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Journal Cover Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice
  [SJR: 0.253]   [H-I: 3]   [428 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1752-4512 - ISSN (Online) 1752-4520
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [393 journals]
  • Body-Worn Cameras, Use of Force and Police-Civilian Interactions
    • Authors: Dymond A; Hickman M.
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: This special issue seeks to present a diversity of research and commentary on a promising yet highly controversial issue in policing: the use of police body-worn cameras (BWCs). The potential benefits of BWCs are very broad, and may include improvement in the overall quality of police–civilian interactions, reduction in the levels of force used by officers and subjects, reduced injuries and assaults, creation of evidence to support arrest and prosecution, and enhanced police transparency and accountability. They may also help generate improvements in officer training, enhance professional development, and encourage reflective practice by officers. For the research community, the advent of BWCs may offer not just an interesting topic in their own right, but may also offer new possibilities to explore the complexities of police–civilian interactions.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/police/pax073
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • The Deterrence Spectrum: Explaining Why Police Body-Worn Cameras
           ‘Work’ or ‘Backfire’ in Aggressive Police–Public Encounters
    • Authors: Ariel B; Sutherland A, Henstock D, et al.
      Pages: 6 - 26
      Abstract: Police body-worn cameras (BWCs) are an increasingly prominent research area in criminal justice. This trend mirrors current practice, with more and more law enforcement agencies implementing or procuring BWCs. Yet the evidence on BWCs is substantially long on evidence but rather short on theory. Why should BWCs ‘work’ and under what conditions or on whom' This article offers a more robust theoretical composition for the causal mechanisms that can explain the efficacy of BWCs. What sets them apart from other surveillance devices, such as closed-circuit televisions (CCTVs), speed cameras, or bystanders’ mobile cameras' We introduce the deterrence spectrum, within which BWCs can de-escalate or exacerbate aggressive encounters. We argue that the deterrent effect of BWCs is a function of discretion, whereby strong discretion is inversely linked to a weak deterrent effect that consequently leads to more use of force, and weak discretion is inversely linked to a strong deterrent effect and less forceful police responses. We show that the deterrence effect of BWCs ranges from ‘minimal deterrence’ to ‘maximum deterrence’ depending on the officer’s discretion. At one extreme, ‘over-deterrence’ and even ‘inertia’ are possible, which are manifested in police withdrawal. Given the mechanisms that are in play, more attention ought to be given to officers’ discretion, training on appropriate use of BWCs, and technological fixes. We conclude by linking these findings to BWCs discretion policy, as well the willingness of the agency to adopt an evidence-based policing framework.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/police/paw051
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • The Exploration of Body-Worn Video to Accelerate the Decision-Making
           Skills of Police Officers within an Experiential Learning Environment
    • Authors: Richards P; Roberts D, Britton M, et al.
      Pages: 43 - 49
      Abstract: Previous research has highlighted benefits of body-worn video (BWV) to support the work of police officers. The daily demands of policing require officers to make highly pressurized decisions (with associated rapid action) in unpredictable changing environments. It is important that new officers learn techniques of decision-making in a safe and controlled way, which minimizes the risk and harm to all parties while at the same time facilitating effective learning. While the benefits of experiential and immersive learning characterized by active participation have long been used in related professional disciplines, the application to police education has been under-explored. BWV can be used to identify decision-making cues from the environment and nurture pattern recognition, essential to the development of mental models within the officer’s decision-making process. The article will therefore explore the application of BWV in the context of experiential immersive learning to accelerate police officers’ decision-making.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/police/pax017
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Exploring the Potential for Body-Worn Cameras to Reduce Violence in
           Police–Citizen Encounters
    • Authors: White MD; Gaub JE, Todak N.
      Pages: 66 - 76
      Abstract: One of the most compelling perceived benefits of body-worn cameras (BWCs) involves the potential for reductions in citizen complaints and police use of force. A handful of early studies reported significant reductions in both outcomes following BWC adoption, but several recent studies have failed to document such effects. The current study explores this question using data from a randomized controlled trial conducted in the Spokane (WA) Police Department. Approximately half of patrol officers (n = 82) were assigned BWCs in May 2015, while the other half (n = 67) received their BWCs 6 months later (November 2015). The study explores the effects of BWCs on use of force, complaints against officers, and officer injuries, using more than three years of official department data pre- and post-BWC deployment. The outcomes of interest are rare in Spokane, which limited both statistical power and the results from significance testing. However, the within-group trends are consistent with a positive effect, particularly for percent change. Following BWC deployment, the percentage of officers with a complaint in each group declined by 50% and 78% (Control and Treatment, respectively); the percentage of officers with a use of force declined notably (39%) for one group only. The reductions disappeared after 6 months for the Treatment group. There was no relationship between BWCs and officer injuries. The authors discuss the implications of the findings for the ongoing dialogue on BWCs.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/police/paw057
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Body-Worn Video through the Lens of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial
           in London: Implications for Future Research
    • Authors: Owens C; Finn W.
      Pages: 77 - 82
      Abstract: The College of Policing, the Metropolitan Police Service, and the Mayor’s Office for Policing and Crime designed and implemented the largest randomized controlled trial of body-worn video (BWV) cameras to date, to test its impact on a range of outcomes, including criminal justice outcomes, complaints made against the police, stop and search, officer attitudes, and public experience. This article summarizes the finding of the trial relating to interactions between the police and the public, drawing on analysis of surveys and interviews with officers and a range of administrative data. The article explores how BWV might affect police–public interactions and highlights a number of gaps in the evidence that may benefit further research.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/police/pax014
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Body-Worn Cameras and the Law of Unintended Consequences: Some Questions
           Arising from Emergent Practices
    • Authors: Rowe M; Pearson G, Turner E.
      Pages: 83 - 90
      Abstract: Research on body-worn cameras (BWC) has tended, through evaluations or randomized controlled trials, to look to demonstrate some assumed benefit or consequence of the use of BWC. This article is concerned with the ways in which police officers use and talk about BWC and draw on ethnographic research over the past 30 months in one force as it rolled out the use of cameras. BWC have become a useful tool in the array of those available to officers. At the same time, they come with some downsides. There are pressures to use the cameras in more and more encounters with the public and while their use may raise the standards of police–citizen interactions, there is also a concern that they constrain discretion. Beyond their immediate use, questions about their evidential value have also emerged. Finally, we begin to question the model of accountability cameras present to the public.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/police/pax011
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Inconsistencies in Public Opinion of Body-Worn Cameras on Police:
           Transparency, Trust, and Improved Police–Citizen Relationships
    • Authors: Sousa WH; Miethe TD, Sakiyama M.
      Pages: 100 - 108
      Abstract: Given the national interest in equipping police with body-worn cameras (BWCs), it is important to consider public attitudes concerning the technology. This article draws on the results of a national survey of citizen opinions of BWCs. The survey includes items related to general support for BWCs, opinions on their potential advantages, and attitudes towards their potential consequences. Results indicate that while there is general support for BWCs on police, opinions vary on the capacity of BWCs to increase transparency of police work, improve trust in police, and better police–citizen relationships.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/police/pax015
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Smart Policing and the Use of Body Camera Technology: Unpacking South
           Africa’s Tenuous Commitment to Transparency
    • Authors: Stone KE.
      Pages: 109 - 115
      Abstract: In 2014, the Western Cape Department of Community Safety in South Africa launched the first pilot of the Smart Policing Project, which sought to reduce incidents of violence between private citizens and law enforcement officials by attaching body-worn cameras (BWCs) to a small group of traffic officers throughout the province. In light of rising allegations of police brutality and deep-seated tensions between citizens and law enforcement officials, the Smart Policing Project received widespread support across the country. However, despite the appearance of a strengthening in police oversight, the ability of BWCs to hold police officers to account for acts of misconduct or criminality depends largely upon the existence of institutional policies governing usage, and a robust legislative framework for accessing information held by the state. Accordingly, the purpose of this article is to unpack South Africa’s tenuous commitment to transparency by juxtaposing the reactions of law enforcement officials to wearing BWCs owned and operated by the state, versus being recorded by cell phones owned and operated by private citizens. The article begins by examining the context of police oversight in South Africa in an effort to demonstrate the rationale for introducing BWCs 20 years post-Apartheid. It then moves on to highlight inconsistencies in South Africa’s right of access to information regime by exploring differences in the levels of protection afforded to records held by public bodies versus those held by private bodies under the country’s access to information legislation. The article concludes by discussing the impact of those protections on the utility of BWCs in South Africa, and making recommendations on how to increase the effectiveness of BWCs in strengthening openness and transparency in policing.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/police/pax066
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Ten Years of Body Worn Video in Northamptonshire Police
    • Authors: Spencer D; Cheshire R.
      Pages: 116 - 119
      Abstract: This article provides a commentary of Northamptonshire Police’s 10 year body worn video (BWV) journey from a small pilot in 2006 to a highly developed position whereby BWV is culturally accepted and embedded across the force (with the exception of firearms officers). We can describe how a network of respected and influential ‘Champions’ positively promoted the use of BWV, demonstrated its value through operational use, and provided coaching support to drive the cultural acceptance and use. The availability of digital evidence is increasing and is growing in significance, and this brings with it a number of challenges. In order to combat this specific issue, Northamptonshire police have tried to create and maintain a device-agnostic BWV solution, which acknowledges that the technology is rapidly changing and requires flexibility. This is not unique to BWV technology, as these same issues exist in terms of mobile device extraction, CCTV, etc.Through the development and maintenance of their own internal supporting infrastructure, Northamptonshire Police have developed and been able to operate this solution to good effect. This system has benefited many other areas where digital evidence is key, and has permitted us the ability to keep abreast of technological developments, while also being involved in national debate and industry working groups to help influence the progression and development of BWV. The Force operationally uses 10 different makes/models of camera that collectively provide a source of digital evidence alongside other ‘independent digital witnesses’, such as CCTV and mobile phone images. These are also in part stored and managed within the same supporting system. This provides enormous flexibility to those working within the Force, by permitting evidence to be downloaded at any terminal for investigators to view it at any other force computer, and to potentially share it with other agencies within the criminal justice system.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/police/pax003
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Lights, Camera, Action! Body-Worn Cameras: Challenges and Opportunities in
           Police Research
    • Authors: Perkins G.
      Pages: 120 - 124
      Abstract: In many countries, the use of police body-worn cameras (BWCs)11 offer new access points and oversight mechanisms to monitor police–public interactions. BWCs offer researchers front-row seats in Hotel Criminology from the police officer’s perspective. This discussion aims to caution researchers about getting too comfortable in their hotel armchairs as a result of the introduction of BWCs. Questions arise as to whether these cameras offer police organizations a legitimate reason to refuse research access where, alternatively, BWC footage could be viewed. For many police commanders, it would be less demanding to supply BWC footage to researchers in lieu of sanctioning direct participant access. However, it is the off-camera events and conversations that contextualize the research and are often the greatest value in participant observations. The purpose of this discussion is not to convince individuals that BWCs will replace the ethnographer, but to consider the possible unintended consequences of the introduction of BWCs. Moreover, its aim is to encourage discussions about the possible opportunities and limitations which may arise regarding BWCs from a research perspective.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/police/pax002
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Peter K. Manning (2008). The Technology of Policing: Crime Mapping,
           Information Technology, and The Rationality of Crime Control.
    • Authors: Danner J.
      Pages: 125 - 128
      Abstract: ManningPeter K. (2008). The Technology of Policing: Crime Mapping, Information Technology, and The Rationality of Crime Control. New York: New York University Press. ISBN-13: 978-0814761366 ISBN-10: 0814761364 Paperback, $26. 338 pages
      PubDate: Fri, 19 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/police/pax033
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A Longitudinal Analysis of the Relationship between Administrative Policy,
           Technological Preferences, and Body-Worn Camera Activation among Police
           Officers1
    • Authors: Young JN; Ready JT.
      Pages: 27 - 42
      Abstract: Policymakers and communities are increasingly looking to body-worn cameras to increase accountability and fix the legitimacy crisis affecting American police. Empirical research on the effectiveness of body-worn cameras is therefore an important avenue of study. Although some research shows that body-worn cameras may influence officer behaviour, there is no research examining whether officers will use the device and how usage behaviour may depend on administrative policies. Thus, the relationship between officer preferences, policies regarding camera activation, and camera use remains unknown. The current study examines whether officers’ activation of body-worn cameras depends on two different policy conditions. Integrating research on administrative policy and officer behaviour with studies of technology use in organizations, we test key hypotheses using longitudinal data for 1,475 police-citizen encounters involving 50 officers over a 9-month period. Our study yields two key findings. First, body-worn camera activation is more prevalent under a mandatory use policy relative to a discretionary use policy. Second, although camera activation declined under the discretionary use policy, this was much less likely among officers who volunteered to wear cameras. The lowest levels of activation occurred among officers who were compulsory-assigned to wear cameras. We discuss the dual role of officer preferences and administrative policy on compliance with technological innovations within police organizations.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/police/paw005
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Experiential Learning and Simulation-Based Training in Norwegian Police
           Education: Examining Body-Worn Video as a Tool to Encourage Reflection
    • Authors: Phelps JM; Strype J, Le Bellu S, et al.
      Pages: 50 - 65
      Abstract: This research article aims to add to current knowledge on reflection, body-worn video, and police education. It examines the potential effects of an intervention which employed subcams (a type of body-worn video) and replay interviews of video footage to enhance experiential learning during an operative training course for Norwegian police students in their final year of study. Our investigation examines evaluation surveys for differences between an intervention and comparison group on reflection and experiential learning outcomes. Findings indicate that students in the intervention group self-reported more general learning outcomes from the course concerning decision-making and communication and that they could identify their own mistakes to a greater degree. They also reported more learning outcomes as measured by the number of statements written about what they learned and would change to improve their performance on three different simulations. Moreover, the content of these statements reflected the intervention as they involved communication and decision-making to a greater degree than students in the comparison group. Implications for the further use of body-worn video to encourage reflection and enhance experiential learning in professional police training and development are discussed.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Jun 2016 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/police/paw014
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Eyes are not Cameras: The Importance of Integrating Perceptual
           Distortions, Misinformation, and False Memories into the Police Body
           Camera Debate
    • Authors: Phillips SW.
      Pages: 91 - 99
      Abstract: Questions about police officer behaviour, particularly officer-involved shootings, have contributed to the argument that street-level police officers should wear body cameras. The assumption is that a body camera will provide an objective reality of what occurred during an encounter. Absent from the discussion is the notion of perceptual distortion, misinformation, and the development of false memories. This article provides an examination of how these psychological dimensions can impact a police officer’s decision-making as well as their ability to accurately recall the details of an incident. It is argued here that while a body camera video may provide accurate documentation of an event, it is reasonable to argue that what the officer sees may not match objective reality because of perceptual distortions. Further, deviations between objective reality and officer recall does not equate to lying, a cover-up, or a ‘rogue’ officer.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2016 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/police/paw008
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2016)
       
 
 
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