for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
Followed Journals
Journal you Follow: 0
 
Sign Up to follow journals, search in your chosen journals and, optionally, receive Email Alerts when new issues of your Followed Jurnals are published.
Already have an account? Sign In to see the journals you follow.
Journal Cover Nature
   [2420 followers]  Follow    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
     ISSN (Print) 0028-0836 - ISSN (Online) 1476-4687
     Published by Nature Publishing Group Homepage  [110 journals]   [SJR: 14.747]   [H-I: 768]
  • Save the museums
    • Pages: 311 - 312
      Abstract: Italy’s curators must band together to preserve their valuable collections.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515311b
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • A global vision
    • Pages: 311 - 311
      Abstract: The International Council for Science needs to define its mission and show its members that it is worth their membership fees.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-18
      DOI: 10.1038/515311a
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Data-access practices strengthened
    • Pages: 312 - 312
      Abstract: In our continued drive for reproducibility, Nature and the Nature research journals are strengthening our editorial links with the journal Scientific Data and enhancing our data-availability practices. We believe that this initiative will improve support for authors looking for appropriate public repositories for
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515312a
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Openness in science is key to keeping public trust
    • Authors: Mark Yarborough
      Pages: 313 - 313
      Abstract: Silence stifles progress, says Mark Yarborough. The scientific enterprise needs a transparent culture that actively finds and fixes problems.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515313a
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Materials: Molecular fan opens under light
    • Pages: 314 - 315
      Abstract: Researchers have constructed micrometre-sized, stacked layers that slide open like a folding fan when illuminated.Yanke Che and his colleagues at the Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences created thin, ribbon-like structures up to one micrometre wide.The ribbons are composed of multiple layers, each
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515314e
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Photonics: Twisty light sends images across Vienna
    • Pages: 314 - 314
      Abstract: Beams of light twisted into a corkscrew shape have carried data more than 3 kilometres over Vienna's skyline in an effort to increase the information-carrying capacity of electromagnetic waves.Adding orbital angular momentum (OAM) to laser beams — when fluctuations of light waves are staggered
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515314a
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Cancer genetics: Exploding DNA goes back together
    • Pages: 314 - 314
      Abstract: The mysterious giant chromosomes found in some cancers are formed when DNA shatters and recombines.Neochromosomes are made up of pieces of the 46 chromosomes that each human cell normally carries. To study how they form, a team led by Anthony Papenfuss at the Walter
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515314b
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Biotechnology: Mind manipulates gene expression
    • Pages: 314 - 314
      Abstract: Human brain activity has been harnessed to control gene expression in mice.Martin Fussenegger at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich and his colleagues created a small, implantable cartridge containing human cells engineered to produce a protein called SEAP when exposed to light.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515314c
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Animal behaviour: Eyespots shift predators' attack
    • Pages: 314 - 314
      Abstract: Eye-shaped markings at the edges of butterfly wings stop predators from striking vital body parts.Kathleen Prudic, now at Oregon State University in Corvallis, and her team let praying mantids (Tenodera sinensis) feed on Bicyclus anynana butterflies, which have small, drab eyespots
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515314d
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Astronomy: Merged stars dodge black hole
    • Pages: 315 - 315
      Abstract: A mysterious cloud-like object that survived a close encounter with a black hole might be a merged pair of stars.Andrea Ghez of the University of California in Los Angeles and her team used the Keck telescopes on Mauna Kea in Hawaii to observe the
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515315c
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Climate science: Water vapour predicts flooding
    • Pages: 315 - 315
      Abstract: Streams of concentrated water vapour in the atmosphere could be used to predict flooding in Europe more accurately than rainfall does.A team led by David Lavers of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts in Reading, UK, looked at forecasts from last winter, when
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515315d
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Conservation genetics: Leopard-skin origins traced
    • Pages: 315 - 315
      Abstract: DNA analysis can reveal the origins of products from endangered species, which could help to curb illegal trade.Such goods are often seized far from their origins, making it hard to know where to focus enforcement. Samrat Mondol of the National Centre for Biological Sciences
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515315a
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Microbiology: Beware tainted microbe studies
    • Pages: 315 - 315
      Abstract: DNA contamination is ubiquitous in laboratory reagents commonly used to analyse the microbes that inhabit the human body.Susannah Salter at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Hinxton, UK, Alan Walker at the University of Aberdeen, UK, and their colleagues used off-the-shelf DNA-extraction kits and
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515315b
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Unusual reference attracts notoriety
    • Pages: 315 - 315
      Abstract: An editorial oversight has turned a report on fish pigmentation into one of the year's most talked-about papers. The study of poeciliid fishes, first published online in July by the journal Ethology (Z. W. Culumber et al. Ethology120, 1090–1100; 2014),
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515315e
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Seven days: 14–20 November
    • Pages: 316 - 317
      Abstract: The week in science: China and United States announce plans to cut emissions; European Commission scraps chief science adviser post; and pharma firm Actavis announces a US$66-billion takeover.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515316a
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Philae’s 64 hours of comet science yield rich data
    • Authors: Elizabeth Gibney
      Pages: 319 - 320
      Abstract: Comet lander is now hibernating, but has already altered our understanding of these objects.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-18
      DOI: 10.1038/515319a
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Crisis mappers turn to citizen scientists
    • Authors: Mark Zastrow
      Pages: 321 - 321
      Abstract: Crowdsourced disaster surveys strive for more reliability in online collaboration.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515321a
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Green List promotes best conservation areas
    • Authors: Natasha Gilbert
      Pages: 322 - 322
      Abstract: Project puts spotlight on protected reserves that boost biodiversity.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2014.16350
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • ‘Platinum’ genome takes on disease
    • Authors: Ewen Callaway
      Pages: 323 - 323
      Abstract: Disease sites targeted in assembly of more-complete version of the human genome sequence.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-18
      DOI: 10.1038/515323a
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Correction
    • Pages: 324 - 324
      Abstract: The News story '“Forgotten” NIH smallpox virus languishes on death row' (Nature514, 544; 2014) wrongly said that the WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research agreed to commission a report on the bioterror threat from synthesized smallpox — that report was
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515324b
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Joint effort nabs next wave of US supercomputers
    • Authors: Alexandra Witze
      Pages: 324 - 324
      Abstract: National laboratories collaborate to purchase top-flight machines.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2014.16347
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Developing world: Far-flung physics
    • Authors: Katia Moskvitch
      Pages: 330 - 333
      Abstract: The International Centre for Theoretical Physics was set up to seed science in the developing world; 100,000 researchers later, it is still growing.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515330a
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Air pollution: Clean up our skies
    • Authors: Julia Schmale, Drew Shindell, Erika von Schneidemesser, Ilan Chabay, Mark Lawrence
      Pages: 335 - 337
      Abstract: Improve air quality and mitigate climate-change simultaneously, urge Julia Schmale and colleagues.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515335a
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Climate forecasting: Build high-resolution global climate models
    • Authors: Tim Palmer
      Pages: 338 - 339
      Abstract: International supercomputing centres dedicated to climate prediction are needed to reduce uncertainties in global warming, says Tim Palmer.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515338a
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • History of science: Pursuing the primordial
    • Authors: Ted Nield
      Pages: 340 - 341
      Abstract: Ted Nield ponders a history of how European science came to grasp Earth's age.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515340a
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Books in brief
    • Authors: Barbara Kiser
      Pages: 341 - 341
      Abstract: Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515341a
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Evolution: students debate the debate
    • Authors: Hope Klug
      Pages: 343 - 343
      Abstract: I asked my third- and fourth-year undergraduate students whether they thought that evolutionary theory needs rethinking (see Nature514, 161–164;10.1038/514161a2014). More than two-thirds (26 out of 38) argued that it did not — because the synthesis proposed by
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515343a
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Evolution: viruses are key players
    • Authors: Guenther Witzany, František Baluška
      Pages: 343 - 343
      Abstract: The debate on rethinking evolutionary theory (see Nature514, 161–164;10.1038/514161a2014) should include viruses. By integrating into host DNA, viruses have markedly influenced the evolution and development of cellular organisms (see, for example, F.BaluškaAnn. NY Acad. Sci.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515343b
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Evolution: networks and energy count
    • Authors: Arturo Tozzi
      Pages: 343 - 343
      Abstract: Standard evolutionary theory should incorporate the complexity of adaptive evolving systems — including species, niches and environment — as dynamic relationship networks (see Nature514, 161–164;10.1038/514161a2014).For example, epigenetic inheritance — which changes gene expression but not the
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515343c
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Macaques: Anti-vivisectionists respond
    • Authors: Michelle Thew
      Pages: 343 - 343
      Abstract: Following our seven-month undercover investigation, the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection (BUAV) strongly disagrees with your claim that the Max Planck Institute in Tübingen, Germany, has done a “good job” on its website in explaining its neuroscience research on macaques (see Nature513
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515343d
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Philanthropy: Ice-bucket challenge should jolt funding
    • Authors: Maria Teresa Carrì
      Pages: 343 - 343
      Abstract: The Italian prime minister Matteo Renzi was among the vast number of people who accepted the 'ice-bucket challenge' this summer, helping to raise [euro]2 million (US$2.5 million) in Italy for research into amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (see Nature514
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515343e
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Allison Doupe (1954–2014)
    • Authors: Thomas R. Insel, Story Landis
      Pages: 344 - 344
      Abstract: Neuroscientist and psychiatrist who linked birdsong and human speech.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-17
      DOI: 10.1038/515344a
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Genomics: Mice in the ENCODE spotlight
    • Authors: Piero Carninci
      Pages: 346 - 347
      Abstract: Following on from affiliated projects in humans and model invertebrates, the Mouse ENCODE Project presents comprehensive data sets on genome regulation in this key mammalian model. See Articles p.355, p.365, p.371 & Letter p.402
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515346a
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Origins of life: RNA made in its own mirror image
    • Authors: Sandip A. Shelke, Joseph A. Piccirilli
      Pages: 347 - 348
      Abstract: An RNA enzyme has been generated that can assemble a mirror-image version of itself. The finding helps to answer a long-standing conundrum about how RNA molecules could have proliferated on prebiotic Earth. See Letter p.440
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13935
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Materials physics: Reactive walls
    • Authors: Philippe Ghosez, Jean-Marc Triscone
      Pages: 348 - 350
      Abstract: Domain walls are natural borders in ferromagnetic, ferroelectric or ferroelastic materials. It seems that they can also be reactive areas that produce crystallographic phases never before observed in bulk materials. See Letter p.379
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515348a
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Biochemistry: Succinate strikes
    • Authors: Luke A. J. O'Neill
      Pages: 350 - 351
      Abstract: The high levels of tissue-damaging reactive oxygen species that arise during a stroke or heart attack have been shown to be generated through the accumulation of the metabolic intermediate succinate. See Letter p.431
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-05
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13941
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Biogeochemistry: Agriculture and the global carbon cycle
    • Authors: Natasha MacBean, Philippe Peylin
      Pages: 351 - 352
      Abstract: Evolving agricultural practices dramatically increased crop production in the twentieth century. Two studies now find that this has altered the seasonal flux of atmospheric carbon dioxide. See Letters p.394 & p.398
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515351a
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Plant science: Leaf veins share the time of day
    • Authors: María C. Martí, Alex A. R. Webb
      Pages: 352 - 353
      Abstract: Techniques for isolating and analysing leaf cell types have now been developed, leading to the discovery that circadian clocks in the plant vasculature communicate with and regulate clocks in neighbouring cells. See Letter p.419
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13936
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • A comparative encyclopedia of DNA elements in the mouse genome
    • Authors: Feng Yue, Yong Cheng, Alessandra Breschi, Jeff Vierstra, Weisheng Wu, Tyrone Ryba, Richard Sandstrom, Zhihai Ma, Carrie Davis, Benjamin D. Pope, Yin Shen, Dmitri D. Pervouchine, Sarah Djebali, Robert E. Thurman, Rajinder Kaul, Eric Rynes, Anthony Kirilusha, Georgi K. Marinov, Brian A. Williams, Diane Trout, Henry Amrhein, Katherine Fisher-Aylor, Igor Antoshechkin, Gilberto DeSalvo, Lei-Hoon See, Meagan Fastuca, Jorg Drenkow, Chris Zaleski, Alex Dobin, Pablo Prieto, Julien Lagarde, Giovanni Bussotti, Andrea Tanzer, Olgert Denas, Kanwei Li, M. A. Bender, Miaohua Zhang, Rachel Byron, Mark T. Groudine, David McCleary, Long Pham, Zhen Ye, Samantha Kuan, Lee Edsall, Yi-Chieh Wu, Matthew D. Rasmussen, Mukul S. Bansal, Manolis Kellis, Cheryl A. Keller, Christapher S. Morrissey, Tejaswini Mishra, Deepti Jain, Nergiz Dogan, Robert S. Harris, Philip Cayting, Trupti Kawli, Alan P. Boyle, Ghia Euskirchen, Anshul Kundaje, Shin Lin, Yiing Lin, Camden Jansen, Venkat S. Malladi, Melissa S. Cline, Drew T. Erickson, Vanessa M. Kirkup, Katrina Learned, Cricket A. Sloan, Kate R. Rosenbloom, Beatriz Lacerda de Sousa, Kathryn Beal, Miguel Pignatelli, Paul Flicek, Jin Lian, Tamer Kahveci, Dongwon Lee, W. James Kent, Miguel Ramalho Santos, Javier Herrero, Cedric Notredame, Audra Johnson, Shinny Vong, Kristen Lee, Daniel Bates, Fidencio Neri, Morgan Diegel, Theresa Canfield, Peter J. Sabo, Matthew S. Wilken, Thomas A. Reh, Erika Giste, Anthony Shafer, Tanya Kutyavin, Eric Haugen, Douglas Dunn, Alex P. Reynolds, Shane Neph, Richard Humbert, R. Scott Hansen, Marella De Bruijn, Licia Selleri, Alexander Rudensky, Steven Josefowicz, Robert Samstein, Evan E. Eichler, Stuart H. Orkin, Dana Levasseur, Thalia Papayannopoulou, Kai-Hsin Chang, Arthur Skoultchi, Srikanta Gosh, Christine Disteche, Piper Treuting, Yanli Wang, Mitchell J. Weiss, Gerd A. Blobel, Xiaoyi Cao, Sheng Zhong, Ting Wang, Peter J. Good, Rebecca F. Lowdon, Leslie B. Adams, Xiao-Qiao Zhou, Michael J. Pazin, Elise A. Feingold, Barbara Wold, James Taylor, Ali Mortazavi, Sherman M. Weissman, John A. Stamatoyannopoulos, Michael P. Snyder, Roderic Guigo, Thomas R. Gingeras, David M. Gilbert, Ross C. Hardison, Michael A. Beer, Bing Ren
      Pages: 355 - 364
      Abstract: The laboratory mouse shares the majority of its protein-coding genes with humans, making it the premier model organism in biomedical research, yet the two mammals differ in significant ways. To gain greater insights into both shared and species-specific transcriptional and cellular regulatory programs in the
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13992
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Conservation of trans-acting circuitry during mammalian regulatory
           evolution
    • Authors: Andrew B. Stergachis, Shane Neph, Richard Sandstrom, Eric Haugen, Alex P. Reynolds, Miaohua Zhang, Rachel Byron, Theresa Canfield, Sandra Stelhing-Sun, Kristen Lee, Robert E. Thurman, Shinny Vong, Daniel Bates, Fidencio Neri, Morgan Diegel, Erika Giste, Douglas Dunn, Jeff Vierstra, R. Scott Hansen, Audra K. Johnson, Peter J. Sabo, Matthew S. Wilken, Thomas A. Reh, Piper M. Treuting, Rajinder Kaul, Mark Groudine, M. A. Bender, Elhanan Borenstein, John A. Stamatoyannopoulos
      Pages: 365 - 370
      Abstract: The basic body plan and major physiological axes have been highly conserved during mammalian evolution, yet only a small fraction of the human genome sequence appears to be subject to evolutionary constraint. To quantify cis- versus trans-acting contributions to mammalian regulatory evolution, we performed genomic
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13972
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Principles of regulatory information conservation between mouse and human
    • Authors: Yong Cheng, Zhihai Ma, Bong-Hyun Kim, Weisheng Wu, Philip Cayting, Alan P. Boyle, Vasavi Sundaram, Xiaoyun Xing, Nergiz Dogan, Jingjing Li, Ghia Euskirchen, Shin Lin, Yiing Lin, Axel Visel, Trupti Kawli, Xinqiong Yang, Dorrelyn Patacsil, Cheryl A. Keller, Belinda Giardine, The Mouse ENCODE Consortium, Anshul Kundaje, Ting Wang, Len A. Pennacchio, Zhiping Weng, Ross C. Hardison, Michael P. Snyder
      Pages: 371 - 375
      Abstract: To broaden our understanding of the evolution of gene regulation mechanisms, we generated occupancy profiles for 34 orthologous transcription factors (TFs) in human–mouse erythroid progenitor, lymphoblast and embryonic stem-cell lines. By combining the genome-wide transcription factor occupancy repertoires, associated epigenetic signals, and co-association patterns, here
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13985
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • The power of relativistic jets is larger than the luminosity of their
           accretion disks
    • Authors: G. Ghisellini, F. Tavecchio, L. Maraschi, A. Celotti, T. Sbarrato
      Pages: 376 - 378
      Abstract: Theoretical models for the production of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei predict that jet power arises from the spin and mass of the central supermassive black hole, as well as from the magnetic field near the event horizon. The physical mechanism underlying the contribution from the magnetic field is the torque exerted on the rotating black hole by the field amplified by the accreting material. If the squared magnetic field is proportional to the accretion rate, then there will be a correlation between jet power and accretion luminosity. There is evidence for such a correlation, but inadequate knowledge of the accretion luminosity of the limited and inhomogeneous samples used prevented a firm conclusion. Here we report an analysis of archival observations of a sample of blazars (quasars whose jets point towards Earth) that overcomes previous limitations. We find a clear correlation between jet power, as measured through the γ-ray luminosity, and accretion luminosity, as measured by the broad emission lines, with the jet power dominating the disk luminosity, in agreement with numerical simulations. This implies that the magnetic field threading the black hole horizon reaches the maximum value sustainable by the accreting matter.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13856
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Artificial chemical and magnetic structure at the domain walls of an
           epitaxial oxide
    • Authors: S. Farokhipoor, C. Magén, S. Venkatesan, J. Íñiguez, C. J. M. Daumont, D. Rubi, E. Snoeck, M. Mostovoy, C. de Graaf, A. Müller, M. Döblinger, C. Scheu, B. Noheda
      Pages: 379 - 383
      Abstract: Progress in nanotechnology requires new approaches to materials synthesis that make it possible to control material functionality down to the smallest scales. An objective of materials research is to achieve enhanced control over the physical properties of materials such as ferromagnets, ferroelectrics and superconductors. In this context, complex oxides and inorganic perovskites are attractive because slight adjustments of their atomic structures can produce large physical responses and result in multiple functionalities. In addition, these materials often contain ferroelastic domains. The intrinsic symmetry breaking that takes place at the domain walls can induce properties absent from the domains themselves, such as magnetic or ferroelectric order and other functionalities, as well as coupling between them. Moreover, large domain wall densities create intense strain gradients, which can also affect the material’s properties. Here we show that, owing to large local stresses, domain walls can promote the formation of unusual phases. In this sense, the domain walls can function as nanoscale chemical reactors. We synthesize a two-dimensional ferromagnetic phase at the domain walls of the orthorhombic perovskite terbium manganite (TbMnO3), which was grown in thin layers under epitaxial strain on strontium titanate (SrTiO3) substrates. This phase is yet to be created by standard chemical routes. The density of the two-dimensional sheets can be tuned by changing the film thickness or the substrate lattice parameter (that is, the epitaxial strain), and the distance between sheets can be made as small as 5 nanometres in ultrathin films, such that the new phase at domain walls represents up to 25 per cent of the film volume. The general concept of using domain walls of epitaxial oxides to promote the formation of unusual phases may be applicable to other materials systems, thus giving access to new classes of nanoscale materials for applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13918
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Approaching disorder-free transport in high-mobility conjugated polymers
    • Authors: Deepak Venkateshvaran, Mark Nikolka, Aditya Sadhanala, Vincent Lemaur, Mateusz Zelazny, Michal Kepa, Michael Hurhangee, Auke Jisk Kronemeijer, Vincenzo Pecunia, Iyad Nasrallah, Igor Romanov, Katharina Broch, Iain McCulloch, David Emin, Yoann Olivier, Jerome Cornil, David Beljonne, Henning Sirringhaus
      Pages: 384 - 388
      Abstract: Conjugated polymers enable the production of flexible semiconductor devices that can be processed from solution at low temperatures. Over the past 25 years, device performance has improved greatly as a wide variety of molecular structures have been studied. However, one major limitation has not been overcome; transport properties in polymer films are still limited by pervasive conformational and energetic disorder. This not only limits the rational design of materials with higher performance, but also prevents the study of physical phenomena associated with an extended π-electron delocalization along the polymer backbone. Here we report a comparative transport study of several high-mobility conjugated polymers by field-effect-modulated Seebeck, transistor and sub-bandgap optical absorption measurements. We show that in several of these polymers, most notably in a recently reported, indacenodithiophene-based donor–acceptor copolymer with a near-amorphous microstructure, the charge transport properties approach intrinsic disorder-free limits at which all molecular sites are thermally accessible. Molecular dynamics simulations identify the origin of this long sought-after regime as a planar, torsion-free backbone conformation that is surprisingly resilient to side-chain disorder. Our results provide molecular-design guidelines for ‘disorder-free’ conjugated polymers.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-05
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13854
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Overcoming the limitations of directed C–H functionalizations of
           heterocycles
    • Authors: Yue-Jin Liu, Hui Xu, Wei-Jun Kong, Ming Shang, Hui-Xiong Dai, Jin-Quan Yu
      Pages: 389 - 393
      Abstract: In directed C–H activation reactions, any nitrogen or sulphur atoms present in heterocyclic substrates will coordinate strongly with metal catalysts. This coordination, which can lead to catalyst poisoning or C–H functionalization at an undesired position, limits the application of C–H activation reactions in heterocycle-based drug discovery, in which regard they have attracted much interest from pharmaceutical companies. Here we report a robust and synthetically useful method that overcomes the complications associated with performing C–H functionalization reactions on heterocycles. Our approach employs a simple N-methoxy amide group, which serves as both a directing group and an anionic ligand that promotes the in situ generation of the reactive PdX2 (X = ArCONOMe) species from a Pd(0) source using air as the sole oxidant. In this way, the PdX2 species is localized near the target C–H bond, avoiding interference from any nitrogen or sulphur atoms present in the heterocyclic substrates. This reaction overrides the conventional positional selectivity patterns observed with substrates containing strongly coordinating heteroatoms, including nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus. Thus, this operationally simple aerobic reaction demonstrates that it is possible to bypass a fundamental limitation that has long plagued applications of directed C–H activation in medicinal chemistry.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-10
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13885
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Agricultural Green Revolution as a driver of increasing atmospheric CO2
           seasonal amplitude
    • Authors: Ning Zeng, Fang Zhao, George J. Collatz, Eugenia Kalnay, Ross J. Salawitch, Tristram O. West, Luis Guanter
      Pages: 394 - 397
      Abstract: The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) record displays a prominent seasonal cycle that arises mainly from changes in vegetation growth and the corresponding CO2 uptake during the boreal spring and summer growing seasons and CO2 release during the autumn and winter seasons. The CO2 seasonal amplitude has increased over the past five decades, suggesting an increase in Northern Hemisphere biospheric activity. It has been proposed that vegetation growth may have been stimulated by higher concentrations of CO2 as well as by warming in recent decades, but such mechanisms have been unable to explain the full range and magnitude of the observed increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude. Here we suggest that the intensification of agriculture (the Green Revolution, in which much greater crop yield per unit area was achieved by hybridization, irrigation and fertilization) during the past five decades is a driver of changes in the seasonal characteristics of the global carbon cycle. Our analysis of CO2 data and atmospheric inversions shows a robust 15 per cent long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude from 1961 to 2010, punctuated by large decadal and interannual variations. Using a terrestrial carbon cycle model that takes into account high-yield cultivars, fertilizer use and irrigation, we find that the long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude arises from two major regions: the mid-latitude cropland between 25° N and 60° N and the high-latitude natural vegetation between 50° N and 70° N. The long-term trend of seasonal amplitude increase is 0.311 ± 0.027 per cent per year, of which sensitivity experiments attribute 45, 29 and 26 per cent to land-use change, climate variability and change, and increased productivity due to CO2 fertilization, respectively. Vegetation growth was earlier by one to two weeks, as measured by the mid-point of vegetation carbon uptake, and took up 0.5 petagrams more carbon in July, the height of the growing season, during 2001–2010 than in 1961–1970, suggesting that human land use and management contribute to seasonal changes in the CO2 exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13893
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Direct human influence on atmospheric CO2 seasonality from increased
           cropland productivity
    • Authors: Josh M. Gray, Steve Frolking, Eric A. Kort, Deepak K. Ray, Christopher J. Kucharik, Navin Ramankutty, Mark A. Friedl
      Pages: 398 - 401
      Abstract: Ground- and aircraft-based measurements show that the seasonal amplitude of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations has increased by as much as 50 per cent over the past 50 years. This increase has been linked to changes in temperate, boreal and arctic ecosystem properties and processes such as enhanced photosynthesis, increased heterotrophic respiration, and expansion of woody vegetation. However, the precise causal mechanisms behind the observed changes in atmospheric CO2 seasonality remain unclear. Here we use production statistics and a carbon accounting model to show that increases in agricultural productivity, which have been largely overlooked in previous investigations, explain as much as a quarter of the observed changes in atmospheric CO2 seasonality. Specifically, Northern Hemisphere extratropical maize, wheat, rice, and soybean production grew by 240 per cent between 1961 and 2008, thereby increasing the amount of net carbon uptake by croplands during the Northern Hemisphere growing season by 0.33 petagrams. Maize alone accounts for two-thirds of this change, owing mostly to agricultural intensification within concentrated production zones in the midwestern United States and northern China. Maize, wheat, rice, and soybeans account for about 68 per cent of extratropical dry biomass production, so it is likely that the total impact of increased agricultural production exceeds the amount quantified here.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13957
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Topologically associating domains are stable units of replication-timing
           regulation
    • Authors: Benjamin D. Pope, Tyrone Ryba, Vishnu Dileep, Feng Yue, Weisheng Wu, Olgert Denas, Daniel L. Vera, Yanli Wang, R. Scott Hansen, Theresa K. Canfield, Robert E. Thurman, Yong Cheng, Günhan Gülsoy, Jonathan H. Dennis, Michael P. Snyder, John A. Stamatoyannopoulos, James Taylor, Ross C. Hardison, Tamer Kahveci, Bing Ren, David M. Gilbert
      Pages: 402 - 405
      Abstract: Eukaryotic chromosomes replicate in a temporal order known as the replication-timing program. In mammals, replication timing is cell-type-specific with at least half the genome switching replication timing during development, primarily in units of 400–800 kilobases (‘replication domains’), whose positions are preserved in different cell types, conserved between species, and appear to confine long-range effects of chromosome rearrangements. Early and late replication correlate, respectively, with open and closed three-dimensional chromatin compartments identified by high-resolution chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C), and, to a lesser extent, late replication correlates with lamina-associated domains (LADs). Recent Hi-C mapping has unveiled substructure within chromatin compartments called topologically associating domains (TADs) that are largely conserved in their positions between cell types and are similar in size to replication domains. However, TADs can be further sub-stratified into smaller domains, challenging the significance of structures at any particular scale. Moreover, attempts to reconcile TADs and LADs to replication-timing data have not revealed a common, underlying domain structure. Here we localize boundaries of replication domains to the early-replicating border of replication-timing transitions and map their positions in 18 human and 13 mouse cell types. We demonstrate that, collectively, replication domain boundaries share a near one-to-one correlation with TAD boundaries, whereas within a cell type, adjacent TADs that replicate at similar times obscure replication domain boundaries, largely accounting for the previously reported lack of alignment. Moreover, cell-type-specific replication timing of TADs partitions the genome into two large-scale sub-nuclear compartments revealing that replication-timing transitions are indistinguishable from late-replicating regions in chromatin composition and lamina association and accounting for the reduced correlation of replication timing to LADs and heterochromatin. Our results reconcile cell-type-specific sub-nuclear compartmentalization and replication timing with developmentally stable structural domains and offer a unified model for large-scale chromosome structure and function.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13986
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • The drivers of tropical speciation
    • Authors: Brian Tilston Smith, John E. McCormack, Andrés M. Cuervo, Michael. J. Hickerson, Alexandre Aleixo, Carlos Daniel Cadena, Jorge Pérez-Emán, Curtis W. Burney, Xiaoou Xie, Michael G. Harvey, Brant C. Faircloth, Travis C. Glenn, Elizabeth P. Derryberry, Jesse Prejean, Samantha Fields, Robb T. Brumfield
      Pages: 406 - 409
      Abstract: Since the recognition that allopatric speciation can be induced by large-scale reconfigurations of the landscape that isolate formerly continuous populations, such as the separation of continents by plate tectonics, the uplift of mountains or the formation of large rivers, landscape change has been viewed as a primary driver of biological diversification. This process is referred to in biogeography as vicariance. In the most species-rich region of the world, the Neotropics, the sundering of populations associated with the Andean uplift is ascribed this principal role in speciation. An alternative model posits that rather than being directly linked to landscape change, allopatric speciation is initiated to a greater extent by dispersal events, with the principal drivers of speciation being organism-specific abilities to persist and disperse in the landscape. Landscape change is not a necessity for speciation in this model. Here we show that spatial and temporal patterns of genetic differentiation in Neotropical birds are highly discordant across lineages and are not reconcilable with a model linking speciation solely to landscape change. Instead, the strongest predictors of speciation are the amount of time a lineage has persisted in the landscape and the ability of birds to move through the landscape matrix. These results, augmented by the observation that most species-level diversity originated after episodes of major Andean uplift in the Neogene period, suggest that dispersal and differentiation on a matrix previously shaped by large-scale landscape events was a major driver of avian speciation in lowland Neotropical rainforests.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13687
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Individual improvements and selective mortality shape lifelong migratory
           performance
    • Authors: Fabrizio Sergio, Alessandro Tanferna, Renaud De Stephanis, Lidia López Jiménez, Julio Blas, Giacomo Tavecchia, Damiano Preatoni, Fernando Hiraldo
      Pages: 410 - 413
      Abstract: Billions of organisms, from bacteria to humans, migrate each year and research on their migration biology is expanding rapidly through ever more sophisticated remote sensing technologies. However, little is known about how migratory performance develops through life for any organism. To date, age variation has been almost systematically simplified into a dichotomous comparison between recently born juveniles at their first migration versus adults of unknown age. These comparisons have regularly highlighted better migratory performance by adults compared with juveniles, but it is unknown whether such variation is gradual or abrupt and whether it is driven by improvements within the individual, by selective mortality of poor performers, or both. Here we exploit the opportunity offered by long-term monitoring of individuals through Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite tracking to combine within-individual and cross-sectional data on 364 migration episodes from 92 individuals of a raptorial bird, aged 1–27 years old. We show that the development of migratory behaviour follows a consistent trajectory, more gradual and prolonged than previously appreciated, and that this is promoted by both individual improvements and selective mortality, mainly operating in early life and during the pre-breeding migration. Individuals of different age used different travelling tactics and varied in their ability to exploit tailwinds or to cope with wind drift. All individuals seemed aligned along a race with their contemporary peers, whose outcome was largely determined by the ability to depart early, affecting their subsequent recruitment, reproduction and survival. Understanding how climate change and human action can affect the migration of younger animals may be the key to managing and forecasting the declines of many threatened migrants.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-09-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13696
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Synaptic dysregulation in a human iPS cell model of mental disorders
    • Authors: Zhexing Wen, Ha Nam Nguyen, Ziyuan Guo, Matthew A. Lalli, Xinyuan Wang, Yijing Su, Nam-Shik Kim, Ki-Jun Yoon, Jaehoon Shin, Ce Zhang, Georgia Makri, David Nauen, Huimei Yu, Elmer Guzman, Cheng-Hsuan Chiang, Nadine Yoritomo, Kozo Kaibuchi, Jizhong Zou, Kimberly M. Christian, Linzhao Cheng, Christopher A. Ross, Russell L. Margolis, Gong Chen, Kenneth S. Kosik, Hongjun Song, Guo-li Ming
      Pages: 414 - 418
      Abstract: Dysregulated neurodevelopment with altered structural and functional connectivity is believed to underlie many neuropsychiatric disorders, and ‘a disease of synapses’ is the major hypothesis for the biological basis of schizophrenia. Although this hypothesis has gained indirect support from human post-mortem brain analyses and genetic studies, little is known about the pathophysiology of synapses in patient neurons and how susceptibility genes for mental disorders could lead to synaptic deficits in humans. Genetics of most psychiatric disorders are extremely complex due to multiple susceptibility variants with low penetrance and variable phenotypes. Rare, multiply affected, large families in which a single genetic locus is probably responsible for conferring susceptibility have proven invaluable for the study of complex disorders. Here we generated induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from four members of a family in which a frameshift mutation of disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) co-segregated with major psychiatric disorders and we further produced different isogenic iPS cell lines via gene editing. We showed that mutant DISC1 causes synaptic vesicle release deficits in iPS-cell-derived forebrain neurons. Mutant DISC1 depletes wild-type DISC1 protein and, furthermore, dysregulates expression of many genes related to synapses and psychiatric disorders in human forebrain neurons. Our study reveals that a psychiatric disorder relevant mutation causes synapse deficits and transcriptional dysregulation in human neurons and our findings provide new insight into the molecular and synaptic etiopathology of psychiatric disorders.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13716
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Tissue-specific clocks in Arabidopsis show asymmetric coupling
    • Authors: Motomu Endo, Hanako Shimizu, Maria A. Nohales, Takashi Araki, Steve A. Kay
      Pages: 419 - 422
      Abstract: Many organisms rely on a circadian clock system to adapt to daily and seasonal environmental changes. The mammalian circadian clock consists of a central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus that has tightly coupled neurons and synchronizes other clocks in peripheral tissues. Plants also have a circadian clock, but plant circadian clock function has long been assumed to be uncoupled. Only a few studies have been able to show weak, local coupling among cells. Here, by implementing two novel techniques, we have performed a comprehensive tissue-specific analysis of leaf tissues, and show that the vasculature and mesophyll clocks asymmetrically regulate each other in Arabidopsis. The circadian clock in the vasculature has characteristics distinct from other tissues, cycles robustly without environmental cues, and affects circadian clock regulation in other tissues. Furthermore, we found that vasculature-enriched genes that are rhythmically expressed are preferentially expressed in the evening, whereas rhythmic mesophyll-enriched genes tend to be expressed in the morning. Our results set the stage for a deeper understanding of how the vasculature circadian clock in plants regulates key physiological responses such as flowering time.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13919
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Members of the human gut microbiota involved in recovery from Vibrio
           cholerae infection
    • Authors: Ansel Hsiao, A. M. Shamsir Ahmed, Sathish Subramanian, Nicholas W. Griffin, Lisa L. Drewry, William A. Petri, Rashidul Haque, Tahmeed Ahmed, Jeffrey I. Gordon
      Pages: 423 - 426
      Abstract: Given the global burden of diarrhoeal diseases, it is important to understand how members of the gut microbiota affect the risk for, course of, and recovery from disease in children and adults. The acute, voluminous diarrhoea caused by Vibrio cholerae represents a dramatic example of enteropathogen invasion and gut microbial community disruption. Here we conduct a detailed time-series metagenomic study of faecal microbiota collected during the acute diarrhoeal and recovery phases of cholera in a cohort of Bangladeshi adults living in an area with a high burden of disease. We find that recovery is characterized by a pattern of accumulation of bacterial taxa that shows similarities to the pattern of assembly/maturation of the gut microbiota in healthy Bangladeshi children. To define the underlying mechanisms, we introduce into gnotobiotic mice an artificial community composed of human gut bacterial species that directly correlate with recovery from cholera in adults and are indicative of normal microbiota maturation in healthy Bangladeshi children. One of the species, Ruminococcus obeum, exhibits consistent increases in its relative abundance upon V. cholerae infection of the mice. Follow-up analyses, including mono- and co-colonization studies, establish that R. obeum restricts V. cholerae colonization, that R. obeum luxS (autoinducer-2 (AI-2) synthase) expression and AI-2 production increase significantly with V. cholerae invasion, and that R. obeum AI-2 causes quorum-sensing-mediated repression of several V. cholerae colonization factors. Co-colonization with V. cholerae mutants discloses that R. obeum AI-2 reduces Vibrio colonization/pathogenicity through a novel pathway that does not depend on the V. cholerae AI-2 sensor, LuxP. The approach described can be used to mine the gut microbiota of Bangladeshi or other populations for members that use autoinducers and/or other mechanisms to limit colonization with V. cholerae, or conceivably other enteropathogens.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-09-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13738
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Structure of malaria invasion protein RH5 with erythrocyte basigin and
           blocking antibodies
    • Authors: Katherine E. Wright, Kathryn A. Hjerrild, Jonathan Bartlett, Alexander D. Douglas, Jing Jin, Rebecca E. Brown, Joseph J. Illingworth, Rebecca Ashfield, Stine B. Clemmensen, Willem A. de Jongh, Simon J. Draper, Matthew K. Higgins
      Pages: 427 - 430
      Abstract: Invasion of host erythrocytes is essential to the life cycle of Plasmodium parasites and development of the pathology of malaria. The stages of erythrocyte invasion, including initial contact, apical reorientation, junction formation, and active invagination, are directed by coordinated release of specialized apical organelles and their parasite protein contents. Among these proteins, and central to invasion by all species, are two parasite protein families, the reticulocyte-binding protein homologue (RH) and erythrocyte-binding like proteins, which mediate host–parasite interactions. RH5 from Plasmodium falciparum (PfRH5) is the only member of either family demonstrated to be necessary for erythrocyte invasion in all tested strains, through its interaction with the erythrocyte surface protein basigin (also known as CD147 and EMMPRIN). Antibodies targeting PfRH5 or basigin efficiently block parasite invasion in vitro, making PfRH5 an excellent vaccine candidate. Here we present crystal structures of PfRH5 in complex with basigin and two distinct inhibitory antibodies. PfRH5 adopts a novel fold in which two three-helical bundles come together in a kite-like architecture, presenting binding sites for basigin and inhibitory antibodies at one tip. This provides the first structural insight into erythrocyte binding by the Plasmodium RH protein family and identifies novel inhibitory epitopes to guide design of a new generation of vaccines against the blood-stage parasite.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13715
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Ischaemic accumulation of succinate controls reperfusion injury through
           mitochondrial ROS
    • Authors: Edward T. Chouchani, Victoria R. Pell, Edoardo Gaude, Dunja Aksentijević, Stephanie Y. Sundier, Ellen L. Robb, Angela Logan, Sergiy M. Nadtochiy, Emily N. J. Ord, Anthony C. Smith, Filmon Eyassu, Rachel Shirley, Chou-Hui Hu, Anna J. Dare, Andrew M. James, Sebastian Rogatti, Richard C. Hartley, Simon Eaton, Ana S. H. Costa, Paul S. Brookes, Sean M. Davidson, Michael R. Duchen, Kourosh Saeb-Parsy, Michael J. Shattock, Alan J. Robinson, Lorraine M. Work, Christian Frezza, Thomas Krieg, Michael P. Murphy
      Pages: 431 - 435
      Abstract: Ischaemia-reperfusion injury occurs when the blood supply to an organ is disrupted and then restored, and underlies many disorders, notably heart attack and stroke. While reperfusion of ischaemic tissue is essential for survival, it also initiates oxidative damage, cell death and aberrant immune responses through the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although mitochondrial ROS production in ischaemia reperfusion is established, it has generally been considered a nonspecific response to reperfusion. Here we develop a comparative in vivo metabolomic analysis, and unexpectedly identify widely conserved metabolic pathways responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during ischaemia reperfusion. We show that selective accumulation of the citric acid cycle intermediate succinate is a universal metabolic signature of ischaemia in a range of tissues and is responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during reperfusion. Ischaemic succinate accumulation arises from reversal of succinate dehydrogenase, which in turn is driven by fumarate overflow from purine nucleotide breakdown and partial reversal of the malate/aspartate shuttle. After reperfusion, the accumulated succinate is rapidly re-oxidized by succinate dehydrogenase, driving extensive ROS generation by reverse electron transport at mitochondrial complex I. Decreasing ischaemic succinate accumulation by pharmacological inhibition is sufficient to ameliorate in vivo ischaemia-reperfusion injury in murine models of heart attack and stroke. Thus, we have identified a conserved metabolic response of tissues to ischaemia and reperfusion that unifies many hitherto unconnected aspects of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Furthermore, these findings reveal a new pathway for metabolic control of ROS production in vivo, while demonstrating that inhibition of ischaemic succinate accumulation and its oxidation after subsequent reperfusion is a potential therapeutic target to decrease ischaemia-reperfusion injury in a range of pathologies.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-05
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13909
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Transcript-RNA-templated DNA recombination and repair
    • Authors: Havva Keskin, Ying Shen, Fei Huang, Mikir Patel, Taehwan Yang, Katie Ashley, Alexander V. Mazin, Francesca Storici
      Pages: 436 - 439
      Abstract: Homologous recombination is a molecular process that has multiple important roles in DNA metabolism, both for DNA repair and genetic variation in all forms of life. Generally, homologous recombination involves the exchange of genetic information between two identical or nearly identical DNA molecules; however, homologous recombination can also occur between RNA molecules, as shown for RNA viruses. Previous research showed that synthetic RNA oligonucleotides can act as templates for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in yeast and human cells, and artificial long RNA templates injected in ciliate cells can guide genomic rearrangements. Here we report that endogenous transcript RNA mediates homologous recombination with chromosomal DNA in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We developed a system to detect the events of homologous recombination initiated by transcript RNA following the repair of a chromosomal DSB occurring either in a homologous but remote locus, or in the same transcript-generating locus in reverse-transcription-defective yeast strains. We found that RNA–DNA recombination is blocked by ribonucleases H1 and H2. In the presence of H-type ribonucleases, DSB repair proceeds through a complementary DNA intermediate, whereas in their absence, it proceeds directly through RNA. The proximity of the transcript to its chromosomal DNA partner in the same locus facilitates Rad52-driven homologous recombination during DSB repair. We demonstrate that yeast and human Rad52 proteins efficiently catalyse annealing of RNA to a DSB-like DNA end in vitro. Our results reveal a novel mechanism of homologous recombination and DNA repair in which transcript RNA is used as a template for DSB repair. Thus, considering the abundance of RNA transcripts in cells, RNA may have a marked impact on genomic stability and plasticity.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-09-03
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13682
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • A cross-chiral RNA polymerase ribozyme
    • Authors: Jonathan T. Sczepanski, Gerald F. Joyce
      Pages: 440 - 442
      Abstract: Thirty years ago it was shown that the non-enzymatic, template-directed polymerization of activated mononucleotides proceeds readily in a homochiral system, but is severely inhibited by the presence of the opposing enantiomer. This finding poses a severe challenge for the spontaneous emergence of RNA-based life, and has led to the suggestion that either RNA was preceded by some other genetic polymer that is not subject to chiral inhibition or chiral symmetry was broken through chemical processes before the origin of RNA-based life. Once an RNA enzyme arose that could catalyse the polymerization of RNA, it would have been possible to distinguish among the two enantiomers, enabling RNA replication and RNA-based evolution to occur. It is commonly thought that the earliest RNA polymerase and its substrates would have been of the same handedness, but this is not necessarily the case. Replicating d- and l-RNA molecules may have emerged together, based on the ability of structured RNAs of one handedness to catalyse the templated polymerization of activated mononucleotides of the opposite handedness. Here we develop such a cross-chiral RNA polymerase, using in vitro evolution starting from a population of random-sequence RNAs. The d-RNA enzyme, consisting of 83 nucleotides, catalyses the joining of l-mono- or oligonucleotide substrates on a complementary l-RNA template, and similar behaviour occurs for the l-enzyme with d-substrates and a d-template. Chiral inhibition is avoided because the 106-fold rate acceleration of the enzyme only pertains to cross-chiral substrates. The enzyme’s activity is sufficient to generate full-length copies of its enantiomer through the templated joining of 11 component oligonucleotides.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13900
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Discovery and characterization of small molecules that target the GTPase
           Ral
    • Authors: Chao Yan, Degang Liu, Liwei Li, Michael F. Wempe, Sunny Guin, May Khanna, Jeremy Meier, Brenton Hoffman, Charles Owens, Christina L. Wysoczynski, Matthew D. Nitz, William E. Knabe, Mansoor Ahmed, David L. Brautigan, Bryce M. Paschal, Martin A. Schwartz, David N. M. Jones, David Ross, Samy O. Meroueh, Dan Theodorescu
      Pages: 443 - 447
      Abstract: The Ras-like GTPases RalA and RalB are important drivers of tumour growth and metastasis. Chemicals that block Ral function would be valuable as research tools and for cancer therapeutics. Here we used protein structure analysis and virtual screening to identify drug-like molecules that bind to a site on the GDP-bound form of Ral. The compounds RBC6, RBC8 and RBC10 inhibited the binding of Ral to its effector RALBP1, as well as inhibiting Ral-mediated cell spreading of murine embryonic fibroblasts and anchorage-independent growth of human cancer cell lines. The binding of the RBC8 derivative BQU57 to RalB was confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry, surface plasmon resonance and 1H–15N transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy (TROSY) NMR spectroscopy. RBC8 and BQU57 show selectivity for Ral relative to the GTPases Ras and RhoA and inhibit tumour xenograft growth to a similar extent to the depletion of Ral using RNA interference. Our results show the utility of structure-based discovery for the development of therapeutics for Ral-dependent cancers.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-09-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13713
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Structures of bacterial homologues of SWEET transporters in two distinct
           conformations
    • Authors: Yan Xu, Yuyong Tao, Lily S. Cheung, Chao Fan, Li-Qing Chen, Sophia Xu, Kay Perry, Wolf B. Frommer, Liang Feng
      Pages: 448 - 452
      Abstract: SWEETs and their prokaryotic homologues are monosaccharide and disaccharide transporters that are present from Archaea to plants and humans. SWEETs play crucial roles in cellular sugar efflux processes: that is, in phloem loading, pollen nutrition and nectar secretion. Their bacterial homologues, which are called SemiSWEETs, are among the smallest known transporters. Here we show that SemiSWEET molecules, which consist of a triple-helix bundle, form symmetrical, parallel dimers, thereby generating the translocation pathway. Two SemiSWEET isoforms were crystallized, one in an apparently open state and one in an occluded state, indicating that SemiSWEETs and SWEETs are transporters that undergo rocking-type movements during the transport cycle. The topology of the triple-helix bundle is similar yet distinct to that of the basic building block of animal and plant major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters (for example, GLUTs and SUTs). This finding indicates two possibilities: that SWEETs and MFS transporters evolved from an ancestral triple-helix bundle or that the triple-helix bundle represents convergent evolution. In SemiSWEETs and SWEETs, two triple-helix bundles are arranged in a parallel configuration to produce the 6- and 6 + 1-transmembrane-helix pores, respectively. In the 12-transmembrane-helix MFS transporters, four triple-helix bundles are arranged into an alternating antiparallel configuration, resulting in a much larger 2 × 2 triple-helix bundle forming the pore. Given the similarity of SemiSWEETs and SWEETs to PQ-loop amino acid transporters and to mitochondrial pyruvate carriers (MPCs), the structures characterized here may also be relevant to other transporters in the MtN3 clan. The insight gained from the structures of these transporters and from the analysis of mutations of conserved residues will improve the understanding of the transport mechanism, as well as allow comparative studies of the different superfamilies involved in sugar transport and the evolution of transporters in general.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-09-03
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13670
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • When the music ends
    • Authors: Philip Ball
      Pages: 458 - 458
      Abstract: Criminal records.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515458a
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527 (2014)
       
  • Melanoma
    • Melanoma

      Nature. doi:10.1038/515S109a

      Author: Brian Owens

      Nature2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515S109a
       
  • The cancer that rises with the sun
    • Authors: David Holmes
      Pages: S110 - S111
      Abstract: Melanoma is an aggressive cancer that normally starts in the skin. It can strike anyone but is most common in people with pale skin, and it is getting more common. By David Holmes.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515S110a
       
  • Risk factors: Riddle of the rays
    • Authors: Cassandra Willyard
      Pages: S112 - S113
      Abstract: Spending time in the sun is a major risk factor for melanoma, but the relationship is not as straightforward as it seems.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515S112a
       
  • Perspective: Catch melanoma early
    • Authors: Susan M. Swetter, Alan C. Geller
      Pages: S117 - S117
      Abstract: The United States and other nations should follow Germany in routine skin screening, say Susan M. Swetter and Alan C. Geller.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515S117a
       
  • Drug development: A chance of survival
    • Authors: Hannah Hoag
      Pages: S118 - S120
      Abstract: People with advanced melanoma are living longer thanks to treatments that target cancerous cells or encourage the immune system to wipe out the tumour.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515S118a
       
  • Skin colour: No hiding in the dark
    • Authors: Sujata Gupta
      Pages: S121 - S123
      Abstract: Melanoma is most common in light-skinned people, but it can also afflict those with darker pigment. Finding out why would help to explain the disease's origins.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515S121a
       
  • Protection: The sunscreen pill
    • Authors: Erin Biba
      Pages: S124 - S125
      Abstract: A tablet that protects against sunburn is an attractive idea, but the science is patchy.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515S124a
       
  • Perspective: Protect the USA from UVA
    • Authors: Michael J. Werner
      Pages: S126 - S126
      Abstract: The United States does not have access to the latest sunscreens. The Sunscreen Innovation Act could set that right, says Michael J. Werner.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/515S126a
       
  • Mentoring awards: Focus on people
    • Authors: Philip Campbell
      Pages: 453 - 454
      Abstract: Nature announces this year's outstanding science mentors in Ireland or Northern Ireland.
      Citation: Nature (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7527-453a
       
  • Turning point: Kate McAllister
    • Authors: Virginia Gewin
      Pages: 455 - 455
      Abstract: A clinical neuroscientist explains her passion for science communication
      Citation: Nature (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7527-455a
       
  • Postdocs: Office poll
    • Pages: 455 - 455
      Abstract: The number of US postdoc offices has ballooned, but their budgets are tiny
      Citation: Nature (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7527-455b
       
  • Education: Graduate feedback
    • Pages: 455 - 455
      Abstract: The US National Science Foundation aims to improve PhD education with input from an online portal.
      Citation: Nature (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7527-455c
       
  • Stereotyping: PhD costume slammed
    • Pages: 455 - 455
      Abstract: A gown that shows more cleavage than credentials gains critics.
      Citation: Nature (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7527-455d
       
  • Indirect costs: Keeping the lights on
    • Authors: Heidi Ledford
      Pages: 326 - 329
      Abstract: Every year, the US government gives research institutions billions of dollars towards infrastructure and administrative support. A Nature investigation reveals who is benefiting most.
      Citation: Nature 515, 7527 (2014)
      DOI: 10.1038/515326a
      Issue No: Vol. 515, No. 7527
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2014