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Journal Cover Nature     [SJR: 14.747]   [H-I: 768]
   [2580 followers]  Follow    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0028-0836 - ISSN (Online) 1476-4687
   Published by Nature Publishing Group Homepage  [110 journals]
  • Kept on a leash
    • Pages: 411 - 411
      Abstract: A vital dependence of genetically modified organisms on an artificial nutrient could be a means of preventing their escape into the environment.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517411a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Down to earth
    • Pages: 411 - 412
      Abstract: A concerted focus on soils will benefit society in untold ways and should be embraced.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-20
      DOI: 10.1038/517411b
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Lost and found
    • Pages: 412 - 412
      Abstract: The discovery of Beagle 2 on Mars should spur the search for other items lost to science.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517412a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Effective risk response needs a prepared mindset
    • Authors: Erwann Michel-Kerjan
      Pages: 413 - 413
      Abstract: Leaders and risk strategists must collaborate effectively on decisions of global importance, says Erwann Michel-Kerjan.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-20
      DOI: 10.1038/517413a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Developmental biology: Stem cells for bone growth
    • Pages: 414 - 414
      Abstract: Stem cells that give rise to bone and cartilage in mice after birth have been found by two teams.A group led by Siddhartha Mukherjee and Timothy Wang at Columbia University in New York found that cells at the ends of mouse bones can produce
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517414d
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Ecology: Small trees save forests
    • Pages: 414 - 415
      Abstract: Small trees are often removed from conifer forests in dry areas to reduce the risk of wildfires, but a US study has revealed that insect outbreaks pose a greater threat to such forests than fire does.William Baker and Mark Williams at the University of
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517414e
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Bioengineering: Muscle in a dish twitches
    • Pages: 414 - 414
      Abstract: Human muscle that contracts has been grown in the lab.Existing models of human skeletal muscle are two-dimensional and do not mimic the structure or behaviour of natural tissue well. Nenad Bursac at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, and his colleagues took samples of
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517414b
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Cosmochemistry: How nitrogen got to Earth
    • Pages: 414 - 414
      Abstract: Earth's nitrogen may have originated in the icy reaches of the primordial Solar System.A team led by Dennis Harries of the University of Jena in Germany discovered and analysed a chromium nitride mineral inside two meteorites (pictured). The researchers say that the
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517414c
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Animal behaviour: Turtles' magnetic attraction to home
    • Pages: 414 - 414
      Abstract: Sea turtles use geomagnetic signatures to return to nesting sites near where they were born.These animals navigate across oceans using Earth's magnetic field, but it has been unclear how they find the same coastal nesting sites as their mothers. Roger Brothers and Kenneth Lohmann
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517414a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Microbiology: Tuberculosis has history in its DNA
    • Pages: 415 - 415
      Abstract: Key historical events such as the First World War drove the global spread of a strain of tuberculosis-causing bacteria that is prone to becoming resistant to drugs.Thierry Wirth of the National Museum of Natural History in Paris and his colleagues collected 4,987 samples of
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517415c
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Ecology: Gold-rush threat to tropical forests
    • Pages: 415 - 415
      Abstract: Deforestation due to gold mining is increasing in South America, particularly around biodiversity hotspots.Gold mining has become more feasible in remote tropical forests owing to the drastic rise in demand and price for the metal over the past decade. To study its impact, Nora
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517415d
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Neuroscience: How baby rodents block pain
    • Pages: 415 - 415
      Abstract: Nerve injury in very young animals does not result in pain as it does later in life, probably because of an anti-inflammatory response in the spinal cord.Maria Fitzgerald of University College London and her colleagues damaged hind-limb nerves in rat and mouse pups. They
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517415a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Glaciology: Antarctic ice melt may speed up
    • Pages: 415 - 415
      Abstract: Antarctica's vast ice sheets may be more vulnerable to warming than was thought.Using a three-dimensional computer model, David Pollard of Pennsylvania State University in University Park and his colleagues identified two new ways in which ice sheets can collapse. Meltwater and rainfall can drain
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517415b
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • A case for a university happiness ranking
    • Authors: Chris Woolston
      Pages: 415 - 415
      Abstract: A whimsical blog post about using quality-of-life measures to rank research institutions earns praise online.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-15
      DOI: 10.1038/517415f
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Seven days: 16–22 January 2015
    • Pages: 416 - 417
      Abstract: The week in science: Ebola progress, the hottest year, and a Beagle comes home.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517416a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Attempts to predict terrorist attacks hit limits
    • Authors: Quirin Schiermeier
      Pages: 419 - 420
      Abstract: Erratic human behaviour and incomplete information plague efforts to model risk.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-20
      DOI: 10.1038/517419a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Psychologists seek roots of terror
    • Authors: Sara Reardon
      Pages: 420 - 421
      Abstract: Studies raise prospect of intervention in the radicalization process.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-20
      DOI: 10.1038/517420a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Crunch time for pet theory on dark matter
    • Authors: Davide Castelvecchi
      Pages: 422 - 423
      Abstract: Thought to make up the Universe’s missing matter, WIMPs are running out of places to hide.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517422a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • GM microbes created that can’t escape the lab
    • Authors: Elie Dolgin
      Pages: 423 - 423
      Abstract: Engineered bacteria kept in check with a designer diet.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517423a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • CalWater 2015 targets atmospheric rivers off California
    • Authors: Alexandra Witze
      Pages: 424 - 425
      Abstract: Meteorologists investigate airborne jets that bring both floods and drought relief.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-20
      DOI: 10.1038/517424a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Correction
    • Pages: 425 - 425
      Abstract: The News story ‘Rave drug tested against depression’ (Nature517, 130–131; 2015) gave the wrong affiliation for Kyle Lapidus. He is now at Stony Brook University in New York.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-20
      DOI: 10.1038/517425a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Ageing research: Blood to blood
    • Authors: Megan Scudellari
      Pages: 426 - 429
      Abstract: By splicing animals together, scientists have shown that young blood rejuvenates old tissues. Now, they are testing whether it works for humans.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517426a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Astronomy: Laser focus
    • Authors: Ann Finkbeiner
      Pages: 430 - 432
      Abstract: By firing lasers into the sky, Claire Max has transformed the capabilities of current — and future — telescopes.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517430a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Policy: Four gaps in China's new environmental law
    • Authors: Bo Zhang, Cong Cao
      Pages: 433 - 434
      Abstract: Implementation and accountability will remain challenging, especially at the local level, warn Bo Zhang and Cong Cao.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517433a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Big data: Stealth control
    • Authors: Steven Aftergood
      Pages: 435 - 436
      Abstract: Steven Aftergood appraises a study on the hidden impacts of personal data collection.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517435a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Ageing: Eternal obsession
    • Authors: Monya Baker
      Pages: 436 - 437
      Abstract: Monya Baker reviews a documentary film profiling two scientists bent on longevity.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517436a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Books in brief
    • Authors: Barbara Kiser
      Pages: 437 - 437
      Abstract: Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517437a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Indirect costs: The reimbursement gap
    • Authors: Paul R. Sanberg, Judy Genshaft, Sudeep Sarkar
      Pages: 438 - 438
      Abstract: The gap between the indirect costs of research reimbursed to US universities and the actual costs is wider than you suggest (Nature515, 326–329;10.1038/515326a2014). If we are to “keep the lights on” to do our research, we
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517438c
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Satellite imaging: Disaster mapping by citizens is limited
    • Authors: Norman Kerle
      Pages: 438 - 438
      Abstract: Growing numbers of citizen scientists are joining the professional community to map structural damage caused by natural disasters such as Typhoon Haiyan, which struck the Philippines in 2013 (see Nature515, 321;10.1038/515321a2014). However, stakeholders need to recognize some crucial limitations
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517438d
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Interdisciplinary research: Bold alliances aid translational work
    • Authors: Janine T. Erler
      Pages: 438 - 438
      Abstract: We propose that translational research needs to venture out of its comfort zone and become more interdisciplinary. Physicians, pharmacists, statisticians, computational biologists, social scientists and others from academia, health care and industry should be working hand in hand.Our interdisciplinary translational research group (see go.nature.com/sgdrga
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517438e
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Research centres: Spread excellence across Europe
    • Authors: Maciej Żylicz
      Pages: 438 - 438
      Abstract: In February, we expect the results of the first call for proposals for the 'Teaming of Excellence' strategy across the European Research Area. It is to be hoped that we have learned from previous mistakes.Attempts by the European Union's Framework Programmes for Research and
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517438a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Indirect costs: Cash is no gravy train
    • Authors: David Korn
      Pages: 438 - 438
      Abstract: Aspects of your report on US federal funding of direct research costs and the indirect costs of facilities and administration are misleading (Nature515, 326–329;10.1038/515326a2014).Contrary to your claim, no one is benefiting from federal largesse. Rather,
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517438b
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Catalysis: Gold unleashes the power of three
    • Authors: Christopher M. B. K. Kourra, Nicolai Cramer
      Pages: 440 - 441
      Abstract: Gold in the +3 oxidation state is scarcely used in catalysis, because the oxidants employed to generate it can damage reactants. An oxidant-free route to gold(III) catalysts reveals their potential. See Article p.449
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517440a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Antibiotics: An irresistible newcomer
    • Authors: Gerard Wright
      Pages: 442 - 444
      Abstract: A screen of 10,000 bacterial strains, cultured in their normal soil, has uncovered an antibiotic with broad and potent activity. And because the compound targets lipid molecules, developing resistance is probably difficult. See Article p.455
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-07
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14193
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Astronomy: Cosmic fog and smog
    • Authors: Molly S. Peeples
      Pages: 444 - 445
      Abstract: It emerges that most of the elements heavier than helium are not found in galaxies, where they can be mixed into future stars and planets. Instead, these elements largely reside far from galaxies in ionized gas and dust particles.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517444a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Palaeoclimate: Monsoon matters
    • Authors: Bronwen Konecky
      Pages: 445 - 446
      Abstract: A simplified global climate model that keeps track of water as it moves through Earth's water cycle throws fresh light on how the Asian summer monsoon has varied during the past 150,000 years.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517445a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Stable gold(III) catalysts by oxidative addition of a carbon–carbon
           bond
    • Authors: Chung-Yeh Wu, Takahiro Horibe, Christian Borch Jacobsen, F. Dean Toste
      Pages: 449 - 454
      Abstract: Low-valent late transition-metal catalysis has become indispensable to chemical synthesis, but homogeneous high-valent transition-metal catalysis is underdeveloped, mainly owing to the reactivity of high-valent transition-metal complexes and the challenges associated with synthesizing them. Here we report a carbon–carbon bond cleavage at ambient conditions by a
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14104
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • A new antibiotic kills pathogens without detectable resistance
    • Authors: Losee L. Ling, Tanja Schneider, Aaron J. Peoples, Amy L. Spoering, Ina Engels, Brian P. Conlon, Anna Mueller, Till F. Schäberle, Dallas E. Hughes, Slava Epstein, Michael Jones, Linos Lazarides, Victoria A. Steadman, Douglas R. Cohen, Cintia R. Felix, K. Ashley Fetterman, William P. Millett, Anthony G. Nitti, Ashley M. Zullo, Chao Chen, Kim Lewis
      Pages: 455 - 459
      Abstract: Antibiotic resistance is spreading faster than the introduction of new compounds into clinical practice, causing a public health crisis. Most antibiotics were produced by screening soil microorganisms, but this limited resource of cultivable bacteria was overmined by the 1960s. Synthetic approaches to produce antibiotics have
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-07
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14098
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Long-lived magnetism from solidification-driven convection on the
           pallasite parent body
    • Authors: James F. J. Bryson, Claire I. O. Nichols, Julia Herrero-Albillos, Florian Kronast, Takeshi Kasama, Hossein Alimadadi, Gerrit van der Laan, Francis Nimmo, Richard J. Harrison
      Pages: 472 - 475
      Abstract: Palaeomagnetic measurements of meteorites suggest that, shortly after the birth of the Solar System, the molten metallic cores of many small planetary bodies convected vigorously and were capable of generating magnetic fields. Convection on these bodies is currently thought to have been thermally driven, implying that magnetic activity would have been short-lived. Here we report a time-series palaeomagnetic record derived from nanomagnetic imaging of the Imilac and Esquel pallasite meteorites, a group of meteorites consisting of centimetre-sized metallic and silicate phases. We find a history of long-lived magnetic activity on the pallasite parent body, capturing the decay and eventual shutdown of the magnetic field as core solidification completed. We demonstrate that magnetic activity driven by progressive solidification of an inner core is consistent with our measured magnetic field characteristics and cooling rates. Solidification-driven convection was probably common among small body cores, and, in contrast to thermally driven convection, will have led to a relatively late (hundreds of millions of years after accretion), long-lasting, intense and widespread epoch of magnetic activity among these bodies in the early Solar System.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14114
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance
           solar cells
    • Authors: Nam Joong Jeon, Jun Hong Noh, Woon Seok Yang, Young Chan Kim, Seungchan Ryu, Jangwon Seo, Sang Il Seok
      Pages: 476 - 480
      Abstract: Of the many materials and methodologies aimed at producing low-cost, efficient photovoltaic cells, inorganic–organic lead halide perovskite materials appear particularly promising for next-generation solar devices owing to their high power conversion efficiency. The highest efficiencies reported for perovskite solar cells so far have been obtained mainly with methylammonium lead halide materials. Here we combine the promising—owing to its comparatively narrow bandgap—but relatively unstable formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3) with methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) as the light-harvesting unit in a bilayer solar-cell architecture. We investigated phase stability, morphology of the perovskite layer, hysteresis in current–voltage characteristics, and overall performance as a function of chemical composition. Our results show that incorporation of MAPbBr3 into FAPbI3 stabilizes the perovskite phase of FAPbI3 and improves the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell to more than 18 per cent under a standard illumination of 100 milliwatts per square centimetre. These findings further emphasize the versatility and performance potential of inorganic–organic lead halide perovskite materials for photovoltaic applications.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-07
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14133
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Probabilistic reanalysis of twentieth-century sea-level rise
    • Authors: Carling C. Hay, Eric Morrow, Robert E. Kopp, Jerry X. Mitrovica
      Pages: 481 - 484
      Abstract: Estimating and accounting for twentieth-century global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise is critical to characterizing current and future human-induced sea-level change. Several previous analyses of tide gauge records—employing different methods to accommodate the spatial sparsity and temporal incompleteness of the data and to constrain the geometry of long-term sea-level change—have concluded that GMSL rose over the twentieth century at a mean rate of 1.6 to 1.9 millimetres per year. Efforts to account for this rate by summing estimates of individual contributions from glacier and ice-sheet mass loss, ocean thermal expansion, and changes in land water storage fall significantly short in the period before 1990. The failure to close the budget of GMSL during this period has led to suggestions that several contributions may have been systematically underestimated. However, the extent to which the limitations of tide gauge analyses have affected estimates of the GMSL rate of change is unclear. Here we revisit estimates of twentieth-century GMSL rise using probabilistic techniques and find a rate of GMSL rise from 1901 to 1990 of 1.2 ± 0.2 millimetres per year (90% confidence interval). Based on individual contributions tabulated in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this estimate closes the twentieth-century sea-level budget. Our analysis, which combines tide gauge records with physics-based and model-derived geometries of the various contributing signals, also indicates that GMSL rose at a rate of 3.0 ± 0.7 millimetres per year between 1993 and 2010, consistent with prior estimates from tide gauge records. The increase in rate relative to the 1901–90 trend is accordingly larger than previously thought; this revision may affect some projections of future sea-level rise.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14093
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Time management: Seize the moment
    • Authors: Jeffrey M. Perkel
      Pages: 517 - 519
      Abstract: A successful leap from postdoc to lab head requires tight control over time and tasks.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7535-517a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Turning point: Swati Padmaraj
    • Authors: Scott Kraft
      Pages: 519 - 519
      Abstract: How a chemist left the lab for fashion design.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7535-519a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Treatment naive
    • Authors: Steve Zisson
      Pages: 522 - 522
      Abstract: A testing time.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      DOI: 10.1038/517522a
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2015)
       
  • Cell division: Hold on and let go
    • Authors: Kikuë Tachibana-Konwalski
      Pages: 441 - 442
      Abstract: The discovery and functional analysis of the protein MEIKIN in mice leads to an evolutionarily conserved model of how chromosome segregation is regulated during a specialized type of cell division called meiosis I. See Article p.466
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2014-12-31
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14087
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2014)
       
  • Cell biology: On the endocytosis rollercoaster
    • Authors: Volker Haucke
      Pages: 446 - 447
      Abstract: Endocytosis is a process by which molecules gain access to a cell. An unusual mode of endocytosis has now been shown to regulate cell signalling, and to be highjacked by bacterial toxins. See Article p.460 & Letter p.493
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14081
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2014)
       
  • Endophilin marks and controls a clathrin-independent endocytic pathway
    • Authors: Emmanuel Boucrot, Antonio P. A. Ferreira, Leonardo Almeida-Souza, Sylvain Debard, Yvonne Vallis, Gillian Howard, Laetitia Bertot, Nathalie Sauvonnet, Harvey T. McMahon
      Pages: 460 - 465
      Abstract: Endocytosis is required for internalization of micronutrients and turnover of membrane components. Endophilin has been assigned as a component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Here we show in mammalian cells that endophilin marks and controls a fast-acting tubulovesicular endocytic pathway that is independent of AP2 and clathrin,
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14067
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2014)
       
  • Meikin is a conserved regulator of meiosis-I-specific kinetochore function
    • Authors: Jihye Kim, Kei-ichiro Ishiguro, Aya Nambu, Bungo Akiyoshi, Shihori Yokobayashi, Ayano Kagami, Tadashi Ishiguro, Alberto M. Pendas, Naoki Takeda, Yogo Sakakibara, Tomoya S. Kitajima, Yuji Tanno, Takeshi Sakuno, Yoshinori Watanabe
      Pages: 466 - 471
      Abstract: The kinetochore is the crucial apparatus regulating chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. Particularly in meiosis I, unlike in mitosis, sister kinetochores are captured by microtubules emanating from the same spindle pole (mono-orientation) and centromeric cohesion mediated by cohesin is protected in the following anaphase.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2014-12-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14097
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2014)
       
  • A basal ichthyosauriform with a short snout from the Lower Triassic of
           China
    • Authors: Ryosuke Motani, Da-Yong Jiang, Guan-Bao Chen, Andrea Tintori, Olivier Rieppel, Cheng Ji, Jian-Dong Huang
      Pages: 485 - 488
      Abstract: The incompleteness of the fossil record obscures the origin of many of the more derived clades of vertebrates. One such group is the Ichthyopterygia, a clade of obligatory marine reptiles that appeared in the Early Triassic epoch, without any known intermediates. Here we describe a basal ichthyosauriform from the upper Lower Triassic (about 248 million years ago) of China, whose primitive skeleton indicates possible amphibious habits. It is smaller than ichthyopterygians and had unusually large flippers that probably allowed limited terrestrial locomotion. It also retained characteristics of terrestrial diapsid reptiles, including a short snout and body trunk. Unlike more-derived ichthyosauriforms, it was probably a suction feeder. The new species supports the sister-group relationships between ichthyosauriforms and Hupehsuchia, the two forming the Ichthyosauromorpha. Basal ichthyosauromorphs are known exclusively from south China, suggesting that the clade originated in the region, which formed a warm and humid tropical archipelago in the Early Triassic. The oldest unequivocal record of a sauropterygian is also from the same stratigraphic unit of the region.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2014-11-05
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13866
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2014)
       
  • The mutational landscapes of genetic and chemical models of Kras-driven
           lung cancer
    • Authors: Peter M. K. Westcott, Kyle D. Halliwill, Minh D. To, Mamunur Rashid, Alistair G. Rust, Thomas M. Keane, Reyno Delrosario, Kuang-Yu Jen, Kay E. Gurley, Christopher J. Kemp, Erik Fredlund, David A. Quigley, David J. Adams, Allan Balmain
      Pages: 489 - 492
      Abstract: Next-generation sequencing of human tumours has refined our understanding of the mutational processes operative in cancer initiation and progression, yet major questions remain regarding the factors that induce driver mutations and the processes that shape mutation selection during tumorigenesis. Here we performed whole-exome sequencing on adenomas from three mouse models of non-small-cell lung cancer, which were induced either by exposure to carcinogens (methyl-nitrosourea (MNU) and urethane) or by genetic activation of Kras (KrasLA2). Although the MNU-induced tumours carried exactly the same initiating mutation in Kras as seen in the KrasLA2 model (G12D), MNU tumours had an average of 192 non-synonymous, somatic single-nucleotide variants, compared with only six in tumours from the KrasLA2 model. By contrast, the KrasLA2 tumours exhibited a significantly higher level of aneuploidy and copy number alterations compared with the carcinogen-induced tumours, suggesting that carcinogen-induced and genetically engineered models lead to tumour development through different routes. The wild-type allele of Kras has been shown to act as a tumour suppressor in mouse models of non-small-cell lung cancer. We demonstrate that urethane-induced tumours from wild-type mice carry mostly (94%) Kras Q61R mutations, whereas those from Kras heterozygous animals carry mostly (92%) Kras Q61L mutations, indicating a major role for germline Kras status in mutation selection during initiation. The exome-wide mutation spectra in carcinogen-induced tumours overwhelmingly display signatures of the initiating carcinogen, while adenocarcinomas acquire additional C > T mutations at CpG sites. These data provide a basis for understanding results from human tumour genome sequencing, which has identified two broad categories of tumours based on the relative frequency of single-nucleotide variations and copy number alterations, and underline the importance of carcinogen models for understanding the complex mutation spectra seen in human cancers.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2014-11-02
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13898
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2014)
       
  • Endophilin-A2 functions in membrane scission in clathrin-independent
           endocytosis
    • Authors: Henri-François Renard, Mijo Simunovic, Joël Lemière, Emmanuel Boucrot, Maria Daniela Garcia-Castillo, Senthil Arumugam, Valérie Chambon, Christophe Lamaze, Christian Wunder, Anne K. Kenworthy, Anne A. Schmidt, Harvey T. McMahon, Cécile Sykes, Patricia Bassereau, Ludger Johannes
      Pages: 493 - 496
      Abstract: During endocytosis, energy is invested to narrow the necks of cargo-containing plasma membrane invaginations to radii at which the opposing segments spontaneously coalesce, thereby leading to the detachment by scission of endocytic uptake carriers. In the clathrin pathway, dynamin uses mechanical energy from GTP hydrolysis to this effect, assisted by the BIN/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain-containing protein endophilin. Clathrin-independent endocytic events are often less reliant on dynamin, and whether in these cases BAR domain proteins such as endophilin contribute to scission has remained unexplored. Here we show, in human and other mammalian cell lines, that endophilin-A2 (endoA2) specifically and functionally associates with very early uptake structures that are induced by the bacterial Shiga and cholera toxins, which are both clathrin-independent endocytic cargoes. In controlled in vitro systems, endoA2 reshapes membranes before scission. Furthermore, we demonstrate that endoA2, dynamin and actin contribute in parallel to the scission of Shiga-toxin-induced tubules. Our results establish a novel function of endoA2 in clathrin-independent endocytosis. They document that distinct scission factors operate in an additive manner, and predict that specificity within a given uptake process arises from defined combinations of universal modules. Our findings highlight a previously unnoticed link between membrane scaffolding by endoA2 and pulling-force-driven dynamic scission.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature14064
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2014)
       
  • mTORC1-mediated translational elongation limits intestinal tumour
           initiation and growth
    • Authors: William J. Faller, Thomas J. Jackson, John R. P. Knight, Rachel A. Ridgway, Thomas Jamieson, Saadia A. Karim, Carolyn Jones, Sorina Radulescu, David J. Huels, Kevin B. Myant, Kate M. Dudek, Helen A. Casey, Alessandro Scopelliti, Julia B. Cordero, Marcos Vidal, Mario Pende, Alexey G. Ryazanov, Nahum Sonenberg, Oded Meyuhas, Michael N. Hall, Martin Bushell, Anne E. Willis, Owen J. Sansom
      Pages: 497 - 500
      Abstract: Inactivation of APC is a strongly predisposing event in the development of colorectal cancer, prompting the search for vulnerabilities specific to cells that have lost APC function. Signalling through the mTOR pathway is known to be required for epithelial cell proliferation and tumour growth, and the current paradigm suggests that a critical function of mTOR activity is to upregulate translational initiation through phosphorylation of 4EBP1 (refs 6, 7). This model predicts that the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, which does not efficiently inhibit 4EBP1 (ref. 8), would be ineffective in limiting cancer progression in APC-deficient lesions. Here we show in mice that mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity is absolutely required for the proliferation of Apc-deficient (but not wild-type) enterocytes, revealing an unexpected opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Although APC-deficient cells show the expected increases in protein synthesis, our study reveals that it is translation elongation, and not initiation, which is the rate-limiting component. Mechanistically, mTORC1-mediated inhibition of eEF2 kinase is required for the proliferation of APC-deficient cells. Importantly, treatment of established APC-deficient adenomas with rapamycin (which can target eEF2 through the mTORC1–S6K–eEF2K axis) causes tumour cells to undergo growth arrest and differentiation. Taken together, our data suggest that inhibition of translation elongation using existing, clinically approved drugs, such as the rapalogs, would provide clear therapeutic benefit for patients at high risk of developing colorectal cancer.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2014-11-05
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13896
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2014)
       
  • IgG1 protects against renal disease in a mouse model of cryoglobulinaemia
    • Authors: Richard T. Strait, Monica T. Posgai, Ashley Mahler, Nathaniel Barasa, Chaim O. Jacob, Jörg Köhl, Marc Ehlers, Keith Stringer, Shiva Kumar Shanmukhappa, David Witte, Md Monir Hossain, Marat Khodoun, Andrew B. Herr, Fred D. Finkelman
      Pages: 501 - 504
      Abstract: Immunoglobulins protect against disease to a considerable extent by activating complement and stimulatory immunoglobulin crystallizable fragment receptors (Ig FcRs), and aggregating microbial pathogens. Yet IgG1, the predominant murine serum Ig isotype, cannot activate complement by the classical pathway, binds more avidly to an inhibitory than to stimulatory FcRs, and has limited ability to aggregate pathogens. In these regards, it resembles human IgG4 (ref. 4). We hypothesized that limited ability to activate effector mechanisms might protect against immune complex immunopathology. Here we show that IgG1-deficient (γ1−) mice, immunized with a potent antigen, develop lethal renal disease soon after they begin to produce antigen-specific antibody, whereas similarly immunized wild-type mice remain healthy. Surprisingly, renal disease in this model is complement and FcR independent and results from immune complex precipitation in glomerular capillaries, as in some cryoglobulinaemic humans. IgG3, which self-associates to form large immune complexes, accounts for more than 97% of the mouse Ig in this cryoglobulin; furthermore, glomerular disease develops when mice are injected with IgG3 anti-trinitrophenyl (TNP) monoclonal antibody followed by a TNP-labelled protein. Renal disease is prevented in both active and passive immunization models by antigen-specific IgG1; other isotypes are less potent at preventing disease. These observations demonstrate the adaptive significance of Ig isotypes that poorly activate effector mechanisms, reveal an immune-complex-dependent, complement- and FcR-independent nephrotoxic mechanism, and suggest that isotypes that poorly activate effector mechanisms may be useful for inhibiting immune complex immunopathology.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2014-11-02
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13868
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2014)
       
  • Structure of the immature HIV-1 capsid in intact virus particles at
           8.8 Å resolution
    • Authors: Florian K. M. Schur, Wim J. H. Hagen, Michaela Rumlová, Tomáš Ruml, Barbara Müller, Hans-Georg Kräusslich, John A. G. Briggs
      Pages: 505 - 508
      Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly proceeds in two stages. First, the 55 kilodalton viral Gag polyprotein assembles into a hexameric protein lattice at the plasma membrane of the infected cell, inducing budding and release of an immature particle. Second, Gag is cleaved by the viral protease, leading to internal rearrangement of the virus into the mature, infectious form. Immature and mature HIV-1 particles are heterogeneous in size and morphology, preventing high-resolution analysis of their protein arrangement in situ by conventional structural biology methods. Here we apply cryo-electron tomography and sub-tomogram averaging methods to resolve the structure of the capsid lattice within intact immature HIV-1 particles at subnanometre resolution, allowing unambiguous positioning of all α-helices. The resulting model reveals tertiary and quaternary structural interactions that mediate HIV-1 assembly. Strikingly, these interactions differ from those predicted by the current model based on in vitro-assembled arrays of Gag-derived proteins from Mason–Pfizer monkey virus. To validate this difference, we solve the structure of the capsid lattice within intact immature Mason–Pfizer monkey virus particles. Comparison with the immature HIV-1 structure reveals that retroviral capsid proteins, while having conserved tertiary structures, adopt different quaternary arrangements during virus assembly. The approach demonstrated here should be applicable to determine structures of other proteins at subnanometre resolution within heterogeneous environments.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2014-11-02
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13838
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2014)
       
  • Structure and mechanism of the tRNA-dependent lantibiotic dehydratase NisB
    • Authors: Manuel A. Ortega, Yue Hao, Qi Zhang, Mark C. Walker, Wilfred A. van der Donk, Satish K. Nair
      Pages: 509 - 512
      Abstract: Lantibiotics are a class of peptide antibiotics that contain one or more thioether bonds. The lantibiotic nisin is an antimicrobial peptide that is widely used as a food preservative to combat food-borne pathogens. Nisin contains dehydroalanine and dehydrobutyrine residues that are formed by the dehydration of Ser/Thr by the lantibiotic dehydratase NisB (ref. 2). Recent biochemical studies revealed that NisB glutamylates Ser/Thr side chains as part of the dehydration process. However, the molecular mechanism by which NisB uses glutamate to catalyse dehydration remains unresolved. Here we show that this process involves glutamyl-tRNAGlu to activate Ser/Thr residues. In addition, the 2.9-Å crystal structure of NisB in complex with its substrate peptide NisA reveals the presence of two separate domains that catalyse the Ser/Thr glutamylation and glutamate elimination steps. The co-crystal structure also provides insights into substrate recognition by lantibiotic dehydratases. Our findings demonstrate an unexpected role for aminoacyl-tRNA in the formation of dehydroamino acids in lantibiotics, and serve as a basis for the functional characterization of the many lantibiotic-like dehydratases involved in the biosynthesis of other classes of natural products.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2014-10-26
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13888
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2014)
       
  • Reductive dehalogenase structure suggests a mechanism for B12-dependent
           dehalogenation
    • Authors: Karl A. P. Payne, Carolina P. Quezada, Karl Fisher, Mark S. Dunstan, Fraser A. Collins, Hanno Sjuts, Colin Levy, Sam Hay, Stephen E. J. Rigby, David Leys
      Pages: 513 - 516
      Abstract: Organohalide chemistry underpins many industrial and agricultural processes, and a large proportion of environmental pollutants are organohalides. Nevertheless, organohalide chemistry is not exclusively of anthropogenic origin, with natural abiotic and biological processes contributing to the global halide cycle. Reductive dehalogenases are responsible for biological dehalogenation in organohalide respiring bacteria, with substrates including polychlorinated biphenyls or dioxins. Reductive dehalogenases form a distinct subfamily of cobalamin (B12)-dependent enzymes that are usually membrane associated and oxygen sensitive, hindering detailed studies. Here we report the characterization of a soluble, oxygen-tolerant reductive dehalogenase and, by combining structure determination with EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) spectroscopy and simulation, show that a direct interaction between the cobalamin cobalt and the substrate halogen underpins catalysis. In contrast to the carbon–cobalt bond chemistry catalysed by the other cobalamin-dependent subfamilies, we propose that reductive dehalogenases achieve reduction of the organohalide substrate via halogen–cobalt bond formation. This presents a new model in both organohalide and cobalamin (bio)chemistry that will guide future exploitation of these enzymes in bioremediation or biocatalysis.
      Citation: Nature 517, 7535 (2015)
      PubDate: 2014-10-19
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13901
      Issue No: Vol. 517, No. 7535 (2014)
       
 
 
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