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Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.999
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 212  
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 2 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 0146-1672 - ISSN (Online) 1552-7433
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1086 journals]
  • Everyday Thoughts in Time: Experience Sampling Studies of Mental Time
    • Authors: Roy F. Baumeister, Wilhelm Hofmann, Amy Summerville, Philip T. Reiss, Kathleen D. Vohs
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Time is among the most important yet mysterious aspects of experience. We investigated everyday mental time travel, especially into the future. Two community samples, contacted at random points for 3 (Study 1; 6,686 reports) and 14 days (Study 2; 2,361 reports), reported on their most recent thought. Both studies found that thoughts about the present were frequent, thoughts about the future also were common, whereas thoughts about the past were rare. Thoughts about the present were on average highly happy and pleasant but low in meaningfulness. Pragmatic prospection (thoughts preparing for action) was evident in thoughts about planning and goals. Thoughts with no time aspect were lower in sociality and experiential richness. Thoughts about the past were relatively unpleasant and involuntary. Subjective experiences of thinking about past and future often were similar—while both differed from present focus, consistent with views that memory and prospection use similar mental structures.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-25T10:40:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220908411
  • Perceived Centrality in Social Networks Increases Women’s
           Expectations of Confronting Sexism
    • Authors: Raina A. Brands, Aneeta Rattan
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This article integrates the study of intergroup relations and social network cognition, predicting that women who occupy central (vs. peripheral) advice network positions are more likely to confront a coworker’s gender-biased comment. Study 1 offers correlational evidence of the predicted link between perceived advice network centrality and confronting among employed women, uniquely in advice (but not communication) networks. Study 2 replicates and investigates two possible mechanisms—perceptions of the situation as public and perceived risk of confronting. Study 3 rules out order effects and tests an additional mechanism (expectations of the network members). Study 4 is an experiment that shows people expect central (vs. peripheral) women to confront more, even when she is lower (vs. equal) power. Study 5 replicates the core hypothesis in retrospective accounts of women’s responses to real workplace gender bias. Study 6 compares multiple potential mechanisms to provide greater insight into why centrality reliably predicts confrontation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-25T10:39:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220912621
  • On Attenuated Interactions, Measurement Error, and Statistical Power:
           Guidelines for Social and Personality Psychologists
    • Authors: Khandis R. Blake, Steven Gangestad
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The replication crisis has seen increased focus on best practice techniques to improve the reliability of scientific findings. What remains elusive to many researchers and is frequently misunderstood is that predictions involving interactions dramatically affect the calculation of statistical power. Using recent papers published in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin (PSPB), we illustrate the pitfalls of improper power estimations in studies where attenuated interactions are predicted. Our investigation shows why even a programmatic series of six studies employing 2 × 2 designs, with samples exceeding N = 500, can be woefully underpowered to detect genuine effects. We also highlight the importance of accounting for error-prone measures when estimating effect sizes and calculating power, explaining why even positive results can mislead when power is low. We then provide five guidelines for researchers to avoid these pitfalls, including cautioning against the heuristic that a series of underpowered studies approximates the credibility of one well-powered study.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-25T10:37:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220913363
  • Exposure to Analogous Harmdoing Increases Acknowledgment of Ingroup
           Transgressions in Intergroup Conflicts
    • Authors: Deborah Shulman, Eran Halperin, Thomas Kessler, Noa Schori-Eyal, Michal Reifen Tagar
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      A major barrier to the resolution of intergroup conflicts is the reluctance to acknowledge transgressions committed by one’s ingroup toward the outgroup. Existing research demonstrates that individuals are generally motivated to justify ingroup conduct and avoid experiencing guilt and shame about ingroup harmdoing. The current work explores the use of an analogy-based intervention to attenuate motivated reasoning in evaluations of ingroup harmdoing. Overall, across six studies, we find support for our hypothesis that considering a case of harmdoing in a removed context increases acknowledgment of an analogous case of ingroup harmdoing. We further explore why, and under what conditions, the analogy is effective in leading to increased acknowledgment of an ingroup transgression. We find that the effect of the analogy is mediated by the endorsement of moral principles specific to the domain of the transgression, suggesting that the mechanism involves a cognitive process of analogical reasoning.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-19T08:56:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220908727
  • Can’t Buy Me Love (or Friendship): Social Consequences of
           Financially Contingent Self-Worth
    • Authors: Deborah E. Ward, Lora E. Park, Kristin Naragon-Gainey, Ashley V. Whillans, Han Young Jung
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although people may think that money improves one’s relationships, research suggests otherwise. Focusing on money is associated with spending less time maintaining relationships and less desire to rely on others for help. But why does focusing on money relate to worse social outcomes' We propose that when people base their self-esteem on financial success—that is, have financially contingent self-worth—they are likely to feel pressured to pursue success in this domain, which may come at the expense of spending time with close others. Consistent with this idea, results of four cross-sectional studies (N = 2,439) and a daily diary study (N = 246) revealed that basing one’s self-worth on financial success is associated with greater feelings of loneliness and social disconnection, and this may be related to experiencing less autonomy and spending less time with family and friends.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-19T08:55:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220910872
  • Be Afraid, Be Very Afraid! Motivated Intergroup Emotion Regulation
    • Authors: Liat Netzer, Eran Halperin, Maya Tamir
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Group-based emotions can shape group members’ behaviors and intergroup relations. Therefore, we propose that people may try to regulate emotions of outgroup members to attain ingroup goals. We call this phenomenon “motivated intergroup emotion regulation.” In four studies, conducted in both hypothetical and real-world contexts, we show that deterrence and reconciliation goals influence how fearful or calm people want outgroup members to feel, respectively. We further show that such motivated intergroup emotion regulation can guide behavior toward the outgroup, influencing how outgroup members feel (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and behave (Study 4). We demonstrate how affiliation with the ingroup, which renders ingroup goals more salient, shapes what ingroup members want outgroup members to feel (Studies 3 and 4) and subsequently how outgroup members feel and behave (Study 4). Finally, we discuss how motivated intergroup emotion regulation might contribute to understanding motivation in emotion regulation, group-based emotions, and intergroup relations.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-19T08:52:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220910833
  • Historical Change in the Moral Foundations of Political Persuasion
    • Authors: Nicholas Buttrick, Robert Moulder, Shigehiro Oishi
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      How have attempts at political persuasion changed over time' Using nine corpora dating back through 1789, containing over 7 million words of speech (1,666 documents in total), covering three different countries, plus the entire Google nGram corpus, we find that language relating to togetherness permanently crowded out language relating to duties and obligations in the persuasive speeches of politicians during the early 20th century. This shift is temporally predicted by a rise in Western nationalism and the mass movement of people from more rural to more urban areas and is unexplained by changes in language, private political speech, or nonmoral persuasion. We theorize that the emergence of the modern state in the 1920s had psychopolitical consequences for the ways that people understood and communicated their relationships with their government, which was then reflected in the levers of persuasion chosen by political elites.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-18T01:44:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220907467
  • Effects of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Affection on Avoidantly
           Attached Partners’ Emotions and Message Receptiveness
    • Authors: Kristina M. Schrage, Jessica A. Maxwell, Emily A. Impett, Dacher Keltner, Geoff MacDonald
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Research on adult attachment in romantic relationships has focused on the negative outcomes that avoidantly attached individuals face. The present research uses observational research methods to determine if there are specific ways of communicating affection that might help avoidantly attached people reap similar levels of rewards from affectionate communication as those who are more secure. We combined three samples (Ntotal = 280 couples, 560 participants) who took turns describing a time they felt strong love for their partner, and coded their expressions for cues of verbal affection (i.e., emotion-laden words) and nonverbal affection (i.e., behavioral expressiveness). Higher levels of the speaker’s nonverbal affection were associated with stronger positive emotion and behavioral receptiveness (i.e., appearing engaged) for listeners higher in attachment avoidance. Altogether, we provide evidence that avoidantly attached individuals may experience positive outcomes from affectionate exchanges when the communication style is tailored to their unique needs.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-17T02:23:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220910311
  • Sexual Nostalgia as a Response to Unmet Sexual and Relational Needs: The
           Role of Attachment Avoidance
    • Authors: Amy Muise, James J. Kim, Anik Debrot, Emily A. Impett, Geoff MacDonald
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Romantic relationships help people meet needs for connection and emotional and sexual fulfillment. In the current research, we investigate an unexplored response to feeling sexually and relationally unfulfilled: reflecting on positive sexual experiences with past partners (or sexual nostalgia). Across three studies, people low in attachment avoidance (i.e., comfortable with closeness) who were (a) single or (b) sexually or relationally dissatisfied reported greater sexual nostalgia, whereas people high in attachment avoidance (i.e., value autonomy) did not calibrate their feelings of sexual nostalgia based on their current relationship status or satisfaction. Sexual fantasies about past partners (i.e., sexual nostalgia) were distinct from other types of sexual fantasies (Study 1) and the effects could not be attributed to general nostalgia (Study 2) or sexual desire (Study 3). Chronic sexual nostalgia detracted from satisfaction over time. The findings have implications for theories of nostalgia and attachment and for managing unfulfilled needs in relationships.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-14T12:31:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220907468
  • Developing a Family Achievement Guilt Scale Grounded in First-Generation
           College Student Voices
    • Authors: Rebecca Covarrubias, Isidro Landa, Ronald Gallimore
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      As the first in their families to attend college, first-generation students plausibly experience family achievement guilt—socioemotional distress related to “leaving family members” to attend college. Family achievement guilt is little studied but a promising indicator of student outcomes. The present work used psychometric methods to develop the family achievement guilt scale. First-generation (46.6%) and continuing-generation (i.e., at least one parent has a 4-year degree, 53.4%) students completed a 41-item guilt measure online. Exploratory factor analysis revealed four factors, including guilt related to Leaving Family Behind, Having More Privileges, Becoming Different, and Experiencing Pressures about not being successful. The scale yielded good internal and test–retest reliability. Moreover, guilt predicted greater engagement in family roles and interdependent motives for college, even after controlling for general negative affect. In measuring guilt in psychometrically sound ways, we validate the voices of first-generation college students and alert institutions to adjust how they serve students.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-14T12:30:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220908382
  • Dehumanizing Prisoners: Remaining Sentence Duration Predicts the
           Ascription of Mind to Prisoners
    • Authors: Jason C. Deska, Steven M. Almaraz, Kurt Hugenberg
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We tested the novel hypothesis that the dehumanization of prisoners varies as a function of how soon they will be released from prison. Seven studies indicate that people ascribe soon-to-be-released prisoners greater mental sophistication than those with more time to serve, all other things being equal. Studies 3 to 6 indicate that these effects are mediated by perceptions that imprisonment has served the functions of rehabilitation, retribution, and future deterrence. Finally, Study 7 demonstrates that beliefs about rehabilitation and deterrence may be the most important in accounting for these effects. These findings indicate that the amount of time left on a prison sentence influences mind ascription to the incarcerated, an effect that has implications for our understanding of prisoner dehumanization.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-14T12:29:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220911496
  • Reconsidering “Best Practices” for Testing the Ideal Standards Model:
           A Response to Eastwick, Finkel, and Simpson (2018)
    • Authors: Garth J. O. Fletcher, Nickola C. Overall, Lorne Campbell
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Eastwick, Finkel, and Simpson (2018) advanced recommendations for “best practices” in testing the predictive validity of individual differences in the extent to which perceptions of partners match ideal standards (ideal-partner matching). We respond to their article evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of different tests, presenting new analyses of existing data, and setting out conclusions that differ from Eastwick et al. We (a) argue that correlations between ideal standards for attributes in partners and corresponding partner perceptions are relevant to the ideal standards model (ISM), (b) show that important methodological and statistical issues qualify their interpretations of prior research, (c) illustrate a new analytic approach used in the accuracy literature that tests (and controls for) confounds highlighted by Eastwick et al., and (d) provide evidence that the direct-estimation measure of ideal-partner matching is a valid and useful method. We conclude with a cautionary note on the concept of best practices.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-12T06:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220910323
  • When Tonight Is Not the Night: Sexual Rejection Behaviors and Satisfaction
           in Romantic Relationships
    • Authors: James J. Kim, Amy Muise, John K. Sakaluk, Natalie O. Rosen, Emily A. Impett
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In most long-term romantic relationships, partners experience sexual conflicts of interest in which one partner declines the other partner’s sexual advances. We investigated the distinct ways people reject a partner’s advances (i.e., with reassuring, hostile, assertive, and deflecting behaviors) in Studies 1 and 2. Using cross-sectional (Study 3) and daily experience methods (Study 4), we investigated how perceptions of a partner’s rejection behaviors are linked with the rejected partner’s relationship and sexual satisfaction. We found robust evidence that perceived partner reassuring behaviors were associated with greater satisfaction, whereas perceived partner hostile behaviors were associated with lower levels of satisfaction. Perceived partner responsiveness was a key mechanism underlying the effects. Findings for assertive and deflecting behaviors were limited, but the effect of deflecting behaviors was qualified by levels of hostile behaviors for sexual satisfaction. Findings provide the first empirical investigation of the specific ways partners can decline one another’s advances to preserve satisfaction.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-12T06:45:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220907469
  • Threat Enhances Aggressive Inclinations Among Devoted Actors Via Increase
           in Their Relative Physical Formidability
    • Authors: Alexandra Vázquez, Lucía López-Rodríguez, Mercedes Martínez, Scott Atran, Ángel Gómez
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Devoted actors—those who share sacred values with a group with which they are fused—are particularly willing to self-sacrifice to defend their group or values when they are threatened. Here, we explore whether they are also prone to aggressive inclinations toward those who endanger their group or convictions. To that end, we examined the effect of threat and the two components of the devoted actor framework—identity fusion and sacred values—on aggressive inclinations. These inclinations were registered with a videogame that allowed participants to destroy ingroup and outgroup symbols. Two experiments indicated that devoted actors reacted to threats to their ingroup and value by increasing aggressive inclinations against the rival group. This effect was apparently mediated by the perceived physical strength of the ingroup versus foes. Results suggest that devoted actors might be more prone to self-sacrifice, but also to attack those who threaten their group or values.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-12T01:59:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220907466
  • Men’s Hostile Sexism and Biased Perceptions of Partners’ Support:
           Underestimating Dependability Rather Than Overestimating Challenges to
    • Authors: Matthew D. Hammond, Nickola C. Overall
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Hostile sexism expresses derogation of women’s competence and emphasizes that women will exploit men’s relational dependence. Men who endorse hostile sexism perceive their female partners more negatively, but do these negative perceptions stem from motives for dominance or insecurities about dependence' We tested both perspectives by assessing bias in perceptions of partners’ behaviors that challenge dominance (criticism, instruction, taking over) versus affirm partners are dependable (love, care, availability). Both members of 100 heterosexual couples reported how much they received and enacted these behaviors in (a) a lab-based discussion and (b) six monthly retrospective reports about an ongoing important goal. In both support contexts, men’s hostile sexism was associated with underestimating dependability-relevant support, particularly when partners reported providing low support. This pattern did not emerge for dominance-relevant behaviors. These results indicate that men’s hostile sexism involves insecurities about dependence, producing perceptions that female partners are less dependable than they actually are.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-10T09:55:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220907475
  • Jealousy as a Function of Rival Characteristics: Two Large Replication
           Studies and Meta-Analyses Support Gender Differences in Reactions to Rival
           Attractiveness But Not Dominance
    • Authors: Thomas V. Pollet, Tamsin K. Saxton
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Jealousy is a key emotion studied in the context of romantic relationships. One seminal study (Dijkstra, P., & Buunk, B. (1998). Jealousy as a function of rival characteristics: An evolutionary perspective. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24 (11), 1158–1166. investigated the interactions between a participant’s gender and their reactions to the attractiveness or dominance of a romantic rival. In a vignette-based study, it was found that women’s jealousy was more responsive than men’s to a rival’s attractiveness, whereas in contrast, the rival’s dominance evoked more jealousy from men than from women. Here, we attempt to replicate these interactions in two samples (N = 339 and N = 456) and present subsequent meta-analyses (combined Ns = 5,899 and 4,038, respectively). These meta-analyses showed a small, significant effect of gender on jealousy provoked by rival attractiveness, but no such response to rival dominance. We discuss the potential reasons for these findings and future directions for research on jealousy and rival characteristics.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-10T09:54:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220904512
  • Individual Differences in Attitude Consistency Over Time: The Personal
           Attitude Stability Scale
    • Authors: Mengran Xu, Pablo Briñol, Jeremy D. Gretton, Zakary L. Tormala, Derek D. Rucker, Richard E. Petty
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This research finds evidence for reliable individual differences in people’s perceived attitude stability that predict the actual stability of their attitudes over time. Study 1 examines the reliability and factor structure of an 11-item Personal Attitude Stability Scale (PASS). Study 2 establishes test–retest reliability for the PASS over a 5-week period. Studies 3a and 3b demonstrate the convergent and discriminant validity of the PASS in relation to relevant existing individual differences. Studies 4 and 5 show that the PASS predicts attitude stability following a delay period across several distinct topics. Across multiple attitude objects, for people with high (vs. low) scores on the PASS, Time 1 attitudes were more predictive of their Time 2 attitudes, indicative of greater attitudinal consistency over time. The final study also demonstrates that the PASS predicts attitude stability above and beyond other related scales.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-07T12:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220908995
  • What Goes Down When Advice Goes Up: Younger Advisers Underestimate Their
    • Authors: Ting Zhang, Michael S. North
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Common wisdom suggests that older is wiser. Consequently, people rarely give advice to older individuals—even when they are relatively more expert—leading to missed learning opportunities. Across six studies (N = 3,445), we explore the psychology of advisers when they are younger (reverse advising), the same age (peer advising), or older (traditional advising) than their advisees. Study 1 shows that advisers avoid reverse-advising interactions because they perceive that their relative youth makes them less effective. However, when compared to advisees’ actual perceptions, reverse advisers are misguided, as they underestimate their effectiveness when giving general life advice (Study 2a–2b) as well as tactical advice (Studies 3–4). This misperception is in part driven by advisers’ beliefs about their own competence and others’ receptivity. Finally, we demonstrate an intervention that mitigates advisers’ misguided beliefs (Study 5). Contrary to advisers’ own perceptions and popular belief, these findings illustrate that being relatively young can also mean being an impactful adviser.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-03T11:32:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220905221
  • Using the CNI Model to Investigate Individual Differences in Moral Dilemma
    • Authors: Anita Körner, Roland Deutsch, Bertram Gawronski
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Typical moral dilemmas pitting the consequences of a given action against the action’s consistency with moral norms confound several determinants of moral judgments. Dissociating these determinants, the CNI model allows researchers to quantify sensitivity to consequences, sensitivity to norms, and general preference for inaction over action regardless of consequences and norms. However, with the currently available set of dilemmas for research using the CNI model, the model is not suitable for studies with individual-difference designs. To overcome this limitation, the current research investigated the suitability of an extended dilemma battery to make the CNI model amenable for individual-difference research, examining relations of its parameters with psychopathy, empathic concern, need for cognition, self-reported utilitarianism, behavioral activation/inhibition, moral identity, and religiosity. The results support the suitability of the CNI model for individual-difference research with the extended dilemma battery, providing more nuanced insights into the underpinnings of individual differences in moral dilemma judgments.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-02-29T07:00:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220907203
  • Thinking Through Secrets: Rethinking the Role of Thought Suppression in
    • Authors: Michael L. Slepian, Katharine H. Greenaway, E. J. Masicampo
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Having secrets on the mind is associated with lower well-being, and a common view of secrets is that people work to suppress and avoid them—but might people actually want to think about their secrets' Four studies examining more than 11,000 real-world secrets found that the answer depends on the importance of the secret: People generally seek to engage with thoughts of significant secrets and seek to suppress thoughts of trivial secrets. Inconsistent with an ironic process account, adopting the strategy to suppress thoughts of a secret was not related to a tendency to think about the secret. Instead, adopting the strategy to engage with thoughts of a secret was related the tendency to think about the secret. Moreover, the temporal focus of one’s thoughts moderated the relationship between mind-wandering to the secret and well-being, with a focus on the past exacerbating a harmful link. These results suggest that people do not universally seek to suppress their secrets; they also seek to engage with them, although not always effectively.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-02-28T10:29:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219895017
  • Gray (Literature) Matters: Evidence of Selective Hypothesis Reporting in
           Social Psychological Research
    • Authors: Athena H. Cairo, Jeffrey D. Green, Donelson R. Forsyth, Anna Maria C. Behler, Tarah L. Raldiris
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Selective reporting practices (SRPs)—adding, dropping, or altering study elements when preparing reports for publication—are thought to increase false positives in scientific research. Yet analyses of SRPs have been limited to self-reports or analyses of pre-registered and published studies. To assess SRPs in social psychological research more broadly, we compared doctoral dissertations defended between 1999 and 2017 with the publications based on those dissertations. Selective reporting occurred in nearly 50% of studies. Fully supported dissertation hypotheses were 3 times more likely to be published than unsupported hypotheses, while unsupported hypotheses were nearly 4 times more likely to be dropped from publications. Few hypotheses were found to be altered or added post hoc. Dissertation studies with fewer supported hypotheses were more likely to remove participants or measures from publications. Selective hypothesis reporting and dropped measures significantly predicted greater hypothesis support in published studies, supporting concerns that SRPs may increase Type 1 error risk.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-02-25T05:20:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220903896
  • A Cultural Perspective on Functional Limitations and Well-Being
    • Authors: Jeong Ha Choi, Yuri Miyamoto, Carol D. Ryff
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Functional limitations—difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living—have been linked to poorer well-being in Western cultures. This might be partly due to the lower personal control associated with functional limitations. However, compared with the West, in Asian cultural contexts (e.g., Japan) where agency and control are based less predominantly on individual attributes, the link between functional limitations and well-being may be weaker. Using cross-sectional probability samples from the United States and Japan (Study 1), functional limitations were associated with lower well-being in both cultures, though the association was weaker in Japan than in the United States and personal control played a mediating role. Furthermore, analyses of longitudinal data (Study 2) showed the cross-cultural patterns generally consistent with the cross-sectional analyses of Study 1, though the cultural moderation was found for fewer well-being measures. Such findings enrich our understanding of how health status and well-being are related across cultures.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-02-15T10:10:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220905712
  • The Countervailing Effects of Weight Stigma on Weight-Loss Motivation and
           Perceived Capacity for Weight Control
    • Authors: Brenda Major, Joanne A. Rathbone, Alison Blodorn, Jeffrey M. Hunger
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We hypothesized that exposure to weight stigma simultaneously increases motivation to lose or avoid gaining weight to avoid future stigma and decreases perceived capacity to do so, by heightening concerns about experiencing stigma and negative affect. Study 1 showed that more frequently experiencing weight-based discrimination was associated with greater concerns about being a victim of weight stigma, which predicted increased motivation to lose weight but decreased perceived capacity for weight control. Study 2 showed that participants randomly assigned to view a weight-stigmatizing (vs. control) message showed increased concerns about being a target of weight stigma, which indirectly increased motivation to lose weight and decreased state self-control. These, in turn, predicted increased willingness to engage in unhealthy weight-loss behaviors and decreased perceived capacity for weight control, respectively. Study 3 showed that increased motivation to avoid stigma and increased negative affect mediate these effects of exposure to weight stigma.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-02-12T07:23:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220903184
  • Seeing the Whole Picture' Avoided Negative Affect and Processing of
           Others’ Suffering
    • Authors: Birgit Koopmann-Holm, Kathryn Bartel, Maryam Bin Meshar, Huiru Evangeline Yang
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Noticing someone’s pain is the first step to a compassionate response. While past research suggests that the degree to which people want to avoid feeling negative (“avoided negative affect”; ANA) shapes how people respond to someone’s suffering, the present research investigates whether ANA also predicts how people process others’ suffering. In two studies, using complex photographs containing negative aspects (i.e., suffering), we found that the higher people’s ANA, the fewer details of negative aspects they correctly recognized, and the fewer negative words they used in their image descriptions. However, when asked to process negative content, the higher people’s ANA, the more negatively they rated that content. In Study 3, we report cultural differences in people’s sensitivity to notice suffering in an ambiguous image. ANA mediated these cultural differences. Implications for research on compassion are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-02-11T01:49:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220903905
  • The Bidirectional Causal Relation Between Implicit Stereotypes and
           Implicit Prejudice
    • Authors: Curtis E. Phills, Adam Hahn, Bertram Gawronski
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although stereotypes and prejudice are commonly regarded as conceptually distinct but related constructs, previous research remains silent on the processes underlying their relation. Applying the balance-congruity principle to the concepts (a) group, (b) valence, and (c) attribute, we argue that the valence of attributes contained in a group-stereotype shapes evaluations of the group, while prejudice toward a group influences which attributes are stereotypically associated with the group. Using fictitious (Experiments 1 and 3) and real (Experiments 2 and 4) groups, the current studies demonstrate that (a) experimentally induced changes in the valence of semantic attributes associated with a group (stereotypes) influence implicit prejudice toward that group (Experiments 1 and 2), and (b) experimentally induced changes in the valence of a group (prejudice) influence implicit stereotyping of that group (Experiments 3 and 4). These findings demonstrate a bidirectional causal relation between prejudice and stereotypes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-02-04T09:13:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219899234
  • The Big Six Personality Traits and Mental Distress: Dynamic Modeling in a
           Population Panel Study Reveals Bidirectional Relationships Involving
           Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness
    • Authors: Anastasia Ejova, Petar Milojev, Everett L. Worthington, Joseph Bulbulia, Chris G. Sibley
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In a single comprehensive model, using a large nationally representative sample, we investigate longitudinal relationships between mental distress and “Big Six” personality using an analysis approach sensitive to dynamic effects (i.e., to effects of deviations from individual trajectories). We find that, consistent with a mechanism involving scarring by distress, upward deviations (flare-ups) in distress predict flare-ups in Neuroticism 12 months later. Among younger adults (n = 4,775), distress flare-ups predict dips in Conscientiousness. Consistent with a dynamic precursor model, (a) flare-ups in Neuroticism and Extraversion predict subsequent flare-ups in distress among older adults (n = 11,167), and (b) slopes of distress correlate with slopes of a number of traits (e.g., positively for Neuroticism, and, among older adults, negatively for Extraversion). While demonstrating these scarring and dynamic precursor effects, we draw attention to a nuanced direction of dynamic effect for Extraversion, a newly discovered dynamic effect of Conscientiousness, and previously undocumented dynamic effects of traits on each other.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-28T12:25:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219895349
  • (How) Do You Regret Killing One to Save Five' Affective and Cognitive
           Regret Differ After Utilitarian and Deontological Decisions
    • Authors: Jacob Goldstein-Greenwood, Paul Conway, Amy Summerville, Brielle N. Johnson
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Sacrificial moral dilemmas, in which opting to kill one person will save multiple others, are definitionally suboptimal: Someone dies either way. Decision-makers, then, may experience regret about these decisions. Past research distinguishes affective regret, negative feelings about a decision, from cognitive regret, thoughts about how a decision might have gone differently. Classic dual-process models of moral judgment suggest that affective processing drives characteristically deontological decisions to reject outcome-maximizing harm, whereas cognitive deliberation drives characteristically utilitarian decisions to endorse outcome-maximizing harm. Consistent with this model, we found that people who made or imagined making sacrificial utilitarian judgments reliably expressed relatively more affective regret and sometimes expressed relatively less cognitive regret than those who made or imagined making deontological dilemma judgments. In other words, people who endorsed causing harm to save lives generally felt more distressed about their decision, yet less inclined to change it, than people who rejected outcome-maximizing harm.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-28T12:25:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219897662
  • Does Mindfulness Training Without Explicit Ethics-Based Instruction
           Promote Prosocial Behaviors' A Meta-Analysis
    • Authors: Daniel R. Berry, Jonathan P. Hoerr, Selena Cesko, Amir Alayoubi, Kevin Carpio, Hannah Zirzow, Wesley Walters, Genny Scram, Katie Rodriguez, Vanessa Beaver
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Scholarly discourse has raised concerns about the gravitas of secular mindfulness trainings in promoting prosocial outgrowths, as these trainings lack ethics-based concepts found in contemplative traditions. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to test whether mindfulness trainings absent explicit ethics-based instructions promote prosocial action. There was a range of small to medium standardized mean difference effect sizes of mindfulness training on overt acts of prosociality when compared with active and inactive controls, k = 29, N = 3,100, g = .426, 95% confidence interval (CI)(g) = [.304, .549]. Reliable effect size estimates were found for single-session interventions that measured prosocial behavior immediately after training. Mindfulness training also reliably promotes compassionate (but not instrumental or generous) helping and reliably reduces prejudice and retaliation. Publication bias analyses indicated that the reliability of these findings was not wholly dependent on selective reporting. Implications for the science of secular mindfulness training on prosocial action are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T01:26:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219900418
  • Positive Emotions, More Than Anxiety or Other Negative Emotions, Predict
           Willingness to Interact With Robots
    • Authors: Eliot R. Smith, Steven Sherrin, Marlena R. Fraune, Selma Šabanović
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Like early work on human intergroup interaction, previous research on people’s willingness to interact with robots has focused mainly on effects of anxiety. However, existing findings suggest that other negative emotions as well as some positive emotions also have effects. This article systematically examines the roles of positive and negative emotions in predicting willingness to interact with robots, using an integrative analysis of data across five studies that use diverse interaction conditions and several types of robots. We hypothesize and find that positive emotions account for more variance than negative emotions. Practically, the findings suggest new strategies for interventions, aimed at increasing positive emotions to increase willingness to engage in intergroup interaction. No existing work has examined whether positive emotions are stronger predictors than negative emotions for willingness for human intergroup interaction, an important topic for future research.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T07:24:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219900439
  • Show Don’t Tell: Diversity Dishonesty Harms Racial/Ethnic Minorities
           at Work
    • Authors: Leigh S. Wilton, Ariana N. Bell, Mariam Vahradyan, Cheryl R. Kaiser
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Organizations aim to convey that they are diverse and inclusive, in part, to recruit racial minorities. We investigate a previously unexamined downside of this recruitment strategy: diversity dishonesty, that is, belief that an organization is falsely or incorrectly inflating its actual diversity. In four studies (total N = 871), we found that diversity dishonesty heightened minorities’ concerns about fitting in, being authentic, and performing well at the organization. We also found that evidence-based cues (which “show” observers whether the organization has a positive or negative diversity climate), but not expressed cues (which “tell” observers about the organization’s diversity), affect these expectations. Using correlational methodologies, Study 1 found these effects were pertinent to African American and Latinx participants’ beliefs about their current workplaces, holding other diversity-related measures constant. Studies 2 to 4 used experimental methods to replicate these findings with African American participants, using a hypothetical workplace setting.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T07:22:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219897149
  • Good Cop, Bad Cop: Race-Based Differences in Mental Representations of
    • Authors: E. Paige Lloyd, Mattea Sim, Evans Smalley, Michael J. Bernstein, Kurt Hugenberg
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The current work investigates race-based biases in conceptualization of the facial appearance of police. We employ a reverse correlation procedure to demonstrate that Black Americans, relative to White Americans, conceptualize police officers’ faces as more negative, less positive, and more dominant. We further find that these differential representations have implications for interactions with police. When naïve participants (of various races) viewed images of police officers generated by Black Americans (relative to those generated by White Americans), they responded with greater anticipated anxiety and reported more fight-or-flight behavioral intentions. Across four studies, findings suggest Black and White Americans conceptualize police and police–citizen interactions fundamentally differently. These findings have important theoretical (e.g., using reverse correlation to document the mental representations held by minority group members) and practical implications (e.g., identifying race-based differences in representations of police that may affect community–police relations).
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-17T06:02:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219898562
  • Putting Belonging in Context: Communal Affordances Signal Belonging in
    • Authors: Aimee L. Belanger, Mansi P. Joshi, Melissa A. Fuesting, Erica S. Weisgram, Heather M. Claypool, Amanda B. Diekman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      A sense of belonging in a particular context is cued not only by the people in the role but by the affordances of the role—that is, the opportunities for goal pursuit. We investigate this role-based belonging in four studies documenting that the perceived affordances of social roles inform sense of belonging and convey known benefits of belonging. Perceiving more communal opportunities in naturalistic science, technology, engineering, and mathematic (STEM) settings was associated with heightened belonging in those roles (Studies 1–2). Experimentally manipulating collaborative activities in a science lab increased anticipated belonging in the lab and fostered interest, particularly among women (Study 3). Finally, mentally simulating communal affordances in a role promoted recovery from belonging threat: Considering communal opportunities in STEM facilitated recovery of STEM-specific belonging after recalling exclusion in STEM (Study 4). Investigations of role-based belonging offer the potential for both theoretical and practical advances.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-13T06:45:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219897181
  • To Help or To Harm' Assessing the Impact of Envy on Prosocial and
           Antisocial Behaviors
    • Authors: Anna Maria C. Behler, Catherine S. J. Wall, Adriana Bos, Jeffrey D. Green
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Two studies examined how envy influences prosocial and antisocial behavior. In Experiment 1, participants in an envious state (relative to a neutral state) were less helpful: They picked up fewer dropped pencils in their immediate vicinity. We expanded upon these findings by examining how envy affected both helping and harming behavior in a competitive scenario. In Experiment 2, individuals in envious or neutral states assigned puzzle tasks to another student in a prisoner’s dilemma style scenario. Prosocial and antisocial behaviors were assessed via the difficulty of the assigned puzzles (easy puzzles were considered helpful and difficult puzzles were harmful). We hypothesized that experiencing envy would result in greater motive to harm as well as greater likelihood of engaging in harmful behavior. The hypothesis was supported, suggesting that envy has detrimental ramifications that go beyond the individual and extend to interpersonal relationships.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-13T06:45:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219897660
  • Taking Responsibility for Others and Use of Mental Contrasting
    • Authors: A. Timur Sevincer, Tanja Musik, Alina Degener, Annika Greinert, Gabriele Oettingen
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Mentally contrasting a desired future with present reality fosters selective goal pursuit: People pursue feasible desired futures and let go from unfeasible ones. We investigated whether people are more inclined to spontaneously use mental contrasting when they feel responsibility. Studies 1 and 2 provided correlational evidence: Employees who felt responsible for completing an important team project (Study 1) and MTurk users who felt and actively took social responsibility (Study 2) were more inclined to use mental contrasting. Studies 3 and 4 added experimental evidence: Students who were instructed to imagine responsibility for giving an excellent class presentation in a group or alone (Study 3) and participants who elaborated on an idiosyncratic wish that involved responsibility for others or themselves tended to use mental contrasting (Study 4). Apparently, people who feel or take responsibility for others, the society, or themselves are more likely to use mental contrasting as a self-regulation tool.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-13T06:41:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219898569
  • Beliefs in Conspiracy Theories Following Ostracism
    • Authors: Kai-Tak Poon, Zhansheng Chen, Wing-Yan Wong
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Four studies (total valid N = 643) examined whether ostracism increases people’s political conspiracy beliefs through heightened vulnerability and whether self-affirmation intervention counteracts the effect of ostracism on conspiracy beliefs. Compared with their nonostracized counterparts, ostracized participants were more likely to endorse conspiracy beliefs related to different political issues (Studies 1–3). Moreover, heightened vulnerability mediated the link between ostracism and conspiracy beliefs (Studies 1–3). Offering ostracized participants an opportunity to reaffirm values important to them could reduce their political conspiracy beliefs (Study 4). Taken together, our findings highlight the crucial role of vulnerability in understanding when and why ostracism increases conspiracy beliefs and how to ameliorate this relationship. Our findings also provide novel insights into how daily interpersonal interactions influence people’s political beliefs and involvement.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-13T06:34:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219898944
  • A Construal Level Account of the Impact of Religion and God on
    • Authors: Mustafa Karataş, Zeynep Gürhan-Canli
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This research shows that the two most prevalent religious constructs—God and religion—differentially impact cognition. Activating thoughts about God (vs. religion) induces a relatively more abstract (vs. concrete) mindset (Studies 1a–1c). Consequently, time donation intentions (Study 2) and actual monetary donations (Study 3) after a God (vs. religion) prime increase when people are presented an abstractly (vs. concretely) framed donation appeal. Similarly, people donate more money to distant (vs. close) donation targets, which are construed relatively abstractly (vs. concretely), when a religious speech activates predominantly God-specific (vs. religion-specific) thoughts (Study 4). These effects are mediated by “feeling right” under construal level fit (Study 3). Overall, this research significantly advances extant knowledge on religious cognition and past research on the link between religion and prosociality.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-13T06:29:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219895145
  • Religiosity and Desired Emotions: Belief Maintenance or Prosocial
    • Authors: Allon Vishkin, Shalom H. Schwartz, Pazit Ben-Nun Bloom, Nevin Solak, Maya Tamir
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We assessed how religiosity is related to desired emotions. We tested two competing hypotheses. First, religiosity could be associated with a stronger desire for emotions that strengthen foundational religious beliefs (i.e., more awe and gratitude and less pride). Second, religiosity could be associated with a stronger desire for emotions that promote prosocial engagement (e.g., more love and empathy and less anger and jealousy). Two cross-cultural studies supported the first hypothesis. Religiosity was related to desire for emotions that strengthen religious beliefs, but not to desire for socially engaging or socially disengaging emotions. These findings held across countries and across several different religions. A third study investigating the mechanisms of both hypotheses using structural equation modeling supported only the first hypothesis. This research extends prior work on desired emotions to the domain of religiosity. It demonstrates that the emotions religious people desire may be those that help strengthen their religious beliefs.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-07T06:57:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219895140
  • Justifying Social Inequalities: The Role of Social Darwinism
    • Authors: Laurie A. Rudman, Lina H. Saud
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Three studies supported a model whereby associations between ideologies that share roots in biological determinism and outcomes that reinforce inequality (based on gender, race, or class) were mediated by system justification beliefs (SJB). Outcomes included support for Donald Trump over Hillary Clinton as president (Study 1), justifying police brutality (Study 2), and support for a White House budget that slashed the social safety net to endow the wealthy with tax cuts (Study 3). These findings provoke a vital question: How do people deem unequal systems worthy of defense' Each study compared social Darwinism, social dominance orientation (SDO), and biological essentialism. We expected social Darwinism to account for the most variance in SJB because it provides both the rationale for social hierarchies (natural selection) and defends them as required for human welfare. This prediction was supported in each study. Implications for the psychology of legitimacy are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-06T01:40:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219896924
  • Testing the Status-Legitimacy Hypothesis in China: Objective and
           Subjective Socioeconomic Status Divergently Predict System Justification
    • Authors: Wenqi Li, Ying Yang, Junhui Wu, Yu Kou
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The status-legitimacy hypothesis proposes that people with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to justify the social system than those with higher SES. However, empirical studies found inconsistent findings. In the present research, we argue that at least part of the confusion stems from the possibility that objective and subjective SES are differently related to system justification. On one hand, subjective SES is more related to status maintenance motivation and may increase system justification. On the other hand, objective SES is more related to access to information about the social reality, which may increase criticism about the system and lead to lower system justification. These hypotheses were supported by evidence from five studies (total N = 26,134) involving both adult and adolescent samples in China. We recommend that future research on status-related issues needs to distinguish the potential divergent roles of objective and subjective SES.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-03T06:51:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219893997
  • Communicating Commitment: A Relationship-Protection Account of Dyadic
           Displays on Social Media
    • Authors: Kori L. Krueger, Amanda L. Forest
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People often make their romantic relationships visible to others through dyadic displays (DDs). Yet, their reasons for doing so are not well-understood. We proposed and tested a relationship-protection account of DD use, focusing on a social media environment. We predicted that relationship-protection motivation would predict DDs and that DDs would serve a relationship-protective function. In Study 1, a correlational study of romantically involved Facebook users, relationship-protection motivation positively predicted DD use on Facebook even when controlling for feelings of interconnectedness. Relationship-protection motivation also mediated effects of relationship satisfaction and commitment on DD use. In Study 2, participants perceived a target whose Facebook profile we experimentally manipulated to include DDs (vs. not) as more likely to be in a high-quality relationship and less receptive to romantic advances from others, with implications for participants’ interest in affiliating with the target. Our findings support a relationship-protection account of DD use on social media.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-03T06:44:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219893998
  • Interindividual Differences in the Sensitivity for Consequences, Moral
           Norms, and Preferences for Inaction: Relating Basic Personality Traits to
           the CNI Model
    • Authors: Meike Kroneisen, Daniel W. Heck
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Research on moral decision making usually focuses on two ethical principles: the principle of utilitarianism (= morality of an action is determined by its consequences) and the principle of deontology (= morality of an action is valued according to the adherence to moral norms regardless of the consequences). Criticism on traditional moral dilemma research includes the reproach that consequences and norms are confounded in standard paradigms. As a remedy, a multinomial model (the CNI model) was developed to disentangle and measure sensitivity to consequences (C), sensitivity to moral norms (N), and general preference for inaction versus action (I). In two studies, we examined the link of basic personality traits to moral judgments by fitting a hierarchical Bayesian version of the CNI model. As predicted, high Honesty–Humility was selectively associated with sensitivity for norms, whereas high Emotionality was selectively associated with sensitivity for consequences. However, Conscientiousness was not associated with a preference for inaction.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-12-31T11:48:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219893994
  • Fear Goliath or David' Inferring Competence From Demeanor Across
    • Authors: Albert Lee, Li-Jun Ji, Ye Li, Zhiyong Zhang
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We examined cultural differences in people’s lay theories of demeanor—how demeanor may be perceived as a straightforward and reliable reflection of reality (convergence theory) or as a deviating reflection of reality (divergence theory). Across different domains of competition, Euro-Canadians perceived greater competence in an opponent with a competent demeanor, whereas Chinese paradoxically perceived greater competence in an opponent with no signs of competence (Studies 1–4b). The results, unexplained by attributional styles (Study 1), likability (Study 3), or modesty (Study 3), suggest that Euro-Canadians endorse a stronger convergence theory than Chinese in their inferences of competence. Corroborated with qualitative data (Study 4a), such cultural differences were explained by the beliefs that demeanor can be a misleading reflection of reality, verified in college and community (Study 4b) samples. We discuss the implications for social perception, intergroup dynamics, and self-presentation in competitions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-12-31T11:48:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219893999
  • Mindfulness and Its Association With Varied Types of Motivation: A
           Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Using Self-Determination Theory
    • Authors: James N. Donald, Emma L. Bradshaw, Richard M. Ryan, Geetanjali Basarkod, Joseph Ciarrochi, Jasper J. Duineveld, Jiesi Guo, Baljinder K. Sahdra
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Mindfulness has been shown to have varied associations with different forms of motivation, leading to a lack of clarity as to how and when it may foster healthy motivational states. Grounded in self-determination theory, the present study proposes a theoretical model for how mindfulness supports different forms of human motivation, and then tests this via meta-analysis. A systematic review identified 89 relevant studies (N = 25,176), comprising 104 independent data sets and 200 effect sizes. We used a three-level modeling approach to meta-analyze these data. Across both correlational and intervention studies, we found consistent support for mindfulness predicting more autonomous forms of motivation and, among correlational studies, less controlled motivation and amotivation. We conducted moderation analyses to probe heterogeneity in the effects, including bias within studies. We conclude by highlighting substantive and methodological issues that need to be addressed in future research in this area.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-12-30T09:27:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219896136
  • Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Self-Serving Attribution Biases in
           the Competitive Context of Organized Sport
    • Authors: Mark S. Allen, Davina A. Robson, Luc J. Martin, Sylvain Laborde
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This meta-analysis explored the magnitude of self-serving attribution biases for real-world athletic outcomes. A comprehensive literature search identified 69 studies (160 effect sizes; 10,515 athletes) that were eligible for inclusion. Inverse-variance weighted random-effects meta-analysis showed that sport performers have a tendency to attribute personal success to internal factors and personal failure to external factors (k = 40, standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.62), a tendency to attribute team success to factors within the team and team failure to factors outside the team (k = 23, SMD = 0.63), and a tendency to claim more personal responsibility for team success and less personal responsibility for team failure (k = 4, SMD = 0.28). There was some publication bias and heterogeneity in computed averages. Random effects meta-regression identified sample sex, performance level, and world-region as important moderators of pooled mean effects. These findings provide a foundation for theoretical development of self-serving tendencies in real-world settings.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-12-25T09:35:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219893995
  • Reflecting on Sacrifices Made by Past Generations Increases a Sense of
           Obligation Towards Future Generations
    • Authors: Hanne M. Watkins, Geoffrey P. Goodwin
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Tackling climate change presents an intergenerational dilemma: People must make sacrifices today, to benefit future generations. What causes people to feel an obligation to benefit future generations' Past research has suggested “intergenerational reciprocity” as a potential driver, but this research is quite domain specific, and it is unknown how well it applies to climate change. We explored a novel means of invoking a sense of intergenerational reciprocity: inducing reflection on the sacrifices made by previous generations. Our studies revealed that such reflection predicts and causes a heightened sense of moral obligation towards future generations, mediated by gratitude. However, there are also some downsides (e.g., feelings of unworthiness), and perceptions of obligation do not substantially affect pro-environmental attitudes or motivations. Thus, while reflecting on past generations’ sacrifices can generate a sense of intergenerational obligation, it is limited in the extent to which it can increase pro-environmental concern.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-11-19T05:39:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219883610
  • Surviving and Thriving: Fundamental Social Motives Provide Purpose in Life
    • Authors: Matthew J. Scott, Adam B. Cohen
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose in life (PIL) is often associated with grand achievements and existential beliefs, but recent theory suggests that it might ultimately track gainful pursuit of basic evolved goals. Five studies (N = 1,993) investigated the relationships between fundamental social motives and PIL. In Study 1, attribution of a life goal pursuit to disease avoidance, affiliation, or kin care motives correlated with higher PIL. Studies 2 and 3 found correlations of self-protection, disease avoidance, affiliation, mate retention, and kin care motives with PIL after controlling for potential confounds. Study 4 showed that writing about success in the status, mating, and kin care domains increased PIL. Study 5 replicated the effect for mating and kin care, but not for status. Results imply that fundamental motives link to PIL through a sense of progress, rather than raw desire. Overall, this set of studies suggests that pursuit of evolved fundamental goals contributes to a purposeful life.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-11-14T06:19:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219883604
  • Spousal Relative Income and Male Psychological Distress
    • Authors: Joanna Syrda
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Using Panel Study of Income Dynamics 2001-2015 dataset (6,035 households, 19,688 observations), this study takes a new approach to investigating the relationship between wife’s relative income and husband’s psychological distress, and finds it to be significantly U-shaped. Controlling for total household income, predicted male psychological distress reaches a minimum at a point where wives make 40% of total household income and proceeds to increase, to reach highest level when men are entirely economically dependent on their wives. These results reflect the stress associated with being the sole breadwinner, and more significantly, with gender norm deviance due to husbands being outearned by their wives. Interestingly, the relationship between wife’s relative income and husband’s psychological distress is not found among couples where wives outearned husbands at the beginning of their marriage pointing to importance of marital selection. Finally, patterns reported by wives are not as pronouncedly U-shaped as those reported by husbands.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-29T05:53:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219883611
  • Nipping Temptation in the Bud: Examining Strategic Self-Control in Daily
    • Authors: Laverl Z. Williamson, Benjamin M. Wilkowski
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Self-control is often thought to be reactive and focused solely on the inhibition of responses elicited by temptations. In two studies, we assessed whether self-control can instead (a) be planned and (b) target the antecedents of the response to temptation. We assessed self-control planning, four antecedent-focused self-control strategies (i.e., situation-selection, situation-modification, distraction, and reappraisal) and one response-focused strategy (i.e., response-inhibition). In both studies, we found that self-control planning predicted the initiation of self-control independently of temptation. Each antecedent-focused self-control strategy uniquely predicted goal-progress. Response-inhibition did not produce consistent effects on goal-progress. These studies provide evidence that people proactively initiate self-control by targeting the antecedents of temptation and that doing so supports goal-progress.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-29T05:52:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219883606
  • Understanding Self-Respect and Its Relationship to Self-Esteem
    • Authors: Claudine Clucas
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The concept of self-respect has received little attention in the psychological literature and is not clearly distinguished from self-esteem. The present research sought to empirically investigate the bases of self-respect by manipulating adherence to morals together with interpersonal appraisals (IAs), or task-related competence, in hypothetical scenarios (Studies 1a and 1b) and a situation participants relived (Studies 2 and 3). Participants’ levels of state self-respect and self-esteem were measured. Studies 1 to 3 found main effects of adherence to morals on self-respect, with self-respect mediating the effect of adherence to morals on self-esteem, but little support for competence and IAs directly influencing self-respect. Self-respect uniquely contributed to anticipated/felt self-esteem alongside competence or IAs. The pattern of results supports the conceptualization of self-respect as a component of self-esteem associated with morally principled conduct, distinct from performance and social self-esteem. The findings have implications for our understanding of self-esteem and moral behavior.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-22T06:36:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219879115
  • Are You a Good Friend' Assessing Social Relationship Competence Using
           Situational Judgments
    • Authors: Michelle R. Persich, Sukumarakurup Krishnakumar, Michael D. Robinson
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Individual differences in social relationship competence (SRC) should have significant implications for social relationship success and well-being. Ability-based measures of SRC are scarce, though, particularly in social-personality psychology, and these considerations led to the present research. In specific terms, a situation judgment method was used to create and examine the correlates of a scenario-based assessment of SRC termed the Social Relationship Competence–Ability Measure (SRC-AM). Four studies (total N = 994) were conducted. Study 1 used item-total correlations and factor analyses to select scenarios from a larger pool. Studies 2 and 3 then showed that the SRC-AM predicted outcomes consistent with social relationship success (Study 2) as well as psychological well-being (Study 3). Study 4, finally, linked SRC levels to peer ratings of social competence and popularity. The research highlights a class of social inferences and abilities that possess novel implications for social relationship success.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-21T07:18:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219880193
  • Population Diversity and Ancestral Diversity As Distinct Contributors to
           Outgroup Prejudice
    • Authors: Ilan Shrira
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research has shown conflicting findings on how population diversity influences outgroup prejudice. In some cases, prejudice is greater when minority groups make up a larger portion of the population, whereas in other cases, prejudice is lower as diversity increases. This article examined how the diversity of a culture’s ancestry—or its historical heterogeneity—would be related to outgroup attitudes. Historically heterogeneous populations descend from ancestors who have migrated from many parts of the world over the past 500 years and, as a result, have a longer legacy of contact with diverse groups of people. The results of two cross-cultural studies found that greater heterogeneity predicted lower levels of outgroup prejudice, and some evidence that diversity in the current population was related to increased prejudice. The findings suggest that intergroup attitudes have deeply entrenched roots that cannot be fully understood by looking at current indicators.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-21T07:16:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219880190
  • Intergroup Inequality Heightens Reports of Discrimination Along
           Alternative Identity Dimensions
    • Authors: Riana M. Brown, Maureen A. Craig
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      How do members of societally valued (dominant) groups respond when considering inequality' Prior research suggests that salient inequality may be viewed as a threat to dominant-group members’ self and collective moral character. However, people possess multiple social identities and may be advantaged in one domain (e.g., White) while concurrently disadvantaged in another domain (e.g., sexual minority). The present research tests whether individuals may reduce the moral-image threat of being societally advantaged in one domain by highlighting discrimination they face in other domains. Four experiments with individuals advantaged along different dimensions of inequality (race, social class, sexuality) reveal that making such inequality salient evokes greater perceived discrimination faced by oneself and one’s ingroups along other identity dimensions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-21T07:12:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219880186
  • Is Disgust a “Conservative” Emotion'
    • Authors: Julia Elad-Strenger, Jutta Proch, Thomas Kessler
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Extant political–psychological research has identified stable, context-independent differences between conservatives and liberals in a wide range of preferences and psychological processes. One consistent finding is that conservatives show higher disgust sensitivity than liberals. This finding, however, is predominantly based on assessments of disgust to specific elicitors, which confound individuals’ sensitivity and propensity to the experience of disgust with the extent to which they find specific elicitors disgusting. Across five studies, we vary specific elicitors of disgust, showing that the relations between political orientation and disgust sensitivity depend on the specific set of elicitors used. We also show that disgust sensitivity is not associated with political orientation when measured with an elicitor-unspecific scale. Taken together, our findings suggest that the differences between conservatives and liberals in disgust sensitivity are context dependent rather than a stable personality difference. Broader theoretical implications are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-17T06:34:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219880191
  • Testing the Social Identity Model of Collective Action Longitudinally and
           Across Structurally Disadvantaged and Advantaged Groups
    • Authors: Emma F. Thomas, Elena Zubielevitch, Chris G. Sibley, Danny Osborne
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although the social identity model of collective action (SIMCA) demonstrates that identity, efficacy, and injustice are key correlates of collective action, longitudinal tests of these causal assumptions are absent from the literature. Moreover, most collective action research focuses on disadvantaged groups’ responses to injustice, with few studies examining what motivates advantaged groups to protest. We address these oversights using nationally representative longitudinal panel data to investigate SIMCA among members of disadvantaged (N = 2,574) and advantaged (N = 13,367) groups. As hypothesized, identity predicted increases in injustice, efficacy, and collective action support over time. In turn, injustice (but not efficacy) mediated the longitudinal association between identity and collective action support. Notably, results were largely consistent across disadvantaged and advantaged groups. Thus, we provide the first demonstration that identity temporally precedes collective action across objectively disadvantaged and advantaged groups, but identify complexities regarding the role of efficacy in protest.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T08:40:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219879111
  • The Negative Intelligence–Religiosity Relation: New and Confirming
    • Authors: Miron Zuckerman, Chen Li, Shengxin Lin, Judith A. Hall
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Zuckerman et al. (2013) conducted a meta-analysis of 63 studies that showed a negative intelligence–religiosity relation (IRR). As more studies have become available and because some of Zuckerman et al.’s (2013) conclusions have been challenged, we conducted a new meta-analysis with an updated data set of 83 studies. Confirming previous conclusions, the new analysis showed that the correlation between intelligence and religious beliefs in college and noncollege samples ranged from −.20 to −.23. There was no support for mediation of the IRR by education but there was support for partial mediation by analytic cognitive style. Thus, one possible interpretation for the IRR is that intelligent people are more likely to use analytic style (i.e., approach problems more rationally). An alternative (and less interesting) reason for the mediation is that tests of both intelligence and analytic style assess cognitive ability. Additional empirical and theoretical work is needed to resolve this issue.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T07:30:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219879122
  • Stereotypes as Historical Accidents: Images of Social Class in
           Postcommunist Versus Capitalist Societies
    • Authors: Lusine Grigoryan, Xuechunzi Bai, Federica Durante, Susan T. Fiske, Marharyta Fabrykant, Anna Hakobjanyan, Nino Javakhishvili, Kamoliddin Kadirov, Marina Kotova, Ana Makashvili, Edona Maloku, Olga Morozova-Larina, Nozima Mullabaeva, Adil Samekin, Volha Verbilovich, Illia Yahiiaiev
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Stereotypes are ideological and justify the existing social structure. Although stereotypes persist, they can change when the context changes. Communism’s rise in Eastern Europe and Asia in the 20th century provides a natural experiment examining social-structural effects on social class stereotypes. Nine samples from postcommunist countries (N = 2,241), compared with 38 capitalist countries (N = 4,344), support the historical, sociocultural rootedness of stereotypes. More positive stereotypes of the working class appear in postcommunist countries, both compared with other social groups in the country and compared with working-class stereotypes in capitalist countries; postcommunist countries also show more negative stereotypes of the upper class. We further explore whether communism’s ideological legacy reflects how societies infer groups’ stereotypic competence and warmth from structural status and competition. Postcommunist societies show weaker status–competence relations and stronger (negative) competition–warmth relations; respectively, the lower meritocratic beliefs and higher priority of embeddedness as ideological legacies may shape these relationships.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T07:28:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219881434
  • Self-Concept Clarity and the Bodily Self: Malleability Across Modalities
    • Authors: Sonia A. Krol, Rémi Thériault, Jay A. Olson, Amir Raz, Jennifer A. Bartz
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The self has fascinated scholars for centuries. Although theory suggests that the self-concept (cognitive self-understanding) and bodily self (pre-reflective awareness of one’s body) are related, little work has examined this notion. To this end, in Study 1, participants reported on self-concept clarity (SCC) and completed the rubber hand illusion (RHI), a paradigm in which synchronous (vs. asynchronous) stimulation between a prosthetic hand and one’s own hand leads one to “embody” the prosthetic hand. Whereas participants were equally susceptible to the RHI during synchronous stroking, low-SCC individuals were more vulnerable to the illusion during asynchronous stroking, when the effect is unwarranted. Conceptually replicating and extending this finding, in Study 2, low-SCC individuals were more susceptible to the body-swap illusion—the impression that another person’s body is one’s own. These findings suggest that a clear sense of self implies clarity and stability of both the self-concept and the bodily self.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-11T11:24:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219879126
  • The Harmful Side of Thanks: Thankful Responses to High-Power Group Help
           Undermine Low-Power Groups’ Protest

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Inna Ksenofontov, Julia C. Becker
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Giving thanks has multiple psychological benefits. However, within intergroup contexts, thankful responses from low-power to high-power group members could solidify the power hierarchy. The other-oriented nature of grateful expressions could mask power differences and discourage low-power group members from advocating for their ingroup interests. In five studies (N = 825), we examine the novel idea of a potentially harmful side of “thanks,” using correlational and experimental designs and a follow-up. Across different contexts, expressing thanks to a high-power group member who transgressed and then helped undermined low-power group members’ protest intentions and actual protest. Thus, the expression of thanks can pacify members of low-power groups. We offer insights into the underlying process by showing that forgiveness of the high-power benefactor and system justification mediate this effect. Our findings provide evidence for a problematic side of gratitude within intergroup relations. We discuss social implications.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-10T06:42:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219879125
  • The Diverging Effects of Need Fulfillment Obtained from Within and Outside
           of a Romantic Relationship
    • Authors: Laura V. Machia, Morgan L. Proulx
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People have diverse psychological needs that they seek to have fulfilled to maximize their well-being. Romantic relationships are the primary source individuals use for need fulfillment, but fulfillment can come from other sources as well—friends, family, strangers, vocation, and recreation. Whereas having a bevy of available sources puts individuals at an advantage in terms of ensuring their needs are met, which source they utilize may ironically decrease the quality of their valued romantic relationship. Across three studies (total N = 5,169) with diverse methodologies (i.e., nationally representative, cross-sectional, longitudinal), we found that when people achieve psychological need fulfillment from sources other than their romantic partner, they view their relationship less positively (Study 1), perceive greater quality of alternatives to their romantic relationship, and think more about ending the relationship (Studies 2 and 3). Demonstrating robustness, these associations hold independent of the amount of fulfillment provided by the romantic partner.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-09T12:57:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219877849
  • How Ambient Cues Facilitate Political Segregation
    • Authors: Matt Motyl, J. P. Prims, Ravi Iyer
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People increasingly self-segregate into politically homogeneous communities. How they do this remains unclear. We propose that people use ambient cues correlated with political values to infer whether they would like to live in those communities. We test this hypothesis in five studies. In Studies 1 (n = 3,543) and 2 (n = 5,609), participants rated community cues; liberals and conservatives’ preferences differed. In Studies 3a (n = 1,643) and 3b (n = 1,840), participants read about communities with liberal or conservative cues. Even without explicit information about the communities’ politics, participants preferred communities with politically congenial cues. In Study 4 (n = 282), participants preferred politically congenial communities and wanted to leave politically uncongenial communities. In Study 5 (n = 370), people selectively navigated their communities in a politically congenial way. These studies suggest that peoples’ perceptions of communities can be shaped by subtle, not necessarily political, cues that may facilitate growing political segregation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-03T10:05:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219875141
  • Buying Happiness in an Unequal World: Rank of Income More Strongly
           Predicts Well-Being in More Unequal Countries
    • Authors: Lucía Macchia, Anke C. Plagnol, Nattavudh Powdthavee
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Does income rank matter more for well-being in more unequal countries' Using more than 160,000 observations from 24 countries worldwide, we replicate previous studies and show that the ranked position of an individual’s income strongly predicts life evaluation and positive daily emotional experiences, whereas absolute and reference income generally have weak or no effects. Furthermore, we find the association between income rank and an individual’s well-being to be significantly larger in countries where income inequality, represented by the share of taxable income held by the top 1% of income earners, is high. These results are robust to using an alternative measure of income inequality and different reference group specifications. Our findings suggest that people in more unequal societies place greater weight on the pursuit of higher income ranks, which may contribute to enduring income inequality in places where greater well-being can be bought from moving up the income ladder.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-02T12:00:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219877413
  • Mind–Body Dissonance: A Catalyst to Creativity
    • Authors: Li Huang
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Mind–body dissonance (MBD) is the psychological experience of one’s bodily expressions contradicting one’s mental states. Across four experiments (total N = 887), the current research proposes and demonstrates that MBD can enhance creativity by facilitating an atypicality mind-set. First, two different instantiations of MBD (i.e., assuming a high-power/low-power role while adopting a constricted/expansive posture, or recalling a happy/sad memory while frowning/smiling) increased performance on creative association, insight, and generation tasks (Experiments 1 and 2). A third study showed that an atypicality mind-set was an underlying mechanism for the creativity effect (Experiment 3). Finally, the frequency of past MBD experiences was found to reduce MBD’s creativity effect (Experiment 4). The present research offers evidence for the positive functions of bodily expressions that contradict mental states and highlights the significance of understanding the interactive effects of psychological states and their physical analogues in studying creativity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-09-21T06:19:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219875145
  • Hypo-Egoic Nonentitlement as a Feature of Humility
    • Authors: Chloe C. Banker, Mark R. Leary
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Two studies tested the hypothesis that humility is characterized by the belief that, no matter how extraordinary one’s accomplishments or characteristics may be, one is not entitled to be treated special because of them (hypo-egoic nonentitlement). Participants identified either one (Study 1) or five (Study 2) positive accomplishments or characteristics, rated those accomplishments/characteristics, indicated how they believed they should be treated because of them, and completed measures of humility and related constructs. As predicted, humility was inversely associated with the belief that other people should treat one special because of one’s accomplishments and positive characteristics. However, humility was not related to participants’ ratings of the positivity of their accomplishments or characteristics or of themselves. Ancillary analyses examined the relationships between hypo-egoic nonentitlement, humility, and measures of self-esteem, narcissism, self- and other-interest, psychological entitlement, individualism-collectivism, and identification with humanity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-09-20T02:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219875144
  • Your Soul Spills Out: The Creative Act Feels Self-Disclosing
    • Authors: Jack A. Goncalo, Joshua H. Katz
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Breaking from the typical focus on the antecedents of creativity, we investigate the psychological and interpersonal consequences of being creative. Across five experiments, we find that generating creative ideas is revealing of the self and thus prompts the perception of self-disclosure. Individuals respond to the expectation to be creative with greater self-focus—adopting their own idiosyncratic perspective on the task and thinking about their own personal preferences and experiences in connection to the problem. Because creative ideas derived from self-focused attention are uniquely personal, the act of sharing a creative idea is, in turn, perceived to be revealing of the self. Finally, an interactive dyad study shows that sharing creative ideas makes partners more confident in the accuracy of judgments they made about each other’s personality. We discuss the implications of our findings for future research investigating the consequences of creativity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T01:46:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219873480
  • Punish or Protect' How Close Relationships Shape Responses to Moral
    • Authors: Aaron C. Weidman, Walter J. Sowden, Martha K. Berg, Ethan Kross
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People have fundamental tendencies to punish immoral actors and treat close others altruistically. What happens when these tendencies collide—do people punish or protect close others who behave immorally' Across 10 studies (N = 2,847), we show that people consistently anticipate protecting close others who commit moral infractions, particularly highly severe acts of theft and sexual harassment. This tendency emerged regardless of gender, political orientation, moral foundations, and disgust sensitivity and was driven by concerns about self-interest, loyalty, and harm. We further find that people justify this tendency by planning to discipline close others on their own. We also identify a psychological mechanism that mitigates the tendency to protect close others who have committed severe (but not mild) moral infractions: self-distancing. These findings highlight the role that relational closeness plays in shaping people’s responses to moral violations, underscoring the need to consider relational closeness in future moral psychology work.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T01:44:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219873485
  • Perceived Knowledge Moderates the Relation Between Subjective Ambivalence
           and the “Impact” of Attitudes: An Attitude Strength Perspective
    • Authors: Laura E. Wallace, Kathleen M. Patton, Andrew Luttrell, Vanessa Sawicki, Leandre R. Fabrigar, Jacob Teeny, Tara K. MacDonald, Richard E. Petty, Duane T. Wegener
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Previous work has reliably demonstrated that when people experience more subjective ambivalence about an attitude object, their attitudes have less impact on strength-related outcomes such as attitude-related thinking, judging, or behaving. However, previous research has not considered whether the amount of perceived knowledge a person has about the topic might moderate these effects. Across eight studies on different topics using a variety of outcome measures, the current research demonstrates that perceived knowledge can moderate the relation between ambivalence and the impact of attitudes on related thinking, judging, and behaving. Although the typical Attitude × Ambivalence effect emerged when participants had relatively high perceived knowledge, this interaction did not emerge when participants were lower in perceived knowledge. This work provides a more nuanced view of the effects of subjective ambivalence on attitude impact and highlights the importance of understanding the combined impact of attitude strength antecedents.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T01:41:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219873492
  • The Consideration of Future Consequences: Evidence for Domain Specificity
           Across Five Life Domains
    • Authors: Lisa Murphy, Eimer Cadogan, Samantha Dockray
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The consideration of future consequences (CFC) is a cognitive-motivational construct describing the extent to which individuals consider the future outcomes of behavior during decision-making. The current research examined the extent to which CFC may be a domain-specific, as opposed to global, temporal construct. Across three surveys, adults (n = 498; 66.9% female; 41.2% students) completed the 14-item general CFC scale, five newly adapted domain-specific CFC scales, and self-report measures of behavior in five substantive domains (work, health, the environment, money, and college). Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the two-factor model in the CFC-14, supporting the distinction between CFC-Future and CFC-Immediate in domain-specific CFC-14 scales. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that domain-specific, and not the general, CFC subscales were most strongly associated with the relevant domain-specific behavior and revealed differential patterns of association between domain-specific CFC subscales and behaviors in particular domains. The applied implications for behavioral interventions are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-09-13T01:17:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219873478
  • Examining the Relationships Among Categorization, Stereotype Activation,
           and Stereotype Application
    • Authors: Heather Rose Rees, Debbie S. Ma, Jeffrey W. Sherman
      First page: 499
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Increased category salience is associated with increased stereotyping. Prior research has not examined the processes that may account for this relationship. That is, it is unclear whether category salience leads to increased stereotyping by increasing stereotype activation (i.e., increased accessibility of stereotypic information), application (i.e., increasing the tendency to apply activated stereotypes), or both processes simultaneously. We examined this question across three studies by manipulating category salience in an implicit stereotyping measure and by applying a process model that provides independent estimates of stereotype activation and application. Our results replicated past findings that category salience increases stereotyping. Modeling results showed that category salience consistently increased the extent of stereotype application but increased stereotype activation in more limited contexts. Implications for models of social categorization and stereotyping are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-07-22T10:44:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219861431
  • Are Attitudes Contagious' Exposure to Biased Nonverbal Signals Can
           Create Novel Social Attitudes
    • Authors: Allison L. Skinner, Sylvia Perry
      First page: 514
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Prior work has established that nonverbal signals that capitalize on existing cultural biases can shift attitudes toward members of familiar social groups (e.g., racial minority group members). This research is the first to examine whether nonverbal signals can influence adults’ attitudes toward unfamiliar individuals outside the context of existing cultural biases. In a series of studies, we examined whether seeing one individual receive more cold, unfriendly nonverbal signals than another individual would lead to biases in favor of the target of more positive nonverbal signals. Consistent with our preregistered hypotheses, exposure to nonverbal bias in favor of one individual over another led participants to develop nonverbal signal-consistent explicit biases. Moreover, a combined analysis of the data from all four samples indicated that participants also formed nonverbal signal-consistent implicit biases. Taken together, these findings suggest that nonverbal signals have the potential to create and spread attitudes toward others.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-08-19T07:01:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219862616
  • Attachment Orientations Guide the Transfer of Leadership Judgments:
           Culture Matters
    • Authors: Dritjon Gruda, Konstantinos Kafetsios
      First page: 525
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Two experiments tested the role of global and relationship-specific attachment orientations in leader transference, a social-cognitive process in which mental representations of past leaders are associated with the evaluations of new, similar leaders. Individuals scoring higher on anxious attachment were more likely to hold high just treatment expectations of new leaders who were similar to their previous leaders. Conversely, avoidant individuals evaluated new similar leaders low on just treatment expectations and perceived them as less effective. Relationship-specific attachment orientations predicted transfer of behavioral judgments of just treatment, while global attachment orientations predicted transfer of perceived leader effectiveness. These effects were moderated by culture. In two collectivistic cultures (Greece and India), avoidant individuals demonstrated low just treatment expectations of their new similar leader. In an individualistic culture (United States), avoidant participants showed high behavioral expectations of their new, similar, leader. The results inform emerging views on relational social-cognitive processes in leader–follower interactions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-07-27T09:14:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219865514
  • The Voice of Cognition: Active and Passive Voice Influence Distance and
    • Authors: Eugene Y. Chan, Sam J. Maglio
      First page: 547
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      English passages can be in either the active or passive voice. Relative to the active voice, the passive voice provides a sense of objectivity regarding the events being described. This leads to our hypothesis that passages in the passive voice can increase readers’ psychological distance from the content of the passage, triggering an abstract construal. In five studies with American, Australian, British, and Canadian participants, we find evidence for our propositions, with both paragraphs and sentences in the passive voice increasing readers’ felt temporal, hypothetical, and spatial distance from activities described in the text, which increases their abstraction in a manner that generalizes to unrelated tasks. As such, prose colors how people process information, with the active and passive voice influencing the reader in ways beyond what is stated in the written word.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-08-08T08:40:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219867784
  • Individual Differences in Theory of Mind Predict Inequity Aversion in
    • Authors: Lily Tsoi, Katherine McAuliffe
      First page: 559
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Early in human development, children react negatively to receiving less than others, and only later do they show a similar aversion to receiving more. We tested whether theory of mind (ToM) can account for this developmental shift we see in middle childhood. We conducted a face-to-face fairness task that involved a ToM manipulation, measured individual differences in ToM, and collected parent-ratings of children’s empathy, a construct related to ToM. We find that greater ToM capacities lead to more rejections of unequal offers, regardless of the direction of inequality, demonstrating that children with greater ToM are more likely to engage in costly compliance with fairness norms. Moreover, drawing attention to mental states sufficiently elicits aversion to advantageous inequity in younger children. These findings contribute to our growing understanding that people’s concerns for fairness rely not just on their own thoughts and beliefs but on the thoughts, beliefs, and expectations of others.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-08-26T07:29:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219867957
  • The Highs and Lows of Love: Romantic Relationship Quality Moderates
           Whether Spending Time With One’s Partner Predicts Gains or Losses in
    • Authors: Nathan W. Hudson, Richard E. Lucas, M. Brent Donnellan
      First page: 572
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research suggests both relationship status and relationship quality correlate with well-being. The present study extended these findings in three ways. First, we benchmarked individuals with various-quality relationships against uncoupled people to determine whether even low-quality relationships are associated with greater well-being than being unpartnered. Second, research suggests global well-being (e.g., life satisfaction) and experiential well-being (e.g., momentary affect) oftentimes have different predictors. Thus, we tested whether individuals report greater experiential well-being while with their partners. Finally, we examined whether daily time invested into one’s relationship predicted well-being. Results indicated that being in a romantic relationship, interacting with one’s partner, and investing greater time into the relationship all predicted greater well-being. However, these effects were moderated by relationship quality, such that being in even relatively neutral relationships and interacting therein were associated with lower well-being than being unpartnered.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-08-14T06:06:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219867960
  • Comedians’ Mean Level and Stage Personalities: Evidence for
           Goal-Directed Personality Adaptation
    • Authors: Paul Irwing, Clare Cook, Thomas V. Pollet, D. J. Hughes
      First page: 590
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Recent findings have shown that both mean levels of personality and situational variability in its expression are of importance. So here, the Big Five personality traits of 77 professional and 125 amateur stand-up comedians were compared with two large matched samples (N> 100,000). The comedians were also observed while performing, which enabled a comparison of their stage personalities with situational requirements on 10 selected NEO-PIR facets. Both amateurs and professionals showed higher openness-to-experience, extraversion, and lower conscientiousness than their norm samples, while professionals also evidenced greater neuroticism. Irrespective of trait standing, with regard to most NEO-PIR facets, professionals expressed the appropriate on-stage persona and were better able to regulate their personality to conform to situational requirements than amateurs. This is consistent with research showing that individuals regulate their personality to conform to situational and goal requirements, and adds the finding that successful comedians demonstrate enhanced adaptability compared with amateurs.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-08-14T05:57:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219867963
  • Autonomy in Relatedness: How Need Fulfillment Interacts in Close

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Esther S. Kluwer, Johan C. Karremans, Larisa Riedijk, C. Raymond Knee
      First page: 603
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      A driving force of relationship maintenance is the fulfillment of basic psychological needs, in particular, the needs for relatedness and autonomy. Until now, research has considered the fulfillment of relatedness and autonomy needs as independent determinants of relationship functioning or as one merged construct called need fulfillment. Little is known about how motivational states interact, even though partners possess and pursue multiple needs at a time in everyday life. Combining theoretical insights from self-determination theory and family systems theory, we test the hypothesis that relatedness and autonomy need fulfillment interact to affect relationship maintenance behavior. In three studies (N = 388, N = 241, and N = 220), we found that relatedness was positively related to accommodation, but especially (or only) when participants reported high, rather than low, autonomy. This research emphasizes the importance of maintaining a sense of self while being closely connected to the partner.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-08-08T08:41:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219867964
  • The Role of Face and Voice Cues in Predicting the Outcome of Student
           Representative Elections
    • Authors: Mila Mileva, James Tompkinson, Dominic Watt, A. Mike Burton
      First page: 617
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      First impressions formed after seeing someone’s face or hearing their voice can affect many social decisions, including voting in political elections. Despite the many studies investigating the independent contribution of face and voice cues to electoral success, their integration is still not well understood. Here, we examine a novel electoral context, student representative ballots, allowing us to test the generalizability of previous studies. We also examine the independent contributions of visual, auditory, and audiovisual information to social judgments of the candidates, and their relationship to election outcomes. Results showed that perceived trustworthiness was the only trait significantly related to election success. These findings contrast with previous reports on the importance of perceived competence using audio or visual cues only in the context of national political elections. The present study highlights the role of real-world context and emphasizes the importance of using ecologically valid stimulus presentation in understanding real-life social judgment.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-08-14T06:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219867965
  • Cultures of Genius at Work: Organizational Mindsets Predict Cultural
           Norms, Trust, and Commitment
    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Canning, Mary C. Murphy, Katherine T. U. Emerson, Jennifer A. Chatman, Carol S. Dweck, Laura J. Kray
      First page: 626
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Three studies examine how organizational mindset—whether a company is perceived to view talent as fixed or malleable—functions as a core belief that predicts organizational culture and employees’ trust and commitment. In Study 1, Fortune 500 company mission statements were coded for mindset language and paired with Glassdoor culture data. Workers perceived a more negative culture at fixed (vs. growth) mindset companies. Study 2 experimentally manipulated organizational mindset and found that people evaluated fixed (vs. growth) mindset companies as having more negative culture norms and forecasted that employees would experience less trust and commitment. Study 3 confirmed these findings from more than 500 employees of seven Fortune 1000 companies. Employees who perceived their organization to endorse a fixed (vs. growth) mindset reported that their company’s culture was characterized by less collaboration, innovation, and integrity, and they reported less organizational trust and commitment. These findings suggest that organizational mindset shapes organizational culture.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-09-10T01:00:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219872473
  • A Longitudinal Field Investigation of Narcissism and Popularity Over Time:
           How Agentic and Antagonistic Aspects of Narcissism Shape the Development
           of Peer Relationships
    • Authors: Marius Leckelt, Katharina Geukes, Albrecht C. P. Küfner, Lisa M. Niemeyer, Roos Hutteman, Sarah Osterholz, Boris Egloff, Steffen Nestler, Mitja D. Back
      First page: 643
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Grandiose narcissism has been linked to initial popularity but to later unpopularity in peer groups and laboratory contexts. Do these effects on peer relationships also emerge in larger real-life contexts and what are the underlying behavioral processes (i.e., behavioral expressions, interpersonal perceptions)' Using data from the longitudinal CONNECT field study (N = 126), we investigated effects of agentic and antagonistic aspects of grandiose narcissism on emerging popularity in a complete peer network. A cohort of psychology first-year students was assessed with a quasiexperimental, experience-sampling methodology involving online surveys, diaries, and behavioral observations. In contrast to previous laboratory research, narcissism was unrelated to popularity at the level of zero-order correlations. However, results indicated that (a) an agentic behavioral pathway fostered popularity across time, and an antagonistic behavioral pathway drove the long-term decline in popularity, and (b) the two pathways were differentially related to agentic (admiration) and antagonistic (rivalry) aspects of narcissism.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-09-13T02:42:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219872477
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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