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Journal Cover Nature
   [2496 followers]  Follow    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
     ISSN (Print) 0028-0836 - ISSN (Online) 1476-4687
     Published by Nature Publishing Group Homepage  [110 journals]   [SJR: 14.747]   [H-I: 768]
  • Spin cycle
    • Pages: 287 - 288
      Abstract: Pressures in all stages of the news-making process can lead to hype in science reporting.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516287b
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Keep asking the question
    • Pages: 287 - 287
      Abstract: Scientists must push to preserve a small part of a large US survey that provides essential information on the ever-changing scientific workforce.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-16
      DOI: 10.1038/516287a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Honest brokers
    • Pages: 288 - 288
      Abstract: Climate negotiations in Lima stumbled on transparency, but there is time to adjust.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-16
      DOI: 10.1038/516288a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Challenge the abuse of science in setting policy
    • Authors: Guillaume Chapron
      Pages: 289 - 289
      Abstract: The misuse of wolf research by Swedish politicians should be a warning to all biodiversity scientists, says Guillaume Chapron.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516289a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Meteorology: Lopsided hail hits harder
    • Pages: 290 - 290
      Abstract: Hail storms can cause billions of dollars' worth of damage, but until now scientists have known little about the precise mass and shape of hail. A study has found that hailstones that are not perfectly spherical can sometimes travel faster and hit objects with greater
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516290c
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Molecular evolution: How bacteria and host fight for iron
    • Pages: 290 - 291
      Abstract: A study of primate and bacterial proteins involved in capturing iron from the blood has revealed an evolutionary arms race in the battle over this important nutrient.Matthew Barber and Nels Elde at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City focused on transferrin, a
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516290d
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Palaeoclimate: Lake cores support legend of typhoons
    • Pages: 290 - 290
      Abstract: Geoscientists have found possible evidence of two typhoons that, according to Japanese legend, wiped out invading Mongol fleets in the years 1274 and 1281.Jon Woodruff of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and his colleagues collected a 2,000-year-old sediment record from a coastal lake on
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516290b
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Animal behaviour: Fish adopt chemical camouflage
    • Pages: 290 - 290
      Abstract: A coral-reef fish can match its scent to the odour of the surrounding reef, masking itself from predators.Harlequin filefish (Oxymonacanthus longirostris; pictured) live around reefs in the Pacific and Indian oceans and feed on particular species of coral. A team led by
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516290a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Astronomy: Exoplanet seen from Earth
    • Pages: 291 - 291
      Abstract: Using a modest-sized ground-based telescope, astronomers have spotted a planet twice the size of Earth passing in front of its host star.Researchers typically study planets outside the Solar System using space telescopes or much larger telescopes on Earth, but studies with space telescopes are
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516291e
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Agricultural ecology: Pesticide moves up food chain
    • Pages: 291 - 291
      Abstract: An insecticide banned in some areas for its effect on bees not only fails to kill certain pests, but also harms the predators that feed on them.Neonicotinoid insecticides are used on many crops, including soya-bean plants, on which pest slugs (Deroceras reticulatum)
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516291d
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Physics: Record-breaking electron boost
    • Pages: 291 - 291
      Abstract: Physicists have used lasers to increase the amount of energy that electrons gain per metre by more than two orders of magnitude compared with traditional accelerators.Conventional colliders can accelerate particles to much greater energies, but over many kilometres. Wim Leemans at Lawrence Berkeley National
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516291b
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Chemistry: Painkillers made in minutes
    • Pages: 291 - 291
      Abstract: Ibuprofen can be produced in minutes by mixing reagents as they flow through a series of connecting tubes.Synthesizing a substance in a continuous-flow process offers more control over reactions and allows less solvent to be used than batch production in flasks. But solid by-products
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516291c
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Anthropology: How a Maya city rose and fell
    • Pages: 291 - 291
      Abstract: One of the major Maya cities thrived in a tropical forest by using sophisticated agricultural, forestry and water-management techniques.David Lentz at the University of Cincinnati in Ohio and his colleagues surveyed modern forests at the site of Tikal in Guatemala, which was a bustling
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516291a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Study points to press releases as sources of hype
    • Authors: Chris Woolston
      Pages: 291 - 291
      Abstract: Scientists, press officers and journalists online are pointing fingers in light of a paper that traces the origins of exaggerated claims in health news.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-12
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2014.16551
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Seven days: 12–18 December 2014
    • Pages: 292 - 293
      Abstract: The week in science: Activists harm Nazca lines; Large Hadron Collider heads towards reboot; and Russia promises nuclear reactors for India.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516292a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Flock of geneticists redraws bird family tree
    • Authors: Ewen Callaway
      Pages: 297 - 297
      Abstract: Birds get fresh perches in revamped tree of life built by vast collaboration.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-11
      DOI: 10.1038/516297a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Putin’s Russia divides and enrages scientists
    • Authors: Quirin Schiermeier
      Pages: 298 - 299
      Abstract: Are geopolitical tensions destroying important links with the West, or can Russian research go it alone'
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-16
      DOI: 10.1038/516298a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Correction
    • Pages: 299 - 299
      Abstract: The News Feature ‘Ebola’s lost ward’ (Nature513, 474–477; 2014) incorrectly stated that nurse Veronica Koroma contracted Ebola.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-16
      DOI: 10.1038/516299a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • 365 days: Images of the year
    • Authors: Daniel Cressey
      Pages: 304 - 309
      Abstract: Eruptions, comets and a see-through mouse all captured the imagination in 2014.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516304a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Scientific method: Defend the integrity of physics
    • Authors: George Ellis, Joe Silk
      Pages: 321 - 323
      Abstract: Attempts to exempt speculative theories of the Universe from experimental verification undermine science, argue George Ellis and Joe Silk.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-16
      DOI: 10.1038/516321a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Infectious disease: Mobilizing Ebola survivors to curb the epidemic
    • Authors: Joshua M. Epstein, Lauren M. Sauer, Julia Chelen, Erez Hatna, Jon Parker, Richard E. Rothman, Lewis Rubinson
      Pages: 323 - 325
      Abstract: Scaling up the recruitment of individuals who have recovered from infection deserves urgent consideration, argue Joshua M. Epstein, Lauren M. Sauer and colleagues.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516323a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • In retrospect: Between Pacific Tides
    • Authors: Aaron Hirsh
      Pages: 326 - 328
      Abstract: Aaron Hirsh celebrates the 75th anniversary of the marine-biology classic by Ed Ricketts, the bohemian scientist who inspired John Steinbeck.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516326a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Astrobiology: Prescient words on comets and life
    • Authors: Milton Wainwright
      Pages: 329 - 329
      Abstract: The landing of the Philae probe on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko last month has led to speculation that comets might have delivered the building-block elements of life to Earth — an idea anticipated by the French astronomer Camille Flammarion more than a century ago in his 1880
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516329a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Conservation: Pool resources for protected areas
    • Authors: Jon Hoekstra, Meg Symington, Chris Weaver
      Pages: 329 - 329
      Abstract: Protected conservation areas face huge challenges globally (see J. E. M.Watsonet al. Nature515, 67–73;10.1038/515067a2014). But examples that are effectively funded and managed can be found in Namibia and in the Brazilian Amazon. In our
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516329b
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Hungary: Research agency will lose autonomy
    • Authors: András Váradi, János Kertész
      Pages: 329 - 329
      Abstract: On 1 January 2015, a large new government office will take over Hungary's research-grant agency for basic science, OTKA. This will assume all budget management for research, development and innovation — destroying what the European Science Foundation has described as the agency's “high degree of
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516329c
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Environment: Flood resilience a must for delta cities
    • Authors: Ruben Dahm
      Pages: 329 - 329
      Abstract: Conventional methods of flood protection such as levees are no longer adequate against the increased risk of flooding in Asian delta cities. We call for a multipronged approach that focuses on long-term, sustainable solutions to increase these cities' resilience to flooding (see also L.Giosan
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516329d
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Refereeing: What football can teach science
    • Authors: Arturo Sala
      Pages: 329 - 329
      Abstract: One solution to the challenges posed by voluntary peer review (M.ArnsNature515, 46710.1038/515467a (2014) and see Nature515, 480–482;10.1038/515480a2014) might be to create a professional, independent body of reviewers
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516329e
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Martin L. Perl (1927–2014)
    • Authors: Valerie Halyo
      Pages: 330 - 330
      Abstract: Discoverer of the tau lepton subatomic particle.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516330a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Organic synthesis: Better chemistry through radicals
    • Authors: Steven L. Castle
      Pages: 332 - 333
      Abstract: An iron catalyst has been developed that mediates bond formation between a wide range of alkene reactants, opening up short synthetic routes to compounds that were previously accessible only through arduous pathways. See Article p.343
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516332a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Synthetic biology: Toehold gene switches make big footprints
    • Authors: Simon Ausländer, Martin Fussenegger
      Pages: 333 - 334
      Abstract: The development of RNA-based devices called toehold switches that regulate translation might usher in an era in which protein production can be linked to almost any RNA input and provide precise, low-cost diagnostics.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516333a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Malaria: How vector mosquitoes beat the heat
    • Authors: Nora J. Besansky
      Pages: 334 - 336
      Abstract: Intensive longitudinal sampling of malaria mosquitoes in the African semi-desert reveals that three morphologically indistinguishable species have distinctive strategies for surviving the dry season.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-26
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14073
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • 50 & 100 Years Ago
    • Pages: 335 - 335
      Abstract: 50 Years AgoDr. H. J. Kingsley and Dr. J. E. A. David of Bulawayo have described ... the case of a girl aged 22 months ... She appeared to be completely insensitive to pain ... She was admitted to hospital for investigation and was
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516335a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Conservation: Mind the gaps
    • Authors: Thomas M. Brooks
      Pages: 336 - 337
      Abstract: New analysis reveals the conservation gains that could be achieved by expanding the global network of protected areas — but also how this may be undermined by land-use change and a lack of international coordination. See Letter p.383
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516336a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Materials science: Two steps for a magnetoelectric switch
    • Authors: Kathrin Dörr, Andreas Herklotz
      Pages: 337 - 338
      Abstract: Magnetoelectric materials allow magnetism to be controlled by an electric field. The discovery of an indirect path for switching electrical polarization in one such material brings this idea close to practical use. See Letter p.370
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516337a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Influenza: An RNA-synthesizing machine
    • Authors: Robert M. Krug
      Pages: 338 - 339
      Abstract: Crystal structures of the complete RNA polymerases from influenza A and B viruses provide insight into how these enzymes initiate RNA synthesis, and reveal targets for antiviral drug design. See Articles p.355 & p.361
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516338a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • 2014 Editors' choice
    • Pages: 340 - 341
      Abstract: Extracts from selected News & Views articles published this year.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516340a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Functionalized olefin cross-coupling to construct carbon–carbon
           bonds
    • Authors: Julian C. Lo, Jinghan Gui, Yuki Yabe, Chung-Mao Pan, Phil S. Baran
      Pages: 343 - 348
      Abstract: Carbon–carbon (C–C) bonds form the backbone of many important molecules, including polymers, dyes and pharmaceutical agents. The development of new methods to create these essential connections in a rapid and practical fashion has been the focus of numerous organic chemists. This endeavour relies heavily on
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14006
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • An AUTS2–Polycomb complex activates gene expression in the CNS
    • Authors: Zhonghua Gao, Pedro Lee, James M. Stafford, Melanie von Schimmelmann, Anne Schaefer, Danny Reinberg
      Pages: 349 - 354
      Abstract: Naturally occurring variations of Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) comprise a core assembly of Polycomb group proteins and additional factors that include, surprisingly, autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2). Although AUTS2 is often disrupted in patients with neuronal disorders, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis is
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13921
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Structure of influenza A polymerase bound to the viral RNA promoter
    • Authors: Alexander Pflug, Delphine Guilligay, Stefan Reich, Stephen Cusack
      Pages: 355 - 360
      Abstract: The influenza virus polymerase transcribes or replicates the segmented RNA genome (viral RNA) into viral messenger RNA or full-length copies. To initiate RNA synthesis, the polymerase binds to the conserved 3′ and 5′ extremities of the viral RNA. Here we present the crystal structure of
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14008
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Structural insight into cap-snatching and RNA synthesis by influenza
           polymerase
    • Authors: Stefan Reich, Delphine Guilligay, Alexander Pflug, Hélène Malet, Imre Berger, Thibaut Crépin, Darren Hart, Thomas Lunardi, Max Nanao, Rob W. H. Ruigrok, Stephen Cusack
      Pages: 361 - 366
      Abstract: Influenza virus polymerase uses a capped primer, derived by ‘cap-snatching’ from host pre-messenger RNA, to transcribe its RNA genome into mRNA and a stuttering mechanism to generate the poly(A) tail. By contrast, genome replication is unprimed and generates exact full-length copies of the template. Here
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14009
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • The exclusion of a significant range of ages in a massive star cluster
    • Authors: Chengyuan Li, Richard de Grijs, Licai Deng
      Pages: 367 - 369
      Abstract: Stars spend most of their lifetimes on the main sequence in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram. The extended main-sequence turn-off regions—containing stars leaving the main sequence after having spent all of the hydrogen in their cores—found in massive (more than a few tens of thousands of solar masses), intermediate-age (about one to three billion years old) star clusters are usually interpreted as evidence of internal age spreads of more than 300 million years, although young clusters are thought to quickly lose any remaining star-forming fuel following a period of rapid gas expulsion on timescales of order 107 years. Here we report, on the basis of a combination of high-resolution imaging observations and theoretical modelling, that the stars beyond the main sequence in the two-billion-year-old cluster NGC 1651, characterized by a mass of about 1.7 × 105 solar masses, can be explained only by a single-age stellar population, even though the cluster has a clearly extended main-sequence turn-off region. The most plausible explanation for the existence of such extended regions invokes a population of rapidly rotating stars, although the secondary effects of the prolonged stellar lifetimes associated with such a stellar population mixture are as yet poorly understood. From preliminary analysis of previously obtained data, we find that similar morphologies are apparent in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagrams of at least five additional intermediate-age star clusters, suggesting that an extended main-sequence turn-off region does not necessarily imply the presence of a significant internal age dispersion.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13969
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Deterministic switching of ferromagnetism at room temperature using an
           electric field
    • Authors: J. T. Heron, J. L. Bosse, Q. He, Y. Gao, M. Trassin, L. Ye, J. D. Clarkson, C. Wang, Jian Liu, S. Salahuddin, D. C. Ralph, D. G. Schlom, J. Íñiguez, B. D. Huey, R. Ramesh
      Pages: 370 - 373
      Abstract: The technological appeal of multiferroics is the ability to control magnetism with electric field. For devices to be useful, such control must be achieved at room temperature. The only single-phase multiferroic material exhibiting unambiguous magnetoelectric coupling at room temperature is BiFeO3 (refs 4 and 5). Its weak ferromagnetism arises from the canting of the antiferromagnetically aligned spins by the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) interaction. Prior theory considered the symmetry of the thermodynamic ground state and concluded that direct 180-degree switching of the DM vector by the ferroelectric polarization was forbidden. Instead, we examined the kinetics of the switching process, something not considered previously in theoretical work. Here we show a deterministic reversal of the DM vector and canted moment using an electric field at room temperature. First-principles calculations reveal that the switching kinetics favours a two-step switching process. In each step the DM vector and polarization are coupled and 180-degree deterministic switching of magnetization hence becomes possible, in agreement with experimental observation. We exploit this switching to demonstrate energy-efficient control of a spin-valve device at room temperature. The energy per unit area required is approximately an order of magnitude less than that needed for spin-transfer torque switching. Given that the DM interaction is fundamental to single-phase multiferroics and magnetoelectrics, our results suggest ways to engineer magnetoelectric switching and tailor technologically pertinent functionality for nanometre-scale, low-energy-consumption, non-volatile magnetoelectronics.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14004
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet
    • Authors: Christian Ott, Andreas Kaldun, Luca Argenti, Philipp Raith, Kristina Meyer, Martin Laux, Yizhu Zhang, Alexander Blättermann, Steffen Hagstotz, Thomas Ding, Robert Heck, Javier Madroñero, Fernando Martín, Thomas Pfeifer
      Pages: 374 - 378
      Abstract: The concerted motion of two or more bound electrons governs atomic and molecular non-equilibrium processes including chemical reactions, and hence there is much interest in developing a detailed understanding of such electron dynamics in the quantum regime. However, there is no exact solution for the quantum three-body problem, and as a result even the minimal system of two active electrons and a nucleus is analytically intractable. This makes experimental measurements of the dynamics of two bound and correlated electrons, as found in the helium atom, an attractive prospect. However, although the motion of single active electrons and holes has been observed with attosecond time resolution, comparable experiments on two-electron motion have so far remained out of reach. Here we show that a correlated two-electron wave packet can be reconstructed from a 1.2-femtosecond quantum beat among low-lying doubly excited states in helium. The beat appears in attosecond transient-absorption spectra measured with unprecedentedly high spectral resolution and in the presence of an intensity-tunable visible laser field. We tune the coupling between the two low-lying quantum states by adjusting the visible laser intensity, and use the Fano resonance as a phase-sensitive quantum interferometer to achieve coherent control of the two correlated electrons. Given the excellent agreement with large-scale quantum-mechanical calculations for the helium atom, we anticipate that multidimensional spectroscopy experiments of the type we report here will provide benchmark data for testing fundamental few-body quantum dynamics theory in more complex systems. They might also provide a route to the site-specific measurement and control of metastable electronic transition states that are at the heart of fundamental chemical reactions.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14026
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • The contribution of the Precambrian continental lithosphere to global H2
           production
    • Authors: Barbara Sherwood Lollar, T. C. Onstott, G. Lacrampe-Couloume, C. J. Ballentine
      Pages: 379 - 382
      Abstract: Microbial ecosystems can be sustained by hydrogen gas (H2)-producing water–rock interactions in the Earth’s subsurface and at deep ocean vents. Current estimates of global H2 production from the marine lithosphere by water–rock reactions (hydration) are in the range of 1011 moles per year. Recent explorations of saline fracture waters in the Precambrian continental subsurface have identified environments as rich in H2 as hydrothermal vents and seafloor-spreading centres and have suggested a link between dissolved H2 and the radiolytic dissociation of water. However, extrapolation of a regional H2 flux based on the deep gold mines of the Witwatersrand basin in South Africa yields a contribution of the Precambrian lithosphere to global H2 production that was thought to be negligible (0.009 × 1011 moles per year). Here we present a global compilation of published and new H2 concentration data obtained from Precambrian rocks and find that the H2 production potential of the Precambrian continental lithosphere has been underestimated. We suggest that this can be explained by a lack of consideration of additional H2-producing reactions, such as serpentinization, and the absence of appropriate scaling of H2 measurements from these environments to account for the fact that Precambrian crust represents over 70 per cent of global continental crust surface area. If H2 production via both radiolysis and hydration reactions is taken into account, our estimate of H2 production rates from the Precambrian continental lithosphere of 0.36–2.27 × 1011 moles per year is comparable to estimates from marine systems.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14017
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Global protected area expansion is compromised by projected land-use and
           parochialism
    • Authors: Federico Montesino Pouzols, Tuuli Toivonen, Enrico Di Minin, Aija S. Kukkala, Peter Kullberg, Johanna Kuusterä, Joona Lehtomäki, Henrikki Tenkanen, Peter H. Verburg, Atte Moilanen
      Pages: 383 - 386
      Abstract: Protected areas are one of the main tools for halting the continuing global biodiversity crisis caused by habitat loss, fragmentation and other anthropogenic pressures. According to the Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity, the protected area network should be expanded to at least 17% of the terrestrial world by 2020 (http://www.cbd.int/sp/targets). To maximize conservation outcomes, it is crucial to identify the best expansion areas. Here we show that there is a very high potential to increase protection of ecoregions and vertebrate species by expanding the protected area network, but also identify considerable risk of ineffective outcomes due to land-use change and uncoordinated actions between countries. We use distribution data for 24,757 terrestrial vertebrates assessed under the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) ‘red list of threatened species’, and terrestrial ecoregions (827), modified by land-use models for the present and 2040, and introduce techniques for global and balanced spatial conservation prioritization. First, we show that with a coordinated global protected area network expansion to 17% of terrestrial land, average protection of species ranges and ecoregions could triple. Second, if projected land-use change by 2040 (ref. 11) takes place, it becomes infeasible to reach the currently possible protection levels, and over 1,000 threatened species would lose more than 50% of their present effective ranges worldwide. Third, we demonstrate a major efficiency gap between national and global conservation priorities. Strong evidence is shown that further biodiversity loss is unavoidable unless international action is quickly taken to balance land-use and biodiversity conservation. The approach used here can serve as a framework for repeatable and quantitative assessment of efficiency, gaps and expansion of the global protected area network globally, regionally and nationally, considering current and projected land-use pressures.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14032
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Signatures of aestivation and migration in Sahelian malaria mosquito
           populations
    • Authors: A. Dao, A. S. Yaro, M. Diallo, S. Timbiné, D. L. Huestis, Y. Kassogué, A. I. Traoré, Z. L. Sanogo, D. Samaké, T. Lehmann
      Pages: 387 - 390
      Abstract: During the long Sahelian dry season, mosquito vectors of malaria are expected to perish when no larval sites are available; yet, days after the first rains, mosquitoes reappear in large numbers. How these vectors persist over the 3–6-month long dry season has not been resolved, despite extensive research for over a century. Hypotheses for vector persistence include dry-season diapause (aestivation) and long-distance migration (LDM); both are facets of vector biology that have been highly controversial owing to lack of concrete evidence. Here we show that certain species persist by a form of aestivation, while others engage in LDM. Using time-series analyses, the seasonal cycles of Anopheles coluzzii, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.), and Anopheles arabiensis were estimated, and their effects were found to be significant, stable and highly species-specific. Contrary to all expectations, the most complex dynamics occurred during the dry season, when the density of A. coluzzii fluctuated markedly, peaking when migration would seem highly unlikely, whereas A. gambiae s.s. was undetected. The population growth of A. coluzzii followed the first rains closely, consistent with aestivation, whereas the growth phase of both A. gambiae s.s. and A. arabiensis lagged by two months. Such a delay is incompatible with local persistence, but fits LDM. Surviving the long dry season in situ allows A. coluzzii to predominate and form the primary force of malaria transmission. Our results reveal profound ecological divergence between A. coluzzii and A. gambiae s.s., whose standing as distinct species has been challenged, and suggest that climate is one of the selective pressures that led to their speciation. Incorporating vector dormancy and LDM is key to predicting shifts in the range of malaria due to global climate change, and to the elimination of malaria from Africa.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-26
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13987
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • A relative shift in cloacal location repositions external genitalia in
           amniote evolution
    • Authors: Patrick Tschopp, Emma Sherratt, Thomas J. Sanger, Anna C. Groner, Ariel C. Aspiras, Jimmy K. Hu, Olivier Pourquié, Jérôme Gros, Clifford J. Tabin
      Pages: 391 - 394
      Abstract: The move of vertebrates to a terrestrial lifestyle required major adaptations in their locomotory apparatus and reproductive organs. While the fin-to-limb transition has received considerable attention, little is known about the developmental and evolutionary origins of external genitalia. Similarities in gene expression have been interpreted as a potential evolutionary link between the limb and genitals; however, no underlying developmental mechanism has been identified. We re-examined this question using micro-computed tomography, lineage tracing in three amniote clades, and RNA-sequencing-based transcriptional profiling. Here we show that the developmental origin of external genitalia has shifted through evolution, and in some taxa limbs and genitals share a common primordium. In squamates, the genitalia develop directly from the budding hindlimbs, or the remnants thereof, whereas in mice the genital tubercle originates from the ventral and tail bud mesenchyme. The recruitment of different cell populations for genital outgrowth follows a change in the relative position of the cloaca, the genitalia organizing centre. Ectopic grafting of the cloaca demonstrates the conserved ability of different mesenchymal cells to respond to these genitalia-inducing signals. Our results support a limb-like developmental origin of external genitalia as the ancestral condition. Moreover, they suggest that a change in the relative position of the cloacal signalling centre during evolution has led to an altered developmental route for external genitalia in mammals, while preserving parts of the ancestral limb molecular circuitry owing to a common evolutionary origin.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-05
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13819
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Adenosine activates brown adipose tissue and recruits beige adipocytes via
           A2A receptors
    • Authors: Thorsten Gnad, Saskia Scheibler, Ivar von Kügelgen, Camilla Scheele, Ana Kilić, Anja Glöde, Linda S. Hoffmann, Laia Reverte-Salisa, Philipp Horn, Samet Mutlu, Ali El-Tayeb, Mathias Kranz, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Peter Brust, Martin E. Lidell, Matthias J. Betz, Sven Enerbäck, Jürgen Schrader, Gennady G. Yegutkin, Christa E. Müller, Alexander Pfeifer
      Pages: 395 - 399
      Abstract: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized in energy expenditure, making it a potential target for anti-obesity therapies. Following exposure to cold, BAT is activated by the sympathetic nervous system with concomitant release of catecholamines and activation of β-adrenergic receptors. Because BAT therapies based on cold exposure or β-adrenergic agonists are clinically not feasible, alternative strategies must be explored. Purinergic co-transmission might be involved in sympathetic control of BAT and previous studies reported inhibitory effects of the purinergic transmitter adenosine in BAT from hamster or rat. However, the role of adenosine in human BAT is unknown. Here we show that adenosine activates human and murine brown adipocytes at low nanomolar concentrations. Adenosine is released in BAT during stimulation of sympathetic nerves as well as from brown adipocytes. The adenosine A2A receptor is the most abundant adenosine receptor in human and murine BAT. Pharmacological blockade or genetic loss of A2A receptors in mice causes a decrease in BAT-dependent thermogenesis, whereas treatment with A2A agonists significantly increases energy expenditure. Moreover, pharmacological stimulation of A2A receptors or injection of lentiviral vectors expressing the A2A receptor into white fat induces brown-like cells—so-called beige adipocytes. Importantly, mice fed a high-fat diet and treated with an A2A agonist are leaner with improved glucose tolerance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that adenosine–A2A signalling plays an unexpected physiological role in sympathetic BAT activation and protects mice from diet-induced obesity. Those findings reveal new possibilities for developing novel obesity therapies.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13816
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Modelling human development and disease in pluripotent stem-cell-derived
           gastric organoids
    • Authors: Kyle W. McCracken, Emily M. Catá, Calyn M. Crawford, Katie L. Sinagoga, Michael Schumacher, Briana E. Rockich, Yu-Hwai Tsai, Christopher N. Mayhew, Jason R. Spence, Yana Zavros, James M. Wells
      Pages: 400 - 404
      Abstract: Gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, affect 10% of the world’s population and are largely due to chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. Species differences in embryonic development and architecture of the adult stomach make animal models suboptimal for studying human stomach organogenesis and pathogenesis, and there is no experimental model of normal human gastric mucosa. Here we report the de novo generation of three-dimensional human gastric tissue in vitro through the directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. We show that temporal manipulation of the FGF, WNT, BMP, retinoic acid and EGF signalling pathways and three-dimensional growth are sufficient to generate human gastric organoids (hGOs). Developing hGOs progressed through molecular and morphogenetic stages that were nearly identical to the developing antrum of the mouse stomach. Organoids formed primitive gastric gland- and pit-like domains, proliferative zones containing LGR5-expressing cells, surface and antral mucous cells, and a diversity of gastric endocrine cells. We used hGO cultures to identify novel signalling mechanisms that regulate early endoderm patterning and gastric endocrine cell differentiation upstream of the transcription factor NEUROG3. Using hGOs to model pathogenesis of human disease, we found that H. pylori infection resulted in rapid association of the virulence factor CagA with the c-Met receptor, activation of signalling and induction of epithelial proliferation. Together, these studies describe a new and robust in vitro system for elucidating the mechanisms underlying human stomach development and disease.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13863
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Primate-specific endogenous retrovirus-driven transcription defines
           naive-like stem cells
    • Authors: Jichang Wang, Gangcai Xie, Manvendra Singh, Avazeh T. Ghanbarian, Tamás Raskó, Attila Szvetnik, Huiqiang Cai, Daniel Besser, Alessandro Prigione, Nina V. Fuchs, Gerald G. Schumann, Wei Chen, Matthew C. Lorincz, Zoltán Ivics, Laurence D. Hurst, Zsuzsanna Izsvák
      Pages: 405 - 409
      Abstract: Naive embryonic stem cells hold great promise for research and therapeutics as they have broad and robust developmental potential. While such cells are readily derived from mouse blastocysts it has not been possible to isolate human equivalents easily, although human naive-like cells have been artificially generated (rather than extracted) by coercion of human primed embryonic stem cells by modifying culture conditions or through transgenic modification. Here we show that a sub-population within cultures of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) manifests key properties of naive state cells. These naive-like cells can be genetically tagged, and are associated with elevated transcription of HERVH, a primate-specific endogenous retrovirus. HERVH elements provide functional binding sites for a combination of naive pluripotency transcription factors, including LBP9, recently recognized as relevant to naivety in mice. LBP9–HERVH drives hESC-specific alternative and chimaeric transcripts, including pluripotency-modulating long non-coding RNAs. Disruption of LBP9, HERVH and HERVH-derived transcripts compromises self-renewal. These observations define HERVH expression as a hallmark of naive-like hESCs, and establish novel primate-specific transcriptional circuitry regulating pluripotency.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13804
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Protein quality control at the inner nuclear membrane
    • Authors: Anton Khmelinskii, Ewa Blaszczak, Marina Pantazopoulou, Bernd Fischer, Deike J. Omnus, Gaëlle Le Dez, Audrey Brossard, Alexander Gunnarsson, Joseph D. Barry, Matthias Meurer, Daniel Kirrmaier, Charles Boone, Wolfgang Huber, Gwenaël Rabut, Per O. Ljungdahl, Michael Knop
      Pages: 410 - 413
      Abstract: The nuclear envelope is a double membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm. The inner nuclear membrane (INM) functions in essential nuclear processes including chromatin organization and regulation of gene expression. The outer nuclear membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and is the site of membrane protein synthesis. Protein homeostasis in this compartment is ensured by endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathways that in yeast involve the integral membrane E3 ubiquitin ligases Hrd1 and Doa10 operating with the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes Ubc6 and Ubc7 (refs 2, 3). However, little is known about protein quality control at the INM. Here we describe a protein degradation pathway at the INM in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mediated by the Asi complex consisting of the RING domain proteins Asi1 and Asi3 (ref. 4). We report that the Asi complex functions together with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes Ubc6 and Ubc7 to degrade soluble and integral membrane proteins. Genetic evidence suggests that the Asi ubiquitin ligase defines a pathway distinct from, but complementary to, ERAD. Using unbiased screening with a novel genome-wide yeast library based on a tandem fluorescent protein timer, we identify more than 50 substrates of the Asi, Hrd1 and Doa10 E3 ubiquitin ligases. We show that the Asi ubiquitin ligase is involved in degradation of mislocalized integral membrane proteins, thus acting to maintain and safeguard the identity of the INM.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14096
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Mitochondrial UPR-regulated innate immunity provides resistance to
           pathogen infection
    • Authors: Mark W. Pellegrino, Amrita M. Nargund, Natalia V. Kirienko, Reba Gillis, Christopher J. Fiorese, Cole M. Haynes
      Pages: 414 - 417
      Abstract: Metazoans identify and eliminate bacterial pathogens in microbe-rich environments such as the intestinal lumen; however, the mechanisms are unclear. Host cells could potentially use intracellular surveillance or stress response programs to detect pathogens that target monitored cellular activities and then initiate innate immune responses. Mitochondrial function is evaluated by monitoring mitochondrial protein import efficiency of the transcription factor ATFS-1, which mediates the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt). During mitochondrial stress, mitochondrial import is impaired, allowing ATFS-1 to traffic to the nucleus where it mediates a transcriptional response to re-establish mitochondrial homeostasis. Here we examined the role of ATFS-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans during pathogen exposure, because during mitochondrial stress ATFS-1 induced not only mitochondrial protective genes but also innate immune genes that included a secreted lysozyme and anti-microbial peptides. Exposure to the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa caused mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of the UPRmt. C. elegans lacking atfs-1 were susceptible to P. aeruginosa, whereas hyper-activation of ATFS-1 and the UPRmt improved clearance of P. aeruginosa from the intestine and prolonged C. elegans survival in a manner mainly independent of known innate immune pathways. We propose that ATFS-1 import efficiency and the UPRmt is a means to detect pathogens that target mitochondria and initiate a protective innate immune response.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-09-28
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13818
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Rapid development of broadly influenza neutralizing antibodies through
           redundant mutations
    • Authors: Leontios Pappas, Mathilde Foglierini, Luca Piccoli, Nicole L. Kallewaard, Filippo Turrini, Chiara Silacci, Blanca Fernandez-Rodriguez, Gloria Agatic, Isabella Giacchetto-Sasselli, Gabriele Pellicciotta, Federica Sallusto, Qing Zhu, Elisa Vicenzi, Davide Corti, Antonio Lanzavecchia
      Pages: 418 - 422
      Abstract: The neutralizing antibody response to influenza virus is dominated by antibodies that bind to the globular head of haemagglutinin, which undergoes a continuous antigenic drift, necessitating the re-formulation of influenza vaccines on an annual basis. Recently, several laboratories have described a new class of rare influenza-neutralizing antibodies that target a conserved site in the haemagglutinin stem. Most of these antibodies use the heavy-chain variable region VH1-69 gene, and structural data demonstrate that they bind to the haemagglutinin stem through conserved heavy-chain complementarity determining region (HCDR) residues. However, the VH1-69 antibodies are highly mutated and are produced by some but not all individuals, suggesting that several somatic mutations may be required for their development. To address this, here we characterize 197 anti-stem antibodies from a single donor, reconstruct the developmental pathways of several VH1-69 clones and identify two key elements that are required for the initial development of most VH1-69 antibodies: a polymorphic germline-encoded phenylalanine at position 54 and a conserved tyrosine at position 98 in HCDR3. Strikingly, in most cases a single proline to alanine mutation at position 52a in HCDR2 is sufficient to confer high affinity binding to the selecting H1 antigen, consistent with rapid affinity maturation. Surprisingly, additional favourable mutations continue to accumulate, increasing the breadth of reactivity and making both the initial mutations and phenylalanine at position 54 functionally redundant. These results define VH1-69 allele polymorphism, rearrangement of the VDJ gene segments and single somatic mutations as the three requirements for generating broadly neutralizing VH1-69 antibodies and reveal an unexpected redundancy in the affinity maturation process.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-05
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13764
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • In vivo engineering of oncogenic chromosomal rearrangements with the
           CRISPR/Cas9 system
    • Authors: Danilo Maddalo, Eusebio Manchado, Carla P. Concepcion, Ciro Bonetti, Joana A. Vidigal, Yoon-Chi Han, Paul Ogrodowski, Alessandra Crippa, Natasha Rekhtman, Elisa de Stanchina, Scott W. Lowe, Andrea Ventura
      Pages: 423 - 427
      Abstract: Chromosomal rearrangements have a central role in the pathogenesis of human cancers and often result in the expression of therapeutically actionable gene fusions. A recently discovered example is a fusion between the genes echinoderm microtubule-associated protein like 4 (EML4) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), generated by an inversion on the short arm of chromosome 2: inv(2)(p21p23). The EML4–ALK oncogene is detected in a subset of human non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and is clinically relevant because it confers sensitivity to ALK inhibitors. Despite their importance, modelling such genetic events in mice has proven challenging and requires complex manipulation of the germ line. Here we describe an efficient method to induce specific chromosomal rearrangements in vivo using viral-mediated delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to somatic cells of adult animals. We apply it to generate a mouse model of Eml4–Alk-driven lung cancer. The resulting tumours invariably harbour the Eml4–Alk inversion, express the Eml4–Alk fusion gene, display histopathological and molecular features typical of ALK+ human NSCLCs, and respond to treatment with ALK inhibitors. The general strategy described here substantially expands our ability to model human cancers in mice and potentially in other organisms.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-22
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13902
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Rapid modelling of cooperating genetic events in cancer through somatic
           genome editing
    • Authors: Francisco J. Sánchez-Rivera, Thales Papagiannakopoulos, Rodrigo Romero, Tuomas Tammela, Matthew R. Bauer, Arjun Bhutkar, Nikhil S. Joshi, Lakshmipriya Subbaraj, Roderick T. Bronson, Wen Xue, Tyler Jacks
      Pages: 428 - 431
      Abstract: Cancer is a multistep process that involves mutations and other alterations in oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. Genome sequencing studies have identified a large collection of genetic alterations that occur in human cancers. However, the determination of which mutations are causally related to tumorigenesis remains a major challenge. Here we describe a novel CRISPR/Cas9-based approach for rapid functional investigation of candidate genes in well-established autochthonous mouse models of cancer. Using a KrasG12D-driven lung cancer model, we performed functional characterization of a panel of tumour suppressor genes with known loss-of-function alterations in human lung cancer. Cre-dependent somatic activation of oncogenic KrasG12D combined with CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing of tumour suppressor genes resulted in lung adenocarcinomas with distinct histopathological and molecular features. This rapid somatic genome engineering approach enables functional characterization of putative cancer genes in the lung and other tissues using autochthonous mouse models. We anticipate that this approach can be used to systematically dissect the complex catalogue of mutations identified in cancer genome sequencing studies.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-22
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13906
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Cohesin-dependent globules and heterochromatin shape 3D genome
           architecture in S. pombe
    • Authors: Takeshi Mizuguchi, Geoffrey Fudenberg, Sameet Mehta, Jon-Matthew Belton, Nitika Taneja, Hernan Diego Folco, Peter FitzGerald, Job Dekker, Leonid Mirny, Jemima Barrowman, Shiv I. S. Grewal
      Pages: 432 - 435
      Abstract: Eukaryotic genomes are folded into three-dimensional structures, such as self-associating topological domains, the borders of which are enriched in cohesin and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) required for long-range interactions. How local chromatin interactions govern higher-order folding of chromatin fibres and the function of cohesin in this process remain poorly understood. Here we perform genome-wide chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) analysis to explore the high-resolution organization of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome, which despite its small size exhibits fundamental features found in other eukaryotes. Our analyses of wild-type and mutant strains reveal key elements of chromosome architecture and genome organization. On chromosome arms, small regions of chromatin locally interact to form ‘globules’. This feature requires a function of cohesin distinct from its role in sister chromatid cohesion. Cohesin is enriched at globule boundaries and its loss causes disruption of local globule structures and global chromosome territories. By contrast, heterochromatin, which loads cohesin at specific sites including pericentromeric and subtelomeric domains, is dispensable for globule formation but nevertheless affects genome organization. We show that heterochromatin mediates chromatin fibre compaction at centromeres and promotes prominent inter-arm interactions within centromere-proximal regions, providing structural constraints crucial for proper genome organization. Loss of heterochromatin relaxes constraints on chromosomes, causing an increase in intra- and inter-chromosomal interactions. Together, our analyses uncover fundamental genome folding principles that drive higher-order chromosome organization crucial for coordinating nuclear functions.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-12
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13833
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • R-loops induce repressive chromatin marks over mammalian gene terminators
    • Authors: Konstantina Skourti-Stathaki, Kinga Kamieniarz-Gdula, Nicholas J. Proudfoot
      Pages: 436 - 439
      Abstract: The formation of R-loops is a natural consequence of the transcription process, caused by invasion of the DNA duplex by nascent transcripts. These structures have been considered rare transcriptional by-products with potentially harmful effects on genome integrity owing to the fragility of the displaced DNA coding strand. However, R-loops may also possess beneficial effects, as their widespread formation has been detected over CpG island promoters in human genes. Furthermore, we have previously shown that R-loops are particularly enriched over G-rich terminator elements. These facilitate RNA polymerase II (Pol II) pausing before efficient termination. Here we reveal an unanticipated link between R-loops and RNA-interference-dependent H3K9me2 formation over pause-site termination regions in mammalian protein-coding genes. We show that R-loops induce antisense transcription over these pause elements, which in turn leads to the generation of double-stranded RNA and the recruitment of DICER, AGO1, AGO2 and the G9a histone lysine methyltransferase. Consequently, an H3K9me2 repressive mark is formed and heterochromatin protein 1γ (HP1γ) is recruited, which reinforces Pol II pausing before efficient transcriptional termination. We predict that R-loops promote a chromatin architecture that defines the termination region for a substantial subset of mammalian genes.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-05
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13787
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Corrigendum: Activation and repression by oncogenic MYC shape
           tumour-specific gene expression profiles
    • Authors: Susanne Walz, Francesca Lorenzin, Jennifer Morton, Katrin E. Wiese, Björn von Eyss, Steffi Herold, Lukas Rycak, Hélène Dumay-Odelot, Saadia Karim, Marek Bartkuhn, Frederik Roels, Torsten Wüstefeld, Matthias Fischer, Martin Teichmann, Lars Zender, Chia-Lin Wei, Owen Sansom, Elmar Wolf, Martin Eilers
      Pages: 440 - 440
      Abstract: Nature511, 483–487 (2014); doi:10.1038/nature13473In this Letter, the ArrayExpress microarray data set accession number was wrongly given as E-MTAB-1524; the correct accession number is E-MTAB-1886. This has been corrected in the online versions of the paper.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14054
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Editorial Expression of Concern: Non-adaptive origins of interactome
           complexity
    • Authors: Ariel Fernández, Michael Lynch
      Pages: 440 - 440
      Abstract: Nature474, 502–505 (2011); doi:10.1038/nature09992Dr Michael Lynch has indicated that he no longer has confidence in the original data presented in this Letter, and would like to have his name removed as a co-author. Dr Ariel Fernández has
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-26
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13141
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Column: Nurture your online persona
    • Authors: Peter Fiske
      Pages: 441 - 442
      Abstract: The Internet offers ways to broaden your contacts and assist you in your job search, says Peter Fiske.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7531-441a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • The chains of plenty
    • Authors: S. R. Algernon
      Pages: 444 - 444
      Abstract: All you want for Christmas.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/516444a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531 (2014)
       
  • Inside the cultural struggle to stamp out Ebola
    • Authors: Erika Check Hayden
      Pages: 295 - 296
      Abstract: A front-line report from Sierra Leone examines efforts to change hearts and minds in West Africa’s villages.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      DOI: 10.1038/516295a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531
       
  • 365 days: 2014 in review
    • Authors: Lauren Morello, Alison Abbott, Declan Butler, Ewen Callaway, David Cyranoski, Sara Reardon, Quirin Schiermeier, Alexandra Witze
      Pages: 300 - 303
      Abstract: Comets, stem cells and cosmic dust are among the year's top stories.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      DOI: 10.1038/516300a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531
       
  • 365 days: Nature's 10
    • Pages: 311 - 319
      Abstract: Ten people who mattered this year.
      Citation: Nature 516, 7531 (2014)
      DOI: 10.1038/516311a
      Issue No: Vol. 516, No. 7531
       
 
 
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