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Journal Cover Nature
  [SJR: 21.936]   [H-I: 948]   [3215 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0028-0836 - ISSN (Online) 1476-4687
   Published by NPG Homepage  [123 journals]
  • Kamakura replies
    • Authors: M. Kamakura
      Abstract: REPLYING TOA.Buttstedt, C. H.Ihling, M.Pietzsch & R. F. A.MoritzNature537, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature19349 (2016)In the accompanying Comment, Buttstedt et al. investigated the effects of royalactin on queen differentiation in honeybees, and
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19350
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Royalactin is not a royal making of a queen
    • Authors: Anja Buttstedt, Christian H. Ihling, Markus Pietzsch, Robin F. A. Moritz
      Abstract: ARISING FROM M. Kamakura Nature473, 478–48310.1038/nature10093 (2011)Honeybee (Apis mellifera) females occur in two castes: workers and one reproductive queen. Caste is nutritionally regulated and only larvae exclusively fed on royal jelly (RJ) develop
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19349
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • More accountability for big-data algorithms
    • Pages: 449 - 449
      Abstract: To avoid bias and improve transparency, algorithm designers must make data sources and profiles public.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537449a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Socio-economic inequality in science is on the rise
    • Pages: 450 - 450
      Abstract: Current trends indicate that research is starting to become a preserve of the privileged.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537450a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • US clampdown on clinical-trial reporting is long overdue
    • Pages: 450 - 450
      Abstract: Reform to 2007 law brings visibility to negative trial results.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-20
      DOI: 10.1038/537450b
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Religion and science can have a true dialogue
    • Authors: Kathryn Pritchard
      Pages: 451 - 451
      Abstract: A popular assumption that there is a conflict between the Church and the research world should be dispelled, says Kathryn Pritchard.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-20
      DOI: 10.1038/537451a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Bioengineering: Yeast makes diesel-like fuels
    • Pages: 452 - 453
      Abstract: A yeast has been engineered to produce industrially important oils, including some similar to diesel.Gregory Stephanopoulos and his colleagues at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge rewired key metabolic pathways and tweaked the structure and expression of certain enzymes in the yeast Yarrowia
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537452e
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Neuroscience: Neurons' roles vary by sex
    • Pages: 452 - 452
      Abstract: A class of nerve cell has different effects on social and anxiety-related behaviours in male and female mice in response to a hormone involved in social interaction.Many social and emotional disorders seem to disproportionately affect a particular gender — anxiety disorders, for example, are
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537452d
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Anthropology: Same sounds for similar meanings
    • Pages: 452 - 452
      Abstract: Unrelated languages often use the same sounds when referring to particular concepts, such as the 'n' sound for 'nose'.Researchers have tended to assume that spoken language is arbitrary, with no link between a word's sound and meaning. Damián Blasi at the University of Zurich
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537452c
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Particle physics: Two mesons make an exotic atom
    • Pages: 452 - 452
      Abstract: Scientists have discovered an exotic atom formed from two specific types of meson, which consist of only a quark and an anti-quark, instead of the three quarks found in constituents of normal matter.Mesons are unstable particles produced in high-energy collisions and can be used
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537452b
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Conservation: Legal ivory trade would be unsustainable
    • Pages: 452 - 452
      Abstract: Legal ivory harvesting from African elephants would never meet consumer demand and could not resume in a sustainable way.Despite an international trade ban in 1989, poaching for ivory remains rampant and is even increasing, triggering heated debates about whether legal trading could help to
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537452a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Astronomy: Universe much richer in galaxies
    • Pages: 453 - 453
      Abstract: The observable Universe is populated by between 1 trillion and 3 trillion galaxies, almost 10 times more than previously estimated.A team led by Christopher Conselice at the University of Nottingham, UK, estimated this number using various telescope surveys that revealed evolving galaxy abundances since
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537453e
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Climate-change ecology: Australian tree range threatened
    • Pages: 453 - 453
      Abstract: Climate change could shrink the geographic range of most of Australia's eucalyptus species within the next 60 years.Eucalypt trees (Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora) are abundant in Australia (Eucalyptus terminalis and Corymbia opaca, pictured). Carlos González-Orozco, now
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537453d
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Evolution: How snakes lost venom genes
    • Pages: 453 - 453
      Abstract: The ancestors of rattlesnakes had — and then lost — key genes involved in producing prey-paralysing venom.The venom of North American diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox, pictured, and C. adamanteus) targets the muscles and blood of victims, whereas the venom of
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537453c
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Neuroscience: Cone cells see white too
    • Pages: 453 - 453
      Abstract: Light-sensing cells in the eye that have long been associated with colour vision could also be involved in non-colour vision.The retina is lined with colour-sensing cone cells, and with rod cells, which are responsible for night vision. Ramkumar Sabesan at the University of California,
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537453b
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Quantum physics: City-wide teleportation
    • Pages: 453 - 453
      Abstract: Two groups have demonstrated quantum teleportation — the remote exchange of quantum states — across cities using ordinary fibre-optic links.In quantum teleportation, pairs of particles — typically photons — are created that share a common quantum state. Each particle is sent to a different
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537453a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Low Arctic ice, Monsanto takeover, and the longest lightning strike
    • Pages: 454 - 455
      Abstract: The week in science: 16–22 September 2016
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537454a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Geneticists attempt to heal rifts with Aboriginal communities
    • Authors: Ewen Callaway
      Pages: 457 - 458
      Abstract: After decades of rocky relations, they are working together to trace indigenous communities’ ancestry.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537457a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • US sharpens surveillance of crippling solar storms
    • Authors: Alexandra Witze
      Pages: 458 - 459
      Abstract: Next-generation space-weather model will map the danger facing power grids.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-20
      DOI: 10.1038/537458a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Detailed map shows Milky Way is bigger than we thought
    • Authors: Davide Castelvecchi
      Pages: 459 - 459
      Abstract: First results from Gaia probe also seem to solve old controversy over Pleiades cluster.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2016.20591
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Titanic clash over CRISPR patents turns ugly
    • Authors: Heidi Ledford
      Pages: 460 - 461
      Abstract: Accusations of impropriety feature in escalating dispute.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537460a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Human skeleton found on famed Antikythera shipwreck
    • Authors: Jo Marchant
      Pages: 462 - 463
      Abstract: Two-thousand-year-old bones could yield first DNA from an ancient shipwreck victim.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-19
      DOI: 10.1038/537462a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Correction
    • Pages: 463 - 463
      Abstract: The News story ‘Nobel Assembly deals with scandal’ (Nature537, 289–290; 2016) erroneously gave Stockholm as the location for all of the Nobel prize ceremonies.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537463a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Science and inequality
    • Pages: 465 - 465
      Abstract: A special issue explores the study of inequality, and how socio-economic divides affect the science workforce.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537465a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Is science only for the rich?
    • Pages: 466 - 470
      Abstract: Around the world, poverty and social background remain huge barriers in scientific careers.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537466a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Science’s 1%: How income inequality is getting worse in research
    • Authors: Corie Lok
      Pages: 471 - 473
      Abstract: Wages for top scientists are shooting skywards while others are being left behind.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537471a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • End class wars
    • Authors: Mike Savage
      Pages: 475 - 479
      Abstract: Mike Savage calls on sociologists to resolve their differences over definitions of social class to allow better analyses of inequality.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537475a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Income inequality is cyclical
    • Authors: Branko Milanovic
      Pages: 479 - 482
      Abstract: Periodic rises and falls in the gap between the rich and poor over centuries indicate that inequality will not grow forever, argues Branko Milanovic.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537479a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Public health: Beating Ebola
    • Authors: Peter Piot
      Pages: 484 - 485
      Abstract: Peter Piot ponders two books on the epidemic that offer important lessons from an avoidable catastrophe.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537484a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Books in brief
    • Authors: Barbara Kiser
      Pages: 485 - 485
      Abstract: Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537485a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Wildlife monitoring: Lure gamers into citizen science
    • Authors: Rassim Khelifa
      Pages: 488 - 488
      Abstract: Ecologists who are interested in using Pokémon Go to find new species (see Nature535, 323–32410.1038/535323b (2016) and F.de Oliveira RoqueNature537, 34;10.1038/537034e2016) could also adopt the gameplay concept
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537488e
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Health research: Africa–India health-science partnerships
    • Authors: Shahid Jameel, Thomas Kariuki, Simon Kay
      Pages: 488 - 488
      Abstract: Africa and India have common problems of communicable and non-communicable diseases, high maternal and child mortality, and weak health-delivery systems. Together with other funders, the Wellcome Trust is supporting capacity-building and innovation in health research in both regions, through the Alliance for Accelerating Excellence in
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537488d
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Species loss: lack of data leaves a gap
    • Authors: Lucie Bland, Ben Collen
      Pages: 488 - 488
      Abstract: Understanding the pressures that lead to a high risk of species extinction is crucial for stemming biodiversity loss (see S. L.Maxwellet al. Nature536, 143–145;10.1038/536143a2016). Yet the large number of species that remain classified as
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537488c
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Pollution: Do microplastics spill on to farm soils?
    • Authors: Luca Nizzetto, Sindre Langaas, Martyn Futter
      Pages: 488 - 488
      Abstract: Large quantities of microplastic particles from cosmetics, clothing and industrial processes could be ending up on agricultural land that is fertilized with urban sewage sludge. This calls for urgent investigation if we are to safeguard food production and reuse wastewater products.Unlike microplastics that pollute
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537488b
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Geoengineering: Code of conduct for geoengineering
    • Authors: Anna-Maria Hubert, Tim Kruger, Steve Rayner
      Pages: 488 - 488
      Abstract: Geoengineering is central to scenarios that limit global warming to 2 °C — for example, by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or increasing the planet's albedo (see Nature527, 436–438;10.1038/527436a2015). However, the environmental and social implications of
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537488a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • James Cronin (1931–2016)
    • Authors: Alan Watson
      Pages: 489 - 489
      Abstract: Particle physicist who helped to explain the dominance of matter in the Universe.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537489a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Alzheimer's disease: Structure of aggregates revealed
    • Authors: Robert Tycko
      Pages: 492 - 493
      Abstract: A technical feat achieved by two independent groups has enabled resolution of the molecular structure of a form of the amyloid-β protein that is thought to play a major part in Alzheimer's disease.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19470
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Acoustics: Motion controlled by sound
    • Authors: Adrian Neild
      Pages: 493 - 494
      Abstract: A simple technique has been developed that produces holograms made of sound waves. These acoustic landscapes are used to manipulate microscale objects, and offer great potential in medical imaging and selective heating. See Letter p.518
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537493a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Developmental biology: Panoramic views of the early epigenome
    • Authors: Juan M. Vaquerizas, Maria-Elena Torres-Padilla
      Pages: 494 - 496
      Abstract: Four studies detail changes in how DNA is wrapped around histone proteins and in molecular modifications to histones that occur after fertilization. The results shed light on the early regulation of gene expression. See Letters p.548, p.553 & p.558
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19468
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Exoplanets: Migration of giants
    • Authors: Amaury Triaud
      Pages: 496 - 497
      Abstract: The origin of hot Jupiters, large gaseous planets in close orbits around stars, is unknown. Observations suggest that such planets are abundant in stellar clusters, and can result from encounters with other celestial bodies.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-31
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19430
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Immunology: Channelling potassium to fight cancer
    • Authors: K. George Chandy, Raymond S. Norton
      Pages: 497 - 499
      Abstract: Potassium released from dying tumour cells has now been found to suppress the activity of T cells of the immune system. Enhancing the removal of potassium from T cells restores their ability to attack cancer. See Letter p.539
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19467
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Condensed-matter physics: Multitasking materials from atomic templates
    • Authors: Manfred Fiebig
      Pages: 499 - 500
      Abstract: Two 'failed' materials can perform much better when united. Such a combination exhibits magnetization and electric polarization up to room temperature, providing a basis for new magnetoelectric devices. See Letter p.523
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537499a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • 50 & 100 Years Ago
    • Pages: 499 - 499
      Abstract: 50 Years AgoIf the ionic pump in the red cell membrane expels three sodium ions and takes up about two potassium ions for each molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysed, under physiological conditions the free energy available to drive the reaction forwards must be
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537499b
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Geology: Evidence of life in Earth's oldest rocks
    • Authors: Abigail C. Allwood
      Pages: 500 - 501
      Abstract: When did life first arise on Earth? Analysis of ancient rocks in Greenland that contain structures interpreted as bacterial in origin suggest that Earth might have been an abode for life much earlier than previously thought. See Letter p.535
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-31
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19429
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Perimortem fractures in Lucy suggest mortality from fall out of tall tree
    • Authors: John Kappelman, Richard A. Ketcham, Stephen Pearce, Lawrence Todd, Wiley Akins, Matthew W. Colbert, Mulugeta Feseha, Jessica A. Maisano, Adrienne Witzel
      Pages: 503 - 507
      Abstract: The Pliocene fossil ‘Lucy’ (Australopithecus afarensis) was discovered in the Afar region of Ethiopia in 1974 and is among the oldest and most complete fossil hominin skeletons discovered. Here we propose, on the basis of close study of her skeleton, that her cause
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-29
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19332
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • High-throughput discovery of novel developmental phenotypes
    • Pages: 508 - 514
      Abstract: Approximately one-third of all mammalian genes are essential for life. Phenotypes resulting from knockouts of these genes in mice have provided tremendous insight into gene function and congenital disorders. As part of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium effort to generate and phenotypically characterize 5,000 knockout
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19356
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • A partially differentiated interior for (1) Ceres deduced from its gravity
           field and shape
    • Authors: R. S. Park, A. S. Konopliv, B. G. Bills, N. Rambaux, J. C. Castillo-Rogez, C. A. Raymond, A. T. Vaughan, A. I. Ermakov, M. T. Zuber, R. R. Fu, M. J. Toplis, C. T. Russell, A. Nathues, F. Preusker
      Pages: 515 - 517
      Abstract: Remote observations of the asteroid (1) Ceres from ground- and space-based telescopes have provided its approximate density and shape, leading to a range of models for the interior of Ceres, from homogeneous to fully differentiated. A previously missing parameter that can place a strong constraint on the interior of Ceres is its moment of inertia, which requires the measurement of its gravitational variation together with either precession rate or a validated assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. However, Earth-based remote observations cannot measure gravity variations and the magnitude of the precession rate is too small to be detected. Here we report gravity and shape measurements of Ceres obtained from the Dawn spacecraft, showing that it is in hydrostatic equilibrium with its inferred normalized mean moment of inertia of 0.37. These data show that Ceres is a partially differentiated body, with a rocky core overlaid by a volatile-rich shell, as predicted in some studies. Furthermore, we show that the gravity signal is strongly suppressed compared to that predicted by the topographic variation. This indicates that Ceres is isostatically compensated, such that topographic highs are supported by displacement of a denser interior. In contrast to the asteroid (4) Vesta, this strong compensation points to the presence of a lower-viscosity layer at depth, probably reflecting a thermal rather than compositional gradient. To further investigate the interior structure, we assume a two-layer model for the interior of Ceres with a core density of 2,460–2,900 kilograms per cubic metre (that is, composed of CI and CM chondrites), which yields an outer-shell thickness of 70–190 kilometres. The density of this outer shell is 1,680–1,950 kilograms per cubic metre, indicating a mixture of volatiles and denser materials such as silicates and salts. Although the gravity and shape data confirm that the interior of Ceres evolved thermally, its partially differentiated interior indicates an evolution more complex than has been envisioned for mid-sized (less than 1,000 kilometres across) ice-rich rocky bodies.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-03
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18955
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Holograms for acoustics
    • Authors: Kai Melde, Andrew G. Mark, Tian Qiu, Peer Fischer
      Pages: 518 - 522
      Abstract: Holographic techniques are fundamental to applications such as volumetric displays, high-density data storage and optical tweezers that require spatial control of intricate optical or acoustic fields within a three-dimensional volume. The basis of holography is spatial storage of the phase and/or amplitude profile of the desired wavefront in a manner that allows that wavefront to be reconstructed by interference when the hologram is illuminated with a suitable coherent source. Modern computer-generated holography skips the process of recording a hologram from a physical scene, and instead calculates the required phase profile before rendering it for reconstruction. In ultrasound applications, the phase profile is typically generated by discrete and independently driven ultrasound sources; however, these can only be used in small numbers, which limits the complexity or degrees of freedom that can be attained in the wavefront. Here we introduce monolithic acoustic holograms, which can reconstruct diffraction-limited acoustic pressure fields and thus arbitrary ultrasound beams. We use rapid fabrication to craft the holograms and achieve reconstruction degrees of freedom two orders of magnitude higher than commercial phased array sources. The technique is inexpensive, appropriate for both transmission and reflection elements, and scales well to higher information content, larger aperture size and higher power. The complex three-dimensional pressure and phase distributions produced by these acoustic holograms allow us to demonstrate new approaches to controlled ultrasonic manipulation of solids in water, and of liquids and solids in air. We expect that acoustic holograms will enable new capabilities in beam-steering and the contactless transfer of power, improve medical imaging, and drive new applications of ultrasound.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19755
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Atomically engineered ferroic layers yield a room-temperature
           magnetoelectric multiferroic
    • Pages: 523 - 527
      Abstract: Materials that exhibit simultaneous order in their electric and magnetic ground states hold promise for use in next-generation memory devices in which electric fields control magnetism. Such materials are exceedingly rare, however, owing to competing requirements for displacive ferroelectricity and magnetism. Despite the recent identification of several new multiferroic materials and magnetoelectric coupling mechanisms, known single-phase multiferroics remain limited by antiferromagnetic or weak ferromagnetic alignments, by a lack of coupling between the order parameters, or by having properties that emerge only well below room temperature, precluding device applications. Here we present a methodology for constructing single-phase multiferroic materials in which ferroelectricity and strong magnetic ordering are coupled near room temperature. Starting with hexagonal LuFeO3—the geometric ferroelectric with the greatest known planar rumpling—we introduce individual monolayers of FeO during growth to construct formula-unit-thick syntactic layers of ferrimagnetic LuFe2O4 (refs 17, 18) within the LuFeO3 matrix, that is, (LuFeO3)m/(LuFe2O4)1 superlattices. The severe rumpling imposed by the neighbouring LuFeO3 drives the ferrimagnetic LuFe2O4 into a simultaneously ferroelectric state, while also reducing the LuFe2O4 spin frustration. This increases the magnetic transition temperature substantially—from 240 kelvin for LuFe2O4 (ref. 18) to 281 kelvin for (LuFeO3)9/(LuFe2O4)1. Moreover, the ferroelectric order couples to the ferrimagnetism, enabling direct electric-field control of magnetism at 200 kelvin. Our results demonstrate a design methodology for creating higher-temperature magnetoelectric multiferroics by exploiting a combination of geometric frustration, lattice distortions and epitaxial engineering.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19343
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Switching on electrocatalytic activity in solid oxide cells
    • Authors: Jae-ha Myung, Dragos Neagu, David N. Miller, John T. S. Irvine
      Pages: 528 - 531
      Abstract: Solid oxide cells (SOCs) can operate with high efficiency in two ways—as fuel cells, oxidizing a fuel to produce electricity, and as electrolysis cells, electrolysing water to produce hydrogen and oxygen gases. Ideally, SOCs should perform well, be durable and be inexpensive, but there are often competitive tensions, meaning that, for example, performance is achieved at the expense of durability. SOCs consist of porous electrodes—the fuel and air electrodes—separated by a dense electrolyte. In terms of the electrodes, the greatest challenge is to deliver high, long-lasting electrocatalytic activity while ensuring cost- and time-efficient manufacture. This has typically been achieved through lengthy and intricate ex situ procedures. These often require dedicated precursors and equipment; moreover, although the degradation of such electrodes associated with their reversible operation can be mitigated, they are susceptible to many other forms of degradation. An alternative is to grow appropriate electrode nanoarchitectures under operationally relevant conditions, for example, via redox exsolution. Here we describe the growth of a finely dispersed array of anchored metal nanoparticles on an oxide electrode through electrochemical poling of a SOC at 2 volts for a few seconds. These electrode structures perform well as both fuel cells and electrolysis cells (for example, at 900 °C they deliver 2 watts per square centimetre of power in humidified hydrogen gas, and a current of 2.75 amps per square centimetre at 1.3 volts in 50% water/nitrogen gas). The nanostructures and corresponding electrochemical activity do not degrade in 150 hours of testing. These results not only prove that in operando methods can yield emergent nanomaterials, which in turn deliver exceptional performance, but also offer proof of concept that electrolysis and fuel cells can be unified in a single, high-performance, versatile and easily manufactured device. This opens up the possibility of simple, almost instantaneous production of highly active nanostructures for reinvigorating SOCs during operation.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-22
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19090
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Molecular-scale evidence of aerosol particle formation via sequential
           addition of HIO3
    • Pages: 532 - 534
      Abstract: Homogeneous nucleation and subsequent cluster growth leads to the formation of new aerosol particles in the atmosphere. The nucleation of sulfuric acid and organic vapours is thought to be responsible for the formation of new particles over continents, whereas iodine oxide vapours have been implicated in particle formation over coastal regions. The molecular clustering pathways that are involved in atmospheric particle formation have been elucidated in controlled laboratory studies of chemically simple systems, but direct molecular-level observations of nucleation in atmospheric field conditions that involve sulfuric acid, organic or iodine oxide vapours have yet to be reported. Here we present field data from Mace Head, Ireland, and supporting data from northern Greenland and Queen Maud Land, Antarctica, that enable us to identify the molecular steps involved in new particle formation in an iodine-rich, coastal atmospheric environment. We find that the formation and initial growth process is almost exclusively driven by iodine oxoacids and iodine oxide vapours, with average oxygen-to-iodine ratios of 2.4 found in the clusters. On the basis of this high ratio, together with the high concentrations of iodic acid (HIO3) observed, we suggest that cluster formation primarily proceeds by sequential addition of HIO3, followed by intracluster restructuring to I2O5 and recycling of water either in the atmosphere or on dehydration. Our study provides ambient atmospheric molecular-level observations of nucleation, supporting the previously suggested role of iodine-containing species in the formation of new aerosol particles, and identifies the key nucleating compound.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-31
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19314
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Rapid emergence of life shown by discovery of 3,700-million-year-old
           microbial structures
    • Authors: Allen P. Nutman, Vickie C. Bennett, Clark R. L. Friend, Martin J. Van Kranendonk, Allan R. Chivas
      Pages: 535 - 538
      Abstract: Biological activity is a major factor in Earth’s chemical cycles, including facilitating CO2 sequestration and providing climate feedbacks. Thus a key question in Earth’s evolution is when did life arise and impact hydrosphere–atmosphere–lithosphere chemical cycles? Until now, evidence for the oldest life on Earth focused on debated stable isotopic signatures of 3,800–3,700 million year (Myr)-old metamorphosed sedimentary rocks and minerals from the Isua supracrustal belt (ISB), southwest Greenland. Here we report evidence for ancient life from a newly exposed outcrop of 3,700-Myr-old metacarbonate rocks in the ISB that contain 1–4-cm-high stromatolites—macroscopically layered structures produced by microbial communities. The ISB stromatolites grew in a shallow marine environment, as indicated by seawater-like rare-earth element plus yttrium trace element signatures of the metacarbonates, and by interlayered detrital sedimentary rocks with cross-lamination and storm-wave generated breccias. The ISB stromatolites predate by 220 Myr the previous most convincing and generally accepted multidisciplinary evidence for oldest life remains in the 3,480-Myr-old Dresser Formation of the Pilbara Craton, Australia. The presence of the ISB stromatolites demonstrates the establishment of shallow marine carbonate production with biotic CO2 sequestration by 3,700 million years ago (Ma), near the start of Earth’s sedimentary record. A sophistication of life by 3,700 Ma is in accord with genetic molecular clock studies placing life’s origin in the Hadean eon (>4,000 Ma).
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-31
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19355
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Ionic immune suppression within the tumour microenvironment limits T cell
           effector function
    • Authors: Robert Eil, Suman K. Vodnala, David Clever, Christopher A. Klebanoff, Madhusudhanan Sukumar, Jenny H. Pan, Douglas C. Palmer, Alena Gros, Tori N. Yamamoto, Shashank J. Patel, Geoffrey C. Guittard, Zhiya Yu, Valentina Carbonaro, Klaus Okkenhaug, David S. Schrump, W. Marston Linehan, Rahul Roychoudhuri, Nicholas P. Restifo
      Pages: 539 - 543
      Abstract: Tumours progress despite being infiltrated by tumour-specific effector T cells. Tumours contain areas of cellular necrosis, which are associated with poor survival in a variety of cancers. Here, we show that necrosis releases intracellular potassium ions into the extracellular fluid of mouse and human tumours, causing profound suppression of T cell effector function. Elevation of the extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]e) impairs T cell receptor (TCR)-driven Akt–mTOR phosphorylation and effector programmes. Potassium-mediated suppression of Akt–mTOR signalling and T cell function is dependent upon the activity of the serine/threonine phosphatase PP2A. Although the suppressive effect mediated by elevated [K+]e is independent of changes in plasma membrane potential (Vm), it requires an increase in intracellular potassium ([K+]i). Accordingly, augmenting potassium efflux in tumour-specific T cells by overexpressing the potassium channel Kv1.3 lowers [K+]i and improves effector functions in vitro and in vivo and enhances tumour clearance and survival in melanoma-bearing mice. These results uncover an ionic checkpoint that blocks T cell function in tumours and identify potential new strategies for cancer immunotherapy.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19364
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Fumarate is an epigenetic modifier that elicits epithelial-to-mesenchymal
           transition
    • Pages: 544 - 547
      Abstract: Mutations of the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase cause hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer. Fumarate hydratase-deficient renal cancers are highly aggressive and metastasize even when small, leading to a very poor clinical outcome. Fumarate, a small molecule metabolite that accumulates in fumarate hydratase-deficient cells, plays a key role in cell transformation, making it a bona fide oncometabolite. Fumarate has been shown to inhibit α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases that are involved in DNA and histone demethylation. However, the link between fumarate accumulation, epigenetic changes, and tumorigenesis is unclear. Here we show that loss of fumarate hydratase and the subsequent accumulation of fumarate in mouse and human cells elicits an epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), a phenotypic switch associated with cancer initiation, invasion, and metastasis. We demonstrate that fumarate inhibits Tet-mediated demethylation of a regulatory region of the antimetastatic miRNA clustermir-200ba429, leading to the expression of EMT-related transcription factors and enhanced migratory properties. These epigenetic and phenotypic changes are recapitulated by the incubation of fumarate hydratase-proficient cells with cell-permeable fumarate. Loss of fumarate hydratase is associated with suppression of miR-200 and the EMT signature in renal cancer and is associated with poor clinical outcome. These results imply that loss of fumarate hydratase and fumarate accumulation contribute to the aggressive features of fumarate hydratase-deficient tumours.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-31
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19353
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Broad histone H3K4me3 domains in mouse oocytes modulate
           maternal-to-zygotic transition
    • Pages: 548 - 552
      Abstract: Maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) is essential for the formation of a new individual, but is still poorly understood despite recent progress in analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation in early embryogenesis. Dynamic histone modifications may have important roles in MZT, but direct measurements of chromatin states have been hindered by technical difficulties in profiling histone modifications from small quantities of cells. Recent improvements allow for 500 cell-equivalents of chromatin per reaction, but require 10,000 cells for initial steps or require a highly specialized microfluidics device that is not readily available. We developed a micro-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (μChIP–seq) method, which we used to profile genome-wide histone H3 lysine methylation (H3K4me3) and acetylation (H3K27ac) in mouse immature and metaphase II oocytes and in 2-cell and 8-cell embryos. Notably, we show that ~22% of the oocyte genome is associated with broad H3K4me3 domains that are anti-correlated with DNA methylation. The H3K4me3 signal becomes confined to transcriptional-start-site regions in 2-cell embryos, concomitant with the onset of major zygotic genome activation. Active removal of broad H3K4me3 domains by the lysine demethylases KDM5A and KDM5B is required for normal zygotic genome activation and is essential for early embryo development. Our results provide insight into the onset of the developmental program in mouse embryos and demonstrate a role for broad H3K4me3 domains in MZT.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19360
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Allelic reprogramming of the histone modification H3K4me3 in early
           mammalian development
    • Authors: Bingjie Zhang, Hui Zheng, Bo Huang, Wenzhi Li, Yunlong Xiang, Xu Peng, Jia Ming, Xiaotong Wu, Yu Zhang, Qianhua Xu, Wenqiang Liu, Xiaochen Kou, Yanhong Zhao, Wenteng He, Chong Li, Bo Chen, Yuanyuan Li, Qiujun Wang, Jing Ma, Qiangzong Yin, Kehkooi Kee, Anming Meng, Shaorong Gao, Feng Xu, Jie Na, Wei Xie
      Pages: 553 - 557
      Abstract: Histone modifications are fundamental epigenetic regulators that control many crucial cellular processes. However, whether these marks can be passed on from mammalian gametes to the next generation is a long-standing question that remains unanswered. Here, by developing a highly sensitive approach, STAR ChIP–seq, we provide a panoramic view of the landscape of H3K4me3, a histone hallmark for transcription initiation, from developing gametes to post-implantation embryos. We find that upon fertilization, extensive reprogramming occurs on the paternal genome, as H3K4me3 peaks are depleted in zygotes but are readily observed after major zygotic genome activation at the late two-cell stage. On the maternal genome, we unexpectedly find a non-canonical form of H3K4me3 (ncH3K4me3) in full-grown and mature oocytes, which exists as broad peaks at promoters and a large number of distal loci. Such broad H3K4me3 peaks are in contrast to the typical sharp H3K4me3 peaks restricted to CpG-rich regions of promoters. Notably, ncH3K4me3 in oocytes overlaps almost exclusively with partially methylated DNA domains. It is then inherited in pre-implantation embryos, before being erased in the late two-cell embryos, when canonical H3K4me3 starts to be established. The removal of ncH3K4me3 requires zygotic transcription but is independent of DNA replication-mediated passive dilution. Finally, downregulation of H3K4me3 in full-grown oocytes by overexpression of the H3K4me3 demethylase KDM5B is associated with defects in genome silencing. Taken together, these data unveil inheritance and highly dynamic reprogramming of the epigenome in early mammalian development.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19361
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Distinct features of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 chromatin domains in
           pre-implantation embryos
    • Authors: Xiaoyu Liu, Chenfei Wang, Wenqiang Liu, Jingyi Li, Chong Li, Xiaochen Kou, Jiayu Chen, Yanhong Zhao, Haibo Gao, Hong Wang, Yong Zhang, Yawei Gao, Shaorong Gao
      Pages: 558 - 562
      Abstract: Histone modifications have critical roles in regulating the expression of developmental genes during embryo development in mammals. However, genome-wide analyses of histone modifications in pre-implantation embryos have been impeded by the scarcity of the required materials. Here, by using a small-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP–seq) method, we map the genome-wide profiles of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), which are associated with gene activation and repression, respectively, in mouse pre-implantation embryos. We find that the re-establishment of H3K4me3, especially on promoter regions, occurs much more rapidly than that of H3K27me3 following fertilization, which is consistent with the major wave of zygotic genome activation at the two-cell stage. Furthermore, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 possess distinct features of sequence preference and dynamics in pre-implantation embryos. Although H3K4me3 modifications occur consistently at transcription start sites, the breadth of the H3K4me3 domain is a highly dynamic feature. Notably, the broad H3K4me3 domain (wider than 5 kb) is associated with higher transcription activity and cell identity not only in pre-implantation development but also in the process of deriving embryonic stem cells from the inner cell mass and trophoblast stem cells from the trophectoderm. Compared to embryonic stem cells, we found that the bivalency (that is, co-occurrence of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) in early embryos is relatively infrequent and unstable. Taken together, our results provide a genome-wide map of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 modifications in pre-implantation embryos, facilitating further exploration of the mechanism for epigenetic regulation in early embryos.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19362
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • A blue-light photoreceptor mediates the feedback regulation of
           photosynthesis
    • Authors: Dimitris Petroutsos, Ryutaro Tokutsu, Shinichiro Maruyama, Serena Flori, Andre Greiner, Leonardo Magneschi, Loic Cusant, Tilman Kottke, Maria Mittag, Peter Hegemann, Giovanni Finazzi, Jun Minagawa
      Pages: 563 - 566
      Abstract: In plants and algae, light serves both as the energy source for photosynthesis and a biological signal that triggers cellular responses via specific sensory photoreceptors. Red light is perceived by bilin-containing phytochromes and blue light by the flavin-containing cryptochromes and/or phototropins (PHOTs), the latter containing two photosensory light, oxygen, or voltage (LOV) domains. Photoperception spans several orders of light intensity, ranging from far below the threshold for photosynthesis to values beyond the capacity of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation. Excess light may cause oxidative damage and cell death, processes prevented by enhanced thermal dissipation via high-energy quenching (qE), a key photoprotective response. Here we show the existence of a molecular link between photoreception, photosynthesis, and photoprotection in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We show that PHOT controls qE by inducing the expression of the qE effector protein LHCSR3 (light-harvesting complex stress-related protein 3) in high light intensities. This control requires blue-light perception by LOV domains on PHOT, LHCSR3 induction through PHOT kinase, and light dissipation in photosystem II via LHCSR3. Mutants deficient in the PHOT gene display severely reduced fitness under excessive light conditions, indicating that the sensing, utilization, and dissipation of light is a concerted process that plays a vital role in microalgal acclimation to environments of variable light intensities.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19358
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Structural basis of kainate subtype glutamate receptor desensitization
    • Authors: Joel R. Meyerson, Sagar Chittori, Alan Merk, Prashant Rao, Tae Hee Han, Mihaela Serpe, Mark L. Mayer, Sriram Subramaniam
      Pages: 567 - 571
      Abstract: Glutamate receptors are ligand-gated tetrameric ion channels that mediate synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They are instrumental in vertebrate cognition and their dysfunction underlies diverse diseases. In both the resting and desensitized states of AMPA and kainate receptor subtypes, the ion channels are closed, whereas the ligand-binding domains, which are physically coupled to the channels, adopt markedly different conformations. Without an atomic model for the desensitized state, it is not possible to address a central problem in receptor gating: how the resting and desensitized receptor states both display closed ion channels, although they have major differences in the quaternary structure of the ligand-binding domain. Here, by determining the structure of the kainate receptor GluK2 subtype in its desensitized state by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) at 3.8 Å resolution, we show that desensitization is characterized by the establishment of a ring-like structure in the ligand-binding domain layer of the receptor. Formation of this ‘desensitization ring’ is mediated by staggered helix contacts between adjacent subunits, which leads to a pseudo-four-fold symmetric arrangement of the ligand-binding domains, illustrating subtle changes in symmetry that are important for the gating mechanism. Disruption of the desensitization ring is probably the key switch that enables restoration of the receptor to its resting state, thereby completing the gating cycle.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-31
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19352
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Corrigendum: A large light-mass component of cosmic rays at 1017–1017.5
           electronvolts from radio observations
    • Pages: 572 - 572
      Abstract: Nature531, 70–73 (2016); doi:10.1038/nature16976In this Letter, we omitted to cite preliminary results from the low-energy extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory, as presented at the International Cosmic Ray Conference 2015 (ref. 1). Figure 1
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18936
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Houston, Houston, Do You Read James Tiptree?
    • Authors: Rachael K. Jones
      Pages: 578 - 578
      Abstract: A way to pass the time.
      Citation: Nature 537, 7621 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/537578a
      Issue No: Vol. 537, No. 7621 (2016)
       
  • Salaries: Reality check
    • Authors: Chris Woolston
      Pages: 573 - 576
      Abstract: A feeling that good performance is not adequately rewarded is pervading the research world.
      Citation: Nature (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7621-573a
       
 
 
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