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Journal Cover   Nature
  [SJR: 21.323]   [H-I: 829]   [2728 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0028-0836 - ISSN (Online) 1476-4687
   Published by Nature Publishing Group Homepage  [110 journals]
  • A clean, green science machine
    • Pages: 261 - 261
      Abstract: As the world warms and technology improves, researchers and institutions should look at their carbon footprints and question whether they really need to travel to academic conferences.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519261a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Hollow humour
    • Pages: 261 - 262
      Abstract: The public’s distorted attitude towards mental-health conditions hampers their treatment.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519261b
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Strike a chord
    • Pages: 262 - 262
      Abstract: The latest episode of the Nature Audiofile podcast looks at how music inspires science.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519262a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Share the risks of Ebola vaccine development
    • Authors: Seth Berkley
      Pages: 263 - 263
      Abstract: Ebola vaccines have little in the way of commercial markets, so the risks should be shared between governments and industry, says Seth Berkley.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519263a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Nanomaterials: Self-cleaning paint works in oil
    • Pages: 264 - 265
      Abstract: A coating that can be easily applied to various surfaces repels water and dirt, even when exposed to oil.Other water-repellent paints stop working in oil and are easily scratched. To overcome this, Ivan Parkin at University College London and his colleagues covered titanium dioxide
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519264e
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Neuroscience: Nanoparticles turn on neurons
    • Pages: 264 - 264
      Abstract: Gold nanoparticles can be attached to neurons and used to stimulate the cells, without introducing any genes.Current 'optogenetic' methods use light to excite specific neurons, but genes must first be inserted into the cells to make them sensitive to light. To develop an alternative
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519264c
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Materials: Liquid metal motor moves by itself
    • Pages: 264 - 264
      Abstract: A tiny drop of liquid metal can propel itself for more than an hour without external help.Millimetre-scale motors could find uses as sensors, pumps and drug carriers, but they often require external drivers such as electric fields. Jing Liu and his colleagues at Tsinghua
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519264d
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Ecology: Flowers choose the best pollinators
    • Pages: 264 - 264
      Abstract: A tropical flower can turn on reproduction after it has been visited by a high-quality pollinator.Matthew Betts of Oregon State University in Corvallis and his colleagues focused on the plant Heliconia tortuosa (pictured) and collected 148 of its pollinators, comprising six hummingbird species
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519264a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Biogeochemistry: Methane's great Arctic escape
    • Pages: 264 - 264
      Abstract: Methane is moving from thawing Arctic soils into lakes and could be released into the atmosphere. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, so this mechanism might exacerbate future Arctic warming.A team led by Adina Paytan of the University of California, Santa Cruz, found that
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519264b
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Marine microbiology: Microbes lurk deep below the sea
    • Pages: 265 - 265
      Abstract: Microbial life may exist far deeper in the ocean floor than is often assumed.Steven D'Hondt at the University of Rhode Island in Narragansett and his colleagues sampled sediments across the southern Pacific Ocean. They found that oxygen, and microbes that require it, permeated depths
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519265b
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Astronomy: Milky Way has corrugated rings
    • Pages: 265 - 265
      Abstract: The Milky Way's stars sprawl outwards in a series of concentric ripples, hinting that it might extend farther into space than was thought.Data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey confirm a previously known ring of stars at about 9,000 parsecs from the Sun. They
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519265c
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Biophysics: Chameleons tune cells to change hue
    • Pages: 265 - 265
      Abstract: Chameleons change colour by tuning nanoscopic structures in their skin cells to reflect different wavelengths of light.Michel Milinkovitch and his colleagues at the University of Geneva, Switzerland, studied skin cells of the panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) from Madagascar. They found that the
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519265d
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Chemistry: Metal framework zaps nerve agents
    • Pages: 265 - 265
      Abstract: A crystalline compound catalyses the destruction of a nerve agent much faster than other clean-up chemicals do.Omar Farha and Joseph Hupp at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, and their colleagues studied a metal–organic framework (MOF) — a porous network of metal nodes linked by
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519265a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Correction
    • Pages: 265 - 265
      Abstract: In the Research Highlight 'X-rays reveal virus innards' (Nature519, 132–133;10.1038/519133d2015), the image was described as showing the virus. In fact, it shows the X-ray diffraction patterns of the virus.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519265e
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • A criticism of ‘science fandom’ prompts online reflection
    • Authors: Mark Zastrow
      Pages: 265 - 265
      Abstract: An essay argues that the rapid sharing of science stories on social media can spread misinformation.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-11
      DOI: 10.1038/519265f
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Seven days: 13–19 March 2015
    • Pages: 266 - 267
      Abstract: The week in science: Carbon dioxide emissions stall; lapses in hygiene practices at biosafety lab; and vaccine advice on rare meningitis W.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519266a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Marijuana gears up for production high in US labs
    • Authors: Sara Reardon
      Pages: 269 - 270
      Abstract: Researchers will score more-powerful varieties of the drug courtesy of the National Institute on Drug Abuse.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-17
      DOI: 10.1038/519269a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Crunch time for Canada’s role in mega-telescope
    • Authors: Alexandra Witze
      Pages: 270 - 271
      Abstract: Astronomers ask federal government to honour promise for Thirty Meter Telescope.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-17
      DOI: 10.1038/519270a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Ethics of embryo editing divides scientists
    • Authors: David Cyranoski
      Pages: 272 - 272
      Abstract: Researchers disagree over whether making heritable changes to human genes crosses a line.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519272a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Irish government under fire for turning its back on basic research
    • Authors: Declan Butler
      Pages: 273 - 273
      Abstract: Letter from scientists questions commercially driven funding decisions.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-17
      DOI: 10.1038/519273a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Five Solar System sights NASA should visit
    • Authors: Alexandra Witze
      Pages: 274 - 275
      Abstract: US planetary scientists dream up voyages of discovery, from Venus mappers to asteroid tours.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-16
      DOI: 10.1038/519274a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • The myopia boom
    • Authors: Elie Dolgin
      Pages: 276 - 278
      Abstract: Short-sightedness is reaching epidemic proportions. Some scientists think they have found a reason why.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519276a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Fisheries: Eyes on the ocean
    • Authors: Daniel Cressey
      Pages: 280 - 282
      Abstract: Daniel Pauly is sounding the alarm over global fish harvests, but others think he is making too much noise.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-17
      DOI: 10.1038/519280a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Agriculture: Increase water harvesting in Africa
    • Authors: Johan Rockström, Malin Falkenmark
      Pages: 283 - 285
      Abstract: Meeting global food needs requires strategies for storing rainwater and retaining soil moisture to bridge dry spells, urge Johan Rockström and Malin Falkenmark.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519283a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Leadership: Ten tips for choosing an academic chair
    • Authors: Pierre-Alain Clavien, Joseph Deiss
      Pages: 286 - 287
      Abstract: Agree what is needed, look for leaders with fire in their belly and emotional intelligence, and support them, advise Pierre-Alain Clavien and Joseph Deiss.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519286a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Correction
    • Pages: 287 - 287
      Abstract: The Comment 'Put people at the centre of global risk management' (J. W.Erismanet al. Nature519, 151–153; 2015 ) gave an incorrect affiliation for co-author Philippe Ciais. He is a senior researcher at the Laboratory for
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-16
      DOI: 10.1038/519287a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Plant sciences: Seeds and civilizations
    • Authors: Sandra Knapp
      Pages: 288 - 289
      Abstract: Sandra Knapp reviews a study of our symbiotic relationship with pips and pulses.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519288a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Theatre: Performing rituals
    • Authors: Emily A. Holmes
      Pages: 289 - 289
      Abstract: Emily A. Holmes commends a theatrical meditation on obsessive–compulsive disorder.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519289a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Scientific ethics: Science under the political steamroller
    • Authors: Roger Pielke
      Pages: 290 - 290
      Abstract: Roger Pielke Jr relishes a bold study focusing on the battles that can poison research.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519290a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Neutron facility: European Spallation Source is on track
    • Authors: Jim Yeck
      Pages: 291 - 291
      Abstract: Olof Hallonsten underestimates the status of the European Spallation Source (ESS) project and overestimates the risks to its success (Nature518, 275;10.1038/518275a2015).Construction has been under way for almost six months, after Sweden and Denmark secured a combined commitment
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519291a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Urban observatories: City data can inform decision theory
    • Authors: Aristides A. N. Patrinos
      Pages: 291 - 291
      Abstract: Data are being collected on human behaviour in cities such as London, New York, Singapore and Shanghai, with a view to meeting city dwellers' needs more effectively. Incorporating decision-making theory into analyses of the data from these 'urban observatories' would yield further valuable information.Huge
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519291b
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Microscopy: Access to the bigger picture in histology
    • Authors: Yves Poumay, Michel Jadot
      Pages: 291 - 291
      Abstract: Published histology images tend to focus on only a small part of a fixed tissue slice. Journals could overcome this limitation by asking authors to make histological data from the rest of the slide available wherever possible, to extend and complement their published micrographs.Tools
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519291c
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Graphics: Scrap rainbow colour scales
    • Authors: Ed Hawkins
      Pages: 291 - 291
      Abstract: It is time to clamp down on the use of misleading rainbow colour scales that are increasingly pervading the literature and the media (see http://tiny.cc/endoftherainbow). Accurate graphics are key to clear communication of scientific results to other researchers and the public — an issue
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519291d
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Intersex: Concept of multiple sexes is not new
    • Authors: Anne Fausto-Sterling
      Pages: 291 - 291
      Abstract: The idea that there are more than two biological sexes is not as recent as you imply (Nature518, 288–291;10.1038/518288a2015). It emerged in the early 1990s after feminist critics of science joined forces with an intersex activist
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519291e
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Correction
    • Pages: 291 - 291
      Abstract: In the Outlook article 'Taking a shot at protection' (Nature516, S12–S13; 2014), the x axis on the graphic 'Immunity boost' was incorrectly labelled. It should have read 'Age at liver-cancer diagnosis'.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519291f
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Charles H. Townes (1915–2015)
    • Authors: Robert Boyd
      Pages: 292 - 292
      Abstract: Laser co-inventor, astrophysicist and US presidential adviser.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519292a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Materials chemistry: Cooperative carbon capture
    • Authors: Andrew I. Cooper
      Pages: 294 - 295
      Abstract: Enzymes bind carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in a highly precise way, whereas synthetic materials just passively adsorb it. Or do they' A study of compounds called metal–organic frameworks now challenges this picture. See Article p.303
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14212
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Biogeochemistry: Signs of saturation in the tropical carbon sink
    • Authors: Lars O. Hedin
      Pages: 295 - 296
      Abstract: The carbon sink in the land biosphere has grown during the past 30 years, taking up much of the carbon dioxide produced by human activities. The first signs of this growth levelling off have been spotted in Amazon forests. See Letter p.344
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519295a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Neuroscience: Hot on the trail of temperature processing
    • Authors: TJ Florence, Michael B. Reiser
      Pages: 296 - 297
      Abstract: Two studies investigate how information about temperature is processed in the brains of fruit flies, and reveal that different neuronal pathways transmit heating and cooling signals to higher brain regions. See Letters p.353 & p.358
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-04
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14209
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Renewable energy: Better luminescent solar panels in prospect
    • Authors: Michael Debije
      Pages: 298 - 299
      Abstract: Devices known as luminescent solar concentrators could find use as renewable-energy generators, but have so far been plagued by a major light-reabsorption effect. A new study offers a promising route to tackling this problem.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519298a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Neuroscience: Spotlight on deep-brain stimulation
    • Authors: Alim Louis Benabid
      Pages: 299 - 300
      Abstract: Taking inspiration from a modern technological advance, a classic technique — low-frequency electrical stimulation of a deep-brain region — has been refined to combat cocaine addiction in experiments in mice.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519299a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Cancer immunotherapy: Dendritic-cell vaccines on the move
    • Authors: Rachel Lubong Sabado, Nina Bhardwaj
      Pages: 300 - 301
      Abstract: Vaccines that induce an antitumour immune response are disappointingly ineffective in treating patients with cancer. Pre-conditioning the vaccination site to induce inflammation might provide a way to improve this therapy. See Letter p.366
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14211
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Cooperative insertion of CO2 in diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks
    • Authors: Thomas M. McDonald, Jarad A. Mason, Xueqian Kong, Eric D. Bloch, David Gygi, Alessandro Dani, Valentina Crocellà, Filippo Giordanino, Samuel O. Odoh, Walter S. Drisdell, Bess Vlaisavljevich, Allison L. Dzubak, Roberta Poloni, Sondre K. Schnell, Nora Planas, Kyuho Lee, Tod Pascal, Liwen F. Wan, David Prendergast, Jeffrey B. Neaton, Berend Smit, Jeffrey B. Kortright, Laura Gagliardi, Silvia Bordiga, Jeffrey A. Reimer, Jeffrey R. Long
      Pages: 303 - 308
      Abstract: The process of carbon capture and sequestration has been proposed as a method of mitigating the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. If implemented, the cost of electricity generated by a fossil fuel-burning power plant would rise substantially, owing to the expense of removing
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14327
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • The fine-scale genetic structure of the British population
    • Authors: Stephen Leslie, Bruce Winney, Garrett Hellenthal, Dan Davison, Abdelhamid Boumertit, Tammy Day, Katarzyna Hutnik, Ellen C. Royrvik, Barry Cunliffe, Daniel J. Lawson, Daniel Falush, Colin Freeman, Matti Pirinen, Simon Myers, Mark Robinson, Peter Donnelly, Walter Bodmer
      Pages: 309 - 314
      Abstract: Fine-scale genetic variation between human populations is interesting as a signature of historical demographic events and because of its potential for confounding disease studies. We use haplotype-based statistical methods to analyse genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from a carefully chosen geographically diverse sample of
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14230
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Visualizing transient Watson–Crick-like mispairs in DNA and RNA
           duplexes
    • Authors: Isaac J. Kimsey, Katja Petzold, Bharathwaj Sathyamoorthy, Zachary W. Stein, Hashim M. Al-Hashimi
      Pages: 315 - 320
      Abstract: Rare tautomeric and anionic nucleobases are believed to have fundamental biological roles, but their prevalence and functional importance has remained elusive because they exist transiently, in low abundance, and involve subtle movements of protons that are difficult to visualize. Using NMR relaxation dispersion, we show
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14227
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Crystal structure of the eukaryotic origin recognition complex
    • Authors: Franziska Bleichert, Michael R. Botchan, James M. Berger
      Pages: 321 - 326
      Abstract: Initiation of cellular DNA replication is tightly controlled to sustain genomic integrity. In eukaryotes, the heterohexameric origin recognition complex (ORC) is essential for coordinating replication onset. Here we describe the crystal structure of Drosophila ORC at 3.5 Å resolution, showing that the 270 kilodalton initiator
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14239
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • A dusty, normal galaxy in the epoch of reionization
    • Authors: Darach Watson, Lise Christensen, Kirsten Kraiberg Knudsen, Johan Richard, Anna Gallazzi, Michał Jerzy Michałowski
      Pages: 327 - 330
      Abstract: Candidates for the modest galaxies that formed most of the stars in the early Universe, at redshifts z > 7, have been found in large numbers with extremely deep restframe-ultraviolet imaging. But it has proved difficult for existing spectrographs to characterize them using their ultraviolet light. The detailed properties of these galaxies could be measured from dust and cool gas emission at far-infrared wavelengths if the galaxies have become sufficiently enriched in dust and metals. So far, however, the most distant galaxy discovered via its ultraviolet emission and subsequently detected in dust emission is only at z = 3.2 (ref. 5), and recent results have cast doubt on whether dust and molecules can be found in typical galaxies at z ≥ 7. Here we report thermal dust emission from an archetypal early Universe star-forming galaxy, A1689-zD1. We detect its stellar continuum in spectroscopy and determine its redshift to be z = 7.5 ± 0.2 from a spectroscopic detection of the Lyman-α break. A1689-zD1 is representative of the star-forming population during the epoch of reionization, with a total star-formation rate of about 12 solar masses per year. The galaxy is highly evolved: it has a large stellar mass and is heavily enriched in dust, with a dust-to-gas ratio close to that of the Milky Way. Dusty, evolved galaxies are thus present among the fainter star-forming population at z > 7.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-02
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14164
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Highly efficient star formation in NGC 5253 possibly from stream-fed
           accretion
    • Authors: J. L. Turner, S. C. Beck, D. J. Benford, S. M. Consiglio, P. T. P. Ho, A. Kovács, D. S. Meier, J.-H. Zhao
      Pages: 331 - 333
      Abstract: Gas clouds in present-day galaxies are inefficient at forming stars. Low star-formation efficiency is a critical parameter in galaxy evolution: it is why stars are still forming nearly 14 billion years after the Big Bang and why star clusters generally do not survive their births, instead dispersing to form galactic disks or bulges. Yet the existence of ancient massive bound star clusters (globular clusters) in the Milky Way suggests that efficiencies were higher when they formed ten billion years ago. A local dwarf galaxy, NGC 5253, has a young star cluster that provides an example of highly efficient star formation. Here we report the detection of the J = 3→2 rotational transition of CO at the location of the massive cluster. The gas cloud is hot, dense, quiescent and extremely dusty. Its gas-to-dust ratio is lower than the Galactic value, which we attribute to dust enrichment by the embedded star cluster. Its star-formation efficiency exceeds 50 per cent, tenfold that of clouds in the Milky Way. We suggest that high efficiency results from the force-feeding of star formation by a streamer of gas falling into the galaxy.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14218
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Ligand-enabled meta-C–H activation using a transient mediator
    • Authors: Xiao-Chen Wang, Wei Gong, Li-Zhen Fang, Ru-Yi Zhu, Suhua Li, Keary M. Engle, Jin-Quan Yu
      Pages: 334 - 338
      Abstract: Achieving site selectivity in C–H functionalization reactions is a significant challenge, especially when the target C–H bond is distant from existing functional groups. Coordination of a functional group to a metal is often a key driving force and control element in many important reactions including asymmetric hydrogenation, epoxidation and lithiation. Exploitation of this effect has led to the development of a broad range of directed C–H activation reactions. However, these C–H activation methods are limited to proximal C–H bonds, which are spatially and geometrically accessible from the directing functional group. The development of meta-selective C–H functionalizations remains a significant challenge. We recently developed a U-shaped template that can be used to overcome this constraint and have shown that it can be used to selectively activate remote meta-C–H bonds. Although this approach has proved to be applicable to various substrates and catalytic transformations, the need for a covalently attached, complex template is a substantial drawback for synthetic applications. Here we report an alternative approach employing norbornene as a transient mediator to achieve meta-selective C–H activation with a simple and common ortho-directing group. The use of a newly developed pyridine-based ligand is crucial for relaying the palladium catalyst to the meta position by norbornene after initial ortho-C–H activation. This catalytic reaction demonstrates the feasibility of switching ortho-selectivity to meta-selectivity in C–H activation of the same substrate by catalyst control.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-09
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14214
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Observational determination of surface radiative forcing by CO2 from 2000
           to 2010
    • Authors: D. R. Feldman, W. D. Collins, P. J. Gero, M. S. Torn, E. J. Mlawer, T. R. Shippert
      Pages: 339 - 343
      Abstract: The climatic impact of CO2 and other greenhouse gases is usually quantified in terms of radiative forcing, calculated as the difference between estimates of the Earth’s radiation field from pre-industrial and present-day concentrations of these gases. Radiative transfer models calculate that the increase in CO2 since 1750 corresponds to a global annual-mean radiative forcing at the tropopause of 1.82 ± 0.19 W m−2 (ref. 2). However, despite widespread scientific discussion and modelling of the climate impacts of well-mixed greenhouse gases, there is little direct observational evidence of the radiative impact of increasing atmospheric CO2. Here we present observationally based evidence of clear-sky CO2 surface radiative forcing that is directly attributable to the increase, between 2000 and 2010, of 22 parts per million atmospheric CO2. The time series of this forcing at the two locations—the Southern Great Plains and the North Slope of Alaska—are derived from Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer spectra together with ancillary measurements and thoroughly corroborated radiative transfer calculations. The time series both show statistically significant trends of 0.2 W m−2 per decade (with respective uncertainties of ±0.06 W m−2 per decade and ±0.07 W m−2 per decade) and have seasonal ranges of 0.1–0.2 W m−2. This is approximately ten per cent of the trend in downwelling longwave radiation. These results confirm theoretical predictions of the atmospheric greenhouse effect due to anthropogenic emissions, and provide empirical evidence of how rising CO2 levels, mediated by temporal variations due to photosynthesis and respiration, are affecting the surface energy balance.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-02-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14240
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink
    • Authors: R. J. W. Brienen, O. L. Phillips, T. R. Feldpausch, E. Gloor, T. R. Baker, J. Lloyd, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, A. Monteagudo-Mendoza, Y. Malhi, S. L. Lewis, R. Vásquez Martinez, M. Alexiades, E. Álvarez Dávila, P. Alvarez-Loayza, A. Andrade, L. E. O. C. Aragão, A. Araujo-Murakami, E. J. M. M. Arets, L. Arroyo, G. A. Aymard C., O. S. Bánki, C. Baraloto, J. Barroso, D. Bonal, R. G. A. Boot, J. L. C. Camargo, C. V. Castilho, V. Chama, K. J. Chao, J. Chave, J. A. Comiskey, F. Cornejo Valverde, L. da Costa, E. A. de Oliveira, A. Di Fiore, T. L. Erwin, S. Fauset, M. Forsthofer, D. R. Galbraith, E. S. Grahame, N. Groot, B. Hérault, N. Higuchi, E. N. Honorio Coronado, H. Keeling, T. J. Killeen, W. F. Laurance, S. Laurance, J. Licona, W. E. Magnussen, B. S. Marimon, B. H. Marimon-Junior, C. Mendoza, D. A. Neill, E. M. Nogueira, P. Núñez, N. C. Pallqui Camacho, A. Parada, G. Pardo-Molina, J. Peacock, M. Peña-Claros, G. C. Pickavance, N. C. A. Pitman, L. Poorter, A. Prieto, C. A. Quesada, F. Ramírez, H. Ramírez-Angulo, Z. Restrepo, A. Roopsind, A. Rudas, R. P. Salomão, M. Schwarz, N. Silva, J. E. Silva-Espejo, M. Silveira, J. Stropp, J. Talbot, H. ter Steege, J. Teran-Aguilar, J. Terborgh, R. Thomas-Caesar, M. Toledo, M. Torello-Raventos, R. K. Umetsu, G. M. F. van der Heijden, P. van der Hout, I. C. Guimarães Vieira, S. A. Vieira, E. Vilanova, V. A. Vos, R. J. Zagt
      Pages: 344 - 348
      Abstract: Atmospheric carbon dioxide records indicate that the land surface has acted as a strong global carbon sink over recent decades, with a substantial fraction of this sink probably located in the tropics, particularly in the Amazon. Nevertheless, it is unclear how the terrestrial carbon sink will evolve as climate and atmospheric composition continue to change. Here we analyse the historical evolution of the biomass dynamics of the Amazon rainforest over three decades using a distributed network of 321 plots. While this analysis confirms that Amazon forests have acted as a long-term net biomass sink, we find a long-term decreasing trend of carbon accumulation. Rates of net increase in above-ground biomass declined by one-third during the past decade compared to the 1990s. This is a consequence of growth rate increases levelling off recently, while biomass mortality persistently increased throughout, leading to a shortening of carbon residence times. Potential drivers for the mortality increase include greater climate variability, and feedbacks of faster growth on mortality, resulting in shortened tree longevity. The observed decline of the Amazon sink diverges markedly from the recent increase in terrestrial carbon uptake at the global scale, and is contrary to expectations based on models.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14283
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Polyploidy can drive rapid adaptation in yeast
    • Authors: Anna M. Selmecki, Yosef E. Maruvka, Phillip A. Richmond, Marie Guillet, Noam Shoresh, Amber L. Sorenson, Subhajyoti De, Roy Kishony, Franziska Michor, Robin Dowell, David Pellman
      Pages: 349 - 352
      Abstract: Polyploidy is observed across the tree of life, yet its influence on evolution remains incompletely understood. Polyploidy, usually whole-genome duplication, is proposed to alter the rate of evolutionary adaptation. This could occur through complex effects on the frequency or fitness of beneficial mutations. For example, in diverse cell types and organisms, immediately after a whole-genome duplication, newly formed polyploids missegregate chromosomes and undergo genetic instability. The instability following whole-genome duplications is thought to provide adaptive mutations in microorganisms and can promote tumorigenesis in mammalian cells. Polyploidy may also affect adaptation independently of beneficial mutations through ploidy-specific changes in cell physiology. Here we perform in vitro evolution experiments to test directly whether polyploidy can accelerate evolutionary adaptation. Compared with haploids and diploids, tetraploids undergo significantly faster adaptation. Mathematical modelling suggests that rapid adaptation of tetraploids is driven by higher rates of beneficial mutations with stronger fitness effects, which is supported by whole-genome sequencing and phenotypic analyses of evolved clones. Chromosome aneuploidy, concerted chromosome loss, and point mutations all provide large fitness gains. We identify several mutations whose beneficial effects are manifest specifically in the tetraploid strains. Together, these results provide direct quantitative evidence that in some environments polyploidy can accelerate evolutionary adaptation.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-02
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14187
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Thermosensory processing in the Drosophila brain
    • Authors: Wendy W. Liu, Ofer Mazor, Rachel I. Wilson
      Pages: 353 - 357
      Abstract: In Drosophila, just as in vertebrates, changes in external temperature are encoded by bidirectional opponent thermoreceptor cells: some cells are excited by warming and inhibited by cooling, whereas others are excited by cooling and inhibited by warming. The central circuits that process these signals are not understood. In Drosophila, a specific brain region receives input from thermoreceptor cells. Here we show that distinct genetically identified projection neurons (PNs) in this brain region are excited by cooling, warming, or both. The PNs excited by cooling receive mainly feed-forward excitation from cool thermoreceptors. In contrast, the PNs excited by warming (‘warm-PNs’) receive both excitation from warm thermoreceptors and crossover inhibition from cool thermoreceptors through inhibitory interneurons. Notably, this crossover inhibition elicits warming-evoked excitation, because warming suppresses tonic activity in cool thermoreceptors. This in turn disinhibits warm-PNs and sums with feed-forward excitation evoked by warming. Crossover inhibition could cancel non-thermal activity (noise) that is positively correlated among warm and cool thermoreceptor cells, while reinforcing thermal activity which is anti-correlated. Our results show how central circuits can combine signals from bidirectional opponent neurons to construct sensitive and robust neural codes.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-04
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14170
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Temperature representation in the Drosophila brain
    • Authors: Dominic D. Frank, Genevieve C. Jouandet, Patrick J. Kearney, Lindsey J. Macpherson, Marco Gallio
      Pages: 358 - 361
      Abstract: In Drosophila, rapid temperature changes are detected at the periphery by dedicated receptors forming a simple sensory map for hot and cold in the brain. However, flies show a host of complex innate and learned responses to temperature, indicating that they are able to extract a range of information from this simple input. Here we define the anatomical and physiological repertoire for temperature representation in the Drosophila brain. First, we use a photolabelling strategy to trace the connections that relay peripheral thermosensory information to higher brain centres, and show that they largely converge onto three target regions: the mushroom body, the lateral horn (both of which are well known centres for sensory processing) and the posterior lateral protocerebrum, a region we now define as a major site of thermosensory representation. Next, using in vivo calcium imaging, we describe the thermosensory projection neurons selectively activated by hot or cold stimuli. Fast-adapting neurons display transient ON and OFF responses and track rapid temperature shifts remarkably well, while slow-adapting cell responses better reflect the magnitude of simple thermal changes. Unexpectedly, we also find a population of broadly tuned cells that respond to both heating and cooling, and show that they are required for normal behavioural avoidance of both hot and cold in a simple two-choice temperature preference assay. Taken together, our results uncover a coordinated ensemble of neural responses to temperature in the Drosophila brain, demonstrate that a broadly tuned thermal line contributes to rapid avoidance behaviour, and illustrate how stimulus quality, temporal structure, and intensity can be extracted from a simple glomerular map at a single synaptic station.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-04
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14284
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Tetanus toxoid and CCL3 improve dendritic cell vaccines in mice and
           glioblastoma patients
    • Authors: Duane A. Mitchell, Kristen A. Batich, Michael D. Gunn, Min-Nung Huang, Luis Sanchez-Perez, Smita K. Nair, Kendra L. Congdon, Elizabeth A. Reap, Gary E. Archer, Annick Desjardins, Allan H. Friedman, Henry S. Friedman, James E. Herndon II, April Coan, Roger E. McLendon, David A. Reardon, James J. Vredenburgh, Darell D. Bigner, John H. Sampson
      Pages: 366 - 369
      Abstract: After stimulation, dendritic cells (DCs) mature and migrate to draining lymph nodes to induce immune responses. As such, autologous DCs generated ex vivo have been pulsed with tumour antigens and injected back into patients as immunotherapy. While DC vaccines have shown limited promise in the treatment of patients with advanced cancers including glioblastoma, the factors dictating DC vaccine efficacy remain poorly understood. Here we show that pre-conditioning the vaccine site with a potent recall antigen such as tetanus/diphtheria (Td) toxoid can significantly improve the lymph node homing and efficacy of tumour-antigen-specific DCs. To assess the effect of vaccine site pre-conditioning in humans, we randomized patients with glioblastoma to pre-conditioning with either mature DCs or Td unilaterally before bilateral vaccination with DCs pulsed with Cytomegalovirus phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) RNA. We and other laboratories have shown that pp65 is expressed in more than 90% of glioblastoma specimens but not in surrounding normal brain, providing an unparalleled opportunity to subvert this viral protein as a tumour-specific target. Patients given Td had enhanced DC migration bilaterally and significantly improved survival. In mice, Td pre-conditioning also enhanced bilateral DC migration and suppressed tumour growth in a manner dependent on the chemokine CCL3. Our clinical studies and corroborating investigations in mice suggest that pre-conditioning with a potent recall antigen may represent a viable strategy to improve anti-tumour immunotherapy.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14320
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Corrigendum: OSCA1 mediates osmotic-stress-evoked Ca2+ increases vital for
           osmosensing in Arabidopsis
    • Authors: Fang Yuan, Huimin Yang, Yan Xue, Dongdong Kong, Rui Ye, Chijun Li, Jingyuan Zhang, Lynn Theprungsirikul, Tayler Shrift, Bryan Krichilsky, Douglas M. Johnson, Gary B. Swift, Yikun He, James N. Siedow, Zhen-Ming Pei
      Pages: 378 - 378
      Abstract: Nature514, 367–371 (2014); doi:10.1038/nature13593While we were working on this Letter, Hou et al. reported the cloning of AtCSC1, an osmosensitive calcium permeable cation channel. AtCSC1 is a close homologue of OSCA1, which we identified and characterized
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-02-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14305
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Erratum: Human intracellular ISG15 prevents interferon-α/β
           over-amplification and auto-inflammation
    • Authors: Xianqin Zhang, Dusan Bogunovic, Béatrice Payelle-Brogard, Véronique Francois-Newton, Scott D. Speer, Chao Yuan, Stefano Volpi, Zhi Li, Ozden Sanal, Davood Mansouri, Ilhan Tezcan, Gillian I. Rice, Chunyuan Chen, Nahal Mansouri, Seyed Alireza Mahdaviani, Yuval Itan, Bertrand Boisson, Satoshi Okada, Lu Zeng, Xing Wang, Hui Jiang, Wenqiang Liu, Tiantian Han, Delin Liu, Tao Ma, Bo Wang, Mugen Liu, Jing-Yu Liu, Qing K. Wang, Dilek Yalnizoglu, Lilliana Radoshevich, Gilles Uzé, Philippe Gros, Flore Rozenberg, Shen-Ying Zhang, Emmanuelle Jouanguy, Jacinta Bustamante, Adolfo García-Sastre, Laurent Abel, Pierre Lebon, Luigi D. Notarangelo, Yanick J. Crow, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Sandra Pellegrini
      Pages: 378 - 378
      Abstract: Nature517, 89–93 (2015); doi:10.1038/nature13801In this Letter, author J.-L.C. was inadvertently missing one of their affiliations; they should also have been associated with affiliation number 2 (St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch,
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-02-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14271
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Erratum: Antarctic glaciation caused ocean circulation changes at the
           Eocene–Oligocene transition
    • Authors: A. Goldner, N. Herold, M. Huber
      Pages: 378 - 378
      Abstract: Nature511, 574–577 (2014); doi:10.1038/nature13597In this Letter, the Fig. 2a legend should state ‘Ocean surface temperature anomalies’ and the Fig. 2b legend should state ‘Zonally averaged ocean temperature anomaly’, rather than vice versa. This has been corrected in
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-28
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14220
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Chemistry: Green refill
    • Authors: Rachel Cernansky
      Pages: 379 - 380
      Abstract: Manufacturers are snapping up chemists who can make their products more environmentally friendly.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7543-379a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • Perfection
    • Authors: John Frizell
      Pages: 382 - 382
      Abstract: The price of fame.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.1038/519382a
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2015)
       
  • CetZ tubulin-like proteins control archaeal cell shape
    • Authors: Iain G. Duggin, Christopher H. S. Aylett, James C. Walsh, Katharine A. Michie, Qing Wang, Lynne Turnbull, Emma M. Dawson, Elizabeth J. Harry, Cynthia B. Whitchurch, Linda A. Amos, Jan Löwe
      Pages: 362 - 365
      Abstract: Tubulin is a major component of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton, controlling cell shape, structure and dynamics, whereas its bacterial homologue FtsZ establishes the cytokinetic ring that constricts during cell division. How such different roles of tubulin and FtsZ evolved is unknown. Studying Archaea may provide clues as these organisms share characteristics with Eukarya and Bacteria. Here we report the structure and function of proteins from a distinct family related to tubulin and FtsZ, named CetZ, which co-exists with FtsZ in many archaea. CetZ X-ray crystal structures showed the FtsZ/tubulin superfamily fold, and one crystal form contained sheets of protofilaments, suggesting a structural role. However, inactivation of CetZ proteins in Haloferax volcanii did not affect cell division. Instead, CetZ1 was required for differentiation of the irregular plate-shaped cells into a rod-shaped cell type that was essential for normal swimming motility. CetZ1 formed dynamic cytoskeletal structures in vivo, relating to its capacity to remodel the cell envelope and direct rod formation. CetZ2 was also implicated in H. volcanii cell shape control. Our findings expand the known roles of the FtsZ/tubulin superfamily to include archaeal cell shape dynamics, suggesting that a cytoskeletal role might predate eukaryotic cell evolution, and they support the premise that a major function of the microbial rod shape is to facilitate swimming.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2014-12-22
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13983
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2014)
       
  • A human tRNA synthetase is a potent PARP1-activating effector target for
           resveratrol
    • Authors: Mathew Sajish, Paul Schimmel
      Pages: 370 - 373
      Abstract: Resveratrol is reported to extend lifespan and provide cardio-neuro-protective, anti-diabetic, and anti-cancer effects by initiating a stress response that induces survival genes. Because human tyrosyl transfer-RNA (tRNA) synthetase (TyrRS) translocates to the nucleus under stress conditions, we considered the possibility that the tyrosine-like phenolic ring of resveratrol might fit into the active site pocket to effect a nuclear role. Here we present a 2.1 Å co-crystal structure of resveratrol bound to the active site of TyrRS. Resveratrol nullifies the catalytic activity and redirects TyrRS to a nuclear function, stimulating NAD+-dependent auto-poly-ADP-ribosylation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1). Downstream activation of key stress signalling pathways are causally connected to TyrRS–PARP1–NAD+ collaboration. This collaboration is also demonstrated in the mouse, and is specifically blocked in vivo by a resveratrol-displacing tyrosyl adenylate analogue. In contrast to functionally diverse tRNA synthetase catalytic nulls created by alternative splicing events that ablate active sites, here a non-spliced TyrRS catalytic null reveals a new PARP1- and NAD+-dependent dimension to the physiological mechanism of resveratrol.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2014-12-22
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14028
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2014)
       
  • NAD captureSeq indicates NAD as a bacterial cap for a subset of regulatory
           RNAs
    • Authors: Hana Cahová, Marie-Luise Winz, Katharina Höfer, Gabriele Nübel, Andres Jäschke
      Pages: 374 - 377
      Abstract: A distinctive feature of prokaryotic gene expression is the absence of 5′-capped RNA. In eukaryotes, 5′,5′-triphosphate-linked 7-methylguanosine protects messenger RNA from degradation and modulates maturation, localization and translation. Recently, the cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) was reported as a covalent modification of bacterial RNA. Given the central role of NAD in redox biochemistry, posttranslational protein modification and signalling, its attachment to RNA indicates that there are unknown functions of RNA in these processes and undiscovered pathways in RNA metabolism and regulation. The unknown identity of NAD-modified RNAs has so far precluded functional analyses. Here we identify NAD-linked RNAs from bacteria by chemo-enzymatic capture and next-generation sequencing (NAD captureSeq). Among those identified, specific regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) and sRNA-like 5′-terminal fragments of certain mRNAs are particularly abundant. Analogous to a eukaryotic cap, 5′-NAD modification is shown in vitro to stabilize RNA against 5′-processing by the RNA-pyrophosphohydrolase RppH and against endonucleolytic cleavage by ribonuclease (RNase) E. The nudix phosphohydrolase NudC decaps NAD-RNA and thereby triggers RNase-E-mediated RNA decay, while being inactive against triphosphate-RNA. In vivo, ∼13% of the abundant sRNA RNAI is NAD-capped in the presence, and ∼26% in the absence, of functional NudC. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a cap-like structure and a decapping machinery in bacteria.
      Citation: Nature 519, 7543 (2015)
      PubDate: 2014-12-22
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14020
      Issue No: Vol. 519, No. 7543 (2014)
       
 
 
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