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Journal Cover   Nature
  [SJR: 21.323]   [H-I: 829]   [2799 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0028-0836 - ISSN (Online) 1476-4687
   Published by Nature Publishing Group Homepage  [110 journals]
  • Questioning evidence of group selection in spiders
    • Authors: Lena Grinsted, Trine Bilde, James D. J. Gilbert
      Abstract: arising from J. N. Pruitt & C. J. Goodnight Nature514, 359–362 (2014); doi:10.1038/nature13811Any field study showing convincing evidence of group selection would be a significant contribution to the field of evolutionary biology. Pruitt and Goodnight
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14595
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Group selection versus group adaptation
    • Authors: Andy Gardner
      Abstract: arising from J. N. Pruitt & C. J. Goodnight Nature514, 359–362 (2014); doi:10.1038/nature13811Pruitt and Goodnight describe how the ratio of aggressive versus docile females varies among naturally occurring colonies of the social spider Anelosimus
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14596
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Pruitt & Goodnight reply
    • Authors: Jonathan N. Pruitt, Charles J. Goodnight
      Abstract: replying to L. Grinsted, T. Bilde & J. D. J. Gilbert Nature524, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature14595 (2015); A. Gardner Nature524, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature14596 (2015)In Pruitt and Goodnight we provided experimental evidence that group selection has contributed
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14597
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • FDA vulnerability revealed
    • Pages: 387 - 387
      Abstract: A politically charged advisory committee meeting may have tipped the scales in favour of a mildly effective female libido drug.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524387a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Heroism in Syria
    • Pages: 387 - 387
      Abstract: A tribute to scholars of extraordinary courage.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-25
      DOI: 10.1038/524387b
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • We must build resilience into our communities
    • Authors: Erwann Michel-Kerjan
      Pages: 389 - 389
      Abstract: Innovative approaches can better equip society to deal with natural disasters and other shocks, says Erwann Michel-Kerjan.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524389a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Animal behaviour: Stinging cells help jellyfish to mate
    • Pages: 390 - 390
      Abstract: Some box jellyfish display elaborate mating behaviours and even use their toxic stinging cells to ensure successful fertilization.Many jellyfish reproduce using external fertilization, but in a few box jellyfish, fertilization can occur internally. In one species (Copula sivickisi; pictured), the male
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524390c
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Astrophysics: Dark-energy search narrows
    • Pages: 390 - 390
      Abstract: Two groups have tightened the limits on the search for elusive dark matter and dark energy, the mysterious force accelerating the expansion of the Universe.Physicists have proposed that dark energy could come from a 'chameleon' field: a force that would act in the low
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524390d
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Chemistry: Better catalyst for carbon conversion
    • Pages: 390 - 390
      Abstract: A porous, crystalline compound can speed up the conversion of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide in water.Omar Yaghi and Christopher Chang at the University of California, Berkeley, and their colleagues used structures called covalent organic frameworks (COFs) — grid-like arrangements of carbon, nitrogen and
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524390b
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Animal behaviour: Hummingbirds sip using mini pumps
    • Pages: 390 - 390
      Abstract: Hummingbirds draw nectar into their bills using long tongues that act like tiny pumps.It was long thought that liquid travels passively up the birds' tongues without suction. But Alejandro Rico-Guevara and his colleagues at the University of Connecticut in Storrs found a different mechanism
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524390a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Astrophysics: Cosmic neutrinos abound
    • Pages: 391 - 391
      Abstract: Super-high-energy neutrinos from outside the Milky Way pepper Earth from all directions.Neutrinos are created in the Universe's most violent environments and travel through it almost unimpeded, providing a way to study distant astronomical objects. A team at the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524391e
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Medical microbiology: Lung pathogen evolves in isolation
    • Pages: 391 - 391
      Abstract: Bacteria that infect the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis evolve into different forms in various parts of the lungs.Pradeep Singh at the University of Washington in Seattle and his team dissected the infected lungs of ten people with the disease who were having
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524391c
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Information technology: Suspended rods serve as bits
    • Pages: 391 - 391
      Abstract: Rod-shaped nanoparticles suspended in water can store the zeroes and ones of digital computing on the basis of the rods' physical location.Most digital memories are made of solid matter. But Madhavi Krishnan at the University of Zurich in Switzerland and her colleagues stored bits
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524391d
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Atmospheric science: Carbon dioxide levels peak up high
    • Pages: 391 - 391
      Abstract: The carbon dioxide concentration in Earth's upper atmosphere is increasing at more than twice the average rate observed at the surface.Jia Yue of Hampton University in Virginia and his colleagues analysed CO2 measurements at different atmospheric heights and latitudes between 2002 and
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524391b
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Human evolution: Old finger with modern traits
    • Pages: 391 - 391
      Abstract: A 1.84-million-year-old finger bone from Tanzania is the oldest known hominin hand bone with human-like features.Ancient human relatives used stone tools 2 million to 3 million years ago, but had hands that were suited to living in trees. A team led by Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524391a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Conference tweeting rule frustrates ecologists
    • Authors: Chris Woolston
      Pages: 391 - 391
      Abstract: Complaints ensued when attendees at an ecology meeting were asked to get permission before live-tweeting.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-19
      DOI: 10.1038/524391f
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • The week in science: 21–27 August 2015
    • Pages: 392 - 393
      Abstract: Endangered bird mix-up, methane emission restrictions, and ice lab drifts home
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524392a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Hurricane Katrina’s psychological scars revealed
    • Authors: Sara Reardon
      Pages: 395 - 396
      Abstract: Mental health worsened in the disaster’s aftermath, but survivors also showed resilience.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-24
      DOI: 10.1038/524395a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • North Pacific ‘blob’ stirs up fisheries management
    • Authors: Virginia Gewin
      Pages: 396 - 396
      Abstract: Unusually warm ocean strengthens calls to consider ecosystem variables in setting catch limits.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2015.18218
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Minnesota bog study turns up the heat on peat
    • Authors: Alexandra Witze
      Pages: 397 - 397
      Abstract: Experiment boosts temperature and carbon dioxide to gauge global-warming response.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-25
      DOI: 10.1038/524397a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Biohackers gear up for genome editing
    • Authors: Heidi Ledford
      Pages: 398 - 399
      Abstract: Amateurs are ready and able to try the CRISPR technique for rewriting genes.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524398a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Ecologists embrace their urban side
    • Authors: Daniel Cressey
      Pages: 399 - 400
      Abstract: Climate change and the rise of cities have broadened what it means to study ecosystems.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-25
      DOI: 10.1038/524399a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • How cities can beat the heat
    • Authors: Hannah Hoag
      Pages: 402 - 404
      Abstract: Rising temperatures are threatening urban areas, but efforts to cool them may not work as planned.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524402a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • The growing global battle against blood-sucking ticks
    • Authors: Melinda Wenner Moyer
      Pages: 406 - 408
      Abstract: Scientists have no shortage of ideas about how to stop tick-borne illnesses. What is holding them back?
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-25
      DOI: 10.1038/524406a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Water and climate: Recognize anthropogenic drought
    • Authors: Amir AghaKouchak, David Feldman, Martin Hoerling, Travis Huxman, Jay Lund
      Pages: 409 - 411
      Abstract: California's current extreme drought must be a lesson for managing water in a warmer, more densely populated world, say Amir AghaKouchak and colleagues.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524409a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • History of science: The crucible of change
    • Authors: Philip Ball
      Pages: 412 - 413
      Abstract: Philip Ball gets to grips with a revolutionary history of the scientific revolution.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524412a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Digital privacy: Subverting surveillance
    • Authors: Anthony King
      Pages: 413 - 413
      Abstract: Anthony King tours a playful exhibition that probes covert data collection and tracking.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524413a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Science fiction: Cosmology boot camp
    • Authors: John Gilbey
      Pages: 414 - 414
      Abstract: John Gilbey goes on the road in the US far west to refine the science in his fiction.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524414a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • History: Physicist's death changed war policy
    • Authors: Min-Liang Wong
      Pages: 415 - 415
      Abstract: Just over 100 years ago, on 10 August, the 27-year-old British physicist Henry Moseley was killed in the First World War at the battle of Gallipoli. His work on the X-ray spectra of atoms had already explained the basis of Dmitri Mendeleev's periodic table of
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524415d
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Offsets: Conservation served by flexibility
    • Authors: Jared J. Hardner, Raymond E. Gullison, Porter P. Lowry II
      Pages: 415 - 415
      Abstract: The debate over whether national protected areas are eligible for biodiversity-offset funding should factor in the different challenges and contexts for countries seeking to conserve their biodiversity (see M.Maronet al. Nature523, 401–403;10.1038/523401a2015).Offsets that
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524415e
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Neuroanatomy: Forgotten findings of brain lymphatics
    • Pages: 415 - 415
      Abstract: Antoine Louveau and colleagues describe lymphatic vessels in the central nervous system (Nature523, 337–341;10.1038/nature144322015), suggesting that “the unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date”. However, these findings are not without precedent.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524415b
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Europe: Lifelong learning for all in biomedicine
    • Authors: Cath Brooksbank, Claire Johnson
      Pages: 415 - 415
      Abstract: Cross-disciplinary and team-based modern research is overwhelming established mechanisms for maintaining professional competency. This calls for a change to personnel training that is not limited to professors (see C. E.Leiserson and C.McVinneyNature523, 279–281;10.1038/523279a2015).
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524415c
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Food production: Cut food waste to help feed world
    • Authors: Don Gunasekera
      Pages: 415 - 415
      Abstract: Climate-proofing farms to help feed the world's expanding population needs to be complemented by global measures to cut food losses and waste (see Nature523, 396–397;10.1038/523396a2015).Roughly one-third of the food produced annually for human consumption — around
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524415a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Yoichiro Nambu (1921–2015)
    • Authors: Michael S. Turner
      Pages: 416 - 416
      Abstract: Visionary theorist who shaped modern particle physics.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524416a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Materials science: Superlattice substitution
    • Authors: Daniel Vanmaekelbergh
      Pages: 418 - 419
      Abstract: What happens if some of the particles of a superlattice — an array of identical nanoscale crystals — are replaced with foreign ones? It emerges that the properties of superlattices can be radically altered in this way. See Letter p.450
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524418a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Cell biology: Surviving import failure
    • Authors: Cole M. Haynes
      Pages: 419 - 420
      Abstract: Two studies reveal that dysfunction in organelles called mitochondria causes the toxic accumulation of mitochondrial proteins in the cell's cytosolic fluid, and identify ways in which damage is mitigated. See Letters p.481 & p.485
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-05
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14644
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Structural biology: Lipid gymnastics
    • Pages: 420 - 422
      Abstract: Crystal structures of the bacterial protein PglK uncover structural features that suggest how the protein 'flips' lipid-bound oligosaccharide molecules from one side of the cell membrane to the other. See Article p.433
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-12
      DOI: 10.1038/nature15202
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Particle physics: Positrons ride the wave
    • Authors: Philippe Piot
      Pages: 422 - 423
      Abstract: Experiments reveal that positrons — the antimatter equivalents of electrons — can be rapidly accelerated using a plasma wave. The findings pave the way to high-energy electron–positron particle colliders. See Letter p.442
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524422a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Evolution: Gene transfer in complex cells
    • Authors: John M. Archibald
      Pages: 423 - 424
      Abstract: A comparative genomic study shows that, during evolution, nucleus-containing cells acquired DNA from bacteria primarily by endosymbiosis — the uptake and integration of one cell by another. See Article p.427
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature15205
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Photonics: A stable narrow-band X-ray laser
    • Authors: Linda Young
      Pages: 424 - 425
      Abstract: An atomic laser operating at the shortest wavelength yet achieved has been created by bombarding a copper foil with two X-ray pulses tuned to slightly different energies. The results may lead to ultrastable X-ray lasers. See Letter p.446
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524424a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Endosymbiotic origin and differential loss of eukaryotic genes
    • Authors: Chuan Ku, Shijulal Nelson-Sathi, Mayo Roettger, Filipa L. Sousa, Peter J. Lockhart, David Bryant, Einat Hazkani-Covo, James O. McInerney, Giddy Landan, William F. Martin
      Pages: 427 - 432
      Abstract: Chloroplasts arose from cyanobacteria, mitochondria arose from proteobacteria. Both organelles have conserved their prokaryotic biochemistry, but their genomes are reduced, and most organelle proteins are encoded in the nucleus. Endosymbiotic theory posits that bacterial genes in eukaryotic genomes entered the eukaryotic lineage via organelle ancestors.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14963
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Structure and mechanism of an active lipid-linked oligosaccharide flippase
    • Pages: 433 - 438
      Abstract: The flipping of membrane-embedded lipids containing large, polar head groups is slow and energetically unfavourable, and is therefore catalysed by flippases, the mechanisms of which are unknown. A prominent example of a flipping reaction is the translocation of lipid-linked oligosaccharides that serve as donors in
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-12
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14953
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • The disruption of multiplanet systems through resonance with a binary
           orbit
    • Authors: Jihad R. Touma, S. Sridhar
      Pages: 439 - 441
      Abstract: Most exoplanetary systems in binary stars are of S-type, and consist of one or more planets orbiting a primary star with a wide binary stellar companion. Planetary eccentricities and mutual inclinations can be large, perhaps forced gravitationally by the binary companion. Earlier work on single planet systems appealed to the Kozai–Lidov instability wherein a sufficiently inclined binary orbit excites large-amplitude oscillations in the planet’s eccentricity and inclination. The instability, however, can be quenched by many agents that induce fast orbital precession, including mutual gravitational forces in a multiplanet system. Here we report that orbital precession, which inhibits Kozai–Lidov cycling in a multiplanet system, can become fast enough to resonate with the orbital motion of a distant binary companion. Resonant binary forcing results in dramatic outcomes ranging from the excitation of large planetary eccentricities and mutual inclinations to total disruption. Processes such as planetary migration can bring an initially non-resonant system into resonance. As it does not require special physical or initial conditions, binary resonant driving is generic and may have altered the architecture of many multiplanet systems. It can also weaken the multiplanet occurrence rate in wide binaries, and affect planet formation in close binaries.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14873
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Multi-gigaelectronvolt acceleration of positrons in a self-loaded plasma
           wakefield
    • Authors: S. Corde, E. Adli, J. M. Allen, W. An, C. I. Clarke, C. E. Clayton, J. P. Delahaye, J. Frederico, S. Gessner, S. Z. Green, M. J. Hogan, C. Joshi, N. Lipkowitz, M. Litos, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, M. Schmeltz, N. Vafaei-Najafabadi, D. Walz, V. Yakimenko, G. Yocky
      Pages: 442 - 445
      Abstract: Electrical breakdown sets a limit on the kinetic energy that particles in a conventional radio-frequency accelerator can reach. New accelerator concepts must be developed to achieve higher energies and to make future particle colliders more compact and affordable. The plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) embodies one such concept, in which the electric field of a plasma wake excited by a bunch of charged particles (such as electrons) is used to accelerate a trailing bunch of particles. To apply plasma acceleration to electron–positron colliders, it is imperative that both the electrons and their antimatter counterpart, the positrons, are efficiently accelerated at high fields using plasmas. Although substantial progress has recently been reported on high-field, high-efficiency acceleration of electrons in a PWFA powered by an electron bunch, such an electron-driven wake is unsuitable for the acceleration and focusing of a positron bunch. Here we demonstrate a new regime of PWFAs where particles in the front of a single positron bunch transfer their energy to a substantial number of those in the rear of the same bunch by exciting a wakefield in the plasma. In the process, the accelerating field is altered—‘self-loaded’—so that about a billion positrons gain five gigaelectronvolts of energy with a narrow energy spread over a distance of just 1.3 metres. They extract about 30 per cent of the wake’s energy and form a spectrally distinct bunch with a root-mean-square energy spread as low as 1.8 per cent. This ability to transfer energy efficiently from the front to the rear within a single positron bunch makes the PWFA scheme very attractive as an energy booster to an electron–positron collider.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14890
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Atomic inner-shell laser at 1.5-ångström wavelength pumped by an
           X-ray free-electron laser
    • Authors: Hitoki Yoneda, Yuichi Inubushi, Kazunori Nagamine, Yurina Michine, Haruhiko Ohashi, Hirokatsu Yumoto, Kazuto Yamauchi, Hidekazu Mimura, Hikaru Kitamura, Tetsuo Katayama, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Makina Yabashi
      Pages: 446 - 449
      Abstract: Since the invention of the first lasers in the visible-light region, research has aimed to produce short-wavelength lasers that generate coherent X-rays; the shorter the wavelength, the better the imaging resolution of the laser and the shorter the pulse duration, leading to better temporal resolution in probe measurements. Recently, free-electron lasers based on self-amplified spontaneous emission have made it possible to generate a hard-X-ray laser (that is, the photon energy is of the order of ten kiloelectronvolts) in an ångström-wavelength regime, enabling advances in fields from ultrafast X-ray spectrosopy to X-ray quantum optics. An atomic laser based on neon atoms and pumped by a soft-X-ray (that is, a photon energy of less than one kiloelectronvolt) free-electron laser has been achieved at a wavelength of 14 nanometres. Here, we use a copper target and report a hard-X-ray inner-shell atomic laser operating at a wavelength of 1.5 ångströms. X-ray free-electron laser pulses with an intensity of about 1019 watts per square centimetre tuned to the copper K-absorption edge produced sufficient population inversion to generate strong amplified spontaneous emission on the copper Kα lines. Furthermore, we operated the X-ray free-electron laser source in a two-colour mode, with one colour tuned for pumping and the other for the seed (starting) light for the laser.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14894
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Substitutional doping in nanocrystal superlattices
    • Authors: Matteo Cargnello, Aaron C. Johnston-Peck, Benjamin T. Diroll, Eric Wong, Bianca Datta, Divij Damodhar, Vicky V. T. Doan-Nguyen, Andrew A. Herzing, Cherie R. Kagan, Christopher B. Murray
      Pages: 450 - 453
      Abstract: Doping is a process in which atomic impurities are intentionally added to a host material to modify its properties. It has had a revolutionary impact in altering or introducing electronic, magnetic, luminescent, and catalytic properties for several applications, for example in semiconductors. Here we explore and demonstrate the extension of the concept of substitutional atomic doping to nanometre-scale crystal doping, in which one nanocrystal is used to replace another to form doped self-assembled superlattices. Towards this goal, we show that gold nanocrystals act as substitutional dopants in superlattices of cadmium selenide or lead selenide nanocrystals when the size of the gold nanocrystal is very close to that of the host. The gold nanocrystals occupy random positions in the superlattice and their density is readily and widely controllable, analogous to the case of atomic doping, but here through nanocrystal self-assembly. We also show that the electronic properties of the superlattices are highly tunable and strongly affected by the presence and density of the gold nanocrystal dopants. The conductivity of lead selenide films, for example, can be manipulated over at least six orders of magnitude by the addition of gold nanocrystals and is explained by a percolation model. As this process relies on the self-assembly of uniform nanocrystals, it can be generally applied to assemble a wide variety of nanocrystal-doped structures for electronic, optical, magnetic, and catalytic materials.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14872
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Multimetallic catalysed cross-coupling of aryl bromides with aryl
           triflates
    • Authors: Laura K. G. Ackerman, Matthew M. Lovell, Daniel J. Weix
      Pages: 454 - 457
      Abstract: The advent of transition-metal catalysed strategies for forming new carbon-carbon bonds has revolutionized the field of organic chemistry, enabling the efficient synthesis of ligands, materials, and biologically active molecules. In cases where a single metal fails to promote a selective or efficient transformation, the synergistic cooperation of two distinct catalysts—multimetallic catalysis—can be used instead. Many important reactions rely on multimetallic catalysis, such as the Wacker oxidation of olefins and the Sonogashira coupling of alkynes with aryl halides, but this approach has largely been limited to the use of metals with distinct reactivities, with only one metal catalyst undergoing oxidative addition. Here, we demonstrate that cooperativity between two group 10 metal catalysts—(bipyridine)nickel and (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium—enables a general cross-Ullmann reaction (the cross-coupling of two different aryl electrophiles). Our method couples aryl bromides with aryl triflates directly, eliminating the use of arylmetal reagents and avoiding the challenge of differentiating between multiple carbon–hydrogen bonds that is required for direct arylation methods. Selectivity can be achieved without an excess of either substrate and originates from the orthogonal reactivity of the two catalysts and the relative stability of the two arylmetal intermediates. While (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium reacts preferentially with aryl triflates to afford a persistent intermediate, (bipyridine)nickel reacts preferentially with aryl bromides to form a transient, reactive intermediate. Although each catalyst forms less than 5 per cent cross-coupled product in isolation, together they are able to achieve a yield of up to 94 per cent. Our results reveal a new method for the synthesis of biaryls, heteroaryls, and dienes, as well as a general mechanism for the selective transfer of ligands between two metal catalysts. We anticipate that this reaction will simplify the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, many of which are currently made with pre-formed organometallic reagents, and lead to the discovery of new multimetallic reactions.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14676
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Western US intermountain seismicity caused by changes in upper mantle flow
    • Authors: Thorsten W. Becker, Anthony R. Lowry, Claudio Faccenna, Brandon Schmandt, Adrian Borsa, Chunquan Yu
      Pages: 458 - 461
      Abstract: Understanding the causes of intraplate earthquakes is challenging, as it requires extending plate tectonic theory to the dynamics of continental deformation. Seismicity in the western United States away from the plate boundary is clustered along a meandering, north–south trending ‘intermountain’ belt. This zone coincides with a transition from thin, actively deforming to thicker, less tectonically active crust and lithosphere. Although such structural gradients have been invoked to explain seismicity localization, the underlying cause of seismicity remains unclear. Here we show results from improved mantle flow models that reveal a relationship between seismicity and the rate change of ‘dynamic topography’ (that is, vertical normal stress from mantle flow). The associated predictive skill is greater than that of any of the other forcings we examined. We suggest that active mantle flow is a major contributor to seismogenic intraplate deformation, while gravitational potential energy variations have a minor role. Seismicity localization should occur where convective changes in vertical normal stress are modulated by lithospheric strength heterogeneities. Our results on deformation processes appear consistent with findings from other mobile belts, and imply that mantle flow plays a significant and quantifiable part in shaping topography, tectonics, and seismic hazard within intraplate settings.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14867
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • The pre-vertebrate origins of neurogenic placodes
    • Authors: Philip Barron Abitua, T. Blair Gainous, Angela N. Kaczmarczyk, Christopher J. Winchell, Clare Hudson, Kaori Kamata, Masashi Nakagawa, Motoyuki Tsuda, Takehiro G. Kusakabe, Michael Levine
      Pages: 462 - 465
      Abstract: The sudden appearance of the neural crest and neurogenic placodes in early branching vertebrates has puzzled biologists for over a century. These embryonic tissues contribute to the development of the cranium and associated sensory organs, which were crucial for the evolution of the vertebrate “new head”. A previous study suggests that rudimentary neural crest cells existed in ancestral chordates. However, the evolutionary origins of neurogenic placodes have remained obscure owing to a paucity of embryonic data from tunicates, the closest living relatives to those early vertebrates. Here we show that the tunicate Ciona intestinalis exhibits a proto-placodal ectoderm (PPE) that requires inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and expresses the key regulatory determinant Six1/2 and its co-factor Eya, a developmental process conserved across vertebrates. The Ciona PPE is shown to produce ciliated neurons that express genes for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a G-protein-coupled receptor for relaxin-3 (RXFP3) and a functional cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGA), which suggests dual chemosensory and neurosecretory activities. These observations provide evidence that Ciona has a neurogenic proto-placode, which forms neurons that appear to be related to those derived from the olfactory placode and hypothalamic neurons of vertebrates. We discuss the possibility that the PPE-derived GnRH neurons of Ciona resemble an ancestral cell type, a progenitor to the complex neuronal circuit that integrates sensory information and neuroendocrine functions in vertebrates.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-10
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14657
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Sidekick 2 directs formation of a retinal circuit that detects
           differential motion
    • Authors: Arjun Krishnaswamy, Masahito Yamagata, Xin Duan, Y. Kate Hong, Joshua R. Sanes
      Pages: 466 - 470
      Abstract: In the mammalian retina, processes of approximately 70 types of interneurons form specific synapses on roughly 30 types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a neuropil called the inner plexiform layer. Each RGC type extracts salient features from visual input, which are sent deeper into the brain for further processing. The specificity and stereotypy of synapses formed in the inner plexiform layer account for the feature-detecting ability of RGCs. Here we analyse the development and function of synapses on one mouse RGC type, called the W3B-RGC. These cells have the remarkable property of responding when the timing of the movement of a small object differs from that of the background, but not when they coincide. Such cells, known as local edge detectors or object motion sensors, can distinguish moving objects from a visual scene that is also moving. We show that W3B-RGCs receive strong and selective input from an unusual excitatory amacrine cell type known as VG3-AC (vesicular glutamate transporter 3). Both W3B-RGCs and VG3-ACs express the immunoglobulin superfamily recognition molecule sidekick 2 (Sdk2), and both loss- and gain-of-function studies indicate that Sdk2-dependent homophilic interactions are necessary for the selectivity of the connection. The Sdk2-specified synapse is essential for visual responses of W3B-RGCs: whereas bipolar cells relay visual input directly to most RGCs, the W3B-RGCs receive much of their input indirectly, via the VG3-ACs. This non-canonical circuit introduces a delay into the pathway from photoreceptors in the centre of the receptive field to W3B-RGCs, which could improve their ability to judge the synchrony of local and global motion.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14682
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • SEC14L2 enables pan-genotype HCV replication in cell culture
    • Authors: Mohsan Saeed, Ursula Andreo, Hyo-Young Chung, Christine Espiritu, Andrea D. Branch, Jose M. Silva, Charles M. Rice
      Pages: 471 - 475
      Abstract: Since its discovery in 1989, efforts to grow clinical isolates of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in cell culture have met with limited success. Only the JFH-1 isolate has the capacity to replicate efficiently in cultured hepatoma cells without cell culture-adaptive mutations. We hypothesized that cultured cells lack one or more factors required for the replication of clinical isolates. To identify the missing factors, we transduced Huh-7.5 human hepatoma cells with a pooled lentivirus-based human complementary DNA (cDNA) library, transfected the cells with HCV subgenomic replicons lacking adaptive mutations, and selected for stable replicon colonies. This led to the identification of a single cDNA, SEC14L2, that enabled RNA replication of diverse HCV genotypes in several hepatoma cell lines. This effect was dose-dependent, and required the continuous presence of SEC14L2. Full-length HCV genomes also replicated and produced low levels of infectious virus. Remarkably, SEC14L2-expressing Huh-7.5 cells also supported HCV replication following inoculation with patient sera. Mechanistic studies suggest that SEC14L2 promotes HCV infection by enhancing vitamin E-mediated protection against lipid peroxidation. This provides a foundation for development of in vitro replication systems for all HCV isolates, creating a useful platform to dissect the mechanisms by which cell culture-adaptive mutations act.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-12
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14899
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Cell mixing induced by myc is required for competitive tissue invasion and
           destruction
    • Authors: Romain Levayer, Barbara Hauert, Eduardo Moreno
      Pages: 476 - 480
      Abstract: Cell–cell intercalation is used in several developmental processes to shape the normal body plan. There is no clear evidence that intercalation is involved in pathologies. Here we use the proto-oncogene myc to study a process analogous to early phase of tumour expansion: myc-induced cell competition. Cell competition is a conserved mechanism driving the elimination of slow-proliferating cells (so-called ‘losers’) by faster-proliferating neighbours (so-called ‘winners’) through apoptosis and is important in preventing developmental malformations and maintain tissue fitness. Here we show, using long-term live imaging of myc-driven competition in the Drosophila pupal notum and in the wing imaginal disc, that the probability of elimination of loser cells correlates with the surface of contact shared with winners. As such, modifying loser–winner interface morphology can modulate the strength of competition. We further show that elimination of loser clones requires winner–loser cell mixing through cell–cell intercalation. Cell mixing is driven by differential growth and the high tension at winner–winner interfaces relative to winner–loser and loser–loser interfaces, which leads to a preferential stabilization of winner–loser contacts and reduction of clone compactness over time. Differences in tension are generated by a relative difference in F-actin levels between loser and winner junctions, induced by differential levels of the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate. Our results establish the first link between cell–cell intercalation induced by a proto-oncogene and how it promotes invasiveness and destruction of healthy tissues.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14684
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • A cytosolic network suppressing mitochondria-mediated proteostatic stress
           and cell death
    • Authors: Xiaowen Wang, Xin Jie Chen
      Pages: 481 - 484
      Abstract: Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles whose dysfunction leads to neuromuscular degeneration and ageing. The multi-functionality poses a great challenge for understanding the mechanisms by which mitochondrial dysfunction causes specific pathologies. Among the leading mitochondrial mediators of cell death are energy depletion, free radical production, defects in iron–sulfur cluster biosynthesis, the release of pro-apoptotic and non-cell-autonomous signalling molecules, and altered stress signalling. Here we identify a new pathway of mitochondria-mediated cell death in yeast. This pathway was named mitochondrial precursor over-accumulation stress (mPOS), and is characterized by aberrant accumulation of mitochondrial precursors in the cytosol. mPOS can be triggered by clinically relevant mitochondrial damage that is not limited to the core machineries of protein import. We also discover a large network of genes that suppress mPOS, by modulating ribosomal biogenesis, messenger RNA decapping, transcript-specific translation, protein chaperoning and turnover. In response to mPOS, several ribosome-associated proteins were upregulated, including Gis2 and Nog2, which promote cap-independent translation and inhibit the nuclear export of the 60S ribosomal subunit, respectively. Gis2 and Nog2 upregulation promotes cell survival, which may be part of a feedback loop that attenuates mPOS. Our data indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes directly to cytosolic proteostatic stress, and provide an explanation for the association between these two hallmarks of degenerative diseases and ageing. The results are relevant to understanding diseases (for example, spinocerebellar ataxia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and myotonic dystrophy) that involve mutations within the anti-degenerative network.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14859
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Mistargeted mitochondrial proteins activate a proteostatic response in the
           cytosol
    • Authors: Lidia Wrobel, Ulrike Topf, Piotr Bragoszewski, Sebastian Wiese, Malgorzata E. Sztolsztener, Silke Oeljeklaus, Aksana Varabyova, Maciej Lirski, Piotr Chroscicki, Seweryn Mroczek, Elzbieta Januszewicz, Andrzej Dziembowski, Marta Koblowska, Bettina Warscheid, Agnieszka Chacinska
      Pages: 485 - 488
      Abstract: Most of the mitochondrial proteome originates from nuclear genes and is transported into the mitochondria after synthesis in the cytosol. Complex machineries which maintain the specificity of protein import and sorting include the TIM23 translocase responsible for the transfer of precursor proteins into the matrix, and the mitochondrial intermembrane space import and assembly (MIA) machinery required for the biogenesis of intermembrane space proteins. Dysfunction of mitochondrial protein sorting pathways results in diminishing specific substrate proteins, followed by systemic pathology of the organelle and organismal death. The cellular responses caused by accumulation of mitochondrial precursor proteins in the cytosol are mainly unknown. Here we present a comprehensive picture of the changes in the cellular transcriptome and proteome in response to a mitochondrial import defect and precursor over-accumulation stress. Pathways were identified that protect the cell against mitochondrial biogenesis defects by inhibiting protein synthesis and by activation of the proteasome, a major machine for cellular protein clearance. Proteasomal activity is modulated in proportion to the quantity of mislocalized mitochondrial precursor proteins in the cytosol. We propose that this type of unfolded protein response activated by mistargeting of proteins (UPRam) is beneficial for the cells. UPRam provides a means for buffering the consequences of physiological slowdown in mitochondrial protein import and for counteracting pathologies that are caused or contributed by mitochondrial dysfunction.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-05
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14951
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Kinetochore-localized PP1–Sds22 couples chromosome segregation to
           polar relaxation
    • Authors: Nelio T. L. Rodrigues, Sergey Lekomtsev, Silvana Jananji, Janos Kriston-Vizi, Gilles R. X. Hickson, Buzz Baum
      Pages: 489 - 492
      Abstract: Cell division requires the precise coordination of chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. This coordination is achieved by the recruitment of an actomyosin regulator, Ect2, to overlapping microtubules at the centre of the elongating anaphase spindle. Ect2 then signals to the overlying cortex to promote the assembly and constriction of an actomyosin ring between segregating chromosomes. Here, by studying division in proliferating Drosophila and human cells, we demonstrate the existence of a second, parallel signalling pathway, which triggers the relaxation of the polar cell cortex at mid anaphase. This is independent of furrow formation, centrosomes and microtubules and, instead, depends on PP1 phosphatase and its regulatory subunit Sds22 (refs 2, 3). As separating chromosomes move towards the polar cortex at mid anaphase, kinetochore-localized PP1–Sds22 helps to break cortical symmetry by inducing the dephosphorylation and inactivation of ezrin/radixin/moesin proteins at cell poles. This promotes local softening of the cortex, facilitating anaphase elongation and orderly cell division. In summary, this identifies a conserved kinetochore-based phosphatase signal and substrate, which function together to link anaphase chromosome movements to cortical polarization, thereby coupling chromosome segregation to cell division.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-07-13
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14496
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Structural basis for stop codon recognition in eukaryotes
    • Authors: Alan Brown, Sichen Shao, Jason Murray, Ramanujan S. Hegde, V. Ramakrishnan
      Pages: 493 - 496
      Abstract: Termination of protein synthesis occurs when a translating ribosome encounters one of three universally conserved stop codons: UAA, UAG or UGA. Release factors recognize stop codons in the ribosomal A-site to mediate release of the nascent chain and recycling of the ribosome. Bacteria decode stop codons using two separate release factors with differing specificities for the second and third bases. By contrast, eukaryotes rely on an evolutionarily unrelated omnipotent release factor (eRF1) to recognize all three stop codons. The molecular basis of eRF1 discrimination for stop codons over sense codons is not known. Here we present cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures at 3.5–3.8 Å resolution of mammalian ribosomal complexes containing eRF1 interacting with each of the three stop codons in the A-site. Binding of eRF1 flips nucleotide A1825 of 18S ribosomal RNA so that it stacks on the second and third stop codon bases. This configuration pulls the fourth position base into the A-site, where it is stabilized by stacking against G626 of 18S rRNA. Thus, eRF1 exploits two rRNA nucleotides also used during transfer RNA selection to drive messenger RNA compaction. In this compacted mRNA conformation, stop codons are favoured by a hydrogen-bonding network formed between rRNA and essential eRF1 residues that constrains the identity of the bases. These results provide a molecular framework for eukaryotic stop codon recognition and have implications for future studies on the mechanisms of canonical and premature translation termination.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-05
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14896
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Conformational dynamics of a class C G-protein-coupled receptor
    • Authors: Reza Vafabakhsh, Joshua Levitz, Ehud Y. Isacoff
      Pages: 497 - 501
      Abstract: G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of membrane receptors in eukaryotes. Crystal structures have provided insight into GPCR interactions with ligands and G proteins, but our understanding of the conformational dynamics of activation is incomplete. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are dimeric class C GPCRs that modulate neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, and serve as drug targets for neurological disorders. A ‘clamshell’ ligand-binding domain (LBD), which contains the ligand-binding site, is coupled to the transmembrane domain via a cysteine-rich domain, and LBD closure seems to be the first step in activation. Crystal structures of isolated mGluR LBD dimers led to the suggestion that activation also involves a reorientation of the dimer interface from a ‘relaxed’ to an ‘active’ state, but the relationship between ligand binding, LBD closure and dimer interface rearrangement in activation remains unclear. Here we use single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer to probe the activation mechanism of full-length mammalian group II mGluRs. We show that the LBDs interconvert between three conformations: resting, activated and a short-lived intermediate state. Orthosteric agonists induce transitions between these conformational states, with efficacy determined by occupancy of the active conformation. Unlike mGluR2, mGluR3 displays basal dynamics, which are Ca2+-dependent and lead to basal protein activation. Our results support a general mechanism for the activation of mGluRs in which agonist binding induces closure of the LBDs, followed by dimer interface reorientation. Our experimental strategy should be widely applicable to study conformational dynamics in GPCRs and other membrane proteins.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-10
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14679
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Corrigendum: In vivo engineering of oncogenic chromosomal rearrangements
           with the CRISPR/Cas9 system
    • Authors: Danilo Maddalo, Eusebio Manchado, Carla P. Concepcion, Ciro Bonetti, Joana A. Vidigal, Yoon-Chi Han, Paul Ogrodowski, Alessandra Crippa, Natasha Rekhtman, Elisa de Stanchina, Scott W. Lowe, Andrea Ventura
      Pages: 502 - 502
      Abstract: Nature516, 423–427 (2014); doi:10.1038/nature13902During the assembly of Fig. 1b of this Letter, the sequences of the targeted regions in Eml4 and Alk, shown in the schematic in the top panel, were inadvertently swapped. In
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-06-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14571
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Erratum: No signature of ejecta interaction with a stellar companion in
           three type Ia supernovae
    • Authors: Rob P. Olling, Richard Mushotzky, Edward J. Shaya, Armin Rest, Peter M. Garnavich, Brad E. Tucker, Daniel Kasen, Steve Margheim, Alexei V. Filippenko
      Pages: 502 - 502
      Abstract: Nature521, 332–335 (2015); doi:10.1038/nature14455Owing to a typesetter error, the final word ‘days’ was missing from the end of the Table 1 footnote in the PDF and print versions (the HTML is correct). The sentence has been
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-06-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14572
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Erratum: A strong ultraviolet pulse from a newborn type Ia supernova
    • Pages: 502 - 502
      Abstract: Nature521, 328–331 (2015); doi:10.1038/nature14440In this Letter, the superscript in the ultraviolet luminosity was listed incorrectly as ‘−41’ rather than ‘41’ in the last sentence of the second paragraph from the bottom in the left column of
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-06-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14605
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Know your network
    • Authors: Peter Fiske
      Pages: 507 - 508
      Abstract: Seek and cultivate professional relationships to advance your career, says Peter Fiske.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7566-507a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Trade talk: Impact assessor
    • Authors: Monya Baker
      Pages: 508 - 508
      Abstract: Arie Meir describes his route from a PhD in biophysics to a leadership position assessing projects for the philanthropic arm of Google.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7566-508a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
  • Under an uncaring sky
    • Authors: William Meikle
      Pages: 510 - 510
      Abstract: Ill met by starlight.
      Citation: Nature 524, 7566 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.1038/524510a
      Issue No: Vol. 524, No. 7566 (2015)
       
 
 
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