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Nature    [1873 followers]  Follow    
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
     ISSN (Print) 0028-0836 - ISSN (Online) 1476-4687
     Published by Nature Publishing Group Homepage  [108 journals]   [SJR: 14.747]   [H-I: 768]
  • Look back in wonder
    • Pages: 149 - 149
      Abstract: The launch of the first Sentinel satellite heralds an era in which detailed data on everything from earthquakes to urbanization will be freely available to anyone interested in Earth’s future.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-08
      DOI: 10.1038/508149a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Political science
    • Pages: 149 - 150
      Abstract: Russia deserves to be sanctioned, but halting scientific collaboration is not the way to do it.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-08
      DOI: 10.1038/508149b
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Copper rewired
    • Pages: 150 - 150
      Abstract: Two Nature papers signal new roles for this ancient metal in catalysis and cancer therapy.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508150a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Society needs more than wonder to respect science
    • Authors: Susan Watts
      Pages: 151 - 151
      Abstract: Researchers are well placed to explain concepts, but journalists will bring the critical scrutiny needed to integrate science in society, says Susan Watts.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508151a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Molecular biology: DNA regulator acts on RNA too
    • Pages: 152 - 153
      Abstract: A DNA-binding protein that regulates several genes also attaches to RNA, revealing another way in which the protein acts as a 'master weaver' of the genome.Félix Recillas-Targa of the National Autonomous University of Mexico in Mexico City, Danny Reinberg of New York University's Langone
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508152d
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Plant biology: How bacteria turn plants into zombies
    • Pages: 152 - 152
      Abstract: Researchers have uncovered how certain bacterial pathogens that infect plants make them sterile and capable only of spreading disease.Phytoplasma pathogens are transmitted by sap-feeding insects that turn flowers (such as Arabidopsis thaliana, pictured top) into leaf-like structures (bottom) that do not produce
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508152c
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Microbial genomics: Sequencing spots killer microbes
    • Pages: 152 - 152
      Abstract: Sequencing the genome of an antibiotic-resistant microbe can identify the most dangerous isolates, reports a team led by Ruth Massey at the University of Bath, UK.Her group studied 90 isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that had varying levels of ability to stick
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508152b
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Evolution: Hummingbird species on the rise
    • Pages: 152 - 152
      Abstract: In just 22 million years or so, hummingbirds have rapidly diversified from a single ancestor into more than 300 species, and some lineages are still generating new species at an extraordinary rate.Jimmy McGuire at the University of California, Berkeley, and his colleagues compared the
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508152a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Climate change: European hotspot in a warmer world
    • Pages: 153 - 153
      Abstract: Highly read on iopscience.iop.org in MarchEven if the global temperature rise is held to a limit of 2 °C, most of Europe will probably warm by substantially more.A team led by Robert Vautard at the Pierre-Simon Laplace Institute in Gif-sur-Yvette, France, combined
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508153f
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Nanotechnology: DNA robots work in a live cockroach
    • Pages: 153 - 153
      Abstract: Molecular 'robots' can perform complex logic tasks inside a living organism.Ido Bachelet of Bar-Ilan University in Ramat Gan, Israel, and his colleagues used folded strands of DNA to create a suite of nanorobots that open, close and coordinate with each other in response to
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508153e
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Agriculture: Rising carbon saps wheat quality
    • Pages: 153 - 153
      Abstract: A field experiment shows that wheat exposed to higher carbon dioxide levels converts less of the nitrogen it absorbs into protein. This could result in decreased food quality this century.Arnold Bloom at the University of California, Davis, and his colleagues compared nitrate concentrations and
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508153d
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Biotechnology: Altered trees make digestible wood
    • Pages: 153 - 153
      Abstract: Genetically engineered poplars can make a modified polymer in their wood that breaks down more easily than natural forms. Such trees could one day be sources of biofuels.Current methods for digesting the tough, resistant polymer called lignin involve concentrated chemicals at high temperatures. John
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508153c
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Climate science: El Niño comes in many flavours
    • Pages: 153 - 153
      Abstract: Different kinds of El Niño warming events in the tropical Pacific Ocean can have widely varying effects on global temperatures.Simon Donner and Sandra Banholzer of the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, used historical sea surface temperature data to classify El Niño events
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508153b
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Planetary science: A moon of Saturn hides an ocean
    • Pages: 153 - 153
      Abstract: Beneath Enceladus's south pole lies a watery ocean that could hold organic molecules that form the basis of life.Luciano Iess at the Sapienza University of Rome and his colleagues analysed gravity measurements from the Cassini spacecraft during three flybys of this moon of Saturn
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508153a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Seven days: 4–10 April 2014
    • Pages: 154 - 155
      Abstract: The week in science: Chile hit by magnitude-8.2 quake; US unveils most accurate atomic clock; and European Parliament votes for clinical-trial transparency.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508154a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • NIH stem-cell programme closes
    • Authors: Sara Reardon
      Pages: 157 - 157
      Abstract: Director resigns as just one clinical-trial award is made.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-08
      DOI: 10.1038/508157a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Metabolic quirks yield tumour hope
    • Authors: Heidi Ledford
      Pages: 158 - 159
      Abstract: Early clinical-trial results show promise for targeting cancer-related biochemical pathways.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508158a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • E-cigarettes affect cells
    • Authors: Daniel Cressey
      Pages: 159 - 159
      Abstract: Questions raised over health effects of devices.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-08
      DOI: 10.1038/508159a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Earth observation enters next phase
    • Authors: Declan Butler
      Pages: 160 - 161
      Abstract: Expectations high as first European Sentinel satellite launches.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-08
      DOI: 10.1038/508160a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Western science severs ties with Russia
    • Authors: Quirin Schiermeier
      Pages: 162 - 162
      Abstract: Country’s science renaissance threatened as NATO and NASA suspend links.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-08
      DOI: 10.1038/508162a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Correction
    • Pages: 163 - 163
      Abstract: The affiliation for Joshua Tewksbury in the Editorial ‘Natural decline’ (Nature508, 7–8; 2014) should have said he is director of the Luc Hoffmann Institute at the conservation group WWF in Gland, Switzerland.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508163b
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Time running out for rarest primate
    • Authors: Daniel Cressey
      Pages: 163 - 163
      Abstract: Rescue bid launched to save Hainan gibbon from becoming first ape driven to extinction by humans.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-08
      DOI: 10.1038/508163a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Floods: Holding back the tide
    • Authors: Quirin Schiermeier
      Pages: 164 - 166
      Abstract: With the Ganges–Brahmaputra delta sinking, the race is on to protect millions of people from future flooding.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508164a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Biomarkers and ageing: The clock-watcher
    • Authors: W. Wayt Gibbs
      Pages: 168 - 170
      Abstract: Biomathematician Steve Horvath has discovered a strikingly accurate way to measure human ageing through epigenetic signatures.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-08
      DOI: 10.1038/508168a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Climate policy: Streamline IPCC reports
    • Authors: David Griggs
      Pages: 171 - 173
      Abstract: As the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change asks how its assessment process should evolve, Dave Griggs argues for decadal updates and eased workloads.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-04
      DOI: 10.1038/508171a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Global warming: Improve economic models of climate change
    • Authors: Richard L. Revesz, Peter H. Howard, Kenneth Arrow, Lawrence H. Goulder, Robert E. Kopp, Michael A. Livermore, Michael Oppenheimer, Thomas Sterner
      Pages: 173 - 175
      Abstract: Costs of carbon emissions are being underestimated, but current estimates are still valuable for setting mitigation policy, say Richard L. Revesz and colleagues.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-04
      DOI: 10.1038/508173a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Biotechnology: Recombinant gold
    • Authors: Nathaniel Comfort
      Pages: 176 - 177
      Abstract: Nathaniel Comfort applauds a nuanced history of genetic engineering's early years.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508176a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Ecology: Wilson in Africa
    • Authors: Stuart Pimm
      Pages: 178 - 179
      Abstract: Stuart Pimm enjoys a fellow naturalist's first visit to sub-Saharan Africa, and the global lessons drawn from it.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508178a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • New in paperback
    • Authors: Emily Banham
      Pages: 178 - 185
      Abstract: Highlights of this season's releases
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508178b
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Climate Economics: A strained relationship
    • Authors: Scott Barrett
      Pages: 179 - 180
      Abstract: Scott Barrett examines a study probing the nexus between climate change and energy.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508179a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Medicine: Outside the fold
    • Authors: Giovanna Mallucci
      Pages: 180 - 181
      Abstract: Giovanna Mallucci assesses the autobiography of Stanley Prusiner, the discoverer of prions.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508180a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Drugs: Gut response
    • Authors: Maryn McKenna
      Pages: 182 - 183
      Abstract: Maryn McKenna finds much to digest in a warning about the demise of our bodily bacteria.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508182a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Education: Digital lessons learned
    • Authors: Robert A. Lue
      Pages: 183 - 184
      Abstract: Robert Lue enjoys a deft study of online pedagogy.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508183a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Energy: The new oil era
    • Authors: Chris Nelder
      Pages: 185 - 185
      Abstract: Chris Nelder relishes a lively history of fracking that delves into the complexities.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508185a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Conservation: Zoo visits boost biodiversity literacy
    • Authors: Andrew Moss, Eric Jensen, Markus Gusset
      Pages: 186 - 186
      Abstract: Zoos and aquaria worldwide attract more than 700 million visits every year. They are therefore well placed to make more people aware of the importance of biodiversity — a prime target of the United Nations Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–20.We surveyed approximately 6,000 visitors
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508186d
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Molecular biology: A protein that spells trouble
    • Authors: David Boone
      Pages: 186 - 186
      Abstract: The gene CYLD is so named because one of its mutant forms is associated with cylindromatosis, which causes skin tumours.The CYLD protein is an enzyme; its active site in humans contains a cysteine residue at position 601 (denoted as C in the one-letter
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508186e
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Livestock: tackle demand and yields
    • Authors: Erasmus K. H. J. zu Ermgassen, David R. Williams, Andrew Balmford
      Pages: 186 - 186
      Abstract: Among many otherwise laudable suggestions, Mark Eisler and colleagues propose limiting feedstuffs for livestock to fibrous fodder, such as grass and silage (see Nature507, 32–34; 10.1038/507032a2014). However, we believe that any attempt to meet the rapid growth in
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508186b
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Livestock: limit red meat consumption
    • Authors: Brian Machovina, Kenneth J. Feeley
      Pages: 186 - 186
      Abstract: Mark Eisler and co-authors advocate eating only 300 grams of red meat a week (roughly the volume of three decks of playing cards) as a step towards producing sustainable livestock (Nature507, 32–34; 10.1038/507032a2014). That amount corresponds to
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508186c
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Prizes: Growing time lag threatens Nobels
    • Authors: Santo Fortunato
      Pages: 186 - 186
      Abstract: The time lag between reporting a scientific discovery worthy of a Nobel prize and the awarding of the medal has increased, with waits of more than 20 years becoming common. If this trend continues, some candidates might not live long enough to attend their Nobel
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508186a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Alejandro Zaffaroni (1923–2014)
    • Authors: Jane E. Shaw
      Pages: 187 - 187
      Abstract: Bioentrepreneur who revolutionized drug delivery and screening.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508187a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Solar system: Cracking up on asteroids
    • Authors: Heather A. Viles
      Pages: 190 - 191
      Abstract: A combination of laboratory experiments and modelling shows that diurnal temperature variations are the main cause of rock breakdown and the ensuing formation of powdery rubble on the surface of small asteroids. See Letter p.233
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-02
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13222
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Cancer: Damage prevention targeted
    • Authors: Dan Dominissini, Chuan He
      Pages: 191 - 192
      Abstract: The MTH1 protein prevents oxidized nucleotides from being misincorporated into DNA. Two studies find that selective inhibition of MTH1 by small molecules suppresses tumour growth. See Articles p.215 & p.222
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-02
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13221
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Biogeoscience: Africa's greenhouse-gas budget is in the red
    • Authors: Cheikh Mbow
      Pages: 192 - 193
      Abstract: Africa had been thought to be a potentially large carbon sink — of great value in efforts to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. But an analysis now reveals that it could be a net source of greenhouse gases that will increase global warming.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508192a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Metabolism: Targeting a fat-accumulation gene
    • Authors: Charles Brenner
      Pages: 194 - 195
      Abstract: An enzyme that links two metabolic hubs has been found to be upregulated in the fat cells of overweight mice. Inhibition of the gene encoding this enzyme protects mice from diet-induced obesity. See Letter p.258
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508194a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Quantum physics: A strong hybrid couple
    • Authors: Luming Duan
      Pages: 195 - 196
      Abstract: A single atom in an optical cavity is shown to interact strongly with an incoming photon and to switch the photon's state. This finding opens up a path towards optical quantum computation and quantum networks. See Letters p.237 & p.241
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508195a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Structural biology: The purple heart of photosynthesis
    • Authors: Richard J. Cogdell, Aleksander W. Roszak
      Pages: 196 - 197
      Abstract: The structure of a photosynthetic complex from a purple bacterium reveals a new class of light-harvesting protein and the channels that might allow electron-transporting molecules to escape this otherwise closed system. See Article p.228
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-03-26
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13219
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Transcriptional landscape of the prenatal human brain
    • Authors: Jeremy A. Miller, Song-Lin Ding, Susan M. Sunkin, Kimberly A. Smith, Lydia Ng, Aaron Szafer, Amanda Ebbert, Zackery L. Riley, Joshua J. Royall, Kaylynn Aiona, James M. Arnold, Crissa Bennet, Darren Bertagnolli, Krissy Brouner, Stephanie Butler, Shiella Caldejon, Anita Carey, Christine Cuhaciyan, Rachel A. Dalley, Nick Dee, Tim A. Dolbeare, Benjamin A. C. Facer, David Feng, Tim P. Fliss, Garrett Gee, Jeff Goldy, Lindsey Gourley, Benjamin W. Gregor, Guangyu Gu, Robert E. Howard, Jayson M. Jochim, Chihchau L. Kuan, Christopher Lau, Chang-Kyu Lee, Felix Lee, Tracy A. Lemon, Phil Lesnar, Bergen McMurray, Naveed Mastan, Nerick Mosqueda, Theresa Naluai-Cecchini, Nhan-Kiet Ngo, Julie Nyhus, Aaron Oldre, Eric Olson, Jody Parente, Patrick D. Parker, Sheana E. Parry, Allison Stevens, Mihovil Pletikos, Melissa Reding, Kate Roll, David Sandman, Melaine Sarreal, Sheila Shapouri, Nadiya V. Shapovalova, Elaine H. Shen, Nathan Sjoquist, Clifford R. Slaughterbeck, Michael Smith, Andy J. Sodt, Derric Williams, Lilla Zöllei, Bruce Fischl, Mark B. Gerstein, Daniel H. Geschwind, Ian A. Glass, Michael J. Hawrylycz, Robert F. Hevner, Hao Huang, Allan R. Jones, James A. Knowles, Pat Levitt, John W. Phillips, Nenad Šestan, Paul Wohnoutka, Chinh Dang, Amy Bernard, John G. Hohmann, Ed S. Lein
      Pages: 199 - 206
      Abstract: The anatomical and functional architecture of the human brain is mainly determined by prenatal transcriptional processes. We describe an anatomically comprehensive atlas of the mid-gestational human brain, including de novo reference atlases, in situ hybridization, ultra-high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and microarray analysis
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-02
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13185
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • A mesoscale connectome of the mouse brain
    • Authors: Seung Wook Oh, Julie A. Harris, Lydia Ng, Brent Winslow, Nicholas Cain, Stefan Mihalas, Quanxin Wang, Chris Lau, Leonard Kuan, Alex M. Henry, Marty T. Mortrud, Benjamin Ouellette, Thuc Nghi Nguyen, Staci A. Sorensen, Clifford R. Slaughterbeck, Wayne Wakeman, Yang Li, David Feng, Anh Ho, Eric Nicholas, Karla E. Hirokawa, Phillip Bohn, Kevin M. Joines, Hanchuan Peng, Michael J. Hawrylycz, John W. Phillips, John G. Hohmann, Paul Wohnoutka, Charles R. Gerfen, Christof Koch, Amy Bernard, Chinh Dang, Allan R. Jones, Hongkui Zeng
      Pages: 207 - 214
      Abstract: Comprehensive knowledge of the brain’s wiring diagram is fundamental for understanding how the nervous system processes information at both local and global scales. However, with the singular exception of the C. elegans microscale connectome, there are no complete connectivity data sets in other species.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-02
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13186
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • MTH1 inhibition eradicates cancer by preventing sanitation of the dNTP
           pool
    • Authors: Helge Gad, Tobias Koolmeister, Ann-Sofie Jemth, Saeed Eshtad, Sylvain A. Jacques, Cecilia E. Ström, Linda M. Svensson, Niklas Schultz, Thomas Lundbäck, Berglind Osk Einarsdottir, Aljona Saleh, Camilla Göktürk, Pawel Baranczewski, Richard Svensson, Ronnie P.-A. Berntsson, Robert Gustafsson, Kia Strömberg, Kumar Sanjiv, Marie-Caroline Jacques-Cordonnier, Matthieu Desroses, Anna-Lena Gustavsson, Roger Olofsson, Fredrik Johansson, Evert J. Homan, Olga Loseva, Lars Bräutigam, Lars Johansson, Andreas Höglund, Anna Hagenkort, Therese Pham, Mikael Altun, Fabienne Z. Gaugaz, Svante Vikingsson, Bastiaan Evers, Martin Henriksson, Karl S. A. Vallin, Olov A. Wallner, Lars G. J. Hammarström, Elisee Wiita, Ingrid Almlöf, Christina Kalderén, Hanna Axelsson, Tatjana Djureinovic, Jordi Carreras Puigvert, Maria Häggblad, Fredrik Jeppsson, Ulf Martens, Cecilia Lundin, Bo Lundgren, Ingrid Granelli, Annika Jenmalm Jensen, Per Artursson, Jonas A. Nilsson, Pål Stenmark, Martin Scobie, Ulrika Warpman Berglund, Thomas Helleday
      Pages: 215 - 221
      Abstract: Cancers have dysfunctional redox regulation resulting in reactive oxygen species production, damaging both DNA and free dNTPs. The MTH1 protein sanitizes oxidized dNTP pools to prevent incorporation of damaged bases during DNA replication. Although MTH1 is non-essential in normal cells, we show that cancer cells
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-02
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13181
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Stereospecific targeting of MTH1 by (S)-crizotinib as an anticancer
           strategy
    • Authors: Kilian V. M. Huber, Eidarus Salah, Branka Radic, Manuela Gridling, Jonathan M. Elkins, Alexey Stukalov, Ann-Sofie Jemth, Camilla Göktürk, Kumar Sanjiv, Kia Strömberg, Therese Pham, Ulrika Warpman Berglund, Jacques Colinge, Keiryn L. Bennett, Joanna I. Loizou, Thomas Helleday, Stefan Knapp, Giulio Superti-Furga
      Pages: 222 - 227
      Abstract: Activated RAS GTPase signalling is a critical driver of oncogenic transformation and malignant disease. Cellular models of RAS-dependent cancers have been used to identify experimental small molecules, such as SCH51344, but their molecular mechanism of action remains generally unknown. Here, using a chemical proteomic approach,
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-02
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13194
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Structure of the LH1–RC complex from Thermochromatium tepidum at
           3.0 Å
    • Authors: Satomi Niwa, Long-Jiang Yu, Kazuki Takeda, Yu Hirano, Tomoaki Kawakami, Zheng-Yu Wang-Otomo, Kunio Miki
      Pages: 228 - 232
      Abstract: The light-harvesting core antenna (LH1) and the reaction centre (RC) of purple photosynthetic bacteria form a supramolecular complex (LH1–RC) to use sunlight energy in a highly efficient manner. Here we report the first near-atomic structure, to our knowledge, of a LH1–RC complex, namely that of
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-03-26
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13197
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Thermal fatigue as the origin of regolith on small asteroids
    • Authors: Marco Delbo, Guy Libourel, Justin Wilkerson, Naomi Murdoch, Patrick Michel, K. T. Ramesh, Clément Ganino, Chrystele Verati, Simone Marchi
      Pages: 233 - 236
      Abstract: Space missions and thermal infrared observations have shown that small asteroids (kilometre-sized or smaller) are covered by a layer of centimetre-sized or smaller particles, which constitute the regolith. Regolith generation has traditionally been attributed to the fall back of impact ejecta and by the break-up of boulders by micrometeoroid impact. Laboratory experiments and impact models, however, show that crater ejecta velocities are typically greater than several tens of centimetres per second, which corresponds to the gravitational escape velocity of kilometre-sized asteroids. Therefore, impact debris cannot be the main source of regolith on small asteroids. Here we report that thermal fatigue, a mechanism of rock weathering and fragmentation with no subsequent ejection, is the dominant process governing regolith generation on small asteroids. We find that thermal fragmentation induced by the diurnal temperature variations breaks up rocks larger than a few centimetres more quickly than do micrometeoroid impacts. Because thermal fragmentation is independent of asteroid size, this process can also contribute to regolith production on larger asteroids. Production of fresh regolith originating in thermal fatigue fragmentation may be an important process for the rejuvenation of the surfaces of near-Earth asteroids, and may explain the observed lack of low-perihelion, carbonaceous, near-Earth asteroids.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-02
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13153
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • A quantum gate between a flying optical photon and a single trapped atom
    • Authors: Andreas Reiserer, Norbert Kalb, Gerhard Rempe, Stephan Ritter
      Pages: 237 - 240
      Abstract: The steady increase in control over individual quantum systems supports the promotion of a quantum technology that could provide functionalities beyond those of any classical device. Two particularly promising applications have been explored during the past decade: photon-based quantum communication, which guarantees unbreakable encryption but which still has to be scaled to high rates over large distances, and quantum computation, which will fundamentally enhance computability if it can be scaled to a large number of quantum bits (qubits). It was realized early on that a hybrid system of light qubits and matter qubits could solve the scalability problem of each field—that of communication by use of quantum repeaters, and that of computation by use of an optical interconnect between smaller quantum processors. To this end, the development of a robust two-qubit gate that allows the linking of distant computational nodes is “a pressing challenge”. Here we demonstrate such a quantum gate between the spin state of a single trapped atom and the polarization state of an optical photon contained in a faint laser pulse. The gate mechanism presented is deterministic and robust, and is expected to be applicable to almost any matter qubit. It is based on reflection of the photonic qubit from a cavity that provides strong light–matter coupling. To demonstrate its versatility, we use the quantum gate to create atom–photon, atom–photon–photon and photon–photon entangled states from separable input states. We expect our experiment to enable various applications, including the generation of atomic and photonic cluster states and Schrödinger-cat states, deterministic photonic Bell-state measurements, scalable quantum computation and quantum communication using a redundant quantum parity code.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13177
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Nanophotonic quantum phase switch with a single atom
    • Authors: T. G. Tiecke, J. D. Thompson, N. P. de Leon, L. R. Liu, V. Vuletić, M. D. Lukin
      Pages: 241 - 244
      Abstract: By analogy to transistors in classical electronic circuits, quantum optical switches are important elements of quantum circuits and quantum networks. Operated at the fundamental limit where a single quantum of light or matter controls another field or material system, such a switch may enable applications such as long-distance quantum communication, distributed quantum information processing and metrology, and the exploration of novel quantum states of matter. Here, by strongly coupling a photon to a single atom trapped in the near field of a nanoscale photonic crystal cavity, we realize a system in which a single atom switches the phase of a photon and a single photon modifies the atom’s phase. We experimentally demonstrate an atom-induced optical phase shift that is nonlinear at the two-photon level, a photon number router that separates individual photons and photon pairs into different output modes, and a single-photon switch in which a single ‘gate’ photon controls the propagation of a subsequent probe field. These techniques pave the way to integrated quantum nanophotonic networks involving multiple atomic nodes connected by guided light.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13188
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Dynamics of continental accretion
    • Authors: L. Moresi, P. G. Betts, M. S. Miller, R. A. Cayley
      Pages: 245 - 248
      Abstract: Subduction zones become congested when they try to consume buoyant, exotic crust. The accretionary mountain belts (orogens) that form at these convergent plate margins have been the principal sites of lateral continental growth through Earth’s history. Modern examples of accretionary margins are the North American Cordilleras and southwest Pacific subduction zones. The geologic record contains abundant accretionary orogens, such as the Tasmanides, along the eastern margin of the supercontinent Gondwana, and the Altaïdes, which formed on the southern margin of Laurasia. In modern and ancient examples of long-lived accretionary orogens, the overriding plate is subjected to episodes of crustal extension and back-arc basin development, often related to subduction rollback and transient episodes of orogenesis and crustal shortening, coincident with accretion of exotic crust. Here we present three-dimensional dynamic models that show how accretionary margins evolve from the initial collision, through a period of plate margin instability, to re-establishment of a stable convergent margin. The models illustrate how significant curvature of the orogenic system develops, as well as the mechanism for tectonic escape of the back-arc region. The complexity of the morphology and the evolution of the system are caused by lateral rollback of a tightly arcuate trench migrating parallel to the plate boundary and orthogonally to the convergence direction. We find geological and geophysical evidence for this process in the Tasmanides of eastern Australia, and infer that this is a recurrent and global phenomenon.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-03-23
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13033
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Detection and replication of epistasis influencing transcription in humans
    • Authors: Gibran Hemani, Konstantin Shakhbazov, Harm-Jan Westra, Tonu Esko, Anjali K. Henders, Allan F. McRae, Jian Yang, Greg Gibson, Nicholas G. Martin, Andres Metspalu, Lude Franke, Grant W. Montgomery, Peter M. Visscher, Joseph E. Powell
      Pages: 249 - 253
      Abstract: Epistasis is the phenomenon whereby one polymorphism’s effect on a trait depends on other polymorphisms present in the genome. The extent to which epistasis influences complex traits and contributes to their variation is a fundamental question in evolution and human genetics. Although often demonstrated in artificial gene manipulation studies in model organisms, and some examples have been reported in other species, few examples exist for epistasis among natural polymorphisms in human traits. Its absence from empirical findings may simply be due to low incidence in the genetic control of complex traits, but an alternative view is that it has previously been too technically challenging to detect owing to statistical and computational issues. Here we show, using advanced computation and a gene expression study design, that many instances of epistasis are found between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In a cohort of 846 individuals with 7,339 gene expression levels measured in peripheral blood, we found 501 significant pairwise interactions between common SNPs influencing the expression of 238 genes (P 
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-02-26
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13005
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • A synchronized global sweep of the internal genes of modern avian
           influenza virus
    • Authors: Michael Worobey, Guan-Zhu Han, Andrew Rambaut
      Pages: 254 - 257
      Abstract: Zoonotic infectious diseases such as influenza continue to pose a grave threat to human health. However, the factors that mediate the emergence of RNA viruses such as influenza A virus (IAV) are still incompletely understood. Phylogenetic inference is crucial to reconstructing the origins and tracing the flow of IAV within and between hosts. Here we show that explicitly allowing IAV host lineages to have independent rates of molecular evolution is necessary for reliable phylogenetic inference of IAV and that methods that do not do so, including ‘relaxed’ molecular clock models, can be positively misleading. A phylogenomic analysis using a host-specific local clock model recovers extremely consistent evolutionary histories across all genomic segments and demonstrates that the equine H7N7 lineage is a sister clade to strains from birds—as well as those from humans, swine and the equine H3N8 lineage—sharing an ancestor with them in the mid to late 1800s. Moreover, major western and eastern hemisphere avian influenza lineages inferred for each gene coalesce in the late 1800s. On the basis of these phylogenies and the synchrony of these key nodes, we infer that the internal genes of avian influenza virus (AIV) underwent a global selective sweep beginning in the late 1800s, a process that continued throughout the twentieth century and up to the present. The resulting western hemispheric AIV lineage subsequently contributed most of the genomic segments to the 1918 pandemic virus and, independently, the 1963 equine H3N8 panzootic lineage. This approach provides a clear resolution of evolutionary patterns and processes in IAV, including the flow of viral genes and genomes within and between host lineages.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-02-16
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13016
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase knockdown protects against diet-induced
           obesity
    • Authors: Daniel Kraus, Qin Yang, Dong Kong, Alexander S. Banks, Lin Zhang, Joseph T. Rodgers, Eija Pirinen, Thomas C. Pulinilkunnil, Fengying Gong, Ya-chin Wang, Yana Cen, Anthony A. Sauve, John M. Asara, Odile D. Peroni, Brett P. Monia, Sanjay Bhanot, Leena Alhonen, Pere Puigserver, Barbara B. Kahn
      Pages: 258 - 262
      Abstract: In obesity and type 2 diabetes, Glut4 glucose transporter expression is decreased selectively in adipocytes. Adipose-specific knockout or overexpression of Glut4 alters systemic insulin sensitivity. Here we show, using DNA array analyses, that nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (Nnmt) is the most strongly reciprocally regulated gene when comparing gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) from adipose-specific Glut4-knockout or adipose-specific Glut4-overexpressing mice with their respective controls. NNMT methylates nicotinamide (vitamin B3) using S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as a methyl donor. Nicotinamide is a precursor of NAD+, an important cofactor linking cellular redox states with energy metabolism. SAM provides propylamine for polyamine biosynthesis and donates a methyl group for histone methylation. Polyamine flux including synthesis, catabolism and excretion, is controlled by the rate-limiting enzymes ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and spermidine–spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT; encoded by Sat1) and by polyamine oxidase (PAO), and has a major role in energy metabolism. We report that NNMT expression is increased in WAT and liver of obese and diabetic mice. Nnmt knockdown in WAT and liver protects against diet-induced obesity by augmenting cellular energy expenditure. NNMT inhibition increases adipose SAM and NAD+ levels and upregulates ODC and SSAT activity as well as expression, owing to the effects of NNMT on histone H3 lysine 4 methylation in adipose tissue. Direct evidence for increased polyamine flux resulting from NNMT inhibition includes elevated urinary excretion and adipocyte secretion of diacetylspermine, a product of polyamine metabolism. NNMT inhibition in adipocytes increases oxygen consumption in an ODC-, SSAT- and PAO-dependent manner. Thus, NNMT is a novel regulator of histone methylation, polyamine flux and NAD+-dependent SIRT1 signalling, and is a unique and attractive target for treating obesity and type 2 diabetes.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13198
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • ZMYND11 links histone H3.3K36me3 to transcription elongation and tumour
           suppression
    • Authors: Hong Wen, Yuanyuan Li, Yuanxin Xi, Shiming Jiang, Sabrina Stratton, Danni Peng, Kaori Tanaka, Yongfeng Ren, Zheng Xia, Jun Wu, Bing Li, Michelle C. Barton, Wei Li, Haitao Li, Xiaobing Shi
      Pages: 263 - 268
      Abstract: Recognition of modified histones by ‘reader’ proteins plays a critical role in the regulation of chromatin. H3K36 trimethylation (H3K36me3) is deposited onto the nucleosomes in the transcribed regions after RNA polymerase II elongation. In yeast, this mark in turn recruits epigenetic regulators to reset the chromatin to a relatively repressive state, thus suppressing cryptic transcription. However, much less is known about the role of H3K36me3 in transcription regulation in mammals. This is further complicated by the transcription-coupled incorporation of the histone variant H3.3 in gene bodies. Here we show that the candidate tumour suppressor ZMYND11 specifically recognizes H3K36me3 on H3.3 (H3.3K36me3) and regulates RNA polymerase II elongation. Structural studies show that in addition to the trimethyl-lysine binding by an aromatic cage within the PWWP domain, the H3.3-dependent recognition is mediated by the encapsulation of the H3.3-specific ‘Ser 31’ residue in a composite pocket formed by the tandem bromo–PWWP domains of ZMYND11. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing shows a genome-wide co-localization of ZMYND11 with H3K36me3 and H3.3 in gene bodies, and its occupancy requires the pre-deposition of H3.3K36me3. Although ZMYND11 is associated with highly expressed genes, it functions as an unconventional transcription co-repressor by modulating RNA polymerase II at the elongation stage. ZMYND11 is critical for the repression of a transcriptional program that is essential for tumour cell growth; low expression levels of ZMYND11 in breast cancer patients correlate with worse prognosis. Consistently, overexpression of ZMYND11 suppresses cancer cell growth in vitro and tumour formation in mice. Together, this study identifies ZMYND11 as an H3.3-specific reader of H3K36me3 that links the histone-variant-mediated transcription elongation control to tumour suppression.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-03-02
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13045
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Direct measurement of local oxygen concentration in the bone marrow of
           live animals
    • Authors: Joel A. Spencer, Francesca Ferraro, Emmanuel Roussakis, Alyssa Klein, Juwell Wu, Judith M. Runnels, Walid Zaher, Luke J. Mortensen, Clemens Alt, Raphaël Turcotte, Rushdia Yusuf, Daniel Côté, Sergei A. Vinogradov, David T. Scadden, Charles P. Lin
      Pages: 269 - 273
      Abstract: Characterization of how the microenvironment, or niche, regulates stem cell activity is central to understanding stem cell biology and to developing strategies for the therapeutic manipulation of stem cells. Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) is commonly thought to be a shared niche characteristic in maintaining quiescence in multiple stem cell types. However, support for the existence of a hypoxic niche has largely come from indirect evidence such as proteomic analysis, expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) and related genes, and staining with surrogate hypoxic markers (for example, pimonidazole). Here we perform direct in vivo measurements of local oxygen tension (pO2) in the bone marrow of live mice. Using two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy, we determined the absolute pO2 of the bone marrow to be quite low (
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-03-02
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13034
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Retraction: CLASP-mediated cortical microtubule organization guides PIN
           polarization axis
    • Authors: Klementina Kakar, Hongtao Zhang, Ben Scheres, Pankaj Dhonukshe
      Pages: 274 - 274
      Abstract: Nature495, 529–533 (2013); doi:10.1038/nature11980After re-examination of this Letter, concerns with some of the reported data were raised. It was found that two confocal images were near-identical in panels of Figure 3 and two confocal images were re-used
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-03-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13183
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • A guide for the innovator
    • Authors: Peter Fiske
      Pages: 275 - 276
      Abstract: Researchers with product-worthy ideas can follow various, often under-appreciated, paths towards commercialization, says Peter Fiske.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7495-275a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Turning point: Tracey Holloway
    • Authors: Virginia Gewin
      Pages: 277 - 277
      Abstract: An atmospheric scientist plans to turn a network for female researchers into a non-profit organization.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7495-277a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Dwindling tenure posts
    • Pages: 277 - 277
      Abstract: Tenure is dying out at US universities.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7495-277b
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Student debt rising
    • Pages: 277 - 277
      Abstract: US postgraduate-student debt continues to escalate.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7495-277c
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Grant obstacles
    • Pages: 277 - 277
      Abstract: Australian researchers decry oppressive grant-application process.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7495-277d
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • How Kameron Layas rode out the crash
    • Authors: Rahul Kanakia
      Pages: 280 - 280
      Abstract: Shameful behaviour.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-09
      DOI: 10.1038/508280a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2014)
       
  • Corrigendum: Enhanced bacterial clearance and sepsis resistance in
           caspase-12-deficient mice
    • Authors: Maya Saleh, John C. Mathison, Melissa K. Wolinski, Steve J. Bensinger, Patrick Fitzgerald, Nathalie Droin, Richard J. Ulevitch, Douglas R. Green, Donald W. Nicholson
      Pages: 274 - 274
      Abstract: Nature440, 1064–1068 (2006); doi:10.1038/nature04656Owing to an error in the production process, some details were omitted from the advance online publication version of this Corrigendum: this is the complete version. When our Letter was under consideration at Nature
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      PubDate: 2013-05-29
      DOI: 10.1038/nature12181
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495 (2013)
       
  • Funders punish open-access dodgers
    • Authors: Richard Van Noorden
      Pages: 161 - 161
      Abstract: Agencies withhold grant money from researchers who do not make publications openly available.
      Citation: Nature 508, 7495 (2014)
      DOI: 10.1038/508161a
      Issue No: Vol. 508, No. 7495
       
 
 
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