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Journal Cover Nature
  [SJR: 21.323]   [H-I: 829]   [2962 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0028-0836 - ISSN (Online) 1476-4687
   Published by Nature Publishing Group Homepage  [117 journals]
  • Source material
    • Pages: 437 - 438
      Abstract: Geneticists and historians need to work together on using DNA to explore the past.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533437b
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Crunch time
    • Pages: 438 - 438
      Abstract: Overtime pay for postdoctoral scientists is welcome — but could mean fewer positions.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/533438a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Society must seize control of the antibiotics crisis
    • Pages: 439 - 439
      Abstract: Pressure from the public could force firms to develop new drugs that treat resistant infections, says Carlos Amábile-Cuevas.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533439a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Microbiology: Enzymes bust bacterial biofilms
    • Pages: 440 - 441
      Abstract: Enzymes that break down tough films of disease-causing bacteria could one day be used as drugs.Biofilms protect bacteria from antibiotics and are difficult to eradicate. To look for biofilm-fighting molecules, Lynne Howell at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada, and her colleagues
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533440e
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Physics: Precise clocks synced by lasers
    • Pages: 440 - 440
      Abstract: Researchers have synchronized two optical clocks to a record-breaking level of accuracy.Jean-Daniel Deschênes and his colleagues at the US National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado, created optical clocks that keep accurate time with pulses of light. They used lasers to synchronize
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533440b
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Climate change: Warming will hit the poorest first
    • Pages: 440 - 440
      Abstract: As the climate warms over the coming decades, the poorest 20% of the world's population will see frequent temperature extremes sooner than the richest 20%.Luke Harrington at Victoria University of Wellington and his colleagues used climate models to simulate the effect of rising levels
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533440c
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Ecology: Native insects embrace invader
    • Pages: 440 - 440
      Abstract: An invasive plant has been gradually folded into an ecosystem's food webs.Menno Schilthuizen at the Naturalis Biodiversity Center in Leiden, the Netherlands, and his colleagues sampled insects from native bird cherry trees (Prunus padas) and exotic black cherry trees (Prunus serotina
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533440d
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Animal behaviour: Gift helps spider to escape cannibalism
    • Pages: 440 - 440
      Abstract: Male spiders use courtship gifts as shields to avoid being eaten by aggressive females.Prior to mating, male nursery-web spiders (Pisaura mirabilis; male pictured on right, female on left) catch a prey item, wrap it in a silken package and present the 'nuptial
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533440a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Regeneration: Muscle stem cells show dual purpose
    • Pages: 441 - 441
      Abstract: Researchers have observed stem cells in the muscles of live zebrafish dividing to produce both more stem cells and cells that repair injury.This 'asymmetric division' of stem cells has been observed in culture. To find evidence in living organisms, Peter Currie and his colleagues
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533441c
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Robotics: Robot hangs with electrostatic force
    • Pages: 441 - 441
      Abstract: A lightweight flying robot can attach to and take off from objects in the environment by controlling electrostatic adhesion.Moritz Graule and Robert Wood at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and their colleagues designed the insect-sized robot (pictured) to suspend from overhangs, such
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533441d
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Evolution: Songs drove sunbird evolution
    • Pages: 441 - 441
      Abstract: In two bird populations, differences in social traits, rather than just physical ones, are enough to generate new species.Jay McEntee at the University of California, Berkeley, and his colleagues set out to understand how two species of sunbird that live side by side in
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533441a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Palaeontology: Ancient origins of multicellular life
    • Pages: 441 - 441
      Abstract: Large, multicellular life forms may have appeared on Earth one billion years earlier than was previously thought.Macroscopic multicellular life had been dated to around 600 million years ago, but new fossils suggest that centimetres-long multicellular organisms existed as early as 1.56 billion years ago.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533441b
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Scientific sceptics hit back after rebuke
    • Authors: Chris Woolston
      Pages: 441 - 441
      Abstract: A science writer challenges the sceptics community to move beyond tackling just ‘easy’ issues.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-18
      DOI: 10.1038/533441f
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • The week in science: 20–26 May 2016
    • Pages: 442 - 443
      Abstract: Pandemic war chest unveiled for developing countries; India launches space shuttle; and US National Football League criticized over health-funding pressure.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533442a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Three-person embryos may fail to vanquish mutant mitochondria
    • Authors: Ewen Callaway
      Pages: 445 - 446
      Abstract: Technique to stop children inheriting mitochondrial diseases has potential to backfire.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2016.19948
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Next generation of carbon-monitoring satellites faces daunting hurdles
    • Authors: Jeff Tollefson
      Pages: 446 - 447
      Abstract: Space agencies envisage system of probes to track whether countries are achieving emissions goals.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533446a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Silicon quantum computers take shape in Australia
    • Authors: Elizabeth Gibney
      Pages: 448 - 449
      Abstract: Two blueprints emerge from centre tasked with creating a practical quantum device.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/533448a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Myriad Genetics embroiled in breast-cancer data fight — again
    • Authors: Erika Check Hayden
      Pages: 449 - 449
      Abstract: Complaint to US government alleges that diagnostics company violated individuals' right to access health information.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2016.19953
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • US reviews plan to infect mosquitoes with bacteria to stop disease
    • Authors: Emily Waltz
      Pages: 450 - 451
      Abstract: Biotech firm seeks government approval to market mosquitoes as a pesticide to prevent spread of Zika and dengue viruses.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/533450a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • US law could increase postdoc pay — and shake up research system
    • Authors: Heidi Ledford
      Pages: 450 - 450
      Abstract: Labour law will change how many postdocs — long a troubled segment of the US research hierarchy — are paid.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2016.19949
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Correction
    • Pages: 451 - 451
      Abstract: The News Feature ‘The material code’ (Nature533, 22–25; 2016) wrongly implied that the phrase ‘materials genome’ was invented solely by Gerbrand Ceder. It was independently invented and copyrighted by Zi-Kui Liu of Pennsylvania State University.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/533451a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • The secret history of ancient toilets
    • Authors: Chelsea Wald
      Pages: 456 - 458
      Abstract: By scouring the remains of early loos and sewers, archaeologists are finding clues to what life was like in the Roman world and in other civilizations.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/533456a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Medical research: Time to think differently about diabetes
    • Authors: Francesco Rubino
      Pages: 459 - 461
      Abstract: New guidelines for the surgical treatment of type 2 diabetes bolster hopes of finding a cure, writes Francesco Rubino, but long-standing preconceptions must be put aside.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/533459a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Physics: Invest in neutrino astronomy
    • Authors: Spencer Klein
      Pages: 462 - 464
      Abstract: Spencer Klein calls for bigger telescope arrays to catch particles from the most energetic places in the Universe.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533462a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Archaeology: Soaked in history
    • Authors: Andrew Robinson
      Pages: 466 - 467
      Abstract: Andrew Robinson tours an enthralling exhibition of finds from two ancient cities, long sunk in the Nile delta.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533466a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Books in brief
    • Authors: Barbara Kiser
      Pages: 467 - 467
      Abstract: Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533467a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Epidemiology: Chasing epidemics
    • Authors: Tilli Tansey
      Pages: 468 - 468
      Abstract: Tilli Tansey engages with the medical autobiography of a pioneer in the field of HIV/AIDS.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533468a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Restoration: 'Garden of Eden' unrealistic
    • Authors: Martin F. Breed, Andrew J. Lowe, Peter E. Mortimer
      Pages: 469 - 469
      Abstract: We consider the proposed use of a 'pre-degradation' state as a reference baseline for damaged ecosystems to be unrealistic (J.Kotiahoet al. Nature532, 37; 10.1038/532037c2016). Instead of this 'Garden of Eden' baseline, we argue that restoration should
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533469d
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Europe: Shark-fin landing policy aids control
    • Authors: Alexander J. Stein
      Pages: 469 - 469
      Abstract: David Sims and Nuno Queiroz call for tighter fisheries regulations for species caught by European fleets as by-catch, using shortfin mako and blue sharks as examples (Nature531, 448; 10.1038/531448a2016). However, their arguments with respect to these species have been
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533469e
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Pollution: Spend more on soil clean-up in China
    • Authors: Yijun Yao
      Pages: 469 - 469
      Abstract: Toxic chemicals from a contaminated site may be a factor in last month's serious sickness among 500 or so students in Changzhou in eastern China. To avoid adverse environmental effects on human health, the country must invest more in soil remediation and create tailored guidelines
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533469a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Public health: Use open data to curb Zika virus
    • Authors: Marie-Paule Kieny, Vasee Moorthy, Daniela Bagozzi
      Pages: 469 - 469
      Abstract: To avoid losing valuable knowledge and to accelerate decision-making during the current Zika public-health emergency, the World Health Organization (WHO) and international partners are renewing efforts to promote rapid sharing of the latest research data (see go.nature.com/qtf5x4). Data sharing is important for all medical
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533469b
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Restoration: avoid arbitrary baselines
    • Authors: Zia Mehrabi
      Pages: 469 - 469
      Abstract: Janne Kotiaho and colleagues propose using a pre-degradation 'natural state' as a reference baseline for assessing the impact of humans on biodiversity and ecosystem function (Nature532, 37; 10.1038/532037c2016). However, it is not possible for scientists to define a single
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533469c
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Harry Kroto (1939–2016)
    • Authors: James R. Heath, Robert F. Curl
      Pages: 470 - 470
      Abstract: Discoverer of new forms of carbon.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533470a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Cell biology: Choreography of protein synthesis
    • Authors: Martin Ott
      Pages: 472 - 473
      Abstract: Both nuclear genes and genes in organelles called mitochondria are involved in the assembly of the cellular energy-producing machinery. RNA-translation programs that coordinate the two systems have now been identified. See Article p.499
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18436
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Astrophysics: How black holes restrain old galaxies
    • Authors: Marc Sarzi
      Pages: 473 - 474
      Abstract: Supermassive black holes are thought to keep star formation under control by ejecting or stirring gas in galaxies. Observations of an old galaxy reveal a potential mechanism for how this process occurs. See Letter p.504
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533473a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Cell biology: Killer enzymes tethered
    • Authors: Shigekazu Nagata
      Pages: 474 - 476
      Abstract: Caspase enzymes promote cell death, but are also involved in sperm development in fruit flies. The discovery that, in sperm, caspase activation is restricted to the surface of organelles called mitochondria sheds light on this unusual role.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18439
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • 50 & 100 Years Ago
    • Pages: 475 - 475
      Abstract: 50 Years AgoTermites show great activity around even a small breach in their nest and soon begin to build to repair the damage ... I have investigated the nest-building behaviour of the damp-wood termites Zootermopsis angusticollis and Z. nevadensis ... The evidence
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533475a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Evolution: The bigger, the better
    • Authors: Jennifer R. Gardiner
      Pages: 476 - 476
      Abstract: The sperm of some species of fruit fly are up to 5.8 centimetres long — around 20 times as long as the fly itself (pictured, two Drosophila bifurca sperm spill out of the male's ruptured seminal vesicle). Giant sperm tails are energetically expensive to
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533476a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Depression: Ketamine steps out of the darkness
    • Authors: Roberto Malinow
      Pages: 477 - 478
      Abstract: The way in which ketamine exerts its antidepressant effects has been perplexing. Evidence that a metabolite of the drug is responsible, and acts on a different target from ketamine, might be the key to an answer. See Article p.481
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-04
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17897
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Atmospheric science: Unexpected player in particle formation
    • Authors: Chris Cappa
      Pages: 478 - 479
      Abstract: Three studies find that a family of organic compounds affects the formation and initial growth of atmospheric aerosol particles in clean air — with implications for our knowledge of the climate effects of aerosols. See Letters p.521 & 527
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533478a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • NMDAR inhibition-independent antidepressant actions of ketamine
           metabolites
    • Authors: Panos Zanos, Ruin Moaddel, Patrick J. Morris, Polymnia Georgiou, Jonathan Fischell, Greg I. Elmer, Manickavasagom Alkondon, Peixiong Yuan, Heather J. Pribut, Nagendra S. Singh, Katina S. S. Dossou, Yuhong Fang, Xi-Ping Huang, Cheryl L. Mayo, Irving W. Wainer, Edson X. Albuquerque, Scott M. Thompson, Craig J. Thomas, Carlos A. Zarate Jr, Todd D. Gould
      Pages: 481 - 486
      Abstract: Major depressive disorder affects around 16 per cent of the world population at some point in their lives. Despite the availability of numerous monoaminergic-based antidepressants, most patients require several weeks, if not months, to respond to these treatments, and many patients never attain sustained remission
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-04
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17998
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Tracing haematopoietic stem cell formation at single-cell resolution
    • Authors: Fan Zhou, Xianlong Li, Weili Wang, Ping Zhu, Jie Zhou, Wenyan He, Meng Ding, Fuyin Xiong, Xiaona Zheng, Zhuan Li, Yanli Ni, Xiaohuan Mu, Lu Wen, Tao Cheng, Yu Lan, Weiping Yuan, Fuchou Tang, Bing Liu
      Pages: 487 - 492
      Abstract: Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are derived early from embryonic precursors, such as haemogenic endothelial cells and pre-haematopoietic stem cells (pre-HSCs), the molecular identity of which still remains elusive. Here we use potent surface markers to capture the nascent pre-HSCs at high purity, as rigorously validated
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17997
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Carcinoma–astrocyte gap junctions promote brain metastasis by cGAMP
           transfer
    • Pages: 493 - 498
      Abstract: Brain metastasis represents a substantial source of morbidity and mortality in various cancers, and is characterized by high resistance to chemotherapy. Here we define the role of the most abundant cell type in the brain, the astrocyte, in promoting brain metastasis. We show that human
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18268
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Synchronized mitochondrial and cytosolic translation programs
    • Authors: Mary T. Couvillion, Iliana C. Soto, Gergana Shipkovenska, L. Stirling Churchman
      Pages: 499 - 503
      Abstract: Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is a vital process for energy generation, and is carried out by complexes within the mitochondria. OXPHOS complexes pose a unique challenge for cells because their subunits are encoded on both the nuclear and the mitochondrial genomes. Genomic approaches designed to study
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18015
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Suppressing star formation in quiescent galaxies with supermassive black
           hole winds
    • Pages: 504 - 508
      Abstract: Quiescent galaxies with little or no ongoing star formation dominate the population of galaxies with masses above 2 × 1010 times that of the Sun; the number of quiescent galaxies has increased by a factor of about 25 over the past ten billion years (refs 1, 2, 3, 4). Once star formation has been shut down, perhaps during the quasar phase of rapid accretion onto a supermassive black hole, an unknown mechanism must remove or heat the gas that is subsequently accreted from either stellar mass loss or mergers and that would otherwise cool to form stars. Energy output from a black hole accreting at a low rate has been proposed, but observational evidence for this in the form of expanding hot gas shells is indirect and limited to radio galaxies at the centres of clusters, which are too rare to explain the vast majority of the quiescent population. Here we report bisymmetric emission features co-aligned with strong ionized-gas velocity gradients from which we infer the presence of centrally driven winds in typical quiescent galaxies that host low-luminosity active nuclei. These galaxies are surprisingly common, accounting for as much as ten per cent of the quiescent population with masses around 2 × 1010 times that of the Sun. In a prototypical example, we calculate that the energy input from the galaxy’s low-level active supermassive black hole is capable of driving the observed wind, which contains sufficient mechanical energy to heat ambient, cooler gas (also detected) and thereby suppress star formation.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18006
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • A resonant chain of four transiting, sub-Neptune planets
    • Authors: Sean M. Mills, Daniel C. Fabrycky, Cezary Migaszewski, Eric B. Ford, Erik Petigura, Howard Isaacson
      Pages: 509 - 512
      Abstract: Surveys have revealed many multi-planet systems containing super-Earths and Neptunes in orbits of a few days to a few months. There is debate whether in situ assembly or inward migration is the dominant mechanism of the formation of such planetary systems. Simulations suggest that migration creates tightly packed systems with planets whose orbital periods may be expressed as ratios of small integers (resonances), often in a many-planet series (chain). In the hundreds of multi-planet systems of sub-Neptunes, more planet pairs are observed near resonances than would generally be expected, but no individual system has hitherto been identified that must have been formed by migration. Proximity to resonance enables the detection of planets perturbing each other. Here we report transit timing variations of the four planets in the Kepler-223 system, model these variations as resonant-angle librations, and compute the long-term stability of the resonant chain. The architecture of Kepler-223 is too finely tuned to have been formed by scattering, and our numerical simulations demonstrate that its properties are natural outcomes of the migration hypothesis. Similar systems could be destabilized by any of several mechanisms, contributing to the observed orbital-period distribution, where many planets are not in resonances. Planetesimal interactions in particular are thought to be responsible for establishing the current orbits of the four giant planets in the Solar System by disrupting a theoretical initial resonant chain similar to that observed in Kepler-223.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17445
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • A high-temperature ferromagnetic topological insulating phase by proximity
           coupling
    • Authors: Ferhat Katmis, Valeria Lauter, Flavio S. Nogueira, Badih A. Assaf, Michelle E. Jamer, Peng Wei, Biswarup Satpati, John W. Freeland, Ilya Eremin, Don Heiman, Pablo Jarillo-Herrero, Jagadeesh S. Moodera
      Pages: 513 - 516
      Abstract: Topological insulators are insulating materials that display conducting surface states protected by time-reversal symmetry, wherein electron spins are locked to their momentum. This unique property opens up new opportunities for creating next-generation electronic, spintronic and quantum computation devices. Introducing ferromagnetic order into a topological insulator system without compromising its distinctive quantum coherent features could lead to the realization of several predicted physical phenomena. In particular, achieving robust long-range magnetic order at the surface of the topological insulator at specific locations without introducing spin-scattering centres could open up new possibilities for devices. Here we use spin-polarized neutron reflectivity experiments to demonstrate topologically enhanced interface magnetism by coupling a ferromagnetic insulator (EuS) to a topological insulator (Bi2Se3) in a bilayer system. This interfacial ferromagnetism persists up to room temperature, even though the ferromagnetic insulator is known to order ferromagnetically only at low temperatures (
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-09
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17635
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Continuous probing of cold complex molecules with infrared frequency comb
           spectroscopy
    • Authors: Ben Spaun, P. Bryan Changala, David Patterson, Bryce J. Bjork, Oliver H. Heckl, John M. Doyle, Jun Ye
      Pages: 517 - 520
      Abstract: For more than half a century, high-resolution infrared spectroscopy has played a crucial role in probing molecular structure and dynamics. Such studies have so far been largely restricted to relatively small and simple systems, because at room temperature even molecules of modest size already occupy many millions of rotational/vibrational states, yielding highly congested spectra that are difficult to assign. Targeting more complex molecules requires methods that can record broadband infrared spectra (that is, spanning multiple vibrational bands) with both high resolution and high sensitivity. However, infrared spectroscopic techniques have hitherto been limited either by narrow bandwidth and long acquisition time, or by low sensitivity and resolution. Cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy (CE-DFCS) combines the inherent broad bandwidth and high resolution of an optical frequency comb with the high detection sensitivity provided by a high-finesse enhancement cavity, but it still suffers from spectral congestion. Here we show that this problem can be overcome by using buffer gas cooling to produce continuous, cold samples of molecules that are then subjected to CE-DFCS. This integration allows us to acquire a rotationally resolved direct absorption spectrum in the C–H stretching region of nitromethane, a model system that challenges our understanding of large-amplitude vibrational motion. We have also used this technique on several large organic molecules that are of fundamental spectroscopic and astrochemical relevance, including naphthalene, adamantane and hexamethylenetetramine. These findings establish the value of our approach for studying much larger and more complex molecules than have been probed so far, enabling complex molecules and their kinetics to be studied with orders-of-magnitude improvements in efficiency, spectral resolution and specificity.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-04
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17440
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Ion-induced nucleation of pure biogenic particles
    • Pages: 521 - 526
      Abstract: Atmospheric aerosols and their effect on clouds are thought to be important for anthropogenic radiative forcing of the climate, yet remain poorly understood. Globally, around half of cloud condensation nuclei originate from nucleation of atmospheric vapours. It is thought that sulfuric acid is essential to initiate most particle formation in the atmosphere, and that ions have a relatively minor role. Some laboratory studies, however, have reported organic particle formation without the intentional addition of sulfuric acid, although contamination could not be excluded. Here we present evidence for the formation of aerosol particles from highly oxidized biogenic vapours in the absence of sulfuric acid in a large chamber under atmospheric conditions. The highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) are produced by ozonolysis of α-pinene. We find that ions from Galactic cosmic rays increase the nucleation rate by one to two orders of magnitude compared with neutral nucleation. Our experimental findings are supported by quantum chemical calculations of the cluster binding energies of representative HOMs. Ion-induced nucleation of pure organic particles constitutes a potentially widespread source of aerosol particles in terrestrial environments with low sulfuric acid pollution.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17953
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • The role of low-volatility organic compounds in initial particle growth in
           the atmosphere
    • Pages: 527 - 531
      Abstract: About half of present-day cloud condensation nuclei originate from atmospheric nucleation, frequently appearing as a burst of new particles near midday. Atmospheric observations show that the growth rate of new particles often accelerates when the diameter of the particles is between one and ten nanometres. In this critical size range, new particles are most likely to be lost by coagulation with pre-existing particles, thereby failing to form new cloud condensation nuclei that are typically 50 to 100 nanometres across. Sulfuric acid vapour is often involved in nucleation but is too scarce to explain most subsequent growth, leaving organic vapours as the most plausible alternative, at least in the planetary boundary layer. Although recent studies predict that low-volatility organic vapours contribute during initial growth, direct evidence has been lacking. The accelerating growth may result from increased photolytic production of condensable organic species in the afternoon, and the presence of a possible Kelvin (curvature) effect, which inhibits organic vapour condensation on the smallest particles (the nano-Köhler theory), has so far remained ambiguous. Here we present experiments performed in a large chamber under atmospheric conditions that investigate the role of organic vapours in the initial growth of nucleated organic particles in the absence of inorganic acids and bases such as sulfuric acid or ammonia and amines, respectively. Using data from the same set of experiments, it has been shown that organic vapours alone can drive nucleation. We focus on the growth of nucleated particles and find that the organic vapours that drive initial growth have extremely low volatilities (saturation concentration less than 10−4.5 micrograms per cubic metre). As the particles increase in size and the Kelvin barrier falls, subsequent growth is primarily due to more abundant organic vapours of slightly higher volatility (saturation concentrations of 10−4.5 to 10−0.5 micrograms per cubic metre). We present a particle growth model that quantitatively reproduces our measurements. Furthermore, we implement a parameterization of the first steps of growth in a global aerosol model and find that concentrations of atmospheric cloud concentration nuclei can change substantially in response, that is, by up to 50 per cent in comparison with previously assumed growth rate parameterizations.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18271
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Competitive growth in a cooperative mammal
    • Authors: Elise Huchard, Sinead English, Matt B. V. Bell, Nathan Thavarajah, Tim Clutton-Brock
      Pages: 532 - 534
      Abstract: In many animal societies where hierarchies govern access to reproduction, the social rank of individuals is related to their age and weight and slow-growing animals may lose their place in breeding queues to younger ‘challengers’ that grow faster. The threat of being displaced might be expected to favour the evolution of competitive growth strategies, where individuals increase their own rate of growth in response to increases in the growth of potential rivals. Although growth rates have been shown to vary in relation to changes in the social environment in several vertebrates including fish and mammals, it is not yet known whether individuals increase their growth rates in response to increases in the growth of particular reproductive rivals. Here we show that, in wild Kalahari meerkats (Suricata suricatta), subordinates of both sexes respond to experimentally induced increases in the growth of same-sex rivals by raising their own growth rate and food intake. In addition, when individuals acquire dominant status, they show a secondary period of accelerated growth whose magnitude increases if the difference between their own weight and that of the heaviest subordinate of the same sex in their group is small. Our results show that individuals adjust their growth to the size of their closest competitor and raise the possibility that similar plastic responses to the risk of competition may occur in other social mammals, including domestic animals and primates.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17986
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • How sexual selection can drive the evolution of costly sperm ornamentation
    • Pages: 535 - 538
      Abstract: Post-copulatory sexual selection (PSS), fuelled by female promiscuity, is credited with the rapid evolution of sperm quality traits across diverse taxa. Yet, our understanding of the adaptive significance of sperm ornaments and the cryptic female preferences driving their evolution is extremely limited. Here we review the evolutionary allometry of exaggerated sexual traits (for example, antlers, horns, tail feathers, mandibles and dewlaps), show that the giant sperm of some Drosophila species are possibly the most extreme ornaments in all of nature and demonstrate how their existence challenges theories explaining the intensity of sexual selection, mating-system evolution and the fundamental nature of sex differences. We also combine quantitative genetic analyses of interacting sex-specific traits in D. melanogaster with comparative analyses of the condition dependence of male and female reproductive potential across species with varying ornament size to reveal complex dynamics that may underlie sperm-length evolution. Our results suggest that producing few gigantic sperm evolved by (1) Fisherian runaway selection mediated by genetic correlations between sperm length, the female preference for long sperm and female mating frequency, and (2) longer sperm increasing the indirect benefits to females. Our results also suggest that the developmental integration of sperm quality and quantity renders post-copulatory sexual selection on ejaculates unlikely to treat male–male competition and female choice as discrete processes.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18005
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with
           educational attainment
    • Pages: 539 - 542
      Abstract: Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17671
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Culturing of ‘unculturable’ human microbiota reveals novel
           taxa and extensive sporulation
    • Authors: Hilary P. Browne, Samuel C. Forster, Blessing O. Anonye, Nitin Kumar, B. Anne Neville, Mark D. Stares, David Goulding, Trevor D. Lawley
      Pages: 543 - 546
      Abstract: Our intestinal microbiota harbours a diverse bacterial community required for our health, sustenance and wellbeing. Intestinal colonization begins at birth and climaxes with the acquisition of two dominant groups of strict anaerobic bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. Culture-independent, genomic approaches have transformed our understanding of the role of the human microbiome in health and many diseases. However, owing to the prevailing perception that our indigenous bacteria are largely recalcitrant to culture, many of their functions and phenotypes remain unknown. Here we describe a novel workflow based on targeted phenotypic culturing linked to large-scale whole-genome sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and computational modelling that demonstrates that a substantial proportion of the intestinal bacteria are culturable. Applying this approach to healthy individuals, we isolated 137 bacterial species from characterized and candidate novel families, genera and species that were archived as pure cultures. Whole-genome and metagenomic sequencing, combined with computational and phenotypic analysis, suggests that at least 50–60% of the bacterial genera from the intestinal microbiota of a healthy individual produce resilient spores, specialized for host-to-host transmission. Our approach unlocks the human intestinal microbiota for phenotypic analysis and reveals how a marked proportion of oxygen-sensitive intestinal bacteria can be transmitted between individuals, affecting microbiota heritability.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-04
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17645
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Redirecting abiraterone metabolism to fine-tune prostate cancer
           anti-androgen therapy
    • Authors: Zhenfei Li, Mohammad Alyamani, Jianneng Li, Kevin Rogacki, Mohamed Abazeed, Sunil K. Upadhyay, Steven P. Balk, Mary-Ellen Taplin, Richard J. Auchus, Nima Sharifi
      Pages: 547 - 551
      Abstract: Abiraterone blocks androgen synthesis and prolongs survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, which is otherwise driven by intratumoral androgen synthesis. Abiraterone is metabolized in patients to Δ4-abiraterone (D4A), which has even greater anti-tumour activity and is structurally similar to endogenous steroidal 5α-reductase substrates, such as testosterone. Here, we show that D4A is converted to at least three 5α-reduced and three 5β-reduced metabolites in human serum. The initial 5α-reduced metabolite, 3-keto-5α-abiraterone, is present at higher concentrations than D4A in patients with prostate cancer taking abiraterone, and is an androgen receptor agonist, which promotes prostate cancer progression. In a clinical trial of abiraterone alone, followed by abiraterone plus dutasteride (a 5α-reductase inhibitor), 3-keto-5α-abiraterone and downstream metabolites were depleted by the addition of dutasteride, while D4A concentrations rose, showing that dutasteride effectively blocks production of a tumour-promoting metabolite and permits D4A accumulation. Furthermore, dutasteride did not deplete the three 5β-reduced metabolites, which were also clinically detectable, demonstrating the specific biochemical effects of pharmacological 5α-reductase inhibition on abiraterone metabolism. Our findings suggest a previously unappreciated and biochemically specific method of clinically fine-tuning abiraterone metabolism to optimize therapy.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17954
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Access of protective antiviral antibody to neuronal tissues requires CD4
           T-cell help
    • Authors: Norifumi Iijima, Akiko Iwasaki
      Pages: 552 - 556
      Abstract: Circulating antibodies can access most tissues to mediate surveillance and elimination of invading pathogens. Immunoprivileged tissues such as the brain and the peripheral nervous system are shielded from plasma proteins by the blood–brain barrier and blood–nerve barrier, respectively. Yet, circulating antibodies must somehow gain access to these tissues to mediate their antimicrobial functions. Here we examine the mechanism by which antibodies gain access to neuronal tissues to control infection. Using a mouse model of genital herpes infection, we demonstrate that both antibodies and CD4 T cells are required to protect the host after immunization at a distal site. We show that memory CD4 T cells migrate to the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord in response to infection with herpes simplex virus type 2. Once inside these neuronal tissues, CD4 T cells secrete interferon-γ and mediate local increase in vascular permeability, enabling antibody access for viral control. A similar requirement for CD4 T cells for antibody access to the brain is observed after intranasal challenge with vesicular stomatitis virus. Our results reveal a previously unappreciated role of CD4 T cells in mobilizing antibodies to the peripheral sites of infection where they help to limit viral spread.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17979
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Structural insights into inhibition of lipid I production in bacterial
           cell wall synthesis
    • Authors: Ben C. Chung, Ellene H. Mashalidis, Tetsuya Tanino, Mijung Kim, Akira Matsuda, Jiyong Hong, Satoshi Ichikawa, Seok-Yong Lee
      Pages: 557 - 560
      Abstract: Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection is a serious threat to public health. Peptidoglycan biosynthesis is a well-established target for antibiotic development. MraY (phospho-MurNAc-pentapeptide translocase) catalyses the first and an essential membrane step of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. It is considered a very promising target for the development of new antibiotics, as many naturally occurring nucleoside inhibitors with antibacterial activity target this enzyme. However, antibiotics targeting MraY have not been developed for clinical use, mainly owing to a lack of structural insight into inhibition of this enzyme. Here we present the crystal structure of MraY from Aquifex aeolicus (MraYAA) in complex with its naturally occurring inhibitor, muraymycin D2 (MD2). We show that after binding MD2, MraYAA undergoes remarkably large conformational rearrangements near the active site, which lead to the formation of a nucleoside-binding pocket and a peptide-binding site. MD2 binds the nucleoside-binding pocket like a two-pronged plug inserting into a socket. Further interactions it makes in the adjacent peptide-binding site anchor MD2 to and enhance its affinity for MraYAA. Surprisingly, MD2 does not interact with three acidic residues or the Mg2+ cofactor required for catalysis, suggesting that MD2 binds to MraYAA in a manner that overlaps with, but is distinct from, its natural substrate, UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide. We have determined the principles of MD2 binding to MraYAA, including how it avoids the need for pyrophosphate and sugar moieties, which are essential features for substrate binding. The conformational plasticity of MraY could be the reason that it is the target of many structurally distinct inhibitors. These findings can inform the design of new inhibitors targeting MraY as well as its paralogues, WecA and TarO.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17636
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Crystal structure of the human sterol transporter ABCG5/ABCG8
    • Authors: Jyh-Yeuan Lee, Lisa N. Kinch, Dominika M. Borek, Jin Wang, Junmei Wang, Ina L. Urbatsch, Xiao-Song Xie, Nikolai V. Grishin, Jonathan C. Cohen, Zbyszek Otwinowski, Helen H. Hobbs, Daniel M. Rosenbaum
      Pages: 561 - 564
      Abstract: ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters play critical roles in maintaining sterol balance in higher eukaryotes. The ABCG5/ABCG8 heterodimer (G5G8) mediates excretion of neutral sterols in liver and intestines. Mutations disrupting G5G8 cause sitosterolaemia, a disorder characterized by sterol accumulation and premature atherosclerosis. Here we use crystallization in lipid bilayers to determine the X-ray structure of human G5G8 in a nucleotide-free state at 3.9 Å resolution, generating the first atomic model of an ABC sterol transporter. The structure reveals a new transmembrane fold that is present in a large and functionally diverse superfamily of ABC transporters. The transmembrane domains are coupled to the nucleotide-binding sites by networks of interactions that differ between the active and inactive ATPases, reflecting the catalytic asymmetry of the transporter. The G5G8 structure provides a mechanistic framework for understanding sterol transport and the disruptive effects of mutations causing sitosterolaemia.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-04
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17666
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Browsing
    • Authors: Ian Whates
      Pages: 572 - 572
      Abstract: Security issues.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/533572a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604 (2016)
       
  • Education: Degrees of success
    • Authors: Chris Woolston
      Pages: 569 - 570
      Abstract: An MBA can unlock progress to the higher ranks of a company — and many firms are willing to pay for one.
      Citation: Nature (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7604-569a
       
  • Alumni: Post-PhD careers
    • Pages: 570 - 570
      Abstract: Two studies examine how PhD graduates plan for and move on their career paths.
      Citation: Nature (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7604-570a
       
  • Reality check on reproducibility
    • Pages: 437 - 437
      Abstract: A survey of Nature readers revealed a high level of concern about the problem of irreproducible results. Researchers, funders and journals need to work together to make research more reliable.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      DOI: 10.1038/533437a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604
       
  • The truth about reproducibility
    • Authors: Monya Baker
      Pages: 452 - 454
      Abstract: 1,500 scientists say what they really think about science’s looming ‘crisis’.
      Citation: Nature 533, 7604 (2016)
      DOI: 10.1038/533452a
      Issue No: Vol. 533, No. 7604
       
 
 
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