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Journal Cover PLoS ONE
  [SJR: 1.395]   [H-I: 181]   [665 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 1932-6203
   Published by PLoS Homepage  [13 journals]
  • Correction: CFD study on NACA 4415 airfoil implementing spherical and
           sinusoidal Tubercle Leading Edge

    • Authors: S. M. A. Aftab K. A. Ahmad
      Abstract: by S. M. A. Aftab, K. A. Ahmad
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188792
  • Correction: Conjugated Linoleic Acid Administration Induces Amnesia in
           Male Sprague Dawley Rats and Exacerbates Recovery from Functional Deficits
           Induced by a Controlled Cortical Impact Injury

    • Authors: Rastafa I. Geddes Kentaro Hayashi Quinn Bongers Marlyse Wehber Icelle M. Anderson Alex D. Jansen Chase Nier Emily Fares Gabrielle Farquhar Amita Kapoor Toni E. Ziegler Sivan Vadakkadath Meethal Ian M. Bird Craig S. Atwood
      Abstract: by Rastafa I. Geddes, Kentaro Hayashi, Quinn Bongers, Marlyse Wehber, Icelle M. Anderson, Alex D. Jansen, Chase Nier, Emily Fares, Gabrielle Farquhar, Amita Kapoor, Toni E. Ziegler, Sivan Vadakkadath Meethal, Ian M. Bird, Craig S. Atwood
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188611
  • Correction: Induction of Connective Tissue Growth Factor Expression by
           Hypoxia in Human Lung Fibroblasts via the MEKK1/MEK1/ERK1/GLI-1/GLI-2 and
           AP-1 Pathways

    • Authors: Yi Cheng Chien-huang Lin Jing-Yun Chen Chien-Hua Li Yu-Tin Liu Bing-Chang Chen
      Abstract: by Yi Cheng, Chien-huang Lin, Jing-Yun Chen, Chien-Hua Li, Yu-Tin Liu, Bing-Chang Chen
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188608
  • Conventional and technical diving surveys reveal elevated biomass and
           differing fish community composition from shallow and upper mesophotic
           zones of a remote United States coral reef

    • Authors: Roldan C. Muñoz Christine A. Buckel Paula E. Whitfield Shay Viehman Randy Clark J. Christopher Taylor Brian P. Degan Emma L. Hickerson
      Abstract: by Roldan C. Muñoz, Christine A. Buckel, Paula E. Whitfield, Shay Viehman, Randy Clark, J. Christopher Taylor, Brian P. Degan, Emma L. HickersonThe world’s coral reefs appear to be in a global decline, yet most previous research on coral reefs has taken place at depths shallower than 30 m. Mesophotic coral ecosystem (depths deeper than ~30 m) studies have revealed extensive, productive habitats and rich communities. Despite recent advances, mesophotic coral ecosystems remain understudied due to challenges with sampling at deeper depths. The few previous studies of mesophotic coral ecosystems have shown variation across locations in depth-specific species composition and assemblage shifts, potentially a response to differences in habitat or light availability/water clarity. This study utilized scuba to examine fish and benthic communities from shallow and upper mesophotic (to 45 m) zones of Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS, 28°0ʹN; 93°50ʹW) from 2010–2012. Dominant planktivores were ubiquitous in shallow and upper mesophotic habitats, and comparisons with previous shallow research suggest this community distribution has persisted for over 30 years. Planktivores were abundant in shallow low-relief habitats on the periphery of the coral reef, and some of these sites that contained habitat transitioning from high to low relief supported high biomass of benthic predators. These peripheral sites at FGBNMS may be important for the trophic transfer of oceanic energy to the benthic coral reef. Distinct differences between upper mesophotic and shallow communities were also observed. These included greater overall fish (as well as apex predator) biomass in the upper mesophotic, differences in apex predator community composition between depth zones, and greater percent cover of algae, rubble, sand, and sponges in the upper mesophotic. Greater fish biomass in the upper mesophotic and similar fish community composition between depth zones provide preliminary support that upper mesophotic habitats at FGBNMS have the capacity to serve as refugia for the shallow-water reefs. Diving surveys of the upper mesophotic and shallow-water coral reef have revealed valuable information concerning the reef fish community in the northern Gulf of Mexico, with implications for the conservation of apex predators, oceanic coral reefs, and the future management of FGBNMS.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188598
  • Biomarkers and echocardiography for evaluating the improvement of the
           ventricular diastolic function after surgical relief of hydronephrosis

    • Authors: Huei-Ming Yeh Ting-Tse Lin Chih-Fan Yeh Ho-Shiang Huang Sheng-Nan Chang Jou-Wei Lin Chia-Ti Tsai Ling-Ping Lai Yi-You Huang Chun-Lin Chu
      Abstract: by Huei-Ming Yeh, Ting-Tse Lin, Chih-Fan Yeh, Ho-Shiang Huang, Sheng-Nan Chang, Jou-Wei Lin, Chia-Ti Tsai, Ling-Ping Lai, Yi-You Huang, Chun-Lin ChuThe pathophysiology of cardio-renal syndrome (CRS) is complex. Hydronephrosis caused by urolithiasis may cause cytokine release and lead to cardiac dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiac function changes observed in patients who received double J placement using feasible biomarkers and echocardiography. This was a prospective, single-center study. Eighty-seven patients who presented with acute unilateral hydronephrosis and received ureteroscope stone manipulation were enrolled. Echocardiography and cytokines were measured on the day of the operation and 24 hours after the procedure. Changes before and after surgery were assessed by the paired t-test and Wilcoxon test. Correlation analyses between echocardiographic diastolic indices and cytokine levels were performed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Patients with hydronephrosis showed a higher left atrium volume index (LAVI), decreased E', and increased E/ E' ratio, which indicated diastolic dysfunction. Patients with hydronephrosis also exhibited decreased global strain rates during isovolumetric relaxation (SRIVR) and E/ SRIVR, which confirmed the diastolic dysfunction. Significant reductions in LAVI, increases in SRIVR and decreases in E/ SRIVR were observed after the operation. Biomarkers, such as TGF-β and serum NT-proBNP, were significantly decreased after surgery. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between the post-surgical decrease in TGF-β1 and increase in SRIVR. Unilateral hydronephrosis causes cardiac diastolic dysfunction, and relieving hydronephrosis could improve diastolic function. Improvements in cardiac dysfunction can be evaluated by echocardiography and measuring cytokine levels. The results of this study will inform efforts to improve the early diagnosis of CRS and prevent further deterioration of cardiac function when treating patients with hydronephrosis.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188597
  • Combined effects of fruit and vegetables intake and physical activity on
           the risk of metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults

    • Authors: Xin-tong Li Wei Liao Hong-jie Yu Ming-wei Liu Shuai Yuan Bo-wen Tang Xu-hao Yang Yong Song Yao Huang Shi-le Cheng Zhi-yu Chen Samuel D. Towne Jr. Zong-fu Mao Qi-qiang He
      Abstract: by Xin-tong Li, Wei Liao, Hong-jie Yu, Ming-wei Liu, Shuai Yuan, Bo-wen Tang, Xu-hao Yang, Yong Song, Yao Huang, Shi-le Cheng, Zhi-yu Chen, Samuel D. Towne Jr., Zong-fu Mao, Qi-qiang HeBackground Unbalanced dietary intake and insufficient physical activity (PA) have been recognized as risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to examine the independent and combined effects of fruit and vegetables (FV) intake and PA on MetS. Methods and findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted among residents of China in 2009, with fasting blood samples collected. Participants were divided into sufficient/insufficient FV intake and adequate/ inadequate PA groups according to self-reported questionnaires. MetS was defined using the NCEP-ATPIII criteria. The difference of individual MetS components was compared across different PA or FV groups. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess association between FV/PA and the risk of MetS. A total of 7424 adults were included in the current study. MetS was prevalent in 28.7% of participants, with 24.7% and 32.9% in male and female, respectively. Compared with those with inadequate PA and insufficient FV intake, participants with the combination of adequate PA and sufficient FV intake had the lowest risk of MetS (OR = 0.69,95%CI: 0.59–0.82), following by the group with adequate PA time but insufficient FV intake (OR = 0.74, 95%CI:0.65–0.83). Conclusion Findings of the current study show that the combination of sufficient FV intake and adequate PA was significantly associated with reduced MetS risk among adult residents of China.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188533
  • Fasciola spp: Mapping of the MF6 epitope and antigenic analysis of the
           MF6p/HDM family of heme-binding proteins

    • Authors: Victoria Martínez-Sernández María J. Perteguer Mercedes Mezo Marta González-Warleta Teresa Gárate M. Adela Valero Florencio M. Ubeira
      Abstract: by Victoria Martínez-Sernández, María J. Perteguer, Mercedes Mezo, Marta González-Warleta, Teresa Gárate, M. Adela Valero, Florencio M. UbeiraMF6p/FhHDM-1 is a small cationic heme-binding protein which is recognized by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) MF6, and abundantly present in parenchymal cells and secreted antigens of Fasciola hepatica. Orthologs of this protein (MF6p/HDMs) also exist in other causal agents of important foodborne trematodiasis, such as Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Paragonimus westermani. Considering that MF6p/FhHDM-1 is relevant for heme homeostasis in Fasciola and was reported to have immunomodulatory properties, this protein is expected to be a useful target for vaccination. Thus, in this study we mapped the epitope recognized by mAb MF6 and evaluated its antigenicity in sheep. The sequence of the MF6p/FhHDM-1 ortholog from F. gigantica (MF6p/FgHDM-1) was also reported. By means of ELISA inhibitions with overlapping synthetic peptides, we determined that the epitope recognized by mAb MF6 is located within the C-terminal moiety of MF6p/FhHDM-1, which is the most conserved region of MF6p/HDMs. By immunoblotting analysis of parasite extracts and ELISA inhibitions with synthetic peptides we also determined that mAb MF6 reacted with the same intensity with F. hepatica and F. gigantica, and in decreasing order of intensity with C. sinensis, O.viverrini and P. westermani orthologs. On the contrary, mAb MF6 showed no reactivity against Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Schistosoma mansoni. The study of the recognition of peptides covering different regions of MF6p/FhHDM-1 by sera from immunized sheep revealed that the C-terminal moiety is the most antigenic, thus being of potential interest for vaccination. We also demonstrated that the production of antibodies to MF6p/FhHDM-1 in sheep infected by F. hepatica occurs relatively early and follows the same pattern as those produced against L-cathepsins.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188520
  • Fasting glucose and risk of colorectal cancer in the Korean Multi-center
           Cancer Cohort

    • Authors: Hyeree Park Sooyoung Cho Hyeongtaek Woo Sue K. Park Hai-Rim Shin Soung-Hoon Chang Keun-Young Yoo Aesun Shin
      Abstract: by Hyeree Park, Sooyoung Cho, Hyeongtaek Woo, Sue K. Park, Hai-Rim Shin, Soung-Hoon Chang, Keun-Young Yoo, Aesun ShinPrevious cohort studies have demonstrated a positive association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, there are few comparisons between DM groups categorized by fasting glucose level. This study examined associations between diabetes as defined by fasting glucose level and self-reported history of DM and CRC risk among Korean adults. Data from the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort between 1993 and 2005 were analyzed. The study population comprised 14,570 participants aged 20 years or older. Participants were followed until December 31, 2012 (median follow-up: 11.9 years). Among participants with high fasting glucose (≥126mg/dL), the risk of developing CRC was significantly higher (HR: 1.51 [1.02–2.25]) than among participants with low fasting glucose (
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188465
  • Osteoglycin inhibition by microRNA miR-155 impairs myogenesis

    • Authors: Paula Paccielli Freire Sarah Santiloni Cury Grasieli de Oliveira Geysson Javier Fernandez Leonardo Nazario Moraes Bruno Oliveira da Silva Duran Juarez Henrique Ferreira César Seigi Fuziwara Edna Teruko Kimura Maeli Dal-Pai-Silva Robson Francisco Carvalho
      Abstract: by Paula Paccielli Freire, Sarah Santiloni Cury, Grasieli de Oliveira, Geysson Javier Fernandez, Leonardo Nazario Moraes, Bruno Oliveira da Silva Duran, Juarez Henrique Ferreira, César Seigi Fuziwara, Edna Teruko Kimura, Maeli Dal-Pai-Silva, Robson Francisco CarvalhoSkeletal myogenesis is a regulated process in which mononucleated cells, the myoblasts, undergo proliferation and differentiation. Upon differentiation, the cells align with each other, and subsequently fuse to form terminally differentiated multinucleated myotubes. Previous reports have identified the protein osteoglycin (Ogn) as an important component of the skeletal muscle secretome, which is expressed differentially during muscle development. However, the posttranscriptional regulation of Ogn by microRNAs during myogenesis is unknown. Bioinformatic analysis showed that miR-155 potentially targeted the Ogn transcript at the 3´-untranslated region (3´ UTR). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that miR-155 inhibits the expression of the Ogn to regulate skeletal myogenesis. C2C12 myoblast cells were cultured and miR-155 overexpression or Ogn knockdown was induced by transfection with miR-155 mimic, siRNA-Ogn, and negative controls with lipofectamine for 15 hours. Near confluence (80–90%), myoblasts were induced to differentiate myotubes in a differentiation medium. Luciferase assay was used to confirm the interaction between miR-155 and Ogn 3’UTR. RT-qPCR and Western blot analyses were used to confirm that the differential expression of miR-155 correlates with the differential expression of myogenic molecular markers (Myh2, MyoD, and MyoG) and inhibits Ogn protein and gene expression in myoblasts and myotubes. Myoblast migration and proliferation were assessed using Wound Healing and MTT assays. Our results show that miR-155 interacts with the 3’UTR Ogn region and decrease the levels of Ogn in myotubes. The overexpression of miR-155 increased MyoG expression, decreased myoblasts wound closure rate, and decreased Myh2 expression in myotubes. Moreover, Ogn knockdown reduced the expression levels of MyoD, MyoG, and Myh2 in myotubes. These results reveal a novel pathway in which miR-155 inhibits Ogn expression to regulate proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 myoblast cells.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188464
  • Vision in high-level football officials

    • Authors: António Manuel Gonçalves Baptista Pedro M. Serra Colm McAlinden Brendan T. Barrett
      Abstract: by António Manuel Gonçalves Baptista, Pedro M. Serra, Colm McAlinden, Brendan T. BarrettOfficiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R) and assistant referees (AR) participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season. Nine of the 22 Rs (40.9%) and ten of the 49 ARs (20.4%) were international-level. Information about visual history was also gathered. Perceived vision was assessed using the preference-values-assigned-to-global-visual-status (PVVS) and the Quality-of-Vision (QoV) questionnaire. Standard clinical vision measures (including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis) were gathered in a subset (n = 44, 62%) of the participants. Data were analysed according to the type (R/AR) and level (international/national) of official, and Bonferroni corrections were applied to reduce the risk of type I errors. Adopting criterion for statistical significance of p
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188463
  • Effects of tones associated with drilling activities on bowhead whale
           calling rates

    • Authors: Susanna B. Blackwell Christopher S. Nations Aaron M. Thode Mandy E. Kauffman Alexander S. Conrad Robert G. Norman Katherine H. Kim
      Abstract: by Susanna B. Blackwell, Christopher S. Nations, Aaron M. Thode, Mandy E. Kauffman, Alexander S. Conrad, Robert G. Norman, Katherine H. KimDuring summer 2012 Shell performed exploratory drilling at Sivulliq, a lease holding located in the autumn migration corridor of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus), northwest of Camden Bay in the Beaufort Sea. The drilling operation involved a number of vessels performing various activities, such as towing the drill rig, anchor handling, and drilling. Acoustic data were collected with six arrays of directional recorders (DASARs) deployed on the seafloor over ~7 weeks in Aug–Oct. Whale calls produced within 2 km of each DASAR were identified and localized using triangulation. A “tone index” was defined to quantify the presence and amplitude of tonal sounds from industrial machinery. The presence of airgun pulses originating from distant seismic operations was also quantified. For each 10-min period at each of the 40 recorders, the number of whale calls localized was matched with the “dose” of industrial sound received, and the relationship between calling rates and industrial sound was modeled using negative binomial regression. The analysis showed that with increasing tone levels, bowhead whale calling rates initially increased, peaked, and then decreased. This dual behavioral response is similar to that described for bowhead whales and airgun pulses in earlier work. Increasing call repetition rates can be a viable strategy for combating decreased detectability of signals arising from moderate increases in background noise. Meanwhile, as noise increases, the benefits of calling may decrease because information transfer becomes increasingly error-prone, and at some point calling may no longer be worth the effort.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188459
  • Expression and regulation of ATL9, an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in
           plant defense

    • Authors: Fengyan Deng Tingwei Guo Mitchell Lefebvre Steven Scaglione Christopher J. Antico Tao Jing Xin Yang Weixing Shan Katrina M. Ramonell
      Abstract: by Fengyan Deng, Tingwei Guo, Mitchell Lefebvre, Steven Scaglione, Christopher J. Antico, Tao Jing, Xin Yang, Weixing Shan, Katrina M. RamonellPlants are continually exposed to a variety of pathogenic organisms, including bacteria, fungi and viruses. In response to these assaults, plants have developed various defense pathways to protect themselves from pathogen invasion. An understanding of the expression and regulation of genes involved in defense signaling is essential to controlling plant disease. ATL9, an Arabidopsis RING zinc finger protein, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is induced by chitin and involved in basal resistance to the biotrophic fungal pathogen, Golovinomyces cichoracearum (G. cichoracearum). To better understand the expression and regulation of ATL9, we studied its expression pattern and the functions of its different protein domains. Using pATL9:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis lines we found that ATL9 is expressed in numerous tissues at various developmental stages and that GUS activity was induced rapidly upon wounding. Using a GFP control protein, we showed that ATL9 is a short-lived protein within plant cells and it is degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. ATL9 contains two transmembrane domains (TM), a RING zinc-finger domain, and a PEST domain. Using a series of deletion mutants, we found that the PEST domain and the RING domain have effects on ATL9 degradation. Further infection assays with G. cichoracearum showed that both the RING domain and the TM domains are important for ATL9’s resistance phenotype. Interestingly, the PEST domain was also shown to be significant for resistance to fungal pathogens. This study demonstrates that the PEST domain is directly coupled to plant defense regulation and the importance of protein degradation in plant immunity.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188458
  • Transcriptome analysis of plasmid-induced genes sheds light on the role of
           type I IFN as adjuvant in DNA vaccine against infectious salmon anemia

    • Authors: Mehrdad Sobhkhez Aleksej Krasnov Chia Jung Chang Børre Robertsen
      Abstract: by Mehrdad Sobhkhez, Aleksej Krasnov, Chia Jung Chang, Børre RobertsenA previous study showed that a plasmid expressing IFNa (pIFNa) strongly enhanced protection and antibody production of a DNA vaccine against infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) in Atlantic salmon. The vaccine consisted of a plasmid (pHE) expressing the virus hemagglutinin-esterase as an antigen. To increase the understanding of the adjuvant effect of pIFNa, we here compared transcriptome responses in salmon muscle at the injection site at week 1 and 2 after injection of pIFNa, pHE, plasmid control (pcDNA3.3) and PBS, respectively. The results showed that the IFNa plasmid mediates an increase in gene transcripts of at least three major types in the muscle; typical IFN-I induced genes (ISGs), certain chemokines and markers of B- cells, T-cells and antigen-presenting cells. The latter suggests recruitment of cells to the plasmid injection site. Attraction of lymphocytes was likely caused by the induction of chemokines homologous to mammalian CCL5, CCL8, CCL19 and CXCL10. IFN may possibly also co-stimulate activation of lymphocytes as suggested by studies in mammals. A major finding was that both pcDNA3.3 and pHE caused responses similar to pIFNa, but at lower magnitude. Plasmid DNA may thus by itself have adjuvant activity as observed in mammalian models. Notably, pHE had a lower effect on many immune genes including ISGs and chemokines than pcDNA3.3, which suggests an inhibitory effect of HE expression on the immune genes. This hypothesis was supported by an Mx-reporter assay. The present study thus suggests that a main role for pIFNa as adjuvant in the DNA vaccine against ISAV may be to overcome the inhibitory effect of HE- expression on plasmid-induced ISGs and chemokines.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188456
  • Dronedarone produces early regression of myocardial remodelling in
           structural heart disease

    • Authors: Begoña Quintana-Villamandos Jose Juan Gomez de Diego María Jesús Delgado-Martos David Muñoz-Valverde María Luisa Soto-Montenegro Manuel Desco Emilio Delgado-Baeza
      Abstract: by Begoña Quintana-Villamandos, Jose Juan Gomez de Diego, María Jesús Delgado-Martos, David Muñoz-Valverde, María Luisa Soto-Montenegro, Manuel Desco, Emilio Delgado-BaezaBackground and aims Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertension is associated with a greater risk of sustained supraventricular/atrial arrhythmias. Dronedarone is an antiarrhythmic agent that was recently approved for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. However, its effect on early regression of LVH has not been reported. We tested the hypothesis that short-term administration of dronedarone induces early regression of LVH in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Methods Ten-month-old male SHRs were randomly assigned to an intervention group (SHR-D), where animals received dronedarone treatment (100 mg/kg) for a period of 14 days, or to a control group (SHR) where rats were given vehicle. A third group with normotensive control rats (WKY) was also added. At the end of the treatment with dronedarone we studied the cardiac anatomy and function in all the rats using transthoracic echocardiogram, cardiac metabolism using the PET/CT study (2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose) and cardiac structure by histological analysis of myocyte size and collagen content. Results The hypertensive vehicle treated SHR rats developed the classic cardiac pattern of hypertensive cardiomyopathy as expected for the experimental model, with increases in left ventricular wall thickness, a metabolic shift towards an increase in glucose use and increases in myocyte and collagen content. However, the SHR-D rats showed statistically significant lower values in comparison to SHR group for septal wall thickness, posterior wall thickness, ventricular mass, glucose myocardial uptake, size of left ventricular cardiomyocytes and collagen content. All these values obtained in SHR-D rats were similar to the values measured in the normotensive WKY control group. Conclusion The results suggest by three alternative and complementary ways (analysis of anatomy and cardiac function, metabolism and histological structure) that dronedarone has the potential to reverse the LVH induced by arterial hypertension in the SHR model of compensated ventricular hypertrophy.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188442
  • The association of Social Anxiety Disorder, Alcohol Use Disorder and
           reproduction: Results from four nationally representative samples of
           adults in the USA

    • Authors: Beyon Miloyan Adam Bulley Ben Brilot Thomas Suddendorf
      Abstract: by Beyon Miloyan, Adam Bulley, Ben Brilot, Thomas SuddendorfSocial Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) are highly prevalent and frequently co-occur. The results of population studies suggest that SAD tends to precede AUD, and the results of laboratory studies suggest that alcohol use facilitates social behaviors in socially anxious individuals. Therefore, we posited that, in a modern context, a tendency to consume alcohol may be positively selected for among socially anxious individuals by its effect on the likelihood of finding a partner and reproducing. We tested the hypothesis that a higher proportion of individuals with a lifetime diagnosis of SAD and AUD reproduce (i.e., have at least one child) relative to individuals with SAD absent AUD in an individual participant meta-analysis based on over 65,000 adults derived from four nationally representative cross-sectional samples. We then cross-validated these findings against the results of a 10-year follow up of one of these surveys. Lifetime history of SAD was not associated with reproduction whereas lifetime history of AUD was positively associated with reproduction. There was no statistically detectable difference in the proportion of individuals with a lifetime history of SAD with or without AUD who reproduced. There was considerable heterogeneity in all of the analyses involving SAD, suggesting that there are likely to be other pertinent variables relating to SAD and reproduction that should be delineated.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188436
  • Evaluating architecture impact on system energy efficiency

    • Authors: Shijie Yu Hailong Yang Rui Wang Zhongzhi Luan Depei Qian
      Abstract: by Shijie Yu, Hailong Yang, Rui Wang, Zhongzhi Luan, Depei QianAs the energy consumption has been surging in an unsustainable way, it is important to understand the impact of existing architecture designs from energy efficiency perspective, which is especially valuable for High Performance Computing (HPC) and datacenter environment hosting tens of thousands of servers. One obstacle hindering the advance of comprehensive evaluation on energy efficiency is the deficient power measuring approach. Most of the energy study relies on either external power meters or power models, both of these two methods contain intrinsic drawbacks in their practical adoption and measuring accuracy. Fortunately, the advent of Intel Running Average Power Limit (RAPL) interfaces has promoted the power measurement ability into next level, with higher accuracy and finer time resolution. Therefore, we argue it is the exact time to conduct an in-depth evaluation of the existing architecture designs to understand their impact on system energy efficiency. In this paper, we leverage representative benchmark suites including serial and parallel workloads from diverse domains to evaluate the architecture features such as Non Uniform Memory Access (NUMA), Simultaneous Multithreading (SMT) and Turbo Boost. The energy is tracked at subcomponent level such as Central Processing Unit (CPU) cores, uncore components and Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DRAM) through exploiting the power measurement ability exposed by RAPL. The experiments reveal non-intuitive results: 1) the mismatch between local compute and remote memory node caused by NUMA effect not only generates dramatic power and energy surge but also deteriorates the energy efficiency significantly; 2) for multithreaded application such as the Princeton Application Repository for Shared-Memory Computers (PARSEC), most of the workloads benefit a notable increase of energy efficiency using SMT, with more than 40% decline in average power consumption; 3) Turbo Boost is effective to accelerate the workload execution and further preserve the energy, however it may not be applicable on system with tight power budget.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188428
  • Acute exercise alters skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration and H2O2
           emission in response to hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in middle-aged
           obese men

    • Authors: Adam J. Trewin Itamar Levinger Lewan Parker Christopher S. Shaw Fabio R. Serpiello Mitchell J. Anderson Glenn K. McConell David L. Hare Nigel K. Stepto
      Abstract: by Adam J. Trewin, Itamar Levinger, Lewan Parker, Christopher S. Shaw, Fabio R. Serpiello, Mitchell J. Anderson, Glenn K. McConell, David L. Hare, Nigel K. SteptoObesity, sedentary lifestyle and aging are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity. Acute exercise increases insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle; however, whether mitochondria are involved in these processes remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of insulin stimulation at rest and after acute exercise on skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function (JO2) and hydrogen peroxide emission (JH2O2), and the associations with insulin sensitivity in obese, sedentary men. Nine men (means ± SD: 57 ± 6 years; BMI 33 ± 5 kg.m2) underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in two separate trials 1–3 weeks apart: one under resting conditions, and another 1 hour after high-intensity exercise (4x4 min cycling at 95% HRpeak). Muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline, and pre/post clamp to measure JO2 with high-resolution respirometry and JH2O2 via Amplex UltraRed from permeabilized fibers. Post-exercise, both JO2 and JH2O2 during ADP stimulated state-3/OXPHOS respiration were lower compared to baseline (P
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188421
  • Loss of mTORC2 signaling in oligodendrocyte precursor cells delays

    • Authors: Mark D. Grier Kathryn L. West Nathaniel D. Kelm Cary Fu Mark D. Does Brittany Parker Eleanor McBrier Andre H. Lagrange Kevin C. Ess Robert P. Carson
      Abstract: by Mark D. Grier, Kathryn L. West, Nathaniel D. Kelm, Cary Fu, Mark D. Does, Brittany Parker, Eleanor McBrier, Andre H. Lagrange, Kevin C. Ess, Robert P. CarsonMyelin abnormalities are increasingly being recognized as an important component of a number of neurologic developmental disorders. The integration of many signaling pathways and cell types are critical for correct myelinogenesis. The PI3-K and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways have been found to play key roles. mTOR is found within two distinct complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTORC1 activity has been shown to play a major role during myelination, while the role of mTORC2 is not yet well understood. To determine the role of mTORC2 signaling in myelinogenesis, we generated a mouse lacking the critical mTORC2 component Rictor in oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs). Targeted deletion of Rictor in these cells decreases and delays the expression of myelin related proteins and reduces the size of cerebral white matter tracts. This is developmentally manifest as a transient reduction in myelinated axon density and g-ratio. OPC cell number is reduced at birth without detectable change in proliferation with proportional reductions in mature oligodendrocyte number at P15. The total number of oligodendrocytes as well as extent of myelination, does improve over time. Adult conditional knock-out (CKO) animals do not demonstrate a behavioral phenotype likely due in part to preserved axonal conduction velocities. These data support and extend prior studies demonstrating an important but transient contribution of mTORC2 signaling to myelin development.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188417
  • Shoulder complaints in wheelchair athletes: A systematic review

    • Authors: Omar W. Heyward Riemer J. K. Vegter Sonja de Groot Lucas H. V. van der Woude
      Abstract: by Omar W. Heyward, Riemer J. K. Vegter, Sonja de Groot, Lucas H. V. van der WoudeBackground In recent years the popularity of disabled sports and competition among disabled athletes has grown considerably. With this rise in exposure of, and participation in wheelchair sports comes an increase in related stressors, including musculoskeletal load. External mechanical loading may increase the risk of shoulder complaints. The objective of this literature review was to 1) identify and describe the prevalence and/or incidence of shoulder complaints in wheelchair athletes in the literature, to 2) examine the factors and underlying mechanisms that could be potentially involved, and 3) provide some insights into the development of preventative measures. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus and Embase databases, to identify relevant published articles. All articles in the English language that contained any type of shoulder complaint in relation with a wheelchair sports player, at any level of status (recreational to elite), of any sport, were included. Articles were excluded if they did not include any statistical analysis. Articles that included studies with wheelchair athletes in combination with athletes of other disability sports were excluded in order to be able to differentiate between the two. Narrative, exploratory and case studies were also excluded. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for inclusion. Thirteen articles matched the selection criteria. These were judged on their quality by use of an adapted version of the Webster checklist. Results Of the included studies the overall quality was low. A relatively high prevalence of complaints was found, ranging from 16% to 76%. Pain was found to be a common complaint in wheelchair athletes. Based on the current literature the cause of shoulder problems is difficult to identify and is likely multifactorial, nevertheless characteristics of the user (i.e. increased years of disability, age and BMI) were shown to increase risk. Preventative measures were indistinct. There may be a role for balanced strength training regimens to decrease risk. Conclusion Shoulder complaints in wheelchair athletes are a common problem that must be addressed further. Future studies on shoulder overuse injuries of wheelchair athletes should be directed towards biomechanical modeling to develop knowledge of load and its effects.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188410
  • Patterns and determinants of plant biodiversity in non-commercial forests
           of eastern China

    • Authors: Chuping Wu Mark Vellend Weigao Yuan Bo Jiang Jiajia Liu Aihua Shen Jinliang Liu Jinru Zhu Mingjian Yu
      Abstract: by Chuping Wu, Mark Vellend, Weigao Yuan, Bo Jiang, Jiajia Liu, Aihua Shen, Jinliang Liu, Jinru Zhu, Mingjian YuNon-commercial forests represent important habitats for the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem function in China, yet no studies have explored the patterns and determinants of plant biodiversity in these human dominated landscapes. Here we test the influence of (1) forest type (pine, mixed, and broad-leaved), (2) disturbance history, and (3) environmental factors, on tree species richness and composition in 600 study plots in eastern China. In total, we found 143 species in 53 families of woody plants, with a number of species rare and endemic in the study region. Species richness in mixed forest and broad-leaved forest was higher than that in pine forest, and was higher in forests with less disturbance. Species composition was influenced by environment factors in different ways in different forest types, with important variables including elevation, soil depth and aspect. Surprisingly, we found little effect of forest age after disturbance on species composition. Most non-commercial forests in this region are dominated by species poor pine forests and mixed young forests. As such, our results highlight the importance of broad-leaved forests for regional plant biodiversity conservation. To increase the representation of broad-leaved non-commercial forests, specific management practices such as thinning of pine trees could be undertaken.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188409
  • Use of QuantiFERON®-TB Gold in-tube culture supernatants for
           measurement of antibody responses

    • Authors: Simon G. Kimuda Irene Andia-Biraro Moses Egesa Bernard S. Bagaya John G. Raynes Jonathan Levin Alison M. Elliott Stephen Cose
      Abstract: by Simon G. Kimuda, Irene Andia-Biraro, Moses Egesa, Bernard S. Bagaya, John G. Raynes, Jonathan Levin, Alison M. Elliott, Stephen CoseQuantiFERON®-TB Gold in-tube (QFT-GIT) supernatants may be important samples for use in assessment of anti-tuberculosis (TB) antibodies when only limited volumes of blood can be collected and when a combination of antibody and cytokine measurements are required. These analytes, when used together, may also have the potential to differentiate active pulmonary TB (APTB) from latent TB infection (LTBI). However, few studies have explored the use of QFT-GIT supernatants for investigations of antibody responses. This study determined the correlation and agreement between anti-CFP-10 and anti-ESAT-6 antibody concentrations in QFT-GIT nil supernatant and serum pairs from 68 TB household contacts. We also explored the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) specific antibodies, or ratios of antibody to interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in QFT-GIT supernatants, to differentiate 97 APTB cases from 58 individuals with LTBI. Sputum smear microscopy was used to define APTB, whereas the QFT-GIT and tuberculin skin test were used to define LTBI. There were strong and statistically significant correlations between anti-CFP-10 and anti-ESAT-6 antibodies in unstimulated QFT-GIT supernatants and sera (r = 0.89; p
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188396
  • Proposal for a common nomenclature for fragment ions in mass spectra of

    • Authors: Josch K. Pauling Martin Hermansson Jürgen Hartler Klaus Christiansen Sandra F. Gallego Bing Peng Robert Ahrends Christer S. Ejsing
      Abstract: by Josch K. Pauling, Martin Hermansson, Jürgen Hartler, Klaus Christiansen, Sandra F. Gallego, Bing Peng, Robert Ahrends, Christer S. EjsingAdvances in mass spectrometry-based lipidomics have in recent years prompted efforts to standardize the annotation of the vast number of lipid molecules that can be detected in biological systems. These efforts have focused on cataloguing, naming and drawing chemical structures of intact lipid molecules, but have provided no guidelines for annotation of lipid fragment ions detected using tandem and multi-stage mass spectrometry, albeit these fragment ions are mandatory for structural elucidation and high confidence lipid identification, especially in high throughput lipidomics workflows. Here we propose a nomenclature for the annotation of lipid fragment ions, describe its implementation and present a freely available web application, termed ALEX123 lipid calculator, that can be used to query a comprehensive database featuring curated lipid fragmentation information for more than 430,000 potential lipid molecules from 47 lipid classes covering five lipid categories. We note that the nomenclature is generic, extendable to stable isotope-labeled lipid molecules and applicable to automated annotation of fragment ions detected by most contemporary lipidomics platforms, including LC-MS/MS-based routines.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188394
  • Precise mass determination of single cell with cantilever-based
           microbiosensor system

    • Authors: Bogdan Łabędź Aleksandra Wańczyk Zenon Rajfur
      Abstract: by Bogdan Łabędź, Aleksandra Wańczyk, Zenon RajfurHaving determined the mass of a single cell of brewer yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by means of a microcantilever-based biosensor Cantisens CSR-801 (Concentris, Basel, Switzerland), it was found that its dry mass is 47,65 ± 1,05 pg. Found to be crucial in this mass determination was the cell position along the length of the cantilever. Moreover, calculations including cells positions on the cantilever provide a threefold better degree of accuracy than those which assume uniform mass distribution. We have also examined the influence of storage time on the single cell mass. Our results show that after 6 months there is an increase in the average mass of a single yeast cell.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188388
  • Altered juvenile fish communities associated with invasive Halophila
           stipulacea seagrass habitats in the U.S. Virgin Islands

    • Authors: Lauren K. Olinger Sarah L. Heidmann Allie N. Durdall Colin Howe Tanya Ramseyer Sara G. Thomas Danielle N. Lasseigne Elizabeth J. Brown John S. Cassell Michele M. Donihe Mareike D. Duffing Romero Mara A. Duke Damon Green Paul Hillbrand Kristin R. Wilson Grimes Richard S. Nemeth Tyler B. Smith Marilyn Brandt
      Abstract: by Lauren K. Olinger, Sarah L. Heidmann, Allie N. Durdall, Colin Howe, Tanya Ramseyer, Sara G. Thomas, Danielle N. Lasseigne, Elizabeth J. Brown, John S. Cassell, Michele M. Donihe, Mareike D. Duffing Romero, Mara A. Duke, Damon Green, Paul Hillbrand, Kristin R. Wilson Grimes, Richard S. Nemeth, Tyler B. Smith, Marilyn BrandtCaribbean seagrass habitats provide food and protection for reef-associated juvenile fish. The invasive seagrass Halophila stipulacea is rapidly altering these seascapes. Since its arrival in the Caribbean in 2002, H. stipulacea has colonized and displaced native seagrasses, but the function of this invasive seagrass as a juvenile fish habitat remains unknown. To compare diversity, community structure, and abundance of juvenile fish between H. stipulacea and native seagrass beds, fish traps were deployed in four nearshore bays around St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. Traps were deployed in Frenchman, Lindbergh, and Sprat Bays for 24 h intervals in patches of bare sand, patches of H. stipulacea and patches of the native Caribbean seagrasses Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme. Traps were then deployed in Brewers Bay for 12 h intervals in stands of H. stipulacea and S. filiforme. Relative and total abundances of juvenile fish, identified at least to family, were compared across treatment habitats for each trap deployment period. The catch from H. stipulacea, compared to native seagrasses, comprised a greater abundance of nocturnal carnivores Lutjanus synagris (family Lutjanidae) and Haemulon flavolineatum (family Haemulidae). Additionally, the herbivore species Sparisoma aurofrenatum (family Labridae) and Acanthurus bahianus (family Acanthuridae) and the diurnal carnivore species Pseudopeneus maculatus (family Mullidae) were relatively scarce in H. stipulacea. The catch from sand was much smaller, compared to vegetated habitats, and comprised only L. synagris, H. flavolineatum, and H. aurolineatum. These results provide evidence of reduced family diversity and altered juvenile fish assemblages in H. stipulacea, driven by an abundance of some nocturnal carnivores and scarcity of herbivores and diurnal carnivores. The findings from the present work underpin the need for further investigation and mitigation of this invasion, particularly where H. stipulacea is driving seascape-alterations of key juvenile fish habitats.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188386
  • Comparative metabolomics profiling of engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae
           lead to a strategy that improving β-carotene production by acetate

    • Authors: Xiao Bu Liang Sun Fei Shang Guoliang Yan
      Abstract: by Xiao Bu, Liang Sun, Fei Shang, Guoliang YanA comparative metabolomic analysis was conducted on recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain producing β-carotene and the parent strain cultivated with glucose as carbon source using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) based approach. The results showed that most of the central intermediates associated with amino acids, carbohydrates, glycolysis and TCA cycle intermediates (acetic acid, glycerol, citric acid, pyruvic acid and succinic acid), fatty acids, ergosterol and energy metabolites were produced in a lower amount in recombinant strain, as compared to the parent strain. To increase β-carotene production in recombinant strain, a strategy that exogenous addition of acetate (10 g/l) in exponential phase was developed, which could enhance most intracellular metabolites levels and result in 39.3% and 14.2% improvement of β-carotene concentration and production, respectively, which was accompanied by the enhancement of acetyl-CoA, fatty acids, ergosterol and ATP contents in cells. These results indicated that the amounts of intracellular metabolites in engineered strain are largely consumed by carotenoid formation. Therefore, maintaining intracellular metabolites pool at normal levels is essential for carotenoid biosynthesis. To relieve this limitation, rational supplementation of acetate could be a potential way because it can partially restore the levels of intracellular metabolites and improve the production of carotenoid compounds in recombinant S. cerevisiae.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188385
  • Thallium stimulates ethanol production in immortalized hippocampal neurons

    • Authors: Laura Colombaioni Massimo Onor Edoardo Benedetti Emilia Bramanti
      Abstract: by Laura Colombaioni, Massimo Onor, Edoardo Benedetti, Emilia BramantiLactate and ethanol (EtOH) were determined in cell culture medium (CCM) of immortalized hippocampal neurons (HN9.10e cell line) before and after incubation with Thallium (Tl). This cell line is a reliable, in vitro model of one of the most vulnerable regions of central nervous system. Cells were incubated for 48 h with three different single Tl doses: 1, 10, 100 μg/L (corresponding to 4.9, 49 and 490 nM, respectively). After 48 h, neurons were “reperfused” with fresh CCM every 24/48 h until 7 days after the treatment and the removed CCM was collected and analysed. Confocal microscopy was employed to observe morphological changes. EtOH was determined by head space—solid phase microextraction -gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GCMS), lactate by RP-HPLC with UV detection. Tl exposure had significant effects on neuronal growth rate and morphology. The damage degree was dose-dependent. In not exposed cells, EtOH concentration was 0.18 ± 0.013 mM, which represents about 5% of lactate concentration (3.4 ± 0.10 mM). After Tl exposure lactate and EtOH increased. In CCM of 100 and 10 μg/L Tl-treated cells, lactate increased 24 h after reperfusion up to 2 and 3.3 times the control value, respectively. In CCM of 10 and 100 μg/L Tl-treated cells 24 h after reperfusion, EtOH increased up to 0.3 and 0.58 mmol/L. respectively. These results are consistent with significant alterations in energy metabolism, despite the low doses of Tl employed and the relatively short incubation time.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188351
  • The mechanisms of humic substances self-assembly with biological
           molecules: The case study of the prion protein

    • Authors: Gabriele Giachin Ridvan Nepravishta Walter Mandaliti Sonia Melino Alja Margon Denis Scaini Pierluigi Mazzei Alessandro Piccolo Giuseppe Legname Maurizio Paci Liviana Leita
      Abstract: by Gabriele Giachin, Ridvan Nepravishta, Walter Mandaliti, Sonia Melino, Alja Margon, Denis Scaini, Pierluigi Mazzei, Alessandro Piccolo, Giuseppe Legname, Maurizio Paci, Liviana LeitaHumic substances (HS) are the largest constituent of soil organic matter and are considered as a key component of the terrestrial ecosystem. HS may facilitate the transport of organic and inorganic molecules, as well as the sorption interactions with environmentally relevant proteins such as prions. Prions enter the environment through shedding from live hosts, facilitating a sustained incidence of animal prion diseases such as Chronic Wasting Disease and scrapie in cervid and ovine populations, respectively. Changes in prion structure upon environmental exposure may be significant as they can affect prion infectivity and disease pathology. Despite its relevance, the mechanisms of prion interaction with HS are still not completely understood. The goal of this work is to advance a structural-level picture of the encapsulation of recombinant, non-infectious, prion protein (PrP) into different natural HS. We observed that PrP precipitation upon addition of HS is mainly driven by a mechanism of “salting-out” whereby PrP molecules are rapidly removed from the solution and aggregate in insoluble adducts with humic molecules. Importantly, this process does not alter the protein folding since insoluble PrP retains its α-helical content when in complex with HS. The observed ability of HS to promote PrP insolubilization without altering its secondary structure may have potential relevance in the context of “prion ecology”. These results suggest that soil organic matter interacts with prions possibly without altering the protein structures. This may facilitate prions preservation from biotic and abiotic degradation leading to their accumulation in the environment.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188308
  • Comparison of methods for determining the effectiveness of antibacterial
           functionalized textiles

    • Authors: Hajo Haase Lisa Jordan Laura Keitel Claudia Keil Boris Mahltig
      Abstract: by Hajo Haase, Lisa Jordan, Laura Keitel, Claudia Keil, Boris MahltigAntimicrobial functionalization of textiles is important for various applications, such as protection of textile materials from decomposition, generation of more effective wound dressings, and the prevention of infections or malodors resulting from bacterial growth. In order to test the efficacy of new products, their antibacterial activity needs to be evaluated. At present, several different procedures are being used for this purpose, hindering comparisons among different studies. The present paper compares five of these assays using a sample panel of different textiles functionalized with copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) as antibacterial agents, and discusses the suitability of these methods for different analytical requirements. Bacterial viability was determined by measuring the optical density at 600 nm, a colorimetric assay based on MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) conversion, an agar diffusion assay, and colony formation, either after culturing in media containing textile samples, or after recovery from textiles soaked with bacterial suspension. All experiments were performed with a Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and a Gram-positive (Staphylococcus warneri) model organism. In general, the results yielded by the different methods were of good comparability. To identify the most suitable test system for the particular type of antibacterial coating, several factors need to be taken into account, such as choosing appropriate endpoints for analyzing passive or active antibacterial effects, selection of relevant microorganisms, correcting for potential interference by leaching of colored textile coatings, required hands on time, and the necessary sensitivity.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188304
  • In-vivo effects of intraocular and intracranial pressures on the lamina
           cribrosa microstructure

    • Authors: Bo Wang Huong Tran Matthew A. Smith Tigran Kostanyan Samantha E. Schmitt Richard A. Bilonick Ning-Jiun Jan Larry Kagemann Elizabeth C. Tyler-Kabara Hiroshi Ishikawa Joel S. Schuman Ian A. Sigal Gadi Wollstein
      Abstract: by Bo Wang, Huong Tran, Matthew A. Smith, Tigran Kostanyan, Samantha E. Schmitt, Richard A. Bilonick, Ning-Jiun Jan, Larry Kagemann, Elizabeth C. Tyler-Kabara, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Joel S. Schuman, Ian A. Sigal, Gadi WollsteinThere is increasing clinical evidence that the eye is not only affected by intraocular pressure (IOP), but also by intracranial pressure (ICP). Both pressures meet at the optic nerve head of the eye, specifically the lamina cribrosa (LC). The LC is a collagenous meshwork through which all retinal ganglion cell axons pass on their way to the brain. Distortion of the LC causes a biological cascade leading to neuropathy and impaired vision in situations such as glaucoma and idiopathic intracranial hypertension. While the effect of IOP on the LC has been studied extensively, the coupled effects of IOP and ICP on the LC remain poorly understood. We investigated in-vivo the effects of IOP and ICP, controlled via cannulation of the eye and lateral ventricle in the brain, on the LC microstructure of anesthetized rhesus monkeys eyes using the Bioptigen spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) device (Research Triangle, NC). The animals were imaged with their head upright and the rest of their body lying prone on a surgical table. The LC was imaged at a variety of IOP/ICP combinations, and microstructural parameters, such as the thickness of the LC collagenous beams and diameter of the pores were analyzed. LC microstructure was confirmed by histology. We determined that LC microstructure deformed in response to both IOP and ICP changes, with significant interaction between the two. These findings emphasize the importance of considering both IOP and ICP when assessing optic nerve health.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188302
  • Association mapping unveils favorable alleles for grain iron and zinc
           concentrations in lentil (Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris)

    • Authors: Akanksha Singh Vinay Sharma Harsh Kumar Dikshit Muraleedhar Aski Harish Kumar Nepolean Thirunavukkarasu Basavanagouda S. Patil Shiv Kumar Ashutosh Sarker
      Abstract: by Akanksha Singh, Vinay Sharma, Harsh Kumar Dikshit, Muraleedhar Aski, Harish Kumar, Nepolean Thirunavukkarasu, Basavanagouda S. Patil, Shiv Kumar, Ashutosh SarkerLentil is a major cool-season grain legume grown in South Asia, West Asia, and North Africa. Populations in developing countries of these regions have micronutrient deficiencies; therefore, breeding programs should focus more on improving the micronutrient content of food. In the present study, a set of 96 diverse germplasm lines were evaluated at three different locations in India to examine the variation in iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) concentration and identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that associate with the genetic variation. The genetic variation among genotypes of the association mapping (AM) panel was characterized using a genetic distance-based and a general model-based clustering method. The model-based analysis identified six subpopulations, which satisfactorily explained the genetic structure of the AM panel. AM analysis identified three SSRs (PBALC 13, PBALC 206, and GLLC 563) associated with grain Fe concentration explaining 9% to 11% of phenotypic variation and four SSRs (PBALC 353, SSR 317–1, PLC 62, and PBALC 217) were associated with grain Zn concentration explaining 14%, to 21% of phenotypic variation. These identified SSRs exhibited consistent performance across locations. These candidate SSRs can be used in marker-assisted genetic improvement for developing Fe and Zn fortified lentil varieties. Favorable alleles and promising genotypes identified in this study can be utilized for lentil biofortification.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188296
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