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Journal Cover Nature
  [SJR: 21.323]   [H-I: 829]   [3103 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0028-0836 - ISSN (Online) 1476-4687
   Published by NPG Homepage  [123 journals]
  • More support for clinical trials in children
    • Pages: 465 - 466
      Abstract: US lawmakers should give drug firms the confidence to test paediatric cancer therapies.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535465b
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Agencies must show that basic research is worth the investment
    • Pages: 465 - 465
      Abstract: The European Research Council has begun to evaluate the impact of its grants; others should do the same.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-26
      DOI: 10.1038/535465a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Time to remodel the journal impact factor
    • Pages: 466 - 466
      Abstract: Nature and the Nature journals are diversifying their presentation of performance indicators.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535466a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Resilient British science will withstand Brexit
    • Authors: Ehsan Masood
      Pages: 467 - 467
      Abstract: UK scientists have had to fight to stay international before, and they must not stop now, says Ehsan Masood.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535467a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Planetary science: Revived telescope finds 104 planets
    • Pages: 468 - 468
      Abstract: Astronomers have spied 104 new worlds in the Milky Way using NASA's Kepler Space Telescope.Part of Kepler broke down in 2013, but engineers managed to repair it and send it on a fresh mission, dubbed K2. This latest discovery, from Ian Crossfield at the
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535468d
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Behavioural ecology: Bird helps people to find honey
    • Pages: 468 - 468
      Abstract: A bird species responds to the specialized calls of human honey hunters, then leads them to bees' nests.The greater honeyguide (Indicator indicator, pictured with honey hunter) benefits by eating the beeswax left behind by hunters after they break open bees' nests
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535468a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Neurodegeneration: How immune cells clear amyloid
    • Pages: 468 - 469
      Abstract: Three key proteins allow immune cells in the brain to clear out a protein called amyloid-β, which is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease.The immune cells, called microglia, normally absorb and digest amyloid-β after lipoproteins called APOE and CLU attach to it. Lino Gonzalez and
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535468e
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Evolution: Early life liked it hot
    • Pages: 468 - 468
      Abstract: The last universal common ancestor of all life — a microbe dubbed LUCA that existed around 3.5 billion years ago — probably resided in a hydrothermal vent that had low oxygen levels.To find out how the organism lived, William Martin and his colleagues at
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535468b
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Chemistry: 'Molecules' made from superatoms
    • Pages: 468 - 468
      Abstract: Chemists have built structures similar to molecules but made up of superatoms — clusters of atoms with some of the same properties as atoms.To make superatom 'molecules', Xavier Roy and his colleagues at Columbia University in New York City created cobalt–selenium clusters. They then
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535468c
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Marine ecology: Ice algae key to arctic food web
    • Pages: 469 - 469
      Abstract: Even creatures living many metres below the Arctic Ocean's surface rely on algae that grow in sea ice and so, like those living near the surface, may feel the negative effects of shrinking ice.A team led by Doreen Kohlbach of the Alfred Wegener Institute
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535469c
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Neuroscience: Neurons compete to make memories
    • Pages: 469 - 469
      Abstract: Memories that are formed within a few hours of one another can be encoded by a shared set of neurons.Sheena Josselyn and Paul Frankland at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada, and their colleagues exposed mice to two fear-inducing experiences, each consisting
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535469d
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Energy: Carbon capture makes electricity
    • Pages: 469 - 469
      Abstract: A battery developed from widely available materials produces electricity by capturing carbon dioxide from gas mixtures.Wajdi Al Sadat and Lynden Archer at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, designed an aluminium-based electrochemical cell. At the cell's cathode, oxygen is reduced to form a superoxide,
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535469e
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Palaeoclimate: Analysing ancient air in salt crystals
    • Pages: 469 - 469
      Abstract: Gas trapped in ancient bubbles reveals that Earth's atmosphere was rich in oxygen up to 200 million years earlier than models have predicted, well before animal diversity exploded.Bubbles in salt crystals called halites (pictured) that formed millions of years ago can provide
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535469a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Optics: Human eye sees single photons
    • Pages: 469 - 469
      Abstract: People can perceive flashes of light as feeble as a single photon.Alipasha Vaziri at the Rockefeller University in New York City and his colleagues asked three volunteers to stare into an optical system in the dark and listen to two sounds, one of which
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535469b
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Trump vs Clinton: worlds apart on science
    • Authors: Jeff Tollefson
      Pages: 473 - 474
      Abstract: Presidential candidates begin to make clear their stark differences on climate change, energy production and stem-cell research.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-26
      DOI: 10.1038/535473a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Planet hunters seek new ways to detect alien life
    • Authors: Alexandra Witze
      Pages: 474 - 474
      Abstract: Astrobiologists debate which chemical signatures would hint at life on other worlds.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535474a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Brazil asks whether Zika acts alone to cause birth defects
    • Authors: Declan Butler
      Pages: 475 - 476
      Abstract: Puzzling distribution of cases suggests Zika is not the only factor in reported microcephaly surge.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2016.20309
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Chinese scientists to pioneer first human CRISPR trial
    • Authors: David Cyranoski
      Pages: 476 - 477
      Abstract: Gene-editing technique to treat lung cancer is due to be tested in people in August.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-21
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2016.20302
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Europe’s premier funding agency measures its impact
    • Authors: Alison Abbott
      Pages: 477 - 478
      Abstract: European Research Council embarks on an unusual evaluation that could inspire others.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-26
      DOI: 10.1038/535477a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Chinese satellite is one giant step for the quantum internet
    • Authors: Elizabeth Gibney
      Pages: 478 - 479
      Abstract: Craft due to launch in August is first in a wave of planned quantum space experiments.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535478a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Correction
    • Pages: 479 - 479
      Abstract: The News story ‘Canada builds quake warning system’ (Nature534, 446–447; 2016) incorrectly stated that the warning system being developed by Ocean Networks Canada would be the first in Canada.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/585479a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Tapping genetics for better beer
    • Authors: Ewen Callaway
      Pages: 484 - 486
      Abstract: A Belgian lab aims to turn the brewing world on its head with new strains of yeast.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-26
      DOI: 10.1038/535484a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Lessons from Brexit
    • Pages: 487 - 489
      Abstract: Britain’s vote to leave the European Union is jeopardizing scientists’ funds, collaborations, staff and students; it has left the nation reeling and Europe vulnerable. These schismatic times have researchers worldwide soul-searching over how best to contribute. Five experts offer their reflections.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-25
      DOI: 10.1038/535487a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Science fiction: The science that fed Frankenstein
    • Authors: Richard Holmes
      Pages: 490 - 492
      Abstract: Richard Holmes ponders the discoveries that inspired the young Mary Shelley to write her classic, 200 years ago.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535490a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Books in brief
    • Authors: Barbara Kiser
      Pages: 491 - 491
      Abstract: Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535491a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Sustainable Development Goals: SDGs: create a coordinating body
    • Authors: Peter M. Haas
      Pages: 493 - 493
      Abstract: The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) seem to be a disjointed hodge-podge of aspirations. I suggest that a 'panel of panels' would help to guide policymakers. This would collate the flow of information from existing UN panels to highlight connections between the SDGs (see
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535493d
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Conservation practice: A very preventable mammal extinction
    • Authors: John C. Z. Woinarski
      Pages: 493 - 493
      Abstract: James Watson blames climate change for the extinction of the Bramble Cay melomys, or mosaic-tailed rat (Melomys rubicola; Nature534, 437; 10.1038/534437a2016). In our view, simple management interventions could and should have saved this rodent.With a population of
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535493e
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Great apes: Fresh strategies to save orangutans
    • Authors: Andrew J. Marshall, Serge Wich, Marc Ancrenaz
      Pages: 493 - 493
      Abstract: The Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) was listed as critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature this month, despite decades of conservation efforts. We urgently need fresh strategies to counteract habitat loss and hunting, and to mitigate the impacts of climate
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535493a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Preprint servers: Vet reproducibility of biology preprints
    • Authors: Roy Calne
      Pages: 493 - 493
      Abstract: Posting preprints in online repositories is common practice in the physical sciences and mathematics. It has been less satisfactory for preprints in the biological sciences, perhaps because the general standard of quality is inferior. Addressing the credibility of these submissions could bring free preprint servers
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535493b
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Sustainable development goals: SDGs: diseases that neglect no goals
    • Authors: Christopher Fitzpatrick, Mathieu Bangert, Dirk Engels
      Pages: 493 - 493
      Abstract: The mapping of interactions between the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) should guide efforts to leave no one behind (see M.Nilssonet al. Nature534, 320–322; 10.1038/534320a2016).Take neglected tropical diseases (NTDs; go.nature.com/29te2hu) and the
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535493c
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Human perception: Amazon music
    • Authors: Robert Zatorre
      Pages: 496 - 497
      Abstract: The people of a tribe called the Tsimane’, who have been isolated from Western music, perceive music differently from Western listeners, raising questions about whether musical preference is innate or cultural. See Letter p.547
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-13
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18913
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Climate science: Unexpected fix for ocean models
    • Authors: Kathryn A. Kelly, LuAnne Thompson
      Pages: 497 - 498
      Abstract: Computational models persistently underestimate strong currents that redistribute ocean heat. This problem is solved in models in which ocean eddies are damped by coupling of the atmosphere with the sea. See Letter p.533
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535497a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Genetics: Mitochondrial DNA in evolution and disease
    • Authors: Douglas C. Wallace
      Pages: 498 - 500
      Abstract: Cellular organelles called mitochondria contain their own DNA. The discovery that variation in mitochondrial DNA alters physiology and lifespan in mice has implications for evolutionary biology and the origins of disease. See Letter p.561
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-06
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18902
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Solar physics: Dynamo theory questioned
    • Authors: Paul Charbonneau
      Pages: 500 - 501
      Abstract: Observations of X-ray emission — a diagnostic tool for the mechanisms driving stellar magnetic fields — from four cool stars call into question accepted models of magnetic-field generation in the Sun and stars. See Letter p.526
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535500a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Microbiology: Antibiotics right under our nose
    • Authors: Kim Lewis, Philip Strandwitz
      Pages: 501 - 502
      Abstract: Bacteria that are normally resident in the body have many roles in supporting health. Researchers have now identified a bacterial resident of the nose that produces an antibiotic that is active against a pathogen. See Article p.511
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535501a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • In retrospect: Thirty-five years of endless cell potential
    • Authors: M. Azim Surani
      Pages: 502 - 503
      Abstract: Pluripotent cells have the potential to differentiate into any cell type in the body. Their isolation and propagation from mouse embryos was pivotal for advances in understanding human development and disease.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535502a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Rapid signalling in distinct dopaminergic axons during locomotion and
           reward
    • Authors: M. W. Howe, D. A. Dombeck
      Pages: 505 - 510
      Abstract: Dopaminergic projection axons from the midbrain to the striatum are crucial for motor control, as their degeneration in Parkinson disease results in profound movement deficits. Paradoxically, most recording methods report rapid phasic dopamine signalling (~100-ms bursts) in response to unpredicted rewards, with little evidence for movement-related signalling. The leading model posits that phasic signalling in striatum-targeting dopamine neurons drives reward-based learning, whereas slow variations in firing (tens of seconds to minutes) in these same neurons bias animals towards or away from movement. However, current methods have provided little evidence to support or refute this model. Here, using new optical recording methods, we report the discovery of rapid phasic signalling in striatum-targeting dopaminergic axons that is associated with, and capable of triggering, locomotion in mice. Axons expressing these signals were largely distinct from those that responded to unexpected rewards. These results suggest that dopaminergic neuromodulation can differentially impact motor control and reward learning with sub-second precision, and indicate that both precise signal timing and neuronal subtype are important parameters to consider in the treatment of dopamine-related disorders.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18942
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Human commensals producing a novel antibiotic impair pathogen colonization
    • Pages: 511 - 516
      Abstract: The vast majority of systemic bacterial infections are caused by facultative, often antibiotic-resistant, pathogens colonizing human body surfaces. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus predisposes to invasive infection, but the mechanisms that permit or interfere with pathogen colonization are largely unknown. Whereas soil microbes are
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18634
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Structural basis of Smoothened regulation by its extracellular domains
    • Authors: Eamon F. X. Byrne, Ria Sircar, Paul S. Miller, George Hedger, Giovanni Luchetti, Sigrid Nachtergaele, Mark D. Tully, Laurel Mydock-McGrane, Douglas F. Covey, Robert P. Rambo, Mark S. P. Sansom, Simon Newstead, Rajat Rohatgi, Christian Siebold
      Pages: 517 - 522
      Abstract: Developmental signals of the Hedgehog (Hh) and Wnt families are transduced across the membrane by Frizzled-class G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) composed of both a heptahelical transmembrane domain (TMD) and an extracellular cysteine-rich domain (CRD). How the large extracellular domains of GPCRs regulate signalling by the TMD
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18934
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Suppression of star formation in dwarf galaxies by photoelectric grain
           heating feedback
    • Authors: John C. Forbes, Mark R. Krumholz, Nathan J. Goldbaum, Avishai Dekel
      Pages: 523 - 525
      Abstract: Photoelectric heating—heating of dust grains by far-ultraviolet photons—has long been recognized as the primary source of heating for the neutral interstellar medium. Simulations of spiral galaxies have shown some indication that photoelectric heating could suppress star formation; however, simulations that include photoelectric heating have typically shown that it has little effect on the rate of star formation in either spiral galaxies or dwarf galaxies, which suggests that supernovae are responsible for setting the gas depletion time in galaxies. This result is in contrast with recent work indicating that a star formation law that depends on galaxy metallicity—as is expected with photoelectric heating, but not with supernovae—reproduces the present-day galaxy population better than does a metallicity-independent one. Here we report a series of simulations of dwarf galaxies, the class of galaxy in which the effects of both photoelectric heating and supernovae are expected to be strongest. We simultaneously include space- and time-dependent photoelectric heating in our simulations, and we resolve the energy-conserving phase of every supernova blast wave, which allows us to directly measure the relative importance of feedback by supernovae and photoelectric heating in suppressing star formation. We find that supernovae are unable to account for the observed large gas depletion times in dwarf galaxies. Instead, photoelectric heating is the dominant means by which dwarf galaxies regulate their star formation rate at any given time, suppressing the rate by more than an order of magnitude relative to simulations with only supernovae.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18292
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Solar-type dynamo behaviour in fully convective stars without a tachocline
    • Authors: Nicholas J. Wright, Jeremy J. Drake
      Pages: 526 - 528
      Abstract: In solar-type stars (with radiative cores and convective envelopes like our Sun), the magnetic field powers star spots, flares and other solar phenomena, as well as chromospheric and coronal emission at ultraviolet to X-ray wavelengths. The dynamo responsible for generating the field depends on the shearing of internal magnetic fields by differential rotation. The shearing has long been thought to take place in a boundary layer known as the tachocline between the radiative core and the convective envelope. Fully convective stars do not have a tachocline and their dynamo mechanism is expected to be very different, although its exact form and physical dependencies are not known. Here we report observations of four fully convective stars whose X-ray emission correlates with their rotation periods in the same way as in solar-type stars. As the X-ray activity–rotation relationship is a well-established proxy for the behaviour of the magnetic dynamo, these results imply that fully convective stars also operate a solar-type dynamo. The lack of a tachocline in fully convective stars therefore suggests that this is not a critical ingredient in the solar dynamo and supports models in which the dynamo originates throughout the convection zone.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18638
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Combinatorial design of textured mechanical metamaterials
    • Authors: Corentin Coulais, Eial Teomy, Koen de Reus, Yair Shokef, Martin van Hecke
      Pages: 529 - 532
      Abstract: The structural complexity of metamaterials is limitless, but, in practice, most designs comprise periodic architectures that lead to materials with spatially homogeneous features. More advanced applications in soft robotics, prosthetics and wearable technology involve spatially textured mechanical functionality, which requires aperiodic architectures. However, a naive implementation of such structural complexity invariably leads to geometrical frustration (whereby local constraints cannot be satisfied everywhere), which prevents coherent operation and impedes functionality. Here we introduce a combinatorial strategy for the design of aperiodic, yet frustration-free, mechanical metamaterials that exhibit spatially textured functionalities. We implement this strategy using cubic building blocks—voxels—that deform anisotropically, a local stacking rule that allows cooperative shape changes by guaranteeing that deformed building blocks fit together as in a three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle, and three-dimensional printing. These aperiodic metamaterials exhibit long-range holographic order, whereby the two-dimensional pixelated surface texture dictates the three-dimensional interior voxel arrangement. They also act as programmable shape-shifters, morphing into spatially complex, but predictable and designable, shapes when uniaxially compressed. Finally, their mechanical response to compression by a textured surface reveals their ability to perform sensing and pattern analysis. Combinatorial design thus opens up a new avenue towards mechanical metamaterials with unusual order and machine-like functionalities.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18960
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Western boundary currents regulated by interaction between ocean eddies
           and the atmosphere
    • Authors: Xiaohui Ma, Zhao Jing, Ping Chang, Xue Liu, Raffaele Montuoro, R. Justin Small, Frank O. Bryan, Richard J. Greatbatch, Peter Brandt, Dexing Wu, Xiaopei Lin, Lixin Wu
      Pages: 533 - 537
      Abstract: Current climate models systematically underestimate the strength of oceanic fronts associated with strong western boundary currents, such as the Kuroshio and Gulf Stream Extensions, and have difficulty simulating their positions at the mid-latitude ocean’s western boundaries. Even with an enhanced grid resolution to resolve ocean mesoscale eddies—energetic circulations with horizontal scales of about a hundred kilometres that strongly interact with the fronts and currents—the bias problem can still persist; to improve climate models we need a better understanding of the dynamics governing these oceanic frontal regimes. Yet prevailing theories about the western boundary fronts are based on ocean internal dynamics without taking into consideration the intense air–sea feedbacks in these oceanic frontal regions. Here, by focusing on the Kuroshio Extension Jet east of Japan as the direct continuation of the Kuroshio, we show that feedback between ocean mesoscale eddies and the atmosphere (OME-A) is fundamental to the dynamics and control of these energetic currents. Suppressing OME-A feedback in eddy-resolving coupled climate model simulations results in a 20–40 per cent weakening in the Kuroshio Extension Jet. This is because OME-A feedback dominates eddy potential energy destruction, which dissipates more than 70 per cent of the eddy potential energy extracted from the Kuroshio Extension Jet. The absence of OME-A feedback inevitably leads to a reduction in eddy potential energy production in order to balance the energy budget, which results in a weakened mean current. The finding has important implications for improving climate models’ representation of major oceanic fronts, which are essential components in the simulation and prediction of extratropical storms and other extreme events, as well as in the projection of the effect on these events of climate change.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18640
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • High-resolution seismic constraints on flow dynamics in the oceanic
           asthenosphere
    • Authors: Pei-Ying Patty Lin, James B. Gaherty, Ge Jin, John A. Collins, Daniel Lizarralde, Rob. L. Evans, Greg Hirth
      Pages: 538 - 541
      Abstract: Convective flow in the mantle and the motions of tectonic plates produce deformation of Earth’s interior, and the rock fabric produced by this deformation can be discerned using the anisotropy of the seismic wavespeed. This deformation is commonly inferred close to lithospheric boundaries beneath the ocean in the uppermost mantle, including near seafloor-spreading centres as new plates are formed via corner flow, and within a weak asthenosphere that lubricates large-scale plate-driven flow and accommodates smaller-scale convection. Seismic models of oceanic upper mantle differ as to the relative importance of these deformation processes: seafloor-spreading fabric is very strong just beneath the crust–mantle boundary (the Mohorovičić discontinuity, or Moho) at relatively local scales, but at the global and ocean-basin scales, oceanic lithosphere typically appears weakly anisotropic when compared to the asthenosphere. Here we use Rayleigh waves, recorded across an ocean-bottom seismograph array in the central Pacific Ocean (the NoMelt Experiment), to provide unique localized constraints on seismic anisotropy within the oceanic lithosphere–asthenosphere system in the middle of a plate. We find that azimuthal anisotropy is strongest within the high-seismic-velocity lid, with the fast direction coincident with seafloor spreading. A minimum in the magnitude of azimuthal anisotropy occurs within the middle of the seismic low-velocity zone, and then increases with depth below the weakest portion of the asthenosphere. At no depth does the fast direction correlate with the apparent plate motion. Our results suggest that the highest strain deformation in the shallow oceanic mantle occurs during corner flow at the ridge axis, and via pressure-driven or buoyancy-driven flow within the asthenosphere. Shear associated with motion of the plate over the underlying asthenosphere, if present, is weak compared to these other processes.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-06
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18012
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • A somitic contribution to the apical ectodermal ridge is essential for fin
           formation
    • Authors: Wouter Masselink, Nicholas J. Cole, Fruzsina Fenyes, Silke Berger, Carmen Sonntag, Alasdair Wood, Phong D. Nguyen, Naomi Cohen, Franziska Knopf, Gilbert Weidinger, Thomas E. Hall, Peter D. Currie
      Pages: 542 - 546
      Abstract: The transition from fins to limbs was an important terrestrial adaptation, but how this crucial evolutionary shift arose developmentally is unknown. Current models focus on the distinct roles of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and the signalling molecules that it secretes during limb and fin outgrowth. In contrast to the limb AER, the AER of the fin rapidly transitions into the apical fold and in the process shuts off AER-derived signals that stimulate proliferation of the precursors of the appendicular skeleton. The differing fates of the AER during fish and tetrapod development have led to the speculation that fin-fold formation was one of the evolutionary hurdles to the AER-dependent expansion of the fin mesenchyme required to generate the increased appendicular structure evident within limbs. Consequently, a heterochronic shift in the AER-to-apical-fold transition has been postulated to be crucial for limb evolution. The ability to test this model has been hampered by a lack of understanding of the mechanisms controlling apical fold induction. Here we show that invasion by cells of a newly identified somite-derived lineage into the AER in zebrafish regulates apical fold induction. Ablation of these cells inhibits apical fold formation, prolongs AER activity and increases the amount of fin bud mesenchyme, suggesting that these cells could provide the timing mechanism proposed in Thorogood’s clock model of the fin-to-limb transition. We further demonstrate that apical-fold-inducing cells are progressively lost during gnathostome evolution; the absence of such cells within the tetrapod limb suggests that their loss may have been a necessary prelude to the attainment of limb-like structures in Devonian sarcopterygian fish.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18953
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Indifference to dissonance in native Amazonians reveals cultural variation
           in music perception
    • Authors: Josh H. McDermott, Alan F. Schultz, Eduardo A. Undurraga, Ricardo A. Godoy
      Pages: 547 - 550
      Abstract: Music is present in every culture, but the degree to which it is shaped by biology remains debated. One widely discussed phenomenon is that some combinations of notes are perceived by Westerners as pleasant, or consonant, whereas others are perceived as unpleasant, or dissonant. The contrast between consonance and dissonance is central to Western music, and its origins have fascinated scholars since the ancient Greeks. Aesthetic responses to consonance are commonly assumed by scientists to have biological roots, and thus to be universally present in humans. Ethnomusicologists and composers, in contrast, have argued that consonance is a creation of Western musical culture. The issue has remained unresolved, partly because little is known about the extent of cross-cultural variation in consonance preferences. Here we report experiments with the Tsimane’—a native Amazonian society with minimal exposure to Western culture—and comparison populations in Bolivia and the United States that varied in exposure to Western music. Participants rated the pleasantness of sounds. Despite exhibiting Western-like discrimination abilities and Western-like aesthetic responses to familiar sounds and acoustic roughness, the Tsimane’ rated consonant and dissonant chords and vocal harmonies as equally pleasant. By contrast, Bolivian city- and town-dwellers exhibited significant preferences for consonance, albeit to a lesser degree than US residents. The results indicate that consonance preferences can be absent in cultures sufficiently isolated from Western music, and are thus unlikely to reflect innate biases or exposure to harmonic natural sounds. The observed variation in preferences is presumably determined by exposure to musical harmony, suggesting that culture has a dominant role in shaping aesthetic responses to music.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-13
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18635
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Transfer of mitochondria from astrocytes to neurons after stroke
    • Authors: Kazuhide Hayakawa, Elga Esposito, Xiaohua Wang, Yasukazu Terasaki, Yi Liu, Changhong Xing, Xunming Ji, Eng H. Lo
      Pages: 551 - 555
      Abstract: Neurons can release damaged mitochondria and transfer them to astrocytes for disposal and recycling. This ability to exchange mitochondria may represent a potential mode of cell-to-cell signalling in the central nervous system. Here we show that astrocytes in mice can also release functional mitochondria that enter neurons. Astrocytic release of extracellular mitochondrial particles was mediated by a calcium-dependent mechanism involving CD38 and cyclic ADP ribose signalling. Transient focal cerebral ischaemia in mice induced entry of astrocytic mitochondria into adjacent neurons, and this entry amplified cell survival signals. Suppression of CD38 signalling by short interfering RNA reduced extracellular mitochondria transfer and worsened neurological outcomes. These findings suggest a new mitochondrial mechanism of neuroglial crosstalk that may contribute to endogenous neuroprotective and neurorecovery mechanisms after stroke.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18928
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • HIV-1 antibody 3BNC117 suppresses viral rebound in humans during treatment
           interruption
    • Authors: Johannes F. Scheid, Joshua A. Horwitz, Yotam Bar-On, Edward F. Kreider, Ching-Lan Lu, Julio C. C. Lorenzi, Anna Feldmann, Malte Braunschweig, Lilian Nogueira, Thiago Oliveira, Irina Shimeliovich, Roshni Patel, Leah Burke, Yehuda Z. Cohen, Sonya Hadrigan, Allison Settler, Maggi Witmer-Pack, Anthony P. West; Jr., Boris Juelg, Tibor Keler, Thomas Hawthorne, Barry Zingman, Roy M. Gulick, Nico Pfeifer, Gerald H. Learn, Michael S. Seaman, Pamela J. Bjorkman, Florian Klein, Sarah J. Schlesinger, Bruce D. Walker, Beatrice H. Hahn, Michel C. Nussenzweig, Marina Caskey
      Pages: 556 - 560
      Abstract: Interruption of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-1-infected individuals leads to rapid viral rebound. Here we report the results of a phase IIa open label clinical trial evaluating 3BNC117, a broad and potent neutralizing antibody (bNAb) against the CD4 binding site of HIV-1 Env, in the setting of analytical treatment interruption (ATI) in 13 HIV-1-infected individuals. Participants with 3BNC117-sensitive virus outgrowth cultures were enrolled. Two or four 30 mg/kg infusions of 3BNC117, separated by 3 or 2 weeks, respectively, were generally well tolerated. The infusions were associated with a delay in viral rebound for 5-9 weeks after 2 infusions, and up to 19 weeks after 4 infusions, or an average of 6.7 and 9.9 weeks respectively, compared with 2.6 weeks for historical controls (p=
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-06-22
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18929
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA matching shapes metabolism and healthy
           ageing
    • Pages: 561 - 565
      Abstract: Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) shows extensive within-population sequence variability. Many studies suggest that mtDNA variants may be associated with ageing or diseases, although mechanistic evidence at the molecular level is lacking. Mitochondrial replacement has the potential to prevent transmission of disease-causing oocyte mtDNA. However, extension of this technology requires a comprehensive understanding of the physiological relevance of mtDNA sequence variability and its match with the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes. Studies in conplastic animals allow comparison of individuals with the same nuclear genome but different mtDNA variants, and have provided both supporting and refuting evidence that mtDNA variation influences organismal physiology. However, most of these studies did not confirm the conplastic status, focused on younger animals, and did not investigate the full range of physiological and phenotypic variability likely to be influenced by mitochondria. Here we systematically characterized conplastic mice throughout their lifespan using transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, biochemical, physiological and phenotyping studies. We show that mtDNA haplotype profoundly influences mitochondrial proteostasis and reactive oxygen species generation, insulin signalling, obesity, and ageing parameters including telomere shortening and mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in profound differences in health longevity between conplastic strains.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-06
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18618
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Sliding sleeves of XRCC4–XLF bridge DNA and connect fragments of
           broken DNA
    • Authors: Ineke Brouwer, Gerrit Sitters, Andrea Candelli, Stephanie J. Heerema, Iddo Heller, Abinadabe J. Melo de, Hongshan Zhang, Davide Normanno, Mauro Modesti, Erwin J. G. Peterman, Gijs J. L. Wuite
      Pages: 566 - 569
      Abstract: Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the primary pathway for repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammalian cells. Such breaks are formed, for example, during gene-segment rearrangements in the adaptive immune system or by cancer therapeutic agents. Although the core components of the NHEJ machinery are known, it has remained difficult to assess the specific roles of these components and the dynamics of bringing and holding the fragments of broken DNA together. The structurally similar XRCC4 and XLF proteins are proposed to assemble as highly dynamic filaments at (or near) DSBs. Here we show, using dual- and quadruple-trap optical tweezers combined with fluorescence microscopy, how human XRCC4, XLF and XRCC4–XLF complexes interact with DNA in real time. We find that XLF stimulates the binding of XRCC4 to DNA, forming heteromeric complexes that diffuse swiftly along the DNA. Moreover, we find that XRCC4–XLF complexes robustly bridge two independent DNA molecules and that these bridges are able to slide along the DNA. These observations suggest that XRCC4–XLF complexes form mobile sleeve-like structures around DNA that can reconnect the broken ends very rapidly and hold them together. Understanding the dynamics and regulation of this mechanism will lead to clarification of how NHEJ proteins are involved in generating chromosomal translocations.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18643
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Dynamics of ribosome scanning and recycling revealed by translation
           complex profiling
    • Authors: Stuart K. Archer, Nikolay E. Shirokikh, Traude H. Beilharz, Thomas Preiss
      Pages: 570 - 574
      Abstract: Regulation of messenger RNA translation is central to eukaryotic gene expression control. Regulatory inputs are specified by the mRNA untranslated regions (UTRs) and often target translation initiation. Initiation involves binding of the 40S ribosomal small subunit (SSU) and associated eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) near the mRNA 5′ cap; the SSU then scans in the 3′ direction until it detects the start codon and is joined by the 60S ribosomal large subunit (LSU) to form the 80S ribosome. Scanning and other dynamic aspects of the initiation model have remained as conjectures because methods to trap early intermediates were lacking. Here we uncover the dynamics of the complete translation cycle in live yeast cells using translation complex profile sequencing (TCP-seq), a method developed from the ribosome profiling approach. We document scanning by observing SSU footprints along 5′ UTRs. Scanning SSU have 5′-extended footprints (up to ~75 nucleotides), indicative of additional interactions with mRNA emerging from the exit channel, promoting forward movement. We visualized changes in initiation complex conformation as SSU footprints coalesced into three major sizes at start codons (19, 29 and 37 nucleotides). These share the same 5′ start site but differ at the 3′ end, reflecting successive changes at the entry channel from an open to a closed state following start codon recognition. We also observe SSU ‘lingering’ at stop codons after LSU departure. Our results underpin mechanistic models of translation initiation and termination, built on decades of biochemical and structural investigation, with direct genome-wide in vivo evidence. Our approach captures ribosomal complexes at all phases of translation and will aid in studying translation dynamics in diverse cellular contexts. Dysregulation of translation is common in disease and, for example, SSU scanning is a target of anti-cancer drug development. TCP-seq will prove useful in discerning differences in mRNA-specific initiation in pathologies and their response to treatment.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18647
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Structural organization of the inactive X chromosome in the mouse
    • Authors: Luca Giorgetti, Bryan R. Lajoie, Ava C. Carter, Mikael Attia, Ye Zhan, Jin Xu, Chong Jian Chen, Noam Kaplan, Howard Y. Chang, Edith Heard, Job Dekker
      Pages: 575 - 579
      Abstract: X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) involves major reorganization of the X chromosome as it becomes silent and heterochromatic. During female mammalian development, XCI is triggered by upregulation of the non-coding Xist RNA from one of the two X chromosomes. Xist coats the chromosome in cis and induces silencing of almost all genes via its A-repeat region, although some genes (constitutive escapees) avoid silencing in most cell types, and others (facultative escapees) escape XCI only in specific contexts. A role for Xist in organizing the inactive X (Xi) chromosome has been proposed. Recent chromosome conformation capture approaches have revealed global loss of local structure on the Xi chromosome and formation of large mega-domains, separated by a region containing the DXZ4 macrosatellite. However, the molecular architecture of the Xi chromosome, in both the silent and expressed regions, remains unclear. Here we investigate the structure, chromatin accessibility and expression status of the mouse Xi chromosome in highly polymorphic clonal neural progenitors (NPCs) and embryonic stem cells. We demonstrate a crucial role for Xist and the DXZ4-containing boundary in shaping Xi chromosome structure using allele-specific genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) analysis, an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high throughput sequencing (ATAC–seq) and RNA sequencing. Deletion of the boundary disrupts mega-domain formation, and induction of Xist RNA initiates formation of the boundary and the loss of DNA accessibility. We also show that in NPCs, the Xi chromosome lacks active/inactive compartments and topologically associating domains (TADs), except around genes that escape XCI. Escapee gene clusters display TAD-like structures and retain DNA accessibility at promoter-proximal and CTCF-binding sites. Furthermore, altered patterns of facultative escape genes in different neural progenitor clones are associated with the presence of different TAD-like structures after XCI. These findings suggest a key role for transcription and CTCF in the formation of TADs in the context of the Xi chromosome in neural progenitors.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18589
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Corrigendum: Inactivation of PI(3)K p110δ breaks regulatory
           T-cell-mediated immune tolerance to cancer
    • Pages: 580 - 580
      Abstract: Nature510, 407–411 (2014); doi:10.1038/nature13444Queen Mary University London notified Nature and University College London that there is reason to question the provenance of the data for Fig. 5b, d, e of this Letter (Fig. 5a, c
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-04-06
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17641
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Corrigendum: An observational radiative constraint on hydrologic cycle
           intensification
    • Authors: Anthony M. DeAngelis, Xin Qu, Mark D. Zelinka, Alex Hall
      Pages: 580 - 580
      Abstract: Nature528, 249–253 (2015); doi:10.1038/nature15770After publication of this Letter, we identified a coding error in the calculation of values that appear in Extended Data Fig. 7c and d, and which are reported in the main text. The
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-03-23
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17621
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Corrigendum: Viraemia suppressed in HIV-1-infected humans by broadly
           neutralizing antibody 3BNC117
    • Pages: 580 - 580
      Abstract: Nature522, 487–491 (2015); doi:10.1038/nature14411In this Letter, the grant U19AI111825-01 Cooperative Centers on Human Immunology from NIH was erroneously included in the Acknowledgments section; this has been corrected in the online versions of the paper.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-03-23
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17642
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Collaborations: Partners in knowledge
    • Authors: Gabriel Popkin
      Pages: 581 - 582
      Abstract: Building relationships with indigenous people opens up paths to good research — and mutual benefit.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7613-581a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Freedom to range
    • Authors: Gina Maffey
      Pages: 583 - 583
      Abstract: Gina Maffey explains how she learned to overcome the hurdles of an interdisciplinary PhD.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7613-583a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • Self-limited
    • Authors: Filip Wiltgren
      Pages: 586 - 586
      Abstract: Specific requirements.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1038/535586a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613 (2016)
       
  • The week in science: 22–28 July 2016
    • Pages: 470 - 471
      Abstract: Solar-powered plane completes round-the-world trip; 2016 on track to become hottest year; and Mexico tries to save endangered porpoise.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      DOI: 10.1038/535470a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613
       
  • How long-lost photographs reveal the future of Greenland’s ice
    • Authors: Quirin Schiermeier
      Pages: 480 - 483
      Abstract: To tell whether Greenland’s glacial cap will melt away any time soon, researchers are poring over old photographs and drawings for clues to its past behaviour.
      Citation: Nature 535, 7613 (2016)
      DOI: 10.1038/535480a
      Issue No: Vol. 535, No. 7613
       
 
 
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