Journal Cover Nature
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   ISSN (Print) 0028-0836 - ISSN (Online) 1476-4687
   Published by NPG Homepage  [123 journals]
  • Intelligence research should not be held back by its past
    • Pages: 385 - 386
      Abstract: The nuances achieved by modern genetics can be used to dispel a history of racism and elitism.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2017.22021
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Clock is ticking for WHO decision over Taiwan
    • Pages: 385 - 385
      Abstract: The World Health Organization shouldn’t allow regional politics to hamper public health.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2017.22019
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Eighty-eight days till the next total eclipse of the Sun
    • Pages: 386 - 386
      Abstract: Nature won’t repeat the mistake of its founding editor when this summer’s totality is visible in the United States.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/545385b
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Publish houses of brick, not mansions of straw
    • Authors: William G. Kaelin Jr
      Pages: 387 - 387
      Abstract: Papers need to include fewer claims and more proof to make the scientific literature more reliable, warns William G. Kaelin Jr.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1038/545387a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Quantum computing, election pledges and a thief who made science history
    • Pages: 390 - 391
      Abstract: The week in science: 19–25 May 2017.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/545390a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Iron-dumping ocean experiment sparks controversy
    • Authors: Jeff Tollefson
      Pages: 393 - 394
      Abstract: Canadian foundation says its field research could boost fisheries in Chile, but researchers doubt its motives.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1038/545393a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Fixing the tomato: CRISPR edits correct plant-breeding snafu
    • Authors: Heidi Ledford
      Pages: 394 - 395
      Abstract: Geneticists harness two mutations — each cherished by breeders, but detrimental when combined — to improve on 10,000 years of tomato domestication.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2017.22018
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • China expands DNA data grab in troubled western region
    • Authors: David Cyranoski
      Pages: 395 - 396
      Abstract: Alarms raised over suspected efforts to collect massive numbers of genetic samples from citizens.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/545395a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Earth-observing companies push for more-advanced science satellites
    • Authors: Gabriel Popkin
      Pages: 397 - 397
      Abstract: Firms seek to develop sophisticated instruments to compete with government offerings.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1038/545397a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Corrections
    • Pages: 398 - 398
      Abstract: The News story ‘How Trump’s science cuts could hurt his supporters’ (Nature545, 273–274; 2017) misstated the number of advanced manufacturing institutes funded by the US government — there are 14, not 9. The graphic also gave the funding amounts in US$
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1038/545398a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • The best-kept secrets to winning grants
    • Authors: Kendall Powell
      Pages: 399 - 402
      Abstract: With competition for research funding approaching an all-time high, experts reveal their top tips and tricks.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/545399a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • The environment needs cryptogovernance
    • Authors: Guillaume Chapron
      Pages: 403 - 405
      Abstract: The blockchain technology that underpins cryptographic currencies can support sustainability by building trust and avoiding corruption, explains Guillaume Chapron.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      DOI: 10.1038/545403a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Medical microbots need better imaging and control
    • Authors: Mariana Medina-Sánchez, Oliver G. Schmidt
      Pages: 406 - 408
      Abstract: Mariana Medina-Sánchez and Oliver G. Schmidt set priorities for more realistic tests of tiny machines that could be used to diagnose and treat conditions.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/545406a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Astronomy: An all-American eclipse
    • Authors: Jay Pasachoff
      Pages: 409 - 410
      Abstract: Jay Pasachoff enjoys four books heralding this summer's US total solar eclipse.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/545409a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Museums: The life and times of a curiosity-monger
    • Authors: Henry Nicholls
      Pages: 410 - 411
      Abstract: Henry Nicholls revels in a biography of Enlightenment collector and Royal Society president Hans Sloane.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/545410a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Books in brief
    • Authors: Barbara Kiser
      Pages: 411 - 411
      Abstract: Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/545411a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Impact factors: Is the Nature Index at odds with DORA'
    • Authors: Ludo Waltman, Vincent Traag
      Pages: 412 - 412
      Abstract: We find Nature Research's critical attitude towards journal impact factors, embodied in its signing of the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA; Nature544, 394;10.1038/nature.2017.218822017), to be inconsistent with the aims of its Nature Index.The Nature
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/545412a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Cod stocks: Don't derail cod's comeback in Canada
    • Authors: Sherrylynn Rowe, George A Rose
      Pages: 412 - 412
      Abstract: We urge Canada's government not to act on proposals to imminently ramp up the fishery for northern cod (Gadus morhua) along Newfoundland and Labrador's east coast. Although the stock has made a remarkable comeback since its collapse in the early 1990s — in
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/545412b
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Molecular taxonomy: Species disconnected from DNA sequences
    • Authors: Peter Uetz, Akhil Garg
      Pages: 412 - 412
      Abstract: DNA sequences are the bedrock of molecular taxonomy and phylogenetics. Alarmingly, we find that 20% of the reptilian sequences in GenBank's DNA database cannot be mapped to actual species or subspecies.Using the Reptile Database (see go.nature.com/2pgkdbw), we investigated how many taxa in the
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/545412c
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Predatory journals: outwit with a safe list
    • Authors: Henry Woo
      Pages: 412 - 412
      Abstract: Urologists have taken a stance against predatory publishers by compiling a 'green list' of reputable journals within the speciality (see urologygreenlist.wordpress.com). Urology researchers are invited to recommend journals that should be included on or removed from the list, and to send supporting evidence that
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/545412d
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Quantum physics: A firmer grip on the Hubbard model
    • Authors: Thierry Giamarchi
      Pages: 414 - 415
      Abstract: The Hubbard model describes the behaviour of interacting quantum particles, but many of its properties remain unknown. A system of ultracold atoms could provide the key to determining the model's underlying physics. See Letter p.462
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/545414a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Blood: Education for stem cells
    • Authors: Carolina Guibentif, Berthold Göttgens
      Pages: 415 - 417
      Abstract: Haematopoietic stem cells give rise to all lineages of blood cell, and their production in vitro has been a long-sought goal of stem-cell biology. Two groups now achieve this feat through different means. See Articles p.432 & p.439
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22496
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Medical research: Personalized test tracks cancer relapse
    • Authors: Alberto Bardelli
      Pages: 417 - 418
      Abstract: Genomic analysis of lung-tumour evolution has been used to create personalized blood tests that enable successful clinical monitoring for early signs of cancer relapse — a promising step on the road to precision medicine. See Article p.446
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/545417a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Astronomy: Quasars signpost massive galaxies
    • Authors: Rychard Bouwens
      Pages: 418 - 420
      Abstract: The neighbourhoods of extremely bright astronomical objects called quasars in the early Universe have been incompletely probed. Observations suggest that these regions harbour some of the most massive known galaxies. See Letter p.457
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/545418a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • 50 & 100 Years Ago
    • Pages: 419 - 419
      Abstract: 50 Years AgoThe turnover of endogenous protein is known to be of great importance in the differentiation of micro-organisms. For one thing, it can provide raw material for the synthesis of enzymes and other proteins that will allow growth to continue in a changed
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/545419a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Plant biology: An immunity boost combats crop disease
    • Authors: Julia Bailey-Serres, Wenbo Ma
      Pages: 420 - 421
      Abstract: Plants precisely express some immune regulators by controlling the translation of messenger RNA into protein. This insight enabled a disease-resistant rice to be engineered without compromised productivity. See Letters p.487 & p.491
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22497
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • In Retrospect: Global health estimated over two decades
    • Authors: Peter Byass
      Pages: 421 - 422
      Abstract: Reliably measuring global health is a huge challenge. Four papers published in 1997 laid foundations for future global-health estimates, but, despite subsequent advances, better integration of data systems and models is still needed.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/545421a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Therapeutic T cell engineering
    • Authors: Michel Sadelain, Isabelle Rivière, Stanley Riddell
      Pages: 423 - 431
      Abstract: Genetically engineered T cells are powerful new medicines, offering hope for curative responses in patients with cancer. Chimaeric antigen receptors (CARs) are a class of synthetic receptors that reprogram lymphocyte specificity and function. CARs targeting CD19 have demonstrated remarkable potency in B cell malignancies. Engineered
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22395
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells
    • Authors: Ryohichi Sugimura, Deepak Kumar Jha, Areum Han, Clara Soria-Valles, Edroaldo Lummertz da Rocha, Yi-Fen Lu, Jeremy A. Goettel, Erik Serrao, R. Grant Rowe, Mohan Malleshaiah, Irene Wong, Patricia Sousa, Ted N. Zhu, Andrea Ditadi, Gordon Keller, Alan N. Engelman, Scott B. Snapper, Sergei Doulatov, George Q. Daley
      Pages: 432 - 438
      Abstract: A variety of tissue lineages can be differentiated from pluripotent stem cells by mimicking embryonic development through stepwise exposure to morphogens, or by conversion of one differentiated cell type into another by enforced expression of master transcription factors. Here, to yield functional human haematopoietic stem
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22370
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Conversion of adult endothelium to immunocompetent haematopoietic stem
           cells
    • Authors: Raphael Lis, Charles C. Karrasch, Michael G. Poulos, Balvir Kunar, David Redmond, Jose G. Barcia Duran, Chaitanya R. Badwe, William Schachterle, Michael Ginsberg, Jenny Xiang, Arash Rafii Tabrizi, Koji Shido, Zev Rosenwaks, Olivier Elemento, Nancy A. Speck, Jason M. Butler, Joseph M. Scandura, Shahin Rafii
      Pages: 439 - 445
      Abstract: Developmental pathways that orchestrate the fleeting transition of endothelial cells into haematopoietic stem cells remain undefined. Here we demonstrate a tractable approach for fully reprogramming adult mouse endothelial cells to haematopoietic stem cells (rEC-HSCs) through transient expression of the transcription-factor-encoding genes Fosb, Gfi1,
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22326
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Phylogenetic ctDNA analysis depicts early-stage lung cancer evolution
    • Authors: Christopher Abbosh, Nicolai J. Birkbak, Gareth A. Wilson, Mariam Jamal-Hanjani, Tudor Constantin, Raheleh Salari, John Le Quesne, David A. Moore, Selvaraju Veeriah, Rachel Rosenthal, Teresa Marafioti, Eser Kirkizlar, Thomas B. K. Watkins, Nicholas McGranahan, Sophia Ward, Luke Martinson, Joan Riley, Francesco Fraioli, Maise Al Bakir, Eva Grönroos, Francisco Zambrana, Raymondo Endozo, Wenya Linda Bi, Fiona M. Fennessy, Nicole Sponer, Diana Johnson, Joanne Laycock, Seema Shafi, Justyna Czyzewska-Khan, Andrew Rowan, Tim Chambers, Nik Matthews, Samra Turajlic, Crispin Hiley, Siow Ming Lee, Martin D. Forster, Tanya Ahmad, Mary Falzon, Elaine Borg, David Lawrence, Martin Hayward, Shyam Kolvekar, Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos, Sam M. Janes, Ricky Thakrar, Asia Ahmed, Fiona Blackhall, Yvonne Summers, Dina Hafez, Ashwini Naik, Apratim Ganguly, Stephanie Kareht, Rajesh Shah, Leena Joseph, Anne Marie Quinn, Phil A. Crosbie, Babu Naidu, Gary Middleton, Gerald Langman, Simon Trotter, Marianne Nicolson, Hardy Remmen, Keith Kerr, Mahendran Chetty, Lesley Gomersall, Dean A. Fennell, Apostolos Nakas, Sridhar Rathinam, Girija Anand, Sajid Khan, Peter Russell, Veni Ezhil, Babikir Ismail, Melanie Irvin-Sellers, Vineet Prakash, Jason F. Lester, Malgorzata Kornaszewska, Richard Attanoos, Haydn Adams, Helen Davies, Dahmane Oukrif, Ayse U. Akarca, John A. Hartley, Helen L. Lowe, Sara Lock, Natasha Iles, Harriet Bell, Yenting Ngai, Greg Elgar, Zoltan Szallasi, Roland F. Schwarz, Javier Herrero, Aengus Stewart, Sergio A. Quezada, Karl S. Peggs, Peter Van Loo, Caroline Dive, C. Jimmy Lin, Matthew Rabinowitz, Hugo J. W. L. Aerts, Allan Hackshaw, Jacqui A. Shaw, Bernhard G. Zimmermann, Charles Swanton
      Pages: 446 - 451
      Abstract: The early detection of relapse following primary surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer and the characterization of emerging subclones, which seed metastatic sites, might offer new therapeutic approaches for limiting tumour recurrence. The ability to track the evolutionary dynamics of early-stage lung cancer non-invasively in circulating
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-04-26
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22364
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Chromatin states define tumour-specific T cell dysfunction and
           reprogramming
    • Authors: Mary Philip, Lauren Fairchild, Liping Sun, Ellen L. Horste, Steven Camara, Mojdeh Shakiba, Andrew C. Scott, Agnes Viale, Peter Lauer, Taha Merghoub, Matthew D. Hellmann, Jedd D. Wolchok, Christina S. Leslie, Andrea Schietinger
      Pages: 452 - 456
      Abstract: Tumour-specific CD8 T cells in solid tumours are dysfunctional, allowing tumours to progress. The epigenetic regulation of T cell dysfunction and therapeutic reprogrammability (for example, to immune checkpoint blockade) is not well understood. Here we show that T cells in mouse tumours differentiate through two
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22367
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Rapidly star-forming galaxies adjacent to quasars at redshifts exceeding 6
    • Authors: R. Decarli, F. Walter, B. P. Venemans, E. Bañados, F. Bertoldi, C. Carilli, X. Fan, E. P. Farina, C. Mazzucchelli, D. Riechers, H.-W. Rix, M. A. Strauss, R. Wang, Y. Yang
      Pages: 457 - 461
      Abstract: The existence of massive (1011 solar masses) elliptical galaxies by redshift z ≈ 4 (refs 1, 2, 3; when the Universe was 1.5 billion years old) necessitates the presence of galaxies with star-formation rates exceeding 100 solar masses per year at z > 6 (corresponding to an age of the Universe of less than 1 billion years). Surveys have discovered hundreds of galaxies at these early cosmic epochs, but their star-formation rates are more than an order of magnitude lower. The only known galaxies with very high star-formation rates at z > 6 are, with one exception, the host galaxies of quasars, but these galaxies also host accreting supermassive (more than 109 solar masses) black holes, which probably affect the properties of the galaxies. Here we report observations of an emission line of singly ionized carbon ([C ii] at a wavelength of 158 micrometres) in four galaxies at z > 6 that are companions of quasars, with velocity offsets of less than 600 kilometres per second and linear offsets of less than 100 kiloparsecs. The discovery of these four galaxies was serendipitous; they are close to their companion quasars and appear bright in the far-infrared. On the basis of the [C ii] measurements, we estimate star-formation rates in the companions of more than 100 solar masses per year. These sources are similar to the host galaxies of the quasars in [C ii] brightness, linewidth and implied dynamical mass, but do not show evidence for accreting supermassive black holes. Similar systems have previously been found at lower redshift. We find such close companions in four out of the twenty-five z > 6 quasars surveyed, a fraction that needs to be accounted for in simulations. If they are representative of the bright end of the [C ii] luminosity function, then they can account for the population of massive elliptical galaxies at z ≈ 4 in terms of the density of cosmic space.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22358
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • A cold-atom Fermi–Hubbard antiferromagnet
    • Authors: Anton Mazurenko, Christie S. Chiu, Geoffrey Ji, Maxwell F. Parsons, Márton Kanász-Nagy, Richard Schmidt, Fabian Grusdt, Eugene Demler, Daniel Greif, Markus Greiner
      Pages: 462 - 466
      Abstract: Exotic phenomena in systems with strongly correlated electrons emerge from the interplay between spin and motional degrees of freedom. For example, doping an antiferromagnet is expected to give rise to pseudogap states and high-temperature superconductors. Quantum simulation using ultracold fermions in optical lattices could help to answer open questions about the doped Hubbard Hamiltonian, and has recently been advanced by quantum gas microscopy. Here we report the realization of an antiferromagnet in a repulsively interacting Fermi gas on a two-dimensional square lattice of about 80 sites at a temperature of 0.25 times the tunnelling energy. The antiferromagnetic long-range order manifests through the divergence of the correlation length, which reaches the size of the system, the development of a peak in the spin structure factor and a staggered magnetization that is close to the ground-state value. We hole-dope the system away from half-filling, towards a regime in which complex many-body states are expected, and find that strong magnetic correlations persist at the antiferromagnetic ordering vector up to dopings of about 15 per cent. In this regime, numerical simulations are challenging and so experiments provide a valuable benchmark. Our results demonstrate that microscopy of cold atoms in optical lattices can help us to understand the low-temperature Fermi–Hubbard model.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22362
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Impacts and mitigation of excess diesel-related NOx emissions in 11 major
           vehicle markets
    • Authors: Susan C. Anenberg, Joshua Miller, Ray Minjares, Li Du, Daven K. Henze, Forrest Lacey, Christopher S. Malley, Lisa Emberson, Vicente Franco, Zbigniew Klimont, Chris Heyes
      Pages: 467 - 471
      Abstract: Vehicle emissions contribute to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and tropospheric ozone air pollution, affecting human health, crop yields and climate worldwide. On-road diesel vehicles produce approximately 20 per cent of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are key PM2.5 and ozone precursors. Regulated NOx emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, but current diesel vehicles emit far more NOx under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. Here we show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80 per cent of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits. These excess emissions (totalling 4.6 million tons) are associated with about 38,000 PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths globally in 2015, including about 10 per cent of all ozone-related premature deaths in the 28 European Union member states. Heavy-duty vehicles are the dominant contributor to excess diesel NOx emissions and associated health impacts in almost all regions. Adopting and enforcing next-generation standards (more stringent than Euro 6/VI) could nearly eliminate real-world diesel-related NOx emissions in these markets, avoiding approximately 174,000 global PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths in 2040. Most of these benefits can be achieved by implementing Euro VI standards where they have not yet been adopted for heavy-duty vehicles.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22086
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • The concurrent emergence and causes of double volcanic hotspot tracks on
           the Pacific plate
    • Authors: T. D. Jones, D. R. Davies, I. H. Campbell, G. Iaffaldano, G. Yaxley, S. C. Kramer, C. R. Wilson
      Pages: 472 - 476
      Abstract: Mantle plumes are buoyant upwellings of hot rock that transport heat from Earth’s core to its surface, generating anomalous regions of volcanism that are not directly associated with plate tectonic processes. The best-studied example is the Hawaiian–Emperor chain, but the emergence of two sub-parallel volcanic tracks along this chain, Loa and Kea, and the systematic geochemical differences between them have remained unexplained. Here we argue that the emergence of these tracks coincides with the appearance of other double volcanic tracks on the Pacific plate and a recent azimuthal change in the motion of the plate. We propose a three-part model that explains the evolution of Hawaiian double-track volcanism: first, mantle flow beneath the rapidly moving Pacific plate strongly tilts the Hawaiian plume and leads to lateral separation between high- and low-pressure melt source regions; second, the recent azimuthal change in Pacific plate motion exposes high- and low-pressure melt products as geographically distinct volcanoes, explaining the simultaneous emergence of double-track volcanism across the Pacific; and finally, secondary pyroxenite, which is formed as eclogite melt reacts with peridotite, dominates the low-pressure melt region beneath Loa-track volcanism, yielding the systematic geochemical differences observed between Loa- and Kea-type lavas. Our results imply that the formation of double-track volcanism is transitory and can be used to identify and place temporal bounds on plate-motion changes.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-03
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22054
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Identification of preoptic sleep neurons using retrograde labelling and
           gene profiling
    • Authors: Shinjae Chung, Franz Weber, Peng Zhong, Chan Lek Tan, Thuc Nghi Nguyen, Kevin T. Beier, Nikolai Hörmann, Wei-Cheng Chang, Zhe Zhang, Johnny Phong Do, Shenqin Yao, Michael J. Krashes, Bosiljka Tasic, Ali Cetin, Hongkui Zeng, Zachary A. Knight, Liqun Luo, Yang Dan
      Pages: 477 - 481
      Abstract: In humans and other mammalian species, lesions in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus cause profound sleep impairment, indicating a crucial role of the preoptic area in sleep generation. However, the underlying circuit mechanism remains poorly understood. Electrophysiological recordings and c-Fos immunohistochemistry have shown the existence of sleep-active neurons in the preoptic area, especially in the ventrolateral preoptic area and median preoptic nucleus. Pharmacogenetic activation of c-Fos-labelled sleep-active neurons has been shown to induce sleep. However, the sleep-active neurons are spatially intermingled with wake-active neurons, making it difficult to target the sleep neurons specifically for circuit analysis. Here we identify a population of preoptic area sleep neurons on the basis of their projection target and discover their molecular markers. Using a lentivirus expressing channelrhodopsin-2 or a light-activated chloride channel for retrograde labelling, bidirectional optogenetic manipulation, and optrode recording, we show that the preoptic area GABAergic neurons projecting to the tuberomammillary nucleus are both sleep active and sleep promoting. Furthermore, translating ribosome affinity purification and single-cell RNA sequencing identify candidate markers for these neurons, and optogenetic and pharmacogenetic manipulations demonstrate that several peptide markers (cholecystokinin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and tachykinin 1) label sleep-promoting neurons. Together, these findings provide easy genetic access to sleep-promoting preoptic area neurons and a valuable entry point for dissecting the sleep control circuit.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22350
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Evolutionary enhancement of Zika virus infectivity in Aedes aegypti
           mosquitoes
    • Authors: Yang Liu, Jianying Liu, Senyan Du, Chao Shan, Kaixiao Nie, Rudian Zhang, Xiao-Feng Li, Renli Zhang, Tao Wang, Cheng-Feng Qin, Penghua Wang, Pei-Yong Shi, Gong Cheng
      Pages: 482 - 486
      Abstract: Zika virus (ZIKV) remained obscure until the recent explosive outbreaks in French Polynesia (2013–2014) and South America (2015–2016). Phylogenetic studies have shown that ZIKV has evolved into African and Asian lineages. The Asian lineage of ZIKV was responsible for the recent epidemics in the Americas. However, the underlying mechanisms through which ZIKV rapidly and explosively spread from Asia to the Americas are unclear. Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) facilitates flavivirus acquisition by mosquitoes from an infected mammalian host and subsequently enhances viral prevalence in mosquitoes. Here we show that NS1 antigenaemia determines ZIKV infectivity in its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, which acquires ZIKV via a blood meal. Clinical isolates from the most recent outbreak in the Americas were much more infectious in mosquitoes than the FSS13025 strain, which was isolated in Cambodia in 2010. Further analyses showed that these epidemic strains have higher NS1 antigenaemia than the FSS13025 strain because of an alanine-to-valine amino acid substitution at residue 188 in NS1. ZIKV infectivity was enhanced by this amino acid substitution in the ZIKV FSS13025 strain in mosquitoes that acquired ZIKV from a viraemic C57BL/6 mouse deficient in type I and II interferon (IFN) receptors (AG6 mouse). Our results reveal that ZIKV evolved to acquire a spontaneous mutation in its NS1 protein, resulting in increased NS1 antigenaemia. Enhancement of NS1 antigenaemia in infected hosts promotes ZIKV infectivity and prevalence in mosquitoes, which could have facilitated transmission during recent ZIKV epidemics.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22365
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Global translational reprogramming is a fundamental layer of immune
           regulation in plants
    • Authors: Guoyong Xu, George H. Greene, Heejin Yoo, Lijing Liu, Jorge Marqués, Jonathan Motley, Xinnian Dong
      Pages: 487 - 490
      Abstract: In the absence of specialized immune cells, the need for plants to reprogram transcription to transition from growth-related activities to defence is well understood. However, little is known about translational changes that occur during immune induction. Using ribosome footprinting, here we perform global translatome profiling on Arabidopsis exposed to the microbe-associated molecular pattern elf18. We find that during this pattern-triggered immunity, translation is tightly regulated and poorly correlated with transcription. Identification of genes with altered translational efficiency leads to the discovery of novel regulators of this immune response. Further investigation of these genes shows that messenger RNA sequence features are major determinants of the observed translational efficiency changes. In the 5′ leader sequences of transcripts with increased translational efficiency, we find a highly enriched messenger RNA consensus sequence, R-motif, consisting of mostly purines. We show that R-motif regulates translation in response to pattern-triggered immunity induction through interaction with poly(A)-binding proteins. Therefore, this study provides not only strong evidence, but also a molecular mechanism, for global translational reprogramming during pattern-triggered immunity in plants.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22371
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • uORF-mediated translation allows engineered plant disease resistance
           without fitness costs
    • Authors: Guoyong Xu, Meng Yuan, Chaoren Ai, Lijing Liu, Edward Zhuang, Sargis Karapetyan, Shiping Wang, Xinnian Dong
      Pages: 491 - 494
      Abstract: Controlling plant disease has been a struggle for humankind since the advent of agriculture. Studies of plant immune mechanisms have led to strategies of engineering resistant crops through ectopic transcription of plants’ own defence genes, such as the master immune regulatory gene NPR1 (ref. 1). However, enhanced resistance obtained through such strategies is often associated with substantial penalties to fitness, making the resulting products undesirable for agricultural applications. To remedy this problem, we sought more stringent mechanisms of expressing defence proteins. On the basis of our latest finding that translation of key immune regulators, such as TBF1 (ref. 3), is rapidly and transiently induced upon pathogen challenge (see accompanying paper), we developed a ‘TBF1-cassette’ consisting of not only the immune-inducible promoter but also two pathogen-responsive upstream open reading frames (uORFsTBF1) of the TBF1 gene. Here we demonstrate that inclusion of uORFsTBF1-mediated translational control over the production of snc1-1 (an autoactivated immune receptor) in Arabidopsis thaliana and AtNPR1 in rice enables us to engineer broad-spectrum disease resistance without compromising plant fitness in the laboratory or in the field. This broadly applicable strategy may lead to decreased pesticide use and reduce the selective pressure for resistant pathogens.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22372
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • PD-1 expression by tumour-associated macrophages inhibits phagocytosis and
           tumour immunity
    • Authors: Sydney R. Gordon, Roy L. Maute, Ben W. Dulken, Gregor Hutter, Benson M. George, Melissa N. McCracken, Rohit Gupta, Jonathan M. Tsai, Rahul Sinha, Daniel Corey, Aaron M. Ring, Andrew J. Connolly, Irving L. Weissman
      Pages: 495 - 499
      Abstract: Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is an immune checkpoint receptor that is upregulated on activated T cells for the induction of immune tolerance. Tumour cells frequently overexpress the ligand for PD-1, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), facilitating their escape from the immune system. Monoclonal antibodies that block the interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1, by binding to either the ligand or receptor, have shown notable clinical efficacy in patients with a variety of cancers, including melanoma, colorectal cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Although it is well established that PD-1–PD-L1 blockade activates T cells, little is known about the role that this pathway may have in tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs). Here we show that both mouse and human TAMs express PD-1. TAM PD-1 expression increases over time in mouse models of cancer and with increasing disease stage in primary human cancers. TAM PD-1 expression correlates negatively with phagocytic potency against tumour cells, and blockade of PD-1–PD-L1 in vivo increases macrophage phagocytosis, reduces tumour growth and lengthens the survival of mice in mouse models of cancer in a macrophage-dependent fashion. This suggests that PD-1–PD-L1 therapies may also function through a direct effect on macrophages, with substantial implications for the treatment of cancer with these agents.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22396
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Cancer progression by reprogrammed BCAA metabolism in myeloid leukaemia
    • Authors: Ayuna Hattori, Makoto Tsunoda, Takaaki Konuma, Masayuki Kobayashi, Tamas Nagy, John Glushka, Fariba Tayyari, Daniel McSkimming, Natarajan Kannan, Arinobu Tojo, Arthur S. Edison, Takahiro Ito
      Pages: 500 - 504
      Abstract: Reprogrammed cellular metabolism is a common characteristic observed in various cancers. However, whether metabolic changes directly regulate cancer development and progression remains poorly understood. Here we show that BCAT1, a cytosolic aminotransferase for branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), is aberrantly activated and functionally required for chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in humans and in mouse models of CML. BCAT1 is upregulated during progression of CML and promotes BCAA production in leukaemia cells by aminating the branched-chain keto acids. Blocking BCAT1 gene expression or enzymatic activity induces cellular differentiation and impairs the propagation of blast crisis CML both in vitro and in vivo. Stable-isotope tracer experiments combined with nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic analysis demonstrate the intracellular production of BCAAs by BCAT1. Direct supplementation with BCAAs ameliorates the defects caused by BCAT1 knockdown, indicating that BCAT1 exerts its oncogenic function through BCAA production in blast crisis CML cells. Importantly, BCAT1 expression not only is activated in human blast crisis CML and de novo acute myeloid leukaemia, but also predicts disease outcome in patients. As an upstream regulator of BCAT1 expression, we identified Musashi2 (MSI2), an oncogenic RNA binding protein that is required for blast crisis CML. MSI2 is physically associated with the BCAT1 transcript and positively regulates its protein expression in leukaemia. Taken together, this work reveals that altered BCAA metabolism activated through the MSI2–BCAT1 axis drives cancer progression in myeloid leukaemia.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22314
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Architecture of the human interactome defines protein communities and
           disease networks
    • Authors: Edward L. Huttlin, Raphael J. Bruckner, Joao A. Paulo, Joe R. Cannon, Lily Ting, Kurt Baltier, Greg Colby, Fana Gebreab, Melanie P. Gygi, Hannah Parzen, John Szpyt, Stanley Tam, Gabriela Zarraga, Laura Pontano-Vaites, Sharan Swarup, Anne E. White, Devin K. Schweppe, Ramin Rad, Brian K. Erickson, Robert A. Obar, K. G. Guruharsha, Kejie Li, Spyros Artavanis-Tsakonas, Steven P. Gygi, J. Wade Harper
      Pages: 505 - 509
      Abstract: The physiology of a cell can be viewed as the product of thousands of proteins acting in concert to shape the cellular response. Coordination is achieved in part through networks of protein–protein interactions that assemble functionally related proteins into complexes, organelles, and signal transduction pathways. Understanding the architecture of the human proteome has the potential to inform cellular, structural, and evolutionary mechanisms and is critical to elucidating how genome variation contributes to disease. Here we present BioPlex 2.0 (Biophysical Interactions of ORFeome-derived complexes), which uses robust affinity purification–mass spectrometry methodology to elucidate protein interaction networks and co-complexes nucleated by more than 25% of protein-coding genes from the human genome, and constitutes, to our knowledge, the largest such network so far. With more than 56,000 candidate interactions, BioPlex 2.0 contains more than 29,000 previously unknown co-associations and provides functional insights into hundreds of poorly characterized proteins while enhancing network-based analyses of domain associations, subcellular localization, and co-complex formation. Unsupervised Markov clustering of interacting proteins identified more than 1,300 protein communities representing diverse cellular activities. Genes essential for cell fitness are enriched within 53 communities representing central cellular functions. Moreover, we identified 442 communities associated with more than 2,000 disease annotations, placing numerous candidate disease genes into a cellular framework. BioPlex 2.0 exceeds previous experimentally derived interaction networks in depth and breadth, and will be a valuable resource for exploring the biology of incompletely characterized proteins and for elucidating larger-scale patterns of proteome organization.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22366
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Corrigendum: The genome of Chenopodium quinoa
    • Authors: David E. Jarvis, Yung Shwen Ho, Damien J. Lightfoot, Sandra M. Schmöckel, Bo Li, Theo J. A. Borm, Hajime Ohyanagi, Katsuhiko Mineta, Craig T. Michell, Noha Saber, Najeh M. Kharbatia, Ryan R. Rupper, Aaron R. Sharp, Nadine Dally, Berin A. Boughton, Yong H. Woo, Ge Gao, Elio G. W. M. Schijlen, Xiujie Guo, Afaque A. Momin, Sónia Negrão, Salim Al-Babili, Christoph Gehring, Ute Roessner, Christian Jung, Kevin Murphy, Stefan T. Arold, Takashi Gojobori, C. Gerard van der Linden, Eibertus N. van Loo, Eric N. Jellen, Peter J. Maughan, Mark Tester
      Pages: 510 - 510
      Abstract: Nature542, 307–312 (2017); doi:10.1038/nature21370The Acknowledgements section of this Article should have included the following sentence: “Metabolite imaging was conducted at Metabolomics Australia (School of BioSciences, The University of Melbourne, Australia), a NCRIS initiative under Bioplatforms Australia
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22384
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Corrigendum: Earth’s first stable continents did not form by
           subduction
    • Authors: Tim E. Johnson, Michael Brown, Nicholas J. Gardiner, Christopher L. Kirkland, R. Hugh Smithies
      Pages: 510 - 510
      Abstract: Nature543, 239–242 (2017); doi:10.1038/nature21383In this Letter we omitted to cite a paper that also used recently developed thermodynamic models to predict the melting process in Archaean metabasaltic rocks. Importantly, the average enriched Archaean tholeiite
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22385
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Corrigendum: An intermediate-mass black hole in the centre of the globular
           cluster 47 Tucanae
    • Authors: Bülent Kızıltan, Holger Baumgardt, Abraham Loeb
      Pages: 510 - 510
      Abstract: Nature542, 203–205 (2017); doi:10.1038/nature21361After the completion of the initial work and submission of this Letter in 2015, some additional data shared with us in 2016 (that we were given to understand will be published shortly) were
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-03
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22320
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Education: Combine and conquer
    • Authors: Amber Dance
      Pages: 515 - 517
      Abstract: Completing two graduate degrees can offer great flexibility.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7655-515a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Doctorates: PhD gender gap
    • Pages: 517 - 517
      Abstract: US science PhD programmes still attract more men than women, except in biology and agricultural sciences.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7655-517a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Correction
    • Correction

      Nature 545, 7655 (2017). doi:10.1038/nj7655-517b

      Nature 545, 7655 (2017)2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7655-517b
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Let me sleep when I die
    • Authors: Wendy Nikel
      Pages: 520 - 520
      Abstract: Time to say goodbye.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/545520a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655 (2017)
       
  • Drop in cases of Zika threatens large-scale trials
    • Authors: Declan Butler
      Pages: 396 - 397
      Abstract: Studies are struggling to recruit participants following a marked drop in cases of the virus.
      Citation: Nature 545, 7655 (2017)
      DOI: 10.1038/545396a
      Issue No: Vol. 545, No. 7655
       
 
 
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