Journal Cover
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.999
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 198  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 4 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 0146-1672 - ISSN (Online) 1552-7433
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1087 journals]
  • Surviving and Thriving: Fundamental Social Motives Provide Purpose in Life
    • Authors: Matthew J. Scott, Adam B. Cohen
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose in life (PIL) is often associated with grand achievements and existential beliefs, but recent theory suggests that it might ultimately track gainful pursuit of basic evolved goals. Five studies (N = 1,993) investigated the relationships between fundamental social motives and PIL. In Study 1, attribution of a life goal pursuit to disease avoidance, affiliation, or kin care motives correlated with higher PIL. Studies 2 and 3 found correlations of self-protection, disease avoidance, affiliation, mate retention, and kin care motives with PIL after controlling for potential confounds. Study 4 showed that writing about success in the status, mating, and kin care domains increased PIL. Study 5 replicated the effect for mating and kin care, but not for status. Results imply that fundamental motives link to PIL through a sense of progress, rather than raw desire. Overall, this set of studies suggests that pursuit of evolved fundamental goals contributes to a purposeful life.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-11-14T06:19:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219883604
       
  • Spousal Relative Income and Male Psychological Distress
    • Authors: Joanna Syrda
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Using Panel Study of Income Dynamics 2001-2015 dataset (6,035 households, 19,688 observations), this study takes a new approach to investigating the relationship between wife’s relative income and husband’s psychological distress, and finds it to be significantly U-shaped. Controlling for total household income, predicted male psychological distress reaches a minimum at a point where wives make 40% of total household income and proceeds to increase, to reach highest level when men are entirely economically dependent on their wives. These results reflect the stress associated with being the sole breadwinner, and more significantly, with gender norm deviance due to husbands being outearned by their wives. Interestingly, the relationship between wife’s relative income and husband’s psychological distress is not found among couples where wives outearned husbands at the beginning of their marriage pointing to importance of marital selection. Finally, patterns reported by wives are not as pronouncedly U-shaped as those reported by husbands.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-29T05:53:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219883611
       
  • Nipping Temptation in the Bud: Examining Strategic Self-Control in Daily
           Life
    • Authors: Laverl Z. Williamson, Benjamin M. Wilkowski
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Self-control is often thought to be reactive and focused solely on the inhibition of responses elicited by temptations. In two studies, we assessed whether self-control can instead (a) be planned and (b) target the antecedents of the response to temptation. We assessed self-control planning, four antecedent-focused self-control strategies (i.e., situation-selection, situation-modification, distraction, and reappraisal) and one response-focused strategy (i.e., response-inhibition). In both studies, we found that self-control planning predicted the initiation of self-control independently of temptation. Each antecedent-focused self-control strategy uniquely predicted goal-progress. Response-inhibition did not produce consistent effects on goal-progress. These studies provide evidence that people proactively initiate self-control by targeting the antecedents of temptation and that doing so supports goal-progress.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-29T05:52:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219883606
       
  • Understanding Self-Respect and Its Relationship to Self-Esteem
    • Authors: Claudine Clucas
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The concept of self-respect has received little attention in the psychological literature and is not clearly distinguished from self-esteem. The present research sought to empirically investigate the bases of self-respect by manipulating adherence to morals together with interpersonal appraisals (IAs), or task-related competence, in hypothetical scenarios (Studies 1a and 1b) and a situation participants relived (Studies 2 and 3). Participants’ levels of state self-respect and self-esteem were measured. Studies 1 to 3 found main effects of adherence to morals on self-respect, with self-respect mediating the effect of adherence to morals on self-esteem, but little support for competence and IAs directly influencing self-respect. Self-respect uniquely contributed to anticipated/felt self-esteem alongside competence or IAs. The pattern of results supports the conceptualization of self-respect as a component of self-esteem associated with morally principled conduct, distinct from performance and social self-esteem. The findings have implications for our understanding of self-esteem and moral behavior.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-22T06:36:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219879115
       
  • Are You a Good Friend' Assessing Social Relationship Competence Using
           Situational Judgments
    • Authors: Michelle R. Persich, Sukumarakurup Krishnakumar, Michael D. Robinson
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Individual differences in social relationship competence (SRC) should have significant implications for social relationship success and well-being. Ability-based measures of SRC are scarce, though, particularly in social-personality psychology, and these considerations led to the present research. In specific terms, a situation judgment method was used to create and examine the correlates of a scenario-based assessment of SRC termed the Social Relationship Competence–Ability Measure (SRC-AM). Four studies (total N = 994) were conducted. Study 1 used item-total correlations and factor analyses to select scenarios from a larger pool. Studies 2 and 3 then showed that the SRC-AM predicted outcomes consistent with social relationship success (Study 2) as well as psychological well-being (Study 3). Study 4, finally, linked SRC levels to peer ratings of social competence and popularity. The research highlights a class of social inferences and abilities that possess novel implications for social relationship success.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-21T07:18:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219880193
       
  • Population Diversity and Ancestral Diversity As Distinct Contributors to
           Outgroup Prejudice
    • Authors: Ilan Shrira
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research has shown conflicting findings on how population diversity influences outgroup prejudice. In some cases, prejudice is greater when minority groups make up a larger portion of the population, whereas in other cases, prejudice is lower as diversity increases. This article examined how the diversity of a culture’s ancestry—or its historical heterogeneity—would be related to outgroup attitudes. Historically heterogeneous populations descend from ancestors who have migrated from many parts of the world over the past 500 years and, as a result, have a longer legacy of contact with diverse groups of people. The results of two cross-cultural studies found that greater heterogeneity predicted lower levels of outgroup prejudice, and some evidence that diversity in the current population was related to increased prejudice. The findings suggest that intergroup attitudes have deeply entrenched roots that cannot be fully understood by looking at current indicators.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-21T07:16:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219880190
       
  • Intergroup Inequality Heightens Reports of Discrimination Along
           Alternative Identity Dimensions
    • Authors: Riana M. Brown, Maureen A. Craig
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      How do members of societally valued (dominant) groups respond when considering inequality' Prior research suggests that salient inequality may be viewed as a threat to dominant-group members’ self and collective moral character. However, people possess multiple social identities and may be advantaged in one domain (e.g., White) while concurrently disadvantaged in another domain (e.g., sexual minority). The present research tests whether individuals may reduce the moral-image threat of being societally advantaged in one domain by highlighting discrimination they face in other domains. Four experiments with individuals advantaged along different dimensions of inequality (race, social class, sexuality) reveal that making such inequality salient evokes greater perceived discrimination faced by oneself and one’s ingroups along other identity dimensions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-21T07:12:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219880186
       
  • Is Disgust a “Conservative” Emotion'
    • Authors: Julia Elad-Strenger, Jutta Proch, Thomas Kessler
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Extant political–psychological research has identified stable, context-independent differences between conservatives and liberals in a wide range of preferences and psychological processes. One consistent finding is that conservatives show higher disgust sensitivity than liberals. This finding, however, is predominantly based on assessments of disgust to specific elicitors, which confound individuals’ sensitivity and propensity to the experience of disgust with the extent to which they find specific elicitors disgusting. Across five studies, we vary specific elicitors of disgust, showing that the relations between political orientation and disgust sensitivity depend on the specific set of elicitors used. We also show that disgust sensitivity is not associated with political orientation when measured with an elicitor-unspecific scale. Taken together, our findings suggest that the differences between conservatives and liberals in disgust sensitivity are context dependent rather than a stable personality difference. Broader theoretical implications are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-17T06:34:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219880191
       
  • Testing the Social Identity Model of Collective Action Longitudinally and
           Across Structurally Disadvantaged and Advantaged Groups
    • Authors: Emma F. Thomas, Elena Zubielevitch, Chris G. Sibley, Danny Osborne
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although the social identity model of collective action (SIMCA) demonstrates that identity, efficacy, and injustice are key correlates of collective action, longitudinal tests of these causal assumptions are absent from the literature. Moreover, most collective action research focuses on disadvantaged groups’ responses to injustice, with few studies examining what motivates advantaged groups to protest. We address these oversights using nationally representative longitudinal panel data to investigate SIMCA among members of disadvantaged (N = 2,574) and advantaged (N = 13,367) groups. As hypothesized, identity predicted increases in injustice, efficacy, and collective action support over time. In turn, injustice (but not efficacy) mediated the longitudinal association between identity and collective action support. Notably, results were largely consistent across disadvantaged and advantaged groups. Thus, we provide the first demonstration that identity temporally precedes collective action across objectively disadvantaged and advantaged groups, but identify complexities regarding the role of efficacy in protest.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T08:40:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219879111
       
  • The Negative Intelligence–Religiosity Relation: New and Confirming
           Evidence
    • Authors: Miron Zuckerman, Chen Li, Shengxin Lin, Judith A. Hall
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Zuckerman et al. (2013) conducted a meta-analysis of 63 studies that showed a negative intelligence–religiosity relation (IRR). As more studies have become available and because some of Zuckerman et al.’s (2013) conclusions have been challenged, we conducted a new meta-analysis with an updated data set of 83 studies. Confirming previous conclusions, the new analysis showed that the correlation between intelligence and religious beliefs in college and noncollege samples ranged from −.20 to −.23. There was no support for mediation of the IRR by education but there was support for partial mediation by analytic cognitive style. Thus, one possible interpretation for the IRR is that intelligent people are more likely to use analytic style (i.e., approach problems more rationally). An alternative (and less interesting) reason for the mediation is that tests of both intelligence and analytic style assess cognitive ability. Additional empirical and theoretical work is needed to resolve this issue.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T07:30:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219879122
       
  • Stereotypes as Historical Accidents: Images of Social Class in
           Postcommunist Versus Capitalist Societies
    • Authors: Lusine Grigoryan, Xuechunzi Bai, Federica Durante, Susan T. Fiske, Marharyta Fabrykant, Anna Hakobjanyan, Nino Javakhishvili, Kamoliddin Kadirov, Marina Kotova, Ana Makashvili, Edona Maloku, Olga Morozova-Larina, Nozima Mullabaeva, Adil Samekin, Volha Verbilovich, Illia Yahiiaiev
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Stereotypes are ideological and justify the existing social structure. Although stereotypes persist, they can change when the context changes. Communism’s rise in Eastern Europe and Asia in the 20th century provides a natural experiment examining social-structural effects on social class stereotypes. Nine samples from postcommunist countries (N = 2,241), compared with 38 capitalist countries (N = 4,344), support the historical, sociocultural rootedness of stereotypes. More positive stereotypes of the working class appear in postcommunist countries, both compared with other social groups in the country and compared with working-class stereotypes in capitalist countries; postcommunist countries also show more negative stereotypes of the upper class. We further explore whether communism’s ideological legacy reflects how societies infer groups’ stereotypic competence and warmth from structural status and competition. Postcommunist societies show weaker status–competence relations and stronger (negative) competition–warmth relations; respectively, the lower meritocratic beliefs and higher priority of embeddedness as ideological legacies may shape these relationships.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-15T07:28:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219881434
       
  • Self-Concept Clarity and the Bodily Self: Malleability Across Modalities
    • Authors: Sonia A. Krol, Rémi Thériault, Jay A. Olson, Amir Raz, Jennifer A. Bartz
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The self has fascinated scholars for centuries. Although theory suggests that the self-concept (cognitive self-understanding) and bodily self (pre-reflective awareness of one’s body) are related, little work has examined this notion. To this end, in Study 1, participants reported on self-concept clarity (SCC) and completed the rubber hand illusion (RHI), a paradigm in which synchronous (vs. asynchronous) stimulation between a prosthetic hand and one’s own hand leads one to “embody” the prosthetic hand. Whereas participants were equally susceptible to the RHI during synchronous stroking, low-SCC individuals were more vulnerable to the illusion during asynchronous stroking, when the effect is unwarranted. Conceptually replicating and extending this finding, in Study 2, low-SCC individuals were more susceptible to the body-swap illusion—the impression that another person’s body is one’s own. These findings suggest that a clear sense of self implies clarity and stability of both the self-concept and the bodily self.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-11T11:24:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219879126
       
  • The Harmful Side of Thanks: Thankful Responses to High-Power Group Help
           Undermine Low-Power Groups’ Protest

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Inna Ksenofontov, Julia C. Becker
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Giving thanks has multiple psychological benefits. However, within intergroup contexts, thankful responses from low-power to high-power group members could solidify the power hierarchy. The other-oriented nature of grateful expressions could mask power differences and discourage low-power group members from advocating for their ingroup interests. In five studies (N = 825), we examine the novel idea of a potentially harmful side of “thanks,” using correlational and experimental designs and a follow-up. Across different contexts, expressing thanks to a high-power group member who transgressed and then helped undermined low-power group members’ protest intentions and actual protest. Thus, the expression of thanks can pacify members of low-power groups. We offer insights into the underlying process by showing that forgiveness of the high-power benefactor and system justification mediate this effect. Our findings provide evidence for a problematic side of gratitude within intergroup relations. We discuss social implications.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-10T06:42:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219879125
       
  • The Diverging Effects of Need Fulfillment Obtained from Within and Outside
           of a Romantic Relationship
    • Authors: Laura V. Machia, Morgan L. Proulx
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People have diverse psychological needs that they seek to have fulfilled to maximize their well-being. Romantic relationships are the primary source individuals use for need fulfillment, but fulfillment can come from other sources as well—friends, family, strangers, vocation, and recreation. Whereas having a bevy of available sources puts individuals at an advantage in terms of ensuring their needs are met, which source they utilize may ironically decrease the quality of their valued romantic relationship. Across three studies (total N = 5,169) with diverse methodologies (i.e., nationally representative, cross-sectional, longitudinal), we found that when people achieve psychological need fulfillment from sources other than their romantic partner, they view their relationship less positively (Study 1), perceive greater quality of alternatives to their romantic relationship, and think more about ending the relationship (Studies 2 and 3). Demonstrating robustness, these associations hold independent of the amount of fulfillment provided by the romantic partner.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-09T12:57:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219877849
       
  • How Ambient Cues Facilitate Political Segregation
    • Authors: Matt Motyl, J. P. Prims, Ravi Iyer
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People increasingly self-segregate into politically homogeneous communities. How they do this remains unclear. We propose that people use ambient cues correlated with political values to infer whether they would like to live in those communities. We test this hypothesis in five studies. In Studies 1 (n = 3,543) and 2 (n = 5,609), participants rated community cues; liberals and conservatives’ preferences differed. In Studies 3a (n = 1,643) and 3b (n = 1,840), participants read about communities with liberal or conservative cues. Even without explicit information about the communities’ politics, participants preferred communities with politically congenial cues. In Study 4 (n = 282), participants preferred politically congenial communities and wanted to leave politically uncongenial communities. In Study 5 (n = 370), people selectively navigated their communities in a politically congenial way. These studies suggest that peoples’ perceptions of communities can be shaped by subtle, not necessarily political, cues that may facilitate growing political segregation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-03T10:05:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219875141
       
  • Buying Happiness in an Unequal World: Rank of Income More Strongly
           Predicts Well-Being in More Unequal Countries
    • Authors: Lucía Macchia, Anke C. Plagnol, Nattavudh Powdthavee
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Does income rank matter more for well-being in more unequal countries' Using more than 160,000 observations from 24 countries worldwide, we replicate previous studies and show that the ranked position of an individual’s income strongly predicts life evaluation and positive daily emotional experiences, whereas absolute and reference income generally have weak or no effects. Furthermore, we find the association between income rank and an individual’s well-being to be significantly larger in countries where income inequality, represented by the share of taxable income held by the top 1% of income earners, is high. These results are robust to using an alternative measure of income inequality and different reference group specifications. Our findings suggest that people in more unequal societies place greater weight on the pursuit of higher income ranks, which may contribute to enduring income inequality in places where greater well-being can be bought from moving up the income ladder.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-10-02T12:00:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219877413
       
  • Mind–Body Dissonance: A Catalyst to Creativity
    • Authors: Li Huang
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Mind–body dissonance (MBD) is the psychological experience of one’s bodily expressions contradicting one’s mental states. Across four experiments (total N = 887), the current research proposes and demonstrates that MBD can enhance creativity by facilitating an atypicality mind-set. First, two different instantiations of MBD (i.e., assuming a high-power/low-power role while adopting a constricted/expansive posture, or recalling a happy/sad memory while frowning/smiling) increased performance on creative association, insight, and generation tasks (Experiments 1 and 2). A third study showed that an atypicality mind-set was an underlying mechanism for the creativity effect (Experiment 3). Finally, the frequency of past MBD experiences was found to reduce MBD’s creativity effect (Experiment 4). The present research offers evidence for the positive functions of bodily expressions that contradict mental states and highlights the significance of understanding the interactive effects of psychological states and their physical analogues in studying creativity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-09-21T06:19:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219875145
       
  • Hypo-Egoic Nonentitlement as a Feature of Humility
    • Authors: Chloe C. Banker, Mark R. Leary
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Two studies tested the hypothesis that humility is characterized by the belief that, no matter how extraordinary one’s accomplishments or characteristics may be, one is not entitled to be treated special because of them (hypo-egoic nonentitlement). Participants identified either one (Study 1) or five (Study 2) positive accomplishments or characteristics, rated those accomplishments/characteristics, indicated how they believed they should be treated because of them, and completed measures of humility and related constructs. As predicted, humility was inversely associated with the belief that other people should treat one special because of one’s accomplishments and positive characteristics. However, humility was not related to participants’ ratings of the positivity of their accomplishments or characteristics or of themselves. Ancillary analyses examined the relationships between hypo-egoic nonentitlement, humility, and measures of self-esteem, narcissism, self- and other-interest, psychological entitlement, individualism-collectivism, and identification with humanity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-09-20T02:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219875144
       
  • Your Soul Spills Out: The Creative Act Feels Self-Disclosing
    • Authors: Jack A. Goncalo, Joshua H. Katz
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Breaking from the typical focus on the antecedents of creativity, we investigate the psychological and interpersonal consequences of being creative. Across five experiments, we find that generating creative ideas is revealing of the self and thus prompts the perception of self-disclosure. Individuals respond to the expectation to be creative with greater self-focus—adopting their own idiosyncratic perspective on the task and thinking about their own personal preferences and experiences in connection to the problem. Because creative ideas derived from self-focused attention are uniquely personal, the act of sharing a creative idea is, in turn, perceived to be revealing of the self. Finally, an interactive dyad study shows that sharing creative ideas makes partners more confident in the accuracy of judgments they made about each other’s personality. We discuss the implications of our findings for future research investigating the consequences of creativity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T01:46:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219873480
       
  • Punish or Protect' How Close Relationships Shape Responses to Moral
           Violations
    • Authors: Aaron C. Weidman, Walter J. Sowden, Martha K. Berg, Ethan Kross
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People have fundamental tendencies to punish immoral actors and treat close others altruistically. What happens when these tendencies collide—do people punish or protect close others who behave immorally' Across 10 studies (N = 2,847), we show that people consistently anticipate protecting close others who commit moral infractions, particularly highly severe acts of theft and sexual harassment. This tendency emerged regardless of gender, political orientation, moral foundations, and disgust sensitivity and was driven by concerns about self-interest, loyalty, and harm. We further find that people justify this tendency by planning to discipline close others on their own. We also identify a psychological mechanism that mitigates the tendency to protect close others who have committed severe (but not mild) moral infractions: self-distancing. These findings highlight the role that relational closeness plays in shaping people’s responses to moral violations, underscoring the need to consider relational closeness in future moral psychology work.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T01:44:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219873485
       
  • Perceived Knowledge Moderates the Relation Between Subjective Ambivalence
           and the “Impact” of Attitudes: An Attitude Strength Perspective
    • Authors: Laura E. Wallace, Kathleen M. Patton, Andrew Luttrell, Vanessa Sawicki, Leandre R. Fabrigar, Jacob Teeny, Tara K. MacDonald, Richard E. Petty, Duane T. Wegener
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Previous work has reliably demonstrated that when people experience more subjective ambivalence about an attitude object, their attitudes have less impact on strength-related outcomes such as attitude-related thinking, judging, or behaving. However, previous research has not considered whether the amount of perceived knowledge a person has about the topic might moderate these effects. Across eight studies on different topics using a variety of outcome measures, the current research demonstrates that perceived knowledge can moderate the relation between ambivalence and the impact of attitudes on related thinking, judging, and behaving. Although the typical Attitude × Ambivalence effect emerged when participants had relatively high perceived knowledge, this interaction did not emerge when participants were lower in perceived knowledge. This work provides a more nuanced view of the effects of subjective ambivalence on attitude impact and highlights the importance of understanding the combined impact of attitude strength antecedents.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T01:41:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219873492
       
  • A Longitudinal Field Investigation of Narcissism and Popularity Over Time:
           How Agentic and Antagonistic Aspects of Narcissism Shape the Development
           of Peer Relationships
    • Authors: Marius Leckelt, Katharina Geukes, Albrecht C. P. Küfner, Lisa M. Niemeyer, Roos Hutteman, Sarah Osterholz, Boris Egloff, Steffen Nestler, Mitja D. Back
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Grandiose narcissism has been linked to initial popularity but to later unpopularity in peer groups and laboratory contexts. Do these effects on peer relationships also emerge in larger real-life contexts and what are the underlying behavioral processes (i.e., behavioral expressions, interpersonal perceptions)' Using data from the longitudinal CONNECT field study (N = 126), we investigated effects of agentic and antagonistic aspects of grandiose narcissism on emerging popularity in a complete peer network. A cohort of psychology first-year students was assessed with a quasiexperimental, experience-sampling methodology involving online surveys, diaries, and behavioral observations. In contrast to previous laboratory research, narcissism was unrelated to popularity at the level of zero-order correlations. However, results indicated that (a) an agentic behavioral pathway fostered popularity across time, and an antagonistic behavioral pathway drove the long-term decline in popularity, and (b) the two pathways were differentially related to agentic (admiration) and antagonistic (rivalry) aspects of narcissism.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-09-13T02:42:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219872477
       
  • The Consideration of Future Consequences: Evidence for Domain Specificity
           Across Five Life Domains
    • Authors: Lisa Murphy, Eimer Cadogan, Samantha Dockray
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The consideration of future consequences (CFC) is a cognitive-motivational construct describing the extent to which individuals consider the future outcomes of behavior during decision-making. The current research examined the extent to which CFC may be a domain-specific, as opposed to global, temporal construct. Across three surveys, adults (n = 498; 66.9% female; 41.2% students) completed the 14-item general CFC scale, five newly adapted domain-specific CFC scales, and self-report measures of behavior in five substantive domains (work, health, the environment, money, and college). Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the two-factor model in the CFC-14, supporting the distinction between CFC-Future and CFC-Immediate in domain-specific CFC-14 scales. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that domain-specific, and not the general, CFC subscales were most strongly associated with the relevant domain-specific behavior and revealed differential patterns of association between domain-specific CFC subscales and behaviors in particular domains. The applied implications for behavioral interventions are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-09-13T01:17:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219873478
       
  • Cultures of Genius at Work: Organizational Mindsets Predict Cultural
           Norms, Trust, and Commitment
    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Canning, Mary C. Murphy, Katherine T. U. Emerson, Jennifer A. Chatman, Carol S. Dweck, Laura J. Kray
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Three studies examine how organizational mindset—whether a company is perceived to view talent as fixed or malleable—functions as a core belief that predicts organizational culture and employees’ trust and commitment. In Study 1, Fortune 500 company mission statements were coded for mindset language and paired with Glassdoor culture data. Workers perceived a more negative culture at fixed (vs. growth) mindset companies. Study 2 experimentally manipulated organizational mindset and found that people evaluated fixed (vs. growth) mindset companies as having more negative culture norms and forecasted that employees would experience less trust and commitment. Study 3 confirmed these findings from more than 500 employees of seven Fortune 1000 companies. Employees who perceived their organization to endorse a fixed (vs. growth) mindset reported that their company’s culture was characterized by less collaboration, innovation, and integrity, and they reported less organizational trust and commitment. These findings suggest that organizational mindset shapes organizational culture.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-09-10T01:00:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219872473
       
  • Individual Differences in Theory of Mind Predict Inequity Aversion in
           Children
    • Authors: Lily Tsoi, Katherine McAuliffe
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Early in human development, children react negatively to receiving less than others, and only later do they show a similar aversion to receiving more. We tested whether theory of mind (ToM) can account for this developmental shift we see in middle childhood. We conducted a face-to-face fairness task that involved a ToM manipulation, measured individual differences in ToM, and collected parent-ratings of children’s empathy, a construct related to ToM. We find that greater ToM capacities lead to more rejections of unequal offers, regardless of the direction of inequality, demonstrating that children with greater ToM are more likely to engage in costly compliance with fairness norms. Moreover, drawing attention to mental states sufficiently elicits aversion to advantageous inequity in younger children. These findings contribute to our growing understanding that people’s concerns for fairness rely not just on their own thoughts and beliefs but on the thoughts, beliefs, and expectations of others.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-08-26T07:29:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219867957
       
  • Are Attitudes Contagious' Exposure to Biased Nonverbal Signals Can
           Create Novel Social Attitudes
    • Authors: Allison L. Skinner, Sylvia Perry
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Prior work has established that nonverbal signals that capitalize on existing cultural biases can shift attitudes toward members of familiar social groups (e.g., racial minority group members). This research is the first to examine whether nonverbal signals can influence adults’ attitudes toward unfamiliar individuals outside the context of existing cultural biases. In a series of studies, we examined whether seeing one individual receive more cold, unfriendly nonverbal signals than another individual would lead to biases in favor of the target of more positive nonverbal signals. Consistent with our preregistered hypotheses, exposure to nonverbal bias in favor of one individual over another led participants to develop nonverbal signal-consistent explicit biases. Moreover, a combined analysis of the data from all four samples indicated that participants also formed nonverbal signal-consistent implicit biases. Taken together, these findings suggest that nonverbal signals have the potential to create and spread attitudes toward others.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-08-19T07:01:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219862616
       
  • The Role of Face and Voice Cues in Predicting the Outcome of Student
           Representative Elections
    • Authors: Mila Mileva, James Tompkinson, Dominic Watt, A. Mike Burton
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      First impressions formed after seeing someone’s face or hearing their voice can affect many social decisions, including voting in political elections. Despite the many studies investigating the independent contribution of face and voice cues to electoral success, their integration is still not well understood. Here, we examine a novel electoral context, student representative ballots, allowing us to test the generalizability of previous studies. We also examine the independent contributions of visual, auditory, and audiovisual information to social judgments of the candidates, and their relationship to election outcomes. Results showed that perceived trustworthiness was the only trait significantly related to election success. These findings contrast with previous reports on the importance of perceived competence using audio or visual cues only in the context of national political elections. The present study highlights the role of real-world context and emphasizes the importance of using ecologically valid stimulus presentation in understanding real-life social judgment.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-08-14T06:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219867965
       
  • The Highs and Lows of Love: Romantic Relationship Quality Moderates
           Whether Spending Time With One’s Partner Predicts Gains or Losses in
           Well-Being
    • Authors: Nathan W. Hudson, Richard E. Lucas, M. Brent Donnellan
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research suggests both relationship status and relationship quality correlate with well-being. The present study extended these findings in three ways. First, we benchmarked individuals with various-quality relationships against uncoupled people to determine whether even low-quality relationships are associated with greater well-being than being unpartnered. Second, research suggests global well-being (e.g., life satisfaction) and experiential well-being (e.g., momentary affect) oftentimes have different predictors. Thus, we tested whether individuals report greater experiential well-being while with their partners. Finally, we examined whether daily time invested into one’s relationship predicted well-being. Results indicated that being in a romantic relationship, interacting with one’s partner, and investing greater time into the relationship all predicted greater well-being. However, these effects were moderated by relationship quality, such that being in even relatively neutral relationships and interacting therein were associated with lower well-being than being unpartnered.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-08-14T06:06:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219867960
       
  • Comedians’ Mean Level and Stage Personalities: Evidence for
           Goal-Directed Personality Adaptation
    • Authors: Paul Irwing, Clare Cook, Thomas V. Pollet, D. J. Hughes
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Recent findings have shown that both mean levels of personality and situational variability in its expression are of importance. So here, the Big Five personality traits of 77 professional and 125 amateur stand-up comedians were compared with two large matched samples (N> 100,000). The comedians were also observed while performing, which enabled a comparison of their stage personalities with situational requirements on 10 selected NEO-PIR facets. Both amateurs and professionals showed higher openness-to-experience, extraversion, and lower conscientiousness than their norm samples, while professionals also evidenced greater neuroticism. Irrespective of trait standing, with regard to most NEO-PIR facets, professionals expressed the appropriate on-stage persona and were better able to regulate their personality to conform to situational requirements than amateurs. This is consistent with research showing that individuals regulate their personality to conform to situational and goal requirements, and adds the finding that successful comedians demonstrate enhanced adaptability compared with amateurs.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-08-14T05:57:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219867963
       
  • Autonomy in Relatedness: How Need Fulfillment Interacts in Close
           Relationships

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Esther S. Kluwer, Johan C. Karremans, Larisa Riedijk, C. Raymond Knee
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      A driving force of relationship maintenance is the fulfillment of basic psychological needs, in particular, the needs for relatedness and autonomy. Until now, research has considered the fulfillment of relatedness and autonomy needs as independent determinants of relationship functioning or as one merged construct called need fulfillment. Little is known about how motivational states interact, even though partners possess and pursue multiple needs at a time in everyday life. Combining theoretical insights from self-determination theory and family systems theory, we test the hypothesis that relatedness and autonomy need fulfillment interact to affect relationship maintenance behavior. In three studies (N = 388, N = 241, and N = 220), we found that relatedness was positively related to accommodation, but especially (or only) when participants reported high, rather than low, autonomy. This research emphasizes the importance of maintaining a sense of self while being closely connected to the partner.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-08-08T08:41:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219867964
       
  • The Voice of Cognition: Active and Passive Voice Influence Distance and
           Construal
    • Authors: Eugene Y. Chan, Sam J. Maglio
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      English passages can be in either the active or passive voice. Relative to the active voice, the passive voice provides a sense of objectivity regarding the events being described. This leads to our hypothesis that passages in the passive voice can increase readers’ psychological distance from the content of the passage, triggering an abstract construal. In five studies with American, Australian, British, and Canadian participants, we find evidence for our propositions, with both paragraphs and sentences in the passive voice increasing readers’ felt temporal, hypothetical, and spatial distance from activities described in the text, which increases their abstraction in a manner that generalizes to unrelated tasks. As such, prose colors how people process information, with the active and passive voice influencing the reader in ways beyond what is stated in the written word.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-08-08T08:40:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219867784
       
  • Attachment Orientations Guide the Transfer of Leadership Judgments:
           Culture Matters
    • Authors: Dritjon Gruda, Konstantinos Kafetsios
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Two experiments tested the role of global and relationship-specific attachment orientations in leader transference, a social-cognitive process in which mental representations of past leaders are associated with the evaluations of new, similar leaders. Individuals scoring higher on anxious attachment were more likely to hold high just treatment expectations of new leaders who were similar to their previous leaders. Conversely, avoidant individuals evaluated new similar leaders low on just treatment expectations and perceived them as less effective. Relationship-specific attachment orientations predicted transfer of behavioral judgments of just treatment, while global attachment orientations predicted transfer of perceived leader effectiveness. These effects were moderated by culture. In two collectivistic cultures (Greece and India), avoidant individuals demonstrated low just treatment expectations of their new similar leader. In an individualistic culture (United States), avoidant participants showed high behavioral expectations of their new, similar, leader. The results inform emerging views on relational social-cognitive processes in leader–follower interactions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-07-27T09:14:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219865514
       
  • Economic Decisions for Others Are More Favorable for Close Than Distant
           Clients
    • Authors: Janna Katrin Ruessmann, Sascha Topolinski
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This research investigates the role of social distance between decision makers and their clients. In 11 experiments (total N = 1,653), participants decided about unfair and hyper-fair offers in an advisor game for themselves or for a client who varied in social distance (e.g., for a close friend vs. a stranger). Participants were strongly influenced by client identity. They systematically accepted more hyper-fair offers for themselves and close clients than for distant clients, while client identity played no role in unfair offers. We show that the driving mechanism of this client privileging effect is joy (happy-for-ness) participants experience particularly for close clients, while envy did not explain this effect. Across all types of clients and experiments, hyper-fair offers were accepted at only 86% which can only be explained by participants being not exclusively motivated by absolute monetary payoffs but also, to some extent, factoring in nonmonetary concerns.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-07-22T10:45:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219858640
       
  • Examining the Relationships Among Categorization, Stereotype Activation,
           and Stereotype Application
    • Authors: Heather Rose Rees, Debbie S. Ma, Jeffrey W. Sherman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Increased category salience is associated with increased stereotyping. Prior research has not examined the processes that may account for this relationship. That is, it is unclear whether category salience leads to increased stereotyping by increasing stereotype activation (i.e., increased accessibility of stereotypic information), application (i.e., increasing the tendency to apply activated stereotypes), or both processes simultaneously. We examined this question across three studies by manipulating category salience in an implicit stereotyping measure and by applying a process model that provides independent estimates of stereotype activation and application. Our results replicated past findings that category salience increases stereotyping. Modeling results showed that category salience consistently increased the extent of stereotype application but increased stereotype activation in more limited contexts. Implications for models of social categorization and stereotyping are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-07-22T10:44:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219861431
       
  • Keeping the Goal in Sight: Testing the Influence of Narrowed Visual
           Attention on Physical Activity
    • Authors: Emily Balcetis, Matthew T. Riccio, Dustin T. Duncan, Shana Cole
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Rates of physical inactivity continue to rise in the United States. With this work, we tested the efficacy of a strategy affecting the scope of visual attention designed to promote walking as a form of exercise. Specifically, we examined the influence of narrowed attention on the frequency (Studies 1a, 1b, and 3) and efficiency (Studies 2 and 4) of physical activity in general (Studies 1 and 2) and within exercise bouts measured across multiple days (Studies 3 and 4). We provide convergent evidence by investigating both individual differences in (Studies 1 and 2) and experimentally manipulated patterns of visual attention orienting (Studies 3 and 4). We discuss implications of attentional strategies for self-regulation and fitness.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-07-19T09:21:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219861438
       
  • One Size Does Not Fit All: Tailoring Cognitive Reappraisal to Different
           Emotions
    • Authors: Allon Vishkin, Yossi Hasson, Yael Millgram, Maya Tamir
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Emotion regulation strategies have been typically studied independently of the specific emotions people try to change by using them. However, to the extent that negative emotions are inherently different from one another, people may choose different means to change them. Focusing on fear and sadness, we first mapped emotion-related content to theoretically matched reappraisal tactics. We then tested how frequently people choose such reappraisal tactics when regulating fear and sadness (Studies 1, 2, and 4a). As predicted, people were most likely to select reappraisal tactics that targeted content that was particularly relevant to the specific emotion they tried to regulate. Next, we tested whether such choices were driven by differences in the efficacy (Study 3), perceived efficacy (Study 4b), and anticipated effort (Study 4c) of regulation. Our findings demonstrate that the means people select to regulate their emotions depend on which emotions they try to regulate.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-07-19T09:19:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219861432
       
  • When and Why Being Ostracized Affects Veracity Judgments
    • Authors: Jennifer Eck, Christiane Schoel, Marc-André Reinhard, Rainer Greifeneder
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Ostracism—being ignored and excluded by others—is a ubiquitous experience with adverse effects on well-being. To prevent further exclusion and regain belonging, ostracized individuals are well advised to identify affiliation partners who are sincerely well-disposed. Humans’ ability to detect lies, however, is generally not very high. Yet, veracity judgments can become more accurate with decreasing reliance on common stereotypic beliefs about the nonverbal behavior of liars and truth-tellers. We hypothesize that ostracized (vs. included) individuals base their veracity judgments less on such stereotypical nonverbal cues if message content is affiliation-relevant. In line with this hypothesis, Experiment 1 shows that ostracized (vs. included) individuals are better at discriminating affiliation-relevant lies from truths. Experiments 2 and 3 further show that ostracized (vs. included) individuals base their veracity judgments less on stereotypical nonverbal cues if messages are of high (but not low) affiliation relevance.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-07-17T10:03:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219860135
       
  • Not Quite Monoracial: Biracial Stereotypes Explored
    • Authors: Allison L. Skinner, Sylvia P. Perry, Sarah Gaither
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Stereotypes often guide our perceptions of members of social groups. However, research has yet to document what stereotypes may exist for the fastest growing youth demographic in the United States—biracial individuals. Across seven studies (N = 1,104), we investigate what stereotypes are attributed to various biracial groups, whether biracial individuals are stereotyped as more similar to their lower status monoracial parent group (trait hypodescent), and whether contact moderates these stereotypes. Results provide evidence of some universal biracial stereotypes that are applied to all biracial groups: attractive and not fitting in or belonging. We also find that all biracial groups are attributed a number of unique stereotypes (i.e., which are not associated with their monoracial parent groups). However, across all studies, we find little evidence of trait hypodescent and no evidence that the tendency to engage in trait hypodescent varies as a function of contact.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-07-08T07:01:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219858344
       
  • When Sources Honestly Provide Their Biased Opinion: Bias as a Distinct
           Source Perception With Independent Effects on Credibility and Persuasion
    • Authors: Laura E. Wallace, Duane T. Wegener, Richard E. Petty
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Anecdotally, attributions that others are biased pervade many domains. Yet, research examining the effects of perceptions of bias is sparse, possibly due to some prior researchers conflating bias with untrustworthiness. We sought to demonstrate that perceptions of bias and untrustworthiness are separable and have independent effects. The current work examines these differences in the persuasion domain, but this distinction has implications for other domains as well. Two experiments clarify the conceptual distinction between bias (skewed perception) and untrustworthiness (dishonesty) and three studies demonstrate that source bias can have a negative effect on persuasion and source credibility beyond any parallel effects of untrustworthiness, lack of expertise, and dislikability. The current work suggests that bias is an independent, but understudied source characteristic.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-07-08T03:03:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219858654
       
  • I Should Have Known Better: Development of a Self-Report Measure of
           Gullibility
    • Authors: Alessandra K. Teunisse, Trevor I. Case, Julie Fitness, Naomi Sweller
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this research was to explore the predictors of gullibility and to develop a self-report measure of the construct. In Studies 1 to 3, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on a large pool of items resulting in a 12-item scale with two factors: Persuadability and Insensitivity to cues of untrustworthiness. Study 4 confirmed the criterion validity of the scale using two distinct samples: scam victims and members of the Skeptics Society. Study 5 demonstrated positive relationships between gullibility and the self-reported persuasiveness of, and likelihood of responding to, unsolicited emails. Throughout the article, analyses of a variety of measures expected to converge with the scale provided evidence for its construct validity. Overall, these studies demonstrate that the construct of gullibility is distinct from trust, negatively related to social intelligence, and that the Gullibility Scale is a reliable and valid measure of gullibility.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-06-29T06:53:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219858641
       
  • Stepping into Perpetrators’ Shoes: How Ingroup Transgressions and
           Victimization Shape Support for Retributive Justice through
           Perspective-Taking With Perpetrators

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Mengyao Li, Bernhard Leidner, Silvia Fernandez-Campos
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Three experiments (total N = 1,061) examined the morally disengaging function of perspective-taking with ingroup perpetrators in intergroup conflict. In the context of the Iran–U.S. conflict, Americans who strongly identified with their country showed increased perspective-taking with perpetrators, which in turn led to reduced support for retributive justice in response to the perpetration rather than suffering of intergroup violence (Experiment 1; N = 191). Experiment 2 (N = 294) replicated these findings in the context of the Israel–Syria conflict with Israeli Jews and demonstrated that perspective-taking with ingroup perpetrators serves a similar function as moral disengagement. Experiment 3 (N = 576) manipulated perpetrator perspective-taking, demonstrating its causal effect on support for retributive justice, again moderated by ingroup identification. The negative implications of understanding perpetrators for addressing intergroup transgressions are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-06-27T12:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219858652
       
  • Why Does Social Class Affect Subjective Well-Being' The Role of Status
           and Power
    • Authors: Siyu Yu, Steven L. Blader
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The link between social class and subjective well-being (SWB) has been an important topic of inquiry, with broad implications for understanding the psychology of social class and the determinants of SWB. Prior research on this topic has focused primarily on the extent to which social class affects SWB and the factors that moderate that impact. We extend prior work by examining the concerns that account for why social class shapes SWB. In particular, we examine the role of status and power in mediating the impact of one’s social class on one’s SWB. Across five studies, we theorize and find that status mediates the impact of social class on SWB and, moreover, that status is a stronger mediator of this link than is power. Overall, these studies advance scholarly research on the psychology of social hierarchy by clarifying the interplay between social class, status, and power in relation to SWB.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-06-15T05:08:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219853841
       
  • On the Roles of Stereotype Activation and Application in Diminishing
           Implicit Bias
    • Authors: Andrew M. Rivers, Jeffrey W. Sherman, Heather R. Rees, Regina Reichardt, Karl C. Klauer
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Stereotypes can influence social perception in undesirable ways. However, activated stereotypes are not always applied in judgments. The present research investigated how stereotype activation and application processes impact social judgments as a function of available resources for control over stereotypes. Specifically, we varied the time available to intervene in the stereotyping process and used multinomial modeling to independently estimate stereotype activation and application. As expected, social judgments were less stereotypic when participants had more time to intervene. In terms of mechanisms, stereotype application, and not stereotype activation, corresponded with reductions in stereotypic biases. With increasing time, stereotype application was reduced, reflecting the fact that controlling application is time-dependent. In contrast, stereotype activation increased with increasing time, apparently due to increased engagement with stereotypic material. Stereotype activation was highest when judgments were least stereotypical, and thus, reduced stereotyping may coincide with increased stereotype activation if stereotype application is simultaneously decreased.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-06-15T05:07:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219853842
       
  • Minority Stress, Emotion Regulation, and Executive Function: An
           Experimental Investigation of Gay and Lesbian Adults
    • Authors: Larissa A. McGarrity, David M. Huebner, Timothy W. Smith, Yana Suchy
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Minority stress is associated with emotional, cognitive, and health consequences for sexual minority individuals. Mechanisms remain poorly understood. Theory and preliminary evidence suggests that stress associated with minority identity results in negative emotions and attempts at suppression, which may contribute to depletion of executive function. This study was an experimental investigation of gay and lesbian adults (N = 141). Participants engaged in a stressful interpersonal task with a confederate with anti-gay or pro-gay attitudes. We examined how condition affected executive function, along with potential mediators (state anger, anxiety, expressive suppression). Contrary to hypotheses, participants in the anti-gay condition showed better postmanipulation cognitive performance than the pro-gay condition. This effect was partially mediated by anger. Participants in the anti-gay condition reported greater attempts at suppression, but this variable did not emerge as a mediator. This study was the first to experimentally manipulate exposure to anti-gay attitudes and measure effects on executive function.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-06-15T05:07:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219855047
       
  • Induced Social Power Improves Visual Working Memory
    • Authors: Britt Hadar, Roy Luria, Nira Liberman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The possibility that social power improves working memory relative to conditions of powerlessness has been invoked to explain why manipulations of power improve performance in many cognitive tasks. Yet, whether power facilitates working memory performance has never been tested directly. In three studies, we induced high or low sense of power using the episodic recall task and tested participants’ visual working memory capacity. We found that working memory capacity estimates were higher in the high-power than in the low-power condition in the standard change-detection task (Study 1), in a variation of the task that introduced distractors alongside the targets (Study 2), and in a variation that used real-world objects (Study 3). Studies 2 and 3 also tested whether high power improved working memory relative to low power by enhancing filtering efficiency, but did not find support for this hypothesis. We discuss implications for theories of both power and working memory.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-06-13T06:30:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219855045
       
  • Natural, But Not Supernatural, Literal Immortality Affirmation Attenuates
           Mortality Salience Effects on Worldview Defense in Atheists
    • Authors: Kenneth E. Vail, Melissa Soenke, Brett Waggoner, Ilianna Mavropoulou
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The present research explored whether atheists managing death awareness would be effectively buffered by affirmations of supernatural and/or natural literal immortality. Prior data were reanalyzed, revealing ambiguous results, so further experiments were conducted. In Study 1 (n = 382), atheists were randomly assigned to a supernatural afterlife-confirmed (vs. afterlife-disconfirmed) prime, an MS (vs. control topic) prime, and then given an opportunity to engage in secular worldview defense. In Study 2 (n = 360), atheists were randomly assigned to supernatural (afterlife) versus natural (medical indefinite life extension; MILE) immortality prime, an MS (vs. control topic) prime, and then given an opportunity to engage in secular worldview defense. Atheists managing death awareness increased worldview defense in the supernatural/afterlife conditions but that effect was eliminated in the MILE condition. These findings are consistent with the terror management theory perspective on worldview defense. Implications for theory and research are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-06-13T06:29:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219855051
       
  • Reinstating the Resourceful Self: When and How Self-Affirmations Improve
           Executive Performance of the Powerless

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Sumaya Albalooshi, Mehrad Moeini-Jazani, Bob M. Fennis, Luk Warlop
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Research has found that lack of power impairs executive functions. In the present research, we show that this impairment is not immutable. Across three studies and focusing on inhibitory control as one of the core facets of executive functions, our investigation shows that self-affirmation attenuates the previously documented decrements in inhibitory control of the powerless (Studies 1-3). We also examine boundary conditions of this effect and demonstrate that self-affirmation is most effective insofar as the powerless lack self-esteem (Study 2). Finally, we directly test the underlying process of this effect and demonstrate that self-affirmation increases an efficacious self-view among the powerless, which in turn improves their inhibitory control abilities (Study 3). Overall, we conclude that reinstating an efficacious self-view through self-affirmation offsets the impairments in inhibitory control abilities of the powerless and reduces the cognitive performance gap between the powerless and the powerful.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-06-12T06:35:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219853840
       
  • From Me to You: Self-Compassion Predicts Acceptance of Own and
           Others’ Imperfections
    • Authors: Jia Wei Zhang, Serena Chen, Theodora K. Tomova
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Self-compassion offers many personal benefits. However, whether and how the benefits of self-compassion may transmit to others remains unclear. Across three studies, we demonstrated that one way in which the benefits of being self-compassionate can spread from the self to others is by increasing acceptance of one’s own imperfections, which may, in turn, enhance acceptance of others’ imperfections. Specifically, Studies 1 and 2 found that self-compassionate people reported more acceptance of their own flaw, which, in turn, predicted greater acceptance of their romantic partner’s and acquaintance’s flaws. Study 3 used a dyadic design with romantic couples and found that self-compassion promoted felt acceptance of one’s own flaw by both members in the relationship. This occurred by virtue of acceptance of one’s own flaw, which, in turn, promoted greater acceptance of each other’s flaws. We discuss the implications of these results for future research on self-compassion.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-06-12T06:34:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219853846
       
  • Mate Preferences for Warmth-Trustworthiness Predict Romantic Attraction in
           the Early Stages of Mate Selection and Satisfaction in Ongoing
           Relationships
    • Authors: Katherine A. Valentine, Norman P. Li, Andrea L. Meltzer, Ming-Hong Tsai
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People seek warm and trustworthy individuals as long-term mates for numerous reasons. Indeed, such individuals are prone to cooperation, have strong parenting skills, have the ability to fulfill our need to belong, and may provide a relationship that is characterized by greater closeness, protection, acceptance, and safety. Although prior work has shown that both sexes indicate equally strong preferences for these traits in potential mates, few studies have examined whether people actually respond favorably to partners high in warmth-trustworthiness in live mating contexts. We, thus, demonstrated that people’s stated preferences for warmth-trustworthiness (a) predicted their attraction to potential mates in a live mate-selection context (Study 1) and (b) interacted with their partners’ actual traits to predict satisfaction with their marriages (Study 2). Together, these studies demonstrate the importance of partner traits associated with warmth and trustworthiness and add to recent research suggesting that people can accurately report their romantic-partner preferences.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-06-11T12:22:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219855048
       
  • Strategic Storytelling: When Narratives Help Versus Hurt the Persuasive
           Power of Facts
    • Authors: Rebecca J. Krause, Derek D. Rucker
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Stories are known to be powerful persuasive devices. Stories can capture attention, evoke emotion, and entrance listeners in a manner that reduces resistance to a message. Given the powerful persuasive potential of stories, one might deduce that it is best to embed one’s facts within a story. In contrast to this perspective, the present research suggests that coupling facts with stories can either enhance or undermine persuasion. Specifically, to understand when facts benefit from the use of stories, this work provides a deeper examination of how counterargument reduction—a common explanation for the unique persuasive capabilities of stories—operates. Across three experiments, evidence is found for when it is more effective to embed facts within a story versus to use facts alone.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-06-10T10:13:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219853845
       
  • If You Shared My Happiness, You Are Part of Me: Capitalization and the
           Experience of Couple Identity
    • Authors: Ariela F. Pagani, Miriam Parise, Silvia Donato, Shelly L. Gable, Dominik Schoebi
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The way in which individuals react to a partner’s disclosure of positive news (capitalization response) is associated with relational well-being. Two studies analyzed the role of couple identity in explaining the association between perceived capitalization responses and relationship quality. A daily diary study (n = 90 couples) revealed that on days people perceived their partners’ responses as active-constructive, they reported higher levels of couple identity. A longitudinal two-wave study (n = 169 couples) showed that couple identity mediated the link between active-constructive (for both women and men) and passive-destructive responses (only for men) and relationship quality. Overall, our findings suggest that the experience of the partner’s involvement and support in good times contribute to a sense of couple identity, which over the long turn, is associated with partners’ relational well-being.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-06-10T10:12:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219854449
       
  • Investigating the Robustness of the Illusory Truth Effect Across
           Individual Differences in Cognitive Ability, Need for Cognitive Closure,
           and Cognitive Style
    • Authors: Jonas De keersmaecker, David Dunning, Gordon Pennycook, David G. Rand, Carmen Sanchez, Christian Unkelbach, Arne Roets
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People are more inclined to believe that information is true if they have encountered it before. Little is known about whether this illusory truth effect is influenced by individual differences in cognition. In seven studies (combined N = 2,196), using both trivia statements (Studies 1-6) and partisan news headlines (Study 7), we investigate moderation by three factors that have been shown to play a critical role in epistemic processes: cognitive ability (Studies 1, 2, 5), need for cognitive closure (Study 1), and cognitive style, that is, reliance on intuitive versus analytic thinking (Studies 1, 3-7). All studies showed a significant illusory truth effect, but there was no evidence for moderation by any of the cognitive measures across studies. These results indicate that the illusory truth effect is robust to individual differences in cognitive ability, need for cognitive closure, and cognitive style.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-06-10T10:11:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219853844
       
  • Women Can Benefit From Sexual and Physical Valuation in the Context of a
           Romantic Relationship
    • Authors: Andrea L. Meltzer
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Women are frequently valued for their sexuality and physical appearance, and there is theoretical reason to believe that the effects of such valuation depend on the context. A robust body of research demonstrates that such valuation from male strangers harms women’s self-esteem; the current studies, however, tested whether women experience more positive outcomes when such valuation emerges in the context of their romantic relationships. Study 1 used an event-based diary study to demonstrate that when partners (vs. male strangers) draw attention to women’s sexuality and physical appearance, those women report higher appearance esteem and, subsequently, higher self-esteem. Study 2 used data from two independent, longitudinal studies of newlywed couples to demonstrate that partner sexual and physical valuation has positive implications for women’s self-esteem over time. These findings highlight that sexual and physical valuation is not inherently beneficial or harmful; rather, the implications of such valuation depend on the relationship context.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-06-10T10:11:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219854443
       
  • Effect of Extraneous Affect on Health Message Reception
    • Authors: Koji J. Takahashi, Allison Earl
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People often avoid paying attention to health messages. One reason is that health messages can evoke negative affect, which produces avoidance. Prior efforts to reduce disengagement focused on changing message content or buffering the self from threat, producing mixed effects. The present studies test whether inducing positively valenced, low-arousal affect independently of the message or the self, labeled extraneous affect, promotes health message receptivity. Across four studies (total N = 1,447), participants who briefly meditated (vs. a control listening task) paid more attention to messages (Study 1). Increased positive valence facilitated attention, which subsequently increased message comprehension (Studies 2-4), whereas reduced arousal directly increased message comprehension. These effects generalized across extraneous affect manipulations, settings, information domains, and levels of message threat. Taken together, extraneous affect can be leveraged to promote message receptivity. This contributes to a theoretical understanding of how affect impacts persuasion.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-06-10T10:10:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219855042
       
  • Ingroup Love or Outgroup Hate (or Both)' Mapping Distinct Bias
           Profiles in the Population
    • Authors: Logan Hamley, Carla A. Houkamau, Danny Osborne, Fiona Kate Barlow, Chris G. Sibley
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-05-17T06:57:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219845919
       
  • Gender, Race, and Grant Reviews: Translating and Responding to Research
           Feedback
    • Authors: Monica Biernat, Molly Carnes, Amarette Filut, Anna Kaatz
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-05-15T07:25:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219845921
       
  • I Know (What) You Are, But What Am I' The Effect of Recategorization
           Threat and Perceived Immutability on Prejudice
    • Authors: Katherine A. Fritzlen, Joy E. Phillips, David S. March, Patrick R. Grzanka, Michael A. Olson
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-05-10T07:07:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219843932
       
  • Justice Agents: Discriminated Group Members Are Perceived to be Highly
           Committed to Social Justice
    • Authors: Tamar Saguy, Saulo Fernández, Nyla R. Branscombe, Aviv Shany
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-05-09T06:10:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219845922
       
  • The Resistance to Change-Beliefs Scale: Validation of a New Measure of
           Conservative Ideology
    • Authors: Katherine R. G. White, Dakota Kinney, Rose H. Danek, Brandt Smith, Charles Harben
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-05-08T06:30:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219841624
       
  • Individual-Level Analyses of the Impact of Parasite Stress on Personality:
           Reduced Openness Only for Older Individuals
    • Authors: Timothy L. Mullett, Gordon D. A. Brown, Corey L. Fincher, Michal Kosinski, David Stillwell
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-05-03T10:25:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219843918
       
  • Is Gratitude Always Beneficial to Interpersonal Relationships' The
           Interplay of Grateful Disposition, Grateful Mood, and Grateful Expression
           Among Married Couples
    • Authors: Joyce L. T. Leong, Sylvia Xiaohua Chen, Helene H. L. Fung, Michael Harris Bond, Nicolson Y. F. Siu, Jay Yijie Zhu
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-05-03T10:24:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219842868
       
  • Seeking and Ensuring Interdependence: Desiring Commitment and the
           Strategic Initiation and Maintenance of Close Relationships
    • Authors: Kenneth Tan, Christopher R. Agnew, Benjamin W. Hadden
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-05-03T10:24:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219841633
       
  • Self-Expression While Drinking Alcohol: Alcohol Influences Personality
           Expression During First Impressions
    • Authors: Edward Orehek, Lauren J. Human, Michael A. Sayette, John D. Dimoff, Rachel P. Winograd, Kenneth J. Sher
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-04-30T08:47:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219843933
       
  • The Effects of Perceived Decision-Making Styles on Evaluations of Openness
           and Competence That Elicit Collaboration
    • Authors: Ming-Hong Tsai, Nadhilla Velda Melia, Verlin B. Hinsz
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-04-29T08:44:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219843934
       
  • Accuracy in Perceptions of Fundamental Social Motives: Comparisons to
           Perceptions of Big Five Traits and Associations With Friendship Quality
    • Authors: Chloe O. Huelsnitz, Rebecca Neel, Lauren J. Human
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-04-26T06:15:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219838546
       
  • Social Perception of Facial Color Appearance for Human Trichromatic Versus
           Dichromatic Color Vision
    • Authors: Christopher A. Thorstenson, Adam D. Pazda, Andrew J. Elliot
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-04-13T12:18:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219841641
       
  • Healthier and Happier' A 3-Year Longitudinal Investigation of the
           Prospective Associations and Concurrent Changes in Health and Experiential
           Well-Being
    • Authors: Nathan W. Hudson, Richard E. Lucas, M. Brent Donnellan
      First page: 1635
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-04-12T09:01:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219838547
       
  • Social Dominance Orientation Predicts Opposition to Hierarchy-Attenuating
           Intergroup Apologies
    • Authors: Kanishka Karunaratne, Simon M. Laham
      First page: 1651
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-04-12T09:02:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219838549
       
  • Choosing to Regulate Emotions: Pursuing Emotion Goals in
           Autonomy-Supportive and Controlling Contexts
    • Authors: Moti Benita, Raz Kehat, Rotem Zaba, Yael Blumenkranz, Gittit Kessler, Avigail Bar-Sella, Maya Tamir
      First page: 1666
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-04-12T09:03:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219838557
       
  • Three Decades of Research on Induced Hypocrisy: A Meta-Analysis
    • Authors: Daniel Priolo, Audrey Pelt, Roxane St. Bauzel, Lolita Rubens, Dimitri Voisin, Valerie Fointiat
      First page: 1681
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-04-13T12:18:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219841621
       
  • Challenges to Traditional Narratives of Intractable Conflict Decrease
           Ingroup Glorification
    • Authors: Quinnehtukqut McLamore, Levi Adelman, Bernhard Leidner
      First page: 1702
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-04-12T09:03:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219841638
       
  • On Ladders and Pyramids: Hierarchy’s Shape Determines Relationships
           and Performance in Groups
    • Authors: Siyu Yu, Lindred L. Greer, Nir Halevy, Lisanne van Bunderen
      First page: 1717
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2019-04-22T08:51:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167219842867
       
 
 
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