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   ISSN (Print) 0028-0836 - ISSN (Online) 1476-4687
   Published by NPG Homepage  [124 journals]
  • All shook up over topology
    • Pages: 257 - 258
      Abstract: Physicists and mathematicians have bonded over their shared explorations of bizarre states of matter.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/547257b
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • New Antarctic iceberg echoes old problem
    • Pages: 257 - 257
      Abstract: The break in the Larsen C ice shelf highlights the vulnerable nature of other Antarctic environments and the impact people are having on the continent.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.1038/547257a
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Ditching diesel won’t clear the air
    • Pages: 258 - 258
      Abstract: Arguments about the environmental benefits of petrol or diesel engines are outdated.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.1038/547258a
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • The DeepMind debacle demands dialogue on data
    • Authors: Hetan Shah
      Pages: 259 - 259
      Abstract: Mishandling of patient information shows how governments and companies must become more worthy of trust, says Hetan Shah.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/547259a
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Maryam Mirzakhani, quantum teleportation and the Great Red Spot
    • Pages: 262 - 263
      Abstract: The week in science: 14–20 July 2017.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/547262a
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Satellite snafu masked true sea-level rise for decades
    • Authors: Jeff Tollefson
      Pages: 265 - 266
      Abstract: Revised tallies confirm that the rate of sea-level rise is accelerating as the Earth warms and ice sheets thaw.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2017.22312
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Female astronomers of colour face daunting discrimination
    • Authors: Rachael Lallensack
      Pages: 266 - 267
      Abstract: Two-fifths report feeling unsafe at work, and 18% have concerns about attending conferences.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2017.22291
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • European Commission urges logging ban in ancient Białowieża
           Forest
    • Authors: Quirin Schiermeier
      Pages: 267 - 268
      Abstract: Europe’s highest court will rule on Poland's policy that encourages tree-felling in biodiversity hotspot.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2017.22309
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • US lawmakers seek $1.1-billion boost for the NIH
    • Authors: Lauren Morello
      Pages: 268 - 268
      Abstract: Legislation introduced in the House of Representatives also rejects a White House plan to cut 'indirect cost' payments to research institutions.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2017.22307
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Climate scientists flock to France’s call
    • Authors: Declan Butler
      Pages: 269 - 269
      Abstract: President said ‘Make Our Planet Great Again’ — and researchers signed up.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2017.22318
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Engineered cell therapy for cancer gets thumbs up from FDA advisers
    • Authors: Heidi Ledford
      Pages: 270 - 270
      Abstract: Treatment shows promise in young people with leukaemia, but safety risks abound.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2017.22304
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • The strange topology that is reshaping physics
    • Authors: Davide Castelvecchi
      Pages: 272 - 274
      Abstract: Topological effects might be hiding inside perfectly ordinary materials, waiting to reveal bizarre new particles or bolster quantum computing.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/547272a
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Solve Antarctica’s sea-ice puzzle
    • Authors: John Turner, Josefino Comiso
      Pages: 275 - 277
      Abstract: John Turner and Josefino Comiso call for a coordinated push to crack the baffling rise and fall of sea ice around Antarctica.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/547275a
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Environment: A journey on plastic seas
    • Authors: Richard Thompson
      Pages: 278 - 279
      Abstract: Richard Thompson applauds a chronicle alerting the world to marine polymer pollution.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/547278a
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Books in brief
    • Authors: Barbara Kiser
      Pages: 279 - 279
      Abstract: Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/547279a
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • History: Tracking down a doomed Arctic expedition
    • Authors: Daniel Cressey
      Pages: 280 - 280
      Abstract: Daniel Cressey surveys the remains of John Franklin's fatal 1845 voyage.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/547280a
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Second World War: Paris neurosurgeon's map outwitted Nazis
    • Authors: Pierre Bourdillon, Marc Lévêque, Caroline Apra
      Pages: 281 - 281
      Abstract: Neurosurgeon Jean Talairach (1911–2007) created his pioneering brain atlas with his colleague Gabor Szikla in 1967. Almost three decades earlier, he had painstakingly drawn a quite different map — of Paris's subterranean ossuaries (see 'Catacomb network under Paris'), a copy of which we recently unearthed
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/547281a
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • NASA: No cost crisis for space telescope
    • Authors: Thomas H. Zurbuchen
      Pages: 281 - 281
      Abstract: Your report on NASA's next large space telescope, the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), misleadingly implies that NASA's dark-energy probe faces a cost crisis (Nature546, 195;10.1038/546195a2017). NASA has not yet completed the work of estimating the costs of
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/547281b
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Africa: Restrict bush fires used in animal hunts
    • Authors: Mwazvita T. B. Dalu, Tatenda Dalu, Ryan J. Wasserman
      Pages: 281 - 281
      Abstract: Controlled small-scale fires are traditionally used in the African savannah to flush out small mammals for hunting. Poachers in Zimbabwe are carelessly deploying crude versions of this practice, causing unmanageable bush fires and large-scale destruction.For generations, experienced local hunters have ensured that the impact
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/547281c
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Gravitational waves: Stellar palaeontology
    • Authors: Ilya Mandel, Alison Farmer
      Pages: 284 - 285
      Abstract: A third gravitational-wave signal has been detected with confidence, produced again by the merger of two black holes. The combined data from these detections help to reveal the histories of the stars that left these black holes behind.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/547284a
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Archaeology: Early signs of human presence in Australia
    • Authors: Curtis W. Marean
      Pages: 285 - 287
      Abstract: It emerges that people reached Australia earlier than was thought. This finding casts light on the technology used by the travellers, and their possible interactions with animal species that became extinct. See Article p.306
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/547285a
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • 50 & 100 Years Ago
    • Pages: 286 - 286
      Abstract: 50 Years AgoOne of the problems that continually faces electron microscopists is deciding whether organelles with the same fine structure have identical chemical composition and cellular function...does this apply to structurally simple organelles such as microtubules' Are they identical'Microtubules...occur in specifically arranged aggregates
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/547286a
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Materials science: Chemistry and physics happily wed
    • Authors: Gregory A. Fiete
      Pages: 287 - 288
      Abstract: A major advance in the quantum theory of solids allows materials to be identified whose electronic states have a non-trivial topology. Such materials could have many computing and electronics applications. See Article p.298
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/547287a
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Immunology: Nervous crosstalk to make antibodies
    • Authors: Hai Qi
      Pages: 288 - 290
      Abstract: Immune cells called T cells help immune-system B cells mature to produce antibodies. This entails signalling between cells using the molecule dopamine — a surprising immunological role for this neurotransmitter. See Article p.318
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.1038/nature23097
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Imaging techniques: X-rays used to watch spins in 3D
    • Authors: Peter Fischer
      Pages: 290 - 291
      Abstract: Complex nanoscale magnetization patterns have been resolved in 3D using advanced X-ray microscopy. This could spur the design of magnetic devices that have unique properties and functions. See Letter p.328
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/547290a
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Cancer: Keeping it real to kill glioblastoma
    • Authors: Paul A. Northcott
      Pages: 291 - 292
      Abstract: The results of in vitro and in vivo screens to identify genes that are essential for the survival of a type of brain cancer show almost no overlap, underlining the need for caution when interpreting in vitro studies. See Letter p355.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-05
      DOI: 10.1038/nature23095
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Ribosomes are optimized for autocatalytic production
    • Authors: Shlomi Reuveni, Måns Ehrenberg, Johan Paulsson
      Pages: 293 - 297
      Abstract: Many fine-scale features of ribosomes have been explained in terms of function, revealing a molecular machine that is optimized for error-correction, speed and control. Here we demonstrate mathematically that many less well understood, larger-scale features of ribosomes—such as why a few ribosomal RNA molecules dominate
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22998
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Topological quantum chemistry
    • Authors: Barry Bradlyn, L. Elcoro, Jennifer Cano, M. G. Vergniory, Zhijun Wang, C. Felser, M. I. Aroyo, B. Andrei Bernevig
      Pages: 298 - 305
      Abstract: Since the discovery of topological insulators and semimetals, there has been much research into predicting and experimentally discovering distinct classes of these materials, in which the topology of electronic states leads to robust surface states and electromagnetic responses. This apparent success, however, masks a fundamental
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature23268
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago
    • Authors: Chris Clarkson, Zenobia Jacobs, Ben Marwick, Richard Fullagar, Lynley Wallis, Mike Smith, Richard G. Roberts, Elspeth Hayes, Kelsey Lowe, Xavier Carah, S. Anna Florin, Jessica McNeil, Delyth Cox, Lee J. Arnold, Quan Hua, Jillian Huntley, Helen E. A. Brand, Tiina Manne, Andrew Fairbairn, James Shulmeister, Lindsey Lyle, Makiah Salinas, Mara Page, Kate Connell, Gayoung Park, Kasih Norman, Tessa Murphy, Colin Pardoe
      Pages: 306 - 310
      Abstract: The time of arrival of people in Australia is an unresolved question. It is relevant to debates about when modern humans first dispersed out of Africa and when their descendants incorporated genetic material from Neanderthals, Denisovans and possibly other hominins. Humans have also been implicated
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22968
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • The whole-genome landscape of medulloblastoma subtypes
    • Authors: Paul A. Northcott, Ivo Buchhalter, A. Sorana Morrissy, Volker Hovestadt, Joachim Weischenfeldt, Tobias Ehrenberger, Susanne Gröbner, Maia Segura-Wang, Thomas Zichner, Vasilisa A. Rudneva, Hans-Jörg Warnatz, Nikos Sidiropoulos, Aaron H. Phillips, Steven Schumacher, Kortine Kleinheinz, Sebastian M. Waszak, Serap Erkek, David T. W. Jones, Barbara C. Worst, Marcel Kool, Marc Zapatka, Natalie Jäger, Lukas Chavez, Barbara Hutter, Matthias Bieg, Nagarajan Paramasivam, Michael Heinold, Zuguang Gu, Naveed Ishaque, Christina Jäger-Schmidt, Charles D. Imbusch, Alke Jugold, Daniel Hübschmann, Thomas Risch, Vyacheslav Amstislavskiy, Francisco German Rodriguez Gonzalez, Ursula D. Weber, Stephan Wolf, Giles W. Robinson, Xin Zhou, Gang Wu, David Finkelstein, Yanling Liu, Florence M. G. Cavalli, Betty Luu, Vijay Ramaswamy, Xiaochong Wu, Jan Koster, Marina Ryzhova, Yoon-Jae Cho, Scott L. Pomeroy, Christel Herold-Mende, Martin Schuhmann, Martin Ebinger, Linda M. Liau, Jaume Mora, Roger E. McLendon, Nada Jabado, Toshihiro Kumabe, Eric Chuah, Yussanne Ma, Richard A. Moore, Andrew J. Mungall, Karen L. Mungall, Nina Thiessen, Kane Tse, Tina Wong, Steven J. M. Jones, Olaf Witt, Till Milde, Andreas Von Deimling, David Capper, Andrey Korshunov, Marie-Laure Yaspo, Richard Kriwacki, Amar Gajjar, Jinghui Zhang, Rameen Beroukhim, Ernest Fraenkel, Jan O. Korbel, Benedikt Brors, Matthias Schlesner, Roland Eils, Marco A. Marra, Stefan M. Pfister, Michael D. Taylor, Peter Lichter
      Pages: 311 - 317
      Abstract: Current therapies for medulloblastoma, a highly malignant childhood brain tumour, impose debilitating effects on the developing child, and highlight the need for molecularly targeted treatments with reduced toxicity. Previous studies have been unable to identify the full spectrum of driver genes and molecular processes that
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22973
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • TFH-derived dopamine accelerates productive synapses in germinal centres
    • Authors: Ilenia Papa, David Saliba, Maurilio Ponzoni, Sonia Bustamante, Pablo F. Canete, Paula Gonzalez-Figueroa, Hayley A. McNamara, Salvatore Valvo, Michele Grimbaldeston, Rebecca A. Sweet, Harpreet Vohra, Ian A. Cockburn, Michael Meyer-Hermann, Michael L. Dustin, Claudio Doglioni, Carola G. Vinuesa
      Pages: 318 - 323
      Abstract: Protective high-affinity antibody responses depend on competitive selection of B cells carrying somatically mutated B-cell receptors by follicular helper T (TFH) cells in germinal centres. The rapid T–B-cell interactions that occur during this process are reminiscent of neural synaptic transmission pathways. Here we
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.1038/nature23013
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Experimental signatures of the mixed axial–gravitational anomaly in
           the Weyl semimetal NbP
    • Authors: Johannes Gooth, Anna C. Niemann, Tobias Meng, Adolfo G. Grushin, Karl Landsteiner, Bernd Gotsmann, Fabian Menges, Marcus Schmidt, Chandra Shekhar, Vicky Süß, Ruben Hühne, Bernd Rellinghaus, Claudia Felser, Binghai Yan, Kornelius Nielsch
      Pages: 324 - 327
      Abstract: The conservation laws, such as those of charge, energy and momentum, have a central role in physics. In some special cases, classical conservation laws are broken at the quantum level by quantum fluctuations, in which case the theory is said to have quantum anomalies. One of the most prominent examples is the chiral anomaly, which involves massless chiral fermions. These particles have their spin, or internal angular momentum, aligned either parallel or antiparallel with their linear momentum, labelled as left and right chirality, respectively. In three spatial dimensions, the chiral anomaly is the breakdown (as a result of externally applied parallel electric and magnetic fields) of the classical conservation law that dictates that the number of massless fermions of each chirality are separately conserved. The current that measures the difference between left- and right-handed particles is called the axial current and is not conserved at the quantum level. In addition, an underlying curved space-time provides a distinct contribution to a chiral imbalance, an effect known as the mixed axial–gravitational anomaly, but this anomaly has yet to be confirmed experimentally. However, the presence of a mixed gauge–gravitational anomaly has recently been tied to thermoelectrical transport in a magnetic field, even in flat space-time, suggesting that such types of mixed anomaly could be experimentally probed in condensed matter systems known as Weyl semimetals. Here, using a temperature gradient, we observe experimentally a positive magneto-thermoelectric conductance in the Weyl semimetal niobium phosphide (NbP) for collinear temperature gradients and magnetic fields that vanishes in the ultra-quantum limit, when only a single Landau level is occupied. This observation is consistent with the presence of a mixed axial–gravitational anomaly, providing clear evidence for a theoretical concept that has so far eluded experimental detection.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature23005
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Three-dimensional magnetization structures revealed with X-ray vector
           nanotomography
    • Authors: Claire Donnelly, Manuel Guizar-Sicairos, Valerio Scagnoli, Sebastian Gliga, Mirko Holler, Jörg Raabe, Laura J. Heyderman
      Pages: 328 - 331
      Abstract: In soft ferromagnetic materials, the smoothly varying magnetization leads to the formation of fundamental patterns such as domains, vortices and domain walls. These have been studied extensively in thin films of thicknesses up to around 200 nanometres, in which the magnetization is accessible with current transmission imaging methods that make use of electrons or soft X-rays. In thicker samples, however, in which the magnetization structure varies throughout the thickness and is intrinsically three dimensional, determining the complex magnetic structure directly still represents a challenge. We have developed hard-X-ray vector nanotomography with which to determine the three-dimensional magnetic configuration at the nanoscale within micrometre-sized samples. We imaged the structure of the magnetization within a soft magnetic pillar of diameter 5 micrometres with a spatial resolution of 100 nanometres and, within the bulk, observed a complex magnetic configuration that consists of vortices and antivortices that form cross-tie walls and vortex walls along intersecting planes. At the intersections of these structures, magnetic singularities—Bloch points—occur. These were predicted more than fifty years ago but have so far not been directly observed. Here we image the three-dimensional magnetic structure in the vicinity of the Bloch points, which until now has been accessible only through micromagnetic simulations, and identify two possible magnetization configurations: a circulating magnetization structure and a twisted state that appears to correspond to an ‘anti-Bloch point’. Our imaging method enables the nanoscale study of topological magnetic structures in systems with sizes of the order of tens of micrometres. Knowledge of internal nanomagnetic textures is critical for understanding macroscopic magnetic properties and for designing bulk magnets for technological applications.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature23006
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Nitrogen reduction and functionalization by a multimetallic uranium
           nitride complex
    • Authors: Marta Falcone, Lucile Chatelain, Rosario Scopelliti, Ivica Živković, Marinella Mazzanti
      Pages: 332 - 335
      Abstract: Molecular nitrogen (N2) is cheap and widely available, but its unreactive nature is a challenge when attempting to functionalize it under mild conditions with other widely available substrates (such as carbon monoxide, CO) to produce value-added compounds. Biological N2 fixation can do this, but the industrial Haber–Bosch process for ammonia production operates under harsh conditions (450 degrees Celsius and 300 bar), even though both processes are thought to involve multimetallic catalytic sites. And although molecular complexes capable of binding and even reducing N2 under mild conditions are known, with co-operativity between metal centres considered crucial for the N2 reduction step, the multimetallic species involved are usually not well defined, and further transformation of N2-binding complexes to achieve N–H or N–C bond formation is rare. Haber noted, before an iron-based catalyst was adopted for the industrial Haber–Bosch process, that uranium and uranium nitride materials are very effective heterogeneous catalysts for ammonia production from N2. However, few examples of uranium complexes binding N2 are known, and soluble uranium complexes capable of transforming N2 into ammonia or organonitrogen compounds have not yet been identified. Here we report the four-electron reduction of N2 under ambient conditions by a fully characterized complex with two Uiii ions and three K+ centres held together by a nitride group and a flexible metalloligand framework. The addition of H2 and/or protons, or CO to the resulting complex results in the complete cleavage of N2 with concomitant N2 functionalization through N–H or N–C bond-forming reactions. These observations establish that a molecular uranium complex can promote the stoichiometric transformation of N2 into NH3 or cyanate, and that a flexible, electron-rich, multimetallic, nitride-bridged core unit is a promising starting point for the design of molecular complexes capable of cleaving and functionalizing N2 under mild conditions.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature23279
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Large-scale physical activity data reveal worldwide activity inequality
    • Authors: Tim Althoff, Rok Sosič, Jennifer L. Hicks, Abby C. King, Scott L. Delp, Jure Leskovec
      Pages: 336 - 339
      Abstract: To be able to curb the global pandemic of physical inactivity and the associated 5.3 million deaths per year, we need to understand the basic principles that govern physical activity. However, there is a lack of large-scale measurements of physical activity patterns across free-living populations worldwide. Here we leverage the wide usage of smartphones with built-in accelerometry to measure physical activity at the global scale. We study a dataset consisting of 68 million days of physical activity for 717,527 people, giving us a window into activity in 111 countries across the globe. We find inequality in how activity is distributed within countries and that this inequality is a better predictor of obesity prevalence in the population than average activity volume. Reduced activity in females contributes to a large portion of the observed activity inequality. Aspects of the built environment, such as the walkability of a city, are associated with a smaller gender gap in activity and lower activity inequality. In more walkable cities, activity is greater throughout the day and throughout the week, across age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) groups, with the greatest increases in activity found for females. Our findings have implications for global public health policy and urban planning and highlight the role of activity inequality and the built environment in improving physical activity and health.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1038/nature23018
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Infant viewing of social scenes is under genetic control and is atypical
           in autism
    • Authors: John N. Constantino, Stefanie Kennon-McGill, Claire Weichselbaum, Natasha Marrus, Alyzeh Haider, Anne L. Glowinski, Scott Gillespie, Cheryl Klaiman, Ami Klin, Warren Jones
      Pages: 340 - 344
      Abstract: Long before infants reach, crawl or walk, they explore the world by looking: they look to learn and to engage, giving preferential attention to social stimuli, including faces, face-like stimuli and biological motion. This capacity—social visual engagement—shapes typical infant development from birth and is pathognomonically impaired in children affected by autism. Here we show that variation in viewing of social scenes, including levels of preferential attention and the timing, direction and targeting of individual eye movements, is strongly influenced by genetic factors, with effects directly traceable to the active seeking of social information. In a series of eye-tracking experiments conducted with 338 toddlers, including 166 epidemiologically ascertained twins (enrolled by representative sampling from the general population), 88 non-twins with autism and 84 singleton controls, we find high monozygotic twin–twin concordance (0.91) and relatively low dizygotic concordance (0.35). Moreover, the characteristics that are the most highly heritable, preferential attention to eye and mouth regions of the face, are also those that are differentially decreased in children with autism (χ2 = 64.03, P 
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22999
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • CRISPR–Cas encoding of a digital movie into the genomes of a
           population of living bacteria
    • Authors: Seth L. Shipman, Jeff Nivala, Jeffrey D. Macklis, George M. Church
      Pages: 345 - 349
      Abstract: DNA is an excellent medium for archiving data. Recent efforts have illustrated the potential for information storage in DNA using synthesized oligonucleotides assembled in vitro. A relatively unexplored avenue of information storage in DNA is the ability to write information into the genome of a living cell by the addition of nucleotides over time. Using the Cas1–Cas2 integrase, the CRISPR–Cas microbial immune system stores the nucleotide content of invading viruses to confer adaptive immunity. When harnessed, this system has the potential to write arbitrary information into the genome. Here we use the CRISPR–Cas system to encode the pixel values of black and white images and a short movie into the genomes of a population of living bacteria. In doing so, we push the technical limits of this information storage system and optimize strategies to minimize those limitations. We also uncover underlying principles of the CRISPR–Cas adaptation system, including sequence determinants of spacer acquisition that are relevant for understanding both the basic biology of bacterial adaptation and its technological applications. This work demonstrates that this system can capture and stably store practical amounts of real data within the genomes of populations of living cells.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.1038/nature23017
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Cholangiocytes act as facultative liver stem cells during impaired
           hepatocyte regeneration
    • Authors: Alexander Raven, Wei-Yu Lu, Tak Yung Man, Sofia Ferreira-Gonzalez, Eoghan O’Duibhir, Benjamin J. Dwyer, John P. Thomson, Richard R. Meehan, Roman Bogorad, Victor Koteliansky, Yuri Kotelevtsev, Charles ffrench-Constant, Luke Boulter, Stuart J. Forbes
      Pages: 350 - 354
      Abstract: After liver injury, regeneration occurs through self-replication of hepatocytes. In severe liver injury, hepatocyte proliferation is impaired—a feature of human chronic liver disease. It is unclear whether other liver cell types can regenerate hepatocytes. Here we use two independent systems to impair hepatocyte proliferation during liver injury to evaluate the contribution of non-hepatocytes to parenchymal regeneration. First, loss of β1-integrin in hepatocytes with liver injury triggered a ductular reaction of cholangiocyte origin, with approximately 25% of hepatocytes being derived from a non-hepatocyte origin. Second, cholangiocytes were lineage traced with concurrent inhibition of hepatocyte proliferation by β1-integrin knockdown or p21 overexpression, resulting in the significant emergence of cholangiocyte-derived hepatocytes. We describe a model of combined liver injury and inhibition of hepatocyte proliferation that causes physiologically significant levels of regeneration of functional hepatocytes from biliary cells.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.1038/nature23015
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Transcription elongation factors represent in vivo cancer dependencies in
           glioblastoma
    • Authors: Tyler E. Miller, Brian B. Liau, Lisa C. Wallace, Andrew R. Morton, Qi Xie, Deobrat Dixit, Daniel C. Factor, Leo J. Y. Kim, James J. Morrow, Qiulian Wu, Stephen C. Mack, Christopher G. Hubert, Shawn M. Gillespie, William A. Flavahan, Thomas Hoffmann, Rohit Thummalapalli, Michael T. Hemann, Patrick J. Paddison, Craig M. Horbinski, Johannes Zuber, Peter C. Scacheri, Bradley E. Bernstein, Paul J. Tesar, Jeremy N. Rich
      Pages: 355 - 359
      Abstract: Glioblastoma is a universally lethal cancer with a median survival time of approximately 15 months. Despite substantial efforts to define druggable targets, there are no therapeutic options that notably extend the lifespan of patients with glioblastoma. While previous work has largely focused on in vitro cellular models, here we demonstrate a more physiologically relevant approach to target discovery in glioblastoma. We adapted pooled RNA interference (RNAi) screening technology for use in orthotopic patient-derived xenograft models, creating a high-throughput negative-selection screening platform in a functional in vivo tumour microenvironment. Using this approach, we performed parallel in vivo and in vitro screens and discovered that the chromatin and transcriptional regulators needed for cell survival in vivo are non-overlapping with those required in vitro. We identified transcription pause–release and elongation factors as one set of in vivo-specific cancer dependencies, and determined that these factors are necessary for enhancer-mediated transcriptional adaptations that enable cells to survive the tumour microenvironment. Our lead hit, JMJD6, mediates the upregulation of in vivo stress and stimulus response pathways through enhancer-mediated transcriptional pause–release, promoting cell survival specifically in vivo. Targeting JMJD6 or other identified elongation factors extends survival in orthotopic xenograft mouse models, suggesting that targeting transcription elongation machinery may be an effective therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma. More broadly, this study demonstrates the power of in vivo phenotypic screening to identify new classes of ‘cancer dependencies’ not identified by previous in vitro approaches, and could supply new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-05
      DOI: 10.1038/nature23000
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Open and closed structures reveal allostery and pliability in the HIV-1
           envelope spike
    • Authors: Gabriel Ozorowski, Jesper Pallesen, Natalia de Val, Dmitry Lyumkis, Christopher A. Cottrell, Jonathan L. Torres, Jeffrey Copps, Robyn L. Stanfield, Albert Cupo, Pavel Pugach, John P. Moore, Ian A. Wilson, Andrew B. Ward
      Pages: 360 - 363
      Abstract: For many enveloped viruses, binding to a receptor(s) on a host cell acts as the first step in a series of events culminating in fusion with the host cell membrane and transfer of genetic material for replication. The envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer on the surface of HIV is responsible for receptor binding and fusion. Although Env can tolerate a high degree of mutation in five variable regions (V1–V5), and also at N-linked glycosylation sites that contribute roughly half the mass of Env, the functional sites for recognition of receptor CD4 and co-receptor CXCR4/CCR5 are conserved and essential for viral fitness. Soluble SOSIP Env trimers are structural and antigenic mimics of the pre-fusion native, surface-presented Env, and are targets of broadly neutralizing antibodies. Thus, they are attractive immunogens for vaccine development. Here we present high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structures of subtype B B41 SOSIP Env trimers in complex with CD4 and antibody 17b, or with antibody b12, at resolutions of 3.7 Å and 3.6 Å, respectively. We compare these to cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of B41 SOSIP Env trimers with no ligand or in complex with either CD4 or the CD4-binding-site antibody PGV04 at 5.6 Å, 5.2 Å and 7.4 Å resolution, respectively. Consequently, we present the most complete description yet, to our knowledge, of the CD4–17b-induced intermediate and provide the molecular basis of the receptor-binding-induced conformational change required for HIV-1 entry into host cells. Both CD4 and b12 induce large, previously uncharacterized conformational rearrangements in the gp41 subunits, and the fusion peptide becomes buried in a newly formed pocket. These structures provide key details on the biological function of the type I viral fusion machine from HIV-1 as well as new templates for inhibitor design.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.1038/nature23010
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • K2P2.1 (TREK-1)–activator complexes reveal a cryptic selectivity
           filter binding site
    • Authors: Marco Lolicato, Cristina Arrigoni, Takahiro Mori, Yoko Sekioka, Clifford Bryant, Kimberly A. Clark, Daniel L. Minor
      Pages: 364 - 368
      Abstract: Polymodal thermo- and mechanosensitive two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels of the TREK subfamily generate ‘leak’ currents that regulate neuronal excitability, respond to lipids, temperature and mechanical stretch, and influence pain, temperature perception and anaesthetic responses. These dimeric voltage-gated ion channel (VGIC) superfamily members have a unique topology comprising two pore-forming regions per subunit. In contrast to other potassium channels, K2P channels use a selectivity filter ‘C-type’ gate as the principal gating site. Despite recent advances, poor pharmacological profiles of K2P channels limit mechanistic and biological studies. Here we describe a class of small-molecule TREK activators that directly stimulate the C-type gate by acting as molecular wedges that restrict interdomain interface movement behind the selectivity filter. Structures of K2P2.1 (also known as TREK-1) alone and with two selective K2P2.1 (TREK-1) and K2P10.1 (TREK-2) activators—an N-aryl-sulfonamide, ML335, and a thiophene-carboxamide, ML402—define a cryptic binding pocket unlike other ion channel small-molecule binding sites and, together with functional studies, identify a cation–π interaction that controls selectivity. Together, our data reveal a druggable K2P site that stabilizes the C-type gate ‘leak mode’ and provide direct evidence for K2P selectivity filter gating.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1038/nature22988
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Enterprise: Game on
    • Authors: Roberta Kwok
      Pages: 369 - 371
      Abstract: Scientists are designing board, card and digital games to convey scientific concepts.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7663-369a
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Turning point: Soft-skills sculptor
    • Authors: Virginia Gewin
      Pages: 371 - 371
      Abstract: Career-building skills need not be hard to learn.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7663-371a
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
  • Catalogue of Items in the Chess Exhibition at the Humanities Museum,
           Pre-Enlightenment Wing
    • Authors: Alex Shvartsman
      Pages: 374 - 374
      Abstract: A unique insight into a remarkable game.
      Citation: Nature 547, 7663 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1038/547374a
      Issue No: Vol. 547, No. 7663 (2017)
       
 
 
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