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Journal Cover Nature
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     ISSN (Print) 0028-0836 - ISSN (Online) 1476-4687
     Published by Nature Publishing Group Homepage  [110 journals]   [SJR: 14.747]   [H-I: 768]
  • Universities challenged
    • Pages: 273 - 273
      Abstract: The accelerating pace of change in today’s world means that universities must modify how they fulfil their function of seeking and sharing knowledge.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514273a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Dust to dust
    • Pages: 273 - 274
      Abstract: What lessons can be learned from the presentation of the gravitational-waves story'
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-14
      DOI: 10.1038/514273b
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Review rewards
    • Pages: 274 - 274
      Abstract: Welcome efforts are being made to recognize academics who give up their time to peer review.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514274a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • How terror-proof is your economy'
    • Authors: Erwann Michel-Kerjan
      Pages: 275 - 275
      Abstract: Scientists can help to develop a financial safety net by providing transparent market data and loss-impact analysis, says Erwann Michel-Kerjan.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514275a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Neurodegeneration: A monkey model of Alzheimer's
    • Pages: 276 - 277
      Abstract: The molecule that has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease causes many hallmarks of the disorder in monkey brains, suggesting the potential for a primate model of the disease.Amyloid-β forms plaques in the brains of people with Alzheimer's. Fernanda De Felice at the Federal University
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514276e
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Zoology: Birds colour-match their nests
    • Pages: 276 - 276
      Abstract: Zebra finches seem to actively camouflage their nests when building them.Many birds' nests appear camouflaged, but this could be a serendipitous result of their use of local materials. Ida Bailey at the University of St Andrews, UK, and her team let 20 male zebra
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514276c
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Materials: Plants inspire medical coating
    • Pages: 276 - 276
      Abstract: A coating for medical implants such as artificial heart valves could prevent blood-clot formation — a common problem in which blood cells and proteins stick to the surfaces of such devices.To make the surfaces less sticky, Donald Ingber of Harvard University in Boston, Massachusetts,
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514276d
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Energy: Benefits outweigh clean-energy costs
    • Pages: 276 - 276
      Abstract: Large-scale investments in wind, solar and hydropower could double the electricity generated globally from these sources by 2050 — with only modest environmental costs.Thomas Gibon of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim and his colleagues compared the environmental impacts of low-carbon
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514276b
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Meteorology: Weather explains Asian glacier survival
    • Pages: 276 - 276
      Abstract: Some glaciers in central Asia could be weathering climate change better than those in neighbouring mountain ranges because of different seasonal weather patterns.Geoscientists have puzzled over why the glaciers of the Karakoram region (pictured) have not receded as much as others nearby. A team
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514276a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Online fun with Nobel forecasts
    • Pages: 277 - 277
      Abstract: As this year's Nobel laureates were inundated with congratulations online, the few researchers who correctly guessed the winners also earned themselves a little kudos. For example, Kate Jeffery, a neuroscientist at University College London, correctly foretold on Twitter that her colleague John O'Keefe would win
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514277e
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Marine ecology: Marine slime ferries parasite
    • Pages: 277 - 277
      Abstract: Sticky molecules found in aquatic ecosystems could help to transmit land-based pathogens to marine animals.Karen Shapiro at the University of California, Davis, and her colleagues added varying levels of a gelatinous compound, alginic acid, to seawater samples containing the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514277c
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Neurotechnology: Better control over bionics
    • Pages: 277 - 277
      Abstract: Two groups have developed technologies for artificial arms that give people finer control over the limb than over conventional prostheses.Daniel Tan at the Louis Stokes Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Cleveland, Ohio, and his colleagues implanted electrodes in the arm muscles of two people,
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514277d
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Water resources: Cities will grow thirsty
    • Pages: 277 - 277
      Abstract: The number of large cities prone to insufficient water supplies could increase over the next 25 years — even without accounting for climate change.Julie Padowski and Steven Gorelick at Stanford University in California used projected urban population growth and increasing agricultural demands to assess
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514277b
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Biotechnology: Another try at gene therapy for SCID
    • Pages: 277 - 277
      Abstract: Gene therapy has cured children who have severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), without so far causing cancer as previous treatment forms did.David Williams at Boston Children's Hospital in Massachusetts, Alain Fischer of the Necker Hospital for Sick Children in Paris and their co-workers made a
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514277a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Seven days: 10–16 October 2014
    • Pages: 278 - 279
      Abstract: The week in science: Disaster strikes Taiwanese research vessel, UK launches its first space-weather forecasting centre, and ancient Greek shipwreck yields fresh booty.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514278a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Stem-cell success poses immunity challenge for diabetes
    • Authors: Heidi Ledford
      Pages: 281 - 281
      Abstract: Researchers must now work out how to protect cell transplants from the immune systems of people with type 1 diabetes.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-14
      DOI: 10.1038/514281a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Giant gene banks take on disease
    • Authors: Erika Check Hayden
      Pages: 282 - 282
      Abstract: Researchers bring together troves of DNA sequences in the hope of teasing out links between traits and genetic variants.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-14
      DOI: 10.1038/514282a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • African penguins put researchers in a flap
    • Authors: Michael Cherry
      Pages: 283 - 283
      Abstract: Controlled fishing experiment raises controversy over cause of birds’ decline on Robben Island.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514283a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Ebola by the numbers: The size, spread and cost of an outbreak
    • Authors: Declan Butler, Lauren Morello
      Pages: 284 - 285
      Abstract: As the virus continues to rampage in West Africa, Nature’s graphic offers a guide to the figures that matter.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514284a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Correction and clarification
    • Pages: 286 - 286
      Abstract: The News story ‘Marmosets are stars of Japan’s ambitious brain project’ (Nature514, 151–152; 2014) misspelled Afonso Silva’s name. And the Toolbox story ‘Scientific writing: the online cooperative’ (Nature514, 127–128; 2014) should have noted that although Fidus Writer
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-14
      DOI: 10.1038/514286b
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Nobel for microscopy that reveals inner world of cells
    • Authors: Richard Van Noorden
      Pages: 286 - 286
      Abstract: Three scientists used fluorescent molecules to defy the limits of conventional optical microscopes.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2014.16097
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Higher education: The university experiment
    • Pages: 287 - 287
      Abstract: Universities must evolve if they are to survive. A special issue of Nature examines the many ways to build a modern campus.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514287a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • The university experiment: Campus as laboratory
    • Pages: 288 - 291
      Abstract: Innovative ways of teaching, learning and doing research are helping universities around the globe to adapt to the modern world.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514288a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Arizona's big bet: The research rethink
    • Authors: Josh Fischman
      Pages: 292 - 294
      Abstract: Arizona State University is trying to reinvent academia by tearing down walls between disciplines.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514292a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Developing excellence: Chinese university reform in three steps
    • Authors: Jie Zhang
      Pages: 295 - 296
      Abstract: High-quality faculty, valued and rewarded, is the key to building a world-class research institution, says Jie Zhang.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514295a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Ebola: learn from the past
    • Authors: David L Heymann
      Pages: 299 - 300
      Abstract: Drawing on his experiences in previous outbreaks, David L. Heymann calls for rapid diagnosis, patient isolation, community engagement and clinical trials.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-09
      DOI: 10.1038/514299a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Origin of life: The first spark
    • Authors: David Deamer
      Pages: 302 - 303
      Abstract: David Deamer welcomes a synthesis of what we know about the origins of life, as told by a master in the field.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514302a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Books in brief
    • Authors: Barbara Kiser
      Pages: 303 - 303
      Abstract: Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514303a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Politics: When Hodgkin met Thatcher
    • Authors: Jessa Gamble
      Pages: 304 - 304
      Abstract: Jessa Gamble on a radio play about the Nobel laureate and the UK Prime Minister.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514304a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • History: Great crested grebe usurps badger
    • Authors: Roger C. Prince
      Pages: 305 - 305
      Abstract: Michael Brooke's charming centennial reappraisal of Julian Huxley's Courtship Habits of the Great Crested Grebe (Nature513, 484;10.1038/513484a2014) missed an opportunity to mention the starring role these birds had in Evelyn Waugh's 1938 satirical novel Scoop.In
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514305e
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Whale watching: Tourism is least of cetaceans' problems
    • Authors: Dale Frink
      Pages: 305 - 305
      Abstract: Ecotourism boats could indeed be harming dolphins and whales, for example by interrupting their foraging behaviour (see Nature512, 358;10.1038/512358a2014). But many whale-watchers do right by the animals and follow good practice. The major threats to cetaceans are still hunting,
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514305c
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Conservation: Sanctions derail wildlife protection
    • Authors: Nigel Hussey
      Pages: 305 - 305
      Abstract: Blanket economic sanctions on politically unstable regimes that are rich in biodiversity deny local people access to international funding for wildlife conservation and management (see A.Waldronet al. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA110, 12144–12148; 2013). More-targeted restrictions
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514305d
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Computing: Keep files small to curb energy use
    • Authors: David Gurwitz
      Pages: 305 - 305
      Abstract: Electronic publishing circumvents environmental issues caused by paper use and the shipment of heavy journals. But more thrift is needed to reduce the energy consumed by Internet servers, which already accounts for 2% of global energy production (see, for instance, go.nature.com/dmqn9a).Large video and
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514305b
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Climate change: Pakistan must invest in adaptation
    • Authors: Abdur Rehman Cheema
      Pages: 305 - 305
      Abstract: Floods in Pakistan this year alone have killed hundreds of people, left millions homeless and destroyed crops over tens of thousands of hectares. In its Global Climate Risk Index 2014, the think tank Germanwatch ranked Pakistan third in its list of countries most affected
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514305a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Evolutionary biology: Survival of the fittest group
    • Authors: Timothy Linksvayer
      Pages: 308 - 309
      Abstract: Experiments with social spiders find that colony size and composition affect colony survival in a site-specific manner, indicating that natural selection on group-level traits contributes to local adaptation. See Letter p.359
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13755
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Cancer: Staying together on the road to metastasis
    • Authors: Alessia Bottos, Nancy E. Hynes
      Pages: 309 - 310
      Abstract: Most deaths from breast cancer occur when the primary tumour spreads to secondary sites. It now emerges that clusters of tumour cells that enter the bloodstream form metastases more often than single circulating tumour cells.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514309a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Astrophysics: How tiny galaxies form stars
    • Authors: Bruce Elmegreen
      Pages: 310 - 311
      Abstract: Observations of two faint galaxies with a low abundance of elements heavier than helium show that the galaxies have an efficiency of star formation less than one-tenth of that of the Milky Way and similar galaxies. See Letter p.335
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514310a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Cancer: The origin of human retinoblastoma
    • Authors: Rod Bremner, Julien Sage
      Pages: 312 - 313
      Abstract: The cellular origins of most human cancers remain unknown, but an analysis of embryonic retinal cells identifies differentiating cones as the cell of origin for the childhood cancer retinoblastoma. See Letter p.385
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-09-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13748
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • 50 & 100 Years Ago
    • Pages: 313 - 313
      Abstract: 50 Years AgoIn general, the 'epidemic' process can be characterized as one of transition from one state (susceptible) to another (infective) where the transition is caused by exposure to some phenomenon (infectious material) ... People are susceptible to certain ideas and resistant to others.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514313b
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Solid-state physics: A historic experiment redesigned
    • Authors: Sven Höfling, Alexey Kavokin
      Pages: 313 - 314
      Abstract: Large quasiparticles known as Rydberg excitons have been detected in a natural crystal of copper oxide. The result may find use in applications such as single-photon logic devices. See Letter p.343
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514313a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Genomics: Of monarchs and migration
    • Authors: Richard H. Ffrench-Constant
      Pages: 314 - 315
      Abstract: The genomes of 101 monarch butterflies from migratory and resident populations have been sequenced, revealing genes and molecular pathways that underlie insect migration and colouration. See Article p.317
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13757
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • The genetics of monarch butterfly migration and warning colouration
    • Authors: Shuai Zhan, Wei Zhang, Kristjan Niitepõld, Jeremy Hsu, Juan Fernández Haeger, Myron P. Zalucki, Sonia Altizer, Jacobus C. de Roode, Steven M. Reppert, Marcus R. Kronforst
      Pages: 317 - 321
      Abstract: The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, is famous for its spectacular annual migration across North America, recent worldwide dispersal, and orange warning colouration. Despite decades of study and broad public interest, we know little about the genetic basis of these hallmark traits. Here we uncover
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13812
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Clonal dynamics of native haematopoiesis
    • Authors: Jianlong Sun, Azucena Ramos, Brad Chapman, Jonathan B. Johnnidis, Linda Le, Yu-Jui Ho, Allon Klein, Oliver Hofmann, Fernando D. Camargo
      Pages: 322 - 327
      Abstract: It is currently thought that life-long blood cell production is driven by the action of a small number of multipotent haematopoietic stem cells. Evidence supporting this view has been largely acquired through the use of functional assays involving transplantation. However, whether these mechanisms also govern
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-05
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13824
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Structural mechanism of glutamate receptor activation and desensitization
    • Authors: Joel R. Meyerson, Janesh Kumar, Sagar Chittori, Prashant Rao, Jason Pierson, Alberto Bartesaghi, Mark L. Mayer, Sriram Subramaniam
      Pages: 328 - 334
      Abstract: Ionotropic glutamate receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate brain. To gain a better understanding of how structural changes gate ion flux across the membrane, we trapped rat AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) and kainate receptor subtypes in their major
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-08-03
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13603
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Inefficient star formation in extremely metal poor galaxies
    • Authors: Yong Shi, Lee Armus, George Helou, Sabrina Stierwalt, Yu Gao, Junzhi Wang, Zhi-Yu Zhang, Qiusheng Gu
      Pages: 335 - 338
      Abstract: The first galaxies contain stars born out of gas with few or no ‘metals’ (that is, elements heavier than helium). The lack of metals is expected to inhibit efficient gas cooling and star formation, but this effect has yet to be observed in galaxies with an oxygen abundance (relative to hydrogen) below a tenth of that of the Sun. Extremely metal poor nearby galaxies may be our best local laboratories for studying in detail the conditions that prevailed in low metallicity galaxies at early epochs. Carbon monoxide emission is unreliable as a tracer of gas at low metallicities, and while dust has been used to trace gas in low-metallicity galaxies, low spatial resolution in the far-infrared has typically led to large uncertainties. Here we report spatially resolved infrared observations of two galaxies with oxygen abundances below ten per cent of the solar value, and show that stars formed very inefficiently in seven star-forming clumps in these galaxies. The efficiencies are less than a tenth of those found in normal, metal rich galaxies today, suggesting that star formation may have been very inefficient in the early Universe.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13820
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Binary orbits as the driver of γ-ray emission and mass ejection in
           classical novae
    • Authors: Laura Chomiuk, Justin D. Linford, Jun Yang, T. J. O’Brien, Zsolt Paragi, Amy J. Mioduszewski, R. J. Beswick, C. C. Cheung, Koji Mukai, Thomas Nelson, Valério A. R. M. Ribeiro, Michael P. Rupen, J. L. Sokoloski, Jennifer Weston, Yong Zheng, Michael F. Bode, Stewart Eyres, Nirupam Roy, Gregory B. Taylor
      Pages: 339 - 342
      Abstract: Classical novae are the most common astrophysical thermonuclear explosions, occurring on the surfaces of white dwarf stars accreting gas from companions in binary star systems. Novae typically expel about 10−4 solar masses of material at velocities exceeding 1,000 kilometres per second. However, the mechanism of mass ejection in novae is poorly understood, and could be dominated by the impulsive flash of thermonuclear energy, prolonged optically thick winds or binary interaction with the nova envelope. Classical novae are now routinely detected at gigaelectronvolt γ-ray wavelengths, suggesting that relativistic particles are accelerated by strong shocks in the ejecta. Here we report high-resolution radio imaging of the γ-ray-emitting nova V959 Mon. We find that its ejecta were shaped by the motion of the binary system: some gas was expelled rapidly along the poles as a wind from the white dwarf, while denser material drifted out along the equatorial plane, propelled by orbital motion. At the interface between the equatorial and polar regions, we observe synchrotron emission indicative of shocks and relativistic particle acceleration, thereby pinpointing the location of γ-ray production. Binary shaping of the nova ejecta and associated internal shocks are expected to be widespread among novae, explaining why many novae are γ-ray emitters.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13773
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Giant Rydberg excitons in the copper oxide Cu2O
    • Authors: T. Kazimierczuk, D. Fröhlich, S. Scheel, H. Stolz, M. Bayer
      Pages: 343 - 347
      Abstract: A highly excited atom having an electron that has moved into a level with large principal quantum number is a hydrogen-like object, termed a Rydberg atom. The giant size of Rydberg atoms leads to huge interaction effects. Monitoring these interactions has provided insights into atomic and molecular physics on the single-quantum level. Excitons—the fundamental optical excitations in semiconductors, consisting of an electron and a positively charged hole—are the condensed-matter analogues of hydrogen. Highly excited excitons with extensions similar to those of Rydberg atoms are of interest because they can be placed and moved in a crystal with high precision using microscopic energy potential landscapes. The interaction of such Rydberg excitons may allow the formation of ordered exciton phases or the sensing of elementary excitations in their surroundings on a quantum level. Here we demonstrate the existence of Rydberg excitons in the copper oxide Cu2O, with principal quantum numbers as large as n = 25. These states have giant wavefunction extensions (that is, the average distance between the electron and the hole) of more than two micrometres, compared to about a nanometre for the ground state. The strong dipole–dipole interaction between such excitons is indicated by a blockade effect in which the presence of one exciton prevents the excitation of another in its vicinity.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13832
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Lithium–antimony–lead liquid metal battery for grid-level
           energy storage
    • Authors: Kangli Wang, Kai Jiang, Brice Chung, Takanari Ouchi, Paul J. Burke, Dane A. Boysen, David J. Bradwell, Hojong Kim, Ulrich Muecke, Donald R. Sadoway
      Pages: 348 - 350
      Abstract: The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium–antimony–lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li Sb–Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony–lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge–discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge–discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this finding puts us on a desirable cost trajectory, this approach may well be more broadly applicable to other battery chemistries.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-09-21
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13700
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas
           basin
    • Authors: Peter M. Edwards, Steven S. Brown, James M. Roberts, Ravan Ahmadov, Robert M. Banta, Joost A. deGouw, William P. Dubé, Robert A. Field, James H. Flynn, Jessica B. Gilman, Martin Graus, Detlev Helmig, Abigail Koss, Andrew O. Langford, Barry L. Lefer, Brian M. Lerner, Rui Li, Shao-Meng Li, Stuart A. McKeen, Shane M. Murphy, David D. Parrish, Christoph J. Senff, Jeffrey Soltis, Jochen Stutz, Colm Sweeney, Chelsea R. Thompson, Michael K. Trainer, Catalina Tsai, Patrick R. Veres, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Carsten Warneke, Robert J. Wild, Cora J. Young, Bin Yuan, Robert Zamora
      Pages: 351 - 354
      Abstract: The United States is now experiencing the most rapid expansion in oil and gas production in four decades, owing in large part to implementation of new extraction technologies such as horizontal drilling combined with hydraulic fracturing. The environmental impacts of this development, from its effect on water quality to the influence of increased methane leakage on climate, have been a matter of intense debate. Air quality impacts are associated with emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), whose photochemistry leads to production of ozone, a secondary pollutant with negative health effects. Recent observations in oil- and gas-producing basins in the western United States have identified ozone mixing ratios well in excess of present air quality standards, but only during winter. Understanding winter ozone production in these regions is scientifically challenging. It occurs during cold periods of snow cover when meteorological inversions concentrate air pollutants from oil and gas activities, but when solar irradiance and absolute humidity, which are both required to initiate conventional photochemistry essential for ozone production, are at a minimum. Here, using data from a remote location in the oil and gas basin of northeastern Utah and a box model, we provide a quantitative assessment of the photochemistry that leads to these extreme winter ozone pollution events, and identify key factors that control ozone production in this unique environment. We find that ozone production occurs at lower NOx and much larger VOC concentrations than does its summertime urban counterpart, leading to carbonyl (oxygenated VOCs with a C = O moiety) photolysis as a dominant oxidant source. Extreme VOC concentrations optimize the ozone production efficiency of NOx. There is considerable potential for global growth in oil and gas extraction from shale. This analysis could help inform strategies to monitor and mitigate air quality impacts and provide broader insight into the response of winter ozone to primary pollutants.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13767
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Helium and lead isotopes reveal the geochemical geometry of the Samoan
           plume
    • Authors: M. G. Jackson, S. R. Hart, J. G. Konter, M. D. Kurz, J. Blusztajn, K. A. Farley
      Pages: 355 - 358
      Abstract: Hotspot lavas erupted at ocean islands exhibit tremendous isotopic variability, indicating that there are numerous mantle components hosted in upwelling mantle plumes that generate volcanism at hotspots like Hawaii and Samoa. However, it is not known how the surface expression of the various geochemical components observed in hotspot volcanoes relates to their spatial distribution within the plume. Here we present a relationship between He and Pb isotopes in Samoan lavas that places severe constraints on the distribution of geochemical species within the plume. The Pb-isotopic compositions of the Samoan lavas reveal several distinct geochemical groups, each corresponding to a different geographic lineament of volcanoes. Each group has a signature associated with one of four mantle endmembers with low 3He/4He: EMII (enriched mantle 2), EMI (enriched mantle 1), HIMU (high µ = 238U/204Pb) and DM (depleted mantle). Critically, these four geochemical groups trend towards a common region of Pb-isotopic space with high 3He/4He. This observation is consistent with several low-3He/4He components in the plume mixing with a common high-3He/4He component, but not mixing much with each other. The mixing relationships inferred from the new He and Pb isotopic data provide the clearest picture yet of the geochemical geometry of a mantle plume, and are best explained by a high-3He/4He plume matrix that hosts, and mixes with, several distinct low-3He/4He components.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13794
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Site-specific group selection drives locally adapted group compositions
    • Authors: Jonathan N. Pruitt, Charles J. Goodnight
      Pages: 359 - 362
      Abstract: Group selection may be defined as selection caused by the differential extinction or proliferation of groups. The socially polymorphic spider Anelosimus studiosus exhibits a behavioural polymorphism in which females exhibit either a ‘docile’ or ‘aggressive’ behavioural phenotype. Natural colonies are composed of a mixture of related docile and aggressive individuals, and populations differ in colonies’ characteristic docile:aggressive ratios. Using experimentally constructed colonies of known composition, here we demonstrate that population-level divergence in docile:aggressive ratios is driven by site-specific selection at the group level—certain ratios yield high survivorship at some sites but not others. Our data also indicate that colonies responded to the risk of extinction: perturbed colonies tended to adjust their composition over two generations to match the ratio characteristic of their native site, thus promoting their long-term survival in their natal habitat. However, colonies of displaced individuals continued to shift their compositions towards mixtures that would have promoted their survival had they remained at their home sites, regardless of their contemporary environment. Thus, the regulatory mechanisms that colonies use to adjust their composition appear to be locally adapted. Our data provide experimental evidence of group selection driving collective traits in wild populations.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13811
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Hallucigenia’s onychophoran-like claws and the case for Tactopoda
    • Authors: Martin R. Smith, Javier Ortega-Hernández
      Pages: 363 - 366
      Abstract: The Palaeozoic form-taxon Lobopodia encompasses a diverse range of soft-bodied ‘legged worms’ known from exceptional fossil deposits. Although lobopodians occupy a deep phylogenetic position within Panarthropoda, a shortage of derived characters obscures their evolutionary relationships with extant phyla (Onychophora, Tardigrada and Euarthropoda). Here we describe a complex feature in the terminal claws of the mid-Cambrian lobopodian Hallucigenia sparsa—their construction from a stack of constituent elements—and demonstrate that equivalent elements make up the jaws and claws of extant Onychophora. A cladistic analysis, informed by developmental data on panarthropod head segmentation, indicates that the stacked sclerite components in these two taxa are homologous—resolving hallucigeniid lobopodians as stem-group onychophorans. The results indicate a sister-group relationship between Tardigrada and Euarthropoda, adding palaeontological support to the neurological and musculoskeletal evidence uniting these disparate clades. These findings elucidate the evolutionary transformations that gave rise to the panarthropod phyla, and expound the lobopodian-like morphology of the ancestral panarthropod.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13576
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • OSCA1 mediates osmotic-stress-evoked Ca2+ increases vital for osmosensing
           in Arabidopsis
    • Authors: Fang Yuan, Huimin Yang, Yan Xue, Dongdong Kong, Rui Ye, Chijun Li, Jingyuan Zhang, Lynn Theprungsirikul, Tayler Shrift, Bryan Krichilsky, Douglas M. Johnson, Gary B. Swift, Yikun He, James N. Siedow, Zhen-Ming Pei
      Pages: 367 - 371
      Abstract: Water is crucial to plant growth and development. Environmental water deficiency triggers an osmotic stress signalling cascade, which induces short-term cellular responses to reduce water loss and long-term responses to remodel the transcriptional network and physiological and developmental processes. Several signalling components that have been identified by extensive genetic screens for altered sensitivities to osmotic stress seem to function downstream of the perception of osmotic stress. It is known that hyperosmolality and various other stimuli trigger increases in cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). Considering that in bacteria and animals osmosensing Ca2+ channels serve as osmosensors, hyperosmolality-induced [Ca2+]i increases have been widely speculated to be involved in osmosensing in plants. However, the molecular nature of corresponding Ca2+ channels remain unclear. Here we describe a hyperosmolality-gated calcium-permeable channel and its function in osmosensing in plants. Using calcium-imaging-based unbiased forward genetic screens we isolated Arabidopsis mutants that exhibit low hyperosmolality-induced [Ca2+]i increases. These mutants were rescreened for their cellular, physiological and developmental responses to osmotic stress, and those with clear combined phenotypes were selected for further physical mapping. One of the mutants, reduced hyperosmolality-induced [Ca2+]i increase 1 (osca1), displays impaired osmotic Ca2+ signalling in guard cells and root cells, and attenuated water transpiration regulation and root growth in response to osmotic stress. OSCA1 is identified as a previously unknown plasma membrane protein and forms hyperosmolality-gated calcium-permeable channels, revealing that OSCA1 may be an osmosensor. OSCA1 represents a channel responsible for [Ca2+]i increases induced by a stimulus in plants, opening up new avenues for studying Ca2+ machineries for other stimuli and providing potential molecular genetic targets for engineering drought-resistant crops.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-08-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13593
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Antiviral immunity via RIG-I-mediated recognition of RNA bearing
           5′-diphosphates
    • Authors: Delphine Goubau, Martin Schlee, Safia Deddouche, Andrea J. Pruijssers, Thomas Zillinger, Marion Goldeck, Christine Schuberth, Annemarthe G. Van der Veen, Tsutomu Fujimura, Jan Rehwinkel, Jason A. Iskarpatyoti, Winfried Barchet, Janos Ludwig, Terence S. Dermody, Gunther Hartmann, Caetano Reis e Sousa
      Pages: 372 - 375
      Abstract: Mammalian cells possess mechanisms to detect and defend themselves from invading viruses. In the cytosol, the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I; encoded by DDX58) and MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5; encoded by IFIH1) sense atypical RNAs associated with virus infection. Detection triggers a signalling cascade via the adaptor MAVS that culminates in the production of type I interferons (IFN-α and β; hereafter IFN), which are key antiviral cytokines. RIG-I and MDA5 are activated by distinct viral RNA structures and much evidence indicates that RIG-I responds to RNAs bearing a triphosphate (ppp) moiety in conjunction with a blunt-ended, base-paired region at the 5′-end (reviewed in refs 1, 2, 3). Here we show that RIG-I also mediates antiviral responses to RNAs bearing 5′-diphosphates (5′pp). Genomes from mammalian reoviruses with 5′pp termini, 5′pp-RNA isolated from yeast L-A virus, and base-paired 5′pp-RNAs made by in vitro transcription or chemical synthesis, all bind to RIG-I and serve as RIG-I agonists. Furthermore, a RIG-I-dependent response to 5′pp-RNA is essential for controlling reovirus infection in cultured cells and in mice. Thus, the minimal determinant for RIG-I recognition is a base-paired RNA with 5′pp. Such RNAs are found in some viruses but not in uninfected cells, indicating that recognition of 5′pp-RNA, like that of 5′ppp-RNA, acts as a powerful means of self/non-self discrimination by the innate immune system.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-08-10
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13590
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Stochasticity of metabolism and growth at the single-cell level
    • Authors: Daniel J. Kiviet, Philippe Nghe, Noreen Walker, Sarah Boulineau, Vanda Sunderlikova, Sander J. Tans
      Pages: 376 - 379
      Abstract: Elucidating the role of molecular stochasticity in cellular growth is central to understanding phenotypic heterogeneity and the stability of cellular proliferation. The inherent stochasticity of metabolic reaction events should have negligible effect, because of averaging over the many reaction events contributing to growth. Indeed, metabolism and growth are often considered to be constant for fixed conditions. Stochastic fluctuations in the expression level of metabolic enzymes could produce variations in the reactions they catalyse. However, whether such molecular fluctuations can affect growth is unclear, given the various stabilizing regulatory mechanisms, the slow adjustment of key cellular components such as ribosomes, and the secretion and buffering of excess metabolites. Here we use time-lapse microscopy to measure fluctuations in the instantaneous growth rate of single cells of Escherichia coli, and quantify time-resolved cross-correlations with the expression of lac genes and enzymes in central metabolism. We show that expression fluctuations of catabolically active enzymes can propagate and cause growth fluctuations, with transmission depending on the limitation of the enzyme to growth. Conversely, growth fluctuations propagate back to perturb expression. Accordingly, enzymes were found to transmit noise to other unrelated genes via growth. Homeostasis is promoted by a noise-cancelling mechanism that exploits fluctuations in the dilution of proteins by cell-volume expansion. The results indicate that molecular noise is propagated not only by regulatory proteins but also by metabolic reactions. They also suggest that cellular metabolism is inherently stochastic, and a generic source of phenotypic heterogeneity.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-09-03
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13582
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • CRISPR-mediated direct mutation of cancer genes in the mouse liver
    • Authors: Wen Xue, Sidi Chen, Hao Yin, Tuomas Tammela, Thales Papagiannakopoulos, Nikhil S. Joshi, Wenxin Cai, Gillian Yang, Roderick Bronson, Denise G. Crowley, Feng Zhang, Daniel G. Anderson, Phillip A. Sharp, Tyler Jacks
      Pages: 380 - 384
      Abstract: The study of cancer genes in mouse models has traditionally relied on genetically-engineered strains made via transgenesis or gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. Here we describe a new method of cancer model generation using the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated proteins) system in vivo in wild-type mice. We used hydrodynamic injection to deliver a CRISPR plasmid DNA expressing Cas9 and single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) to the liver that directly target the tumour suppressor genes Pten (ref. 5) and p53 (also known as TP53 and Trp53) (ref. 6), alone and in combination. CRISPR-mediated Pten mutation led to elevated Akt phosphorylation and lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, phenocopying the effects of deletion of the gene using Cre–LoxP technology. Simultaneous targeting of Pten and p53 induced liver tumours that mimicked those caused by Cre–loxP-mediated deletion of Pten and p53. DNA sequencing of liver and tumour tissue revealed insertion or deletion mutations of the tumour suppressor genes, including bi-allelic mutations of both Pten and p53 in tumours. Furthermore, co-injection of Cas9 plasmids harbouring sgRNAs targeting the β-catenin gene and a single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide donor carrying activating point mutations led to the generation of hepatocytes with nuclear localization of β-catenin. This study demonstrates the feasibility of direct mutation of tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes in the liver using the CRISPR/Cas system, which presents a new avenue for rapid development of liver cancer models and functional genomics.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-08-06
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13589
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Rb suppresses human cone-precursor-derived retinoblastoma tumours
    • Authors: Xiaoliang L. Xu, Hardeep P. Singh, Lu Wang, Dong-Lai Qi, Bradford K. Poulos, David H. Abramson, Suresh C. Jhanwar, David Cobrinik
      Pages: 385 - 388
      Abstract: Retinoblastoma is a childhood retinal tumour that initiates in response to biallelic RB1 inactivation and loss of functional retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. Although Rb has diverse tumour-suppressor functions and is inactivated in many cancers, germline RB1 mutations predispose to retinoblastoma far more strongly than to other malignancies. This tropism suggests that retinal cell-type-specific circuitry sensitizes to Rb loss, yet the nature of the circuitry and the cell type in which it operates have been unclear. Here we show that post-mitotic human cone precursors are uniquely sensitive to Rb depletion. Rb knockdown induced cone precursor proliferation in prospectively isolated populations and in intact retina. Proliferation followed the induction of E2F-regulated genes, and depended on factors having strong expression in maturing cone precursors and crucial roles in retinoblastoma cell proliferation, including MYCN and MDM2. Proliferation of Rb-depleted cones and retinoblastoma cells also depended on the Rb-related protein p107, SKP2, and a p27 downregulation associated with cone precursor maturation. Moreover, Rb-depleted cone precursors formed tumours in orthotopic xenografts with histological features and protein expression typical of human retinoblastoma. These findings provide a compelling molecular rationale for a cone precursor origin of retinoblastoma. More generally, they demonstrate that cell-type-specific circuitry can collaborate with an initiating oncogenic mutation to enable tumorigenesis.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-09-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13813
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Noncoding RNA transcription targets AID to divergently transcribed loci in
           B cells
    • Authors: Evangelos Pefanis, Jiguang Wang, Gerson Rothschild, Junghyun Lim, Jaime Chao, Raul Rabadan, Aris N. Economides, Uttiya Basu
      Pages: 389 - 393
      Abstract: The vast majority of the mammalian genome has the potential to express noncoding RNA (ncRNA). The 11-subunit RNA exosome complex is the main source of cellular 3′–5′ exoribonucleolytic activity and potentially regulates the mammalian noncoding transcriptome. Here we generated a mouse model in which the essential subunit Exosc3 of the RNA exosome complex can be conditionally deleted. Exosc3-deficient B cells lack the ability to undergo normal levels of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation, two mutagenic DNA processes used to generate antibody diversity via the B-cell mutator protein activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). The transcriptome of Exosc3-deficient B cells has revealed the presence of many novel RNA exosome substrate ncRNAs. RNA exosome substrate RNAs include xTSS-RNAs, transcription start site (TSS)-associated antisense transcripts that can exceed 500 base pairs in length and are transcribed divergently from cognate coding gene transcripts. xTSS-RNAs are most strongly expressed at genes that accumulate AID-mediated somatic mutations and/or are frequent translocation partners of DNA double-strand breaks generated at Igh in B cells. Strikingly, translocations near TSSs or within gene bodies occur over regions of RNA exosome substrate ncRNA expression. These RNA exosome-regulated, antisense-transcribed regions of the B-cell genome recruit AID and accumulate single-strand DNA structures containing RNA–DNA hybrids. We propose that RNA exosome regulation of ncRNA recruits AID to single-strand DNA-forming sites of antisense and divergent transcription in the B-cell genome, thereby creating a link between ncRNA transcription and overall maintenance of B-cell genomic integrity.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-08-06
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13580
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Corrigendum: A microbial ecosystem beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet
    • Authors: Brent C. Christner, John C. Priscu, Amanda M. Achberger, Carlo Barbante, Sasha P. Carter, Knut Christianson, Alexander B. Michaud, Jill A. Mikucki, Andrew C. Mitchell, Mark L. Skidmore, Trista J. Vick-Majors
      Pages: 394 - 394
      Abstract: Nature512, 310–313 (2014); doi:10.1038/nature13667During the preparation of the manuscript, author Huw Horgan was inadvertently excluded from the list of authors for the WISSARD Science Team. The HTML and PDF versions of this Letter have been corrected.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13841
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Corrigendum: Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing
           environments
    • Authors: Amy E. Zanne, David C. Tank, William K. Cornwell, Jonathan M. Eastman, Stephen A. Smith, Richard G. FitzJohn, Daniel J. McGlinn, Brian C. O’Meara, Angela T. Moles, Peter B. Reich, Dana L. Royer, Douglas E. Soltis, Peter F. Stevens, Mark Westoby, Ian J. Wright, Lonnie Aarssen, Robert I. Bertin, Andre Calaminus, Rafaël Govaerts, Frank Hemmings, Michelle R. Leishman, Jacek Oleksyn, Pamela S. Soltis, Nathan G. Swenson, Laura Warman, Jeremy M. Beaulieu
      Pages: 394 - 394
      Abstract: Nature506, 89–92 (2014); doi:10.1038/nature12872In this Letter, Figs 2 and 3 contained several minor errors, which have now been corrected. In Fig. 2c, we did not include the possible pathway from deciduous and freezing unexposed to evergreen and
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13842
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Corrigendum: Connectomic reconstruction of the inner plexiform layer in
           the mouse retina.
    • Authors: Moritz Helmstaedter, Kevin L. Briggman, Srinivas C. Turaga, Viren Jain, H. Sebastian Seung, Winfried Denk
      Pages: 394 - 394
      Abstract: Nature500, 168–174 (2013); doi:10.1038/nature12346It has been brought to our attention that Supplementary Data 7, reporting the correspondence of our cell type definitions to those reported in the literature, contained sorting errors in the first two columns of
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13877
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Molecular biology: Genetic touch-ups
    • Authors: Jeffrey M. Perkel
      Pages: 395 - 396
      Abstract: Simplified techniques have made the field of gene editing much more accessible to non-specialists.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7522-395a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • The method
    • Authors: Jon Hurwitz
      Pages: 398 - 398
      Abstract: What it takes.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514398a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522 (2014)
       
  • Gerontology: Will you still need me, will you still feed me'
    • Authors: Lorna Stewart
      Pages: S14 - S15
      Abstract: As the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings turn 64, laureates and young researchers discuss growing old — and whether exercise and stress reduction can slow the ageing process.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514S14a
       
  • Q&A: Torsten Wiesel
    • Authors: Stefano Sandrone
      Pages: S11 - S12
      Abstract: Torsten Wiesel is president emeritus of Rockefeller University in New York City. He shared half of the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with David Hubel for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system. He tells Stefano Sandrone about his greatest scientific achievement and his vision of the future.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514S11a
       
  • Q&A: Brian Kobilka
    • Authors: Haya Jamal Azouz
      Pages: S12 - S13
      Abstract: Brian Kobilka shared the 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Robert Lefkowitz for their studies of G protein-coupled receptors. He is professor of molecular and cellular physiology at the Stanford University School of Medicine in California. Haya Jamal Azouz asks Kobilka what it takes to spend 30 years answering a single research question.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514S12a
       
  • Q&A: Michael Bishop
    • Authors: Kipp Weiskopf
      Pages: S9 - S10
      Abstract: Michael Bishop and Harold Varmus proved that genetic changes could drive the formation of tumours. They were awarded the 1989 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovering the origin of retroviral oncogenes. Bishop — now director of the GW Hooper Foundation at the University of California, San Francisco — tells Kipp Weiskopf about 40 years in cancer research.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514S9a
       
  • Q&A: Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
    • Authors: Iria Gomez-Touriño
      Pages: S8 - S9
      Abstract: Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier were jointly awarded the 2008 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of HIV in 1983. Three decades on, Barré-Sinoussi is director of the Retroviral Infections unit at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Here, she tells Iria Gomez-Touriño about the latest strategies to combat the virus.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514S8a
       
  • Q&A: Barry Marshall
    • Authors: Meghan Azad
      Pages: S6 - S7
      Abstract: Laureate Barry Marshall, professor of clinical microbiology at the University of Western Australia in Perth, tells Meghan Azad why he risked his health to prove his theory about the link between stomach ulcers and bacteria. He shared the 2005 Nobel prize with Robin Warren for discovering the stomach-dwelling bacterium Helicobacter pylori and for proving that it is this microorganism, not stress, that causes most peptic ulcers.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514S6a
       
  • Medical research masterclass
    • Medical research masterclass

      Nature. doi:10.1038/514S1a

      Author: Matthew Chalmers

      Nature2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514S1a
       
  • Molecular biology: Remove, reuse, recycle
    • Authors: Michael Eisenstein
      Pages: S2 - S4
      Abstract: Waste removal is not usually described as sexy, but the once-neglected field of autophagy — which plays a part in cancer and other diseases — is a hot topic in biomedical research.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514S2a
       
  • Q&A: Jules Hoffmann
    • Authors: Ádám Tárnoki, Dávid Tárnoki
      Pages: S5 - S5
      Abstract: Jules Hoffmann shared the 2011 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine for discoveries in the activation of innate immunity against bacteria and fungi in fruit flies. Now based at the Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology at Strasbourg University in France, Hoffmann talks to ádám and Dávid Tárnoki about how to use the immune system to kill cancer cells.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/514S5a
       
  • Academia and industry: Companies on campus
    • Authors: Jana J. Watson-Capps, Thomas R. Cech
      Pages: 297 - 298
      Abstract: Housing industry labs in academic settings benefits all parties, say Jana J. Watson-Capps and Thomas R. Cech.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7522 (2014)
      DOI: 10.1038/514297a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7522
       
 
 
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