for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
Followed Journals
Journal you Follow: 0
 
Sign Up to follow journals, search in your chosen journals and, optionally, receive Email Alerts when new issues of your Followed Journals are published.
Already have an account? Sign In to see the journals you follow.
Journal Cover Nature
  [SJR: 21.323]   [H-I: 829]   [3014 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0028-0836 - ISSN (Online) 1476-4687
   Published by NPG Homepage  [123 journals]
  • Turning point
    • Pages: 295 - 295
      Abstract: The result of next week’s crucial UK referendum on whether or not to remain in the European Union will have worldwide repercussions.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534295a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Under the sea
    • Pages: 296 - 296
      Abstract: If life in the oceans is to be preserved, people must get to know the wonders of the deep.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534296a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Nature distilled
    • Pages: 296 - 296
      Abstract: We need your views on an experiment to convey the latest research in digestible form.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534296b
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Science can map a solution to a fast-burning problem
    • Pages: 297 - 297
      Abstract: Wildfires such as those that hit Canada last month are a growing worry, writes Marc-André Parisien, but risk-assessment models can limit future damage.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/534297a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Energy: Excess nitrogen spoils biofuels
    • Pages: 298 - 298
      Abstract: Nitrogen fertilizer can boost the growth of crops for biofuel production, but applying too much can cut the climate benefits in half.Ethanol fuel made from plant cellulose is a promising form of renewable energy. Philip Robertson at Michigan State University in Hickory Corners and
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534298c
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Nanoscience: Tiny carbon rods blow off steam
    • Pages: 298 - 299
      Abstract: Nanometre-sized rods of carbon can expel water in puffs of vapour when the air is already humid.Materials such as carbon and silica gels typically pick up moisture as humidity increases. But Satish Nune and his colleagues at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland,
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534298d
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Gene editing: CRISPR blocks cancer growth
    • Pages: 298 - 298
      Abstract: Knocking out genes in cancer genomes with the CRISPR–Cas9 technique decreases the ability of cancer cells to multiply.William Hahn at the Dana Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, Aviad Tsherniak at the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT in Cambridge — both in Massachusetts —
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534298b
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Biophysics: How squid hide their eyes
    • Pages: 298 - 298
      Abstract: A transparent squid may camouflage itself by activating specialized cells in its eyes.Many marine creatures emit light to hide shadows that might be seen by predators below. To find out how animals control this bioluminescence, Amanda Holt and Alison Sweeney at the University of
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534298a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Evolution: Fish keep coming out of water
    • Pages: 299 - 299
      Abstract: Fish have evolved to live on land multiple times, suggesting that the crucial transition from water to land during the evolution of terrestrial life may not have been unusual.Terry Ord and Georgina Cooke at the University of New South Wales in Kensington, Australia, looked
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534299a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Microbiology: A wealth of anti-CRISPR proteins
    • Pages: 299 - 299
      Abstract: Proteins that inhibit the activity of the CRISPR–Cas bacterial defence system could be widespread.Viruses and other microbes often successfully transfer genes to bacteria, despite the presence of the bacterial CRISPR–Cas system, which recognizes and attacks foreign DNA or RNA. Karen Maxwell and Alan Davidson
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534299b
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Biomaterials: Liquid-like solid lets cells grow
    • Pages: 299 - 299
      Abstract: A scaffold made of tightly packed hydrogel particles allows cultured cells to grow in custom 3D configurations.Developed by Thomas Angelini and his colleagues at the University of Florida in Gainesville, the scaffold is made of a liquid-like solid material that temporarily becomes fluid when
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534299c
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Neuroscience: Myelin clogs up immune cells
    • Pages: 299 - 299
      Abstract: The insulating layer around nerve fibres breaks down as mice age, and this could lead to immune dysfunction.The myelin layer coats nerves to speed up signal transmission. Mikael Simons at the Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine in Göttingen, Germany, and his colleagues used
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534299d
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Developmental biology: Dragon lizard gets sex change
    • Pages: 299 - 299
      Abstract: A shift in egg-incubation temperature can result in a genetically male lizard having a mix of male and female traits.The sex of some reptile species is determined by genetics, but in others it depends on egg-incubation temperature. Richard Shine at the University of Sydney
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534299e
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • The week in science: 10–16 June 2016
    • Pages: 300 - 301
      Abstract: LIGO spots another gravitational wave; increasing light pollution on Earth obscures the Milky Way; and moose develop infectious prion disease in Norway.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534300a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • France launches massive meteor-spotting network
    • Authors: Traci Watson
      Pages: 304 - 305
      Abstract: Tracking space rocks that reach Earth will give insight into the early Solar System.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-10
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2016.20070
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Promising gene therapies pose million-dollar conundrum
    • Authors: Erika Check Hayden
      Pages: 305 - 306
      Abstract: Economists, investors and medical insurers can’t figure out how to pay for cutting-edge drugs.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534305a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Clarification
    • Pages: 309 - 309
      Abstract: The News Feature ‘The material code’ (Nature533, 22–25; 2016) did not make it clear that the director of the Materials Genome Project is Kristin Persson, and that she has an affiliation with the University of California, Berkeley.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534309a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • How iPS cells changed the world
    • Authors: Megan Scudellari
      Pages: 310 - 312
      Abstract: Induced pluripotent stem cells were supposed to herald a medical revolution. But ten years after their discovery, they are transforming biological research instead.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534310a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Can you teach old drugs new tricks'
    • Authors: Nicola Nosengo
      Pages: 314 - 316
      Abstract: Faced with skyrocketing costs for developing new drugs, researchers are looking at ways to repurpose older ones — and even some that failed in initial trials.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/534314a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Nutrition: Fall in fish catch threatens human health
    • Authors: Christopher D. Golden, Edward H. Allison, William W. L. Cheung, Madan M. Dey, Benjamin S. Halpern, Douglas J. McCauley, Matthew Smith, Bapu Vaitla, Dirk Zeller, Samuel S. Myers
      Pages: 317 - 320
      Abstract: Christopher Golden and colleagues calculate that declining numbers of marine fish will spell more malnutrition in many developing nations.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534317a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Correction
    • Pages: 322 - 322
      Abstract: Reference 1 in the Comment ‘Create a global microbiome effort’ (N.Dubilieret al. Nature526, 631–634; 2015 ) gave incorrect page numbers. It should have read: Alivisatos, A. P.et al. Science350, 507
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534322a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Physics: Crucible of science
    • Authors: Graham Farmelo
      Pages: 323 - 324
      Abstract: Graham Farmelo ponders Malcolm Longair's study of the Cavendish, a physics laboratory with few rivals.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534323a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Medical research: Citizen medicine
    • Authors: Sally Frampton, Sally Shuttleworth
      Pages: 324 - 324
      Abstract: Sally Frampton and Sally Shuttleworth explore a show on public involvement in the evolution of vaccination.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534324a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Q&A: Fabulous fact fisher
    • Authors: Daniel Cressey
      Pages: 325 - 325
      Abstract: Biomechanist Adam Summers of the University of Washington's Friday Harbor Laboratories has spent much of his life working out how fish move. But he has another role that some would consider more prestigious. As Pixar's 'fabulous fish guy', he advised the animation company on ichthyology for its 2003 hit Finding Nemo and the long-awaited sequel Finding Dory. On the eve of the sequel's opening, Summers talks about the tension between entertainment and science, being corrected by kids and the wild drama of the piscine world.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534325a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Predatory journals: Ban predators from the scientific record
    • Authors: Jeffrey Beall
      Pages: 326 - 326
      Abstract: Predatory journals are threatening the credibility of science. By faking or neglecting peer review, they pollute the scholarly record with fringe or junk science and activist research. I suggest that every publishing stakeholder could contribute to reining in these journals.Universities and colleges should stop
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534326a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Naturalists: Hail local fieldwork, not just global models
    • Pages: 326 - 326
      Abstract: We contend that science's 'publish-or-perish' culture, which selects for rapid publication in high-ranking journals, has contributed to the demise of field-based studies (see K.-D.DijkstraNature533, 172–174;10.1038/533172a2016).Top-tier journals tend to favour large-scale analyses that answer big,
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534326b
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Data sharing: A code of conduct for data on epidemics
    • Authors: Ilaria Capua
      Pages: 326 - 326
      Abstract: As a long-term champion of open-access research data on pandemic viruses and a member of the Italian Parliament, I urge Brazil to hasten the reform of its current biosecurity legislation. This would enable sharing of vital Zika virus samples and information, as recently called for
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534326c
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Reproducibility: Archive computer code with raw data
    • Authors: Joseph I. Hoffman
      Pages: 326 - 326
      Abstract: As the leader of a young research group, I recognize the need to archive more than just the raw data that underpin scientific papers. Archiving computer code is also important for safeguarding scientific integrity and for facilitating ongoing projects.Most scientific journals demand that researchers
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534326d
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Tea but not dinner with Karl von Frisch
    • Authors: Michael Katz
      Pages: 326 - 326
      Abstract: In the 1960s, I had reason to discuss with my friend the late Annemarie Weber, a muscle physiologist, the morality of ethologist Karl von Frisch's decision to continue his studies on honeybee communication during the Second World War (see M. L.WinstonNature533,
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534326e
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Genomics: The language of flowers
    • Authors: Sandra Knapp, Dani Zamir
      Pages: 328 - 329
      Abstract: The complete DNA sequences of the two wild parents of the garden petunia provide valuable genetic insights into this model plant, and will improve the optimization of other crop plants for agriculture.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18445
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Immunotherapy: Cancer vaccine triggers antiviral-type defences
    • Authors: Jolanda De Vries, Carl Figdor
      Pages: 329 - 331
      Abstract: An immunotherapy approach targets nanoparticles to dendritic cells of the immune system, leading to an antitumour immune response with antiviral-like features. Initial clinical tests of this approach show promise. See Letter p.396
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18443
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Computational materials science: Predictions of pinning
    • Authors: Patrycja Paruch, Philippe Ghosez
      Pages: 331 - 332
      Abstract: A multiscale model has been implemented that provides accurate predictions of the behaviour of ferroelectric materials in electric fields, and might aid efforts to design devices such as sensors and digital memory. See Letter p.360
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534331a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Cell reprogramming: Brain versus brawn
    • Authors: Bruno Di Stefano, Konrad Hochedlinger
      Pages: 332 - 333
      Abstract: The mechanisms that underlie enforced transitions between mature cell lineages are poorly understood. Profiling single skin cells that are induced to become neurons reveals that, unexpectedly, they often become muscle. See Letter p.391
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18444
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Stem cell function and stress response are controlled by protein synthesis
    • Pages: 335 - 340
      Abstract: Whether protein synthesis and cellular stress response pathways interact to control stem cell function is currently unknown. Here we show that mouse skin stem cells synthesize less protein than their immediate progenitors in vivo, even when forced to proliferate. Our analyses reveal that activation
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18282
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Dual targeting of p53 and c-MYC selectively eliminates leukaemic stem
           cells
    • Authors: Sheela A. Abraham, Lisa E. M. Hopcroft, Emma Carrick, Mark E. Drotar, Karen Dunn, Andrew J. K. Williamson, Koorosh Korfi, Pablo Baquero, Laura E. Park, Mary T. Scott, Francesca Pellicano, Andrew Pierce, Mhairi Copland, Craig Nourse, Sean M. Grimmond, David Vetrie, Anthony D. Whetton, Tessa L. Holyoake
      Pages: 341 - 346
      Abstract: Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) arises after transformation of a haemopoietic stem cell (HSC) by the protein-tyrosine kinase BCR–ABL. Direct inhibition of BCR–ABL kinase has revolutionized disease management, but fails to eradicate leukaemic stem cells (LSCs), which maintain CML. LSCs are independent of BCR–ABL for survival,
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18288
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • TRPV1 structures in nanodiscs reveal mechanisms of ligand and lipid action
    • Authors: Yuan Gao, Erhu Cao, David Julius, Yifan Cheng
      Pages: 347 - 351
      Abstract: When integral membrane proteins are visualized in detergents or other artificial systems, an important layer of information is lost regarding lipid interactions and their effects on protein structure. This is especially relevant to proteins for which lipids have both structural and regulatory roles. Here we
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17964
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Fission and reconfiguration of bilobate comets as revealed by
           67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko
    • Authors: Masatoshi Hirabayashi, Daniel J. Scheeres, Steven R. Chesley, Simone Marchi, Jay W. McMahon, Jordan Steckloff, Stefano Mottola, Shantanu P. Naidu, Timothy Bowling
      Pages: 352 - 355
      Abstract: The solid, central part of a comet—its nucleus—is subject to destructive processes, which cause nuclei to split at a rate of about 0.01 per year per comet. These destructive events are due to a range of possible thermophysical effects; however, the geophysical expressions of these effects are unknown. Separately, over two-thirds of comet nuclei that have been imaged at high resolution show bilobate shapes, including the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (67P), visited by the Rosetta spacecraft. Analysis of the Rosetta observations suggests that 67P’s components were brought together at low speed after their separate formation. Here, we study the structure and dynamics of 67P’s nucleus. We find that sublimation torques have caused the nucleus to spin up in the past to form the large cracks observed on its neck. However, the chaotic evolution of its spin state has so far forestalled its splitting, although it should eventually reach a rapid enough spin rate to do so. Once this occurs, the separated components will be unable to escape each other; they will orbit each other for a time, ultimately undergoing a low-speed merger that will result in a new bilobate configuration. The components of four other imaged bilobate nuclei have volume ratios that are consistent with a similar reconfiguration cycle, pointing to such cycles as a fundamental process in the evolution of short-period comet nuclei. It has been shown that comets were not strong contributors to the so-called late heavy bombardment about 4 billion years ago. The reconfiguration process suggested here would preferentially decimate comet nuclei during migration to the inner solar system, perhaps explaining this lack of a substantial cometary flux.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17670
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Mean first-passage times of non-Markovian random walkers in confinement
    • Pages: 356 - 359
      Abstract: The first-passage time, defined as the time a random walker takes to reach a target point in a confining domain, is a key quantity in the theory of stochastic processes. Its importance comes from its crucial role in quantifying the efficiency of processes as varied as diffusion-limited reactions, target search processes or the spread of diseases. Most methods of determining the properties of first-passage time in confined domains have been limited to Markovian (memoryless) processes. However, as soon as the random walker interacts with its environment, memory effects cannot be neglected: that is, the future motion of the random walker does not depend only on its current position, but also on its past trajectory. Examples of non-Markovian dynamics include single-file diffusion in narrow channels, or the motion of a tracer particle either attached to a polymeric chain or diffusing in simple or complex fluids such as nematics, dense soft colloids or viscoelastic solutions. Here we introduce an analytical approach to calculate, in the limit of a large confining volume, the mean first-passage time of a Gaussian non-Markovian random walker to a target. The non-Markovian features of the dynamics are encompassed by determining the statistical properties of the fictitious trajectory that the random walker would follow after the first-passage event takes place, which are shown to govern the first-passage time kinetics. This analysis is applicable to a broad range of stochastic processes, which may be correlated at long times. Our theoretical predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations for several examples of non-Markovian processes, including the case of fractional Brownian motion in one and higher dimensions. These results reveal, on the basis of Gaussian processes, the importance of memory effects in first-passage statistics of non-Markovian random walkers in confinement.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18272
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Intrinsic ferroelectric switching from first principles
    • Authors: Shi Liu, Ilya Grinberg, Andrew M. Rappe
      Pages: 360 - 363
      Abstract: The existence of domain walls, which separate regions of different polarization, can influence the dielectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric and electronic properties of ferroelectric materials. In particular, domain-wall motion is crucial for polarization switching, which is characterized by the hysteresis loop that is a signature feature of ferroelectric materials. Experimentally, the observed dynamics of polarization switching and domain-wall motion are usually explained as the behaviour of an elastic interface pinned by a random potential that is generated by defects, which appear to be strongly sample-dependent and affected by various elastic, microstructural and other extrinsic effects. Theoretically, connecting the zero-kelvin, first-principles-based, microscopic quantities of a sample with finite-temperature, macroscopic properties such as the coercive field is critical for material design and device performance; and the lack of such a connection has prevented the use of techniques based on ab initio calculations for high-throughput computational materials discovery. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations of 90° domain walls (separating domains with orthogonal polarization directions) in the ferroelectric material PbTiO3 to provide microscopic insights that enable the construction of a simple, universal, nucleation-and-growth-based analytical model that quantifies the dynamics of many types of domain walls in various ferroelectrics. We then predict the temperature and frequency dependence of hysteresis loops and coercive fields at finite temperatures from first principles. We find that, even in the absence of defects, the intrinsic temperature and field dependence of the domain-wall velocity can be described with a nonlinear creep-like region and a depinning-like region. Our model enables quantitative estimation of coercive fields, which agree well with experimental results for ceramics and thin films. This agreement between model and experiment suggests that, despite the complexity of ferroelectric materials, typical ferroelectric switching is largely governed by a simple, universal mechanism of intrinsic domain-wall motion, providing an efficient framework for predicting and optimizing the properties of ferroelectric materials.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18286
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Self-assembly of microcapsules via colloidal bond hybridization and
           anisotropy
    • Authors: Chris H. J. Evers, Jurriaan A. Luiken, Peter G. Bolhuis, Willem K. Kegel
      Pages: 364 - 368
      Abstract: Particles with directional interactions are promising building blocks for new functional materials and may serve as models for biological structures. Mutually attractive nanoparticles that are deformable owing to flexible surface groups, for example, may spontaneously order themselves into strings, sheets and large vesicles. Furthermore, anisotropic colloids with attractive patches can self-assemble into open lattices and the colloidal equivalents of molecules and micelles. However, model systems that combine mutual attraction, anisotropy and deformability have not yet been realized. Here we synthesize colloidal particles that combine these three characteristics and obtain self-assembled microcapsules. We propose that mutual attraction and deformability induce directional interactions via colloidal bond hybridization. Our particles contain both mutually attractive and repulsive surface groups that are flexible. Analogously to the simplest chemical bond—in which two isotropic orbitals hybridize into the molecular orbital of H2—these flexible groups redistribute on binding. Via colloidal bond hybridization, isotropic spheres self-assemble into planar monolayers, whereas anisotropic snowman-shaped particles self-assemble into hollow monolayer microcapsules. A modest change in the building blocks thus results in much greater complexity of the self-assembled structures. In other words, these relatively simple building blocks self-assemble into markedly more complex structures than do similar particles that are isotropic or non-deformable.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17956
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution with 19F− and
           18F−
    • Authors: Constanze N. Neumann, Jacob M. Hooker, Tobias Ritter
      Pages: 369 - 373
      Abstract: Nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) is widely used by organic chemists to functionalize aromatic molecules, and it is the most commonly used method to generate arenes that contain 18F for use in positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging. A wide range of nucleophiles exhibit SNAr reactivity, and the operational simplicity of the reaction means that the transformation can be conducted reliably and on large scales. During SNAr, attack of a nucleophile at a carbon atom bearing a ‘leaving group’ leads to a negatively charged intermediate called a Meisenheimer complex. Only arenes with electron-withdrawing substituents can sufficiently stabilize the resulting build-up of negative charge during Meisenheimer complex formation, limiting the scope of SNAr reactions: the most common SNAr substrates contain strong π-acceptors in the ortho and/or para position(s). Here we present an unusual concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction (CSNAr) that is not limited to electron-poor arenes, because it does not proceed via a Meisenheimer intermediate. We show a phenol deoxyfluorination reaction for which CSNAr is favoured over a stepwise displacement. Mechanistic insights enabled us to develop a functional-group-tolerant 18F-deoxyfluorination reaction of phenols, which can be used to synthesize 18F-PET probes. Selective 18F introduction, without the need for the common, but cumbersome, azeotropic drying of 18F, can now be accomplished from phenols as starting materials, and provides access to 18F-labelled compounds not accessible through conventional chemistry.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17667
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Seafloor geodetic constraints on interplate coupling of the Nankai Trough
           megathrust zone
    • Authors: Yusuke Yokota, Tadashi Ishikawa, Shun-ichi Watanabe, Toshiharu Tashiro, Akira Asada
      Pages: 374 - 377
      Abstract: Interplate megathrust earthquakes have inflicted catastrophic damage on human society. Such an earthquake is predicted to occur in the near future along the Nankai Trough off southwestern Japan—an economically active and densely populated area in which megathrust earthquakes have already occurred. Megathrust earthquakes are the result of a plate-subduction mechanism and occur at slip-deficit regions (also known as ‘coupling’ regions), where friction prevents plates from slipping against each other and the accumulated energy is eventually released forcefully. Many studies have attempted to capture distributions of slip-deficit rates (SDRs) in order to predict earthquakes. However, these studies could not obtain a complete view of the earthquake source region, because they had no seafloor geodetic data. The Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of the Japan Coast Guard (JHOD) has been developing a precise and sustainable seafloor geodetic observation network in this subduction zone to obtain information related to offshore SDRs. Here, we present seafloor geodetic observation data and an offshore interplate SDR-distribution model. Our data suggest that most offshore regions in this subduction zone have positive SDRs. Specifically, our observations indicate previously unknown regions of high SDR that will be important for tsunami disaster mitigation, and regions of low SDR that are consistent with distributions of shallow slow earthquakes and subducting seamounts. This is the first direct evidence that coupling conditions might be related to these seismological and geological phenomena. Our findings provide information for inferring megathrust earthquake scenarios and interpreting research on the Nankai Trough subduction zone.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-23
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17632
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Neural correlates of single-vessel haemodynamic responses in vivo
    • Pages: 378 - 382
      Abstract: Neural activation increases blood flow locally. This vascular signal is used by functional imaging techniques to infer the location and strength of neural activity. However, the precise spatial scale over which neural and vascular signals are correlated is unknown. Furthermore, the relative role of synaptic and spiking activity in driving haemodynamic signals is controversial. Previous studies recorded local field potentials as a measure of synaptic activity together with spiking activity and low-resolution haemodynamic imaging. Here we used two-photon microscopy to measure sensory-evoked responses of individual blood vessels (dilation, blood velocity) while imaging synaptic and spiking activity in the surrounding tissue using fluorescent glutamate and calcium sensors. In cat primary visual cortex, where neurons are clustered by their preference for stimulus orientation, we discovered new maps for excitatory synaptic activity, which were organized similarly to those for spiking activity but were less selective for stimulus orientation and direction. We generated tuning curves for individual vessel responses for the first time and found that parenchymal vessels in cortical layer 2/3 were orientation selective. Neighbouring penetrating arterioles had different orientation preferences. Pial surface arteries in cats, as well as surface arteries and penetrating arterioles in rat visual cortex (where orientation maps do not exist), responded to visual stimuli but had no orientation selectivity. We integrated synaptic or spiking responses around individual parenchymal vessels in cats and established that the vascular and neural responses had the same orientation preference. However, synaptic and spiking responses were more selective than vascular responses—vessels frequently responded robustly to stimuli that evoked little to no neural activity in the surrounding tissue. Thus, local neural and haemodynamic signals were partly decoupled. Together, these results indicate that intrinsic cortical properties, such as propagation of vascular dilation between neighbouring columns, need to be accounted for when decoding haemodynamic signals.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17965
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Towards clinical application of pronuclear transfer to prevent
           mitochondrial DNA disease
    • Pages: 383 - 386
      Abstract: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are maternally inherited and are associated with a broad range of debilitating and fatal diseases. Reproductive technologies designed to uncouple the inheritance of mtDNA from nuclear DNA may enable affected women to have a genetically related child with a greatly reduced risk of mtDNA disease. Here we report the first preclinical studies on pronuclear transplantation (PNT). Surprisingly, techniques used in proof-of-concept studies involving abnormally fertilized human zygotes were not well tolerated by normally fertilized zygotes. We have therefore developed an alternative approach based on transplanting pronuclei shortly after completion of meiosis rather than shortly before the first mitotic division. This promotes efficient development to the blastocyst stage with no detectable effect on aneuploidy or gene expression. After optimization, mtDNA carryover was reduced to
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18303
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Co-repressor CBFA2T2 regulates pluripotency and germline development
    • Authors: Shengjiang Tu, Varun Narendra, Masashi Yamaji, Simon E. Vidal, Luis Alejandro Rojas, Xiaoshi Wang, Sang Yong Kim, Benjamin A. Garcia, Thomas Tuschl, Matthias Stadtfeld, Danny Reinberg
      Pages: 387 - 390
      Abstract: Developmental specification of germ cells lies at the heart of inheritance, as germ cells contain all of the genetic and epigenetic information transmitted between generations. The critical developmental event distinguishing germline from somatic lineages is the differentiation of primordial germ cells (PGCs), precursors of sex-specific gametes that produce an entire organism upon fertilization. Germ cells toggle between uni- and pluripotent states as they exhibit their own ‘latent’ form of pluripotency. For example, PGCs express a number of transcription factors in common with embryonic stem (ES) cells, including OCT4 (encoded by Pou5f1), SOX2, NANOG and PRDM14 (refs 2, 3, 4). A biochemical mechanism by which these transcription factors converge on chromatin to produce the dramatic rearrangements underlying ES-cell- and PGC-specific transcriptional programs remains poorly understood. Here we identify a novel co-repressor protein, CBFA2T2, that regulates pluripotency and germline specification in mice. Cbfa2t2−/− mice display severe defects in PGC maturation and epigenetic reprogramming. CBFA2T2 forms a biochemical complex with PRDM14, a germline-specific transcription factor. Mechanistically, CBFA2T2 oligomerizes to form a scaffold upon which PRDM14 and OCT4 are stabilized on chromatin. Thus, in contrast to the traditional ‘passenger’ role of a co-repressor, CBFA2T2 functions synergistically with transcription factors at the crossroads of the fundamental developmental plasticity between uni- and pluripotency.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18004
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Dissecting direct reprogramming from fibroblast to neuron using
           single-cell RNA-seq
    • Authors: Barbara Treutlein, Qian Yi Lee, J. Gray Camp, Moritz Mall, Winston Koh, Seyed Ali Mohammad Shariati, Sopheak Sim, Norma F. Neff, Jan M. Skotheim, Marius Wernig, Stephen R. Quake
      Pages: 391 - 395
      Abstract: Direct lineage reprogramming represents a remarkable conversion of cellular and transcriptome states. However, the intermediate stages through which individual cells progress during reprogramming are largely undefined. Here we use single-cell RNA sequencing at multiple time points to dissect direct reprogramming from mouse embryonic fibroblasts to induced neuronal cells. By deconstructing heterogeneity at each time point and ordering cells by transcriptome similarity, we find that the molecular reprogramming path is remarkably continuous. Overexpression of the proneural pioneer factor Ascl1 results in a well-defined initialization, causing cells to exit the cell cycle and re-focus gene expression through distinct neural transcription factors. The initial transcriptional response is relatively homogeneous among fibroblasts, suggesting that the early steps are not limiting for productive reprogramming. Instead, the later emergence of a competing myogenic program and variable transgene dynamics over time appear to be the major efficiency limits of direct reprogramming. Moreover, a transcriptional state, distinct from donor and target cell programs, is transiently induced in cells undergoing productive reprogramming. Our data provide a high-resolution approach for understanding transcriptome states during lineage differentiation.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18323
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Systemic RNA delivery to dendritic cells exploits antiviral defence for
           cancer immunotherapy
    • Pages: 396 - 401
      Abstract: Lymphoid organs, in which antigen presenting cells (APCs) are in close proximity to T cells, are the ideal microenvironment for efficient priming and amplification of T-cell responses. However, the systemic delivery of vaccine antigens into dendritic cells (DCs) is hampered by various technical challenges. Here we show that DCs can be targeted precisely and effectively in vivo using intravenously administered RNA-lipoplexes (RNA-LPX) based on well-known lipid carriers by optimally adjusting net charge, without the need for functionalization of particles with molecular ligands. The LPX protects RNA from extracellular ribonucleases and mediates its efficient uptake and expression of the encoded antigen by DC populations and macrophages in various lymphoid compartments. RNA-LPX triggers interferon-α (IFNα) release by plasmacytoid DCs and macrophages. Consequently, DC maturation in situ and inflammatory immune mechanisms reminiscent of those in the early systemic phase of viral infection are activated. We show that RNA-LPX encoding viral or mutant neo-antigens or endogenous self-antigens induce strong effector and memory T-cell responses, and mediate potent IFNα-dependent rejection of progressive tumours. A phase I dose-escalation trial testing RNA-LPX that encode shared tumour antigens is ongoing. In the first three melanoma patients treated at a low-dose level, IFNα and strong antigen-specific T-cell responses were induced, supporting the identified mode of action and potency. As any polypeptide-based antigen can be encoded as RNA, RNA-LPX represent a universally applicable vaccine class for systemic DC targeting and synchronized induction of both highly potent adaptive as well as type-I-IFN-mediated innate immune mechanisms for cancer immunotherapy.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18300
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Aberrant PD-L1 expression through 3′-UTR disruption in multiple
           cancers
    • Authors: Keisuke Kataoka, Yuichi Shiraishi, Yohei Takeda, Seiji Sakata, Misako Matsumoto, Seiji Nagano, Takuya Maeda, Yasunobu Nagata, Akira Kitanaka, Seiya Mizuno, Hiroko Tanaka, Kenichi Chiba, Satoshi Ito, Yosaku Watatani, Nobuyuki Kakiuchi, Hiromichi Suzuki, Tetsuichi Yoshizato, Kenichi Yoshida, Masashi Sanada, Hidehiro Itonaga, Yoshitaka Imaizumi, Yasushi Totoki, Wataru Munakata, Hiromi Nakamura, Natsuko Hama, Kotaro Shide, Yoko Kubuki, Tomonori Hidaka, Takuro Kameda, Kyoko Masuda, Nagahiro Minato, Koichi Kashiwase, Koji Izutsu, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo, Yasushi Miyazaki, Satoru Takahashi, Tatsuhiro Shibata, Hiroshi Kawamoto, Yoshiki Akatsuka, Kazuya Shimoda, Kengo Takeuchi, Tsukasa Seya, Satoru Miyano, Seishi Ogawa
      Pages: 402 - 406
      Abstract: Successful treatment of many patients with advanced cancer using antibodies against programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; also known as PDCD1) and its ligand (PD-L1; also known as CD274) has highlighted the critical importance of PD-1/PD-L1-mediated immune escape in cancer development. However, the genetic basis for the immune escape has not been fully elucidated, with the exception of elevated PD-L1 expression by gene amplification and utilization of an ectopic promoter by translocation, as reported in Hodgkin and other B-cell lymphomas, as well as stomach adenocarcinoma. Here we show a unique genetic mechanism of immune escape caused by structural variations (SVs) commonly disrupting the 3′ region of the PD-L1 gene. Widely affecting multiple common human cancer types, including adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (27%), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (8%), and stomach adenocarcinoma (2%), these SVs invariably lead to a marked elevation of aberrant PD-L1 transcripts that are stabilized by truncation of the 3′-untranslated region (UTR). Disruption of the Pd-l1 3′-UTR in mice enables immune evasion of EG7-OVA tumour cells with elevated Pd-l1 expression in vivo, which is effectively inhibited by Pd-1/Pd-l1 blockade, supporting the role of relevant SVs in clonal selection through immune evasion. Our findings not only unmask a novel regulatory mechanism of PD-L1 expression, but also suggest that PD-L1 3′-UTR disruption could serve as a genetic marker to identify cancers that actively evade anti-tumour immunity through PD-L1 overexpression.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-23
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18294
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Stem cells for Snoopy: pet medicines spark a biotech boom
    • Authors: Heidi Ledford
      Pages: 403 - 404
      Abstract: Firms chase a new breed of advanced veterinary care, from antibodies to cell therapies.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/534303a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Image-based detection and targeting of therapy resistance in pancreatic
           adenocarcinoma
    • Authors: Raymond G. Fox, Nikki K. Lytle, Dawn V. Jaquish, Frederick D. Park, Takahiro Ito, Jeevisha Bajaj, Claire S. Koechlein, Bryan Zimdahl, Masato Yano, Janel L. Kopp, Marcie Kritzik, Jason K. Sicklick, Maike Sander, Paul M. Grandgenett, Michael A. Hollingsworth, Shinsuke Shibata, Donald Pizzo, Mark A. Valasek, Roman Sasik, Miriam Scadeng, Hideyuki Okano, Youngsoo Kim, A. Robert MacLeod, Andrew M. Lowy, Tannishtha Reya
      Pages: 407 - 411
      Abstract: Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia is a pre-malignant lesion that can progress to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, a highly lethal malignancy marked by its late stage at clinical presentation and profound drug resistance. The genomic alterations that commonly occur in pancreatic cancer include activation of KRAS2 and inactivation of p53 and SMAD4 (refs 2, 3, 4). So far, however, it has been challenging to target these pathways therapeutically; thus the search for other key mediators of pancreatic cancer growth remains an important endeavour. Here we show that the stem cell determinant Musashi (Msi) is a critical element of pancreatic cancer progression both in genetic models and in patient-derived xenografts. Specifically, we developed Msi reporter mice that allowed image-based tracking of stem cell signals within cancers, revealing that Msi expression rises as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia progresses to adenocarcinoma, and that Msi-expressing cells are key drivers of pancreatic cancer: they preferentially harbour the capacity to propagate adenocarcinoma, are enriched in circulating tumour cells, and are markedly drug resistant. This population could be effectively targeted by deletion of either Msi1 or Msi2, which led to a striking defect in the progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia to adenocarcinoma and an improvement in overall survival. Msi inhibition also blocked the growth of primary patient-derived tumours, suggesting that this signal is required for human disease. To define the translational potential of this work we developed antisense oligonucleotides against Msi; these showed reliable tumour penetration, uptake and target inhibition, and effectively blocked pancreatic cancer growth. Collectively, these studies highlight Msi reporters as a unique tool to identify therapy resistance, and define Msi signalling as a central regulator of pancreatic cancer.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-06
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17988
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • The bacterial DnaA-trio replication origin element specifies
           single-stranded DNA initiator binding
    • Authors: Tomas T. Richardson, Omar Harran, Heath Murray
      Pages: 412 - 416
      Abstract: DNA replication is tightly controlled to ensure accurate inheritance of genetic information. In all organisms, initiator proteins possessing AAA+ (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) domains bind replication origins to license new rounds of DNA synthesis. In bacteria the master initiator protein, DnaA, is highly conserved and has two crucial DNA binding activities. DnaA monomers recognize the replication origin (oriC) by binding double-stranded DNA sequences (DnaA-boxes); subsequently, DnaA filaments assemble and promote duplex unwinding by engaging and stretching a single DNA strand. While the specificity for duplex DnaA-boxes by DnaA has been appreciated for over 30 years, the sequence specificity for single-strand DNA binding has remained unknown. Here we identify a new indispensable bacterial replication origin element composed of a repeating trinucleotide motif that we term the DnaA-trio. We show that the function of the DnaA-trio is to stabilize DnaA filaments on a single DNA strand, thus providing essential precision to this binding mechanism. Bioinformatic analysis detects DnaA-trios in replication origins throughout the bacterial kingdom, indicating that this element is part of the core oriC structure. The discovery and characterization of the novel DnaA-trio extends our fundamental understanding of bacterial DNA replication initiation, and because of the conserved structure of AAA+ initiator proteins these findings raise the possibility of specific recognition motifs within replication origins of higher organisms.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17962
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Structural basis for amino acid export by DMT superfamily transporter YddG
    • Authors: Hirotoshi Tsuchiya, Shintaro Doki, Mizuki Takemoto, Tatsuya Ikuta, Takashi Higuchi, Keita Fukui, Yoshihiro Usuda, Eri Tabuchi, Satoru Nagatoishi, Kouhei Tsumoto, Tomohiro Nishizawa, Koichi Ito, Naoshi Dohmae, Ryuichiro Ishitani, Osamu Nureki
      Pages: 417 - 420
      Abstract: The drug/metabolite transporter (DMT) superfamily is a large group of membrane transporters ubiquitously found in eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea, and includes exporters for a remarkably wide range of substrates, such as toxic compounds and metabolites. YddG is a bacterial DMT protein that expels aromatic amino acids and exogenous toxic compounds, thereby contributing to cellular homeostasis. Here we present structural and functional analyses of YddG. Using liposome-based analyses, we show that Escherichia coli and Starkeya novella YddG export various amino acids. The crystal structure of S. novella YddG at 2.4 Å resolution reveals a new membrane transporter topology, with ten transmembrane segments in an outward-facing state. The overall structure is basket-shaped, with a large substrate-binding cavity at the centre of the molecule, and is composed of inverted structural repeats related by two-fold pseudo-symmetry. On the basis of this intramolecular symmetry, we propose a structural model for the inward-facing state and a mechanism of the conformational change for substrate transport, which we confirmed by biochemical analyses. These findings provide a structural basis for the mechanism of transport of DMT superfamily proteins.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-30
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17991
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Learn the local lingo to get ahead
    • Authors: Cameron Walker
      Pages: 425 - 427
      Abstract: English is widely spoken in science, but mastering another language can open doors, especially when working abroad.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7607-425a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Turning point: Aerial archaeologist
    • Authors: Virginia Gewin
      Pages: 427 - 427
      Abstract: Sarah Parcak uses satellite imagery to find ancient sites, and to help world citizens to save them.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7607-427a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Corrections
    • Corrections

      Nature 534, 7607 (2016). doi:10.1038/nj7607-427b

      Nature 534, 7607 (2016)2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7607-427b
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Six names for the end
    • Authors: Ken Hinckley
      Pages: 430 - 430
      Abstract: Time to say goodbye.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.1038/534430a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607 (2016)
       
  • Boon or burden: what has the EU ever done for science'
    • Authors: Alison Abbott, Declan Butler, Elizabeth Gibney, Quirin Schiermeier, Richard Van Noorden
      Pages: 307 - 309
      Abstract: More than 500 million people and 28 nations make up the European Union. It will lose one of its richest, most populous members, if the United Kingdom votes to leave on 23 June. Ahead of a possible ‘Brexit’, Nature examines five core ways that the EU shapes the course of research.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      DOI: 10.1038/534307a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607
       
  • Policy: Map the interactions between Sustainable Development Goals
    • Pages: 320 - 322
      Abstract: Måns Nilsson, Dave Griggs and Martin Visbeck present a simple way of rating relationships between the targets to highlight priorities for integrated policy.
      Citation: Nature 534, 7607 (2016)
      DOI: 10.1038/534320a
      Issue No: Vol. 534, No. 7607
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 107.22.110.29
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2015