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Journal Cover Nature
  [SJR: 21.323]   [H-I: 829]   [3116 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0028-0836 - ISSN (Online) 1476-4687
   Published by NPG Homepage  [123 journals]
  • ExAC project pins down rare gene variants
    • Pages: 249 - 249
      Abstract: Catalogue of genetic information from some 60,000 people reveals unexpected surprises — and highlights the need to make genomic data publicly accessible to aid studies of rare diseases.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536249a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • CRISPR helps evo-devo scientists to unpick the origins of adaptions
    • Pages: 249 - 249
      Abstract: Modern gene-editing tools are being used to understand the mechanisms of evolution.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536249b
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Define the Anthropocene in terms of the whole Earth
    • Authors: Clive Hamilton
      Pages: 251 - 251
      Abstract: Researchers must consider human impacts on entire Earth systems and not get trapped in discipline-specific definitions, says Clive Hamilton.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536251a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Climate change: Warming drives down lake life
    • Pages: 252 - 252
      Abstract: Rising temperatures have lowered fish numbers in one of Africa's great lakes, threatening food sources vital to local people.Andrew Cohen at the University of Arizona in Tucson and his colleagues analysed sediments and fossils from Lake Tanganyika (pictured) to infer water temperatures and estimate
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536252a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Agricultural ecology: Pesticide link to wild-bee declines
    • Pages: 252 - 252
      Abstract: A class of pesticide called neonicotinoids has been associated with the decline of wild-bee species across the United Kingdom.Small and short-term studies have shown that the chemicals — which were first used widely in the country in 2002, before being placed under a 2-year
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536252b
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Biodiversity: New lizards under threat
    • Pages: 252 - 252
      Abstract: Recently discovered lizard species tend to be smaller, are more often nocturnal and are at greater risk of extinction than those described previously.Scientists have been identifying new lizard species at an astonishing rate — with a more than 30% increase in species number recorded
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536252c
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Cell biology: CRISPR switches cell types
    • Pages: 252 - 252
      Abstract: By activating a suite of genes using the gene-targeting tool CRISPR–Cas9, researchers have turned connective-tissue cells called fibroblasts directly into neurons.Directly reprogramming cells from one identity to another could one day provide abundant material for disease research or therapies. But scientists face a technical
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536252d
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Planetary science: Methane-filled canyons on Titan
    • Pages: 253 - 253
      Abstract: The surface of Saturn's largest moon is etched with canyons that are flooded with liquid hydrocarbons, according to data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft.Valerio Poggiali of the Sapienza University of Rome and his team used radar aboard Cassini to measure elevations on Titan and map
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536253a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Nanomaterials: Sunlight helps to purify water
    • Pages: 253 - 253
      Abstract: Nanometre-thin films can harvest natural light and use it to rapidly disinfect water.Sunlight offers a useful means of purifying water, particularly in countries that lack reliable energy sources. Ultraviolet light is widely used to kill microbes, but accounts for only 4% of the solar
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536253b
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Geophysics: Ancient sea floor preserved
    • Pages: 253 - 253
      Abstract: The eastern Mediterranean Sea contains a surprisingly ancient chunk of oceanic crust, which is probably helping to shape the region's geology today.The shifting of Earth's crustal plates has destroyed most oceanic rock older than about 200 million years. Roi Granot at Ben-Gurion University of
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536253c
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Animal cognition: Crafty crows bend their tools
    • Pages: 253 - 253
      Abstract: Creating bent tools to fish for food in holes and crevices seems to come naturally to a species of crow.In 2002, a captive New Caledonian crow (Corvus moneduloides) called Betty astonished scientists by bending straight pieces of wire into hooked tools to
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536253d
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Zoology: Sharks live for centuries
    • Pages: 253 - 253
      Abstract: A shark species found in Arctic seas may live for up to 400 years, making it the longest-lived vertebrate known.Julius Nielsen at the University of Copenhagen and his colleagues estimated the ages of 28 female Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus; pictured), by
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536253e
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Atomic physics: Proton-size puzzle deepens
    • Pages: 253 - 253
      Abstract: Atomic measurements add weight to recent work suggesting that the proton is significantly smaller than previously thought.In 2010, researchers studied muonic hydrogen (in which the electron is replaced with a muon, a bigger particle that is also negatively charged), which allowed them to measure
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536253f
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • The week in science: 12–18 August 2016
    • Pages: 254 - 255
      Abstract: China launches quantum satellite; Polio re-emerges in Nigeria; and study reveals how a solar flare almost started a war.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536254a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Mosquito guns and heavy fines: how Cuba kept Zika at bay for so long
    • Authors: Sara Reardon
      Pages: 257 - 258
      Abstract: It is one of the last Caribbean countries to get hit.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536257a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Artificial black hole creates its own version of Hawking radiation
    • Authors: Davide Castelvecchi
      Pages: 258 - 259
      Abstract: Result could be closest thing yet to an observation of the bizarre phenomenon.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-15
      DOI: 10.1038/536258a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Trump’s border-wall pledge threatens delicate desert ecosystems
    • Authors: Brian Owens
      Pages: 260 - 261
      Abstract: Ecologists fear plan to seal off the United States from Mexico would put wildlife at risk.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-16
      DOI: 10.1038/536260a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Nobel laureate’s death highlights struggles at Egyptian science hub
    • Authors: Pakinam Amer, Mohammed Yahia
      Pages: 260 - 260
      Abstract: Cash-strapped Zewail City of Science and Technology is the legacy of Arab chemist Ahmed Zewail.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2016.20408
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Morphing neutrinos provide clue to antimatter mystery
    • Authors: Elizabeth Gibney
      Pages: 261 - 262
      Abstract: Excitement rises over chance of new physics from particle-du-jour.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-12
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2016.20405
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Bottles, bags, ropes and toothbrushes: the struggle to track ocean
           plastics
    • Authors: Daniel Cressey
      Pages: 263 - 265
      Abstract: Scientists know that there is a colossal amount of plastic in the oceans. But they don’t know where it all is, what it looks like or what damage it does.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536263a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • The plastics revolution: how chemists are pushing polymers to new limits
    • Authors: Mark Peplow
      Pages: 266 - 268
      Abstract: Polymers have infiltrated almost every aspect of modern life. Now researchers are working on next-generation forms.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536266a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Rethink how chemical hazards are tested
    • Authors: John C. Warner, Jennifer K. Ludwig
      Pages: 269 - 270
      Abstract: John C. Warner and Jennifer K. Ludwig propose three approaches that would help inventors to produce safer chemicals and products.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-16
      DOI: 10.1038/536269a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Correction
    • Pages: 270 - 270
      Abstract: The Comment article 'Stop the privatization of health data' (J. T.Wilbanks & E. J.TopolNature535, 345–348; 2016 ) wrongly stated that the Enlite device sends insulin into the blood when it detects a drop in
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-16
      DOI: 10.1038/536270a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Ethics: Taming our technologies
    • Authors: Steven Aftergood
      Pages: 271 - 272
      Abstract: Steven Aftergood weighs up a study that gauges the gap between oversight and the onward rush of innovation.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536271a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Q&A: Brenda Keneghan: The polymer conservator
    • Authors: Elizabeth Gibney
      Pages: 272 - 273
      Abstract: For many, plastic is a dirty word — a pollutant that can't degrade soon enough. But for polymer scientist Brenda Keneghan, it's a precious material that looms large in design history. A conservator at the Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A) in London, Keneghan spends her days saving plastic items from furniture to toys from the ravages of time. Here she talks about the war against the warping, yellowing, crumbling and stickiness that plague polymers.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536272a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Books in brief
    • Authors: Barbara Kiser
      Pages: 273 - 273
      Abstract: Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536273a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • European Union: Royal Society helps guide Brexit science
    • Authors: Julie Maxton
      Pages: 274 - 274
      Abstract: While the United Kingdom's relationship with the European Union is in flux, I wish to emphasize that the Royal Society's president, Venki Ramakrishnan, and its foreign secretary, Martyn Poliakoff, are more strongly engaged with Europe than ever. They are determined to continue as an effective
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536274a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • PhD thesis: Being more open about PhD papers
    • Authors: Joy Burrough-Boenisch
      Pages: 274 - 274
      Abstract: Submitting a PhD thesis as a compilation of research papers can help scientists' early careers (see Nature535, 26–28;10.1038/535026a2016), but acknowledgements and declarations should not be overlooked along the way.In the Netherlands, a PhD student's research articles
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536274b
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Costa Rica: World's last in vitro fertilization ban falls
    • Pages: 274 - 274
      Abstract: After a lengthy struggle, in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures began last month in Costa Rica. This effectively ends the last full IVF ban in the world. (In countries under Islamic law, for example, IVF is permitted, albeit only within marriage.)IVF was banned in
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536274c
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Spain: Stop vultures from striking aircraft
    • Authors: Antoni Margalida
      Pages: 274 - 274
      Abstract: An ecological solution is needed to prevent collisions of Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) with aircraft in Spain, home to some 95% of Europe's population of these large raptors. There were 26 such collisions recorded in 2006–15 around Madrid Barajas airport, which handles
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536274d
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Music theory: Music calculations out of tune
    • Authors: Adrian Goldman
      Pages: 274 - 274
      Abstract: It is perhaps not surprising that the Tsimane' villagers in Bolivia cannot tell the difference between minor and major keys, or dissonant and non-dissonant sounds (Nature535, 199–200;10.1038/535199b2016). Alternative musical scales and intervals have been known to
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536274e
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • In retrospect: Sixty years of living polymers
    • Authors: Gary Patterson
      Pages: 276 - 277
      Abstract: In the 1950s, the discovery of a class of 'living' polymerization reaction revolutionized the field of polymer science by providing a way of controlling the molecular-weight distribution of polymers. The effects reverberate to this day.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536276a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Human genomics: A deep dive into genetic variation
    • Authors: Jay Shendure
      Pages: 277 - 278
      Abstract: The exome is the portion of the genome that encodes proteins. Aggregation of 60,706 human exome sequences from 14 studies provides in-depth insight into genetic variation in humans. See Article p.285
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536277a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Neuroscience: Flipping the sleep switch
    • Authors: Stephane Dissel, Paul J. Shaw
      Pages: 278 - 280
      Abstract: Inactivation of a group of sleep-promoting neurons through dopamine signalling can cause acute or chronic wakefulness in flies, depending on changes in two different potassium-channel proteins. See Letter p.333
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-03
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18918
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Catalysis: Elusive active site in focus
    • Authors: Jay A. Labinger
      Pages: 280 - 281
      Abstract: The identification of the active site of an iron-containing catalyst raises hopes of designing practically useful catalysts for the room-temperature conversion of methane to methanol, a potential fuel for vehicles. See Letter p.317
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536280a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Mammalian development: Mechanics drives cell differentiation
    • Authors: Berenika Plusa, Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis
      Pages: 281 - 282
      Abstract: Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain how cells make the first lineage decision during mammalian embryonic development. An overarching mechanism now unifies these disparate models. See Letter p.344
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-03
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18920
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Condensed-matter physics: Superconducting electrons go missing
    • Authors: Jan Zaanen
      Pages: 282 - 283
      Abstract: 'Overdoped' high-temperature superconductors, which have a high density of charge carriers, were thought to be well understood. An experiment challenges what we know about quantum physics in such systems. See Letter p.309
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536282a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Analysis of protein-coding genetic variation in 60,706 humans
    • Pages: 285 - 291
      Abstract: Large-scale reference data sets of human genetic variation are critical for the medical and functional interpretation of DNA sequence changes. Here we describe the aggregation and analysis of high-quality exome (protein-coding region) DNA sequence data for 60,706 individuals of diverse ancestries generated as part of
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19057
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Circadian neuron feedback controls the Drosophila sleep–activity
           profile
    • Authors: Fang Guo, Junwei Yu, Hyung Jae Jung, Katharine C. Abruzzi, Weifei Luo, Leslie C. Griffith, Michael Rosbash
      Pages: 292 - 297
      Abstract: Little is known about the ability of Drosophila circadian neurons to promote sleep. Here we show, using optogenetic manipulation and video recording, that a subset of dorsal clock neurons (DN1s) are potent sleep-promoting cells that release glutamate to directly inhibit key pacemaker neurons. The
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19097
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Defining the clonal dynamics leading to mouse skin tumour initiation
    • Pages: 298 - 303
      Abstract: The changes in cell dynamics after oncogenic mutation that lead to the development of tumours are currently unknown. Here, using skin epidermis as a model, we assessed the effect of oncogenic hedgehog signalling in distinct cell populations and their capacity to induce basal cell carcinoma,
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19069
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Capturing a substrate in an activated RING E3/E2–SUMO complex
    • Authors: Frederick C. Streich Jr, Christopher D. Lima
      Pages: 304 - 308
      Abstract: Post-translational protein modification by ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like (Ubl) proteins such as small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) regulates processes including protein homeostasis, the DNA damage response, and the cell cycle. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is modified by Ub or poly-Ub at lysine (Lys)164 after DNA
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-10
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19071
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Dependence of the critical temperature in overdoped copper oxides on
           superfluid density
    • Pages: 309 - 311
      Abstract: The physics of underdoped copper oxide superconductors, including the pseudogap, spin and charge ordering and their relation to superconductivity, is intensely debated. The overdoped copper oxides are perceived as simpler, with strongly correlated fermion physics evolving smoothly into the conventional Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer behaviour. Pioneering studies on a few overdoped samples indicated that the superfluid density was much lower than expected, but this was attributed to pair-breaking, disorder and phase separation. Here we report the way in which the magnetic penetration depth and the phase stiffness depend on temperature and doping by investigating the entire overdoped side of the La2−xSrxCuO4 phase diagram. We measured the absolute values of the magnetic penetration depth and the phase stiffness to an accuracy of one per cent in thousands of samples; the large statistics reveal clear trends and intrinsic properties. The films are homogeneous; variations in the critical superconducting temperature within a film are very small (less than one kelvin). At every level of doping the phase stiffness decreases linearly with temperature. The dependence of the zero-temperature phase stiffness on the critical superconducting temperature is generally linear, but with an offset; however, close to the origin this dependence becomes parabolic. This scaling law is incompatible with the standard Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer description.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19061
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • High-efficiency two-dimensional Ruddlesden–Popper perovskite solar
           cells
    • Authors: Hsinhan Tsai, Wanyi Nie, Jean-Christophe Blancon, Constantinos C. Stoumpos, Reza Asadpour, Boris Harutyunyan, Amanda J. Neukirch, Rafael Verduzco, Jared J. Crochet, Sergei Tretiak, Laurent Pedesseau, Jacky Even, Muhammad A. Alam, Gautam Gupta, Jun Lou, Pulickel M. Ajayan, Michael J. Bedzyk, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis, Aditya D. Mohite
      Pages: 312 - 316
      Abstract: Three-dimensional organic–inorganic perovskites have emerged as one of the most promising thin-film solar cell materials owing to their remarkable photophysical properties, which have led to power conversion efficiencies exceeding 20 per cent, with the prospect of further improvements towards the Shockley–Queisser limit for a single‐junction solar cell (33.5 per cent). Besides efficiency, another critical factor for photovoltaics and other optoelectronic applications is environmental stability and photostability under operating conditions. In contrast to their three-dimensional counterparts, Ruddlesden–Popper phases—layered two-dimensional perovskite films—have shown promising stability, but poor efficiency at only 4.73 per cent. This relatively poor efficiency is attributed to the inhibition of out-of-plane charge transport by the organic cations, which act like insulating spacing layers between the conducting inorganic slabs. Here we overcome this issue in layered perovskites by producing thin films of near-single-crystalline quality, in which the crystallographic planes of the inorganic perovskite component have a strongly preferential out-of-plane alignment with respect to the contacts in planar solar cells to facilitate efficient charge transport. We report a photovoltaic efficiency of 12.52 per cent with no hysteresis, and the devices exhibit greatly improved stability in comparison to their three-dimensional counterparts when subjected to light, humidity and heat stress tests. Unencapsulated two-dimensional perovskite devices retain over 60 per cent of their efficiency for over 2,250 hours under constant, standard (AM1.5G) illumination, and exhibit greater tolerance to 65 per cent relative humidity than do three-dimensional equivalents. When the devices are encapsulated, the layered devices do not show any degradation under constant AM1.5G illumination or humidity. We anticipate that these results will lead to the growth of single-crystalline, solution-processed, layered, hybrid, perovskite thin films, which are essential for high-performance opto-electronic devices with technologically relevant long-term stability.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-06
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18306
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • The active site of low-temperature methane hydroxylation in
           iron-containing zeolites
    • Pages: 317 - 321
      Abstract: An efficient catalytic process for converting methane into methanol could have far-reaching economic implications. Iron-containing zeolites (microporous aluminosilicate minerals) are noteworthy in this regard, having an outstanding ability to hydroxylate methane rapidly at room temperature to form methanol. Reactivity occurs at an extra-lattice active site called α-Fe(ii), which is activated by nitrous oxide to form the reactive intermediate α-O; however, despite nearly three decades of research, the nature of the active site and the factors determining its exceptional reactivity are unclear. The main difficulty is that the reactive species—α-Fe(ii) and α-O—are challenging to probe spectroscopically: data from bulk techniques such as X-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility are complicated by contributions from inactive ‘spectator’ iron. Here we show that a site-selective spectroscopic method regularly used in bioinorganic chemistry can overcome this problem. Magnetic circular dichroism reveals α-Fe(ii) to be a mononuclear, high-spin, square planar Fe(ii) site, while the reactive intermediate, α-O, is a mononuclear, high-spin Fe(iv)=O species, whose exceptional reactivity derives from a constrained coordination geometry enforced by the zeolite lattice. These findings illustrate the value of our approach to exploring active sites in heterogeneous systems. The results also suggest that using matrix constraints to activate metal sites for function—producing what is known in the context of metalloenzymes as an ‘entatic’ state—might be a useful way to tune the activity of heterogeneous catalysts.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19059
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Metallaphotoredox-catalysed sp3–sp3 cross-coupling of carboxylic
           acids with alkyl halides
    • Authors: Craig P. Johnston, Russell T. Smith, Simon Allmendinger, David W. C. MacMillan
      Pages: 322 - 325
      Abstract: In the past 50 years, cross-coupling reactions mediated by transition metals have changed the way in which complex organic molecules are synthesized. The predictable and chemoselective nature of these transformations has led to their widespread adoption across many areas of chemical research. However, the construction of a bond between two sp3-hybridized carbon atoms, a fundamental unit of organic chemistry, remains an important yet elusive objective for engineering cross-coupling reactions. In comparison to related procedures with sp2-hybridized species, the development of methods for sp3–sp3 bond formation via transition metal catalysis has been hampered historically by deleterious side-reactions, such as β-hydride elimination with palladium catalysis or the reluctance of alkyl halides to undergo oxidative addition. To address this issue, nickel-catalysed cross-coupling processes can be used to form sp3–sp3 bonds that utilize organometallic nucleophiles and alkyl electrophiles. In particular, the coupling of alkyl halides with pre-generated organozinc, Grignard and organoborane species has been used to furnish diverse molecular structures. However, the manipulations required to produce these activated structures is inefficient, leading to poor step- and atom-economies. Moreover, the operational difficulties associated with making and using these reactive coupling partners, and preserving them through a synthetic sequence, has hindered their widespread adoption. A generically useful sp3–sp3 coupling technology that uses bench-stable, native organic functional groups, without the need for pre-functionalization or substrate derivatization, would therefore be valuable. Here we demonstrate that the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis enables the direct formation of sp3–sp3 bonds using only simple carboxylic acids and alkyl halides as the nucleophilic and electrophilic coupling partners, respectively. This metallaphotoredox protocol is suitable for many primary and secondary carboxylic acids. The merit of this coupling strategy is illustrated by the synthesis of the pharmaceutical tirofiban in four steps from commercially available starting materials.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19056
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • An early geodynamo driven by exsolution of mantle components from
           Earth’s core
    • Authors: James Badro, Julien Siebert, Francis Nimmo
      Pages: 326 - 328
      Abstract: Recent palaeomagnetic observations report the existence of a magnetic field on Earth that is at least 3.45 billion years old. Compositional buoyancy caused by inner-core growth is the primary driver of Earth’s present-day geodynamo, but the inner core is too young to explain the existence of a magnetic field before about one billion years ago. Theoretical models propose that the exsolution of magnesium oxide—the major constituent of Earth’s mantle—from the core provided a major source of the energy required to drive an early dynamo, but experimental evidence for the incorporation of mantle components into the core has been lacking. Indeed, terrestrial core formation occurred in the early molten Earth by gravitational segregation of immiscible metal and silicate melts, transporting iron-loving (siderophile) elements from the silicate mantle to the metallic core and leaving rock-loving (lithophile) mantle components behind. Here we present experiments showing that magnesium oxide dissolves in core-forming iron melt at very high temperatures. Using core-formation models, we show that extreme events during Earth’s accretion (such as the Moon-forming giant impact) could have contributed large amounts of magnesium to the early core. As the core subsequently cooled, exsolution of buoyant magnesium oxide would have taken place at the core–mantle boundary, generating a substantial amount of gravitational energy as a result of compositional buoyancy. This amount of energy is comparable to, if not more than, that produced by inner-core growth, resolving the conundrum posed by the existence of an ancient magnetic field prior to the formation of the inner core.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-07-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18594
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Natural courtship song variation caused by an intronic retroelement in an
           ion channel gene
    • Authors: Yun Ding, Augusto Berrocal, Tomoko Morita, Kit D. Longden, David L. Stern
      Pages: 329 - 332
      Abstract: Animal species display enormous variation for innate behaviours, but little is known about how this diversity arose. Here, using an unbiased genetic approach, we map a courtship song difference between wild isolates of Drosophila simulans and Drosophila mauritiana to a 966 base pair region within the slowpoke (slo) locus, which encodes a calcium-activated potassium channel. Using the reciprocal hemizygosity test, we confirm that slo is the causal locus and resolve the causal mutation to the evolutionarily recent insertion of a retroelement in a slo intron within D. simulans. Targeted deletion of this retroelement reverts the song phenotype and alters slo splicing. Like many ion channel genes, slo is expressed widely in the nervous system and influences a variety of behaviours; slo-null males sing little song with severely disrupted features. By contrast, the natural variant of slo alters a specific component of courtship song, illustrating that regulatory evolution of a highly pleiotropic ion channel gene can cause modular changes in behaviour.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-10
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19093
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Operation of a homeostatic sleep switch
    • Pages: 333 - 337
      Abstract: Sleep disconnects animals from the external world, at considerable risks and costs that must be offset by a vital benefit. Insight into this mysterious benefit will come from understanding sleep homeostasis: to monitor sleep need, an internal bookkeeper must track physiological changes that are linked to the core function of sleep. In Drosophila, a crucial component of the machinery for sleep homeostasis is a cluster of neurons innervating the dorsal fan-shaped body (dFB) of the central complex. Artificial activation of these cells induces sleep, whereas reductions in excitability cause insomnia. dFB neurons in sleep-deprived flies tend to be electrically active, with high input resistances and long membrane time constants, while neurons in rested flies tend to be electrically silent. Correlative evidence thus supports the simple view that homeostatic sleep control works by switching sleep-promoting neurons between active and quiescent states. Here we demonstrate state switching by dFB neurons, identify dopamine as a neuromodulator that operates the switch, and delineate the switching mechanism. Arousing dopamine caused transient hyperpolarization of dFB neurons within tens of milliseconds and lasting excitability suppression within minutes. Both effects were transduced by Dop1R2 receptors and mediated by potassium conductances. The switch to electrical silence involved the downregulation of voltage-gated A-type currents carried by Shaker and Shab, and the upregulation of voltage-independent leak currents through a two-pore-domain potassium channel that we term Sandman. Sandman is encoded by the CG8713 gene and translocates to the plasma membrane in response to dopamine. dFB-restricted interference with the expression of Shaker or Sandman decreased or increased sleep, respectively, by slowing the repetitive discharge of dFB neurons in the ON state or blocking their entry into the OFF state. Biophysical changes in a small population of neurons are thus linked to the control of sleep–wake state.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-03
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19055
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • A human neurodevelopmental model for Williams syndrome
    • Pages: 338 - 343
      Abstract: Williams syndrome is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by an uncommon hypersociability and a mosaic of retained and compromised linguistic and cognitive abilities. Nearly all clinically diagnosed individuals with Williams syndrome lack precisely the same set of genes, with breakpoints in chromosome band 7q11.23 (refs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). The contribution of specific genes to the neuroanatomical and functional alterations, leading to behavioural pathologies in humans, remains largely unexplored. Here we investigate neural progenitor cells and cortical neurons derived from Williams syndrome and typically developing induced pluripotent stem cells. Neural progenitor cells in Williams syndrome have an increased doubling time and apoptosis compared with typically developing neural progenitor cells. Using an individual with atypical Williams syndrome, we narrowed this cellular phenotype to a single gene candidate, frizzled 9 (FZD9). At the neuronal stage, layer V/VI cortical neurons derived from Williams syndrome were characterized by longer total dendrites, increased numbers of spines and synapses, aberrant calcium oscillation and altered network connectivity. Morphometric alterations observed in neurons from Williams syndrome were validated after Golgi staining of post-mortem layer V/VI cortical neurons. This model of human induced pluripotent stem cells fills the current knowledge gap in the cellular biology of Williams syndrome and could lead to further insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the disorder and the human social brain.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-10
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19067
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Asymmetric division of contractile domains couples cell positioning and
           fate specification
    • Pages: 344 - 348
      Abstract: During pre-implantation development, the mammalian embryo self-organizes into the blastocyst, which consists of an epithelial layer encapsulating the inner-cell mass (ICM) giving rise to all embryonic tissues. In mice, oriented cell division, apicobasal polarity and actomyosin contractility are thought to contribute to the formation of the ICM. However, how these processes work together remains unclear. Here we show that asymmetric segregation of the apical domain generates blastomeres with different contractilities, which triggers their sorting into inner and outer positions. Three-dimensional physical modelling of embryo morphogenesis reveals that cells internalize only when differences in surface contractility exceed a predictable threshold. We validate this prediction using biophysical measurements, and successfully redirect cell sorting within the developing blastocyst using maternal myosin (Myh9)-knockout chimaeric embryos. Finally, we find that loss of contractility causes blastomeres to show ICM-like markers, regardless of their position. In particular, contractility controls Yap subcellular localization, raising the possibility that mechanosensing occurs during blastocyst lineage specification. We conclude that contractility couples the positioning and fate specification of blastomeres. We propose that this ensures the robust self-organization of blastomeres into the blastocyst, which confers remarkable regulative capacities to mammalian embryos.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-03
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18958
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • HIV-1 uses dynamic capsid pores to import nucleotides and fuel
           encapsidated DNA synthesis
    • Authors: David A. Jacques, William A. McEwan, Laura Hilditch, Amanda J. Price, Greg J. Towers, Leo C. James
      Pages: 349 - 353
      Abstract: During the early stages of infection, the HIV-1 capsid protects viral components from cytosolic sensors and nucleases such as cGAS and TREX, respectively, while allowing access to nucleotides for efficient reverse transcription. Here we show that each capsid hexamer has a size-selective pore bound by a ring of six arginine residues and a ‘molecular iris’ formed by the amino-terminal β-hairpin. The arginine ring creates a strongly positively charged channel that recruits the four nucleotides with on-rates that approach diffusion limits. Progressive removal of pore arginines results in a dose-dependent and concomitant decrease in nucleotide affinity, reverse transcription and infectivity. This positively charged channel is universally conserved in lentiviral capsids despite the fact that it is strongly destabilizing without nucleotides to counteract charge repulsion. We also describe a channel inhibitor, hexacarboxybenzene, which competes for nucleotide binding and efficiently blocks encapsidated reverse transcription, demonstrating the tractability of the pore as a novel drug target.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-10
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19098
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Structure of mammalian respiratory complex I
    • Authors: Jiapeng Zhu, Kutti R. Vinothkumar, Judy Hirst
      Pages: 354 - 358
      Abstract: Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase), one of the largest membrane-bound enzymes in the cell, powers ATP synthesis in mammalian mitochondria by using the reducing potential of NADH to drive protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mammalian complex I (ref. 1) contains 45 subunits, comprising 14 core subunits that house the catalytic machinery (and are conserved from bacteria to humans) and a mammalian-specific cohort of 31 supernumerary subunits. Knowledge of the structures and functions of the supernumerary subunits is fragmentary. Here we describe a 4.2-Å resolution single-particle electron cryomicroscopy structure of complex I from Bos taurus. We have located and modelled all 45 subunits, including the 31 supernumerary subunits, to provide the entire structure of the mammalian complex. Computational sorting of the particles identified different structural classes, related by subtle domain movements, which reveal conformationally dynamic regions and match biochemical descriptions of the ‘active-to-de-active’ enzyme transition that occurs during hypoxia. Our structures therefore provide a foundation for understanding complex I assembly and the effects of mutations that cause clinically relevant complex I dysfunctions, give insights into the structural and functional roles of the supernumerary subunits and reveal new information on the mechanism and regulation of catalysis.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-10
      DOI: 10.1038/nature19095
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Corrigendum: CEACAM1 regulates TIM-3-mediated tolerance and exhaustion
    • Authors: Yu-Hwa Huang, Chen Zhu, Yasuyuki Kondo, Ana C. Anderson, Amit Gandhi, Andrew Russell, Stephanie K. Dougan, Britt-Sabina Petersen, Espen Melum, Thomas Pertel, Kiera L. Clayton, Monika Raab, Qiang Chen, Nicole Beauchemin, Paul J. Yazaki, Michal Pyzik, Mario A. Ostrowski, Jonathan N. Glickman, Christopher E. Rudd, Hidde L. Ploegh, Andre Franke, Gregory A. Petsko, Vijay K. Kuchroo, Richard S. Blumberg
      Pages: 359 - 359
      Abstract: Nature517, 386–390 (2015); doi:10.1038/nature13848In this Letter, we published the crystal structure of a heterodimer of the human (h)CEACAM1 IgV domain and hTIM-3 IgV domain (Protein Data Bank (PDB) accession 4QYC). Since publication, E. Sundberg and S.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-03-16
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17421
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Corrigendum: Mitochondrial ROS regulate thermogenic energy expenditure and
           sulfenylation of UCP1
    • Authors: Edward T. Chouchani, Lawrence Kazak, Mark P. Jedrychowski, Gina Z. Lu, Brian K. Erickson, John Szpyt, Kerry A. Pierce, Dina Laznik-Bogoslavski, Ramalingam Vetrivelan, Clary B. Clish, Alan J. Robinson, Steve P. Gygi, Bruce M. Spiegelman
      Pages: 360 - 360
      Abstract: Nature532, 112–116 (2016); doi:10.1038/nature17399In this Letter, owing to a typographical error, Fig. 4h was erroneously referred to as Fig. 4j in the text and in the Fig. 4 legend. This error has been corrected online.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-18
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18279
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Corrigendum: A receptor heteromer mediates the male perception of female
           attractants in plants
    • Authors: Tong Wang, Liang Liang, Yong Xue, Peng-Fei Jia, Wei Chen, Meng-Xia Zhang, Ying-Chun Wang, Hong-Ju Li, Wei-Cai Yang
      Pages: 360 - 360
      Abstract: Nature531, 241–244 (2016); doi:10.1038/nature16975In Fig. 3f of this Letter the ‘minus’ symbol in the first column next to GST–MK1KD should be a ‘plus’. In addition, the labels ‘AtDIS1’ in Fig. 4d should
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17985
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Corrigendum: Mycocerosic acid synthase exemplifies the architecture of
           reducing polyketide synthases
    • Pages: 360 - 360
      Abstract: Nature531, 533–537 (2016); doi:10.1038/nature16993In this Letter, we studied the three-dimensional structure of a protein from Mycobacterium smegmatis assigned as mycocerosic acid synthase (MAS) in sequence databases as A0R1E8 in Uniprot (http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0R1E8) and YP_888986.1
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-05-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature18281
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Work abroad: Visa to visit
    • Authors: Barbra Rodriguez
      Pages: 365 - 366
      Abstract: Researchers working outside their home country should be careful to brush up on local customs.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7616-365a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
  • Legacy admissions
    • Authors: S. R. Algernon
      Pages: 368 - 368
      Abstract: A degree of uncertainty.
      Citation: Nature 536, 7616 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/536368a
      Issue No: Vol. 536, No. 7616 (2016)
       
 
 
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