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Journal Cover Nature
   [2105 followers]  Follow    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
     ISSN (Print) 0028-0836 - ISSN (Online) 1476-4687
     Published by Nature Publishing Group Homepage  [109 journals]   [SJR: 14.747]   [H-I: 768]
  • Biosafety in the balance
    • Pages: 443 - 443
      Abstract: An accident with anthrax demonstrates that pathogen research always carries a risk of release — and highlights the need for rigorous scrutiny of gain-of-function flu studies.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510443a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Metrics market
    • Pages: 444 - 444
      Abstract: Measures of research impact are improving, but universities should be wary of their limits.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510444a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Storm warning
    • Pages: 444 - 444
      Abstract: Environmentalists are divided over whether it is possible to have a ‘good’ Anthropocene.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510444b
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Rural students are being left behind in China
    • Authors: Qiang Wang
      Pages: 445 - 445
      Abstract: As the education gap between city and countryside widens, young people face an invisible barrier to scientific research, says Qiang Wang.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510445a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Animal behaviour: Magnetic compass guides butterflies
    • Pages: 446 - 446
      Abstract: On overcast days, monarch butterflies use a magnetic compass to find their way south, making them one of only a few migratory insects known to sense Earth's magnetic field.The eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus; pictured) use the Sun to guide
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510446a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Cardiovascular biology: Mutations lower heart-disease risk
    • Pages: 446 - 446
      Abstract: Two groups have found rare gene mutations linked to reduced blood fat levels and a lower risk of heart disease.The APOC3 gene codes for a protein that increases blood triglyceride levels — a known risk factor for heart disease. So, Anne Tybjaerg-Hansen at
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510446b
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Neuroscience: Brain circuit spurs social behaviour
    • Pages: 446 - 446
      Abstract: Neuroscientists have pinpointed a specific set of neurons that connects two brain areas and regulates social behaviour in mice.Karl Deisseroth and his colleagues at Stanford University in California used a variety of technologies to identify the exact circuitry involved in the behaviours adopted by
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510446c
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Atmospheric science: Arctic heat lessens cold snaps
    • Pages: 446 - 447
      Abstract: The middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere have experienced fewer cold snaps during autumn and winter, thanks to Arctic warming.Earlier studies have linked unusually frigid winters in North America and Europe over the past decade to changes in atmospheric circulation caused by rising Arctic
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510446d
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Organic chemistry: Microbes pitch in with synthesis
    • Pages: 447 - 447
      Abstract: The metabolism of living organisms could be harnessed to help construct small molecules, according to a team from Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts.Chemists routinely use microbial enzymes as catalysts. But Emily Balskus and her colleagues instead used engineered Escherichia coli as a source
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510447a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Climate science: Warming could boost air pollution
    • Pages: 447 - 447
      Abstract: Climate change could lead to increased air pollution in the most populated areas, thanks to greater stagnation of air masses allowing pollutants such as ground-level ozone to build up.A team led by Daniel Horton of Stanford University in California used climate models to study
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510447b
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Astronomy: Speedy stars revealed nearby
    • Pages: 447 - 447
      Abstract: Astronomers have spotted 28 stars that are hurtling through space fast enough to escape the Milky Way's gravitational pull — the biggest set of such stars, and the nearest to Earth, so far identified.A team led by Jing Zhong of the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory,
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510447c
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Anthropology: To and from the Horn of Africa
    • Pages: 447 - 447
      Abstract: After emerging from Africa 100,000 years ago, humans migrated back to the continent earlier than previously thought.A team led by Ryan Raaum at the City University of New York in the Bronx compared nuclear genome data from several populations living in the Horn of
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510447d
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Neuroscience: Tanning might be addictive
    • Pages: 447 - 447
      Abstract: Repeated visits to the beach or tanning salon could be signs of an addiction, according to a study in mice.David Fisher at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston and his team found that mice chronically exposed to ultraviolet light produced an opioid called β-endorphin,
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510447e
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Secret publishing deals exposed
    • Authors: Chris Woolston
      Pages: 447 - 447
      Abstract: Nature's roundup of the papers and issues gaining traction on social media.Twitter trends show researchers turning to a paper that sheds light on a previously hidden side of academic publishing, while others shared an article about stem-cell disputes in Italy. And World
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510447f
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Seven days: 20–26 June 2014
    • Pages: 448 - 449
      Abstract: The week in science: Chemist fined over burns death in lab; gravitational-waves team admits dust problems; and West African Ebola outbreak worsens.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510448a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • NASA carbon-monitoring orbiter readies for launch
    • Authors: Lauren Morello
      Pages: 451 - 452
      Abstract: Satellite will map sources and sinks of greenhouse gas in unprecedented detail.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510451a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Africa science plan attacked
    • Authors: Linda Nordling
      Pages: 452 - 453
      Abstract: Proposed innovation strategy is low on detail and commitments from governments.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510452a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Resurrected cancer drug faces regulators
    • Authors: Heidi Ledford
      Pages: 454 - 454
      Abstract: Despite a chequered history, olaparib is finally before the US Food and Drug Administration.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-24
      DOI: 10.1038/510454a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • ‘Life on Earth’ project gets under way
    • Authors: Natasha Gilbert
      Pages: 455 - 455
      Abstract: Assessments by international biodiversity group aim to halt damage to world’s ecosystems.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510455a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Correction
    • Pages: 456 - 456
      Abstract: The Editorial ‘Summer skills’ (Nature510, 312; 2014) said that only one Romanian student was selected for the summer school this year. In fact, two students from Romanian institutions made it through.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510456b
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Brain wave hits California
    • Authors: Helen Shen
      Pages: 456 - 456
      Abstract: State creates programme to boost neuroscience innovation.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-24
      DOI: 10.1038/510456a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Love in the lab: Close collaborators
    • Authors: Kerri Smith
      Pages: 458 - 460
      Abstract: Romance often sparks between colleagues, and scientists are no different. Nature profiles four super-couples who have combined love and the lab.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510458a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Nutrition: Vitamins on trial
    • Authors: Melinda Wenner Moyer
      Pages: 462 - 464
      Abstract: After decades of study, researchers still can't agree on whether nutritional supplements actually improve health.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510462a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Energy: Consider the global impacts of oil pipelines
    • Authors: Wendy J. Palen, Thomas D. Sisk, Maureen E. Ryan, Joseph L. Árvai, Mark Jaccard, Anne K. Salomon, Thomas Homer-Dixon, Ken P. Lertzman
      Pages: 465 - 467
      Abstract: Debates over oil-sands infrastructure obscure a broken policy process that overlooks broad climate, energy and environment issues, warn Wendy J. Palen and colleagues.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510465a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Physics: Bell’s theorem still reverberates
    • Authors: Howard Wiseman
      Pages: 467 - 469
      Abstract: Fifty years ago, John Bell made metaphysics testable, but quantum scientists still dispute the implications. Howard Wiseman proposes a way forward.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-19
      DOI: 10.1038/510467a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Bibliometrics: The citation game
    • Authors: Jonathan Adams
      Pages: 470 - 471
      Abstract: Jonathan Adams takes the measure of the uses and misuses of scholarly impact.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510470a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Books in brief
    • Authors: Barbara Kiser
      Pages: 471 - 471
      Abstract: Digital information is a “superbug of the mind” with no vaccine, notes journalist Charles Seife. Uniquely transmissible, persistent and connected, it is both an unprecedented marvel and ideally suited to misuse. Seife's analyses cut deep as he tours the 'reality' strained through the Internet's clotted
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510471a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Space science: Lunar star
    • Authors: Roger D. Launius
      Pages: 472 - 472
      Abstract: Roger D. Launius is perplexed by a biography of Neil Armstrong that profiles the missions, not the man.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510472a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Socio-economics: Assess benefits and costs of shale energy
    • Authors: Thomas G. Measham, David A. Fleming
      Pages: 473 - 473
      Abstract: The United States and Canada are already extracting fossil fuels from shale formations by fracking, and the industry is expanding rapidly into Australia, Asia, South America and Europe. Whereas conventional energy-production sites tend to cause mainly local impacts, the wide spatial footprint of shale-energy extraction
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510473a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Ancient cultures: Maize is not a clue to Puerto Rican origins
    • Authors: Jaime R. Pagán-Jiménez, Reniel Rodríguez-Ramos, José R. Oliver
      Pages: 473 - 473
      Abstract: You discuss the implications of the unpublished discovery of DNA from maize (corn) in ancient faeces from two pre-Columbian cultures on Vieques Island, Puerto Rico (Naturehttp://doi.org/s8g; 2014). We question the inference from this discovery that one culture, the Huecoid people, originated
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510473b
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Research output: Greek science must reform to survive
    • Authors: Nikolaos Vrachnis, Nikolaos Vlachadis, Dionisios Vrachnis
      Pages: 473 - 473
      Abstract: Greece's progress in science was remarkable in the decade before the country's severe economic downturn at the end of 2008. Although subsequent research output has been sustained against the odds, prompt and coordinated action is now needed to avert a crisis.During 1999–2009, the proportion
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510473c
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Embryo screening: Update German view of genetic testing
    • Authors: Peter Propping, Heinz Schott
      Pages: 473 - 473
      Abstract: There has been scant public discussion about genetic screening of embryos in Germany, presumably because of a residual suspicion of genetic diagnostics after the sinister history of Nazi eugenics. To rectify this and to remove ideological preconceptions, the Leopoldina, Germany's national academy of sciences, set
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510473d
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Gerald Edelman (1929–2014)
    • Authors: Urs Rutishauser
      Pages: 474 - 474
      Abstract: Biologist who won Nobel for solving antibody structure.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510474a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Nuclear-weapons dismantlement: Identifying a hidden warhead
    • Authors: John Finney, James M. Acton
      Pages: 476 - 477
      Abstract: A means of verifying that nuclear warheads to be dismantled are genuine items has been proposed that potentially reveals no information to an inspector about the design of the weapons. Two experts explain the ins and outs of the method and its implications for arms-control policy. See Articlep.497
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510476a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Antibiotic resistance: To the rescue of old drugs
    • Authors: Djalal Meziane-Cherif, Patrice Courvalin
      Pages: 477 - 478
      Abstract: A naturally occurring fungal compound has been found to restore the susceptibility of bacteria to a class of antibiotic that is currently considered to be our last defence against serious infections. See Articlep.503
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510477a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Fundamental constants: A cool way to measure big G
    • Authors: Stephan Schlamminger
      Pages: 478 - 480
      Abstract: Published results of the gravitational constant, a measure of the strength of gravity, have failed to converge. An approach that uses cold atoms provides a new data point in the quest to determine this fundamental constant. See Letterp.518
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13507
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Structural biology: Wobble puts RNA on target
    • Authors: Oscar Vargas-Rodriguez, Karin Musier-Forsyth
      Pages: 480 - 481
      Abstract: Enzymes that attach amino acids to transfer RNAs during protein synthesis must recognize both substrates specifically. Crystal structures reveal a mechanism that explains the RNA specificity for one such system. See Articlep.507
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13502
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Applied physics: Trawling for complements
    • Authors: J. Marty Gregg, Amit Kumar
      Pages: 481 - 482
      Abstract: A method has been invented for determining nanoscale variations in the distribution of electric charge on surfaces. It has so far been used to examine specific inorganic materials, but could find widespread applications in imaging.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510481a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Structural biology: Enzyme assembly line pictured
    • Authors: Peter F. Leadlay
      Pages: 482 - 483
      Abstract: Many enzymes form 'assembly lines' containing a series of catalytic modules. Visualization of how the structure of a module shifts during catalysis provides a clearer idea of how such enzymes work. See Articlep.512 & Letterp.560
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13505
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • An overview of N-heterocyclic carbenes
    • Authors: Matthew N. Hopkinson, Christian Richter, Michael Schedler, Frank Glorius
      Pages: 485 - 496
      Abstract: The successful isolation and characterization of an N-heterocyclic carbene in 1991 opened up a new class of organic compounds for investigation. From these beginnings as academic curiosities, N-heterocyclic carbenes today rank among the most powerful tools in organic chemistry, with numerous applications in commercially important processes. Here we provide a concise overview of N-heterocyclic carbenes in modern chemistry, summarizing their general properties and uses and highlighting how these features are being exploited in a selection of pioneering recent studies.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13384
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • A zero-knowledge protocol for nuclear warhead verification
    • Authors: Alexander Glaser, Boaz Barak, Robert J. Goldston
      Pages: 497 - 502
      Abstract: The verification of nuclear warheads for arms control involves a paradox: international inspectors will have to gain high confidence in the authenticity of submitted items while learning nothing about them. Proposed inspection systems featuring ‘information barriers’, designed to hide measurements stored in electronic systems, are
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13457
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Aspergillomarasmine A overcomes metallo-β-lactamase antibiotic
           resistance
    • Authors: Andrew M. King, Sarah A. Reid-Yu, Wenliang Wang, Dustin T. King, Gianfranco De Pascale, Natalie C. Strynadka, Timothy R. Walsh, Brian K. Coombes, Gerard D. Wright
      Pages: 503 - 506
      Abstract: The emergence and spread of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens is a global public health problem. The acquisition of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) such as NDM-1 is a principle contributor to the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens that threatens the use of penicillin, cephalosporin and carbapenem antibiotics to treat
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13445
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • The selective tRNA aminoacylation mechanism based on a single G•U
           pair
    • Authors: Masahiro Naganuma, Shun-ichi Sekine, Yeeting Esther Chong, Min Guo, Xiang-Lei Yang, Howard Gamper, Ya-Ming Hou, Paul Schimmel, Shigeyuki Yokoyama
      Pages: 507 - 511
      Abstract: Ligation of tRNAs with their cognate amino acids, by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, establishes the genetic code. Throughout evolution, tRNAAla selection by alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) has depended predominantly on a single wobble base pair in the acceptor stem, G3•U70, mainly on the kcat
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13440
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Structure of a modular polyketide synthase
    • Authors: Somnath Dutta, Jonathan R. Whicher, Douglas A. Hansen, Wendi A. Hale, Joseph A. Chemler, Grady R. Congdon, Alison R. H. Narayan, Kristina Håkansson, David H. Sherman, Janet L. Smith, Georgios Skiniotis
      Pages: 512 - 517
      Abstract: Polyketide natural products constitute a broad class of compounds with diverse structural features and biological activities. Their biosynthetic machinery, represented by type I polyketide synthases (PKSs), has an architecture in which successive modules catalyse two-carbon linear extensions and keto-group processing reactions on intermediates covalently tethered
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13423
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Precision measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant using cold
           atoms
    • Authors: G. Rosi, F. Sorrentino, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Prevedelli, G. M. Tino
      Pages: 518 - 521
      Abstract: About 300 experiments have tried to determine the value of the Newtonian gravitational constant, G, so far, but large discrepancies in the results have made it impossible to know its value precisely. The weakness of the gravitational interaction and the impossibility of shielding the effects of gravity make it very difficult to measure G while keeping systematic effects under control. Most previous experiments performed were based on the torsion pendulum or torsion balance scheme as in the experiment by Cavendish in 1798, and in all cases macroscopic masses were used. Here we report the precise determination of G using laser-cooled atoms and quantum interferometry. We obtain the value G = 6.67191(99) × 10−11 m3 kg−1 s−2 with a relative uncertainty of 150 parts per million (the combined standard uncertainty is given in parentheses). Our value differs by 1.5 combined standard deviations from the current recommended value of the Committee on Data for Science and Technology. A conceptually different experiment such as ours helps to identify the systematic errors that have proved elusive in previous experiments, thus improving the confidence in the value of G. There is no definitive relationship between G and the other fundamental constants, and there is no theoretical prediction for its value, against which to test experimental results. Improving the precision with which we know G has not only a pure metrological interest, but is also important because of the key role that G has in theories of gravitation, cosmology, particle physics and astrophysics and in geophysical models.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13433
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Chirality-specific growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes on solid alloy
           catalysts
    • Authors: Feng Yang, Xiao Wang, Daqi Zhang, Juan Yang, Da Luo, Ziwei Xu, Jiake Wei, Jian-Qiang Wang, Zhi Xu, Fei Peng, Xuemei Li, Ruoming Li, Yilun Li, Meihui Li, Xuedong Bai, Feng Ding, Yan Li
      Pages: 522 - 524
      Abstract: Carbon nanotubes have many material properties that make them attractive for applications. In the context of nanoelectronics, interest has focused on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) because slight changes in tube diameter and wrapping angle, defined by the chirality indices (n, m), will shift their electrical conductivity from one characteristic of a metallic state to one characteristic of a semiconducting state, and will also change the bandgap. However, this structure–function relationship can be fully exploited only with structurally pure SWNTs. Solution-based separation methods yield tubes within a narrow structure range, but the ultimate goal of producing just one type of SWNT by controlling its structure during growth has proved to be a considerable challenge over the last two decades. Such efforts aim to optimize the composition or shape of the catalyst particles that are used in the chemical vapour deposition synthesis process to decompose the carbon feedstock and influence SWNT nucleation and growth. This approach resulted in the highest reported proportion, 55 per cent, of single-chirality SWNTs in an as-grown sample. Here we show that SWNTs of a single chirality, (12, 6), can be produced directly with an abundance higher than 92 per cent when using tungsten-based bimetallic alloy nanocrystals as catalysts. These, unlike other catalysts used so far, have such high melting points that they maintain their crystalline structure during the chemical vapour deposition process. This feature seems crucial because experiment and simulation both suggest that the highly selective growth of (12, 6) SWNTs is the result of a good structural match between the carbon atom arrangement around the nanotube circumference and the arrangement of the catalytically active atoms in one of the planes of the nanocrystal catalyst. We anticipate that using high-melting-point alloy nanocrystals with optimized structures as catalysts paves the way for total chirality control in SWNT growth and will thus promote the development of SWNT applications.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13434
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • South Greenland ice-sheet collapse during Marine Isotope Stage 11
    • Authors: Alberto V. Reyes, Anders E. Carlson, Brian L. Beard, Robert G. Hatfield, Joseph S. Stoner, Kelsey Winsor, Bethany Welke, David J. Ullman
      Pages: 525 - 528
      Abstract: Varying levels of boreal summer insolation and associated Earth system feedbacks led to differing climate and ice-sheet states during late-Quaternary interglaciations. In particular, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 was an exceptionally long interglaciation and potentially had a global mean sea level 6 to 13 metres above the present level around 410,000 to 400,000 years ago, implying substantial mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet (GIS). There are, however, no model simulations and only limited proxy data to constrain the magnitude of the GIS response to climate change during this ‘super interglacial’, thus confounding efforts to assess climate/ice-sheet threshold behaviour and associated sea-level rise. Here we show that the south GIS was drastically smaller during MIS 11 than it is now, with only a small residual ice dome over southernmost Greenland. We use the strontium–neodymium–lead isotopic composition of proglacial sediment discharged from south Greenland to constrain the provenance of terrigenous silt deposited on the Eirik Drift, a sedimentary deposit off the south Greenland margin. We identify a major reduction in sediment input derived from south Greenland’s Precambrian bedrock terranes, probably reflecting the cessation of subglacial erosion and sediment transport as a result of near-complete deglaciation of south Greenland. Comparison with ice-sheet configurations from numerical models suggests that the GIS lost about 4.5 to 6 metres of sea-level-equivalent volume during MIS 11. This is evidence for late-Quaternary GIS collapse after it crossed a climate/ice-sheet stability threshold that may have been no more than several degrees above pre-industrial temperatures.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13456
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Purkinje-cell plasticity and cerebellar motor learning are graded by
           complex-spike duration
    • Authors: Yan Yang, Stephen G. Lisberger
      Pages: 529 - 532
      Abstract: Behavioural learning is mediated by cellular plasticity, such as changes in the strength of synapses at specific sites in neural circuits. The theory of cerebellar motor learning relies on movement errors signalled by climbing-fibre inputs to cause long-term depression of synapses from parallel fibres to Purkinje cells. However, a recent review has called into question the widely held view that the climbing-fibre input is an ‘all-or-none’ event. In anaesthetized animals, there is wide variation in the duration of the complex spike (CS) caused in Purkinje cells by a climbing-fibre input. Furthermore, the amount of plasticity in Purkinje cells is graded according to the duration of electrically controlled bursts in climbing fibres. The duration of bursts depends on the ‘state’ of the inferior olive and therefore may be correlated across climbing fibres. Here we provide a potential functional context for these mechanisms during motor learning in behaving monkeys. The magnitudes of both plasticity and motor learning depend on the duration of the CS responses. Furthermore, the duration of CS responses seems to be a meaningful signal that is correlated across the Purkinje-cell population during motor learning. We suggest that during learning, longer bursts in climbing fibres lead to longer-duration CS responses in Purkinje cells, more calcium entry into Purkinje cells, larger synaptic depression, and stronger learning. The same graded impact of instructive signals for plasticity and learning might occur throughout the nervous system.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-05-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13282
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Human oocytes reprogram adult somatic nuclei of a type 1 diabetic to
           diploid pluripotent stem cells
    • Authors: Mitsutoshi Yamada, Bjarki Johannesson, Ido Sagi, Lisa Cole Burnett, Daniel H. Kort, Robert W. Prosser, Daniel Paull, Michael W. Nestor, Matthew Freeby, Ellen Greenberg, Robin S. Goland, Rudolph L. Leibel, Susan L. Solomon, Nissim Benvenisty, Mark V. Sauer, Dieter Egli
      Pages: 533 - 536
      Abstract: The transfer of somatic cell nuclei into oocytes can give rise to pluripotent stem cells that are consistently equivalent to embryonic stem cells, holding promise for autologous cell replacement therapy. Although methods to induce pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells by transcription factors are widely used in basic research, numerous differences between induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells have been reported, potentially affecting their clinical use. Because of the therapeutic potential of diploid embryonic stem-cell lines derived from adult cells of diseased human subjects, we have systematically investigated the parameters affecting efficiency of blastocyst development and stem-cell derivation. Here we show that improvements to the oocyte activation protocol, including the use of both kinase and translation inhibitors, and cell culture in the presence of histone deacetylase inhibitors, promote development to the blastocyst stage. Developmental efficiency varied between oocyte donors, and was inversely related to the number of days of hormonal stimulation required for oocyte maturation, whereas the daily dose of gonadotropin or the total number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved did not affect developmental outcome. Because the use of concentrated Sendai virus for cell fusion induced an increase in intracellular calcium concentration, causing premature oocyte activation, we used diluted Sendai virus in calcium-free medium. Using this modified nuclear transfer protocol, we derived diploid pluripotent stem-cell lines from somatic cells of a newborn and, for the first time, an adult, a female with type 1 diabetes.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-28
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13287
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Decoding the regulatory landscape of medulloblastoma using DNA methylation
           sequencing
    • Authors: Volker Hovestadt, David T. W. Jones, Simone Picelli, Wei Wang, Marcel Kool, Paul A. Northcott, Marc Sultan, Katharina Stachurski, Marina Ryzhova, Hans-Jörg Warnatz, Meryem Ralser, Sonja Brun, Jens Bunt, Natalie Jäger, Kortine Kleinheinz, Serap Erkek, Ursula D. Weber, Cynthia C. Bartholomae, Christof von Kalle, Chris Lawerenz, Jürgen Eils, Jan Koster, Rogier Versteeg, Till Milde, Olaf Witt, Sabine Schmidt, Stephan Wolf, Torsten Pietsch, Stefan Rutkowski, Wolfram Scheurlen, Michael D. Taylor, Benedikt Brors, Jörg Felsberg, Guido Reifenberger, Arndt Borkhardt, Hans Lehrach, Robert J. Wechsler-Reya, Roland Eils, Marie-Laure Yaspo, Pablo Landgraf, Andrey Korshunov, Marc Zapatka, Bernhard Radlwimmer, Stefan M. Pfister, Peter Lichter
      Pages: 537 - 541
      Abstract: Epigenetic alterations, that is, disruption of DNA methylation and chromatin architecture, are now acknowledged as a universal feature of tumorigenesis. Medulloblastoma, a clinically challenging, malignant childhood brain tumour, is no exception. Despite much progress from recent genomics studies, with recurrent changes identified in each of the four distinct tumour subgroups (WNT-pathway-activated, SHH-pathway-activated, and the less-well-characterized Group 3 and Group 4), many cases still lack an obvious genetic driver. Here we present whole-genome bisulphite-sequencing data from thirty-four human and five murine tumours plus eight human and three murine normal controls, augmented with matched whole-genome, RNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing data. This comprehensive data set allowed us to decipher several features underlying the interplay between the genome, epigenome and transcriptome, and its effects on medulloblastoma pathophysiology. Most notable were highly prevalent regions of hypomethylation correlating with increased gene expression, extending tens of kilobases downstream of transcription start sites. Focal regions of low methylation linked to transcription-factor-binding sites shed light on differential transcriptional networks between subgroups, whereas increased methylation due to re-normalization of repressed chromatin in DNA methylation valleys was positively correlated with gene expression. Large, partially methylated domains affecting up to one-third of the genome showed increased mutation rates and gene silencing in a subgroup-specific fashion. Epigenetic alterations also affected novel medulloblastoma candidate genes (for example, LIN28B), resulting in alternative promoter usage and/or differential messenger RNA/microRNA expression. Analysis of mouse medulloblastoma and precursor-cell methylation demonstrated a somatic origin for many alterations. Our data provide insights into the epigenetic regulation of transcription and genome organization in medulloblastoma pathogenesis, which are probably also of importance in a wider developmental and disease context.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-05-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13268
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Metformin suppresses gluconeogenesis by inhibiting mitochondrial
           glycerophosphate dehydrogenase
    • Authors: Anila K. Madiraju, Derek M. Erion, Yasmeen Rahimi, Xian-Man Zhang, Demetrios T. Braddock, Ronald A. Albright, Brett J. Prigaro, John L. Wood, Sanjay Bhanot, Michael J. MacDonald, Michael J. Jurczak, Joao-Paulo Camporez, Hui-Young Lee, Gary W. Cline, Varman T. Samuel, Richard G. Kibbey, Gerald I. Shulman
      Pages: 542 - 546
      Abstract: Metformin is considered to be one of the most effective therapeutics for treating type 2 diabetes because it specifically reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis without increasing insulin secretion, inducing weight gain or posing a risk of hypoglycaemia. For over half a century, this agent has been prescribed to patients with type 2 diabetes worldwide, yet the underlying mechanism by which metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis remains unknown. Here we show that metformin non-competitively inhibits the redox shuttle enzyme mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, resulting in an altered hepatocellular redox state, reduced conversion of lactate and glycerol to glucose, and decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis. Acute and chronic low-dose metformin treatment effectively reduced endogenous glucose production, while increasing cytosolic redox and decreasing mitochondrial redox states. Antisense oligonucleotide knockdown of hepatic mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in rats resulted in a phenotype akin to chronic metformin treatment, and abrogated metformin-mediated increases in cytosolic redox state, decreases in plasma glucose concentrations, and inhibition of endogenous glucose production. These findings were replicated in whole-body mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase knockout mice. These results have significant implications for understanding the mechanism of metformin’s blood glucose lowering effects and provide a new therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-05-21
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13270
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Cyclin D1–Cdk4 controls glucose metabolism independently of cell
           cycle progression
    • Authors: Yoonjin Lee, John E. Dominy, Yoon Jong Choi, Michael Jurczak, Nicola Tolliday, Joao Paulo Camporez, Helen Chim, Ji-Hong Lim, Hai-Bin Ruan, Xiaoyong Yang, Francisca Vazquez, Piotr Sicinski, Gerald I. Shulman, Pere Puigserver
      Pages: 547 - 551
      Abstract: Insulin constitutes a principal evolutionarily conserved hormonal axis for maintaining glucose homeostasis; dysregulation of this axis causes diabetes. PGC-1α (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α) links insulin signalling to the expression of glucose and lipid metabolic genes. The histone acetyltransferase GCN5 (general control non-repressed protein 5) acetylates PGC-1α and suppresses its transcriptional activity, whereas sirtuin 1 deacetylates and activates PGC-1α. Although insulin is a mitogenic signal in proliferative cells, whether components of the cell cycle machinery contribute to its metabolic action is poorly understood. Here we report that in mice insulin activates cyclin D1–cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), which, in turn, increases GCN5 acetyltransferase activity and suppresses hepatic glucose production independently of cell cycle progression. Through a cell-based high-throughput chemical screen, we identify a Cdk4 inhibitor that potently decreases PGC-1α acetylation. Insulin/GSK-3β (glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta) signalling induces cyclin D1 protein stability by sequestering cyclin D1 in the nucleus. In parallel, dietary amino acids increase hepatic cyclin D1 messenger RNA transcripts. Activated cyclin D1–Cdk4 kinase phosphorylates and activates GCN5, which then acetylates and inhibits PGC-1α activity on gluconeogenic genes. Loss of hepatic cyclin D1 results in increased gluconeogenesis and hyperglycaemia. In diabetic models, cyclin D1–Cdk4 is chronically elevated and refractory to fasting/feeding transitions; nevertheless further activation of this kinase normalizes glycaemia. Our findings show that insulin uses components of the cell cycle machinery in post-mitotic cells to control glucose homeostasis independently of cell division.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13267
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Structure of a lipid-bound extended synaptotagmin indicates a role in
           lipid transfer
    • Authors: Curtis M. Schauder, Xudong Wu, Yasunori Saheki, Pradeep Narayanaswamy, Federico Torta, Markus R. Wenk, Pietro De Camilli, Karin M. Reinisch
      Pages: 552 - 555
      Abstract: Growing evidence suggests that close appositions between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other membranes, including appositions with the plasma membrane (PM), mediate exchange of lipids between these bilayers. The mechanisms of such exchange, which allows lipid transfer independently of vesicular transport, remain poorly understood. The presence of a synaptotagmin-like mitochondrial-lipid-binding protein (SMP) domain, a proposed lipid-binding module, in several proteins localized at membrane contact sites has raised the possibility that such domains may be implicated in lipid transport. SMP-containing proteins include components of the ERMES complex, an ER–mitochondrial tether, and the extended synaptotagmins (known as tricalbins in yeast), which are ER–PM tethers. Here we present at 2.44 Å resolution the crystal structure of a fragment of human extended synaptotagmin 2 (E-SYT2), including an SMP domain and two adjacent C2 domains. The SMP domain has a β-barrel structure like protein modules in the tubular-lipid-binding (TULIP) superfamily. It dimerizes to form an approximately 90-Å-long cylinder traversed by a channel lined entirely with hydrophobic residues, with the two C2A–C2B fragments forming arched structures flexibly linked to the SMP domain. Importantly, structural analysis complemented by mass spectrometry revealed the presence of glycerophospholipids in the E-SYT2 SMP channel, indicating a direct role for E-SYTs in lipid transport. These findings provide strong evidence for a role of SMP-domain-containing proteins in the control of lipid transfer at membrane contact sites and have broad implications beyond the field of ER-to-PM appositions.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-05-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13269
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • BRCA1 controls homologous recombination at Tus/Ter-stalled mammalian
           replication forks
    • Authors: Nicholas A. Willis, Gurushankar Chandramouly, Bin Huang, Amy Kwok, Cindy Follonier, Chuxia Deng, Ralph Scully
      Pages: 556 - 559
      Abstract: Replication fork stalling can promote genomic instability, predisposing to cancer and other diseases. Stalled replication forks may be processed by sister chromatid recombination (SCR), generating error-free or error-prone homologous recombination (HR) outcomes. In mammalian cells, a long-standing hypothesis proposes that the major hereditary breast/ovarian cancer predisposition gene products, BRCA1 and BRCA2, control HR/SCR at stalled replication forks. Although BRCA1 and BRCA2 affect replication fork processing, direct evidence that BRCA gene products regulate homologous recombination at stalled chromosomal replication forks is lacking, due to a dearth of tools for studying this process. Here we report that the Escherichia coli Tus/Ter complex can be engineered to induce site-specific replication fork stalling and chromosomal HR/SCR in mouse cells. Tus/Ter-induced homologous recombination entails processing of bidirectionally arrested forks. We find that the Brca1 carboxy (C)-terminal tandem BRCT repeat and regions of Brca1 encoded by exon 11—two Brca1 elements implicated in tumour suppression—control Tus/Ter-induced homologous recombination. Inactivation of either Brca1 or Brca2 increases the absolute frequency of ‘long-tract’ gene conversions at Tus/Ter-stalled forks, an outcome not observed in response to a site-specific endonuclease-mediated chromosomal double-strand break. Therefore, homologous recombination at stalled forks is regulated differently from homologous recombination at double-strand breaks arising independently of a replication fork. We propose that aberrant long-tract homologous recombination at stalled replication forks contributes to genomic instability and breast/ovarian cancer predisposition in BRCA mutant cells.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-28
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13295
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Structural rearrangements of a polyketide synthase module during its
           catalytic cycle
    • Authors: Jonathan R. Whicher, Somnath Dutta, Douglas A. Hansen, Wendi A. Hale, Joseph A. Chemler, Annie M. Dosey, Alison R. H. Narayan, Kristina Håkansson, David H. Sherman, Janet L. Smith, Georgios Skiniotis
      Pages: 560 - 564
      Abstract: The polyketide synthase (PKS) mega-enzyme assembly line uses a modular architecture to synthesize diverse and bioactive natural products that often constitute the core structures or complete chemical entities for many clinically approved therapeutic agents. The architecture of a full-length PKS module from the pikromycin pathway of Streptomyces venezuelae creates a reaction chamber for the intramodule acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain that carries building blocks and intermediates between acyltransferase, ketosynthase and ketoreductase active sites (see accompanying paper). Here we determine electron cryo-microscopy structures of a full-length pikromycin PKS module in three key biochemical states of its catalytic cycle. Each biochemical state was confirmed by bottom-up liquid chromatography/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The ACP domain is differentially and precisely positioned after polyketide chain substrate loading on the active site of the ketosynthase, after extension to the β-keto intermediate, and after β-hydroxy product generation. The structures reveal the ACP dynamics for sequential interactions with catalytic domains within the reaction chamber, and for transferring the elongated and processed polyketide substrate to the next module in the PKS pathway. During the enzymatic cycle the ketoreductase domain undergoes dramatic conformational rearrangements that enable optimal positioning for reductive processing of the ACP-bound polyketide chain elongation intermediate. These findings have crucial implications for the design of functional PKS modules, and for the engineering of pathways to generate pharmacologically relevant molecules.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13409
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • A one-sided argument
    • Authors: Alex Shvartsman
      Pages: 570 - 570
      Abstract: The voice of reason.
      Citation: Nature 510, 7506 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510570a
      Issue No: Vol. 510, No. 7506 (2014)
       
  • Stroke
    • Stroke

      Nature. doi:10.1038/510S1a

      Author: Brian Owens

      Nature2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510S1a
       
  • Statistics: A growing global burden
    • Authors: Zoë Corbyn
      Pages: S2 - S3
      Abstract: Stroke is a public-health problem that tends to affect poorer countries more and leaves richer countries with ballooning medical costs. Yet it is often preventable. By Zoë Corbyn.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510S2a
       
  • Perspective: Time to tackle blood pressure
    • Authors: Walter J. Koroshetz
      Pages: S4 - S4
      Abstract: Simply lowering blood pressure would reduce the risk of both stroke and age-related cognitive impairment, says Walter J. Koroshetz.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510S4a
       
  • First response: Race against time
    • Authors: Ed Yong
      Pages: S5 - S5
      Abstract: Mobile stroke units can save lives by treating people before any damage starts to take hold.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510S5a
       
  • Drug delivery: Brain food
    • Authors: Hannah Hoag
      Pages: S6 - S7
      Abstract: The key to stroke recovery is to coax the brain cells to heal without creating more damage in the process. A clever delivery system may just do the trick.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510S6a
       
  • Rehabilitation: Machine recovery
    • Authors: Moheb Costandi
      Pages: S8 - S9
      Abstract: Interactive devices are helping people who have had a stroke to regain their motor function.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510S8a
       
  • Mental health: Ups and downs
    • Authors: Sujata Gupta
      Pages: S10 - S11
      Abstract: Strokes can shatter a person's identity and make it difficult to find the light. But there are ways to help patients cope.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510S10a
       
  • Perspective: Silent, but preventable, perils
    • Authors: Antoine M. Hakim
      Pages: S12 - S12
      Abstract: 'Covert' strokes are a leading cause of dementia — and their incidence will rise in step with that of vascular risk factors, says Antoine M. Hakim.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/510S12a
       
  • Symposia: Behind the scenes
    • Authors: Cameron Walker
      Pages: 565 - 566
      Abstract: Early-career researchers who help to organize conferences develop crucial skills that go beyond just booking speakers.
      Citation: Nature (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7506-565a
       
  • Turning point: Katharine Hayhoe
    • Authors: Virginia Gewin
      Pages: 567 - 567
      Abstract: Christian scientist spreads message about climate change.
      Citation: Nature (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7506-567a
       
  • Funding: Salk windfall
    • Pages: 567 - 567
      Abstract: Opportunities for researchers open in California.
      Citation: Nature (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7506-567b
       
  • Recruitment: Sweden looks abroad
    • Pages: 567 - 567
      Abstract: Government grant leads to hiring drive for international scientists.
      Citation: Nature (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7506-567c
       
  • Job sharing: Game of clones
    • Pages: 567 - 567
      Abstract: Canadian professors bring attention to divide between administration and faculty members.
      Citation: Nature (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7506-567d
       
 
 
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