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Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.999
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 216  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0146-1672 - ISSN (Online) 1552-7433
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1089 journals]
  • Understanding Side-Effect Intentionality Asymmetries: Meaning, Morality,
           or Attitudes and Defaults'
    • Authors: Sean M. Laurent, Brandon J. Reich, Jeanine L. M. Skorinko
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People frequently label harmful (but not helpful) side effects as intentional. One proposed explanation for this asymmetry is that moral considerations fundamentally affect how people think about and apply the concept of intentional action. We propose something else: People interpret the meaning of questions about intentionally harming versus helping in fundamentally different ways. Four experiments substantially support this hypothesis. When presented with helpful (but not harmful) side effects, people interpret questions concerning intentional helping as literally asking whether helping is the agents’ intentional action or believe questions are asking about why agents acted. Presented with harmful (but not helpful) side effects, people interpret the question as asking whether agents intentionally acted, knowing this would lead to harm. Differences in participants’ definitions consistently helped to explain intentionality responses. These findings cast doubt on whether side-effect intentionality asymmetries are informative regarding people’s core understanding and application of the concept of intentional action.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-06-29T09:20:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220928237
  • Anticipated and Experienced Ethnic/Racial Discrimination and Sleep: A
           Longitudinal Study
    • Authors: Amie M. Gordon, Aric A. Prather, Tessa Dover, Kathy Espino-Pérez, Payton Small, Brenda Major
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The transition to college is a stressful experience. For members of underrepresented minority groups, the usual stresses are frequently accompanied by ethnicity-based stressors, including discrimination. This longitudinal study extends prior work on discrimination by examining the prospective associations between anticipated and experienced ethnic/racial discrimination and sleep, a ubiquitous and basic biological need critical for optimal functioning. In a sample of 274 low-income/first-generation Latinx students, results from a cross-lagged panel model revealed that both the anticipation and experience of discrimination at the beginning of college uniquely predicted worsening sleep quality over the second half of freshmen year, controlling for relevant covariates. There was also some evidence for bidirectionality, with poor sleepers experiencing more discrimination. These findings add to the literature linking discrimination and sleep, both of which play large roles in mental, physical, social, and academic outcomes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-06-23T05:42:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220928859
  • Toward a Better Understanding of the Reciprocal Relations Between
           Adolescent Psychological Need Experiences and Sleep
    • Authors: Rachel Campbell, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Bart Soenens, Beatrijs Vandenkerckhove, Athanasios Mouratidis
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In two diary studies, we examined the reciprocal daily association between the satisfaction and frustration of adolescents’ basic psychological needs and sleep, and the role of stress and fatigue in these associations. In Study 1 (N = 211; 52% female; Mage = 15.86 years, SD = 1.18 years), daily need experiences were unrelated to daily fluctuations in subjective sleep outcomes. However, shorter daily sleep quantity was related to higher daily fatigue, which in turn related to more daily need frustration and less need satisfaction. Study 2 (N = 51; 49% female; Mage = 15.88 years, SD = 2.88 years) extended these findings by demonstrating that daily need frustration related to shorter objective sleep quantity and longer wake after sleep onset, indirectly through higher symptoms of stress. Poor sleep quality also related to worse need experiences via higher daily fatigue. These findings underscore the dynamic interplay between daily need experiences and adolescent sleep.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-06-19T10:14:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220923456
  • Is Conscientiousness Always Associated With Better Health' A
           U.S.–Japan Cross-Cultural Examination of Biological Health Risk
    • Authors: Shinobu Kitayama, Jiyoung Park
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In Western societies, conscientiousness is associated with better health. Here, we tested whether this pattern would extend to East Asian, collectivistic societies. In these societies, social obligation motivated by conscientiousness could be excessive and thus health-impairing. We tested this prediction using cross-cultural surveys of Americans (N = 1,054) and Japanese (N = 382). Biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular malfunction (systolic blood pressure and total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio) were adopted to define biological health risk (BHR). Among Americans, conscientiousness was associated with lower BHR. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by healthy lifestyle. In contrast, among Japanese, the relationship between conscientiousness and BHR was not significant. Further analysis revealed, however, that conscientiousness was associated with a greater commitment to social obligation, which in turn predicted higher BHR. These findings suggest that conscientiousness may or may not be salubrious, depending on health implications of normatively sanctioned behaviors in varying cultures.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-06-18T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220929824
  • Perceived Responsiveness Increases Tolerance of Attitude Ambivalence and
           Enhances Intentions to Behave in an Open-Minded Manner
    • Authors: Guy Itzchakov, Harry T. Reis
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Can perceived responsiveness, the belief that meaningful others attend to and react supportively to core defining feature of the self, shape the structure of attitudes' We predicted that perceived responsiveness fosters open-mindedness, which, in turn, allows people to be simultaneously aware of opposing evaluations of an attitude object. We also hypothesized that this process will result in behavior intentions to consider multiple perspectives about the topic. Furthermore, we predicted that perceived responsiveness will enable people to tolerate accessible opposing evaluations without feeling discomfort. We found consistent support for our hypotheses in four laboratory experiments (Studies 1–3, 5) and a diary study (Study 4). Moreover, we found that perceived responsiveness reduces the perception that one’s initial attitude is correct and valid. These findings indicate that attitude structure and behavior intentions can be changed by an interpersonal variable, unrelated to the attitude itself.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-06-17T11:08:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220929218
  • Rule Following Mitigates Collaborative Cheating and Facilitates the
           Spreading of Honesty Within Groups
    • Authors: Jörg Gross, Carsten K. W. De Dreu
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Compared with working alone, interacting in groups can increase dishonesty and give rise to collaborative cheating—the joint violation of honesty. At the same time, collaborative cheating emerges some but not all of the time, even when dishonesty is not sanctioned and economically rational. Here, we address this conundrum. We show that people differ in their extent to follow arbitrary and costly rules and observe that “rule-followers” behave more honestly than “rule-violators.” Because rule-followers also resist the temptation to engage in collaborative cheating, dyads and groups with at least one high rule-follower have fewer instances of coordinated violations of honesty. Whereas social interaction can lead to a “social slippery slope” of increased cheating, rule-abiding individuals mitigate the emergence and spreading of collaborative cheating, leading to a transmission advantage of honesty. Accordingly, interindividual differences in rule following provide a basis through which honest behavior can persist.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-06-17T11:06:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220927195
  • Examining Christians’ Reactions to Reminders of Religion–Science
           Conflict: Stereotype Threat versus Disengagement
    • Authors: Kimberly Rios
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Stereotypes of religion (particularly Christianity) as incompatible with science are widespread, and prior findings show that Christians perform worse than non-Christians on scientific reasoning tasks following reminders of such stereotypes. The present studies (N = 1,456) examine whether these reminders elicit stereotype threat (i.e., fear of confirming negative societal stereotypes about one’s group), disengagement (i.e., distancing oneself from a domain perceived as incongruent with the values of one’s group), or both. In Studies 1 and 2, Christians demonstrated lower task performance and greater subjective feelings of stereotype threat (but did not spend less time on the task) relative to non-Christians when beliefs about Christianity–science incompatibility were chronic or made salient. Furthermore, the effects of incompatibility stereotypes on performance were most pronounced among Christians who identified strongly with science and hence worried most about confirming negative stereotypes (Studies 3–4). Implications for Christians’ responses to religion–science conflict narratives and participation in science are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-06-09T09:42:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220929193
  • Seeking Solitude After Being Ostracized: A Replication and Beyond
    • Authors: Dongning Ren, Eric D. Wesselmann, Ilja van Beest
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Individuals may respond to ostracism by either behaving prosocially or antisocially. A recent paper provides evidence for a third response: solitude seeking, suggesting that ostracized individuals may ironically engage in self-perpetuating behaviors which exacerbate social isolation. To examine this counterintuitive response to ostracism, we conceptually replicated the original paper in three studies (N = 1,118). Ostracism experiences were associated with preference for solitude across four samples (Study 1), and being ostracized increased participants’ desires for solitude (Studies 2 and 3). Extending beyond the original paper, we demonstrated that only the experience of being ostracized, but not ostracizing others or the feeling of conspicuousness, triggered the desire for solitude. Diverging from the original paper, trait extraversion did not moderate the effect of ostracism on solitude desires. Taken together, the current research provides additional and stronger empirical evidence that solitude seeking is a common response to ostracism.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-06-09T09:31:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220928238
  • How Does Collectivism Affect Social Interactions' A Test of Two
           Competing Accounts
    • Authors: Shi S. Liu, Garriy Shteynberg, Michael W. Morris, Qian Yang, Adam D. Galinsky
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      How does the cultural construct of collectivism impact social interactions' Two accounts of collectivism offer diverging predictions. The collectivism-as-values account proposes that people in collectivistic cultures prioritize their ingroup relationships; accordingly, this account predicts that collectivistic cultures will have more harmonious ingroup interactions than individualistic cultures. The socioecological account holds that individualistic cultures have high relational mobility, which requires people to invest in their ingroup relationships, whereas collectivistic cultures feature more fixed relationships that do not require positive engagement. To test these competing hypotheses about ingroup relationships across cultures, we sampled the daily interactions of college students in China and the United States. Results revealed that the individualistic culture (United States) had more positive ingroup interactions, more gratitude, and more emotional support than the collectivistic culture (China). The current findings are consistent with the socioecological account of collectivism and the effects of relational mobility on social relationships.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-06-09T09:29:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220923230
  • Narcissism in Political Participation
    • Authors: Zoltán Fazekas, Peter K. Hatemi
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Much attention has focused on the social, institutional, and mobilization factors that influence political participation, with a renewed interest in psychological motivations. One trait that has a deep theoretical connection to participation, but remains underexplored, is narcissism. Relying on three studies in the United States and Denmark, two nationally representative, we find that those scoring higher in narcissism, as measured by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory–40 (NPI-40), participate more in politics, including contacting politicians, signing petitions, joining demonstrations, donating money, and voting in midterm elections. Both agentic and antagonistic components of narcissism were positively and negatively related to different types of political participation when exploring the subfactors independently. Superiority and Authority/Leadership were positively related to participation, while Self Sufficiency was negatively related to participation. In addition, the combined Entitlement/Exploitativeness factor was negatively related to turnout, but only in midterm elections. Overall, the findings support a view of participation that arises in part from instrumental motivations.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-06-04T09:01:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220919212
  • Meta-Analytic Use of Balanced Identity Theory to Validate the Implicit
           Association Test
    • Authors: Dario Cvencek, Andrew N. Meltzoff, Craig D. Maddox, Brian A. Nosek, Laurie A. Rudman, Thierry Devos, Yarrow Dunham, Andrew S. Baron, Melanie C. Steffens, Kristin Lane, Javier Horcajo, Leslie Ashburn-Nardo, Amanda Quinby, Sameer B. Srivastava, Kathleen Schmidt, Eugene Aidman, Emilie Tang, Shelly Farnham, Deborah S. Mellott, Mahzarin R. Banaji, Anthony G. Greenwald
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This meta-analysis evaluated theoretical predictions from balanced identity theory (BIT) and evaluated the validity of zero points of Implicit Association Test (IAT) and self-report measures used to test these predictions. Twenty-one researchers contributed individual subject data from 36 experiments (total N = 12,773) that used both explicit and implicit measures of the social–cognitive constructs. The meta-analysis confirmed predictions of BIT’s balance–congruity principle and simultaneously validated interpretation of the IAT’s zero point as indicating absence of preference between two attitude objects. Statistical power afforded by the sample size enabled the first confirmations of balance–congruity predictions with self-report measures. Beyond these empirical results, the meta-analysis introduced a within-study statistical test of the balance–congruity principle, finding that it had greater efficiency than the previous best method. The meta-analysis’s full data set has been publicly archived to enable further studies of interrelations among attitudes, stereotypes, and identities.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-06-04T08:55:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220916631
  • A Process Dissociation Model of Implicit Rapid Revision in Response to
           Diagnostic Revelations
    • Authors: Jeremy Cone, Jimmy Calanchini
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research has demonstrated that implicit evaluations can be reversed with exposure to a single impression-inconsistent behavior. But what exactly is changing when perceivers encounter diagnostic revelations about someone' One possibility is that rapid changes are occurring in the extent to which perceivers view the person positively or negatively. Another possibility is that they override the expression of initial evaluations through control-oriented processes. We conducted three studies (one preregistered) that used multinomial process trees to distinguish between these possibilities. We find consistent support across two different implicit measures that diagnostic behaviors result in rapid changes in evaluative processes. We obtained only inconsistent evidence for effects on more control-oriented processes. These findings thus help to reveal the cognitive processes underlying rapid implicit revision. Implications for theoretical perspectives on implicit attitudes are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-06-01T01:13:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220919208
  • Partners’ Withdrawal When Actors Behave Destructively: Implications for
           Perceptions of Partners’ Responsiveness and Relationship Satisfaction
    • Authors: Eri Sasaki, Nickola Overall
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Growing evidence indicates that whether critical and hostile behavior harms relationships depends on how partners respond. The current studies test a key behavioral indicator of partners’ responsiveness by examining whether partners’ withdrawal when actors exhibit negative-direct behavior predicts within-person and longitudinal declines in perceived partner responsiveness and relationship satisfaction. Test of Actors’ negative-direct × Partners’ withdrawal interactions indicated that partners’ withdrawal in the context of actors’ negative-direct behavior when targeted for change during conflict discussions (Study 1, N = 162 dyads) and during daily interactions (Study 2, N = 151 dyads) predicted lower perceived partner responsiveness and relationship satisfaction. This Actor × Partner effect did not emerge when actors were pushing for change during conflict (Study 1) and was more consistent predicting perceived partner responsiveness. These results illustrate the importance of Actor × Partner effects and indicate that actors’ own destructive behavior provides an important context to diagnose partners’ responsiveness.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-05-29T10:04:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220926820
  • Inequality and Social Rank: Income Increases Buy More Life Satisfaction in
           More Equal Countries
    • Authors: Edika G. Quispe-Torreblanca, Gordon D. A. Brown, Christopher J. Boyce, Alex M. Wood, Jan-Emmanuel De Neve
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      How do income and income inequality combine to influence subjective well-being' We examined the relation between income and life satisfaction in different societies, and found large effects of income inequality within a society on the relationship between individuals’ incomes and their life satisfaction. The income–satisfaction gradient is steeper in countries with more equal income distributions, such that the positive effect of a 10% increase in income on life satisfaction is more than twice as large in a country with low income inequality as it is in a country with high income inequality. These findings are predicted by an income rank hypothesis according to which life satisfaction is derived from social rank. A fixed increment in income confers a greater increment in social position in a more equal society. Income inequality may influence people’s preferences, such that in unequal countries people’s life satisfaction is determined more strongly by their income.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-05-29T10:02:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220923853
  • The Development of Materialism in Emerging Adulthood: Stability, Change,
           and Antecedents
    • Authors: Wen Jiang, Hongyun Liu, Jiang Jiang
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The present study investigated stability and change in materialism in emerging adulthood as well as the predictive roles of socioeconomic status (SES) and gender on the development of materialistic values. Indicator-specific latent state-trait growth models were applied to four-wave longitudinal data from a sample of 738 Chinese college students. The results showed that materialism was stable: 67% to 86% of the variance in the reliable interindividual differences in materialism was due to trait factors. In addition, materialism showed an increasing trajectory over the college years, and this developmental trend could not be attributed to measurement artifacts or confounding influences. Moreover, low family SES magnified the increase in materialism, whereas being female predicted lower initial levels of materialism. Collectively, these findings illustrate the nature and antecedents of the development of materialism in emerging adulthood.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T10:56:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220925234
  • The Nature of Islamophobia: A Test of a Tripartite View in Five Countries
    • Authors: Fatih Uenal, Robin Bergh, Jim Sidanius, Andreas Zick, Sasha Kimel, Jonas R. Kunst
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This article provides an examination of the structure of Islamophobia across cultures. Our novel measure—the Tripartite Islamophobia Scale (TIS)—embeds three theoretically and statistically grounded subcomponents of Islamophobia: anti-Muslim prejudice, anti-Islamic sentiment, and conspiracy beliefs. Across six samples (i.e., India, Poland, Germany, France, and the United States), preregistered analyses corroborated that these three subcomponents are statistically distinct. Measurement invariance analyses indicated full scalar invariance, suggesting that the tripartite understanding of Islamophobia is generalizable across cultural contexts. Furthermore, the subcomponents were partially dissociated in terms of the intergroup emotions they are predicted by as well as the intergroup outcomes they predict (e.g., dehumanization, ethnic persecution). For example, intergroup anger and disgust underpin Islamophobic attitudes, over and above the impact of fear. Finally, our results show that social dominance orientation (SDO) and ingroup identification moderate intergroup emotions and Islamophobia. We address both theoretical implications for the nature of Islamophobia and practical interventions to reduce it.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T10:47:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220922643
  • A Privileged Point of View: Effects of Subjective Socioeconomic Status on
           Naïve Realism and Political Division
    • Authors: Jazmin L. Brown-Iannuzzi, Kristjen B. Lundberg, Aaron C. Kay, B. Keith Payne
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In the United States, both economic inequality and political conflict are on the rise. We investigated whether subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) may help explain why these dual patterns emerge. We hypothesized that higher SSS may increase naïve realism—the belief that one perceives the world as it is, rather than as interpreted through one’s own knowledge and beliefs—regarding political issues. Using a representative sample of the American electorate, we found that higher SSS predicted more political naïve realism toward those from a different political party (Study 1). The remaining experiments examined the causal relationship between SSS and political naïve realism (Studies 2–5). We extended these findings by investigating whether SSS influenced participants’ willingness to exclude those with contrary views from a vote (Studies 4 and 5). Together, these studies demonstrate that SSS enhances political naïve realism and can lead to the exclusion of others with contrary opinions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T10:45:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220921043
  • Generalizability of Results From Dyadic Data: Participation of One Versus
           Two Members of a Romantic Couple Is Associated With Breakup Likelihood
    • Authors: Yoobin Park, Emily A. Impett, Geoff MacDonald
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      With a growing body of relationship research relying on dyadic data (i.e., in which both members of a couple are participants), researchers have raised questions about whether such samples are representative of the population or unique in important ways. In this research, we used two large data sets (Study 1: n = 5,118; Study 2: n = 5,194) that included participants with and without a romantic partner participating to examine if co-participation status has substantive relationship implications. Results showed that co-participation status predicted breakup even after controlling for other known predictors such as satisfaction, although the effect weakened over time (Study 2). There was also tentative evidence that factors such as conflict may be differentially related to breakup among couples in which one versus both partners participated. These findings raise caution in interpreting effects found in dyadic studies and highlight the need to be mindful of potential bias in recruitment.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T09:48:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220920167
  • My True Self is Better Than Yours: Comparative Bias in True Self Judgments
    • Authors: Yiyue Zhang, Mark Alicke
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Researchers have assumed that people judge their own true selves, or their authentic and fundamental nature, to be no better than that of others. This assumption conflicts with self-enhancement perspectives, and with studies on comparative biases in self and social judgment, which assume that people tend to view their characteristics and life prospects more favorably than those of others. The five studies in this article demonstrate that comparative bias operates in self versus other true self comparisons, both with regard to traits (Studies 1–3), and morally relevant behaviors (Studies 4 and 5). Implications for the true and authentic self constructs are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-05-26T10:55:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220919213
  • Conservatives’ Moral Foundations Are More Densely Connected Than
           Liberals’ Moral Foundations
    • Authors: Felicity M. Turner-Zwinkels, Branden B. Johnson, Chris G. Sibley, Mark J. Brandt
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We use network psychometrics to map a subsection of moral belief systems predicted by moral foundations theory (MFT). This approach conceptualizes moral systems as networks, with moral beliefs represented as nodes connected by direct relations. As such, it advances a novel test of MFT’s claim that liberals and conservatives have different systems of foundational moral values, which we test in three large datasets (NSample1 = 854; NSample2 = 679; NSample3 = 2,572), from two countries (the United States and New Zealand). Results supported our first hypothesis that liberals’ moral systems show more segregation between individualizing and binding foundations than conservatives. Results showed only weak support for our second hypothesis, that this pattern would be more typical of higher educated than less educated liberals/conservatives. Findings support a systems approach to MFT and show the value of modeling moral belief systems as networks.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-05-26T10:54:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220916070
  • Social Class Competence Stereotypes Are Amplified by Socially Signaled
           Economic Inequality
    • Authors: Paul Connor, Jordan Varney, Dacher Keltner, Serena Chen
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      A number of psychological theories suggest that increased economic inequality may lead to greater social class stereotyping. However, all existing evidence for this claim is correlational. Across three experiments (one exploratory and two confirmatory, N = 2,286), we observed that exposure to socially signaled inequality—operationalized in terms of variation in perceived incomes among groups of target individuals—amplified the endorsement of one key social class stereotype: the perception that higher income individuals are more competent. When judged amid greater inequality, the same high-income targets were perceived as more competent and the same low-income targets were perceived as less competent, compared with when judged amid greater equality. By contrast, we found no consistent effect of exposure to inequality on stereotypes regarding warmth and relatively weak class-based stereotyping on the warmth dimension in general. We discuss implications of these findings for theories regarding the effects of economic inequality.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-05-22T11:52:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220916640
  • Extraversion as a Moderator of the Efficacy of Self-Esteem Maintenance
    • Authors: Thomas I. Vaughan-Johnston, Karen E. MacGregor, Leandre R. Fabrigar, Lyndsay E. Evraire, Louise Wasylkiw
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Four experiments explored how extraversion’s connection with self-esteem may depend on specific self-enhancement strategies. Participants’ self-esteem threatening feedback indicating that they had performed poorly on a vocabulary or emotional intelligence test. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 80) were randomly assigned to either a control condition (no self-enhancement) or a downward social comparison condition. The procedures for Experiments 2 (N = 470) and 3 (N = 514) were similar, adding a self-serving attribution condition (Experiments 2 and 3) and Basking-in-Reflected-Glory (BIRG) condition (Experiment 3). Across the experiments, extraversion was more related to self-esteem under downward social comparison versus other conditions. BIRGing produced higher self-esteem in Experiment 3 across extraversion levels. Experiment 4 (N = 355) focused on downward social comparison versus control, and provided evidence that an increased perception of being similar to the comparison targets may partially explain extraversion’s self-esteem link. Theoretical implications concerning both extraversion and self-enhancement are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-05-20T09:28:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220921713
  • Daily Coping With Social Identity Threat in Outgroup-Dominated Contexts:
           Self-Group Distancing Among Female Soldiers
    • Authors: Jenny Veldman, Colette Van Laar, Loes Meeussen, Salvatore Lo Bue
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We examine the degree to which women in a male-dominated field cope with daily experiences of social identity threat by distancing themselves from other women. A daily experience-sampling study among female soldiers (N = 345 data points nested in 61 participants) showed women to self-group distance more on days in which they experienced more identity threat. This was mediated by daily concerns about belonging but not achievement in the military, supporting the explanation that women distance from other women as a way to fit in a masculine domain. However, on a daily basis, self-group distancing did not appear to protect women’s outcomes as it was related to lower daily well-being and motivation. The findings indicate that targets are not passive recipients of identity threat but active agents coping daily with the challenges they face, but that regulation strategies may also incur costs. Implications for theories on coping with stigma and costs are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-05-20T09:26:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220921054
  • Gendered White Lies: Women Are Given Inflated Performance Feedback
           Compared With Men
    • Authors: Lily Jampol, Vivian Zayas
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Are underperforming women given less truthful, but kinder performance feedback (“white lies”) compared with equally underperforming men' We test this hypothesis by using a “benchmark” of truthful (objective) evaluation of performance and then either manipulating (Study 1) or measuring (Study 2) the extent to which the feedback given to women is upwardly distorted. In Study 1, participants were asked to guess the gender of an underperforming employee who had been given more or less truthful feedback. Participants overwhelmingly assumed that employees who had been told “white lies” were more likely to be women. In Study 2, in a naturalistic feedback paradigm, participants gave both quantitative and qualitative feedback to a male and a female writer directly. Participants upwardly distorted their original, gender-blind, quantitative evaluations of women’s work and gave more positive comments to women. The findings suggest that women may not receive the same quality of feedback as men.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-05-18T08:49:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220916622
  • The Psychology of Entrenched Privilege: High Socioeconomic Status
           Individuals From Affluent Backgrounds Are Uniquely High in Entitlement
    • Authors: Stéphane Côté, Jennifer E. Stellar, Robb Willer, Rachel C. Forbes, Sean R. Martin, Emily C. Bianchi
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      As rates of intergenerational social mobility decline, it is increasingly important to understand the psychological consequences of entrenched socioeconomic privilege. Here, we explore whether current and childhood socioeconomic status (SES) are interactively related to entitlement, such that among currently high SES individuals, those from affluent backgrounds are likely to feel uniquely high levels of entitlement, whereas currently low SES individuals feel low entitlement regardless of their backgrounds. A meta-analysis of four exploratory studies (total N = 3,105) found that currently high SES individuals who were also raised in high SES households were especially inclined to report feeling entitled, a pattern that was robust across three indicators of SES: income, education, and subjective SES. Results of a preregistered, confirmatory study (N = 1,058) replicated this interactive pattern for education and subjective SES, though not for income. Our findings highlight the importance of considering current and childhood SES jointly to understand the psychological consequences of SES.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-05-18T08:48:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220916633
  • Who are “We”' Couple Identity Clarity and Romantic
           Relationship Commitment
    • Authors: Lydia F. Emery, Wendi L. Gardner, Kathleen L. Carswell, Eli J. Finkel
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This research introduces the construct of couple identity clarity—the extent to which an individual, as one of two partners in a romantic relationship, believes that the two of them know who they are as a couple. Cross-sectional (Studies 1–2), experimental (Study 3), and longitudinal (Study 4) studies supported the hypothesis that couple identity clarity is associated with higher commitment. Moreover, higher couple identity clarity, although related to actual agreement between partners on their identity as a couple, predicted commitment above and beyond agreement (Study 2)—as well as predicted reduced likelihood of relationship dissolution over a 9-month period (Study 4). Exploratory analyses revealed that successful conflict resolution may enhance couple identity clarity, in turn predicting commitment (Study 4). These studies highlight the importance of people’s understanding of who they are as a couple and how this understanding shapes relationship persistence.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-05-13T10:08:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220921717
  • The Relationship Between System Justification and Perspective-Taking and
    • Authors: Zheng Li, John A. Edwards
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Four studies tested the hypotheses that system-justifying beliefs will be negatively associated with perspective-taking (PT) and empathic concern (EC) and this negative relationship will be exacerbated when system-justifying people encounter information that challenges system-justifying stereotypes. System justification and PT and EC were negatively associated at the dispositional level (Study 1). Experimentally increased PT decreased system justification through increased EC (Study 2) whereas experimentally increased system justification decreased PT and EC (Study 3). Moderation analyses indicated that when exposed to status-quo-inconsistent information (e.g., a Black vs. White person and/or a woman vs. man of high socioeconomic status), system-endorsing people were less likely to engage in PT (Study 4). There was no effect of system justification on actual helping behavior.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-05-13T10:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220921041
  • Social Class Predicts Emotion Perception and Perspective-Taking
           Performance in Adults
    • Authors: Pia Dietze, Eric D. Knowles
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      “Theory of Mind” (ToM; people’s ability to infer and use information about others’ mental states) varies across cultures. In four studies (N = 881), including two preregistered replications, we show that social class predicts performance on ToM tasks. In Studies 1A and 1B, we provide new evidence for a relationship between social class and emotion perception: Higher-class individuals performed more poorly than their lower-class counterparts on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, which has participants infer the emotional states of targets from images of their eyes. In Studies 2A and 2B, we provide the first evidence that social class predicts visual perspective taking: Higher-class individuals made more errors than lower-class individuals in the Director Task, which requires participants to assume the visual perspective of another person. Potential mechanisms linking social class to performance in different ToM domains, as well as implications for deficiency-centered perspectives on low social class, are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-04-27T07:16:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220914116
  • Culture and Patterns of Reciprocity: The Role of Exchange Type, Regulatory
           Focus, and Emotions
    • Authors: Yingli Deng, Cynthia S. Wang, Federico Aime, Long Wang, Niro Sivanathan, Yun Chung (Karina) Kim
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Reciprocity is a fundamental mechanism for sustained social relationships. Escalation-based theories suggest that reciprocity intensifies over time. In contrast, equity-based theories propose that people reciprocate behaviors in kind. We reconcile these conflicting perspectives by examining social exchanges across different cultural contexts. Using three complementary experiments, we investigate when, how, and why individuals in East Asian settings and those in North American settings differentially reciprocate positive versus negative behaviors over time. Study 1 demonstrated that in positively framed exchanges (i.e., giving) Americans escalated their reciprocity, but Singaporeans reciprocated in kind. However, in negatively framed exchanges (i.e., taking), Singaporeans escalated their reciprocity, but Americans reciprocated in kind. Study 2 replicated the results using Hong Kongers and showed that cultural differences in regulatory focus were associated with specific emotions (i.e., anxiety and happiness), which then escalated reciprocity. To establish causality, Study 3 manipulated regulatory focus within one culture and replicated the pattern of results.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-04-23T08:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220913694
  • Upright and Honorable: People Use Space to Understand Honor, Affecting
           Choice and Perception
    • Authors: Ying Lin, Daphna Oyserman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Honor is abstract. We predict that people make sense of honor metaphorically as an up–right position in space and that endorsing honor values makes this metaphor more accessible. Supporting our prediction, people in China (Study 1) and the United States (Studies 1–4) associate honor with up and right and dishonor with down and left, controlling for the association of positive with up–right (Studies 3, 4). We document downstream consequences for choice and perception of this metaphoric representation. Regarding choice, Americans who endorse honor values and voted for then-candidate Trump prefer photographs in which President Trump is positioned in the up–right quadrant (Study 5). Images from conservative news websites position the President’s face in the up–right quadrant more than nonconservative ones (Study 6). Regarding perception, Americans who rate President Trump as honorable are more likely to perceive him as facing up and to the right in news website images (Study 7).
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-04-03T01:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220908389
  • Everyday Thoughts in Time: Experience Sampling Studies of Mental Time
    • Authors: Roy F. Baumeister, Wilhelm Hofmann, Amy Summerville, Philip T. Reiss, Kathleen D. Vohs
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Time is among the most important yet mysterious aspects of experience. We investigated everyday mental time travel, especially into the future. Two community samples, contacted at random points for 3 (Study 1; 6,686 reports) and 14 days (Study 2; 2,361 reports), reported on their most recent thought. Both studies found that thoughts about the present were frequent, thoughts about the future also were common, whereas thoughts about the past were rare. Thoughts about the present were on average highly happy and pleasant but low in meaningfulness. Pragmatic prospection (thoughts preparing for action) was evident in thoughts about planning and goals. Thoughts with no time aspect were lower in sociality and experiential richness. Thoughts about the past were relatively unpleasant and involuntary. Subjective experiences of thinking about past and future often were similar—while both differed from present focus, consistent with views that memory and prospection use similar mental structures.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-25T10:40:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220908411
  • Perceived Centrality in Social Networks Increases Women’s
           Expectations of Confronting Sexism
    • Authors: Raina A. Brands, Aneeta Rattan
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This article integrates the study of intergroup relations and social network cognition, predicting that women who occupy central (vs. peripheral) advice network positions are more likely to confront a coworker’s gender-biased comment. Study 1 offers correlational evidence of the predicted link between perceived advice network centrality and confronting among employed women, uniquely in advice (but not communication) networks. Study 2 replicates and investigates two possible mechanisms—perceptions of the situation as public and perceived risk of confronting. Study 3 rules out order effects and tests an additional mechanism (expectations of the network members). Study 4 is an experiment that shows people expect central (vs. peripheral) women to confront more, even when she is lower (vs. equal) power. Study 5 replicates the core hypothesis in retrospective accounts of women’s responses to real workplace gender bias. Study 6 compares multiple potential mechanisms to provide greater insight into why centrality reliably predicts confrontation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-25T10:39:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220912621
  • On Attenuated Interactions, Measurement Error, and Statistical Power:
           Guidelines for Social and Personality Psychologists
    • Authors: Khandis R. Blake, Steven Gangestad
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The replication crisis has seen increased focus on best practice techniques to improve the reliability of scientific findings. What remains elusive to many researchers and is frequently misunderstood is that predictions involving interactions dramatically affect the calculation of statistical power. Using recent papers published in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin (PSPB), we illustrate the pitfalls of improper power estimations in studies where attenuated interactions are predicted. Our investigation shows why even a programmatic series of six studies employing 2 × 2 designs, with samples exceeding N = 500, can be woefully underpowered to detect genuine effects. We also highlight the importance of accounting for error-prone measures when estimating effect sizes and calculating power, explaining why even positive results can mislead when power is low. We then provide five guidelines for researchers to avoid these pitfalls, including cautioning against the heuristic that a series of underpowered studies approximates the credibility of one well-powered study.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-25T10:37:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220913363
  • Exposure to Analogous Harmdoing Increases Acknowledgment of Ingroup
           Transgressions in Intergroup Conflicts
    • Authors: Deborah Shulman, Eran Halperin, Thomas Kessler, Noa Schori-Eyal, Michal Reifen Tagar
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      A major barrier to the resolution of intergroup conflicts is the reluctance to acknowledge transgressions committed by one’s ingroup toward the outgroup. Existing research demonstrates that individuals are generally motivated to justify ingroup conduct and avoid experiencing guilt and shame about ingroup harmdoing. The current work explores the use of an analogy-based intervention to attenuate motivated reasoning in evaluations of ingroup harmdoing. Overall, across six studies, we find support for our hypothesis that considering a case of harmdoing in a removed context increases acknowledgment of an analogous case of ingroup harmdoing. We further explore why, and under what conditions, the analogy is effective in leading to increased acknowledgment of an ingroup transgression. We find that the effect of the analogy is mediated by the endorsement of moral principles specific to the domain of the transgression, suggesting that the mechanism involves a cognitive process of analogical reasoning.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-19T08:56:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220908727
  • Can’t Buy Me Love (or Friendship): Social Consequences of
           Financially Contingent Self-Worth
    • Authors: Deborah E. Ward, Lora E. Park, Kristin Naragon-Gainey, Ashley V. Whillans, Han Young Jung
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although people may think that money improves one’s relationships, research suggests otherwise. Focusing on money is associated with spending less time maintaining relationships and less desire to rely on others for help. But why does focusing on money relate to worse social outcomes' We propose that when people base their self-esteem on financial success—that is, have financially contingent self-worth—they are likely to feel pressured to pursue success in this domain, which may come at the expense of spending time with close others. Consistent with this idea, results of four cross-sectional studies (N = 2,439) and a daily diary study (N = 246) revealed that basing one’s self-worth on financial success is associated with greater feelings of loneliness and social disconnection, and this may be related to experiencing less autonomy and spending less time with family and friends.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-19T08:55:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220910872
  • Be Afraid, Be Very Afraid! Motivated Intergroup Emotion Regulation
    • Authors: Liat Netzer, Eran Halperin, Maya Tamir
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Group-based emotions can shape group members’ behaviors and intergroup relations. Therefore, we propose that people may try to regulate emotions of outgroup members to attain ingroup goals. We call this phenomenon “motivated intergroup emotion regulation.” In four studies, conducted in both hypothetical and real-world contexts, we show that deterrence and reconciliation goals influence how fearful or calm people want outgroup members to feel, respectively. We further show that such motivated intergroup emotion regulation can guide behavior toward the outgroup, influencing how outgroup members feel (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and behave (Study 4). We demonstrate how affiliation with the ingroup, which renders ingroup goals more salient, shapes what ingroup members want outgroup members to feel (Studies 3 and 4) and subsequently how outgroup members feel and behave (Study 4). Finally, we discuss how motivated intergroup emotion regulation might contribute to understanding motivation in emotion regulation, group-based emotions, and intergroup relations.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-19T08:52:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220910833
  • Historical Change in the Moral Foundations of Political Persuasion
    • Authors: Nicholas Buttrick, Robert Moulder, Shigehiro Oishi
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      How have attempts at political persuasion changed over time' Using nine corpora dating back through 1789, containing over 7 million words of speech (1,666 documents in total), covering three different countries, plus the entire Google nGram corpus, we find that language relating to togetherness permanently crowded out language relating to duties and obligations in the persuasive speeches of politicians during the early 20th century. This shift is temporally predicted by a rise in Western nationalism and the mass movement of people from more rural to more urban areas and is unexplained by changes in language, private political speech, or nonmoral persuasion. We theorize that the emergence of the modern state in the 1920s had psychopolitical consequences for the ways that people understood and communicated their relationships with their government, which was then reflected in the levers of persuasion chosen by political elites.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-18T01:44:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220907467
  • Effects of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Affection on Avoidantly
           Attached Partners’ Emotions and Message Receptiveness
    • Authors: Kristina M. Schrage, Jessica A. Maxwell, Emily A. Impett, Dacher Keltner, Geoff MacDonald
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Research on adult attachment in romantic relationships has focused on the negative outcomes that avoidantly attached individuals face. The present research uses observational research methods to determine if there are specific ways of communicating affection that might help avoidantly attached people reap similar levels of rewards from affectionate communication as those who are more secure. We combined three samples (Ntotal = 280 couples, 560 participants) who took turns describing a time they felt strong love for their partner, and coded their expressions for cues of verbal affection (i.e., emotion-laden words) and nonverbal affection (i.e., behavioral expressiveness). Higher levels of the speaker’s nonverbal affection were associated with stronger positive emotion and behavioral receptiveness (i.e., appearing engaged) for listeners higher in attachment avoidance. Altogether, we provide evidence that avoidantly attached individuals may experience positive outcomes from affectionate exchanges when the communication style is tailored to their unique needs.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-17T02:23:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220910311
  • Sexual Nostalgia as a Response to Unmet Sexual and Relational Needs: The
           Role of Attachment Avoidance
    • Authors: Amy Muise, James J. Kim, Anik Debrot, Emily A. Impett, Geoff MacDonald
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Romantic relationships help people meet needs for connection and emotional and sexual fulfillment. In the current research, we investigate an unexplored response to feeling sexually and relationally unfulfilled: reflecting on positive sexual experiences with past partners (or sexual nostalgia). Across three studies, people low in attachment avoidance (i.e., comfortable with closeness) who were (a) single or (b) sexually or relationally dissatisfied reported greater sexual nostalgia, whereas people high in attachment avoidance (i.e., value autonomy) did not calibrate their feelings of sexual nostalgia based on their current relationship status or satisfaction. Sexual fantasies about past partners (i.e., sexual nostalgia) were distinct from other types of sexual fantasies (Study 1) and the effects could not be attributed to general nostalgia (Study 2) or sexual desire (Study 3). Chronic sexual nostalgia detracted from satisfaction over time. The findings have implications for theories of nostalgia and attachment and for managing unfulfilled needs in relationships.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-14T12:31:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220907468
  • Developing a Family Achievement Guilt Scale Grounded in First-Generation
           College Student Voices
    • Authors: Rebecca Covarrubias, Isidro Landa, Ronald Gallimore
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      As the first in their families to attend college, first-generation students plausibly experience family achievement guilt—socioemotional distress related to “leaving family members” to attend college. Family achievement guilt is little studied but a promising indicator of student outcomes. The present work used psychometric methods to develop the family achievement guilt scale. First-generation (46.6%) and continuing-generation (i.e., at least one parent has a 4-year degree, 53.4%) students completed a 41-item guilt measure online. Exploratory factor analysis revealed four factors, including guilt related to Leaving Family Behind, Having More Privileges, Becoming Different, and Experiencing Pressures about not being successful. The scale yielded good internal and test–retest reliability. Moreover, guilt predicted greater engagement in family roles and interdependent motives for college, even after controlling for general negative affect. In measuring guilt in psychometrically sound ways, we validate the voices of first-generation college students and alert institutions to adjust how they serve students.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-14T12:30:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220908382
  • Dehumanizing Prisoners: Remaining Sentence Duration Predicts the
           Ascription of Mind to Prisoners
    • Authors: Jason C. Deska, Steven M. Almaraz, Kurt Hugenberg
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We tested the novel hypothesis that the dehumanization of prisoners varies as a function of how soon they will be released from prison. Seven studies indicate that people ascribe soon-to-be-released prisoners greater mental sophistication than those with more time to serve, all other things being equal. Studies 3 to 6 indicate that these effects are mediated by perceptions that imprisonment has served the functions of rehabilitation, retribution, and future deterrence. Finally, Study 7 demonstrates that beliefs about rehabilitation and deterrence may be the most important in accounting for these effects. These findings indicate that the amount of time left on a prison sentence influences mind ascription to the incarcerated, an effect that has implications for our understanding of prisoner dehumanization.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-14T12:29:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220911496
  • Reconsidering “Best Practices” for Testing the Ideal Standards Model:
           A Response to Eastwick, Finkel, and Simpson (2018)
    • Authors: Garth J. O. Fletcher, Nickola C. Overall, Lorne Campbell
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Eastwick, Finkel, and Simpson (2018) advanced recommendations for “best practices” in testing the predictive validity of individual differences in the extent to which perceptions of partners match ideal standards (ideal-partner matching). We respond to their article evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of different tests, presenting new analyses of existing data, and setting out conclusions that differ from Eastwick et al. We (a) argue that correlations between ideal standards for attributes in partners and corresponding partner perceptions are relevant to the ideal standards model (ISM), (b) show that important methodological and statistical issues qualify their interpretations of prior research, (c) illustrate a new analytic approach used in the accuracy literature that tests (and controls for) confounds highlighted by Eastwick et al., and (d) provide evidence that the direct-estimation measure of ideal-partner matching is a valid and useful method. We conclude with a cautionary note on the concept of best practices.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-12T06:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220910323
  • When Tonight Is Not the Night: Sexual Rejection Behaviors and Satisfaction
           in Romantic Relationships
    • Authors: James J. Kim, Amy Muise, John K. Sakaluk, Natalie O. Rosen, Emily A. Impett
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In most long-term romantic relationships, partners experience sexual conflicts of interest in which one partner declines the other partner’s sexual advances. We investigated the distinct ways people reject a partner’s advances (i.e., with reassuring, hostile, assertive, and deflecting behaviors) in Studies 1 and 2. Using cross-sectional (Study 3) and daily experience methods (Study 4), we investigated how perceptions of a partner’s rejection behaviors are linked with the rejected partner’s relationship and sexual satisfaction. We found robust evidence that perceived partner reassuring behaviors were associated with greater satisfaction, whereas perceived partner hostile behaviors were associated with lower levels of satisfaction. Perceived partner responsiveness was a key mechanism underlying the effects. Findings for assertive and deflecting behaviors were limited, but the effect of deflecting behaviors was qualified by levels of hostile behaviors for sexual satisfaction. Findings provide the first empirical investigation of the specific ways partners can decline one another’s advances to preserve satisfaction.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-12T06:45:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220907469
  • Threat Enhances Aggressive Inclinations Among Devoted Actors Via Increase
           in Their Relative Physical Formidability
    • Authors: Alexandra Vázquez, Lucía López-Rodríguez, Mercedes Martínez, Scott Atran, Ángel Gómez
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Devoted actors—those who share sacred values with a group with which they are fused—are particularly willing to self-sacrifice to defend their group or values when they are threatened. Here, we explore whether they are also prone to aggressive inclinations toward those who endanger their group or convictions. To that end, we examined the effect of threat and the two components of the devoted actor framework—identity fusion and sacred values—on aggressive inclinations. These inclinations were registered with a videogame that allowed participants to destroy ingroup and outgroup symbols. Two experiments indicated that devoted actors reacted to threats to their ingroup and value by increasing aggressive inclinations against the rival group. This effect was apparently mediated by the perceived physical strength of the ingroup versus foes. Results suggest that devoted actors might be more prone to self-sacrifice, but also to attack those who threaten their group or values.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-12T01:59:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220907466
  • Men’s Hostile Sexism and Biased Perceptions of Partners’ Support:
           Underestimating Dependability Rather Than Overestimating Challenges to
    • Authors: Matthew D. Hammond, Nickola C. Overall
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Hostile sexism expresses derogation of women’s competence and emphasizes that women will exploit men’s relational dependence. Men who endorse hostile sexism perceive their female partners more negatively, but do these negative perceptions stem from motives for dominance or insecurities about dependence' We tested both perspectives by assessing bias in perceptions of partners’ behaviors that challenge dominance (criticism, instruction, taking over) versus affirm partners are dependable (love, care, availability). Both members of 100 heterosexual couples reported how much they received and enacted these behaviors in (a) a lab-based discussion and (b) six monthly retrospective reports about an ongoing important goal. In both support contexts, men’s hostile sexism was associated with underestimating dependability-relevant support, particularly when partners reported providing low support. This pattern did not emerge for dominance-relevant behaviors. These results indicate that men’s hostile sexism involves insecurities about dependence, producing perceptions that female partners are less dependable than they actually are.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-10T09:55:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220907475
  • Jealousy as a Function of Rival Characteristics: Two Large Replication
           Studies and Meta-Analyses Support Gender Differences in Reactions to Rival
           Attractiveness But Not Dominance
    • Authors: Thomas V. Pollet, Tamsin K. Saxton
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Jealousy is a key emotion studied in the context of romantic relationships. One seminal study (Dijkstra, P., & Buunk, B. (1998). Jealousy as a function of rival characteristics: An evolutionary perspective. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24 (11), 1158–1166. investigated the interactions between a participant’s gender and their reactions to the attractiveness or dominance of a romantic rival. In a vignette-based study, it was found that women’s jealousy was more responsive than men’s to a rival’s attractiveness, whereas in contrast, the rival’s dominance evoked more jealousy from men than from women. Here, we attempt to replicate these interactions in two samples (N = 339 and N = 456) and present subsequent meta-analyses (combined Ns = 5,899 and 4,038, respectively). These meta-analyses showed a small, significant effect of gender on jealousy provoked by rival attractiveness, but no such response to rival dominance. We discuss the potential reasons for these findings and future directions for research on jealousy and rival characteristics.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-10T09:54:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220904512
  • Individual Differences in Attitude Consistency Over Time: The Personal
           Attitude Stability Scale
    • Authors: Mengran Xu, Pablo Briñol, Jeremy D. Gretton, Zakary L. Tormala, Derek D. Rucker, Richard E. Petty
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This research finds evidence for reliable individual differences in people’s perceived attitude stability that predict the actual stability of their attitudes over time. Study 1 examines the reliability and factor structure of an 11-item Personal Attitude Stability Scale (PASS). Study 2 establishes test–retest reliability for the PASS over a 5-week period. Studies 3a and 3b demonstrate the convergent and discriminant validity of the PASS in relation to relevant existing individual differences. Studies 4 and 5 show that the PASS predicts attitude stability following a delay period across several distinct topics. Across multiple attitude objects, for people with high (vs. low) scores on the PASS, Time 1 attitudes were more predictive of their Time 2 attitudes, indicative of greater attitudinal consistency over time. The final study also demonstrates that the PASS predicts attitude stability above and beyond other related scales.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-07T12:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220908995
  • What Goes Down When Advice Goes Up: Younger Advisers Underestimate Their
    • Authors: Ting Zhang, Michael S. North
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Common wisdom suggests that older is wiser. Consequently, people rarely give advice to older individuals—even when they are relatively more expert—leading to missed learning opportunities. Across six studies (N = 3,445), we explore the psychology of advisers when they are younger (reverse advising), the same age (peer advising), or older (traditional advising) than their advisees. Study 1 shows that advisers avoid reverse-advising interactions because they perceive that their relative youth makes them less effective. However, when compared to advisees’ actual perceptions, reverse advisers are misguided, as they underestimate their effectiveness when giving general life advice (Study 2a–2b) as well as tactical advice (Studies 3–4). This misperception is in part driven by advisers’ beliefs about their own competence and others’ receptivity. Finally, we demonstrate an intervention that mitigates advisers’ misguided beliefs (Study 5). Contrary to advisers’ own perceptions and popular belief, these findings illustrate that being relatively young can also mean being an impactful adviser.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-03-03T11:32:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220905221
  • Using the CNI Model to Investigate Individual Differences in Moral Dilemma
    • Authors: Anita Körner, Roland Deutsch, Bertram Gawronski
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Typical moral dilemmas pitting the consequences of a given action against the action’s consistency with moral norms confound several determinants of moral judgments. Dissociating these determinants, the CNI model allows researchers to quantify sensitivity to consequences, sensitivity to norms, and general preference for inaction over action regardless of consequences and norms. However, with the currently available set of dilemmas for research using the CNI model, the model is not suitable for studies with individual-difference designs. To overcome this limitation, the current research investigated the suitability of an extended dilemma battery to make the CNI model amenable for individual-difference research, examining relations of its parameters with psychopathy, empathic concern, need for cognition, self-reported utilitarianism, behavioral activation/inhibition, moral identity, and religiosity. The results support the suitability of the CNI model for individual-difference research with the extended dilemma battery, providing more nuanced insights into the underpinnings of individual differences in moral dilemma judgments.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-02-29T07:00:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220907203
  • Thinking Through Secrets: Rethinking the Role of Thought Suppression in
    • Authors: Michael L. Slepian, Katharine H. Greenaway, E. J. Masicampo
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Having secrets on the mind is associated with lower well-being, and a common view of secrets is that people work to suppress and avoid them—but might people actually want to think about their secrets' Four studies examining more than 11,000 real-world secrets found that the answer depends on the importance of the secret: People generally seek to engage with thoughts of significant secrets and seek to suppress thoughts of trivial secrets. Inconsistent with an ironic process account, adopting the strategy to suppress thoughts of a secret was not related to a tendency to think about the secret. Instead, adopting the strategy to engage with thoughts of a secret was related the tendency to think about the secret. Moreover, the temporal focus of one’s thoughts moderated the relationship between mind-wandering to the secret and well-being, with a focus on the past exacerbating a harmful link. These results suggest that people do not universally seek to suppress their secrets; they also seek to engage with them, although not always effectively.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-02-28T10:29:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219895017
  • Gray (Literature) Matters: Evidence of Selective Hypothesis Reporting in
           Social Psychological Research
    • Authors: Athena H. Cairo, Jeffrey D. Green, Donelson R. Forsyth, Anna Maria C. Behler, Tarah L. Raldiris
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Selective reporting practices (SRPs)—adding, dropping, or altering study elements when preparing reports for publication—are thought to increase false positives in scientific research. Yet analyses of SRPs have been limited to self-reports or analyses of pre-registered and published studies. To assess SRPs in social psychological research more broadly, we compared doctoral dissertations defended between 1999 and 2017 with the publications based on those dissertations. Selective reporting occurred in nearly 50% of studies. Fully supported dissertation hypotheses were 3 times more likely to be published than unsupported hypotheses, while unsupported hypotheses were nearly 4 times more likely to be dropped from publications. Few hypotheses were found to be altered or added post hoc. Dissertation studies with fewer supported hypotheses were more likely to remove participants or measures from publications. Selective hypothesis reporting and dropped measures significantly predicted greater hypothesis support in published studies, supporting concerns that SRPs may increase Type 1 error risk.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-02-25T05:20:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220903896
  • A Cultural Perspective on Functional Limitations and Well-Being
    • Authors: Jeong Ha Choi, Yuri Miyamoto, Carol D. Ryff
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Functional limitations—difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living—have been linked to poorer well-being in Western cultures. This might be partly due to the lower personal control associated with functional limitations. However, compared with the West, in Asian cultural contexts (e.g., Japan) where agency and control are based less predominantly on individual attributes, the link between functional limitations and well-being may be weaker. Using cross-sectional probability samples from the United States and Japan (Study 1), functional limitations were associated with lower well-being in both cultures, though the association was weaker in Japan than in the United States and personal control played a mediating role. Furthermore, analyses of longitudinal data (Study 2) showed the cross-cultural patterns generally consistent with the cross-sectional analyses of Study 1, though the cultural moderation was found for fewer well-being measures. Such findings enrich our understanding of how health status and well-being are related across cultures.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-02-15T10:10:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220905712
  • The Countervailing Effects of Weight Stigma on Weight-Loss Motivation and
           Perceived Capacity for Weight Control
    • Authors: Brenda Major, Joanne A. Rathbone, Alison Blodorn, Jeffrey M. Hunger
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We hypothesized that exposure to weight stigma simultaneously increases motivation to lose or avoid gaining weight to avoid future stigma and decreases perceived capacity to do so, by heightening concerns about experiencing stigma and negative affect. Study 1 showed that more frequently experiencing weight-based discrimination was associated with greater concerns about being a victim of weight stigma, which predicted increased motivation to lose weight but decreased perceived capacity for weight control. Study 2 showed that participants randomly assigned to view a weight-stigmatizing (vs. control) message showed increased concerns about being a target of weight stigma, which indirectly increased motivation to lose weight and decreased state self-control. These, in turn, predicted increased willingness to engage in unhealthy weight-loss behaviors and decreased perceived capacity for weight control, respectively. Study 3 showed that increased motivation to avoid stigma and increased negative affect mediate these effects of exposure to weight stigma.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-02-12T07:23:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220903184
  • Seeing the Whole Picture' Avoided Negative Affect and Processing of
           Others’ Suffering
    • Authors: Birgit Koopmann-Holm, Kathryn Bartel, Maryam Bin Meshar, Huiru Evangeline Yang
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Noticing someone’s pain is the first step to a compassionate response. While past research suggests that the degree to which people want to avoid feeling negative (“avoided negative affect”; ANA) shapes how people respond to someone’s suffering, the present research investigates whether ANA also predicts how people process others’ suffering. In two studies, using complex photographs containing negative aspects (i.e., suffering), we found that the higher people’s ANA, the fewer details of negative aspects they correctly recognized, and the fewer negative words they used in their image descriptions. However, when asked to process negative content, the higher people’s ANA, the more negatively they rated that content. In Study 3, we report cultural differences in people’s sensitivity to notice suffering in an ambiguous image. ANA mediated these cultural differences. Implications for research on compassion are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-02-11T01:49:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220903905
  • The Bidirectional Causal Relation Between Implicit Stereotypes and
           Implicit Prejudice
    • Authors: Curtis E. Phills, Adam Hahn, Bertram Gawronski
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although stereotypes and prejudice are commonly regarded as conceptually distinct but related constructs, previous research remains silent on the processes underlying their relation. Applying the balance-congruity principle to the concepts (a) group, (b) valence, and (c) attribute, we argue that the valence of attributes contained in a group-stereotype shapes evaluations of the group, while prejudice toward a group influences which attributes are stereotypically associated with the group. Using fictitious (Experiments 1 and 3) and real (Experiments 2 and 4) groups, the current studies demonstrate that (a) experimentally induced changes in the valence of semantic attributes associated with a group (stereotypes) influence implicit prejudice toward that group (Experiments 1 and 2), and (b) experimentally induced changes in the valence of a group (prejudice) influence implicit stereotyping of that group (Experiments 3 and 4). These findings demonstrate a bidirectional causal relation between prejudice and stereotypes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-02-04T09:13:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219899234
  • The Big Six Personality Traits and Mental Distress: Dynamic Modeling in a
           Population Panel Study Reveals Bidirectional Relationships Involving
           Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness
    • Authors: Anastasia Ejova, Petar Milojev, Everett L. Worthington, Joseph Bulbulia, Chris G. Sibley
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In a single comprehensive model, using a large nationally representative sample, we investigate longitudinal relationships between mental distress and “Big Six” personality using an analysis approach sensitive to dynamic effects (i.e., to effects of deviations from individual trajectories). We find that, consistent with a mechanism involving scarring by distress, upward deviations (flare-ups) in distress predict flare-ups in Neuroticism 12 months later. Among younger adults (n = 4,775), distress flare-ups predict dips in Conscientiousness. Consistent with a dynamic precursor model, (a) flare-ups in Neuroticism and Extraversion predict subsequent flare-ups in distress among older adults (n = 11,167), and (b) slopes of distress correlate with slopes of a number of traits (e.g., positively for Neuroticism, and, among older adults, negatively for Extraversion). While demonstrating these scarring and dynamic precursor effects, we draw attention to a nuanced direction of dynamic effect for Extraversion, a newly discovered dynamic effect of Conscientiousness, and previously undocumented dynamic effects of traits on each other.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-28T12:25:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219895349
  • (How) Do You Regret Killing One to Save Five' Affective and Cognitive
           Regret Differ After Utilitarian and Deontological Decisions
    • Authors: Jacob Goldstein-Greenwood, Paul Conway, Amy Summerville, Brielle N. Johnson
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Sacrificial moral dilemmas, in which opting to kill one person will save multiple others, are definitionally suboptimal: Someone dies either way. Decision-makers, then, may experience regret about these decisions. Past research distinguishes affective regret, negative feelings about a decision, from cognitive regret, thoughts about how a decision might have gone differently. Classic dual-process models of moral judgment suggest that affective processing drives characteristically deontological decisions to reject outcome-maximizing harm, whereas cognitive deliberation drives characteristically utilitarian decisions to endorse outcome-maximizing harm. Consistent with this model, we found that people who made or imagined making sacrificial utilitarian judgments reliably expressed relatively more affective regret and sometimes expressed relatively less cognitive regret than those who made or imagined making deontological dilemma judgments. In other words, people who endorsed causing harm to save lives generally felt more distressed about their decision, yet less inclined to change it, than people who rejected outcome-maximizing harm.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-28T12:25:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219897662
  • Does Mindfulness Training Without Explicit Ethics-Based Instruction
           Promote Prosocial Behaviors' A Meta-Analysis
    • Authors: Daniel R. Berry, Jonathan P. Hoerr, Selena Cesko, Amir Alayoubi, Kevin Carpio, Hannah Zirzow, Wesley Walters, Genny Scram, Katie Rodriguez, Vanessa Beaver
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Scholarly discourse has raised concerns about the gravitas of secular mindfulness trainings in promoting prosocial outgrowths, as these trainings lack ethics-based concepts found in contemplative traditions. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to test whether mindfulness trainings absent explicit ethics-based instructions promote prosocial action. There was a range of small to medium standardized mean difference effect sizes of mindfulness training on overt acts of prosociality when compared with active and inactive controls, k = 29, N = 3,100, g = .426, 95% confidence interval (CI)(g) = [.304, .549]. Reliable effect size estimates were found for single-session interventions that measured prosocial behavior immediately after training. Mindfulness training also reliably promotes compassionate (but not instrumental or generous) helping and reliably reduces prejudice and retaliation. Publication bias analyses indicated that the reliability of these findings was not wholly dependent on selective reporting. Implications for the science of secular mindfulness training on prosocial action are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T01:26:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219900418
  • Positive Emotions, More Than Anxiety or Other Negative Emotions, Predict
           Willingness to Interact With Robots
    • Authors: Eliot R. Smith, Steven Sherrin, Marlena R. Fraune, Selma Šabanović
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Like early work on human intergroup interaction, previous research on people’s willingness to interact with robots has focused mainly on effects of anxiety. However, existing findings suggest that other negative emotions as well as some positive emotions also have effects. This article systematically examines the roles of positive and negative emotions in predicting willingness to interact with robots, using an integrative analysis of data across five studies that use diverse interaction conditions and several types of robots. We hypothesize and find that positive emotions account for more variance than negative emotions. Practically, the findings suggest new strategies for interventions, aimed at increasing positive emotions to increase willingness to engage in intergroup interaction. No existing work has examined whether positive emotions are stronger predictors than negative emotions for willingness for human intergroup interaction, an important topic for future research.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T07:24:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219900439
  • Show Don’t Tell: Diversity Dishonesty Harms Racial/Ethnic Minorities
           at Work
    • Authors: Leigh S. Wilton, Ariana N. Bell, Mariam Vahradyan, Cheryl R. Kaiser
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Organizations aim to convey that they are diverse and inclusive, in part, to recruit racial minorities. We investigate a previously unexamined downside of this recruitment strategy: diversity dishonesty, that is, belief that an organization is falsely or incorrectly inflating its actual diversity. In four studies (total N = 871), we found that diversity dishonesty heightened minorities’ concerns about fitting in, being authentic, and performing well at the organization. We also found that evidence-based cues (which “show” observers whether the organization has a positive or negative diversity climate), but not expressed cues (which “tell” observers about the organization’s diversity), affect these expectations. Using correlational methodologies, Study 1 found these effects were pertinent to African American and Latinx participants’ beliefs about their current workplaces, holding other diversity-related measures constant. Studies 2 to 4 used experimental methods to replicate these findings with African American participants, using a hypothetical workplace setting.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T07:22:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219897149
  • Good Cop, Bad Cop: Race-Based Differences in Mental Representations of
    • Authors: E. Paige Lloyd, Mattea Sim, Evans Smalley, Michael J. Bernstein, Kurt Hugenberg
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The current work investigates race-based biases in conceptualization of the facial appearance of police. We employ a reverse correlation procedure to demonstrate that Black Americans, relative to White Americans, conceptualize police officers’ faces as more negative, less positive, and more dominant. We further find that these differential representations have implications for interactions with police. When naïve participants (of various races) viewed images of police officers generated by Black Americans (relative to those generated by White Americans), they responded with greater anticipated anxiety and reported more fight-or-flight behavioral intentions. Across four studies, findings suggest Black and White Americans conceptualize police and police–citizen interactions fundamentally differently. These findings have important theoretical (e.g., using reverse correlation to document the mental representations held by minority group members) and practical implications (e.g., identifying race-based differences in representations of police that may affect community–police relations).
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-17T06:02:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219898562
  • Putting Belonging in Context: Communal Affordances Signal Belonging in
    • Authors: Aimee L. Belanger, Mansi P. Joshi, Melissa A. Fuesting, Erica S. Weisgram, Heather M. Claypool, Amanda B. Diekman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      A sense of belonging in a particular context is cued not only by the people in the role but by the affordances of the role—that is, the opportunities for goal pursuit. We investigate this role-based belonging in four studies documenting that the perceived affordances of social roles inform sense of belonging and convey known benefits of belonging. Perceiving more communal opportunities in naturalistic science, technology, engineering, and mathematic (STEM) settings was associated with heightened belonging in those roles (Studies 1–2). Experimentally manipulating collaborative activities in a science lab increased anticipated belonging in the lab and fostered interest, particularly among women (Study 3). Finally, mentally simulating communal affordances in a role promoted recovery from belonging threat: Considering communal opportunities in STEM facilitated recovery of STEM-specific belonging after recalling exclusion in STEM (Study 4). Investigations of role-based belonging offer the potential for both theoretical and practical advances.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-13T06:45:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219897181
  • Taking Responsibility for Others and Use of Mental Contrasting
    • Authors: A. Timur Sevincer, Tanja Musik, Alina Degener, Annika Greinert, Gabriele Oettingen
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Mentally contrasting a desired future with present reality fosters selective goal pursuit: People pursue feasible desired futures and let go from unfeasible ones. We investigated whether people are more inclined to spontaneously use mental contrasting when they feel responsibility. Studies 1 and 2 provided correlational evidence: Employees who felt responsible for completing an important team project (Study 1) and MTurk users who felt and actively took social responsibility (Study 2) were more inclined to use mental contrasting. Studies 3 and 4 added experimental evidence: Students who were instructed to imagine responsibility for giving an excellent class presentation in a group or alone (Study 3) and participants who elaborated on an idiosyncratic wish that involved responsibility for others or themselves tended to use mental contrasting (Study 4). Apparently, people who feel or take responsibility for others, the society, or themselves are more likely to use mental contrasting as a self-regulation tool.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-13T06:41:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219898569
  • Beliefs in Conspiracy Theories Following Ostracism
    • Authors: Kai-Tak Poon, Zhansheng Chen, Wing-Yan Wong
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Four studies (total valid N = 643) examined whether ostracism increases people’s political conspiracy beliefs through heightened vulnerability and whether self-affirmation intervention counteracts the effect of ostracism on conspiracy beliefs. Compared with their nonostracized counterparts, ostracized participants were more likely to endorse conspiracy beliefs related to different political issues (Studies 1–3). Moreover, heightened vulnerability mediated the link between ostracism and conspiracy beliefs (Studies 1–3). Offering ostracized participants an opportunity to reaffirm values important to them could reduce their political conspiracy beliefs (Study 4). Taken together, our findings highlight the crucial role of vulnerability in understanding when and why ostracism increases conspiracy beliefs and how to ameliorate this relationship. Our findings also provide novel insights into how daily interpersonal interactions influence people’s political beliefs and involvement.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-13T06:34:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219898944
  • Testing the Status-Legitimacy Hypothesis in China: Objective and
           Subjective Socioeconomic Status Divergently Predict System Justification
    • Authors: Wenqi Li, Ying Yang, Junhui Wu, Yu Kou
      First page: 1044
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The status-legitimacy hypothesis proposes that people with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to justify the social system than those with higher SES. However, empirical studies found inconsistent findings. In the present research, we argue that at least part of the confusion stems from the possibility that objective and subjective SES are differently related to system justification. On one hand, subjective SES is more related to status maintenance motivation and may increase system justification. On the other hand, objective SES is more related to access to information about the social reality, which may increase criticism about the system and lead to lower system justification. These hypotheses were supported by evidence from five studies (total N = 26,134) involving both adult and adolescent samples in China. We recommend that future research on status-related issues needs to distinguish the potential divergent roles of objective and subjective SES.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-03T06:51:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219893997
  • Communicating Commitment: A Relationship-Protection Account of Dyadic
           Displays on Social Media
    • Authors: Kori L. Krueger, Amanda L. Forest
      First page: 1059
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People often make their romantic relationships visible to others through dyadic displays (DDs). Yet, their reasons for doing so are not well-understood. We proposed and tested a relationship-protection account of DD use, focusing on a social media environment. We predicted that relationship-protection motivation would predict DDs and that DDs would serve a relationship-protective function. In Study 1, a correlational study of romantically involved Facebook users, relationship-protection motivation positively predicted DD use on Facebook even when controlling for feelings of interconnectedness. Relationship-protection motivation also mediated effects of relationship satisfaction and commitment on DD use. In Study 2, participants perceived a target whose Facebook profile we experimentally manipulated to include DDs (vs. not) as more likely to be in a high-quality relationship and less receptive to romantic advances from others, with implications for participants’ interest in affiliating with the target. Our findings support a relationship-protection account of DD use on social media.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-03T06:44:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219893998
  • Religiosity and Desired Emotions: Belief Maintenance or Prosocial
    • Authors: Allon Vishkin, Shalom H. Schwartz, Pazit Ben-Nun Bloom, Nevin Solak, Maya Tamir
      First page: 1090
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We assessed how religiosity is related to desired emotions. We tested two competing hypotheses. First, religiosity could be associated with a stronger desire for emotions that strengthen foundational religious beliefs (i.e., more awe and gratitude and less pride). Second, religiosity could be associated with a stronger desire for emotions that promote prosocial engagement (e.g., more love and empathy and less anger and jealousy). Two cross-cultural studies supported the first hypothesis. Religiosity was related to desire for emotions that strengthen religious beliefs, but not to desire for socially engaging or socially disengaging emotions. These findings held across countries and across several different religions. A third study investigating the mechanisms of both hypotheses using structural equation modeling supported only the first hypothesis. This research extends prior work on desired emotions to the domain of religiosity. It demonstrates that the emotions religious people desire may be those that help strengthen their religious beliefs.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-07T06:57:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219895140
  • A Construal Level Account of the Impact of Religion and God on
    • Authors: Mustafa Karataş, Zeynep Gürhan-Canli
      First page: 1107
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This research shows that the two most prevalent religious constructs—God and religion—differentially impact cognition. Activating thoughts about God (vs. religion) induces a relatively more abstract (vs. concrete) mindset (Studies 1a–1c). Consequently, time donation intentions (Study 2) and actual monetary donations (Study 3) after a God (vs. religion) prime increase when people are presented an abstractly (vs. concretely) framed donation appeal. Similarly, people donate more money to distant (vs. close) donation targets, which are construed relatively abstractly (vs. concretely), when a religious speech activates predominantly God-specific (vs. religion-specific) thoughts (Study 4). These effects are mediated by “feeling right” under construal level fit (Study 3). Overall, this research significantly advances extant knowledge on religious cognition and past research on the link between religion and prosociality.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-13T06:29:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219895145
  • Justifying Social Inequalities: The Role of Social Darwinism
    • Authors: Laurie A. Rudman, Lina H. Saud
      First page: 1139
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Three studies supported a model whereby associations between ideologies that share roots in biological determinism and outcomes that reinforce inequality (based on gender, race, or class) were mediated by system justification beliefs (SJB). Outcomes included support for Donald Trump over Hillary Clinton as president (Study 1), justifying police brutality (Study 2), and support for a White House budget that slashed the social safety net to endow the wealthy with tax cuts (Study 3). These findings provoke a vital question: How do people deem unequal systems worthy of defense' Each study compared social Darwinism, social dominance orientation (SDO), and biological essentialism. We expected social Darwinism to account for the most variance in SJB because it provides both the rationale for social hierarchies (natural selection) and defends them as required for human welfare. This prediction was supported in each study. Implications for the psychology of legitimacy are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-06T01:40:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219896924
  • To Help or To Harm' Assessing the Impact of Envy on Prosocial and
           Antisocial Behaviors
    • Authors: Anna Maria C. Behler, Catherine S. J. Wall, Adriana Bos, Jeffrey D. Green
      First page: 1156
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Two studies examined how envy influences prosocial and antisocial behavior. In Experiment 1, participants in an envious state (relative to a neutral state) were less helpful: They picked up fewer dropped pencils in their immediate vicinity. We expanded upon these findings by examining how envy affected both helping and harming behavior in a competitive scenario. In Experiment 2, individuals in envious or neutral states assigned puzzle tasks to another student in a prisoner’s dilemma style scenario. Prosocial and antisocial behaviors were assessed via the difficulty of the assigned puzzles (easy puzzles were considered helpful and difficult puzzles were harmful). We hypothesized that experiencing envy would result in greater motive to harm as well as greater likelihood of engaging in harmful behavior. The hypothesis was supported, suggesting that envy has detrimental ramifications that go beyond the individual and extend to interpersonal relationships.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2020-01-13T06:45:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219897660
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