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Natural Hazards
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.767
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 311  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-0840 - ISSN (Online) 0921-030X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2643 journals]
  • Effects of geomorphological and geohydrological features on flood hazard
           in a coastal basin
    • Abstract: Abstract Anomalous precipitation (more than 360 mm/d) caused severe flood inundation in the Kujukuri plain, Japan, on October 25, 2019. In this contribution, we employed a hydrological and hydraulic model to reproduce this flood and to examine the possible factors affecting the disaster. The simulated results showed consistent areal extents of inundation compared with the field investigation, suggesting potential application of numerical approaches for assessing the flood hazard. Details of the simulation results obtained from the flood on October 25, 2019, together with those on October 8, 2004 and October 15, 2013, revealed that the local geomorphological and geohydrological features significantly influenced the flood hazard. The low elevation lands located near the confluence zones of the rivers and enclosed by higher elevation terraces were found to be quite vulnerable to floods. Numerical simulation suggested that the study area showed both direct groundwater recharge from the inundated surface and indirect recharge from the stream leakage. Groundwater stored during the flood fed the river after the peaks of the precipitation, causing the delay of river water recession process in the stations situated inside the inundated areas. Our results showed that considering local geomorphological and geohydrological characteristics are crucial in evaluating flood hazard.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
       
  • Disability and natural hazard emergency preparedness in an Australian
           sample
    • Abstract: Abstract Each year natural hazards result in large numbers of deaths and injuries among residents of at-risk communities. Some individuals are especially vulnerable to the impacts of natural hazards. Residents with activity-limiting disabilities comprise one such vulnerable group. One of several reasons proposed for their vulnerability is lower levels of preparedness to survive a natural hazard emergency. However, findings from North American research present a mixed picture. Some studies have found no differences between residents with and without disability, yet others have found residents with a disability to be less prepared. Australian research addressing the issue is limited. The present study reports findings from a survey of 1253 Australian residents who completed measures of activity-limiting disability level, and both material and psychological preparedness for a natural hazard emergency. Those categorised as having a severe level of disability were found to be significantly less well prepared than those with no disabilities on average. The difference was small for both material preparedness and knowledge about disaster threat and safety, but appreciable for emotional preparedness for an emergency. This suggests a need for provision of greater social support for some residents with disabilities over the course of a natural hazard emergency.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
       
  • Correction to: Nexus between vulnerability and adaptive capacity of
           drought-prone rural households in northern Bangladesh
    • Abstract: The article was published with a spelling error in one of the co-author names. The correct spelling is reflected in this correction, and the original work has been updated to reflect the correct spelling of the name as Md. Morshadul Hasan. The original article has been corrected.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
       
  • Stability analysis of slope reinforced by double-row stabilizing piles
           with different locations
    • Abstract: Abstract Slope failure occurring could generate enormous loss to both human lives and properties, and stabilizing piles are broadly used for slope reinforcement as a significant anti-slip retaining structure. The performance of the stabilizing piles is strongly affected by different locations. Presently, most literature focuses on the location selection of single-row stabilizing piles. This paper introduces a classic slope and makes further stability analysis of the slope reinforced by single- and double-row stabilizing piles in different locations. According to the potential sliding surface, the distribution of the bending moment and the thrust, the results show that the failure modes of the slopes reinforced by single- and double-row stabilizing piles are different. As the single-row piles move towards the top of the slope, the failure mode of the piled slope takes on a “shallow-deep-shallow” trend. Moreover, as the pile location and spacing change, the failure modes stabilized by double-row piles can be divided into five categories which could be classified as shallow and deep sliding, and the thrust ratio increases with the increasing pile spacing. Regarding the safety factor, it can be concluded that the optimal location for single-row stabilizing piles within a slope is the lower-middle part of the slope, and the optimal locations for double-row stabilizing piles are proposed at the lower and lower-middle parts of the slope, respectively. The presented analysis could provide significant insight into the design of slopes stabilized by stabilizing piles.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
       
  • Quantifying the impact of ecosystem services for landscape management
           under wildfire hazard
    • Abstract: Abstract In recent years, the frequency, intensity, and severity of wildfires have been on the rise due to various environmental factors. Several studies show that the strategic application of fuel treatments is effective at altering fire behavior and its spread patterns. Effective planning for mitigating future expected losses under wildfire risk is a complex challenge that requires the integration of fire spread, simulation, and optimization models as well as the inclusion of multiple objectives into a unified framework. Previous works simplify the analysis by valuing the landscape regions using a unique objective (e.g., minimize the average expected area burned) or a predefined objective function. However, such an assumption is a simplification of the real system as multiple parts of the landscape have different values based on factors such as the presence of human settlements and infrastructure, availability of environmental services, and forest health. In this work, we expand these previous attempts by providing an integrated framework to naturally include and weight multiple objectives into the optimization model and analyze the trade-off between present objectives and future protection against wildfire risk. We study three key regions based on their recent fire history, landscape diversity, and demographic variety to quantify the impact of multiple objectives in landscape management. We obtain treatment plans using various combinations of these layers reflecting how different priorities of the decision-makers could affect treatment policies.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
       
  • Impact of downstream lakes on dam break wave attenuation
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, the effect of downstream lakes or ponds on dam break flow was investigated. To do this, a robust finite volume method with Harten-Lax-van Leer contact surface Riemann’s solver technique for flux evaluation has been used. For space discretization, a triangular mesh grid was used and a complete software with mesh generator was developed. A reservoir with a long downstream channel was assumed, and many scenarios such as a single lake with various lengths, widths and positions along the channel and multiple consecutive lakes as symmetric and non-symmetric with respect to the channel centerline were considered. The numerical modeling of dam break flow along the channel showed that the downstream lake can decrease the speed and depth of the dam break wave front and the amount of this wave attenuation was very dependent on the storage volume of the lake and vortexes which were established in the lake.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
       
  • Exploring the impact of introducing a physical model into statistical
           methods on the evaluation of regional scale debris flow susceptibility
    • Abstract: Abstract Regional scale debris flow susceptibility is widely evaluated by statistical methods. However, the initiation mechanism of debris flow is not considered, which leads to the neglect of the microtopographic characteristics. To address this problem, we established three novel combined models by introducing the physical model into statistical methods. The integrating models consists of two parts, the statistical models and the TRIGRS model. The eventual results obtained with the integrating model consider both the prediction result of the statistical method for debris flow susceptibility and the mechanism of debris flow initiation. To test the feasibility of the integrating model, three representative statistical models, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), Shannon entropy (Entropy) and support vector machine (SVM) were selected to evaluate debris flow susceptibility in Yongji County of Jilin Province, China. The results demonstrate that the performance of the integrated models is significantly better than that of the single statistical model, especially in the local areas. The integrating models (AHP-TR, Entropy-TR, SVM-TR) can generate higher quality debris flow susceptibility maps (DFSMs) than the single model, which clearly reflect the scope and boundaries of the areas which are most prone to debris flow and identify the flat land and valleys between adjacent high-prone areas. It also reduces the overprediction generated by the physical model. In general, combining the statistical methods with the TRIGRS model can maximize the strengths of these models and avoid their weaknesses and obtain the effect of 1 + 1 > 2.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
       
  • Urban flood hazard mapping using machine learning models: GARP, RF, MaxEnt
           and NB
    • Abstract: Abstract Rapid urban development, increasing impermeable surfaces, poor drainage system and changes in extreme precipitations are the most important factors that nowadays lead to increased urban flooding and it has become an urban problem. Urban flood mapping and its use in making an urban development plan can reduce flood damages and losses. Constantly producing urban flood hazard maps using models that rely on the availability of detailed hydraulic-hydrological data is a major challenge especially in developing countries. In this study, urban flood hazard map was produced with limited data using three machine learning models: Genetic Algorithm Rule-Set Production, Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt), Random Forest (RF) and Naïve Bayes for Kermanshah city, Iran. The flood hazard predicting factors used in modeling were: slope, land use, precipitation, distance to river, distance to channel, curve number (CN) and elevation. Flood inventory map was produced based on available reports and field surveys, that 117 flooded points and 163 non-flooded points were identified. Models performance was evaluated based on area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC-ROC), Kappa statistic and hits and miss analysis. The results show that RF model (AUC-ROC = 99.5%, Kappa = 98%, Accuracy = 90%, Success ratio = 99%, Threat score = 90% and Heidke skill score = 98%) performed better than other models. The results also showed that distance to canal, land use and CN have shown more contribution among others for modeling the flood and precipitation had the least effect among other factors. The findings show that machine learning methods can be a good alternative to distributed models to predict urban flood-prone areas where there are lack of detailed hydraulic and hydrological data.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
       
  • Flood susceptibility mapping using a geomorphometric approach in South
           Australian basins
    • Abstract: Abstract Watershed characteristics and their hydrological responses can have severe effects on the occurrence and extent of floods. Therefore, this study focuses on the integration of geospatial techniques and remote sensing data to identify watershed terrain characteristics and evaluate the influence of these characteristics on flood susceptibility in South Australia. Data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and geologic and topographic maps and a geographic information system (GIS) were used to delineate drainage basins, measure morphometric parameters and link different parameters to evaluate the degree of flood vulnerability. Depending on their relations to the flood hazards, the morphometric parameters were categorized into two groups; then, a rank score was assigned to each group. Finally, the flood susceptibility of the basins was visualized, and the basins were classified into low, intermediate and high flood hazard areas. The results show that approximately 45.7, 44.7 and 9.7% of the study area is at risk of high, medium and low degrees of flooding, respectively. The results were validated through secondary data relating to historic floods. The causes of flooding were analysed using rainfall and road density data, while the consequences of flooding were verified by the population distribution across the study area. The findings of this study can be used to support decision-makers in planning and investing in mitigation measures, especially in highly susceptible areas of South Australian basins.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
       
  • Evaluating pedogenesis and soil Atterberg limits for inducing landslides
           in the Western Ghats, Idukki District of Kerala, South India
    • Abstract: Abstract In the Western Ghats of India, the soil properties, particularly Atterberg limits, are of relevance to the landslides. Pedogenic processes in the Western Ghats and plateaus on it are regulated by parent materials, relief (topography), organisms, climate, and time. In this study, the five major soils found within the mid-part of the Western Ghats in the Idukki district of Kerala, Southern India was analyzed for elucidating physical, chemical, and geotechnical properties (Atterberg limits) on landslides potentiality or slope failure processes. The result reveals that the highly weathered lateritic soils noted with lower KCl pH (3.6–4.6), low-cation exchange capacity (3.1 to 19.6 cmol( +) kg−1), low-effective cation exchange capacity (0.8 to 10.7 cmol( +) kg−1) and a negative ∆pH value indicate the presence of variable charge minerals such as amorphous sesquioxides. The variable ranking of random forest revealed that the soil Atterberg limits were significantly influenced by Citrate Bicarbonate Dithionite (CBD) iron, sand fractions, and organic carbon. The layer of porous sandy soils showed lower Atterberg limits due to accentuate with clay matter, whereas the illuvial layer (Bt) have noted as higher Atterberg limits that lead to potentially collapsing gullies or triggering mass movement during heavy rainfall followed by intensive runoff due to instability of soil mass within proxy of the steeply sloping surface. Soil geotechnical properties such as liquid limit, plastic limit, and plasticity index are the main characteristics that decide the slope stability and failure in various parts of the study area, whereas the soil profile morphometry has significantly associated with the occurrence of landslides with the plastic limit value between 28.01 and 40.48. It was noticed that the failed slopes have a higher value than stable slopes along with the hill-range topography, with soil particle sizes range of silt and clay (8.79 to 36.17 and 22.31 to 57.74%) with the measurement of liquid limit (40.05 to 68.4), plastic limit (24.2 to 43.94), and plasticity index (7.81 to 24.8). This indicates that the pedogenesis of the weathering profile of soils have significantly influenced the Atterberg limits that triggering slope failure or landslides along the gullies and weathered lateritic uplands.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
       
  • PCA-RF model for Dendrolimus punctatus Walker damage detection
    • Abstract: Abstract At the present stage, the effective coupling information of “ground-space” is still a fundamental way to detect forest pest damage rapidly and accurately in remote sensing. It is of great significance to explore and construct a detection model that can comprehensively and effectively utilize ground microscopic features and remote sensing pixel information. Taking Dendrolimus punctatus Walker damage as the study object, the host characteristics and the differences with healthy pine forest are analyzed from the aspects of leaf volume, greenness, moisture, forest form and spectrum. Four experimental sites of Sanming City, Jiangle County, Sha County and Yanping District in Nanping City, Fujian, China are set as the experimental areas, and two forest stand features of LAI and SEL are measured, the remote sensing indicators of NDVI, WET and B2, B3, B4 are calculated or extracted. The PCA-RF detection model is constructed with pest levels of non-damage, mild damage, moderate damage and severe damage as dependent variables. This model reduces the dimensions by converting the initial variables into several principal components and making the principal components input to the random forest. The first three principal components of PCA can better replace the information of the original seven characteristic indicators, thereby reducing the seven-dimensional information to three dimensions. One hundred eighty-two samples are randomly divided into the training set and test set for the five repeats. The detection accuracy, Kappa coefficient, ROC are selected to evaluate the pest damage detection effects of PCA-RF model, and compare with Fisher discriminant analysis and BP neural network. The results show that the detection accuracy, Kappa coefficient and AUC of PCA-RF model in the training set are not as good as those of FDA and BPNN, but the detection accuracy and Kappa coefficient in the test set are significantly better than the other two algorithms, and the AUC value is also significantly higher than BNPP. This study proves that PCA-RF model simplifies the complex problem, inherits the advantages of random forest, has very strong generalization ability and robustness, and can be used as an effective solution for forest pest and disease detection.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
       
  • Semi-structured interviews on disaster and emergency preparedness for
           people with disabilities in two states in Mexico
    • Abstract: Abstract When a disaster occurs, people with disabilities are at a higher risk to adverse health outcomes due to inadequate access to resources, high levels of exposure to hazards, and an overall lack of integration with emergency responders. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and describe perspectives of people with disabilities (PWD) in the context of emergency and disaster preparedness in Mexico. The Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological systems theory and the social model of disability were utilized to frame this study. Utilization of standpoint epistemology and community-based input from the focus population allowed for greater understanding of their needs and revealed the potential steps toward promotion of disaster and emergency preparedness among these vulnerable communities. Six surveys were completed by rehabilitation professionals all over Mexico, and eleven semi-structured interviews were completed with PWD in two different research settings in Mexico. The findings provide a precise and nuanced understanding of holistic inclusion in disaster and emergency situations. This study uncovers many unmet needs in the community and input on how to address these issues through grassroot coalition building and inclusion. This study reflects the same urgency as seen in the 2018 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Report; however, in this study, this assertion is conveyed through the perspective of those who have lived through disastrous events in Mexico in recent years. Conclusively, promotion of emergency and disaster preparedness among people with disabilities will only be achieved through an intersectional and inclusive, equity-based approach to human rights.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
       
  • Livelihood resilience and strategies of rural residents of
           earthquake-threatened areas in Sichuan Province, China
    • Abstract: Abstract Natural disasters are increasing in frequency in China. Enhancing residents' livelihood resilience and adjusting their livelihood strategies have gradually become effective means of dealing with disaster risk. Therefore, it is of great significance to explore the livelihood strategies and livelihood resilience of rural residents in earthquake-stricken areas to help them cope with disaster risks. However, few studies have explored the correlation between residents' livelihood resilience and livelihood strategies from the perspective of residents' livelihood resilience. Based on a survey of 327 households in four districts and counties of Sichuan Province, China that were affected by the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes, we construct a framework for analyzing livelihood resilience and livelihood strategy selection. We comprehensively analyze the characteristics of livelihood resilience and livelihood strategy and explore their correlation using an ordinal multi-classification logistic regression model. The results show that: (1) Among 327 sample households, 90.21% were non-farming, 3.67% were part-time households and 6.12% were farming households. Residents' livelihood resilience is mainly based on their disaster prevention and mitigation capacity. (2) As far as the correlation between livelihood resilience and livelihood strategies is concerned, the stronger the buffer capacity in livelihood resilience, the more rural residents tend to engage in non-farming activities to obtain income. When other conditions remain unchanged, the logarithmic probability of choosing an agricultural livelihood strategy decreases by 21.814 for each unit of buffer capacity. From the perspective of residents' livelihood resilience, this study deepens our understanding of the relationship between livelihood resilience and livelihood strategy in earthquake-stricken areas. It also provides useful information for the formulation of policies to improve residents' resilience in disaster-threatened areas.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
       
  • A spatiotemporal analysis of urban resilience to the COVID-19 pandemic in
           the Yangtze River Delta
    • Abstract: Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected the normal socioeconomic operation of countries worldwide, causing major economic losses and deaths and posing great challenges to the sustainable development of cities that play a leading role in national socioeconomic development. The strength of urban resilience determines the speed of urban social and economic recovery. This paper constructed a comprehensive evaluation index system for urban resilience under the COVID-19 pandemic scenario considering four dimensions—economy, ecology, infrastructure, and social systems—conducted a quantitative evaluation of urban resilience in the Yangtze River Delta of China, revealed its spatiotemporal differences and change trends, and proposed targeted strategies for improving urban resilience. The results show that (1) the Yangtze River Delta urban resilience system is growing stronger every year, but there are significant differences in the level of urban resilience, its spatial distribution and regional urban resilience. (2) In the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, there is less distribution of areas with a higher resilience index, while those with high and medium resilience levels are more distributed. However, the resilience of most cities is low. (3) The resilience index of eastern coastal cities is significantly higher, and the resilience of cities under the COVID-19 scenario presents obvious east–west differentiation. (4) When constructing urban resilience, the individual situation of cities should be taken into account, measures adjusted according to local conditions, reasonable lessons drawn from effective international urban resilience construction, and reasonable planning policies formulated; it is important to give play to the relationship between the whole and the parts of resilience to achieve unified and coordinated development.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
       
  • Numerical analysis of a finite slope improved with stone columns under the
           effect of earthquake force
    • Abstract: Abstract Slope stability is one of the most important issues of geotechnical engineering. Significant slope failures (landslides), which result from earthquakes, can cause considerable losses of life and property. Hence, it is required that a slope keeps its stability under the effect of earthquake forces. This study includes the numerical analysis (pseudo-static) of slopes improved with stone columns under the effect of earthquake force. In the analysis conducted using the finite element program, the safety factor was determined by performing the safety analysis of the slopes modeled (different s/D (2, 2.5, 3) ratios, c/(γ.H) (0.19, 0.14, etc.) ratios, and slope angles (β: 20°, 25°)) without the effect of earthquake force and under the effect of earthquake force. As a result of this study, it was observed that the slopes improved with stone columns had a higher factor of safety compared to the slopes without stone columns both under the effect of earthquake force and without the effect of earthquake force. In the study, the safety factor of the slopes improved with stone columns under the effect of earthquake force increased up to 1.24 times in comparison with the slopes not improved with stone columns. Furthermore, under the effect of earthquake force, a 22.50% decrease was observed in the horizontal displacement of the slope model supported with stone columns compared to the slopes without stone columns. The study determined that the stability of clay slopes reinforced with stone columns under the effect of earthquake force increased. In light of the data obtained from this study, it is thought that it may be important in terms of creating preliminary information in land applications that require quick and economical solutions. Moreover, it is thought that the study will shed light on other studies to be carried out since it is a basic study on the numerical investigation of finite clay slopes reinforced with stone columns under the effect of earthquake force (pseudo-static).
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
       
  • Suitability assessment of urban land use in Dalian, China using PNN and
           GIS
    • Abstract: Abstract The suitability assessment of land use is crucial to avoid wasting land resources. However, the traditional methods with subjective weights are prone to reduce the reasonability and reliability of assessment. For filling this knowledge gap, the probability neural network (PNN) coupled with GIS was adopted to evaluate the land use suitability in this paper. According to the applications of the urban land resource, the land use was divided into three types (resident, industry and ecological reserve). Thus, the three different assessment criteria systems were built for the three land use types. The result of residential land use indicated that the most suitable, suitable and normal suitable residential land were 401, 272 and 12,406 km2 and mainly located in Changhai, Lvshun and Pulandian accordingly. The most suitable land for industry was in Ganjingzi, Jinzhou and Wafangdian and accounted for 22% of the total area. While the most suitable land for ecological reserve was in Pulandian and Zhuanghe with the area of 1967 km2. The results indicated that the south of Dalian was suitable for the residential land use, north of Dalian was suitable for the ecological land use and the central was suitable for industrial land use. The results were coincided to the actual spatial distribution of land use. The proposed PNN coupled with GIS assessment method in suitability of land use is conducted to provide a more reasonable assessment result that can be used by managers and regulators.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
       
  • Long- and short-term volcanic hazard assessment of El Chichón Volcano
           (Mexico) through Bayesian inference
    • Abstract: Abstract The 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano constitutes the worst volcanic disaster in Mexico producing more than 2000 fatalities, thousands of displaced people and severe economic losses. This eruption took by surprise authorities, population and scientists, thus preventing the implementation of timely and effective mitigation measures. Here, we use a Bayesian inference approach to provide simple, objective and quantitative schemes for long- and short-term hazard assessment for El Chichón volcano. For long-term assessment, we present the event tree for this volcano including the probabilities of different scenarios based on its past activity. For instance, the probability of at least one magmatic/hydromagmatic unrest episode (4.0%) producing an explosive eruption (75%) with VEI 4 (21.4%) in any 10-yt time interval is 0.64%. Moreover, we included additional nodes for the threatened zones and population according to the published hazards maps. For short-term assessment, we use a Bayesian method to examine the evolution of indicators derived from volcano monitoring. As a case study, we apply this method to the available data of the 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano. Our results show that this method is useful to identify indicators associated with different eruptive phases, recognize significant changes and underscore the lessons from this eruption. Furthermore, this method graphically depicts the evolution of the indicators, easing the communication with non-specialist during volcanic crises. When this highly explosive volcano reactivates again, the methods presented here can be used as a framework to analyze monitoring data and facilitate the implementation of timely mitigation actions.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
       
  • Debris flow impact on a flexible barrier: laboratory flume experiments and
           force-based mechanical model validation
    • Abstract: Abstract Nowadays, hydrogeological instability is a very critical issue because of its impact on population, infrastructures and economic and productive sectors. This makes essential to use advanced and reliable defense technologies, which are able to guarantee high performance and reliability. Flexible and permeable structures are ideal for stopping natural phenomena like debris flow, thanks to their high deformation capacity and their water permeability. This study presents some results obtained from laboratory tests related to the impact of a simulated debris flow against a scaled physical model of the barrier. A granular flow composed of aggregates of known size particle was released in a channel with variable inclination and known length and height. Using this experimental setup, several tests were carried out by varying the inclination of the channel and the geometry of the barrier. The results obtained were correlated with data deriving from a simplified analytical model; the comparison between the measured and calculated values made possible to assess the good prediction capability of the model, providing a simple and innovative tool to design and assess the safety of deformable protection barriers.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
       
  • A system disconnected: perspectives on post-disaster housing recovery
           policy and programs
    • Abstract: Abstract This study provides insights from individuals working to reestablish permanent housing in Sea Bright, NJ, following Hurricane Sandy. To collect these perspectives, we gathered data in two ways: a self-administered questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. We mailed questionnaires to every household in Sea Bright that included a number of fixed response items and open-ended questions that focused on the interface of government and citizens to discuss their housing recovery process and problems or pitfalls they have encountered while recovering. To complement our questionnaire data, we conducted interviews with full-time residents, part-time residents, homeowners, renters, and representatives of the local, state, and federal government. We utilized conventional content analysis methods to discover sociological themes, focusing on the underlying behaviors, actions, and emotions the text portrayed. Several powerful themes emerged from our analysis of the open-ended questions and interviews. Most notably, we found a fundamental disconnect between how policymakers and homeowners viewed the housing recovery process. In particular, survivors highlighted the amount of and complexity-laden paperwork associated with the aid process, unfavorable interactions with government employees and a system that seemed to have goals that were inherently different from their own, and the sense that the rules associated with aid were constantly changing. We conclude with a discussion of additional research needs and some preliminary policy recommendations based on these insights.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
       
  • Hazard assessment and mitigation of non-seismically fatal landslides in
           China
    • Abstract: Abstract Fatal landslides cause severe disasters to human lives and socioeconomic costs in China. In this study, the data non-seismically fatal landslides were collected between 2004 and 2016 in China. The hazard and life risk criteria of these fatal landslides were assessed, and the government's investment and ecological influencing factors for landslide prevention and mitigation were analyzed. There were more fatal landslides in Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan, and Guangdong provinces. High landslide density value focused on Guizhou, Hunan, and Guangdong province had very high landslide density value, while Gansu held the biggest fatality density value as a result of a few huge fatal landslide events. The Chinese life risk evaluation criterion was higher than those in other countries because there was a greater population density in landslide-prone areas. Nevertheless, the government has invested a great deal of human and financial resources for landslide mitigation over the past 13 years. In total, 244,559 engineering projects were carried out and $15,920.89 million was spent. Thus, a total of 13,603 landslides were successfully predicted and 641,333 persons and $1,372.94 million has been saved. Additionally, the types of land use, afforestation area, and soil erosion management have a positive effect on landslides. However, a trend of reverse increase was presented in fatal landslides. This paper gives a detailed examination of the non-seismically fatal landslide hazard and proves an evaluation of the Chinese government's contribution to landslide mitigation by integrating engineering and ecological measures.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
       
 
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