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Journal Cover   Nature
  [SJR: 21.323]   [H-I: 829]   [2679 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0028-0836 - ISSN (Online) 1476-4687
   Published by Nature Publishing Group Homepage  [110 journals]
  • Gene politics
    • Pages: 5 - 6
      Abstract: US lawmakers are asserting their place in the human genetic-modification debate.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523005b
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Success in failure
    • Pages: 5 - 5
      Abstract: A failed crop trial of genetically modified wheat still provides crucial lessons for those battling to provide the planet’s growing population with a sustainable food supply.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2015.17855
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Light detective
    • Pages: 6 - 6
      Abstract: Smartphone camera set to come to the aid of sleuths, scientists and wine lovers.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523006a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Practical policies can combat gender inequality
    • Authors: Douglas Hilton
      Pages: 7 - 7
      Abstract: Mechanisms to help researchers to balance work and home lives have made a positive difference to the gender balance at my institute, says Douglas Hilton.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/523007a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Neurobiology: Target neurons to relieve asthma
    • Pages: 8 - 9
      Abstract: Silencing signals from pain-sensing nerve cells in the lungs reduces the symptoms of asthma in mice.When stimulated by allergens, these neurons cause airways to constrict and trigger symptoms such as coughing and wheezing. Bruce Levy and Clifford Woolf of Harvard Medical School in Boston,
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523008d
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Atmospheric science: Air pollution triggers floods
    • Pages: 8 - 8
      Abstract: A catastrophic 2013 flood in China was probably caused, in part, by air pollution.In July 2013, heavy rainfall resulted in a devastating flood in the mountains northwest of the Sichuan Basin in China (pictured). The basin has seen increasing industrial activity in the past
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523008a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Ecology: Roadkill yields panther numbers
    • Pages: 8 - 8
      Abstract: By counting the number of endangered panthers hit and killed by cars in Florida, researchers have estimated the population size of this rare cat. They say that it is the first statistically robust population estimate for the animals across their breeding range.Brett McClintock of
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523008b
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Marine biology: Corals inherit love for heat
    • Pages: 8 - 8
      Abstract: Heat tolerance in corals can be passed down the generations, suggesting that corals can adapt as the climate warms.Researchers have suggested that corals physiologically acclimatize to higher temperatures rather than inherit heat tolerance. To test this idea, Line Bay at the Australian Institute of
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523008c
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Astronomy: 'Tatooines' may be common
    • Pages: 9 - 9
      Abstract: Planets orbiting a binary star system — like Tatooine, the fictional home planet of Luke Skywalker in Star Wars — could form with surprising ease.Most known circumbinary planets orbit close to their stars, where the competing gravitational forces from the two stars make
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523009d
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Fisheries: Farming footprint is rapidly growing
    • Pages: 9 - 9
      Abstract: Humans are venturing farther across the oceans and harvesting a greater proportion of the ocean's biomass to feed the world's appetite for seafood.Reg Watson at the University of Tasmania in Taroona, Australia, and his colleagues analysed global fisheries, and seafood import and export data.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523009e
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Astronomy: Bounty of dark galaxies found
    • Pages: 9 - 9
      Abstract: Astronomers have discovered more than 850 faint galaxies in a galaxy cluster that could be made mostly of dark matter.Using archived images from the Subaru Telescope in Hawaii, a team led by Jin Koda at Stony Brook University in New York searched for observations
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523009b
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Neuroscience: Male mice process pain differently
    • Pages: 9 - 9
      Abstract: Male and female mice use different types of immune cell to process chronic pain.Studies of male mice have shown that immune cells called microglia in the spinal cord have an important role in chronic pain. To see whether this is the same in female
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523009c
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Materials: DNA glues particles together
    • Pages: 9 - 9
      Abstract: Researchers have assembled micrometre-sized particles into a variety of crystals using DNA as 'glue'.DNA has been used to control the assembly of DNA-coated nanoparticles, but doing this with larger particles leads to the formation of random clumps that do not crystallize. To solve this,
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523009a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • A call to fund people not proposals triggers strong reactions online
    • Authors: Chris Woolston
      Pages: 9 - 9
      Abstract: Researchers debate the merits of funding people on the basis of past performance.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      DOI: 10.1038/523009f
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • The week in science: 26 June–2 July 2015
    • Pages: 10 - 11
      Abstract: A five-year window for combating AIDS; lions return to Rwanda’s verdant hills; and supply run to space station fails as rocket explodes.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523010a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Super-muscly pigs created by small genetic tweak
    • Authors: David Cyranoski
      Pages: 13 - 14
      Abstract: Researchers hope the genetically engineered animals will speed past regulators.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-06-30
      DOI: 10.1038/523013a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • How an Oregon cancer institute raised a billion dollars
    • Authors: Heidi Ledford
      Pages: 14 - 15
      Abstract: Gains from two-year fund-raising frenzy will aid the early detection of tumours.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-06-26
      DOI: 10.1038/523014a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Plant collections left in the cold by cuts
    • Authors: Boer Deng
      Pages: 16 - 16
      Abstract: North America’s herbaria wilt under pressure for space and cash.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523016a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Researchers pin down risks of low-dose radiation
    • Authors: Alison Abbott
      Pages: 17 - 18
      Abstract: Large study of nuclear workers shows that even tiny doses slightly boost risk of leukaemia.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-06-30
      DOI: 10.1038/523017a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Europe braces for more climate litigation
    • Authors: Quirin Schiermeier
      Pages: 18 - 19
      Abstract: Dutch order to cut emissions opens door for citizens' lawsuits elsewhere.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523018a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Corrections
    • Pages: 19 - 19
      Abstract: The News story ‘Election results delight scientists’ (Nature522, 264–265; 2015) stated that Gençay Gürsoy won a seat in the new Turkish parliament for the HDP. He did not; he is a member of the HDP assembly.The News story ‘Earth science
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523019a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • The hunt for the world’s missing carbon
    • Authors: Gabriel Popkin
      Pages: 20 - 22
      Abstract: Researchers are racing to determine whether forests will continue to act as a brake on climate change by soaking up more carbon.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-06-30
      DOI: 10.1038/523020a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Machine ethics: The robot’s dilemma
    • Authors: Boer Deng
      Pages: 24 - 26
      Abstract: Working out how to build ethical robots is one of the thorniest challenges in artificial intelligence.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523024a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Reproducibility: Don't cry wolf
    • Authors: Jan Conrad
      Pages: 27 - 28
      Abstract: Tighten the requirements for declaring physics breakthroughs, says Jan Conrad.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523027a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Sustainable mobility: Six research routes to steer transport policy
    • Authors: Eric Bruun, Moshe Givoni
      Pages: 29 - 31
      Abstract: Strategies must better balance the costs and benefits of travel and be realistic about the promises of new technologies, say Eric Bruun and Moshe Givoni.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523029a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Energy: Profiles of power
    • Authors: Arnulf Grubler
      Pages: 32 - 33
      Abstract: Arnulf Grubler examines a study of power output and spatial area — a key concept in discussing renewables.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523032a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Human evolution: The cradle of humankind revisited
    • Authors: Michael Cherry
      Pages: 33 - 33
      Abstract: Michael Cherry catches up with new developments and old dilemmas at South Africa's hominin-fossil hotspot.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523033a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Immunology: Magic bullets to blockbusters
    • Authors: Marian Turner
      Pages: 34 - 34
      Abstract: Marian Turner delves into a history of the rapid rise of monoclonal antibodies.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523034a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • August Weismann: A prescient view of women in evolution
    • Authors: U. Kutschera
      Pages: 35 - 35
      Abstract: The remarkable nineteenth-century German biologist August Weismann (Nature522, 31–32;10.1038/522031a2015) also took a prescient stand in the discourse on the role of women in evolution.Weismann challenged a popular theory of heredity proposed by US zoologist William
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523035d
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Be prepared: Europe needs Ebola outbreak consortium
    • Authors: Alimuddin Zumla, David Heymann, Giuseppe Ippolito
      Pages: 35 - 35
      Abstract: The European Commission (EC) has been criticized for failing to define specific research pathways for tackling the recent outbreak of Ebola virus in West Africa (J. M.Martin-Morenoet al. Lancet384, 1259; 2014). In our view, three changes would
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523035b
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Europe: Animal studies must be useful, says public
    • Authors: I. Anna S. Olsson, Nuno H. Franco
      Pages: 35 - 35
      Abstract: The European Commission (EC) responded last month to 'Stop Vivisection', a European Citizens' Initiative to phase out animal testing, which was signed by more than one million people. The EC confirmed that it will not replace the existing directive on the protection of animals used
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523035c
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Species naming: Taxonomic glory easier on eBay'
    • Authors: Giovanni Strona
      Pages: 35 - 35
      Abstract: One of zoology's highest honours may now, it seems, be purchased on eBay (see go.nature.com/ziq152). For a few thousand dollars, you are offered the privilege of naming a 'small, rare' species. A species name will last forever, says the vendor — even as taxonomists
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523035a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Palaeontology: Hallucigenia's head
    • Authors: Xiaoya Ma
      Pages: 38 - 39
      Abstract: The finding of pharyngeal teeth and circumoral mouthparts in fossils of the Cambrian lobopodian animal Hallucigenia sparsa improves our understanding of the deep evolutionary links between moulting animals. See Letter p.75
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-06-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14627
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Nanotechnology: Colourful particles for spectrometry
    • Authors: Norm C. Anheier
      Pages: 39 - 40
      Abstract: A smartphone camera, patterned with arrays of filters made from colloidal suspensions of coloured particles, has been transformed into a powerful tool for spectral analysis. See Letter p.67
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523039a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Public health: The case for pay to quit
    • Authors: Theresa M. Marteau, Eleni Mantzari
      Pages: 40 - 41
      Abstract: A randomized controlled trial of four financial-incentive programmes for smoking cessation finds that reward-based schemes lead to sustained abstinence, but low public acceptability of such schemes threatens their adoption.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523040a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Planetary science: Sink holes and dust jets on comet 67P
    • Authors: Paul Weissman
      Pages: 42 - 43
      Abstract: Analyses of images taken by the Rosetta spacecraft reveal the complex landscape of a comet in rich detail. Close-up views of the surface indicate that some dust jets are being emitted from active pits undergoing sublimation. See Letter p.63
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523042a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Evolution: Reptile sex determination goes wild
    • Authors: James J. Bull
      Pages: 43 - 44
      Abstract: Wild populations of an Australian lizard have sex chromosomes and also exhibit temperature-controlled sexual development, providing insight into how these two sex-determining mechanisms may evolve back and forth. See Letter p.79
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523043a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Neurobiology: Inversion in the worm
    • Authors: Vilaiwan M. Fernandes, Claude Desplan
      Pages: 44 - 45
      Abstract: Combinations of spatially and temporally restricted transcription factors are shown to coordinate movement in nematode worms by controlling the formation of synaptic connections to and from motor neurons. See Letter p.83
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523044a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • The architecture of the spliceosomal U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP
    • Authors: Thi Hoang Duong Nguyen, Wojciech P. Galej, Xiao-chen Bai, Christos G. Savva, Andrew J. Newman, Sjors H. W. Scheres, Kiyoshi Nagai
      Pages: 47 - 52
      Abstract: U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP is a 1.5-megadalton pre-assembled spliceosomal complex comprising U5 small nuclear RNA (snRNA), extensively base-paired U4/U6 snRNAs and more than 30 proteins, including the key components Prp8, Brr2 and Snu114. The tri-snRNP combines with a precursor messenger RNA substrate bound to U1 and U2
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-06-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14548
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • The core spliceosome as target and effector of non-canonical ATM
           signalling
    • Authors: Maria Tresini, Daniël O. Warmerdam, Petros Kolovos, Loes Snijder, Mischa G. Vrouwe, Jeroen A. A. Demmers, Wilfred F. J. van IJcken, Frank G. Grosveld, René H. Medema, Jan H. J. Hoeijmakers, Leon H. F. Mullenders, Wim Vermeulen, Jurgen A. Marteijn
      Pages: 53 - 58
      Abstract: In response to DNA damage, tissue homoeostasis is ensured by protein networks promoting DNA repair, cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. DNA damage response signalling pathways coordinate these processes, partly by propagating gene-expression-modulating signals. DNA damage influences not only the abundance of messenger RNAs, but also
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-06-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14512
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Self-similar energetics in large clusters of galaxies
    • Authors: Francesco Miniati, Andrey Beresnyak
      Pages: 59 - 62
      Abstract: Massive galaxy clusters are filled with a hot, turbulent and magnetized intra-cluster medium. Still forming under the action of gravitational instability, they grow in mass by accretion of supersonic flows. These flows partially dissipate into heat through a complex network of large-scale shocks, while residual transonic (near-sonic) flows create giant turbulent eddies and cascades. Turbulence heats the intra-cluster medium and also amplifies magnetic energy by way of dynamo action. However, the pattern regulating the transformation of gravitational energy into kinetic, thermal, turbulent and magnetic energies remains unknown. Here we report that the energy components of the intra-cluster medium are ordered according to a permanent hierarchy, in which the ratio of thermal to turbulent to magnetic energy densities remains virtually unaltered throughout the cluster’s history, despite evolution of each individual component and the drive towards equipartition of the turbulent dynamo. This result revolves around the approximately constant efficiency of turbulence generation from the gravitational energy that is freed during mass accretion, revealed by our computational model of cosmological structure formation. The permanent character of this hierarchy reflects yet another type of self-similarity in cosmology, while its structure, consistent with current data, encodes information about the efficiency of turbulent heating and dynamo action.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14552
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Large heterogeneities in comet 67P as revealed by active pits from
           sinkhole collapse
    • Authors: Jean-Baptiste Vincent, Dennis Bodewits, Sébastien Besse, Holger Sierks, Cesare Barbieri, Philippe Lamy, Rafael Rodrigo, Detlef Koschny, Hans Rickman, Horst Uwe Keller, Jessica Agarwal, Michael F. A'Hearn, Anne-Thérèse Auger, M. Antonella Barucci, Jean-Loup Bertaux, Ivano Bertini, Claire Capanna, Gabriele Cremonese, Vania Da Deppo, Björn Davidsson, Stefano Debei, Mariolino De Cecco, Mohamed Ramy El-Maarry, Francesca Ferri, Sonia Fornasier, Marco Fulle, Robert Gaskell, Lorenza Giacomini, Olivier Groussin, Aurélie Guilbert-Lepoutre, P. Gutierrez-Marques, Pedro J. Gutiérrez, Carsten Güttler, Nick Hoekzema, Sebastian Höfner, Stubbe F. Hviid, Wing-Huen Ip, Laurent Jorda, Jörg Knollenberg, Gabor Kovacs, Rainer Kramm, Ekkehard Kührt, Michael Küppers, Fiorangela La Forgia, Luisa M. Lara, Monica Lazzarin, Vicky Lee, Cédric Leyrat, Zhong-Yi Lin, Josè J. Lopez Moreno, Stephen Lowry, Sara Magrin, Lucie Maquet, Simone Marchi, Francesco Marzari, Matteo Massironi, Harald Michalik, Richard Moissl, Stefano Mottola, Giampiero Naletto, Nilda Oklay, Maurizio Pajola, Frank Preusker, Frank Scholten, Nicolas Thomas, Imre Toth, Cecilia Tubiana
      Pages: 63 - 66
      Abstract: Pits have been observed on many cometary nuclei mapped by spacecraft. It has been argued that cometary pits are a signature of endogenic activity, rather than impact craters such as those on planetary and asteroid surfaces. Impact experiments and models cannot reproduce the shapes of most of the observed cometary pits, and the predicted collision rates imply that few of the pits are related to impacts. Alternative mechanisms like explosive activity have been suggested, but the driving process remains unknown. Here we report that pits on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko are active, and probably created by a sinkhole process, possibly accompanied by outbursts. We argue that after formation, pits expand slowly in diameter, owing to sublimation-driven retreat of the walls. Therefore, pits characterize how eroded the surface is: a fresh cometary surface will have a ragged structure with many pits, while an evolved surface will look smoother. The size and spatial distribution of pits imply that large heterogeneities exist in the physical, structural or compositional properties of the first few hundred metres below the current nucleus surface.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14564
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer
    • Authors: Jie Bao, Moungi G. Bawendi
      Pages: 67 - 70
      Abstract: Spectroscopy is carried out in almost every field of science, whenever light interacts with matter. Although sophisticated instruments with impressive performance characteristics are available, much effort continues to be invested in the development of miniaturized, cheap and easy-to-use systems. Current microspectrometer designs mostly use interference filters and interferometric optics that limit their photon efficiency, resolution and spectral range. Here we show that many of these limitations can be overcome by replacing interferometric optics with a two-dimensional absorptive filter array composed of colloidal quantum dots. Instead of measuring different bands of a spectrum individually after introducing temporal or spatial separations with gratings or interference-based narrowband filters, a colloidal quantum dot spectrometer measures a light spectrum based on the wavelength multiplexing principle: multiple spectral bands are encoded and detected simultaneously with one filter and one detector, respectively, with the array format allowing the process to be efficiently repeated many times using different filters with different encoding so that sufficient information is obtained to enable computational reconstruction of the target spectrum. We illustrate the performance of such a quantum dot microspectrometer, made from 195 different types of quantum dots with absorption features that cover a spectral range of 300 nanometres, by measuring shifts in spectral peak positions as small as one nanometre. Given this performance, demonstrable avenues for further improvement, the ease with which quantum dots can be processed and integrated, and their numerous finely tuneable bandgaps that cover a broad spectral range, we expect that quantum dot microspectrometers will be useful in applications where minimizing size, weight, cost and complexity of the spectrometer are critical.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14576
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • A model-tested North Atlantic Oscillation reconstruction for the past
           millennium
    • Authors: Pablo Ortega, Flavio Lehner, Didier Swingedouw, Valerie Masson-Delmotte, Christoph C. Raible, Mathieu Casado, Pascal Yiou
      Pages: 71 - 74
      Abstract: The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the major source of variability in winter atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere, with large impacts on temperature, precipitation and storm tracks, and therefore also on strategic sectors such as insurance, renewable energy production, crop yields and water management. Recent developments in dynamical methods offer promise to improve seasonal NAO predictions, but assessing potential predictability on multi-annual timescales requires documentation of past low-frequency variability in the NAO. A recent bi-proxy NAO reconstruction spanning the past millennium suggested that long-lasting positive NAO conditions were established during medieval times, explaining the particularly warm conditions in Europe during this period; however, these conclusions are debated. Here, we present a yearly NAO reconstruction for the past millennium, based on an initial selection of 48 annually resolved proxy records distributed around the Atlantic Ocean and built through an ensemble of multivariate regressions. We validate the approach in six past-millennium climate simulations, and show that our reconstruction outperforms the bi‐proxy index. The final reconstruction shows no persistent positive NAO during the medieval period, but suggests that positive phases were dominant during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The reconstruction also reveals that a positive NAO emerges two years after strong volcanic eruptions, consistent with results obtained from models and satellite observations for the Mt Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14518
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Hallucigenia’s head and the pharyngeal armature of early ecdysozoans
    • Authors: Martin R. Smith, Jean-Bernard Caron
      Pages: 75 - 78
      Abstract: The molecularly defined clade Ecdysozoa comprises the panarthropods (Euarthropoda, Onychophora and Tardigrada) and the cycloneuralian worms (Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Priapulida, Loricifera and Kinorhyncha). These disparate phyla are united by their means of moulting, but otherwise share few morphological characters—none of which has a meaningful fossilization potential. As such, the early evolutionary history of the group as a whole is largely uncharted. Here we redescribe the 508-million-year-old stem-group onychophoran Hallucigenia sparsa from the mid-Cambrian Burgess Shale. We document an elongate head with a pair of simple eyes, a terminal buccal chamber containing a radial array of sclerotized elements, and a differentiated foregut that is lined with acicular teeth. The radial elements and pharyngeal teeth resemble the sclerotized circumoral elements and pharyngeal teeth expressed in tardigrades, stem-group euarthropods and cycloneuralian worms. Phylogenetic results indicate that equivalent structures characterized the ancestral panarthropod and, seemingly, the ancestral ecdysozoan, demonstrating the deep homology of panarthropod and cycloneuralian mouthparts, and providing an anatomical synapomorphy for the ecdysozoan supergroup.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-06-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14573
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Sex reversal triggers the rapid transition from genetic to
           temperature-dependent sex
    • Authors: Clare E. Holleley, Denis O'Meally, Stephen D. Sarre, Jennifer A. Marshall Graves, Tariq Ezaz, Kazumi Matsubara, Bhumika Azad, Xiuwen Zhang, Arthur Georges
      Pages: 79 - 82
      Abstract: Sex determination in animals is amazingly plastic. Vertebrates display contrasting strategies ranging from complete genetic control of sex (genotypic sex determination) to environmentally determined sex (for example, temperature-dependent sex determination). Phylogenetic analyses suggest frequent evolutionary transitions between genotypic and temperature-dependent sex determination in environmentally sensitive lineages, including reptiles. These transitions are thought to involve a genotypic system becoming sensitive to temperature, with sex determined by gene–environment interactions. Most mechanistic models of transitions invoke a role for sex reversal. Sex reversal has not yet been demonstrated in nature for any amniote, although it occurs in fish and rarely in amphibians. Here we make the first report of reptile sex reversal in the wild, in the Australian bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), and use sex-reversed animals to experimentally induce a rapid transition from genotypic to temperature-dependent sex determination. Controlled mating of normal males to sex-reversed females produces viable and fertile offspring whose phenotypic sex is determined solely by temperature (temperature-dependent sex determination). The W sex chromosome is eliminated from this lineage in the first generation. The instantaneous creation of a lineage of ZZ temperature-sensitive animals reveals a novel, climate-induced pathway for the rapid transition between genetic and temperature-dependent sex determination, and adds to concern about adaptation to rapid global climate change.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14574
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Spatiotemporal control of a novel synaptic organizer molecule
    • Authors: Kelly Howell, John G. White, Oliver Hobert
      Pages: 83 - 87
      Abstract: Synapse formation is a process tightly controlled in space and time. How gene regulatory mechanisms specify spatial and temporal aspects of synapse formation is not well understood. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, two subtypes of the D-type inhibitory motor neuron (MN) classes, the dorsal D (DD) and ventral D (VD) neurons, extend axons along both the dorsal and ventral nerve cords. The embryonically generated DD motor neurons initially innervate ventral muscles in the first (L1) larval stage and receive their synaptic input from cholinergic motor neurons in the dorsal cord. They rewire by the end of the L1 moult to innervate dorsal muscles and to be innervated by newly formed ventral cholinergic motor neurons. VD motor neurons develop after the L1 moult; they take over the innervation of ventral muscles and receive their synaptic input from dorsal cholinergic motor neurons. We show here that the spatiotemporal control of synaptic wiring of the D-type neurons is controlled by an intersectional transcriptional strategy in which the UNC-30 Pitx-type homeodomain transcription factor acts together, in embryonic and early larval stages, with the temporally controlled LIN-14 transcription factor to prevent premature synapse rewiring of the DD motor neurons and, together with the UNC-55 nuclear hormone receptor, to prevent aberrant VD synaptic wiring in later larval and adult stages. A key effector of this intersectional transcription factor combination is a novel synaptic organizer molecule, the single immunoglobulin domain protein OIG-1. OIG-1 is perisynaptically localized along the synaptic outputs of the D-type motor neurons in a temporally controlled manner and is required for appropriate selection of both pre- and post-synaptic partners.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-06-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14545
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Cell-intrinsic adaptation of lipid composition to local crowding drives
           social behaviour
    • Authors: Mathieu Frechin, Thomas Stoeger, Stephan Daetwyler, Charlotte Gehin, Nico Battich, Eva-Maria Damm, Lilli Stergiou, Howard Riezman, Lucas Pelkmans
      Pages: 88 - 91
      Abstract: Cells sense the context in which they grow to adapt their phenotype and allow multicellular patterning by mechanisms of autocrine and paracrine signalling. However, patterns also form in cell populations exposed to the same signalling molecules and substratum, which often correlate with specific features of the population context of single cells, such as local cell crowding. Here we reveal a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism that allows multicellular patterning without requiring specific communication between cells. It acts by sensing the local crowding of a single cell through its ability to spread and activate focal adhesion kinase (FAK, also known as PTK2), resulting in adaptation of genes controlling membrane homeostasis. In cells experiencing low crowding, FAK suppresses transcription of the ABC transporter A1 (ABCA1) by inhibiting FOXO3 and TAL1. Agent-based computational modelling and experimental confirmation identified membrane-based signalling and feedback control as crucial for the emergence of population patterns of ABCA1 expression, which adapts membrane lipid composition to cell crowding and affects multiple signalling activities, including the suppression of ABCA1 expression itself. The simple design of this cell-intrinsic system and its broad impact on the signalling state of mammalian single cells suggests a fundamental role for a tunable membrane lipid composition in collective cell behaviour.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-05-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14429
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Mechanical induction of the tumorigenic β-catenin pathway by tumour
           growth pressure
    • Authors: María Elena Fernández-Sánchez, Sandrine Barbier, Joanne Whitehead, Gaëlle Béalle, Aude Michel, Heldmuth Latorre-Ossa, Colette Rey, Laura Fouassier, Audrey Claperon, Laura Brullé, Elodie Girard, Nicolas Servant, Thomas Rio-Frio, Hélène Marie, Sylviane Lesieur, Chantal Housset, Jean-Luc Gennisson, Mickaël Tanter, Christine Ménager, Silvia Fre, Sylvie Robine, Emmanuel Farge
      Pages: 92 - 95
      Abstract: The tumour microenvironment may contribute to tumorigenesis owing to mechanical forces such as fibrotic stiffness or mechanical pressure caused by the expansion of hyper-proliferative cells. Here we explore the contribution of the mechanical pressure exerted by tumour growth onto non-tumorous adjacent epithelium. In the early stage of mouse colon tumour development in the Notch+Apc+/1638N mouse model, we observed mechanistic pressure stress in the non-tumorous epithelial cells caused by hyper-proliferative adjacent crypts overexpressing active Notch, which is associated with increased Ret and β-catenin signalling. We thus developed a method that allows the delivery of a defined mechanical pressure in vivo, by subcutaneously inserting a magnet close to the mouse colon. The implanted magnet generated a magnetic force on ultra-magnetic liposomes, stabilized in the mesenchymal cells of the connective tissue surrounding colonic crypts after intravenous injection. The magnetically induced pressure quantitatively mimicked the endogenous early tumour growth stress in the order of 1,200 Pa, without affecting tissue stiffness, as monitored by ultrasound strain imaging and shear wave elastography. The exertion of pressure mimicking that of tumour growth led to rapid Ret activation and downstream phosphorylation of β-catenin on Tyr654, imparing its interaction with the E-cadherin in adherens junctions, and which was followed by β-catenin nuclear translocation after 15 days. As a consequence, increased expression of β-catenin-target genes was observed at 1 month, together with crypt enlargement accompanying the formation of early tumorous aberrant crypt foci. Mechanical activation of the tumorigenic β-catenin pathway suggests unexplored modes of tumour propagation based on mechanical signalling pathways in healthy epithelial cells surrounding the tumour, which may contribute to tumour heterogeneity.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-05-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14329
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • MYC regulates the core pre-mRNA splicing machinery as an essential step in
           lymphomagenesis
    • Authors: Cheryl M. Koh, Marco Bezzi, Diana H. P. Low, Wei Xia Ang, Shun Xie Teo, Florence P. H. Gay, Muthafar Al-Haddawi, Soo Yong Tan, Motomi Osato, Arianna Sabò, Bruno Amati, Keng Boon Wee, Ernesto Guccione
      Pages: 96 - 100
      Abstract: Deregulated expression of the MYC transcription factor occurs in most human cancers and correlates with high proliferation, reprogrammed cellular metabolism and poor prognosis. Overexpressed MYC binds to virtually all active promoters within a cell, although with different binding affinities, and modulates the expression of distinct subsets of genes. However, the critical effectors of MYC in tumorigenesis remain largely unknown. Here we show that during lymphomagenesis in Eµ-myc transgenic mice, MYC directly upregulates the transcription of the core small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle assembly genes, including Prmt5, an arginine methyltransferase that methylates Sm proteins. This coordinated regulatory effect is critical for the core biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles, effective pre-messenger-RNA splicing, cell survival and proliferation. Our results demonstrate that MYC maintains the splicing fidelity of exons with a weak 5′ donor site. Additionally, we identify pre-messenger-RNAs that are particularly sensitive to the perturbation of the MYC–PRMT5 axis, resulting in either intron retention (for example, Dvl1) or exon skipping (for example, Atr, Ep400). Using antisense oligonucleotides, we demonstrate the contribution of these splicing defects to the anti-proliferative/apoptotic phenotype observed in PRMT5-depleted Eµ-myc B cells. We conclude that, in addition to its well-documented oncogenic functions in transcription and translation, MYC also safeguards proper pre-messenger-RNA splicing as an essential step in lymphomagenesis.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-05-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14351
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Cytosolic extensions directly regulate a rhomboid protease by modulating
           substrate gating
    • Authors: Rosanna P. Baker, Siniša Urban
      Pages: 101 - 105
      Abstract: Intramembrane proteases catalyse the signal-generating step of various cell signalling pathways, and continue to be implicated in diseases ranging from malaria infection to Parkinsonian neurodegeneration. Despite playing such decisive roles, it remains unclear whether or how these membrane-immersed enzymes might be regulated directly. To address this limitation, here we focus on intramembrane proteases containing domains known to exert regulatory functions in other contexts, and characterize a rhomboid protease that harbours calcium-binding EF-hands. We find calcium potently stimulates proteolysis by endogenous rhomboid-4 in Drosophila cells, and, remarkably, when rhomboid-4 is purified and reconstituted in liposomes. Interestingly, deleting the amino-terminal EF-hands activates proteolysis prematurely, while residues in cytoplasmic loops connecting distal transmembrane segments mediate calcium stimulation. Rhomboid regulation is not orchestrated by either dimerization or substrate interactions. Instead, calcium increases catalytic rate by promoting substrate gating. Substrates with cleavage sites outside the membrane can be cleaved but lose the capacity to be regulated. These observations indicate substrate gating is not an essential step in catalysis, but instead evolved as a mechanism for regulating proteolysis inside the membrane. Moreover, these insights provide new approaches for studying rhomboid functions by investigating upstream inputs that trigger proteolysis.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-05-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14357
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Structures of actin-like ParM filaments show architecture of
           plasmid-segregating spindles
    • Authors: Tanmay A. M. Bharat, Garib N. Murshudov, Carsten Sachse, Jan Löwe
      Pages: 106 - 110
      Abstract: Active segregation of Escherichia coli low-copy-number plasmid R1 involves formation of a bipolar spindle made of left-handed double-helical actin-like ParM filaments. ParR links the filaments with centromeric parC plasmid DNA, while facilitating the addition of subunits to ParM filaments. Growing ParMRC spindles push sister plasmids to the cell poles. Here, using modern electron cryomicroscopy methods, we investigate the structures and arrangements of ParM filaments in vitro and in cells, revealing at near-atomic resolution how subunits and filaments come together to produce the simplest known mitotic machinery. To understand the mechanism of dynamic instability, we determine structures of ParM filaments in different nucleotide states. The structure of filaments bound to the ATP analogue AMPPNP is determined at 4.3 Å resolution and refined. The ParM filament structure shows strong longitudinal interfaces and weaker lateral interactions. Also using electron cryomicroscopy, we reconstruct ParM doublets forming antiparallel spindles. Finally, with whole-cell electron cryotomography, we show that doublets are abundant in bacterial cells containing low-copy-number plasmids with the ParMRC locus, leading to an asynchronous model of R1 plasmid segregation.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14356
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Structures of human phosphofructokinase-1 and atomic basis of
           cancer-associated mutations
    • Authors: Bradley A. Webb, Farhad Forouhar, Fu-En Szu, Jayaraman Seetharaman, Liang Tong, Diane L. Barber
      Pages: 111 - 114
      Abstract: Phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK1), the ‘gatekeeper’ of glycolysis, catalyses the committed step of the glycolytic pathway by converting fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Allosteric activation and inhibition of PFK1 by over ten metabolites and in response to hormonal signalling fine-tune glycolytic flux to meet energy requirements. Mutations inhibiting PFK1 activity cause glycogen storage disease type VII, also known as Tarui disease, and mice deficient in muscle PFK1 have decreased fat stores. Additionally, PFK1 is proposed to have important roles in metabolic reprogramming in cancer. Despite its critical role in glucose flux, the biologically relevant crystal structure of the mammalian PFK1 tetramer has not been determined. Here we report the first structures of the mammalian PFK1 tetramer, for the human platelet isoform (PFKP), in complex with ATP–Mg2+ and ADP at 3.1 and 3.4 Å, respectively. The structures reveal substantial conformational changes in the enzyme upon nucleotide hydrolysis as well as a unique tetramer interface. Mutations of residues in this interface can affect tetramer formation, enzyme catalysis and regulation, indicating the functional importance of the tetramer. With altered glycolytic flux being a hallmark of cancers, these new structures allow a molecular understanding of the functional consequences of somatic PFK1 mutations identified in human cancers. We characterize three of these mutations and show they have distinct effects on allosteric regulation of PFKP activity and lactate production. The PFKP structural blueprint for somatic mutations as well as the catalytic site can guide therapeutic targeting of PFK1 activity to control dysregulated glycolysis in disease.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-05-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14405
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Correction
    • Pages: 116 - 116
      Abstract: The Toolbox article 'How to catch a cloud' (Nature522, 115–116; 2015 ) gave the wrong location for the Texas Advanced Computing Center — it is in Austin not San Antonio.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-06-30
      DOI: 10.1038/523116a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Leisure activities: The power of a pastime
    • Authors: Chris Woolston
      Pages: 117 - 119
      Abstract: From painting to punching to aeroplane-jumping, the hobbies that scientists pursue offer a vital escape from the laborious life of the lab.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7558-117a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Trade talk: Science educator
    • Authors: Monya Baker
      Pages: 119 - 119
      Abstract: Elizabeth Waters finds that education captures what she likes most in a science career.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7558-119a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
  • Broken maps of the sea
    • Authors: Preston Grassmann
      Pages: 122 - 122
      Abstract: History lesson.
      Citation: Nature 523, 7558 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
      DOI: 10.1038/523122a
      Issue No: Vol. 523, No. 7558 (2015)
       
 
 
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