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Journal Cover Nature
  [SJR: 21.936]   [H-I: 948]   [3884 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0028-0836 - ISSN (Online) 1476-4687
   Published by NPG Homepage  [123 journals]
  • Empty rhetoric over data sharing slows science
    • Pages: 327 - 327
      Abstract: Governments, funders and scientific communities must move beyond lip-service and commit to data-sharing practices and platforms.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-12
      DOI: 10.1038/546327a
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Harmonize conflicting regulations for genetically engineered plants and
           animals
    • Pages: 327 - 328
      Abstract: Researchers must seize the chance to inject scientific sense into US governance of modified crops and livestock.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-09
      DOI: 10.1038/546327b
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Reassess dam building in the Amazon
    • Pages: 328 - 328
      Abstract: Brazil and neighbouring nations need a transparent and integrated energy assessment centred on evidence.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/546328a
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Let Trump claim a better deal on climate
    • Authors: Elliot Diringer
      Pages: 329 - 329
      Abstract: If we can stomach it, a ‘renegotiation’ of the Paris Agreement could help us all, says Elliot Diringer.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/546329a
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Plutonium accident, ancient amber and a call to climate scientists
    • Pages: 332 - 333
      Abstract: The week in science: 9–15 June 2017.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/546332a
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Correction
    • Pages: 333 - 333
      Abstract: The Seven Days item ‘Singular bat’ (Nature546, 191; 2017) misspelt the surname of the taxonomist behind the research. His name is Ricardo Moratelli.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/546333a
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Eye-opening picture of fetal immune system emerges
    • Authors: Heidi Ledford
      Pages: 335 - 336
      Abstract: Human fetuses have an immune system that acts differently from the adult version.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/546335a
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • UK scientists hope for softened Brexit after shock election result
    • Authors: Elizabeth Gibney
      Pages: 336 - 337
      Abstract: Conservative party loses majority but aims to form government.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-09
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2017.22138
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • United States revives space-policy council after 24-year absence
    • Authors: Alexandra Witze
      Pages: 337 - 337
      Abstract: US vice-president to head group overseeing civilian and military space activities.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2017.22130
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • US mental-health agency’s push for basic research has slashed
           support for clinical trials
    • Authors: Sara Reardon
      Pages: 339 - 339
      Abstract: Analysis reveals that the number of clinical trials funded by the National Institute of Mental Health has fallen by 45% since the agency began to focus on the biological roots of disease.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-13
      DOI: 10.1038/546338a
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Bats are global reservoir for deadly coronaviruses
    • Authors: Amy Maxmen
      Pages: 340 - 340
      Abstract: Finding could help researchers to better predict where these viruses are likely to make the jump from animals to people.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-12
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2017.22137
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Fight the silencing of gun research
    • Authors: David Hemenway
      Pages: 345 - 347
      Abstract: As anti-science sentiment sweeps the world, it is vital to stop the suppression of firearms studies, argues David Hemenway.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-13
      DOI: 10.1038/546345a
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Natural history: Thoreau's debt to Darwin
    • Authors: Randall Fuller
      Pages: 349 - 350
      Abstract: On the naturalist's bicentenary, Randall Fuller traces his empirical journey after Walden.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/546349a
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Neuroscience: How music meets mind
    • Authors: Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis
      Pages: 351 - 351
      Abstract: Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis explores a study parsing how the brain makes sense of melody and harmony.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/546351a
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Publishing: Journals could share peer-review data
    • Authors: Flaminio Squazzoni, Francisco Grimaldo, Ana Marušić
      Pages: 352 - 352
      Abstract: Before dispensing with peer review in favour of open science, responsible scientists need to do everything they can to improve this centuries-old system. Our experience shows that journals that share information on all aspects of the peer-review process can foster transparency and accountability in publishing,
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/546352a
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Tissue engineering: NIH competition to create 'eye in a dish'
    • Authors: Paul A. Sieving
      Pages: 352 - 352
      Abstract: The National Eye Institute of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched a competition to develop a working model of the human retina from stem cells — namely, the 3-D Retina Organoid Challenge (see www.nei.nih.gov/3droc). This will help to clarify the mechanisms
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/546352b
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Conservation: Pay countries to stop whaling
    • Authors: Shunsuke Managi, Mihoko Wakamatsu
      Pages: 352 - 352
      Abstract: We raise the possibility that countries opposed to whaling could stop other nations that continue the practice simply by paying them compensation. This idea is inspired by a survey we conducted in February 2016 in Australia and Japan.We found that the maximum amount Australians
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/546352c
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Development: Sustainability and resilience differ
    • Authors: Thomas Elmqvist
      Pages: 352 - 352
      Abstract: Sustainable urban development moved forward last year, when the United Nations adopted both the Sustainable Development Goal 11 on cities and the New Urban Agenda (see go.nature.com/2qz8ows). Unfortunately, these international policy documents interchangeably use two quite different concepts — sustainability and resilience. We are
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/546352d
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Junior scientists: Senior scientists as allies for equity
    • Authors: Christina Simkanin, Alison Cawood
      Pages: 352 - 352
      Abstract: Asking the scientific system to fix itself from the bottom up could place an unacceptable burden on junior scientists (see J.TregoningNature545, 7;10.1038/545007a2017). Moreover, their efforts are likely to make little difference without the participation of senior colleagues.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/546352e
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Applied physics: Wireless power on the move
    • Authors: Geoffroy Lerosey
      Pages: 354 - 355
      Abstract: Most state-of-the-art methods of wireless energy delivery are inherently limited to static devices. An approach based on fundamental physics could overcome this limitation, opening up a wealth of applications. See Letter p.387
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/546354a
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Epidemiology: Molecular mapping of Zika spread
    • Authors: Michael Worobey
      Pages: 355 - 357
      Abstract: Evolutionary trees constructed using both newly sequenced and previously available Zika virus genomes reveal how the recent outbreak arose in Brazil and spread across the Americas. See Letters p.401, p.406 & p.411
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22495
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • 50 & 100 Years Ago
    • Pages: 356 - 356
      Abstract: 50 Years AgoNormal tissue growth requires that cells should recognize each other and stop growing or moving at the right time and place. Understanding how this regulation is achieved is of fundamental importance. A priori one might expect that some kind of chemical
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/546356a
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Cell cycle: Division enzyme regulates metabolism
    • Authors: Abigail S. Krall, Heather R. Christofk
      Pages: 357 - 358
      Abstract: Cell division requires the action of key regulator proteins called cyclins and CDKs. It emerges that a cyclin–CDK complex can regulate cell metabolism, and targeting this metabolic regulation causes tumour regression in mice. See Letter p.426
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22504
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Materials science: How to suck like an octopus
    • Authors: Jonathan J. Wilker
      Pages: 358 - 359
      Abstract: Rubber sheets that reversibly bind and release substrates have been made by copying a subtlety in the shape of octopus suckers. The findings reveal how macro-scale biological structures can influence function. See Letter p.396
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/546358a
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • In Retrospect: A decade of shared genomic associations
    • Authors: Teri A. Manolio
      Pages: 360 - 361
      Abstract: A paper that analysed genetic variants in 14,000 people to identify disease-associated regions set the standard for collaborative genome-wide association studies and provided methodological advances whose effects are still felt today.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/546360a
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Molecular biology: Local metabolites linked to memory
    • Authors: L. Ashley Watson, Li-Huei Tsai
      Pages: 361 - 362
      Abstract: Production of the metabolite acetyl-CoA near specific regions of DNA modulates gene expression in mouse neurons during cellular differentiation and memory formation. See Article p.381
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-31
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22498
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Correction
    • Pages: 362 - 362
      Abstract: The News & Views article 'Palaeoanthropology: On the origin of our species' by Chris Stringer and Julia Galway-Witham (Nature546, 212–214; 2017) stated that at least five individuals were identified from human fossils uncovered in excavations reported by Hublin
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/546362a
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin
    • Authors: Edgardo M. Latrubesse, Eugenio Y. Arima, Thomas Dunne, Edward Park, Victor R. Baker, Fernando M. d’Horta, Charles Wight, Florian Wittmann, Jansen Zuanon, Paul A. Baker, Camila C. Ribas, Richard B. Norgaard, Naziano Filizola, Atif Ansar, Bent Flyvbjerg, Jose C. Stevaux
      Pages: 363 - 369
      Abstract: More than a hundred hydropower dams have already been built in the Amazon basin and numerous proposals for further dam constructions are under consideration. The accumulated negative environmental effects of existing dams and proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22333
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Common genetic variation drives molecular heterogeneity in human iPSCs
    • Authors: Helena Kilpinen, Angela Goncalves, Andreas Leha, Vackar Afzal, Kaur Alasoo, Sofie Ashford, Sendu Bala, Dalila Bensaddek, Francesco Paolo Casale, Oliver J. Culley, Petr Danecek, Adam Faulconbridge, Peter W. Harrison, Annie Kathuria, Davis McCarthy, Shane A. McCarthy, Ruta Meleckyte, Yasin Memari, Nathalie Moens, Filipa Soares, Alice Mann, Ian Streeter, Chukwuma A. Agu, Alex Alderton, Rachel Nelson, Sarah Harper, Minal Patel, Alistair White, Sharad R. Patel, Laura Clarke, Reena Halai, Christopher M. Kirton, Anja Kolb-Kokocinski, Philip Beales, Ewan Birney, Davide Danovi, Angus I. Lamond, Willem H. Ouwehand, Ludovic Vallier, Fiona M. Watt, Richard Durbin, Oliver Stegle, Daniel J. Gaffney
      Pages: 370 - 375
      Abstract: Technology utilizing human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) has enormous potential to provide improved cellular models of human disease. However, variable genetic and phenotypic characterization of many existing iPS cell lines limits their potential use for research and therapy. Here we describe the systematic
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22403
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • A Cryptosporidium PI(4)K inhibitor is a drug candidate for
           cryptosporidiosis
    • Authors: Ujjini H. Manjunatha, Sumiti Vinayak, Jennifer A. Zambriski, Alexander T. Chao, Tracy Sy, Christian G. Noble, Ghislain M. C. Bonamy, Ravinder R. Kondreddi, Bin Zou, Peter Gedeck, Carrie F. Brooks, Gillian T. Herbert, Adam Sateriale, Jayesh Tandel, Susan Noh, Suresh B. Lakshminarayana, Siau H. Lim, Laura B. Goodman, Christophe Bodenreider, Gu Feng, Lijun Zhang, Francesca Blasco, Juergen Wagner, F. Joel Leong, Boris Striepen, Thierry T. Diagana
      Pages: 376 - 380
      Abstract: Diarrhoeal disease is responsible for 8.6% of global child mortality. Recent epidemiological studies found the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium to be a leading cause of paediatric diarrhoea, with particularly grave impact on infants and immunocompromised individuals. There is neither a vaccine nor an effective treatment.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-31
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22337
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Acetyl-CoA synthetase regulates histone acetylation and hippocampal memory
    • Authors: Philipp Mews, Greg Donahue, Adam M. Drake, Vincent Luczak, Ted Abel, Shelley L. Berger
      Pages: 381 - 386
      Abstract: Metabolic production of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is linked to histone acetylation and gene regulation, but the precise mechanisms of this process are largely unknown. Here we show that the metabolic enzyme acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) directly regulates histone acetylation in neurons and spatial memory
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-31
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22405
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Robust wireless power transfer using a nonlinear
           parity–time-symmetric circuit
    • Authors: Sid Assawaworrarit, Xiaofang Yu, Shanhui Fan
      Pages: 387 - 390
      Abstract: Considerable progress in wireless power transfer has been made in the realm of non-radiative transfer, which employs magnetic-field coupling in the near field. A combination of circuit resonance and impedance transformation is often used to help to achieve efficient transfer of power over a predetermined distance of about the size of the resonators. The development of non-radiative wireless power transfer has paved the way towards real-world applications such as wireless powering of implantable medical devices and wireless charging of stationary electric vehicles. However, it remains a fundamental challenge to create a wireless power transfer system in which the transfer efficiency is robust against the variation of operating conditions. Here we propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally that a parity–time-symmetric circuit incorporating a nonlinear gain saturation element provides robust wireless power transfer. Our results show that the transfer efficiency remains near unity over a distance variation of approximately one metre, without the need for any tuning. This is in contrast with conventional methods where high transfer efficiency can only be maintained by constantly tuning the frequency or the internal coupling parameters as the transfer distance or the relative orientation of the source and receiver units is varied. The use of a nonlinear parity–time-symmetric circuit should enable robust wireless power transfer to moving devices or vehicles.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22404
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Slush-like polar structures in single-crystal relaxors
    • Authors: Hiroyuki Takenaka, Ilya Grinberg, Shi Liu, Andrew M. Rappe
      Pages: 391 - 395
      Abstract: Despite more than 50 years of investigation, it is still unclear how the underlying structure of relaxor ferroelectrics gives rise to their defining properties, such as ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients, high permittivity over a broad temperature range, diffuse phase transitions, strong frequency dependence in dielectric response, and phonon anomalies. The model of polar nanoregions inside a non-polar matrix has been widely used to describe the structure of relaxor ferroelectrics. However, the lack of precise knowledge about the shapes, growth and dipole patterns of polar nanoregions has led to the characterization of relaxors as “hopeless messes”, and no predictive model for relaxor behaviour is currently available. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations of the prototypical Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 relaxor material to examine its structure and the spatial and temporal polarization correlations. Our simulations show that the unusual properties of relaxors stem from the presence of a multi-domain state with extremely small domain sizes (2–10 nanometres), and no non-polar matrix, owing to the local dynamics. We find that polar structures in the multi-domain state in relaxors are analogous to those of the slush state of water. The multi-domain structure of relaxors that is revealed by our molecular dynamics simulations is consistent with recent experimental diffuse scattering results and indicates that relaxors have a high density of low-angle domain walls. This insight explains the recently discovered classes of relaxors that cannot be described by the polar nanoregion model, and provides guidance for the design and synthesis of new relaxor materials.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22068
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • A wet-tolerant adhesive patch inspired by protuberances in suction cups of
           octopi
    • Authors: Sangyul Baik, Da Wan Kim, Youngjin Park, Tae-Jin Lee, Suk Ho Bhang, Changhyun Pang
      Pages: 396 - 400
      Abstract: Adhesion strategies that rely on mechanical interlocking or molecular attractions between surfaces can suffer when coming into contact with liquids. Thus far, artificial wet and dry adhesives have included hierarchical mushroom-shaped or porous structures that allow suction or capillarity, supramolecular structures comprising nanoparticles, and chemistry-based attractants that use various protein polyelectrolytes. However, it is challenging to develop adhesives that are simple to make and also perform well—and repeatedly—under both wet and dry conditions, while avoiding non-chemical contamination on the adhered surfaces. Here we present an artificial, biologically inspired, reversible wet/dry adhesion system that is based on the dome-like protuberances found in the suction cups of octopi. To mimic the architecture of these protuberances, we use a simple, solution-based, air-trap technique that involves fabricating a patterned structure as a polymeric master, and using it to produce a reversed architecture, without any sophisticated chemical syntheses or surface modifications. The micrometre-scale domes in our artificial adhesive enhance the suction stress. This octopus-inspired system exhibits strong, reversible, highly repeatable adhesion to silicon wafers, glass, and rough skin surfaces under various conditions (dry, moist, under water and under oil). To demonstrate a potential application, we also used our adhesive to transport a large silicon wafer in air and under water without any resulting surface contamination.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22382
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Genomic epidemiology reveals multiple introductions of Zika virus into the
           United States
    • Authors: Nathan D. Grubaugh, Jason T. Ladner, Moritz U. G. Kraemer, Gytis Dudas, Amanda L. Tan, Karthik Gangavarapu, Michael R. Wiley, Stephen White, Julien Thézé, Diogo M. Magnani, Karla Prieto, Daniel Reyes, Andrea M. Bingham, Lauren M. Paul, Refugio Robles-Sikisaka, Glenn Oliveira, Darryl Pronty, Carolyn M. Barcellona, Hayden C. Metsky, Mary Lynn Baniecki, Kayla G. Barnes, Bridget Chak, Catherine A. Freije, Adrianne Gladden-Young, Andreas Gnirke, Cynthia Luo, Bronwyn MacInnis, Christian B. Matranga, Daniel J. Park, James Qu, Stephen F. Schaffner, Christopher Tomkins-Tinch, Kendra L. West, Sarah M. Winnicki, Shirlee Wohl, Nathan L. Yozwiak, Joshua Quick, Joseph R. Fauver, Kamran Khan, Shannon E. Brent, Robert C. Reiner, Paola N. Lichtenberger, Michael J. Ricciardi, Varian K. Bailey, David I. Watkins, Marshall R. Cone, Edgar W. Kopp, Kelly N. Hogan, Andrew C. Cannons, Reynald Jean, Andrew J. Monaghan, Robert F. Garry, Nicholas J. Loman, Nuno R. Faria, Mario C. Porcelli, Chalmers Vasquez, Elyse R. Nagle, Derek A. T. Cummings, Danielle Stanek, Andrew Rambaut, Mariano Sanchez-Lockhart, Pardis C. Sabeti, Leah D. Gillis, Scott F. Michael, Trevor Bedford, Oliver G. Pybus, Sharon Isern, Gustavo Palacios, Kristian G. Andersen
      Pages: 401 - 405
      Abstract: Zika virus (ZIKV) is causing an unprecedented epidemic linked to severe congenital abnormalities. In July 2016, mosquito-borne ZIKV transmission was reported in the continental United States; since then, hundreds of locally acquired infections have been reported in Florida. To gain insights into the timing, source, and likely route(s) of ZIKV introduction, we tracked the virus from its first detection in Florida by sequencing ZIKV genomes from infected patients and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. We show that at least 4 introductions, but potentially as many as 40, contributed to the outbreak in Florida and that local transmission is likely to have started in the spring of 2016—several months before its initial detection. By analysing surveillance and genetic data, we show that ZIKV moved among transmission zones in Miami. Our analyses show that most introductions were linked to the Caribbean, a finding corroborated by the high incidence rates and traffic volumes from the region into the Miami area. Our study provides an understanding of how ZIKV initiates transmission in new regions.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22400
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Establishment and cryptic transmission of Zika virus in Brazil and the
           Americas
    • Authors: N. R. Faria, J. Quick, I.M. Claro, J. Thézé, J. G. de Jesus, M. Giovanetti, M. U. G. Kraemer, S. C. Hill, A. Black, A. C. da Costa, L. C. Franco, S. P. Silva, C.-H. Wu, J. Raghwani, S. Cauchemez, L. du Plessis, M. P. Verotti, W. K. de Oliveira, E. H. Carmo, G. E. Coelho, A. C. F. S. Santelli, L. C. Vinhal, C. M. Henriques, J. T. Simpson, M. Loose, K. G. Andersen, N. D. Grubaugh, S. Somasekar, C. Y. Chiu, J. E. Muñoz-Medina, C. R. Gonzalez-Bonilla, C. F. Arias, L. L. Lewis-Ximenez, S. A. Baylis, A. O. Chieppe, S. F. Aguiar, C. A. Fernandes, P. S. Lemos, B. L. S. Nascimento, H. A. O. Monteiro, I. C. Siqueira, M. G. de Queiroz, T. R. de Souza, J. F. Bezerra, M. R. Lemos, G. F. Pereira, D. Loudal, L. C. Moura, R. Dhalia, R. F. França, T. Magalhães, E. T. Marques, T. Jaenisch, G. L. Wallau, M. C. de Lima, V. Nascimento, E. M. de Cerqueira, M. M. de Lima, D. L. Mascarenhas, J. P. Moura Neto, A. S. Levin, T. R. Tozetto-Mendoza, S. N. Fonseca, M. C. Mendes-Correa, F. P. Milagres, A. Segurado, E. C. Holmes, A. Rambaut, T. Bedford, M. R. T. Nunes, E. C. Sabino, L. C. J. Alcantara, N. J. Loman, O. G. Pybus
      Pages: 406 - 410
      Abstract: Transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas was first confirmed in May 2015 in northeast Brazil. Brazil has had the highest number of reported ZIKV cases worldwide (more than 200,000 by 24 December 2016) and the most cases associated with microcephaly and other birth defects (2,366 confirmed by 31 December 2016). Since the initial detection of ZIKV in Brazil, more than 45 countries in the Americas have reported local ZIKV transmission, with 24 of these reporting severe ZIKV-associated disease. However, the origin and epidemic history of ZIKV in Brazil and the Americas remain poorly understood, despite the value of this information for interpreting observed trends in reported microcephaly. Here we address this issue by generating 54 complete or partial ZIKV genomes, mostly from Brazil, and reporting data generated by a mobile genomics laboratory that travelled across northeast Brazil in 2016. One sequence represents the earliest confirmed ZIKV infection in Brazil. Analyses of viral genomes with ecological and epidemiological data yield an estimate that ZIKV was present in northeast Brazil by February 2014 and is likely to have disseminated from there, nationally and internationally, before the first detection of ZIKV in the Americas. Estimated dates for the international spread of ZIKV from Brazil indicate the duration of pre-detection cryptic transmission in recipient regions. The role of northeast Brazil in the establishment of ZIKV in the Americas is further supported by geographic analysis of ZIKV transmission potential and by estimates of the basic reproduction number of the virus.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22401
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Zika virus evolution and spread in the Americas
    • Authors: Hayden C. Metsky, Christian B. Matranga, Shirlee Wohl, Stephen F. Schaffner, Catherine A. Freije, Sarah M. Winnicki, Kendra West, James Qu, Mary Lynn Baniecki, Adrianne Gladden-Young, Aaron E. Lin, Christopher H. Tomkins-Tinch, Simon H. Ye, Daniel J. Park, Cynthia Y. Luo, Kayla G. Barnes, Rickey R. Shah, Bridget Chak, Giselle Barbosa-Lima, Edson Delatorre, Yasmine R. Vieira, Lauren M. Paul, Amanda L. Tan, Carolyn M. Barcellona, Mario C. Porcelli, Chalmers Vasquez, Andrew C. Cannons, Marshall R. Cone, Kelly N. Hogan, Edgar W. Kopp, Joshua J. Anzinger, Kimberly F. Garcia, Leda A. Parham, Rosa M. Gélvez Ramírez, Maria C. Miranda Montoya, Diana P. Rojas, Catherine M. Brown, Scott Hennigan, Brandon Sabina, Sarah Scotland, Karthik Gangavarapu, Nathan D. Grubaugh, Glenn Oliveira, Refugio Robles-Sikisaka, Andrew Rambaut, Lee Gehrke, Sandra Smole, M. Elizabeth Halloran, Luis Villar, Salim Mattar, Ivette Lorenzana, Jose Cerbino-Neto, Clarissa Valim, Wim Degrave, Patricia T. Bozza, Andreas Gnirke, Kristian G. Andersen, Sharon Isern, Scott F. Michael, Fernando A. Bozza, Thiago M. L. Souza, Irene Bosch, Nathan L. Yozwiak, Bronwyn L. MacInnis, Pardis C. Sabeti
      Pages: 411 - 415
      Abstract: Although the recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas and its link to birth defects have attracted a great deal of attention, much remains unknown about ZIKV disease epidemiology and ZIKV evolution, in part owing to a lack of genomic data. Here we address this gap in knowledge by using multiple sequencing approaches to generate 110 ZIKV genomes from clinical and mosquito samples from 10 countries and territories, greatly expanding the observed viral genetic diversity from this outbreak. We analysed the timing and patterns of introductions into distinct geographic regions; our phylogenetic evidence suggests rapid expansion of the outbreak in Brazil and multiple introductions of outbreak strains into Puerto Rico, Honduras, Colombia, other Caribbean islands, and the continental United States. We find that ZIKV circulated undetected in multiple regions for many months before the first locally transmitted cases were confirmed, highlighting the importance of surveillance of viral infections. We identify mutations with possible functional implications for ZIKV biology and pathogenesis, as well as those that might be relevant to the effectiveness of diagnostic tests.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22402
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Principles of early human development and germ cell program from conserved
           model systems
    • Authors: Toshihiro Kobayashi, Haixin Zhang, Walfred W. C. Tang, Naoko Irie, Sarah Withey, Doris Klisch, Anastasiya Sybirna, Sabine Dietmann, David A. Contreras, Robert Webb, Cinzia Allegrucci, Ramiro Alberio, M. Azim Surani
      Pages: 416 - 420
      Abstract: Human primordial germ cells (hPGCs), the precursors of sperm and eggs, originate during weeks 2–3 of early post-implantation development. Using in vitro models of hPGC induction, recent studies have suggested that there are marked mechanistic differences in the specification of human and mouse PGCs. This may be due in part to the divergence in their pluripotency networks and early post-implantation development. As early human embryos are not accessible for direct study, we considered alternatives including porcine embryos that, as in humans, develop as bilaminar embryonic discs. Here we show that porcine PGCs originate from the posterior pre-primitive-streak competent epiblast by sequential upregulation of SOX17 and BLIMP1 in response to WNT and BMP signalling. We use this model together with human and monkey in vitro models simulating peri-gastrulation development to show the conserved principles of epiblast development for competency for primordial germ cell fate. This process is followed by initiation of the epigenetic program and regulated by a balanced SOX17–BLIMP1 gene dosage. Our combinatorial approach using human, porcine and monkey in vivo and in vitro models provides synthetic insights into early human development.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22812
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Stability and function of regulatory T cells expressing the transcription
           factor T-bet
    • Authors: Andrew G. Levine, Alejandra Medoza, Saskia Hemmers, Bruno Moltedo, Rachel E. Niec, Michail Schizas, Beatrice E. Hoyos, Ekaterina V. Putintseva, Ashutosh Chaudhry, Stanislav Dikiy, Sho Fujisawa, Dmitriy M. Chudakov, Piper M. Treuting, Alexander Y. Rudensky
      Pages: 421 - 425
      Abstract: Adaptive immune responses are tailored to different types of pathogens through differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into functionally distinct subsets of effector T cells (T helper 1 (TH1), TH2, and TH17) defined by expression of the key transcription factors T-bet, GATA3, and RORγt, respectively. Regulatory T (Treg) cells comprise a distinct anti-inflammatory lineage specified by the X-linked transcription factor Foxp3 (refs 2, 3). Paradoxically, some activated Treg cells express the aforementioned effector CD4 T cell transcription factors, which have been suggested to provide Treg cells with enhanced suppressive capacity. Whether expression of these factors in Treg cells—as in effector T cells—is indicative of heterogeneity of functionally discrete and stable differentiation states, or conversely may be readily reversible, is unknown. Here we demonstrate that expression of the TH1-associated transcription factor T-bet in mouse Treg cells, induced at steady state and following infection, gradually becomes highly stable even under non-permissive conditions. Loss of function or elimination of T-bet-expressing Treg cells—but not of T-bet expression in Treg cells—resulted in severe TH1 autoimmunity. Conversely, following depletion of T-bet− Treg cells, the remaining T-bet+ cells specifically inhibited TH1 and CD8 T cell activation consistent with their co-localization with T-bet+ effector T cells. These results suggest that T-bet+ Treg cells have an essential immunosuppressive function and indicate that Treg cell functional heterogeneity is a critical feature of immunological tolerance.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22360
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • The metabolic function of cyclin D3–CDK6 kinase in cancer cell
           survival
    • Authors: Haizhen Wang, Brandon N. Nicolay, Joel M. Chick, Xueliang Gao, Yan Geng, Hong Ren, Hui Gao, Guizhi Yang, Juliet A. Williams, Jan M. Suski, Mark A. Keibler, Ewa Sicinska, Ulrike Gerdemann, W. Nicholas Haining, Thomas M. Roberts, Kornelia Polyak, Steven P. Gygi, Nicholas J. Dyson, Piotr Sicinski
      Pages: 426 - 430
      Abstract: D-type cyclins (D1, D2 and D3) and their associated cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and CDK6) are components of the core cell cycle machinery that drives cell proliferation. Inhibitors of CDK4 and CDK6 are currently being tested in clinical trials for patients with several cancer types, with promising results. Here, using human cancer cells and patient-derived xenografts in mice, we show that the cyclin D3–CDK6 kinase phosphorylates and inhibits the catalytic activity of two key enzymes in the glycolytic pathway, 6-phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase M2. This re-directs the glycolytic intermediates into the pentose phosphate (PPP) and serine pathways. Inhibition of cyclin D3–CDK6 in tumour cells reduces flow through the PPP and serine pathways, thereby depleting the antioxidants NADPH and glutathione. This, in turn, increases the levels of reactive oxygen species and causes apoptosis of tumour cells. The pro-survival function of cyclin D-associated kinase operates in tumours expressing high levels of cyclin D3–CDK6 complexes. We propose that measuring the levels of cyclin D3–CDK6 in human cancers might help to identify tumour subsets that undergo cell death and tumour regression upon inhibition of CDK4 and CDK6. Cyclin D3–CDK6, through its ability to link cell cycle and cell metabolism, represents a particularly powerful oncoprotein that affects cancer cells at several levels, and this property can be exploited for anti-cancer therapy.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22797
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Rare cell variability and drug-induced reprogramming as a mode of cancer
           drug resistance
    • Authors: Sydney M. Shaffer, Margaret C. Dunagin, Stefan R. Torborg, Eduardo A. Torre, Benjamin Emert, Clemens Krepler, Marilda Beqiri, Katrin Sproesser, Patricia A. Brafford, Min Xiao, Elliott Eggan, Ioannis N. Anastopoulos, Cesar A. Vargas-Garcia, Abhyudai Singh, Katherine L. Nathanson, Meenhard Herlyn, Arjun Raj
      Pages: 431 - 435
      Abstract: Therapies that target signalling molecules that are mutated in cancers can often have substantial short-term effects, but the emergence of resistant cancer cells is a major barrier to full cures. Resistance can result from secondary mutations, but in other cases there is no clear genetic cause, raising the possibility of non-genetic rare cell variability. Here we show that human melanoma cells can display profound transcriptional variability at the single-cell level that predicts which cells will ultimately resist drug treatment. This variability involves infrequent, semi-coordinated transcription of a number of resistance markers at high levels in a very small percentage of cells. The addition of drug then induces epigenetic reprogramming in these cells, converting the transient transcriptional state to a stably resistant state. This reprogramming begins with a loss of SOX10-mediated differentiation followed by activation of new signalling pathways, partially mediated by the activity of the transcription factors JUN and/or AP-1 and TEAD. Our work reveals the multistage nature of the acquisition of drug resistance and provides a framework for understanding resistance dynamics in single cells. We find that other cell types also exhibit sporadic expression of many of these same marker genes, suggesting the existence of a general program in which expression is displayed in rare subpopulations of cells.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22794
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Structural basis of CRISPR–SpyCas9 inhibition by an anti-CRISPR
           protein
    • Authors: De Dong, Minghui Guo, Sihan Wang, Yuwei Zhu, Shuo Wang, Zhi Xiong, Jianzheng Yang, Zengliang Xu, Zhiwei Huang
      Pages: 436 - 439
      Abstract: CRISPR–Cas9 systems are bacterial adaptive immune systems that defend against infection by phages. Through the RNA-guided endonuclease activity of Cas9 they degrade double-stranded DNA with a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) and sequences complementary to the guide RNA. Recently, two anti-CRISPR proteins (AcrIIA2 and AcrIIA4 from Listeria monocytogenes prophages) were identified, both of which inhibit Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpyCas9) and L. monocytogenes Cas9 activity in bacteria and human cells. However, the mechanism of AcrIIA2- or AcrIIA4-mediated Cas9 inhibition remains unknown. Here we report a crystal structure of SpyCas9 in complex with a single-guide RNA (sgRNA) and AcrIIA4. Our data show that AcrIIA2 and AcrIIA4 interact with SpyCas9 in a sgRNA-dependent manner. The structure reveals that AcrIIA4 inhibits SpyCas9 activity by structurally mimicking the PAM to occupy the PAM-interacting site in the PAM-interacting domain, thereby blocking recognition of double-stranded DNA substrates by SpyCas9. AcrIIA4 further inhibits the endonuclease activity of SpyCas9 by shielding its RuvC active site. Structural comparison reveals that formation of the AcrIIA4-binding site of SpyCas9 is induced by sgRNA binding. Our study reveals the mechanism of SpyCas9 inhibition by AcrIIA4, providing a structural basis for developing ‘off-switch’ tools for SpyCas9 to avoid unwanted genome edits within cells and tissues.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-04-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22377
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Corrigendum: MC4R-dependent suppression of appetite by bone-derived
           lipocalin 2
    • Authors: Ioanna Mosialou, Steven Shikhel, Jian-Min Liu, Antonio Maurizi, Na Luo, Zhenyan He, Yiru Huang, Haihong Zong, Richard A. Friedman, Jonathan Barasch, Patricia Lanzano, Liyong Deng, Rudolph L. Leibel, Mishaela Rubin, Thomas Nickolas, Wendy Chung, Lori M. Zeltser, Kevin W. Williams, Jeffrey E. Pessin, Stavroula Kousteni
      Pages: 440 - 440
      Abstract: Nature543, 385–390 (2017); doi:10.1038/nature21697In this Article, the surname of author Thomas Nickolas was misspelled ‘Nicholas’. This error has been corrected online.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22808
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Salary negotiation: Get what you seek
    • Authors: Eryn Brown
      Pages: 441 - 442
      Abstract: A move into industry after a PhD may not bring immediate financial rewards, but it pays to know your strengths.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7658-441a
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Plot your course
    • Authors: Nathan L. Vanderford
      Pages: 443 - 443
      Abstract: A safe haven for career support unlocks a range of non-academic options, says Nathan L. Vanderford.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7658-443a
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • Custom-made
    • Authors: Cassandra Khaw
      Pages: 446 - 446
      Abstract: How to live happily ever after.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1038/546446a
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658 (2017)
       
  • The ‘time machine’ reconstructing ancient Venice’s
           social networks
    • Authors: Alison Abbott
      Pages: 341 - 344
      Abstract: Machine-learning project will analyse 1,000 years of maps and manuscripts from the floating city's golden age.
      Citation: Nature 546, 7658 (2017)
      DOI: 10.1038/546341a
      Issue No: Vol. 546, No. 7658
       
 
 
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