Journal Cover
Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.738
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 432  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1363-951X
Published by Emerald Homepage  [356 journals]
  • Consent searches: understanding the role of race and what occurs during
           the traffic stop
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to apply focal concerns theory as a theoretical explanation for police officer decision making during a traffic stop that results in a consent search. The study uses coefficients testing to better examine the issue of racial profiling through the use of a race-specific model. Design/methodology/approach The data for this study come from traffic stops conducted by the Louisville Police Department between January 1 and December 31, 2002. Findings The results show that the three components of focal concerns theory can explain police officer decision making for consent searches. Yet, the components of focal concerns theory play a greater role in stops of Caucasian male drivers. Research limitations/implications The data for this study are cross-sectional and self-reported from police officers. Practical implications This paper shows the utility of applying focal concerns theory as a theoretical explanation for police officer decision making on consent searches and how the effects of focal concerns vary depending on driver race. Social implications The findings based on focal concerns theory can provide an opportunity for police officers or departments to explain what factors impact the decision making during consent searches. Originality/value This is the first study (to the researchers’ knowledge) that examines the racial effects of focal concerns on traffic stop consent searchers using coefficients testing.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-02-13T09:23:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-11-2018-0162
  • Understanding public satisfaction with the police
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Building upon prior research, the purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of public satisfaction with the police by examining the effects of one’s military background and the interactions between one’s education and perceptions about prior contact with the police. Design/methodology/approach This study statistically analyzes the 2012 citizen survey data collected in the Hampton Roads area of Virginia, USA, and the theoretical framework includes the major models of citizen satisfaction with the police (i.e. demographic, prior contact with the police and neighborhood conditions). Findings Findings show that being a military family member is significantly positively related to satisfaction with the police. In addition, there are significant interactions between higher education and prior contact with the police, suggesting that people with different educational backgrounds tend to consider their prior experiences (either positive or negative) differently in their general evaluations of the police. Originality/value The study expands the literature by empirically assessing two often omitted factors that could have significant impacts on how the public evaluate the police.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-01-25T10:52:54Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2018-0110
  • Demeanor and police culture
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to revisit classic theoretical arguments regarding the broad effects of civilian demeanor on policing and extend associated findings. Design/methodology/approach The theoretical framework draws on insights from the literatures on police culture, the group engagement model and fairness heuristic theory. The authors argue that demeanor is best conceptualized as the degree of procedural justice exhibited by civilians toward police. Theoretically, procedurally just cooperation should influence officers’ adherence to police culture by affecting their social identification and assessments of civilians’ motives and moral deservingness. To test the hypotheses, the authors surveyed sworn officers from a large metropolitan police department in the southeastern USA in the Fall of 2016. Findings Results reveal that officers use their procedural justice judgments as heuristics to assess civilians’ trustworthiness, dangerousness, and moral deservingness, and these judgments influence their policing style. Officers who perceive greater procedurally just cooperation by civilians feel less threatened by the public, are more willing to use procedural justice themselves, and are less supportive of a “tough cop” policing style. Originality/value The authors propose that: civilian demeanor is best conceptualized as the extent to which civilians exhibit procedural fairness toward the police; and in order for meaningful police reform to occur, it is important to acknowledge the role of civilian demeanor in shaping officers’ attitudes, beliefs and behaviors.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-01-09T09:58:37Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-09-2018-0133
  • The effect of community-oriented policing on police use of force: does
           community matter'
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine whether community-oriented policing (COP) influences rates of police use of force across communities, and whether the impact of COP varies according to the level of violent crime in communities. Design/methodology/approach A range of data sources including police use of force reports, online surveys of Officers-in-Charge and recorded crime data was used to examine the association between formal and informal community consultation and the frequency of police use of force, across 64 socially challenged communities in Australia. Findings Poisson multilevel modelling indicated no overall association between informal or formal community engagement and rates of police use of force. However, significant interaction terms for both informal and formal community consultation with violent crime rates indicated that higher levels of informal and formal community consultation were associated with lower rates of police use of force in communities with higher levels of violent crime. This relationship was not evident in low violent crime areas. Research limitations/implications Communities were purposively sampled to have a high propensity for police use of force, on the basis that they had high rates of violent crime, or high levels of socio-economic disadvantage, or both. This research should be replicated with a representative sample of communities. Practical implications The findings extend the potential benefits of COP to reducing the use of coercive policing tactics in high violent crime communities. Originality/value This study finds that COP can reduce the frequency of violent encounters between police and community members in high violent crime communities.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-01-09T09:45:17Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-10-2018-0148
  • Detecting spatial-temporal clusters of violent behavior in South Korea
           with space-time permutation scan statistics
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to detect spatial-temporal clusters of violence in Gwanak-gu, Seoul with space-time permutation scan statistics (STPSS) and identifies the temporal threshold for such detection to alert law enforcement officers quickly. Design/methodology/approach The case study was the Gwanak Police Station Call Database 2017 where civilian calls reporting violence were georeferenced with coordinated points. In analyzing the database, this study used the STPSS requiring only individual case data, such as time and location, to detect clusters of investigated phenomena. This study executed a series of experiments using different minimum and maximum temporal thresholds in detecting clusters of violence. Findings Results of the STPSS analyses with different temporal thresholds detected spatial-temporal clusters in Gwanak-gu. Number, location and duration of clusters depended on the temporal settings of the scanning window. Among four models, a model allowing the possible clusters to be detected within a 7-day minimum and 30-day maximum temporal threshold was more representative of reality than other models. Originality/value This study illustrates the clustering of violence with the STPSS by detecting spatial-temporal clusters of violence and identifying the appropriate temporal threshold in detecting such clusters. Identification of such a threshold is useful to alert law enforcement officers quickly and enables them to allocate their resources optimally.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-01-09T01:40:16Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-07-2018-0085
  • Impact of leader–member exchange and perceived organisational
           support on turnover intention
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between leader–member exchange (LMX), perceived organisational support (POS) and turnover intention (TI) through the mediating effect of psychological stress in the police personnel of United Arab Emirates (UAE). Design/methodology/approach A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data from police personnel (n=800) deployed in different positions in UAE police departments. The structural equation modelling analyses were consistent with the full and partial mediation models in which LMX, POS and PS predict TI. Specifically, several alternative models were compared to confirm the mediation effects. Findings The results revealed that while LMX had a direct negative effect on police force TI, POS had no indirect impact on police force TI. Furthermore, LMX did positively influence police personnel’s POS. PS acted as a full mediator between police personnel’s POS and TIs. Additionally, the direct positive effects of PS on police personnel’s TIs were confirmed. Research limitations/implications The findings will help policymakers and practitioners to better understand the influences of the LMX, POS and PS factors on police force TI and will help in formulating strategies to minimise TI and retain talented police personnel for effective safety and law enforcement in the country. Originality/value The study contributes to the literature by being one of the first to study the LMX, POS, PS and TIs of police personnel within the context of an emerging Arab country.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-01-07T02:34:51Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2018-0081
  • Harm-focused offender triage and prioritization: a Philadelphia case study
    • First page: 59
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe and test a quantitative harm-focused approach to offender selection for investigation and surveillance. The approach incorporates a measure of crime harm as well as a time-decay function that adjusts the score downward for offenders who desist from crime. Design/methodology/approach Across 10 of 21 high-crime police districts in the city of Philadelphia, the authors compare the mean harm scores of 60 prolific offenders selected by district analysts, 60 prolific offenders selected citywide by detectives assigned to the Gun Violence Reduction Task Force and the top 60 prolific offenders chosen from a harm-score generated list of known offenders in the ten high-crime districts. Findings The offenders on the harm-focused list have significantly greater mean harm scores than the offenders identified by the crime analysts or task force personnel. They have a significantly greater mean number of gun crime episodes in their offending history as well. Research limitations/implications The harm-focused approach uses arrest data that may not accurately reflect convictions and which miss undetected criminal activity. A leader of a criminal organization who orchestrates criminal activities but does not engage directly may have a low harm score. Arrest data may also suffer from some inherent bias. The approach also requires the creation of a crime harm index. Determining the operational impact on overall crime reduction by focusing on offenders with higher harm scores will require further research. Practical implications Clinical methods of target selection based on officer intuition, opinion and experience may have limitations in terms of effectiveness and accuracy. They also lack transparency and may incorporate bias, a critical consideration given the current crisis in police-community trust and legitimacy. The actuarial method of weighing the harm of past offending with a crime harm score may be more acceptable and defendable to the community. It also identifies offenders with a higher frequency of involvement in gun crimes. Until methodological limitations are better understood, a compromise may be to start with the harm-score method (data-driven) and supplement this initial list through intelligence and investigative information. Originality/value The paper expands crime harm indices to quantify offender triage lists. The authors also empirically demonstrate through a case study that the approach is more effective at identifying harmful offenders than methods that solely rely on the experience or intuition of either crime analysts or detectives.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-01-24T03:25:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2018-0118
  • Conservation-based intelligence-led policing
    • First page: 108
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of interpersonal relations on the implementation of an intelligence-led initiative within a rural, conservation setting. Design/methodology/approach The data for this study are gathered from semi-structured interviews (n = 79) and field observations within five study sites that are managed by the Uganda Wildlife Authority. Findings The findings suggest that while law enforcement and community conservation rangers viewed intelligence operations to be necessary, there was general discontent and distrust toward intelligence rangers. This was largely due to the actuarial and perceived activities, roles and responsibilities of intelligence rangers and the belief that intelligence rangers reflected more of an internal affairs unit rather than one focused on intelligence gathering. Research limitations/implications The credibility of the data provided by respondents can be called into question; however, extensive efforts were made to establish rapport to help alleviate these hazards. Practical implications Findings from the current study highlight the importance of considering and managing interpersonal relations when implementing intelligence-led initiatives. Originality/value The current study is unique in that it examines crime in a non-traditional setting (a developing country, Uganda), with a non-traditional crime type (wildlife crime). Additionally, literature examining the impact of interpersonal relations on intelligence-led policing is limited.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2019-01-25T10:52:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-07-2018-0091
  • Suspicious preoperational activities and law enforcement interdiction of
           terrorist plots
    • Pages: 89 - 107
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Volume 42, Issue 1, Page 89-107, February 2019.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a metric for validating the Nationwide Suspicious Activity Reporting (SAR) Initiative’s (NSI) sixteen-category instrument, which is designed to guide law enforcement in the collection and analysis of suspicious behaviors preceding serious crimes, including terrorist attacks. Design/methodology/approach Data on suspicious preoperational activities and terrorism incident outcomes in the USA between 1972 and 2013 come from the American Terrorism Study (ATS). Using a mixed-method approach, the authors conduct descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine the frequencies of the least and most prevalent suspicious activities (or SAR indicators) and how they predict the likelihood of terrorism prevention. In addition, the authors contextualize how configurations of SAR indicators are associated with the successful thwarting of terrorism incidents by law enforcement using an analytical method known as conjunctive analysis of case configurations (CACC). Findings The study reveals several key findings. First, certain behaviors categorized as suspicious, such as making threats, occur more frequently than others. Second, making threats, conducting surveillance and terrorist recruitment/financing predict law enforcement interdiction in terrorism plots, while misrepresentation (or the manufacturing and use of false documents) is more associated with terrorist success. Third, prevalent SAR indicators operate differently in the context of various combinations of suspicious activities to shape the likelihood for law enforcement interdiction. Research limitations/implications The current study’s findings may not be generalizable to other forms of violent extremism and terrorism outside of the USA. Practical implications This study illuminates opportunities for the NSI to provide law enforcement with the necessary tools to reduce terrorism risk and prevent future attacks. Originality/value To our knowledge, no scholarly work to date has assessed how observable behavioral indicators of suspicious preoperational activities affect the outcomes of terrorist plots.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-11-06T12:09:25Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2018-0125
  • Risk factors for occupational stress among Greek police officers
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose In view of the absence of police stress research in Greece, the purpose of this paper is to measure occupational stress among police officers and to investigate occupational stress risk factors. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional study with a convenience sample was conducted among 336 police officers in Athens, Greece. Data collection was performed during January to March 2018 and the response rate was 77.8 percent. Demographic characteristics, job characteristics, lifestyle factors and coping strategies were considered possible risk factors. The “Operational Police Stress Questionnaire” and the “Organizational Police Stress Questionnaire” were used to measure occupational stress, while the “Brief Cope” questionnaire was used to measure coping strategies. Findings Regarding service operation, the most stressor events were personal relationships outside work, tiredness, bureaucracy, injury risk and lack of leisure for family and friends. Regarding service organization, the most stressor events were lack of personnel, inappropriate equipment, lack of meritocracy, lack of sources and inappropriate distribution of responsibilities in work. According to multivariate analysis, increased use of avoidance-focused coping strategy, and decreased sleeping, physical exercise and family/friends support were associated with increased occupational stress. Moreover, police officers who work out of office experienced more occupational stress than police officers who work in office. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study in Greece addressing the risk factors for occupational stress among police officers. Modifiable occupational stress risk factors among police officers were found and should be carefully managed to decrease stress and improve mental health.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-12-13T03:34:12Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-09-2018-0131
  • Hitting (or missing) the mark
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine police shooting accuracy and the factors that influence whether officers hit, or miss, their intended target. Design/methodology/approach Descriptive statistics explore both incident-level and hit rate shooting accuracy in single officer/single suspect shooting incidents in the Dallas Police Department between 2003 and 2017. Multiple regression models analyze the predictive utility of officer, suspect and situational factors on the two accuracy outcomes. Findings Consistent with prior research, the results demonstrate that officers are often inaccurate in officer-involved shooting (OIS) incidents. Additionally, several factors emerged as significant predictors of shooting accuracy. Practical implications The results are discussed in terms of the practical implications for training and accountability. Originality/value It has been more than a decade since the last academic study investigated this important topic using actual OIS data. Acknowledging the general dearth of this literature, this study explores what factors contribute to shooting accuracy.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-10-31T04:00:43Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2018-0060
  • Patrol career interest and perceptions of barriers among African-American
           criminal justice students
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether black and African-American criminal justice students perceive barriers to a police patrol career differently than white students, and whether the perceptions of these barriers impact desire to enter a police patrol career. Design/methodology/approach The current inquiry uses a self-administered survey of over 630 undergraduate students in criminal justice classes across five public universities. Findings Findings suggest that African-American students differ significantly from white students in perceived social disapproval of patrol careers, respect for police and perceptions of whether the police engage in racial profiling. These perceptions display a significant indirect relationship indicating lower patrol career interest for black and African-American students compared to all other races. Research limitations/implications Research limitations of the current inquiry include the lack of a nationally representative sample, the use of four-year university students as a sample to represent the potential police patrol applicant pool, and the use of a survey instrument to gauge respondent beliefs about patrol careers as opposed to actions they would take in pursuit of a police career. Practical implications Findings from the current inquiry indicate that departments may need to focus more on improving global perceptions of the police and discussing the nature of the career with recruit social support structures. Police recruiters should focus on techniques such as addressing social isolation experienced by the police rather than on decreasing standards for background checks or simply increasing awareness of police careers. Originality/value The current inquiry is one of the first to explore perceptions of barriers to entering a patrol career among CJ students. It is also among the first to examine the impact these perceptions have on patrol career interest. The findings may also help criminal justice instructors more fully discuss these barriers with students of color.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-10-19T01:02:35Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2018-0078
  • Gendered messages in police recruitment
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Prior research established several important influences on the representation of women in policing, using a variety of secondary and primary data. The purpose of this paper is to examine how experimental manipulation of online recruitment materials impacts potential applicants. Design/methodology/approach The study relied on a census of 11 criminal justice courses taught at a public university, asking students to respond to an experimental vignette instrument (n=174). The 3×2 experimental vignette involved manipulation of two variables: the identification of recruits with diversity language (“individuals,” “women and men” or “a diverse group of individuals”) and mention or absence of discussion of physical fitness requirements. Findings Results largely run counter to prior research concerning women in policing, with women actually indicating increased probability of providing their contact information when encountering vignettes with physical fitness requirements. Originality/value This study demonstrates that small manipulations of recruitment content can have significant and gendered impact on potential applicants. This paper provides a foundation for empirical study of how changes in online recruitment materials impact a variety of relevant outcomes relating to applicant behaviors.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-10-02T02:11:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2018-0072
  • On the relationship between goals, membership and network design in
           multi-agency “fusion” centres
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to adopt an organisational network perspective to examine the structural properties underpinning the design and governance of multi-agency fusion centres and related environments, focussing particularly on how they are formed and internally managed. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted several focus groups and follow-up interviews with executive and operational members of Australia’s principal fusion centres and related environments. Findings The authors argue that in order to understand the internal dynamics of fusion centres, and the ways in which they form and function, the analysis of interrelationships between partners and potential partners is critical. The authors have demonstrated that a network model can assist in this type of analysis. For example, hub-and-spoke network structures appear to be a particularly effective solution to the centralisation-density trade-off for such inter-agency networks. Originality/value The authors use a novel approach that combines a goal-oriented network framework with the existing literature on fusion centres to synthesise key features of the network structure of fusion centres and associated processes of information sharing.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-10-02T01:58:03Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2018-0070
  • Giving voice to the victims of sexual assault: the role of police
           leadership in organisational change
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a long-term programme within a police service that sought to transform the policing of adult sexual assault cases through reforming case management and investigation practices, as well as cultural perspectives among staff. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on a case-study approach of change and reform within a single police service. Fieldwork consisted of more than 240 semi-structured interviews and focus groups with police officers, civilian staff, victim advocates, crown prosecutors, defence lawyers, doctors and staff from victim specialist support agencies. Extensive documentary analysis supplemented the primary findings. Findings Changes to investigations of sexual assault were perceived to be wide-ranging and deeply embedded, and were regarded positively by police officers, staff and external agencies. These are identified in terms of improvements to initial reporting of offences, the development of more rigorous case management and investigations, and enhanced relations with external support agencies. Research limitations/implications The study is necessarily limited to one case study and the analysis would be usefully developed through further application to other police services. Social implications The findings have considerable implications for police leaders and managers and wider society. Victim support and recovery agencies benefit from the reforms outlined, and there are considerable consequences for wider criminal justice that continues to disadvantage victims. Originality/value The paper has considerable originality since it offers a “deep” and “thick” understanding of reform within a particular context. The programme of reform was highly unusual since it was designed and delivered over a ten-year period and addressed many aspects of police organisation.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-09-24T10:35:08Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-03-2018-0037
  • Tattoos in policing: a survey of state police policies
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Policing agencies across the USA have cited difficulty recruiting qualified applicants, thus leaving many employment vacancies unfilled. One reason for this challenge may be that those who would make exceptional police officers are barred from employment because of their body art. Varying appearance policies exist concerning tattoos, yet little is known about these policies. The purpose of this paper is to survey the tattoo policies of policing agencies. Design/methodology/approach The tattoo policies of all 50 state-level policing agencies were reviewed to explore similarities and state-level correlates. Findings The majority, but not all, of state police have some type of appearance policy targeting tattoos. State policing agencies that have a “no visibility” policy regarding tattoos more often were in states with a low percentage of millennial residents, high percentage of young veterans, men and non-Hispanic white citizens, and low crime; t-tests indicate “no visibility” policy states significantly differed from other states in the percentage of non-Hispanic whites and crime. Further, state policing agencies with a “no visibility” policy tended to be in northeastern states, with southern states having the fewest state policing agencies with such policies, although the χ2 test was non-significant. Originality/value Despite the ubiquity of tattoos in the American society, the literature is scant with studies of police appearance policies regarding tattoos. This study provides a partial summary of tattoo policies at the state policing level.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-09-21T01:53:15Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2018-0067
  • Documenting current practices in the management of deaf suspects in the
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to combine previous research on deaf suspects with the findings from data gathered from law enforcement personnel nationwide to gain an understanding of the common practices of US law enforcement when arresting, interrogating and communicating with deaf suspects. Design/methodology/approach In light of the limited amount of research available on handling deaf suspects, a two-part sampling approach was used. Using critical case sampling, the author surveyed law enforcement via open-ended surveys designed to solicit information about their involvement with deaf suspects and any related questions and concerns. Guided by the Wave 1 data, Wave 2 surveys were administered to law enforcement nationwide (using expert sampling). Findings An analysis of the two waves of data collected was used to assemble the list of current practices. Originality/value This study combines previous research on deaf suspects, which has been published largely through the framework of deaf studies, with the insight of practitioners to identify a list of current practices used by US law enforcement when handling deaf suspects.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-09-07T01:08:55Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-02-2018-0026
  • The rapid diffusion of license plate readers in US law enforcement
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to document the diffusion of license plate readers (LPRs) in the USA, examining the variety, evolution and tracking of their uses through a national survey. Design/methodology/approach This study employs a national, stratified, representative survey of US law enforcement agencies with 100 or more officers. Findings LPR technology is currently used by at least two-thirds of larger police agencies, which represents a more than threefold increase in LPR acquisition in the last 10 years. The number of LPRs per agency, while small (about eight on average), has also more than doubled. Federal and state funding, advocacy by law enforcement leaders, and the intuitive appeal of LPRs have likely contributed to this rapid adoption. While LPRs are still primarily used to detect and recover stolen automobiles in patrol, their use has expanded into other types of investigative and security functions. Despite the increased use and numbers of LPRs in policing, their use is highly discretionary and infrequently tracked. Practical implications LPRs continue to be widely used in law enforcement, despite a lack of strong research evidence for their crime prevention benefits. Further studies are needed on the most effective ways for agencies to utilize small numbers of LPRs and the potential return on investment for acquiring larger numbers of the devices. Originality/value This study tracks the history of LPR diffusion and use and goes beyond prior law enforcement surveys by examining specific uses of LPRs and the extent to which agencies track their uses and outcomes.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-08-20T12:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-04-2018-0054
  • Stalking: an examination of the correlates of subsequent police responses
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Few studies have explored the correlates of police responses to the crime of stalking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the correlates of nine specific police actions (no action, multiple actions, took a report, talked to perpetrator, arrested perpetrator, recommended PO or RO, recommended self-protection, referred to prosecutor’s office and referred to social services) to this type of crime. This study found three of the four incident measures (victim-offender relationship, intimidation and physical injury) and three of the four victim demographic measures (age, gender and marital status) significantly predicted seven of the nine police actions. Design/methodology/approach Data for this study came from the 2006 Stalking Victimization Supplement of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The sample included stalking cases that were reported to the police and all measures were constructed using victims’ responses to survey questionnaires. Nine logistic regression models were estimated and in each model, four incident characteristic variables and four victim demographic variables were regressed on each of the nine police actions. Findings This study found three of the four incident characteristic measures (victim-offender relationship, intimidation, and physical injury) and three of the four victim demographic variables (age, gender and marital status) were significantly related to seven of the nine specific police actions (no action, multiple actions, arrested perpetrator, recommended PO or RO, recommended self-protection, referred to prosecutor’s office and referred to social services). None of the incident characteristic and victim demographic measures were related to two of the nine specific police actions (took a report and talked to perpetrator). Research limitations/implications This study possesses the same shortcomings associated with the NCVS. The current study involves cross-sectional, official data that are over 10 years old. The measures employed in the current study are victims’ perceptions of how the officers acted. The study does not include information regarding how many times the victim contacted the police or the nature of the stalking episode. The study excludes other variables (suspect’s demeanor, the presence of witnesses) that may be relevant in examining subsequent police responses to stalking. Practical implications Frontline offices should be required to undertake stalking training. Further, stalking training needs to be conducted independently from domestic violence training. Mandatory stalking training for law enforcement officers will lead to a greater comprehension of existing stalking statute for the officers as well as help increase the number of offenders being identified and charged with this crime by the officers. Social implications Police inaction to reported stalking not only dissuade victims from reporting future victimizations, it will also result in stalking being an under-reported crime. Police inaction could potentially compromise victim safety and/or offender accountability. Police inaction also undermines the legitimacy of law enforcement and attenuates the relationship between citizens and police agencies. Originality/value To date, only one study has examined the correlates of subsequent police responses to the crime of stalking. However, this study employed broad measures of police actions (formal and informal). The current study involves specific police actions (e.g. taking a report, referring the victim to social service agencies). Contrary to the prior study that found none of the incident and victim characteristics was related to two broad measures of subsequent police responses, this study found several incident and victim measures significantly predicted seven specific police actions.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-08-14T09:03:13Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-12-2017-0157
  • Creating optimal patrol areas using the P-median model
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of the p-median model to construct optimal patrol areas. This can improve both time spent traveling to calls, as well as equalize call load between patrol areas. Design/methodology/approach The paper provides an introduction to the use of integer linear programs to create optimal patrol areas, as many analysts and researchers in the author’s field will not be familiar with such models. The analysis then introduces a set of linear constraints to the p-median problem that are applicable to police agencies, such as constraining call loads to be equal and making patrol areas geographically contiguous. Findings The analysis illustrates the technique on simplified simulated examples. The analysis then demonstrates the utility of the technique by showing how patrol areas in Carrollton, TX can be made both more efficient and equalize the call loads given the same number of patrol beats as currently in place. Originality/value Unlike prior applications of creating patrol areas, this paper introduces linear constraints into the p-median problem, making it much easier to solve than programs that have non-linear or multiple objective functions. Supplementary code using open source software is also provided, allowing other analysts or researchers to apply the model to their own data.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-08-14T08:59:49Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-02-2018-0027
  • Obstacles to problem-oriented policing in Montevideo
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose In the broad context of Uruguay’s police reform, the Ministry of Interior is implementing a problem-oriented policing (POP) program in Montevideo, Uruguay’s capital city. The purpose of this paper is to examine the obstacles confronted by this program over its implementation. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected through 20 semi-structured interviews conducted with members of the Uruguay National Police selected via purposeful sampling. The study relies on a grounded theory approach. Findings were interpreted based on five categories of analysis. Findings Findings point at obstacles confronted by the program associated with contextual organizational factors, a general misunderstanding of POP, leadership, resistance and motivation, and availability and sufficiency of resources. Originality/value Although POP has been implemented in a variety of settings, it is still rare in Latin America. As a consequence, research on POP is limited in this region. This study adds to the small but growing body of literature on the police reform in Latin America, and at the same time, is one the few pieces of research on the police reform in Uruguay.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-08-08T01:59:35Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-02-2018-0025
  • The impact of job and family factors on work stress and engagement among
           Hong Kong police officers
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of demands from three life domains: society, workplace and family and different resources at the individual, family and supervisor levels on occupational stress and work engagement among Hong Kong police officers. Design/methodology/approach A survey based on a random sample of 514 male and female police officers was conducted, and multivariate regression was employed to assess the effects of demands and resources on work stress and work engagement. Findings Family–work conflicts, organizational and operational factors affected work stress and work engagement among police officers. Constructive coping was found to be positively related to work stress and negatively associated with work engagement. Research limitations/implications Survey data collected from a single Chinese city may not be generalized to officers in other parts of China or Chinese societies with different social and political contexts. Originality/value The present study filled the knowledge gap about factors influencing police stress and engagement. This study provides insights into how to establish relevant contextual measures to reduce police work stress. This study represents one of the first attempts to use a random sample of police officers for the investigation of police stress in Hong Kong.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-08-08T01:56:55Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-01-2018-0015
  • Racialized perceptions of the police
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine differences in latent structures/dimensions in public perceptions of the police by race/ethnicity and level of identification with a given race/ethnic group. Design/methodology/approach To identify differences in dimensions of juveniles’ perceptions of the police by the sub-samples, factor analyses were conducted utilizing data from the Gang Resistance Education and Training program evaluation. Findings The results show that minority juveniles have a relatively fragmented dimensional structure for the construct of perceptions of the police, while white juveniles have a unidimensional structure. Furthermore, moderate within-group differences in structures were found among African–American juveniles. Research limitations/implications The results of the current study call for further examination of racial invariant assumptions in criminology. Since individual dimensions constituting perceptions of the police vary by race/ethnicity, those dimensions may potentially have unique associations with endogenous variables (e.g. criminality and cooperation with the police) according to individuals’ racial/ethnic membership. Practical implications Police should clearly understand individuals’ dimensions constituting perceptions of the police and should identify dimensions that greatly impact precursors to compliance and cooperation with police such as perceived police legitimacy or perceived risk of sanction. Originality/value Individuals’ dimensions constituting perceptions of the police have significant implications on the construction of measures and their associations with other variables; however, racial differences in these dimensions have not been explored since Sullivan et al.’s (1987) research about three decades ago. In addition, the current study examined within-race differences in the dimensions constituting perceptions of the police.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-08-08T01:53:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-11-2017-0144
  • Officer views in contracting, merger, and hybrid agencies
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess officer perceptions of consolidation of law enforcement agencies under three specific models: contracting, merger and a hybrid of regionalization and contracting. Design/methodology/approach A survey was administered to 139 officers employed by four agencies using one of the models of interest. The survey asked officers their views on consolidation and how it has affected organizational and employment characteristics. Findings Officers generally support consolidation, but views vary by agency type. Officers in the contracting agencies, for example, generally viewed consolidation as less cost effective than officers in other agencies viewed it, but were more likely to say crime decreased and job security and workload improved after consolidation. Officers in the hybrid agency were less positive about changes in some employment and organizational characteristics. Research limitations/implications The sample size and response rates are low, and no comparison to other agencies is available, but the examination offers new information and lessons. Practical implications Communities considering police consolidation must consider a specific model and how to communicate changes to officers. This research illuminates officer perspectives on each. Originality/value This is the first investigation of views of shared services by specific model of consolidation. Such work is particularly valuable given increased interest in consolidation in recent years.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-07-17T06:42:10Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-03-2018-0034
  • Detention or diversion' The influence of training and education on
           school police officer discretion
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The growing concern about school violence and security has led to a dramatic increase in the number of police officers working in schools. This increase has been accompanied by a focus on the training of school-based law enforcement, the discretion that they exercise when interacting with youth, and the concern that these factors may lead to more youths facing arrest and formal processing by the juvenile and criminal justice system. What is not well understood is whether or not having formal school resource officer (SRO) training or higher education impacts the officer’s decision making when responding to an incident involving a student. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses survey data from school police officers within the USA (n=179) to examine the officer’s preferred post-incident method of disciplining the youth, from the most punitive and formal approach of suspension or referral to juvenile authorities, to the less punitive and informal approach such as diversion or warn and release. Findings Overall, the study found that officers who have received formal SRO training were more likely to prefer a formal resolution to the incidents, and more highly educated officers tended to favor less punitive and informal responses. Originality/value These findings question the current state of the effectiveness of SRO training at using diversionary tactics for conflict resolution in a school setting.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-07-17T06:36:28Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-01-2018-0007
  • Neighborhood by neighborhood: community policing in a rust belt city
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine citizen satisfaction with police services and perceived safety using survey research in two high crime neighborhoods. Problem-oriented crime deterrence strategies were used in one neighborhood, the other served as a control group. Design/methodology/approach Mixed-methods approach was used to measure the effectiveness of problem-oriented approaches in persistent high-crime areas. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were conducted by sampling addresses in both neighborhoods and analyzing results. Findings No between-neighborhood differences were reported regarding the satisfaction with police services or improvement in perceived safety. Originality/value These findings suggest that this deterrence strategy is a promising approach to reducing crime while not damaging community perceptions. However, departments must vary place-based strategies, and prevention is difficult given historical contexts, the absence of credible community partners and limited resources in a declining city.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-07-09T10:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-01-2018-0002
  • Shaping community support for vigilantism: a Nigerian case study
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose In Nigeria, vigilantism appears to be a common response to dissatisfaction about the state police in the recent time. Using survey data of residents in Lagos, Nigeria, the purpose of this paper, therefore, is to explore whether what is already known about perceptions of procedural (in) justice of state police also applies to self-help security groups in Nigeria. This is with a view to influencing community support for and satisfaction with non-state policing in the country. Design/methodology/approach The study adopted a case study approach. Lagos, Nigeria was stratified into the high, medium and low densities. Systematic sampling technique was used in selecting 1 out of every 20 buildings (5 percent) in each area. Household representative person on each floor of the selected building who had contact with vigilante corps in the last 12 months were targeted. Of 768 copies of questionnaires administered, a sample of 386 was effectively returned (representing 50 percent response rate). Six categories of variables were analyzed. These are procedural justice, distributive justice, vigilante corps’ performance, legitimacy, residents’ satisfaction with vigilante corps activities and socio-economic characteristics. Findings Results reveal that respondents are not primarily instrumental in their support for vigilantisms. Instead, their support is associated with their basic communal values. More than effectiveness in controlling crime, vigilantisms receive community support provided they use procedural justice in dealings with the public. Respondents who perceive vigilantisms use procedural justice also view them as legitimate, and as well satisfy with their activities and services. Besides, results show that support for and satisfaction with vigilantisms are associated with environmental, social and economic characteristics of the residents in the community they serve. The thesis supported in this research paper is that public support for and satisfaction with vigilantisms can be influenced significantly through policing strategies that builds legitimacy. Originality/value Vigilantism pervades contemporary policing strategies. It is supported by national crime prevention policies, according to the logic that the use of community self-help security strategies could contribute to sustainable crime prevention. This study extends research on legitimacy, with an empirical focus on Nigerian vigilantism. Understanding factors that shape public support for vigilantism may enhance safer communities.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-07-09T02:14:12Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2017-0101
  • Resilience of public and private security providers: a state-of-the-art
           literature review
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the empirical literature on the resilience of public police officers and private security guards in stressful situations involving threats, violence, accidents or death. This paper studies the definitions of resilience used in these professions, identifies trends in applied research methods and examines the main topics addressed in previous research. Design/methodology/approach A scoping review was carried out, with searches in Web of Science and Google Scholar, as well as a secondary manual screening in Dutch academic journals. Based on this review, 33 empirical studies were included in the current paper. Findings First, it was revealed that a clear-cut definition of resilience applied to public police and private security guards is currently lacking. Second, predominantly quantitative designs were found to be used in the selected studies. Third, the 33 empirical studies provided insights on four main topics: demographic factors, personal characteristics, interpersonal aspects and resilience training programs. Remarkably, this scoping review did not find any empirical research on the resilience of private security guards. Originality/value This study systematically integrates the findings of empirical research on the resilience of security providers to stressful situations. The documentation of research activity, gaps and inconsistencies in the literature offer direction for future research in this relatively new field of study.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-05-02T08:24:15Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-09-2017-0114
  • Fear, victimization, and community characteristics on citizen satisfaction
           with the police
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between fear of victimization, actual victimization, and community-level characteristics on citizen satisfaction with police. This study attempts to clarify important factors in how citizens view the police, while accounting for contextual, neighborhood-level variables. Design/methodology/approach This study utilized a representative victimization survey conducted in Saginaw, MI in 2015. Utilizing a sample of 824 individuals, an ordinary least-squares model was fit in order to determine the effects of reported victimization, fear of victimization, and neighborhood characteristics on satisfaction with police. The authors utilized interaction terms to model varying effects between the East and West sides of the city. Findings The study found that fear of victimization was related to lower satisfaction with police, while actual victimization had an inconsistent effect when community satisfaction and collective efficacy were accounted for. The authors found the effect was present only in the more affluent western portion of the city. Furthermore, the authors found that non-white residents reported much lower satisfaction with police than white residents. Research limitations/implications The authors were unable to disaggregate respondents to smaller geographical units than an East\West measure, which limits the authors’ ability to discuss small-scale contexts at the block, or block-group level. Practical implications This study suggests that concerted efforts to reduce fear of crime may increase satisfaction with police, but this effect may be based on neighborhood context. Improving collective efficacy and community satisfaction may provide additional ways to improve citizen satisfaction with police. Originality/value This paper adds to the literature examining the relationship between victimization, fear of crime, and satisfaction with police.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-30T11:01:51Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2017-0097
  • How commitment and satisfaction explain leave intention in police
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of professional commitment and job satisfaction on leave intention considering alternative job opportunities as a moderator. Design/methodology/approach The authors collected data from 147 patrolling police officers on the basis of convenience sampling using a questionnaire-based survey. Findings The study noted that professionally committed and satisfied police officers are less likely to leave their organization. In addition, alternative job opportunities strengthen the negative association of professional commitment and job satisfaction with leave intention. Research limitations/implications This study was conducted at one point of time and the majority of the respondents were male, therefore, the results might be gender biased. This study has implications for policymakers and HR managers. Practical implications Law enforcement agencies and organizations should develop and sustain workplace environments where professional commitment and job satisfaction can positively influence the leave intentions of their employees. More specifically, it provides insight to the managers to retain talented and commitment employees in their organizations. Originality/value This study adds to the scant literature on professional commitment and alternative job opportunity in the context of police.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-30T10:52:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-12-2017-0154
  • Law enforcement suicide: a review
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of law enforcement suicide research from 1997 to 2016. Design/methodology/approach The PRISMA systematic review methodology was implemented. A SCOPUS search identified a total of 97 documents. After applying all exclusion criteria, the results included a list of 44 articles in the review. Findings Overall, studies investigating law enforcement suicide rates show conflicting results, with some studies showing lower suicide rates among law enforcement, some showing higher rates, and some showing no difference to comparison populations. Recurring research themes were lack of an appropriate comparison group, and small statistical power, particularly for minority and female officers. Stressors related to suicide among police included lack of organizational support, traumatic events, shift work, stigma associated with asking for help, or problems associated with fitting in with the police culture. Problems associated with domestic relationships and alcohol use were commonly mentioned as precursors to suicide or as correlates of suicidal ideation and were hypothesized to arise from stressful working conditions. Research limitations/implications Some limitations in law enforcement suicide research include the lack of theory, under-reporting of suicides, and guarded survey responses from police officers. Future directions in police suicide research include investigating etiological factors such as past adverse life and family experiences, social-ecological variation in suicide, or differences in suicide rates within the law enforcement occupation. Practical implications Police work, given chronic and traumatic stress, lack of support, danger, and close public scrutiny is a fertile occupation for increased suicide risk. Awareness of the scope of the problem and associated risk factors can help to initiate prevention programs. Originality/value This paper provides a long-term review of literature regarding police suicidality, with suggestions for research and prevention.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-30T01:31:14Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2017-0061
  • News media and perceptions of police: a state-of-the-art-review
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the literature examining the role of news media consumption and awareness in shaping public attitudes about police. Design/methodology/approach A comprehensive, systematic search of multiple academic databases (e.g. EBSCO Host) was undertaken, supplemented by the use of Google Scholar to search among journals indicated as having cited the articles found in the databases. Findings A total of 42 studies were identified that met the selection criteria for this meta-review and examined exposure to high-profile incidents involving police, awareness of negative news coverage of police, and/or consumption of specific news mediums (e.g. newspapers). Overall, research supports a relationship between negative perceptions of police and both exposure to high-profile incidents and awareness of negative coverage. Some support for the influence of consuming television news on attitudes exists, but more research is needed on the role of different news sources in shaping perceptions. Future research should also include determining causal pathways and how news about police is selected. Originality/value This is the first meta-review of the research examining how news media and attitudes about police are related. This study will provide a useful resource for those researchers wishing to continue to examine different aspects of news media consumption as a predictor of perceptions.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-27T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-11-2017-0134
  • Shaping the police workforce: a state-of-the-art literature review
    • Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence about the factors shaping the police workforce, commissioned by the Scottish Police Authority and Scottish Institute for Policing Research. Design/methodology/approach The paper uses the theory of strategic fit to assess the available evidence relating to reshaping the police workforce and brings together the most relevant recent reviews of police organisations and empirical studies on these issues. The use of the theory enabled the strategies that have been adopted by police agencies in recent years to be evaluated in relation to the current political and economic environment. Findings The authors find that here is considerable uncertainty and while there has been previous discussion on the benefits of larger or smaller forces there is not robust evidence that a particular force size is optimal for either efficacy or efficiency, although very small forces may struggle in some ways. There is also mixed evidence about whether increasing police organisation resourcing to allow more officers to be employed reduces crime levels, and there is a relative lack of evidence about the impact this has on the other areas of community life in which police are involved. Research limitations/implications There are major weaknesses in research relating to police organisational reform: there is no accepted theory of police reform, no accepted method as to how such a reform should be evaluated nor have there been any comparative studies of earlier police civilianisation programs (Braithwaite, Westbrook and Ledema, 2005). Originality/value Previous work on this topic often focuses on which organisational structure – whether in terms of workforce mix or size – is most efficient or effective. This research takes an alternative perspective and argues for a shift in the research agenda to take account of the friction involved in processes of organisational change, both in order to build a stronger research understanding of these important aspects of change and to more effectively inform policy. The paper provides a basis for the development of theories for understanding police reform in general – and workforce restructuring in particular – alongside appropriate methods for researching it.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-04-20T10:55:22Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-11-2017-0135
  • The benefit of intelligence officers
    • First page: 2
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which intelligence officers integrated at the patrol level contribute to successful case outcomes through information sharing. Design/methodology/approach This study utilizes multinomial logistic regression to analyze the outcomes of three years of Intelligence Officer Reports (IORs) submitted by officers trained in the Phoenix Police Department’s Intelligence Officer Program. Findings The majority of IORs are either tangible case successes or intelligence successes that have the capacity to become these, as opposed to non-successes. The type of success is impacted by a number of predictors. These include case categorization, nature of crime, information-gathering methods and perceived validity of information. Perceived reliability of information was the only non-significant predictor. Research limitations/implications The study suggests the benefits of looking at multiple predictors of success in understanding the value of information gathered by intelligence officers in the field. Limitations include a fair amount of missing data and potential lack of generalizability to other agencies. Future research will also consider alternative ways of measuring success and the nesting of reports within officers. Practical implications The study provides insight into key factors for optimizing tangible case outcomes when institutionalizing intelligence-led policing at the patrol level. Originality/value This is the first study to consider how intelligence-led policing at the patrol level may influence case outcomes, and, in turn, what factors may contribute to this. Findings provide some initial considerations for optimizing desirable case outcomes.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-11-06T12:06:26Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-07-2018-0088
  • Can threat assessment help police prevent mass public shootings'
           Testing an intelligence-led policing tool
    • First page: 16
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine whether threat assessment, an intelligence-led policing (ILP) tool, can prevent mass public shootings. Design/methodology/approach In order to gauge the potential effectiveness of this ILP tool, the authors conduct a retrospective analysis of 278 mass public shootings that occurred in the USA between 1966 and 2016. This retrospective analysis allows us to determine how successful threat assessment protocols could be in preventing mass public shootings by examining how successful this tool would have been in identifying the offenders in our data. Findings The results show that threat assessment has the potential to be an effective tool in the ILP arsenal to identify and prevent impending mass public shootings. However, our results also point to several obstacles for the effective implementation of this ILP tool. The underreporting of threats and using the content of threats and characteristics of threateners are problematic in correctly assigning risk. The authors make suggestions for how to overcome these obstacles. Originality/value This study makes several contributions to the intelligence-led policing and mass murder field. This is the first study to test the potential effectiveness of an intelligence-led policing tool to prevent mass public shootings. Additionally, this is one of the first studies to examine the leaks, types, context and follow-though of threats made by mass public shooters in the United States. Consequently, it provides unique information on the foreshowing behaviors of mass public shooters.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-09-12T01:49:46Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-07-2018-0089
  • Offender interviews: implications for intelligence-led policing
    • First page: 31
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Intelligence-led policing (ILP) involves the analysis of data to inform the development and implementation of strategic actions aimed at more efficiently reducing crime. The purpose of this paper is to examine how chronic acquisitive offenders – a focus of ILP – respond to police patrol, and how this knowledge can be turned into actionable strategies to reduce crime. Design/methodology/approach Interviews were conducted with 137 chronic offenders who had multiple convictions for burglary, robbery and/or vehicle crime. The interviews involved the collection of both qualitative and quantitative data, including responses to situational crime vignettes. Findings When encountering police patrols, criminals were initially more likely to displace (e.g. committing crime elsewhere and/or later in the day) than to desist from offending. Some of the conditions under which police patrol was most effective were identified, including offenders’ fear of being recognized by officers. Repeated thwarted crime attempts appeared to be most impactful, with even the most chronic offenders becoming “worn down.” Practical implications The profiles of top offenders should be systematically disseminated to front line officers to augment the effectiveness of police patrol and minimize the possibility of crime displacement. Originality/value Offender interviews are a valuable source of information but they have been underutilized within an ILP framework. This research illustrates how offender interview research can inform and support the role of police in preventing crime.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-12-13T03:33:04Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-07-2018-0096
  • Community policing and intelligence-led policing
    • First page: 43
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Despite increased scholarly inquiry regarding intelligence-led policing (ILP) and popularity among law enforcement agencies around the globe, ambiguity remains regarding the conceptual foundation and appropriate measurement of ILP. Although most scholars agree that ILP is indeed a unique policing philosophy, there is less consensus regarding the relationship between ILP and the ever-present model of community-oriented policing (COP). Consequently, there is a clear need to study the empirical distinctions and overlaps in these policing philosophies as implemented by US law enforcement agencies. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach Data were gleaned from the 2007 LEMAS and 2009 NIJ Intelligence surveys. A total of 227 unique police agencies in the USA are included. A series of bivariate, exploratory factor analyses and structural models are used to determine discriminatory or convergent validity across COP and ILP constructs. Findings The goal was to answer the question: are these two policing philosophies are being implemented as separate and distinct strategies' Results of our exploratory and structural models indicate that COP and ILP loaded on unique latent constructs. This affirms the results of the bivariate correlations, and indicates that COP and ILP have discriminant measurement validity. In other words, COP and ILP are conceptually distinct, even when implemented in police departments across the USA. Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. Originality/value This is the first study to empirically test the discriminant or convergent validity of COP and ILP.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-12-13T03:28:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-07-2018-0105
  • Hoteliers as crime control partners
    • First page: 74
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present evaluation results of Operation Galley, an intelligence-led policing (ILP) intervention that sought to proactively address the problem of drug dealing from hotel rooms by engaging hoteliers as crime control partners with the Queensland Police Service. Design/methodology/approach Operation Galley, a randomized control field trial, rank ordered and matched 120 hotels on size, star rating, location and estimated degree of suspicious behaviour. Hotels were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: Operation Galley hotels who received a procedurally just letter, followed by a personal visit with detectives; the letter-only hotels who received the procedurally just letter; and the business as usual hotels. Findings Using repeated measures ANOVA and general linear models, results of the 12-month trial indicate that the Operation Galley condition led to an increase in police engagement with hoteliers, increasing the recognition, reporting and police enforcement of drug offenders. Practical implications The Operation Galley trial demonstrates that the ILP approach helped foster positive engagement between hoteliers and detectives. The approach cultivated hoteliers as crime control partners and thereby increased the flow of human source intelligence, helping police to better target and respond to drug dealing problems in hotel rooms. Originality/value Results of the Operation Galley trial demonstrate that hoteliers can be leveraged as crime control partners, providing important human source intelligence about drug dealing and facilitating the capacity of police to better respond to drug problems in hotels.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2018-12-04T12:09:13Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2018-0126
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