening in Dutch academic journals. Based on this review, 33 empirical studies were included in the current paper. Findings First, it was revealed that a clear-cut definition of resilience applied to public police and private security guards is currently lacking. Second, predominantly quantitative designs were found to be used in the selected studies. Third, the 33 empirical studies provided insights on four main topics: demographic factors, personal characteristics, interpersonal aspects and resilience training programs. Remarkably, this scoping review did not find any empirical research on the resilience of private security guards. Originality/value This study systematically integrates the findings of empirical research on the resilience of security providers to stressful situations. The documentation of research activity, gaps and inconsistencies in the literature offer direction for future research in this relatively new field of study.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-05-02T08:24:15Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-09-2017-0114
  • Fear, victimization, and community characteristics on citizen satisfaction
           with the police
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between fear of victimization, actual victimization, and community-level characteristics on citizen satisfaction with police. This study attempts to clarify important factors in how citizens view the police, while accounting for contextual, neighborhood-level variables. Design/methodology/approach This study utilized a representative victimization survey conducted in Saginaw, MI in 2015. Utilizing a sample of 824 individuals, an ordinary least-squares model was fit in order to determine the effects of reported victimization, fear of victimization, and neighborhood characteristics on satisfaction with police. The authors utilized interaction terms to model varying effects between the East and West sides of the city. Findings The study found that fear of victimization was related to lower satisfaction with police, while actual victimization had an inconsistent effect when community satisfaction and collective efficacy were accounted for. The authors found the effect was present only in the more affluent western portion of the city. Furthermore, the authors found that non-white residents reported much lower satisfaction with police than white residents. Research limitations/implications The authors were unable to disaggregate respondents to smaller geographical units than an East\West measure, which limits the authors’ ability to discuss small-scale contexts at the block, or block-group level. Practical implications This study suggests that concerted efforts to reduce fear of crime may increase satisfaction with police, but this effect may be based on neighborhood context. Improving collective efficacy and community satisfaction may provide additional ways to improve citizen satisfaction with police. Originality/value This paper adds to the literature examining the relationship between victimization, fear of crime, and satisfaction with police.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-30T11:01:51Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2017-0097
  • How commitment and satisfaction explain leave intention in police
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of professional commitment and job satisfaction on leave intention considering alternative job opportunities as a moderator. Design/methodology/approach The authors collected data from 147 patrolling police officers on the basis of convenience sampling using a questionnaire-based survey. Findings The study noted that professionally committed and satisfied police officers are less likely to leave their organization. In addition, alternative job opportunities strengthen the negative association of professional commitment and job satisfaction with leave intention. Research limitations/implications This study was conducted at one point of time and the majority of the respondents were male, therefore, the results might be gender biased. This study has implications for policymakers and HR managers. Practical implications Law enforcement agencies and organizations should develop and sustain workplace environments where professional commitment and job satisfaction can positively influence the leave intentions of their employees. More specifically, it provides insight to the managers to retain talented and commitment employees in their organizations. Originality/value This study adds to the scant literature on professional commitment and alternative job opportunity in the context of police.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-30T10:52:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-12-2017-0154
  • Law enforcement suicide: a review
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of law enforcement suicide research from 1997 to 2016. Design/methodology/approach The PRISMA systematic review methodology was implemented. A SCOPUS search identified a total of 97 documents. After applying all exclusion criteria, the results included a list of 44 articles in the review. Findings Overall, studies investigating law enforcement suicide rates show conflicting results, with some studies showing lower suicide rates among law enforcement, some showing higher rates, and some showing no difference to comparison populations. Recurring research themes were lack of an appropriate comparison group, and small statistical power, particularly for minority and female officers. Stressors related to suicide among police included lack of organizational support, traumatic events, shift work, stigma associated with asking for help, or problems associated with fitting in with the police culture. Problems associated with domestic relationships and alcohol use were commonly mentioned as precursors to suicide or as correlates of suicidal ideation and were hypothesized to arise from stressful working conditions. Research limitations/implications Some limitations in law enforcement suicide research include the lack of theory, under-reporting of suicides, and guarded survey responses from police officers. Future directions in police suicide research include investigating etiological factors such as past adverse life and family experiences, social-ecological variation in suicide, or differences in suicide rates within the law enforcement occupation. Practical implications Police work, given chronic and traumatic stress, lack of support, danger, and close public scrutiny is a fertile occupation for increased suicide risk. Awareness of the scope of the problem and associated risk factors can help to initiate prevention programs. Originality/value This paper provides a long-term review of literature regarding police suicidality, with suggestions for research and prevention.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-30T01:31:14Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2017-0061
  • News media and perceptions of police: a state-of-the-art-review
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the literature examining the role of news media consumption and awareness in shaping public attitudes about police. Design/methodology/approach A comprehensive, systematic search of multiple academic databases (e.g. EBSCO Host) was undertaken, supplemented by the use of Google Scholar to search among journals indicated as having cited the articles found in the databases. Findings A total of 42 studies were identified that met the selection criteria for this meta-review and examined exposure to high-profile incidents involving police, awareness of negative news coverage of police, and/or consumption of specific news mediums (e.g. newspapers). Overall, research supports a relationship between negative perceptions of police and both exposure to high-profile incidents and awareness of negative coverage. Some support for the influence of consuming television news on attitudes exists, but more research is needed on the role of different news sources in shaping perceptions. Future research should also include determining causal pathways and how news about police is selected. Originality/value This is the first meta-review of the research examining how news media and attitudes about police are related. This study will provide a useful resource for those researchers wishing to continue to examine different aspects of news media consumption as a predictor of perceptions.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-27T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-11-2017-0134
  • Shaping the police workforce: a state-of-the-art literature review
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence about the factors shaping the police workforce, commissioned by the Scottish Police Authority and Scottish Institute for Policing Research. Design/methodology/approach The paper uses the theory of strategic fit to assess the available evidence relating to reshaping the police workforce and brings together the most relevant recent reviews of police organisations and empirical studies on these issues. The use of the theory enabled the strategies that have been adopted by police agencies in recent years to be evaluated in relation to the current political and economic environment. Findings The authors find that here is considerable uncertainty and while there has been previous discussion on the benefits of larger or smaller forces there is not robust evidence that a particular force size is optimal for either efficacy or efficiency, although very small forces may struggle in some ways. There is also mixed evidence about whether increasing police organisation resourcing to allow more officers to be employed reduces crime levels, and there is a relative lack of evidence about the impact this has on the other areas of community life in which police are involved. Research limitations/implications There are major weaknesses in research relating to police organisational reform: there is no accepted theory of police reform, no accepted method as to how such a reform should be evaluated nor have there been any comparative studies of earlier police civilianisation programs (Braithwaite, Westbrook and Ledema, 2005). Originality/value Previous work on this topic often focuses on which organisational structure – whether in terms of workforce mix or size – is most efficient or effective. This research takes an alternative perspective and argues for a shift in the research agenda to take account of the friction involved in processes of organisational change, both in order to build a stronger research understanding of these important aspects of change and to more effectively inform policy. The paper provides a basis for the development of theories for understanding police reform in general – and workforce restructuring in particular – alongside appropriate methods for researching it.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-20T10:55:22Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-11-2017-0135
  • Mental toughness and perceived stress in police and fire officers
    • First page: 674
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Mental toughness describes a set of attributes relating to how individuals deal with challenges, stressors, and pressure. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between mental toughness and perceived stress in police and fire officers. Design/methodology/approach The participants were 247 police officers and 130 fire fighters. Participants completed questionnaire measures of mental toughness and perceived stress, and provided information about their age, rank, and length of service within the force. Findings Mental toughness was found to be significantly related to perceived stress, with control of emotion, control of life, and confidence in abilities being particularly important. There was no consistent relationship of age, rank, or length of service with mental toughness and perceived stress. However, police officers reported lower levels of mental toughness and higher levels of perceived stress than fire officers. Practical implications The results suggest that assessing police and fire officers on a measure of mental toughness could provide a means of identifying individuals more likely to suffer from stress and stress-related physical and psychological illness. In addition, interventions that may enhance mental toughness could have beneficial effects within this population. Originality/value This is the first study to examine mental toughness and perceived stress within this population, and the findings have important implications for the management of stress.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-27T08:22:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-01-2017-0013
  • The influence of procedural justice on citizen satisfaction with state law
    • First page: 687
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose There are a number of individual and contextual variables that influence public opinion of the police but we know little about the public opinion regarding state law enforcement agencies. Prior studies involving municipal police and other criminal justice agencies indicate that the perceptions of procedural justice, or fair treatment, are important predictors of citizen satisfaction with police services. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether individuals who perceive procedurally just treatment during their contact with a state patrol officer improve the levels of satisfaction with the state patrol. Design/methodology/approach This paper presents the results of a public opinion study (n=846) regarding the Colorado State Patrol conducted in 2009. A subsample of 393 individuals who had contact with the state patrol and were further surveyed about their contact with the officer. Logistic regression models were used to examine individual- and contextual-level variables influence satisfaction with the state patrol and whether this relationship was mediated by the perceptions of procedural justice. Findings The authors found that individuals who perceive higher levels of procedural justice expressed higher satisfaction with the state patrol. Females, older respondents, and non-white respondents expressed greater satisfaction, as well as those who had voluntary contact or were not arrested. More importantly, procedural justice mediated the effect of involuntary contact and arrest on levels of satisfaction, and while non-white respondents were less likely to experience procedural justice, when levels of procedural justice are controlled for, they have higher levels of satisfaction. Originality/value The findings emphasize the significance of citizen perceptions of procedural justice during contacts with members of the state patrol. The current study contributes to our knowledge of procedural justice and citizen satisfaction with police encounters given previous research on citizen satisfaction with police focuses almost exclusively on local-level agencies, and research on procedural justice asks the respondents almost exclusively about the police in general.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-05-02T07:50:11Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-02-2017-0026
  • Race/ethnicity, discrimination, and confidence in order institutions
    • First page: 704
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a conceptual model that explains racially/ethnically differential confidence in order institutions through a mediating mechanism of perception of discrimination. Design/methodology/approach This study relies on a nationally representative sample of 1,001 respondents and path analysis to test the relationships between race/ethnicity, multiple mediating factors, and confidence in order institutions. Findings Both African and Latino Americans reported significantly lower levels of confidence compared to White Americans. People who have stronger senses of being discriminated against, regardless of their races, have reduced confidence. A range of other cognitive/evaluative variables have promoted or inhibited people’s confidence in order institutions. Research limitations/implications This study relies on cross-sectional data which preclude definite inferences regarding causal relationships among the variables. Some measures are limited due to constraint of data. Practical implications To lessen discrimination, both actual and perceived, officials from order institutions should act fairly and impartially, recognize citizen rights, and treat people with respect and dignity. In addition, comprehensive measures involving interventions throughout the entire criminal justice system to reduce racial inequalities should be in place. Social implications Equal protection and application of the law by order institutions are imperative, so are social policies that aim to close the structural gaps among all races and ethnicities. Originality/value This paper takes an innovative effort of incorporating the currently dominant group position perspective and the injustice perspective into an integrated account of the process by which race and ethnicity affect the perception of discrimination, which, in turn, links to confidence in order institutions.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:34:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-03-2017-0031
  • Analyzing racial profiling from traffic searches
    • First page: 721
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the issue of racial profiling when the traffic stop outcome is a search using focal concerns theory as a theoretical explanation for police officer decision making and propensity score matching (PSM) as a better analysis to understand the race of the driver. Design/methodology/approach The data for this study come from traffic stops conducted by the Louisville Police Department between January 1 and December 31, 2002. Findings The results show that the elements of focal concerns theory matter most when it comes to if a traffic stop that resulted in a search even though racial profiling was evident. The use of PSM provides evidence that it is a better statistical technique when studying racial profiling. The gender of the driver was significant for male drivers but not for female drivers. Research limitations/implications The data for this study are cross-sectional and are self-report data from the police officer. Practical implications This paper serves as a theoretical explanation that other researchers could use when studying racial profiling along with a better type of statistical analysis being PSM. Social implications The findings based on focal concerns theory could provide an explanation for police officer decision making that police departments could use to help citizens understand why a traffic stop search took place. Originality/value This is the first study of its kind to the researcher’s knowledge to apply focal concerns theory with PSM to understand traffic stop searches.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-20T10:53:43Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2017-0081
  • Officers’ views on women in policing
    • First page: 734
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how receptive police officers are to having women as partners and supervisors at work in a cross-national context. Specifically, it compares male and female police officers’ views on women in policing along three dimensions in Dubai and Taipei: perceived efficacy of women in policing; receptiveness of women at work (as partners and supervisor); and perceived women’s role in police work. Design/methodology/approach Surveys (with the same instrument) were conducted with 622 officers (344 male and 278 female officers) in Dubai, the United Arab Emirates and 391 officers (297 male and 94 female officers) in Taipei, Taiwan. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were employed to compare male and female officers’ views on women in policing in both countries. Findings It was found that female officers (in Dubai and Taipei) were more likely than their male colleagues to see women as capable and effective in performing police duties. Compared to their colleagues in Taiwan, the Emirati male and female officers were more likely to be supportive of women’s restricted role in policing. Dubai male officers were less likely to be receptive to working at a unit with a female as their supervisor in comparison to their female colleagues in both countries. Research limitations/implications Although this study provides important information from a cross-national perspective, caution should be taken while interpreting these findings. The gender roles embedded in Islamic cultures seem to explain Dubai officers’ favorable attitudes toward women’s restricted role in policing. Future studies should incorporate in-depth interviews to explain why officers in Dubai prefer women’s restricted roles in policing. Practical implications The statistical analyses show that officers with higher levels of confidence not only held more positive attitudes toward women in policing, but also were more receptive to having women as their partners and supervisors. It suggests that confident officers would be more open-minded and welcome the entry of women into police work. By offering training courses that enhance officers’ work confidence, police organizations in both countries might well cultivate a welcoming work environment for women. Social implications If police organizations in Taiwan and the UAE instill cultures with an emphasis less on masculine traits than on collaborative style, male officers might free themselves from traditional gender norms and become more welcoming to women who work in policing. Originality/value Previous scholarly efforts on examining different areas of women in policing have mainly focused on police officers in western countries, leaving a relative scarcity of information about how officers perceive women’s role in policing in the other parts of the globe. Female officers have to work hand in hand with male officers in policing. To enhance the efficiency of deployment and cohesion of work relationship among male and female officers, it is important to understand how male officers perceive women’s roles in policing and how receptive they are to having women as partners. Understanding their perceptions from both sides can help administrations initiate effective training and educational programs.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-05-14T10:37:31Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-12-2016-0174
  • Police management reform, labor productivity, and citizens’
           evaluation of police services
    • First page: 749
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This study tracks changes in labor productivity of the Finnish police force over a period of thorough management reforms (2009-2014). Theoretically, the study is based on the cost disease hypothesis. It was assumed that police management reforms have had no noticeable effect on labor productivity and that, therefore, the fact that both physical police facilities and frontline employees have been reduced during the reform years has been reflected on the output side: on the number of outputs, accessibility, and quality of police services. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach The study was conducted as a series of longitudinal function-specific output-input analyses (2000-2015). The project employed data from the Police Performance Management database, Police Citizen Surveys (PCSs, 1999-2016), and Police Personnel Surveys (1999-2015). Methodologically, it relied on two different compounded annual growth rate concepts, linear regressions and likelihood ratio analyses. Findings The rate of growth of labor productivity was unaffected by the management reform period. In fact, productivity may have declined during the reform process. Citizens’ evaluations of police services have slightly deteriorated over the management reform period. Research limitations/implications PCS data are based on quota sampling. The procedure contains random sampling elements but is not fully random. The earliest PCS data lack satisfactory population weights, which is why unweighted data had to be used in this study. Originality/value Longitudinal studies on police productivity and, relatedly, on the cost disease phenomenon are rare. Yet, the themata are potentially very significant for both citizens and policy makers.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-27T11:35:05Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-02-2017-0025
  • Apartheid and post-apartheid analysis of public confidence in the police
    • First page: 766
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Given the tumultuous history of policing in South Africa, the historic relationship between the police and the public, and the continuous rising crime rates, it is perplexing that little quantitative research has been conducted on legitimacy and the SAPS. The current study assesses public confidence in police in South Africa by analyzing data from a more than three-decade-old public opinion survey. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to examine changes in public confidence since 1981; and second, to determine factors that cause variations in confidence during a given period. Design/methodology/approach To achieve the objectives, the authors analyzed longitudinal data collected from 1981 to 2014 as part of the world Value Survey program. ANOVA and multivariate regression analyses were conducted. Findings Findings indicate that confidence in SAPS was highest during the period immediately after apartheid and then dwindled from 1999 onwards. Moreover, race, happiness and education have historically influenced public confidence in the police. Originality/value These findings provide information that could be useful for transforming the SAPS, especially in developing viable strategies to strengthen the police’s relationship with citizens. Additionally, the manuscript provides an original contribution to the study of public attitudes toward the police and police legitimacy, especially in a non-western society.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-05-04T07:42:14Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2017-0074
  • Show cause analysis
    • First page: 782
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to detect and examine any trends in the self-reported causation of misconduct among officers being considered for dismissal. Design/methodology/approach The data utilised in this study consisted of show cause notice (SCN) responses. In the process of being considered for dismissal, officers’ may offer the causes of or mitigating factors to their misconduct as a means of avoiding dismissal. This study utilised these responses as a data source. Data collection occurred between January 2013 and October 2016, resulting in a cohort of n=100 responses comprised of between 1 and ~1,000 pages of free text. Qualitative methods were preferred, a conventional content analysis was performed with coding categories derived from SCN response text. Findings The results of this study indicate noteworthy levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related mental health issues amongst this cohort, as well as pervasive financial and workplace stressors, which officers frequently link to the causation of their misconduct. Of particular note is the consistent co-occurrence of work-related stressors and health issues, most commonly through formally diagnosed PTSD. Research limitations/implications This study indicates an opportunity for support services to impact positively on mental health and stress, and subsequently misconduct among police officers. Originality/value There is still very little understanding of the causation of misconduct among police officers. This is the first time that this data have been utilised in any form of the research, it provides valuable insight into a potential alternative method of addressing misconduct to reactionary investigative action.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-30T10:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2017-0079
  • Going to the dogs' Police, donations, and K9s
    • First page: 798
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Most existing literature on K9 units has focused on the relationship between police handler and canine, or questions about use of force. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between private donations to public police departments, an increasingly accepted institutional practice in the policing world, and K9 units. Specifically, the authors examine rationales for sponsoring and financially supporting K9 units in Canada and the USA. Design/methodology/approach The authors focus on four main themes that emerged in analysis of media articles, interview transcripts, and the results of freedom of information requests. Findings These four rationales or repertoires of discourse are: police dogs as heroes; dogs as crime fighters; cute K9s; and police dogs as uncontroversial donation recipients. Originality/value After drawing attention to the expanding role of police foundations in these funding endeavors, the authors reflect on what these findings mean for understanding private sponsorship of public police as well as K9 units in North America and elsewhere. The authors draw attention to the possibility of perceived and actual corruption when private, corporate monies become the main channel through which K9 and other police units are funded.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-27T08:27:59Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2017-0066
  • Role reflections of police reservists: a study of volunteer reserve
           officers in Malaysia
    • First page: 813
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the work roles of the Royal Malaysia Police Volunteer Reserve officers. Design/methodology/approach A grounded theory approach was utilized for the generation and analysis of the data. Data were collected through interviews, observations and follow-ups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 male and female volunteer reserve officers and 5 regular police officers aged between 24 and 58 years of mixed socioeconomic backgrounds, ethnicities and ranking in the Royal Malaysia Police force. Two civilian respondents (spouses of the Police Volunteer Reserve officers) were also interviewed for this study for the purpose of theory sampling. Findings The data were analyzed qualitatively resulting in a model of Royal Malaysia Police Volunteer Reserve officer roles consisting of four orientations. Research limitations/implications Study outcomes are discussed theoretically and administratively. The four role orientations identified will assist researchers studying police reserve volunteerism. Practical implications Study outcomes allow administrators to utilize and deploy police reservists in consonance with the four role orientations identified. Social implications This study provides insight into how police reservists conceive of and execute their roles as they negotiate them in relation to the regular police officers they work with and the public from which they are drawn. Originality/value This is the first study of police volunteerism in Malaysia.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-27T02:25:18Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2017-0065
  • Examining officer support for and perceived effects of police
    • First page: 828
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review officer support for the consolidation of law enforcement agencies. Design/methodology/approach The current study surveys 139 officers employed by four agencies that have recently undergone a consolidation of police services. The survey asked officers their level of support for consolidation of services as well as their views of how consolidation has affected employment conditions, organizational characteristics, and the delivery of police services. Findings While officers generally support consolidation, views on the effects of shared services vary significantly by level of support. Officers who most strongly support consolidation are also most likely to view it as leading to improvements in some working conditions (e.g. job satisfaction, morale), elements of organizational capacity (e.g. professionalism, investigative/intelligence capacity, recruitment), and the delivery of services (e.g. cost-effectiveness, quality and efficiency of services, and reductions in crime). Research limitations/implications The sample size and response rate are low. Still, the study offers insights into officer views of consolidation not previously available. Practical implications This research offers insights to communities considering the consolidation of police services regarding what organizational, employment, and service conditions are most likely to appeal to officers, whose support is necessary for successful implementation. Originality/value While single case studies previously considered officer attitudes on these issues, this work is the first to comparatively examine views of shared services across varying levels of support for consolidation.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-05-02T08:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-07-2017-0086
  • Measurement issues in police use of force: a state-of-the-art review
    • First page: 844
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to systematically and comprehensively review the extant literature on measurement issues in police use of force. Design/methodology/approach The current study uses a narrative meta-review of measurement issues in police use of force through a systematic and exhaustive search of several academic databases (e.g. Criminal Justice s, EBSCO Host, PsychInfo, etc.). Findings The current meta-review identified 56 studies that matched the inclusion criteria. These studies examined public and police officer perceptions of use of force, rates of use of force, types of force used, neighborhood contextual correlates of use of force, and severity of force used. A wide variety of approaches were used to measure use of force, and operationalization of use of force was inconsistent across studies. This indicates a need for high-quality research focusing on comparable operationalization of variables, consistency in measurement, and use of more rigorous research techniques. The use of validated measures is essential moving forward. Practical implications The practical implications derived from this meta-review indicate a need for future researchers to carefully evaluate the measurement approaches used in use of force studies. The lack of consistency in measurement of use of force research is concerning, and a focused effort is required to validate measures. Originality/value The state-of-the-art review on measurement issues in police use of force is the first of its kind. This study comprehensively reviews the literature on measurement issues in police use of force. This study will be useful for those who wish to further explore measurement issues in police use of force issues in policing and those who wish to work toward validated use of force measures.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-27T07:59:53Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-11-2017-0137
  • “Neighborhood” influence on police use of force:
           state-of-the-art review
    • First page: 859
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a state-of-the-art review on the topic of neighborhood/ecological influence on police use of force. In doing so, it provides an overview of the theoretical formulation and early ethnographic work on the topic as well as an in-depth critique of the issues that require further discussion. Design/methodology/approach Using several databases, a literature search was performed to collect the available empirical studies on the topic. Findings An analysis of the extant literature suggests that neighborhood/ecological influence on police use of force might not be as uniform as previously discussed, and it suffers from the ability to make sufficient comparisons. Tests vary based on the use of force measures, units of analysis, and the neighborhood-level variables examined. Originality/value This review should serve as a point of departure for scholars working in this area moving forward. It is hoped that the review provides thought-provoking commentary on the limitations of previous studies and the challenges facing this line of inquiry in the future.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-27T08:31:22Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-07-2017-0087
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