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Journal Cover Nature
  [SJR: 21.323]   [H-I: 829]   [2905 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0028-0836 - ISSN (Online) 1476-4687
   Published by Nature Publishing Group Homepage  [117 journals]
  • On a downer
    • Pages: 413 - 414
      Abstract: The United Nations has chosen to keep the war on drugs going — but it can’t win.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532413b
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Anticipating artificial intelligence
    • Pages: 413 - 413
      Abstract: Concerns over AI are not simply fear-mongering. Progress in the field will affect society profoundly, and it is important to make sure that the changes benefit everyone.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-26
      DOI: 10.1038/532413a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Biden time
    • Pages: 414 - 414
      Abstract: The US vice-president’s cancer project is winning hearts and minds.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532414a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Speak up about subtle sexism in science
    • Authors: Tricia Serio
      Pages: 415 - 415
      Abstract: Female scientists face everyday, often-unintentional microaggression in the workplace, and it won't stop unless we talk about it, says Tricia Serio.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-26
      DOI: 10.1038/532415a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Astronomy: Dwarf dark galaxy leaves smudge
    • Pages: 416 - 416
      Abstract: Astronomers have found an elusive type of miniature galaxy.Dwarf galaxies formed out of dark matter in the early Universe, but only a small number have been detected. Yashar Hezaveh of Stanford University in California and his colleagues studied images taken by the high-resolution Atacama
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532416c
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Neuroscience: Brain may keep watch at night
    • Pages: 416 - 416
      Abstract: Differences in brain activity between the left and right hemispheres may explain why people often sleep poorly in new environments.Yuka Sasaki at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, and her colleagues imaged the brains of people sleeping in an unfamiliar setting, and measured slow-wave
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532416d
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Agroecology: Feed the world and keep the trees
    • Pages: 416 - 416
      Abstract: A worldwide switch to vegetarian diets could allow the planet's estimated 2050 population of 9.7 billion to feed themselves without cutting down any more forests.Karl-Heinz Erb and his colleagues at the University of Klagenfurt in Vienna created a model of the global agricultural system
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532416b
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Botany: Plant 'bleeds' nectar from wounds
    • Pages: 416 - 416
      Abstract: The sugary drops that form on the edges of wounds in a particular plant species have been identified as nectar, which attracts the enemies of leaf-eating pests.Plants usually heal wounds quickly, but injuries to the bittersweet nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) do not close
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532416a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Neuroscience: How old age limits adaptability
    • Pages: 417 - 417
      Abstract: Altered activity in two brain regions could explain why older animals struggle to adapt to changes in their environment.Previous research has shown that a circuit connecting the thalamus and striatum helps animals to adapt their previous learning to a change in conditions. Jesus Bertran-Gonzalez
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532417e
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Metabolism: New hormone regulates glucose
    • Pages: 417 - 417
      Abstract: Researchers have discovered a hormone that modulates the rapid release of glucose and insulin into the bloodstream in between meals.Atul Chopra at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, and his colleagues found that levels of the protein hormone — which they called asprosin
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532417d
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Physics: Cold coffee beans grind smaller
    • Pages: 417 - 417
      Abstract: Roasted coffee beans that are ground when cold give smaller particles than those ground at room temperature, which could affect the drink's flavour.Christopher Hendon at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge and his colleagues ground coffee beans (grinding burr pictured) and measured
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532417b
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Genetics: 'Wellderly' secrets revealed
    • Pages: 417 - 417
      Abstract: A key to healthy ageing could be genetic protection against cognitive decline.Eric Topol and Ali Torkamani of the Scripps Translational Science Institute in La Jolla, California, and their colleagues sequenced and analysed the genomes of more than 500 disease-free people over the age of
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532417c
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Disease ecology: Map reveals global Zika risk
    • Pages: 417 - 417
      Abstract: More than 2.17 billion people around the world live in habitats suitable for the mosquito-borne Zika virus, which is currently spreading in Central and South America.Women infected with Zika virus when pregnant are at increased risk of giving birth to infants with microcephaly, which
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532417a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • The week in science: 22–28 April 2016
    • Pages: 418 - 419
      Abstract: Paris climate deal signed; NIH clinical trials suspended; and duplicated images found in thousands of biology papers.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532418a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Devastating wheat fungus appears in Asia for first time
    • Authors: Ewen Callaway
      Pages: 421 - 422
      Abstract: Scientists race to determine origin of  Bangladesh outbreak, which they warn could spread farther afield.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532421a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • AI talent grab sparks excitement and concern
    • Authors: Elizabeth Gibney
      Pages: 422 - 423
      Abstract: Google, Facebook and other tech firms are changing how artificial-intelligence research is done.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-26
      DOI: 10.1038/532422a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Scientists worry as cancer moonshots multiply
    • Authors: Erika Check Hayden
      Pages: 424 - 425
      Abstract: Fears rise that US government and private funders are working at cross purposes.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532424a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Researchers push for personalized tumour vaccines
    • Authors: Heidi Ledford
      Pages: 425 - 425
      Abstract: Enthusiasm comes amid worries that the therapy may prove too complex to manufacture.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-22
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2016.19801
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Europe plans giant billion-euro quantum technologies project
    • Authors: Elizabeth Gibney
      Pages: 426 - 426
      Abstract: Third European Union flagship will be similar in size and ambition to graphene and human brain initiatives.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-21
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2016.19796
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Correction
    • Pages: 427 - 427
      Abstract: The News Feature ‘Monkey Kingdom’ (Nature532, 300–302; 2016) wrongly affiliated Erwan Bezard with INSERM — he is actually director of the Institute of Neurodegenerative Diseases at the University of Bordeaux. It also referred to Liping Zhang instead of Liping Wang.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-26
      DOI: 10.1038/532427a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • AstraZeneca launches project to sequence 2 million genomes
    • Authors: Heidi Ledford
      Pages: 427 - 427
      Abstract: Drug company aims to pool genomic and medical data in hunt for rare genetic sequences associated with disease.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-22
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2016.19797
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Killer landslides: The lasting legacy of Nepal’s quake
    • Authors: Jane Qiu
      Pages: 428 - 431
      Abstract: A year after a devastating earthquake triggered killer avalanches and rock falls in Nepal, scientists are wiring up mountainsides to forecast hazards.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-25
      DOI: 10.1038/532428a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • The quiet revolutionary: How the co-discovery of CRISPR explosively
           changed Emmanuelle Charpentier’s life
    • Authors: Alison Abbott
      Pages: 432 - 434
      Abstract: The microbiologist spent years moving labs and relishing solitude. Then her work on gene-editing thrust her into the scientific spotlight.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532432a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Seven chemical separations to change the world
    • Authors: David S. Sholl, Ryan P. Lively
      Pages: 435 - 437
      Abstract: Purifying mixtures without using heat would lower global energy use, emissions and pollution — and open up new routes to resources, say David S. Sholl and Ryan P. Lively.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-26
      DOI: 10.1038/532435a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Correction
    • Pages: 437 - 437
      Abstract: The graphic 'The dirty ten' in the Comment 'Three steps to a green shipping industry' (Z.Wanet al. Nature530, 275–277; 2016 ) gave the wrong unit for PM2.5 concentrations. It should have been μg
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-26
      DOI: 10.1038/532437a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Technology: Beyond the 'InterNyet'
    • Authors: Michael D. Gordin
      Pages: 438 - 439
      Abstract: Michael D. Gordin reviews a history of the Soviets' failed national computer network.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532438a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Books in brief
    • Authors: Barbara Kiser
      Pages: 439 - 439
      Abstract: Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532439a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Zoology: In the museum with Roosevelt
    • Authors: Michael Ross Canfield
      Pages: 440 - 440
      Abstract: Michael Ross Canfield enjoys a chronicle of the statesman's natural-history legacy.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532440a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Palaeontology: Benefits of trade in amber fossils
    • Authors: Jun Chen, Bo Wang, Edmund A. Jarzembowski
      Pages: 441 - 441
      Abstract: Amber of great palaeontological significance is flowing into China's jewellery market, fuelling a trade that dates back some 13,000 years. Ironically, banning this trade could be more damaging to science than letting it continue.Fossiliferous ambers are being extensively destroyed by mining activity. The renowned
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532441a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Portugal: Postdoc rights need not hurt productivity
    • Authors: Nuno Cerca
      Pages: 441 - 441
      Abstract: Portugal's government is on the verge of a historic process, recognizing at last that postdoctoral researchers should have the same rights as the rest of the country's workforce (see go.nature.com/famkkn; in Portuguese). In defiance of European Union practice, more than 90% of these early-career
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532441b
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Air corridors: Ventilating Beijing cannot fix pollution
    • Authors: Yansui Liu, Yang Zhou, Yurui Li
      Pages: 441 - 441
      Abstract: Beijing plans to build a system of ventilation corridors across the city to help dissipate heat and smog (see go.nature.com/cgbd7i). We suggest that a more comprehensive solution is needed to tackle the scale and complexity of Beijing's severe air pollution.In our view, the
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532441c
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Government: Anti-science wave sweeps Poland
    • Pages: 441 - 441
      Abstract: Poland's government is showing a worrying trend to disregard scientific evidence and rationality (see, for example, Nature530, 393; 10.1038/530393a2016). Polish academia needs the backing of international scientific societies to help counter some alarming implications for the population.For instance, we
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532441d
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Correspondence: Tell us the end of the story
    • Authors: M. Usman, A. Chaudhary, M. Farooq
      Pages: 441 - 441
      Abstract: Nature's Correspondence section is known for highlighting political aspects of scientific issues of public interest and for calling on organizations and governments to address scientists' concerns in developing policy. Readers would surely like to know what happened next.Contacting the authors could be enlightening,
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532441e
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • R. McNeill Alexander (1934–2016)
    • Authors: Andrew A. Biewener, Alan Wilson
      Pages: 442 - 442
      Abstract: Zoologist who pioneered comparative animal biomechanics.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532442a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Ocean science: The rise of Rhizaria
    • Authors: David A. Caron
      Pages: 444 - 445
      Abstract: Large amoeba-like organisms known as Rhizaria have often been overlooked in studies of ocean biology and biogeochemistry. Underwater imaging and ecological network analyses are revealing their roles. See Article p.465 & Letter p.504
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17892
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Materials science: Cracks help membranes to stay hydrated
    • Authors: Jovan Kamcev, Benny D. Freeman
      Pages: 445 - 446
      Abstract: Membranes have been prepared with a cracked coating that prevents them from drying out in low-humidity conditions — a boon for devices, such as fuel cells, that need hydrated membranes to function. See Letter p.480
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532445a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Palaeontology: Getting the measure of a monster
    • Authors: Shigeru Kuratani, Tatsuya Hirasawa
      Pages: 447 - 448
      Abstract: Scrutiny of fossils sometimes uncovers an unexpected phylogenetic relationship. New analyses of the enigmatic fossil Tullimonstrum from 300 million years ago reveal it to be a vertebrate. See Letters p.496 & p.500
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-13
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17885
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Nuclear physics: Four neutrons together momentarily
    • Authors: Carlos A. Bertulani, Vladimir Zelevinsky
      Pages: 448 - 449
      Abstract: A system of four neutrons known as the tetraneutron is a hypothetical state in nuclear physics. The report of evidence for the fleeting existence of this state has implications for research into neutron stars.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-06
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17884
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • 50 & 100 Years Ago
    • Pages: 449 - 449
      Abstract: 50 Years AgoHypnotic Susceptibility. By Ernest R. Hilgard — A large number of studies designed to investigate various hypnotic phenomena have been carried out by Ernest Hilgard and his co-workers on a considerable number of college students during the past eight years. Individual
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532449a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Neuroscience: Fault tolerance in the brain
    • Authors: Byron M. Yu
      Pages: 449 - 450
      Abstract: If stored information is erased from neural circuits in one brain hemisphere in mice, the lost data can be recovered from the other. This finding highlights a safeguarding mechanism at work in the brain. See Article p.459
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-13
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17886
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Mathematical physics: Glitches in time
    • Authors: Charlotte A. L. Haley
      Pages: 450 - 451
      Abstract: A mathematical technique has now been developed that reveals the underlying dynamics of time-dependent data collected with extreme temporal uncertainty, without using additional, costly instrumentation. See Letter p.471
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532450a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Correction
    • Pages: 451 - 451
      Abstract: In the News & Views article 'Physics: Quantum problems solved through games' by Sabrina Maniscalco (Nature532, 184–185; 2016), reference 7 was incorrect. The correct reference is https://www.scienceathome.org/games/quantum-moves/game
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532451a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Natural speech reveals the semantic maps that tile human cerebral cortex
    • Pages: 453 - 458
      Abstract: The meaning of language is represented in regions of the cerebral cortex collectively known as the ‘semantic system’. However, little of the semantic system has been mapped comprehensively, and the semantic selectivity of most regions is unknown. Here we systematically map semantic selectivity across the
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17637
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Robust neuronal dynamics in premotor cortex during motor planning
    • Authors: Nuo Li, Kayvon Daie, Karel Svoboda, Shaul Druckmann
      Pages: 459 - 464
      Abstract: Neural activity maintains representations that bridge past and future events, often over many seconds. Network models can produce persistent and ramping activity, but the positive feedback that is critical for these slow dynamics can cause sensitivity to perturbations. Here we use electrophysiology and optogenetic perturbations
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-13
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17643
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Plankton networks driving carbon export in the oligotrophic ocean
    • Pages: 465 - 470
      Abstract: The biological carbon pump is the process by which CO2 is transformed to organic carbon via photosynthesis, exported through sinking particles, and finally sequestered in the deep ocean. While the intensity of the pump correlates with plankton community composition, the underlying ecosystem structure
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-02-10
      DOI: 10.1038/nature16942
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Dynamics from noisy data with extreme timing uncertainty
    • Authors: R. Fung, A. Ourmazd, A. M. Hanna, O. Vendrell, S. Ramakrishna, T. Seideman, R. Santra, A. Ourmazd
      Pages: 471 - 475
      Abstract: Imperfect knowledge of the times at which ‘snapshots’ of a system are recorded degrades our ability to recover dynamical information, and can scramble the sequence of events. In X-ray free-electron lasers, for example, the uncertainty—the so-called timing jitter—between the arrival of an optical trigger (‘pump’) pulse and a probing X-ray pulse can exceed the length of the X-ray pulse by up to two orders of magnitude, marring the otherwise precise time-resolution capabilities of this class of instruments. The widespread notion that little dynamical information is available on timescales shorter than the timing uncertainty has led to various hardware schemes to reduce timing uncertainty. These schemes are expensive, tend to be specific to one experimental approach and cannot be used when the record was created under ill-defined or uncontrolled conditions such as during geological events. Here we present a data-analytical approach, based on singular-value decomposition and nonlinear Laplacian spectral analysis, that can recover the history and dynamics of a system from a dense collection of noisy snapshots spanning a sufficiently large multiple of the timing uncertainty. The power of the algorithm is demonstrated by extracting the underlying dynamics on the few-femtosecond timescale from noisy experimental X-ray free-electron laser data recorded with 300-femtosecond timing uncertainty. Using a noisy dataset from a pump-probe experiment on the Coulomb explosion of nitrogen molecules, our analysis reveals vibrational wave-packets consisting of components with periods as short as 15 femtoseconds, as well as more rapid changes, which have yet to be fully explored. Our approach can potentially be applied whenever dynamical or historical information is tainted by timing uncertainty.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17627
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Quantum phases from competing short- and long-range interactions in an
           optical lattice
    • Authors: Renate Landig, Lorenz Hruby, Nishant Dogra, Manuele Landini, Rafael Mottl, Tobias Donner, Tilman Esslinger
      Pages: 476 - 479
      Abstract: Insights into complex phenomena in quantum matter can be gained from simulation experiments with ultracold atoms, especially in cases where theoretical characterization is challenging. However, these experiments are mostly limited to short-range collisional interactions; recently observed perturbative effects of long-range interactions were too weak to reach new quantum phases. Here we experimentally realize a bosonic lattice model with competing short- and long-range interactions, and observe the appearance of four distinct quantum phases—a superfluid, a supersolid, a Mott insulator and a charge density wave. Our system is based on an atomic quantum gas trapped in an optical lattice inside a high-finesse optical cavity. The strength of the short-range on-site interactions is controlled by means of the optical lattice depth. The long (infinite)-range interaction potential is mediated by a vacuum mode of the cavity and is independently controlled by tuning the cavity resonance. When probing the phase transition between the Mott insulator and the charge density wave in real time, we observed a behaviour characteristic of a first-order phase transition. Our measurements have accessed a regime for quantum simulation of many-body systems where the physics is determined by the intricate competition between two different types of interactions and the zero point motion of the particles.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17409
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Nanocrack-regulated self-humidifying membranes
    • Authors: Chi Hoon Park, So Young Lee, Doo Sung Hwang, Dong Won Shin, Doo Hee Cho, Kang Hyuck Lee, Tae-Woo Kim, Tae-Wuk Kim, Mokwon Lee, Deok-Soo Kim, Cara M. Doherty, Aaron W. Thornton, Anita J. Hill, Michael D. Guiver, Young Moo Lee
      Pages: 480 - 483
      Abstract: The regulation of water content in polymeric membranes is important in a number of applications, such as reverse electrodialysis and proton-exchange fuel-cell membranes. External thermal and water management systems add both mass and size to systems, and so intrinsic mechanisms of retaining water and maintaining ionic transport in such membranes are particularly important for applications where small system size is important. For example, in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, where water retention in the membrane is crucial for efficient transport of hydrated ions, by operating the cells at higher temperatures without external humidification, the membrane is self-humidified with water generated by electrochemical reactions. Here we report an alternative solution that does not rely on external regulation of water supply or high temperatures. Water content in hydrocarbon polymer membranes is regulated through nanometre-scale cracks (‘nanocracks’) in a hydrophobic surface coating. These cracks work as nanoscale valves to retard water desorption and to maintain ion conductivity in the membrane on dehumidification. Hydrocarbon fuel-cell membranes with surface nanocrack coatings operated at intermediate temperatures show improved electrochemical performance, and coated reverse-electrodialysis membranes show enhanced ionic selectivity with low bulk resistance.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17634
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • The pentadehydro-Diels–Alder reaction
    • Authors: Teng Wang, Rajasekhar Reddy Naredla, Severin K. Thompson, Thomas R. Hoye
      Pages: 484 - 488
      Abstract: In the classic Diels–Alder [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction, the overall degree of unsaturation (or oxidation state) of the 4π (diene) and 2π (dienophile) pairs of reactants dictates the oxidation state of the newly formed six-membered carbocycle. For example, in the classic Diels–Alder reaction, butadiene and ethylene combine to produce cyclohexene. More recent developments include variants in which the number of hydrogen atoms in the reactant pair and in the resulting product is reduced by, for example, four in the tetradehydro-Diels–Alder (TDDA) and by six in the hexadehydro-Diels–Alder (HDDA) reactions. Any oxidation state higher than tetradehydro (that is, lacking more than four hydrogens) leads to the production of a reactive intermediate that is more highly oxidized than benzene. This increases the power of the overall process substantially, because trapping of the reactive intermediate can be used to increase the structural complexity of the final product in a controllable and versatile manner. Here we report an unprecedented overall 4π + 2π cycloaddition reaction that generates a different, highly reactive intermediate known as an α,3-dehydrotoluene. This species is in the same oxidation state as a benzyne. Like benzynes, α,3-dehydrotoluenes can be captured by various trapping agents to produce structurally diverse products that are complementary to those arising from the HDDA process. We call this new cycloisomerization process a pentadehydro-Diels–Alder (PDDA) reaction—a nomenclature chosen for chemical taxonomic reasons rather than mechanistic ones. In addition to alkynes, nitriles (RC≡N), although non-participants in aza-HDDA reactions, readily function as the 2π component in PDDA cyclizations to produce, via trapping of the α,3-(5-aza)dehydrotoluene intermediates, pyridine-containing products.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17429
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Rapid cycling of reactive nitrogen in the marine boundary layer
    • Authors: Chunxiang Ye, Xianliang Zhou, Dennis Pu, Jochen Stutz, James Festa, Max Spolaor, Catalina Tsai, Christopher Cantrell, Roy L. Mauldin, Teresa Campos, Andrew Weinheimer, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Eric C. Apel, Alex Guenther, Lisa Kaser, Bin Yuan, Thomas Karl, Julie Haggerty, Samuel Hall, Kirk Ullmann, James N. Smith, John Ortega, Christoph Knote
      Pages: 489 - 491
      Abstract: Nitrogen oxides are essential for the formation of secondary atmospheric aerosols and of atmospheric oxidants such as ozone and the hydroxyl radical, which controls the self-cleansing capacity of the atmosphere. Nitric acid, a major oxidation product of nitrogen oxides, has traditionally been considered to be a permanent sink of nitrogen oxides. However, model studies predict higher ratios of nitric acid to nitrogen oxides in the troposphere than are observed. A ‘renoxification’ process that recycles nitric acid into nitrogen oxides has been proposed to reconcile observations with model studies, but the mechanisms responsible for this process remain uncertain. Here we present data from an aircraft measurement campaign over the North Atlantic Ocean and find evidence for rapid recycling of nitric acid to nitrous acid and nitrogen oxides in the clean marine boundary layer via particulate nitrate photolysis. Laboratory experiments further demonstrate the photolysis of particulate nitrate collected on filters at a rate more than two orders of magnitude greater than that of gaseous nitric acid, with nitrous acid as the main product. Box model calculations based on the Master Chemical Mechanism suggest that particulate nitrate photolysis mainly sustains the observed levels of nitrous acid and nitrogen oxides at midday under typical marine boundary layer conditions. Given that oceans account for more than 70 per cent of Earth’s surface, we propose that particulate nitrate photolysis could be a substantial tropospheric nitrogen oxide source. Recycling of nitrogen oxides in remote oceanic regions with minimal direct nitrogen oxide emissions could increase the formation of tropospheric oxidants and secondary atmospheric aerosols on a global scale.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17195
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Bubble accumulation and its role in the evolution of magma reservoirs in
           the upper crust
    • Authors: A. Parmigiani, S. Faroughi, C. Huber, O. Bachmann, Y. Su
      Pages: 492 - 495
      Abstract: Volcanic eruptions transfer huge amounts of gas to the atmosphere. In particular, the sulfur released during large silicic explosive eruptions can induce global cooling. A fundamental goal in volcanology, therefore, is to assess the potential for eruption of the large volumes of crystal-poor, silicic magma that are stored at shallow depths in the crust, and to obtain theoretical bounds for the amount of volatiles that can be released during these eruptions. It is puzzling that highly evolved, crystal-poor silicic magmas are more likely to generate volcanic rocks than plutonic rocks. This observation suggests that such magmas are more prone to erupting than are their crystal-rich counterparts. Moreover, well studied examples of largely crystal-poor eruptions (for example, Katmai, Taupo and Minoan) often exhibit a release of sulfur that is 10 to 20 times higher than the amount of sulfur estimated to be stored in the melt. Here we argue that these two observations rest on how the magmatic volatile phase (MVP) behaves as it rises buoyantly in zoned magma reservoirs. By investigating the fluid dynamics that controls the transport of the MVP in crystal-rich and crystal-poor magmas, we show how the interplay between capillary stresses and the viscosity contrast between the MVP and the host melt results in a counterintuitive dynamics, whereby the MVP tends to migrate efficiently in crystal-rich parts of a magma reservoir and accumulate in crystal-poor regions. The accumulation of low-density bubbles of MVP in crystal-poor magmas has implications for the eruptive potential of such magmas, and is the likely source of the excess sulfur released during explosive eruptions.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-13
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17401
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • The ‘Tully monster’ is a vertebrate
    • Authors: Victoria E. McCoy, Erin E. Saupe, James C. Lamsdell, Lidya G. Tarhan, Sean McMahon, Scott Lidgard, Paul Mayer, Christopher D. Whalen, Carmen Soriano, Lydia Finney, Stefan Vogt, Elizabeth G. Clark, Ross P. Anderson, Holger Petermann, Emma R. Locatelli, Derek E. G. Briggs
      Pages: 496 - 499
      Abstract: Problematic fossils, extinct taxa of enigmatic morphology that cannot be assigned to a known major group, were once a major issue in palaeontology. A long-favoured solution to the ‘problem of the problematica’, particularly the ‘weird wonders’ of the Cambrian Burgess Shale, was to consider them representatives of extinct phyla. A combination of new evidence and modern approaches to phylogenetic analysis has now resolved the affinities of most of these forms. Perhaps the most notable exception is Tullimonstrum gregarium, popularly known as the Tully monster, a large soft-bodied organism from the late Carboniferous Mazon Creek biota (approximately 309–307 million years ago) of Illinois, USA, which was designated the official state fossil of Illinois in 1989. Its phylogenetic position has remained uncertain and it has been compared with nemerteans, polychaetes, gastropods, conodonts, and the stem arthropod Opabinia. Here we review the morphology of Tullimonstrum based on an analysis of more than 1,200 specimens. We find that the anterior proboscis ends in a buccal apparatus containing teeth, the eyes project laterally on a long rigid bar, and the elongate segmented body bears a caudal fin with dorsal and ventral lobes. We describe new evidence for a notochord, cartilaginous arcualia, gill pouches, articulations within the proboscis, and multiple tooth rows adjacent to the mouth. This combination of characters, supported by phylogenetic analysis, identifies Tullimonstrum as a vertebrate, and places it on the stem lineage to lampreys (Petromyzontida). In addition to increasing the known morphological disparity of extinct lampreys, a chordate affinity for T. gregarium resolves the nature of a soft-bodied fossil which has been debated for more than 50 years.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-03-16
      DOI: 10.1038/nature16992
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • The eyes of Tullimonstrum reveal a vertebrate affinity
    • Authors: Thomas Clements, Andrei Dolocan, Peter Martin, Mark A. Purnell, Jakob Vinther, Sarah E. Gabbott
      Pages: 500 - 503
      Abstract: Tullimonstrum gregarium is an iconic soft-bodied fossil from the Carboniferous Mazon Creek Lagerstätte (Illinois, USA). Despite a large number of specimens and distinct anatomy, various analyses over the past five decades have failed to determine the phylogenetic affinities of the ‘Tully monster’, and although it has been allied to such disparate phyla as the Mollusca, Annelida or Chordata, it remains enigmatic. The nature and phylogenetic affinities of Tullimonstrum have defied confident systematic placement because none of its preserved anatomy provides unequivocal evidence of homology, without which comparative analysis fails. Here we show that the eyes of Tullimonstrum possess ultrastructural details indicating homology with vertebrate eyes. Anatomical analysis using scanning electron microscopy reveals that the eyes of Tullimonstrum preserve a retina defined by a thick sheet comprising distinct layers of spheroidal and cylindrical melanosomes. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics provide further evidence that these microbodies are melanosomes. A range of animals have melanin in their eyes, but the possession of melanosomes of two distinct morphologies arranged in layers, forming retinal pigment epithelium, is a synapomorphy of vertebrates. Our analysis indicates that in addition to evidence of colour patterning, ecology and thermoregulation, fossil melanosomes can also carry a phylogenetic signal. Identification in Tullimonstrum of spheroidal and cylindrical melanosomes forming the remains of retinal pigment epithelium indicates that it is a vertebrate; considering its body parts in this new light suggests it was an anatomically unusual member of total group Vertebrata.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-13
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17647
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • In situ imaging reveals the biomass of giant protists in the global ocean
    • Authors: Tristan Biard, Lars Stemmann, Marc Picheral, Nicolas Mayot, Pieter Vandromme, Helena Hauss, Gabriel Gorsky, Lionel Guidi, Rainer Kiko, Fabrice Not
      Pages: 504 - 507
      Abstract: Planktonic organisms play crucial roles in oceanic food webs and global biogeochemical cycles. Most of our knowledge about the ecological impact of large zooplankton stems from research on abundant and robust crustaceans, and in particular copepods. A number of the other organisms that comprise planktonic communities are fragile, and therefore hard to sample and quantify, meaning that their abundances and effects on oceanic ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, using data from a worldwide in situ imaging survey of plankton larger than 600 μm, we show that a substantial part of the biomass of this size fraction consists of giant protists belonging to the Rhizaria, a super-group of mostly fragile unicellular marine organisms that includes the taxa Phaeodaria and Radiolaria (for example, orders Collodaria and Acantharia). Globally, we estimate that rhizarians in the top 200 m of world oceans represent a standing stock of 0.089 Pg carbon, equivalent to 5.2% of the total oceanic biota carbon reservoir. In the vast oligotrophic intertropical open oceans, rhizarian biomass is estimated to be equivalent to that of all other mesozooplankton (plankton in the size range 0.2–20 mm). The photosymbiotic association of many rhizarians with microalgae may be an important factor in explaining their distribution. The previously overlooked importance of these giant protists across the widest ecosystem on the planet changes our understanding of marine planktonic ecosystems.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17652
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Musashi-2 attenuates AHR signalling to expand human haematopoietic stem
           cells
    • Authors: Stefan Rentas, Nicholas T. Holzapfel, Muluken S. Belew, Gabriel A. Pratt, Veronique Voisin, Brian T. Wilhelm, Gary D. Bader, Gene W. Yeo, Kristin J. Hope
      Pages: 508 - 511
      Abstract: Umbilical cord blood-derived haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are essential for many life-saving regenerative therapies. However, despite their advantages for transplantation, their clinical use is restricted because HSCs in cord blood are found only in small numbers. Small molecules that enhance haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion in culture have been identified, but in many cases their mechanisms of action or the nature of the pathways they impinge on are poorly understood. A greater understanding of the molecular circuitry that underpins the self-renewal of human HSCs will facilitate the development of targeted strategies that expand HSCs for regenerative therapies. Whereas transcription factor networks have been shown to influence the self-renewal and lineage decisions of human HSCs, the post-transcriptional mechanisms that guide HSC fate have not been closely investigated. Here we show that overexpression of the RNA-binding protein Musashi-2 (MSI2) induces multiple pro-self-renewal phenotypes, including a 17-fold increase in short-term repopulating cells and a net 23-fold ex vivo expansion of long-term repopulating HSCs. By performing a global analysis of MSI2–RNA interactions, we show that MSI2 directly attenuates aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signalling through post-transcriptional downregulation of canonical AHR pathway components in cord blood HSPCs. Our study gives mechanistic insight into RNA networks controlled by RNA-binding proteins that underlie self-renewal and provides evidence that manipulating such networks ex vivo can enhance the regenerative potential of human HSCs.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17665
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Normalizing the environment recapitulates adult human immune traits in
           laboratory mice
    • Authors: Lalit K. Beura, Sara E. Hamilton, Kevin Bi, Jason M. Schenkel, Oludare A. Odumade, Kerry A. Casey, Emily A. Thompson, Kathryn A. Fraser, Pamela C. Rosato, Ali Filali-Mouhim, Rafick P. Sekaly, Marc K. Jenkins, Vaiva Vezys, W. Nicholas Haining, Stephen C. Jameson, David Masopust
      Pages: 512 - 516
      Abstract: Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice, partly because they are inbred and genetically homogeneous, can be genetically manipulated, allow kinetic tissue analyses to be carried out from the onset of disease, and permit the use of tractable disease models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. However, there is growing concern that laboratory mice do not reflect relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside. Laboratory mice live in abnormally hygienic specific pathogen free (SPF) barrier facilities. Here we show that standard laboratory mouse husbandry has profound effects on the immune system and that environmental changes produce mice with immune systems closer to those of adult humans. Laboratory mice—like newborn, but not adult, humans—lack effector-differentiated and mucosally distributed memory T cells. These cell populations were present in free-living barn populations of feral mice and pet store mice with diverse microbial experience, and were induced in laboratory mice after co-housing with pet store mice, suggesting that the environment is involved in the induction of these cells. Altering the living conditions of mice profoundly affected the cellular composition of the innate and adaptive immune systems, resulted in global changes in blood cell gene expression to patterns that more closely reflected the immune signatures of adult humans rather than neonates, altered resistance to infection, and influenced T-cell differentiation in response to a de novo viral infection. These data highlight the effects of environment on the basal immune state and response to infection and suggest that restoring physiological microbial exposure in laboratory mice could provide a relevant tool for modelling immunological events in free-living organisms, including humans.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17655
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • The CRISPR-associated DNA-cleaving enzyme Cpf1 also processes precursor
           CRISPR RNA
    • Pages: 517 - 521
      Abstract: CRISPR–Cas systems that provide defence against mobile genetic elements in bacteria and archaea have evolved a variety of mechanisms to target and cleave RNA or DNA. The well-studied types I, II and III utilize a set of distinct CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins for production of mature CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) and interference with invading nucleic acids. In types I and III, Cas6 or Cas5d cleaves precursor crRNA (pre-crRNA) and the mature crRNAs then guide a complex of Cas proteins (Cascade-Cas3, type I; Csm or Cmr, type III) to target and cleave invading DNA or RNA. In type II systems, RNase III cleaves pre-crRNA base-paired with trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA) in the presence of Cas9 (refs 13, 14). The mature tracrRNA–crRNA duplex then guides Cas9 to cleave target DNA. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism in CRISPR–Cas immunity. We show that type V-A Cpf1 from Francisella novicida is a dual-nuclease that is specific to crRNA biogenesis and target DNA interference. Cpf1 cleaves pre-crRNA upstream of a hairpin structure formed within the CRISPR repeats and thereby generates intermediate crRNAs that are processed further, leading to mature crRNAs. After recognition of a 5′-YTN-3′ protospacer adjacent motif on the non-target DNA strand and subsequent probing for an eight-nucleotide seed sequence, Cpf1, guided by the single mature repeat-spacer crRNA, introduces double-stranded breaks in the target DNA to generate a 5′ overhang. The RNase and DNase activities of Cpf1 require sequence- and structure-specific binding to the hairpin of crRNA repeats. Cpf1 uses distinct active domains for both nuclease reactions and cleaves nucleic acids in the presence of magnesium or calcium. This study uncovers a new family of enzymes with specific dual endoribonuclease and endonuclease activities, and demonstrates that type V-A constitutes the most minimalistic of the CRISPR–Cas systems so far described.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17945
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • The crystal structure of Cpf1 in complex with CRISPR RNA
    • Authors: De Dong, Kuan Ren, Xiaolin Qiu, Jianlin Zheng, Minghui Guo, Xiaoyu Guan, Hongnan Liu, Ningning Li, Bailing Zhang, Daijun Yang, Chuang Ma, Shuo Wang, Dan Wu, Yunfeng Ma, Shilong Fan, Jiawei Wang, Ning Gao, Zhiwei Huang
      Pages: 522 - 526
      Abstract: The CRISPR–Cas systems, as exemplified by CRISPR–Cas9, are RNA-guided adaptive immune systems used by bacteria and archaea to defend against viral infection. The CRISPR–Cpf1 system, a new class 2 CRISPR–Cas system, mediates robust DNA interference in human cells. Although functionally conserved, Cpf1 and Cas9 differ in many aspects including their guide RNAs and substrate specificity. Here we report the 2.38 Å crystal structure of the CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-bound Lachnospiraceae bacterium ND2006 Cpf1 (LbCpf1). LbCpf1 has a triangle-shaped architecture with a large positively charged channel at the centre. Recognized by the oligonucleotide-binding domain of LbCpf1, the crRNA adopts a highly distorted conformation stabilized by extensive intramolecular interactions and the (Mg(H2O)6)2+ ion. The oligonucleotide-binding domain also harbours a looped-out helical domain that is important for LbCpf1 substrate binding. Binding of crRNA or crRNA lacking the guide sequence induces marked conformational changes but no oligomerization of LbCpf1. Our study reveals the crRNA recognition mechanism and provides insight into crRNA-guided substrate binding of LbCpf1, establishing a framework for engineering LbCpf1 to improve its efficiency and specificity for genome editing.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17944
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Crystal structure of the human σ1 receptor
    • Authors: Hayden R. Schmidt, Sanduo Zheng, Esin Gurpinar, Antoine Koehl, Aashish Manglik, Andrew C. Kruse
      Pages: 527 - 530
      Abstract: The human σ1 receptor is an enigmatic endoplasmic-reticulum-resident transmembrane protein implicated in a variety of disorders including depression, drug addiction, and neuropathic pain. Recently, an additional connection to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has emerged from studies of human genetics and mouse models.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-04
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17391
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Non-profit work: Take my advice
    • Authors: Chris Woolston
      Pages: 531 - 533
      Abstract: Part-time work at a consulting firm can provide management skills and connections outside academia.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7600-531a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • Turning point: Carpe freedom
    • Authors: Virginia Gewin
      Pages: 533 - 533
      Abstract: Biologist Linda Sue Beck describes the occupation of Oregon’s Malheur National Wildlife Refuge.
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7600-533a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
  • A slice of time
    • Authors: Jeff Hecht
      Pages: 536 - 536
      Abstract: You must remember this ...
      Citation: Nature 532, 7600 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/532536a
      Issue No: Vol. 532, No. 7600 (2016)
       
 
 
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