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Journal Cover Nature
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     ISSN (Print) 0028-0836 - ISSN (Online) 1476-4687
     Published by Nature Publishing Group Homepage  [110 journals]   [SJR: 14.747]   [H-I: 768]
  • Pillars of reform
    • Pages: 535 - 535
      Abstract: The Chinese government’s planned overhaul of its core research-funding system is vital if the country is to achieve its potential on the global scientific stage.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514535a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Call to action
    • Pages: 535 - 536
      Abstract: Time to ramp up science’s contribution to controlling the Ebola outbreak.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514535b
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Code share
    • Pages: 536 - 536
      Abstract: Papers in Nature journals should make computer code accessible where possible.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514536a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Developed nations must not fear sending Ebola help
    • Authors: Tim Inglis
      Pages: 537 - 537
      Abstract: The anxiety and stigma associated with Ebola are hampering Australia's willingness and ability to help with the control efforts in Africa, argues Tim Inglis.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514537a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Evolution: Lizards adapt quickly to invaders
    • Pages: 538 - 538
      Abstract: Lizards in Florida have rapidly evolved traits that make them better tree-climbers, probably in response to an invasive competitor.Cuban brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) have spread over the past few decades across the southeastern United States, where they compete for territory and
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514538a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Planetary science: Mercury's ice is a recent arrival
    • Pages: 538 - 538
      Abstract: Ice at Mercury's poles is a relatively new arrival — a finding that could help to resolve a debate about whether ice may have survived for billions of years on the planet closest to the Sun.Using data from NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft, Nancy Chabot of
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514538b
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Mycology: Teamwork helps yeast to infect
    • Pages: 538 - 538
      Abstract: Immune responses that should combat a disease caused by yeast instead make the fungus grow, potentially worsening the infection.Robin May at the University of Birmingham, UK, and his co-workers studied strains of Cryptoccocus gattii, which can cause meningitis and other problems.They found
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514538c
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Astronomy: Mysterious signals may be from Earth
    • Pages: 538 - 538
      Abstract: Radio pulses that look like they came from deep space could actually have earthly origins.A team led by Pascal Saint-Hilaire at the University of California, Berkeley, detected five short but intense radio bursts at the Bleien Radio Observatory in Switzerland. This is only the
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514538d
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Cancer: Tumours linked to cellular rubbish
    • Pages: 538 - 539
      Abstract: Discarded rubbish from tumours could trigger nearby healthy cells to become malignant.Many cells shed exosomes: membrane-bound packages of proteins, DNA and RNA that are thought to be a waste-management system. Raghu Kalluri at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston and
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514538e
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Chemistry: Molecular sponges store oxygen
    • Pages: 539 - 539
      Abstract: An oxygen cylinder could hold even more gas if it were filled with sponge-like powders, chemists report.The powders are a type of metal–organic framework (MOF): sponge-like materials in which metal atoms are connected by organic groups, creating a porous network with many promising applications
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514539a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Glaciology: Channels hint at glacier hardiness
    • Pages: 539 - 539
      Abstract: Ancient channels preserved beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet suggest that part of the glacier prevailed during warm periods more than two million years ago.By combining radio-echo soundings of the landscape underneath the glacier with satellite images of the ice surface, Kathryn Rose of
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514539b
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Biotechnology: Paper-based gene tools
    • Pages: 539 - 539
      Abstract: Functional biological circuits can be printed on paper, reports a team led by James Collins at Boston University in Massachusetts.The team synthesized cell-free gene networks from off-the-shelf parts and freeze-dried them on to paper. When later rehydrated, the networks worked as programmable in vitro
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514539c
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Materials: Sunshine drives graphene machines
    • Pages: 539 - 539
      Abstract: Machines that move by bending in response to moisture can be made by exposing thin sheets of graphene oxide to sunlight.A team led by Hong-Bo Sun at Jilin University in Changchun, China, focused sunlight on one side of graphene oxide paper. The ultraviolet radiation
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514539d
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Seven days: 24–30 October 2014
    • Pages: 540 - 541
      Abstract: The week in science: China launches its first round-trip lunar mission; skydiver leaps from record heights; and EU leaders agree on landmark climate deal.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514540a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Gas-spewing Icelandic volcano stuns scientists
    • Authors: Alexandra Witze
      Pages: 543 - 544
      Abstract: Sulphur-rich eruption defies preparations for an ashy blast.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-28
      DOI: 10.1038/514543a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • ‘Forgotten’ NIH smallpox virus languishes on death row
    • Authors: Sara Reardon
      Pages: 544 - 544
      Abstract: World Health Organization lacks resources to witness destruction of stocks.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-28
      DOI: 10.1038/514544a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Coastal havoc boosts jellies
    • Authors: Jane Qiu
      Pages: 545 - 545
      Abstract: Five-year Chinese study suggests that human activity made gelatinous outbreaks worse.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514545a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Pet dogs set to test anti-ageing drug
    • Authors: Erika Check Hayden
      Pages: 546 - 546
      Abstract: Trials would study extension of lifespan in domestic setting.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514546a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • China opens translational medicine centre in Shanghai
    • Authors: David Cyranoski
      Pages: 547 - 547
      Abstract: First of five linked institutes aims to capitalize on basic-research investments.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514547a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Correction
    • Pages: 548 - 548
      Abstract: The News Feature ‘The ethics squad’ (Nature514, 418–420; 2014) misspelled Susan Kornetsky’s name.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514548b
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Geneticists tap human knockouts
    • Authors: Ewen Callaway
      Pages: 548 - 548
      Abstract: Sequenced genomes reveal mutations that disable single genes and can point to new drugs.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-28
      DOI: 10.1038/514548a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Autoimmunity: When the body betrays
    • Authors: Tilli Tansey
      Pages: 564 - 565
      Abstract: Tilli Tansey surveys a magisterial, historically rich biography of autoimmunity.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514564a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Books in brief
    • Authors: Barbara Kiser
      Pages: 565 - 565
      Abstract: Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514565a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Mathematics: Constructor of a marvellous canon
    • Authors: George Szpiro
      Pages: 566 - 566
      Abstract: George Szpiro weighs up a life of John Napier, who gifted science with logarithms.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514566a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Lab animals: Can GM marmoset use be justified'
    • Authors: Patrick Bateson, C. Ian Ragan
      Pages: 567 - 567
      Abstract: We question the premise that genetically modified (GM) marmosets are essential to Japan's brain-mapping project for studying disorders such as schizophrenia and depression (Nature514, 151–152;10.1038/514151a2014). It runs counter to efforts in fields such as toxicology to
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514567a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Sustainability: Call to coordinate actions
    • Authors: Norichika Kanie, Casey Stevens
      Pages: 567 - 567
      Abstract: The first step in implementing the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs; see M.Stafford-SmithNature513, 281;10.1038/513281a2014) will be to identify critical nodes at which issues such as water, energy and food need to be addressed simultaneously and that
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514567b
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Emissions: Exempt green tech from trade rules
    • Authors: John A. Mathews
      Pages: 567 - 567
      Abstract: Next year in Paris, parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change have the task of developing a global agreement to reduce carbon emissions — a successor to the failed Kyoto Protocol. They should strike a grand bargain with the World Trade Organization (WTO)
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514567c
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Medical research: Engage more cohort patients in research
    • Authors: Patricia Lucas, Maggie Leggett, Simon Denegri
      Pages: 567 - 567
      Abstract: Input from patients and the public is a requirement for funding by the UK National Institute of Health Research (NIHR), but is met by scepticism from some academics.We analysed 70 birth cohort studies to evaluate the basis of this scepticism (P. J.Lucas
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514567d
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Climate policy: Translating public action into policy
    • Authors: Chrystal Mantyka-Pringle, Andrew P. Kythreotis
      Pages: 567 - 567
      Abstract: Last month, millions took to the streets in climate rallies organized by some 1,500 organizations in 158 countries. Their message: that world leaders at the United Nations Climate Summit in New York must tackle the challenges of global warming head on. However, it is by
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514567e
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Evolutionary developmental biology: Ghost locus appears
    • Authors: James O. McInerney, Mary J. O'Connell
      Pages: 570 - 571
      Abstract: The sequences of two sponge genomes provide evidence that the ParaHox developmental genes are older than previously thought. This has implications for animal taxonomy and for developmental and evolutionary biology. See Letter p.620
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514570a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Astrophysics: Secret ingredient exposed
    • Authors: Christopher M. Johns-Krull
      Pages: 571 - 572
      Abstract: Astronomers have suspected for some time that magnetic fields are a key ingredient in the accretion of material that surrounds young stars. New observations have just begun to reveal these fields in action. See Letter p.597
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-22
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13932
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Structural biology: Enzyme–chromatin complex visualized
    • Authors: Jürg Müller, Christoph W. Müller
      Pages: 572 - 573
      Abstract: The structure of an enzyme that is bound to a nucleosome — a protein complex around which DNA is wrapped — reveals how contacts between the two orient the enzyme so that it can modify a specific amino-acid residue. See Article p.591
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514572a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Materials science: Radicals promote magnetic gel assembly
    • Authors: Christopher B. Rodell, Jason A. Burdick
      Pages: 574 - 575
      Abstract: Engineering complex tissues requires high-throughput, three-dimensional patterning of materials and cells. A method to assemble small gel components using magnetic forces from encapsulated free radicals could be just the ticket.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514574a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Cardiac biology: Cell plasticity helps hearts to repair
    • Authors: Toru Miyake, Raghu Kalluri
      Pages: 575 - 576
      Abstract: Fibroblast cells are known as key players in the repair of damaged heart structures. New findings show that injury also induces fibroblasts to become endothelial cells, helping to mend damaged blood vessels. See Article p.585
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13928
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Immunology: Starve a fever, feed the microbiota
    • Authors: Seth Rakoff-Nahoum, Laurie E. Comstock
      Pages: 576 - 577
      Abstract: A study finds that the cells lining the gut are modified in response to systemic infection, increasing the host's tolerance to infection in a manner that is dependent on the microorganisms that inhabit the gut. See Letter p.638
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13756
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Three new Jurassic euharamiyidan species reinforce early divergence of
           mammals
    • Authors: Shundong Bi, Yuanqing Wang, Jian Guan, Xia Sheng, Jin Meng
      Pages: 579 - 584
      Abstract: The phylogeny of Allotheria, including Multituberculata and Haramiyida, remains unsolved and has generated contentious views on the origin and earliest evolution of mammals. Here we report three new species of a new clade, Euharamiyida, based on six well-preserved fossils from the Jurassic period of China.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13718
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Mesenchymal–endothelial transition contributes to cardiac
           neovascularization
    • Authors: Eric Ubil, Jinzhu Duan, Indulekha C. L. Pillai, Manuel Rosa-Garrido, Yong Wu, Francesca Bargiacchi, Yan Lu, Seta Stanbouly, Jie Huang, Mauricio Rojas, Thomas M. Vondriska, Enrico Stefani, Arjun Deb
      Pages: 585 - 590
      Abstract: Endothelial cells contribute to a subset of cardiac fibroblasts by undergoing endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, but whether cardiac fibroblasts can adopt an endothelial cell fate and directly contribute to neovascularization after cardiac injury is not known. Here, using genetic fate map techniques, we demonstrate that cardiac fibroblasts
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13839
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Crystal structure of the PRC1 ubiquitylation module bound to the
           nucleosome
    • Authors: Robert K. McGinty, Ryan C. Henrici, Song Tan
      Pages: 591 - 596
      Abstract: The Polycomb group of epigenetic enzymes represses expression of developmentally regulated genes in many eukaryotes. This group includes the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), which ubiquitylates nucleosomal histone H2A Lys 119 using its E3 ubiquitin ligase subunits, Ring1B and Bmi1, together with an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme,
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13890
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Spatially resolved magnetic field structure in the disk of a T Tauri star
    • Authors: Ian W. Stephens, Leslie W. Looney, Woojin Kwon, Manuel Fernández-López, A. Meredith Hughes, Lee G. Mundy, Richard M. Crutcher, Zhi-Yun Li, Ramprasad Rao
      Pages: 597 - 599
      Abstract: Magnetic fields in accretion disks play a dominant part during the star formation process but have hitherto been observationally poorly constrained. Field strengths have been inferred on T Tauri stars and possibly in the innermost part of their accretion disks, but the strength and morphology of the field in the bulk of a disk have not been observed. Spatially unresolved measurements of polarized emission (arising from elongated dust grains aligned perpendicularly to the field) imply average fields aligned with the disks. Theoretically, the fields are expected to be largely toroidal, poloidal or a mixture of the two, which imply different mechanisms for transporting angular momentum in the disks of actively accreting young stars such as HL Tau (ref. 11). Here we report resolved measurements of the polarized 1.25-millimetre continuum emission from the disk of HL Tau. The magnetic field on a scale of 80 astronomical units is coincident with the major axis (about 210 astronomical units long) of the disk. From this we conclude that the magnetic field inside the disk at this scale cannot be dominated by a vertical component, though a purely toroidal field also does not fit the data well. The unexpected morphology suggests that the role of the magnetic field in the accretion of a T Tauri star is more complex than our current theoretical understanding.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-22
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13850
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Possible planet formation in the young, low-mass, multiple stellar system
           GG Tau A
    • Authors: Anne Dutrey, Emmanuel Di Folco, Stéphane Guilloteau, Yann Boehler, Jeff Bary, Tracy Beck, Hervé Beust, Edwige Chapillon, Fredéric Gueth, Jean-Marc Huré, Arnaud Pierens, Vincent Piétu, Michal Simon, Ya-Wen Tang
      Pages: 600 - 602
      Abstract: The formation of planets around binary stars may be more difficult than around single stars. In a close binary star (with a separation of less than a hundred astronomical units), theory predicts the presence of circumstellar disks around each star, and an outer circumbinary disk surrounding a gravitationally cleared inner cavity around the stars. Given that the inner disks are depleted by accretion onto the stars on timescales of a few thousand years, any replenishing material must be transferred from the outer reservoir to fuel planet formation (which occurs on timescales of about one million years). Gas flowing through disk cavities has been detected in single star systems. A circumbinary disk was discovered around the young low-mass binary system GG Tau A (ref. 7), which has recently been shown to be a hierarchical triple system. It has one large inner disk around the single star, GG Tau Aa, and shows small amounts of shocked hydrogen gas residing within the central cavity, but other than a single weak detection, the distribution of cold gas in this cavity or in any other binary or multiple star system has not hitherto been determined. Here we report imaging of gas fragments emitting radiation characteristic of carbon monoxide within the GG Tau A cavity. From the kinematics we conclude that the flow appears capable of sustaining the inner disk (around GG Tau Aa) beyond the accretion lifetime, leaving time for planet formation to occur there. These results show the complexity of planet formation around multiple stars and confirm the general picture predicted by numerical simulations.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13822
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Quantum tomography of an electron
    • Authors: T. Jullien, P. Roulleau, B. Roche, A. Cavanna, Y. Jin, D. C. Glattli
      Pages: 603 - 607
      Abstract: The complete knowledge of a quantum state allows the prediction of the probability of all possible measurement outcomes, a crucial step in quantum mechanics. It can be provided by tomographic methods which have been applied to atomic, molecular, spin and photonic states. For optical or microwave photons, standard tomography is obtained by mixing the unknown state with a large-amplitude coherent photon field. However, for fermions such as electrons in condensed matter, this approach is not applicable because fermionic fields are limited to small amplitudes (at most one particle per state), and so far no determination of an electron wavefunction has been made. Recent proposals involving quantum conductors suggest that the wavefunction can be obtained by measuring the time-dependent current of electronic wave interferometers or the current noise of electronic Hanbury-Brown/Twiss interferometers. Here we show that such measurements are possible despite the extreme noise sensitivity required, and present the reconstructed wavefunction quasi-probability, or Wigner distribution function, of single electrons injected into a ballistic conductor. Many identical electrons are prepared in well-controlled quantum states called levitons by repeatedly applying Lorentzian voltage pulses to a contact on the conductor. After passing through an electron beam splitter, the levitons are mixed with a weak-amplitude fermionic field formed by a coherent superposition of electron–hole pairs generated by a small alternating current with a frequency that is a multiple of the voltage pulse frequency. Antibunching of the electrons and holes with the levitons at the beam splitter changes the leviton partition statistics, and the noise variations provide the energy density matrix elements of the levitons. This demonstration of quantum tomography makes the developing field of electron quantum optics with ballistic conductors a new test-bed for quantum information with fermions. These results may find direct application in probing the entanglement of electron flying quantum bits, electron decoherence and electron interactions. They could also be applied to cold fermionic (or spin-1/2) atoms.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13821
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Room-temperature magnetic order on zigzag edges of narrow graphene
           nanoribbons
    • Authors: Gábor Zsolt Magda, Xiaozhan Jin, Imre Hagymási, Péter Vancsó, Zoltán Osváth, Péter Nemes-Incze, Chanyong Hwang, László P. Biró, Levente Tapasztó
      Pages: 608 - 611
      Abstract: The possibility that non-magnetic materials such as carbon could exhibit a novel type of s–p electron magnetism has attracted much attention over the years, not least because such magnetic order is predicted to be stable at high temperatures. It has been demonstrated that atomic-scale structural defects of graphene can host unpaired spins, but it remains unclear under what conditions long-range magnetic order can emerge from such defect-bound magnetic moments. Here we propose that, in contrast to random defect distributions, atomic-scale engineering of graphene edges with specific crystallographic orientation—comprising edge atoms from only one sub-lattice of the bipartite graphene lattice—can give rise to a robust magnetic order. We use a nanofabrication technique based on scanning tunnelling microscopy to define graphene nanoribbons with nanometre precision and well-defined crystallographic edge orientations. Although so-called ‘armchair’ ribbons display quantum confinement gaps, ribbons with the ‘zigzag’ edge structure that are narrower than 7 nanometres exhibit an electronic bandgap of about 0.2–0.3 electronvolts, which can be identified as a signature of interaction-induced spin ordering along their edges. Moreover, upon increasing the ribbon width, a semiconductor-to-metal transition is revealed, indicating the switching of the magnetic coupling between opposite ribbon edges from the antiferromagnetic to the ferromagnetic configuration. We found that the magnetic order on graphene edges of controlled zigzag orientation can be stable even at room temperature, raising hopes of graphene-based spintronic devices operating under ambient conditions.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13831
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Stochastic transport through carbon nanotubes in lipid bilayers and live
           cell membranes
    • Authors: Jia Geng, Kyunghoon Kim, Jianfei Zhang, Artur Escalada, Ramya Tunuguntla, Luis R. Comolli, Frances I. Allen, Anna V. Shnyrova, Kang Rae Cho, Dayannara Munoz, Y. Morris Wang, Costas P. Grigoropoulos, Caroline M. Ajo-Franklin, Vadim A. Frolov, Aleksandr Noy
      Pages: 612 - 615
      Abstract: There is much interest in developing synthetic analogues of biological membrane channels with high efficiency and exquisite selectivity for transporting ions and molecules. Bottom-up and top-down methods can produce nanopores of a size comparable to that of endogenous protein channels, but replicating their affinity and transport properties remains challenging. In principle, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) should be an ideal membrane channel platform: they exhibit excellent transport properties and their narrow hydrophobic inner pores mimic structural motifs typical of biological channels. Moreover, simulations predict that CNTs with a length comparable to the thickness of a lipid bilayer membrane can self-insert into the membrane. Functionalized CNTs have indeed been found to penetrate lipid membranes and cell walls, and short tubes have been forced into membranes to create sensors, yet membrane transport applications of short CNTs remain underexplored. Here we show that short CNTs spontaneously insert into lipid bilayers and live cell membranes to form channels that exhibit a unitary conductance of 70–100 picosiemens under physiological conditions. Despite their structural simplicity, these ‘CNT porins’ transport water, protons, small ions and DNA, stochastically switch between metastable conductance substates, and display characteristic macromolecule-induced ionic current blockades. We also show that local channel and membrane charges can control the conductance and ion selectivity of the CNT porins, thereby establishing these nanopores as a promising biomimetic platform for developing cell interfaces, studying transport in biological channels, and creating stochastic sensors.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13817
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Centennial-scale changes in the global carbon cycle during the last
           deglaciation
    • Authors: Shaun A. Marcott, Thomas K. Bauska, Christo Buizert, Eric J. Steig, Julia L. Rosen, Kurt M. Cuffey, T. J. Fudge, Jeffery P. Severinghaus, Jinho Ahn, Michael L. Kalk, Joseph R. McConnell, Todd Sowers, Kendrick C. Taylor, James W. C. White, Edward J. Brook
      Pages: 616 - 619
      Abstract: Global climate and the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are correlated over recent glacial cycles. The combination of processes responsible for a rise in atmospheric CO2 at the last glacial termination (23,000 to 9,000 years ago), however, remains uncertain. Establishing the timing and rate of CO2 changes in the past provides critical insight into the mechanisms that influence the carbon cycle and helps put present and future anthropogenic emissions in context. Here we present CO2 and methane (CH4) records of the last deglaciation from a new high-accumulation West Antarctic ice core with unprecedented temporal resolution and precise chronology. We show that although low-frequency CO2 variations parallel changes in Antarctic temperature, abrupt CO2 changes occur that have a clear relationship with abrupt climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere. A significant proportion of the direct radiative forcing associated with the rise in atmospheric CO2 occurred in three sudden steps, each of 10 to 15 parts per million. Every step took place in less than two centuries and was followed by no notable change in atmospheric CO2 for about 1,000 to 1,500 years. Slow, millennial-scale ventilation of Southern Ocean CO2-rich, deep-ocean water masses is thought to have been fundamental to the rise in atmospheric CO2 associated with the glacial termination, given the strong covariance of CO2 levels and Antarctic temperatures. Our data establish a contribution from an abrupt, centennial-scale mode of CO2 variability that is not directly related to Antarctic temperature. We suggest that processes operating on centennial timescales, probably involving the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, seem to be influencing global carbon-cycle dynamics and are at present not widely considered in Earth system models.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13799
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Calcisponges have a ParaHox gene and dynamic expression of dispersed NK
           homeobox genes
    • Authors: Sofia A. V. Fortunato, Marcin Adamski, Olivia Mendivil Ramos, Sven Leininger, Jing Liu, David E. K. Ferrier, Maja Adamska
      Pages: 620 - 623
      Abstract: Sponges are simple animals with few cell types, but their genomes paradoxically contain a wide variety of developmental transcription factors, including homeobox genes belonging to the Antennapedia (ANTP) class, which in bilaterians encompass Hox, ParaHox and NK genes. In the genome of the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica, no Hox or ParaHox genes are present, but NK genes are linked in a tight cluster similar to the NK clusters of bilaterians. It has been proposed that Hox and ParaHox genes originated from NK cluster genes after divergence of sponges from the lineage leading to cnidarians and bilaterians. On the other hand, synteny analysis lends support to the notion that the absence of Hox and ParaHox genes in Amphimedon is a result of secondary loss (the ghost locus hypothesis). Here we analysed complete suites of ANTP-class homeoboxes in two calcareous sponges, Sycon ciliatum and Leucosolenia complicata. Our phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that these calcisponges possess orthologues of bilaterian NK genes (Hex, Hmx and Msx), a varying number of additional NK genes and one ParaHox gene, Cdx. Despite the generation of scaffolds spanning multiple genes, we find no evidence of clustering of Sycon NK genes. All Sycon ANTP-class genes are developmentally expressed, with patterns suggesting their involvement in cell type specification in embryos and adults, metamorphosis and body plan patterning. These results demonstrate that ParaHox genes predate the origin of sponges, thus confirming the ghost locus hypothesis, and highlight the need to analyse the genomes of multiple sponge lineages to obtain a complete picture of the ancestral composition of the first animal genome.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13881
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Non-equivalent contributions of maternal and paternal genomes to early
           plant embryogenesis
    • Authors: Gerardo Del Toro-De León, Marcelina García-Aguilar, C. Stewart Gillmor
      Pages: 624 - 627
      Abstract: Zygotic genome activation in metazoans typically occurs several hours to a day after fertilization, and thus maternal RNAs and proteins drive early animal embryo development. In plants, despite several molecular studies of post-fertilization transcriptional activation, the timing of zygotic genome activation remains a matter of debate. For example, two recent reports that used different hybrid ecotype combinations for RNA sequence profiling of early Arabidopsis embryo transcriptomes came to divergent conclusions. One identified paternal contributions that varied by gene, but with overall maternal dominance, while the other found that the maternal and paternal genomes are transcriptionally equivalent. Here we assess paternal gene activation functionally in an isogenic background, by performing a large-scale genetic analysis of 49 EMBRYO DEFECTIVE genes and testing the ability of wild-type paternal alleles to complement phenotypes conditioned by mutant maternal alleles. Our results demonstrate that wild-type paternal alleles for nine of these genes are completely functional 2 days after pollination, with the remaining 40 genes showing partial activity beginning at 2, 3 or 5 days after pollination. Using our functional assay, we also demonstrate that different hybrid combinations exhibit significant variation in paternal allele activation, reconciling the apparently contradictory results of previous transcriptional studies. The variation in timing of gene function that we observe confirms that paternal genome activation does not occur in one early discrete step, provides large-scale functional evidence that maternal and paternal genomes make non-equivalent contributions to early plant embryogenesis, and uncovers an unexpectedly profound effect of hybrid genetic backgrounds on paternal gene activity.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-09-07
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13620
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Oncogene ablation-resistant pancreatic cancer cells depend on
           mitochondrial function
    • Authors: Andrea Viale, Piergiorgio Pettazzoni, Costas A. Lyssiotis, Haoqiang Ying, Nora Sánchez, Matteo Marchesini, Alessandro Carugo, Tessa Green, Sahil Seth, Virginia Giuliani, Maria Kost-Alimova, Florian Muller, Simona Colla, Luigi Nezi, Giannicola Genovese, Angela K. Deem, Avnish Kapoor, Wantong Yao, Emanuela Brunetto, Ya’an Kang, Min Yuan, John M. Asara, Y. Alan Wang, Timothy P. Heffernan, Alec C. Kimmelman, Huamin Wang, Jason B. Fleming, Lewis C. Cantley, Ronald A. DePinho, Giulio F. Draetta
      Pages: 628 - 632
      Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest cancers in western countries, with a median survival of 6 months and an extremely low percentage of long-term surviving patients. KRAS mutations are known to be a driver event of PDAC, but targeting mutant KRAS has proved challenging. Targeting oncogene-driven signalling pathways is a clinically validated approach for several devastating diseases. Still, despite marked tumour shrinkage, the frequency of relapse indicates that a fraction of tumour cells survives shut down of oncogenic signalling. Here we explore the role of mutant KRAS in PDAC maintenance using a recently developed inducible mouse model of mutated Kras (KrasG12D, herein KRas) in a p53LoxP/WT background. We demonstrate that a subpopulation of dormant tumour cells surviving oncogene ablation (surviving cells) and responsible for tumour relapse has features of cancer stem cells and relies on oxidative phosphorylation for survival. Transcriptomic and metabolic analyses of surviving cells reveal prominent expression of genes governing mitochondrial function, autophagy and lysosome activity, as well as a strong reliance on mitochondrial respiration and a decreased dependence on glycolysis for cellular energetics. Accordingly, surviving cells show high sensitivity to oxidative phosphorylation inhibitors, which can inhibit tumour recurrence. Our integrated analyses illuminate a therapeutic strategy of combined targeting of the KRAS pathway and mitochondrial respiration to manage pancreatic cancer.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-08-10
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13611
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Conditional tolerance of temperate phages via transcription-dependent
           CRISPR-Cas targeting
    • Authors: Gregory W. Goldberg, Wenyan Jiang, David Bikard, Luciano A. Marraffini
      Pages: 633 - 637
      Abstract: A fundamental feature of immune systems is the ability to distinguish pathogenic from self and commensal elements, and to attack the former but tolerate the latter. Prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas immune systems defend against phage infection by using Cas nucleases and small RNA guides that specify one or more target sites for cleavage of the viral genome. Temperate phages include viruses that can integrate into the bacterial chromosome, and they can carry genes that provide a fitness advantage to the lysogenic host. However, CRISPR-Cas targeting that relies strictly on DNA sequence recognition provides indiscriminate immunity both to lytic and lysogenic infection by temperate phages—compromising the genetic stability of these potentially beneficial elements altogether. Here we show that the Staphylococcus epidermidis CRISPR-Cas system can prevent lytic infection but tolerate lysogenization by temperate phages. Conditional tolerance is achieved through transcription-dependent DNA targeting, and ensures that targeting is resumed upon induction of the prophage lytic cycle. Our results provide evidence for the functional divergence of CRISPR-Cas systems and highlight the importance of targeting mechanism diversity. In addition, they extend the concept of ‘tolerance to non-self’ to the prokaryotic branch of adaptive immunity.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-08-31
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13637
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Rapid fucosylation of intestinal epithelium sustains host–commensal
           symbiosis in sickness
    • Authors: Joseph M. Pickard, Corinne F. Maurice, Melissa A. Kinnebrew, Michael C. Abt, Dominik Schenten, Tatyana V. Golovkina, Said R. Bogatyrev, Rustem F. Ismagilov, Eric G. Pamer, Peter J. Turnbaugh, Alexander V. Chervonsky
      Pages: 638 - 641
      Abstract: Systemic infection induces conserved physiological responses that include both resistance and ‘tolerance of infection’ mechanisms. Temporary anorexia associated with an infection is often beneficial, reallocating energy from food foraging towards resistance to infection or depriving pathogens of nutrients. However, it imposes a stress on intestinal commensals, as they also experience reduced substrate availability; this affects host fitness owing to the loss of caloric intake and colonization resistance (protection from additional infections). We hypothesized that the host might utilize internal resources to support the gut microbiota during the acute phase of the disease. Here we show that systemic exposure to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands causes rapid α(1,2)-fucosylation of small intestine epithelial cells (IECs) in mice, which requires the sensing of TLR agonists, as well as the production of interleukin (IL)-23 by dendritic cells, activation of innate lymphoid cells and expression of fucosyltransferase 2 (Fut2) by IL-22-stimulated IECs. Fucosylated proteins are shed into the lumen and fucose is liberated and metabolized by the gut microbiota, as shown by reporter bacteria and community-wide analysis of microbial gene expression. Fucose affects the expression of microbial metabolic pathways and reduces the expression of bacterial virulence genes. It also improves host tolerance of the mild pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Thus, rapid IEC fucosylation appears to be a protective mechanism that utilizes the host’s resources to maintain host–microbial interactions during pathogen-induced stress.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13823
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Enhanced neonatal Fc receptor function improves protection against primate
           SHIV infection
    • Authors: Sung-Youl Ko, Amarendra Pegu, Rebecca S. Rudicell, Zhi-yong Yang, M. Gordon Joyce, Xuejun Chen, Keyun Wang, Saran Bao, Thomas D. Kraemer, Timo Rath, Ming Zeng, Stephen D. Schmidt, John-Paul Todd, Scott R. Penzak, Kevin O. Saunders, Martha C. Nason, Ashley T. Haase, Srinivas S. Rao, Richard S. Blumberg, John R. Mascola, Gary J. Nabel
      Pages: 642 - 645
      Abstract: To protect against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) must be active at the portals of viral entry in the gastrointestinal or cervicovaginal tracts. The localization and persistence of antibodies at these sites is influenced by the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), whose role in protecting against infection in vivo has not been defined. Here, we show that a bnAb with enhanced FcRn binding has increased gut mucosal tissue localization, which improves protection against lentiviral infection in non-human primates. A bnAb directed to the CD4-binding site of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) protein (denoted VRC01) was modified by site-directed mutagenesis to increase its binding affinity for FcRn. This enhanced FcRn-binding mutant bnAb, denoted VRC01-LS, displayed increased transcytosis across human FcRn-expressing cellular monolayers in vitro while retaining FcγRIIIa binding and function, including antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity, at levels similar to VRC01 (the wild type). VRC01-LS had a threefold longer serum half-life than VRC01 in non-human primates and persisted in the rectal mucosa even when it was no longer detectable in the serum. Notably, VRC01-LS mediated protection superior to that afforded by VRC01 against intrarectal infection with simian–human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV). These findings suggest that modification of FcRn binding provides a mechanism not only to increase serum half-life but also to enhance mucosal localization that confers immune protection. Mutations that enhance FcRn function could therefore increase the potency and durability of passive immunization strategies to prevent HIV-1 infection.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-08-13
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13612
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Synergistic blockade of mitotic exit by two chemical inhibitors of the
           APC/C
    • Authors: Katharine L. Sackton, Nevena Dimova, Xing Zeng, Wei Tian, Mengmeng Zhang, Timothy B. Sackton, Johnathan Meaders, Kathleen L. Pfaff, Frederic Sigoillot, Hongtao Yu, Xuelian Luo, Randall W. King
      Pages: 646 - 649
      Abstract: Protein machines are multi-subunit protein complexes that orchestrate highly regulated biochemical tasks. An example is the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a 13-subunit ubiquitin ligase that initiates the metaphase–anaphase transition and mitotic exit by targeting proteins such as securin and cyclin B1 for ubiquitin-dependent destruction by the proteasome. Because blocking mitotic exit is an effective approach for inducing tumour cell death, the APC/C represents a potential novel target for cancer therapy. APC/C activation in mitosis requires binding of Cdc20 (ref. 5), which forms a co-receptor with the APC/C to recognize substrates containing a destruction box (D-box). Here we demonstrate that we can synergistically inhibit APC/C-dependent proteolysis and mitotic exit by simultaneously disrupting two protein–protein interactions within the APC/C–Cdc20–substrate ternary complex. We identify a small molecule, called apcin (APC inhibitor), which binds to Cdc20 and competitively inhibits the ubiquitylation of D-box-containing substrates. Analysis of the crystal structure of the apcin–Cdc20 complex suggests that apcin occupies the D-box-binding pocket on the side face of the WD40-domain. The ability of apcin to block mitotic exit is synergistically amplified by co-addition of tosyl-l-arginine methyl ester, a small molecule that blocks the APC/C–Cdc20 interaction. This work suggests that simultaneous disruption of multiple, weak protein–protein interactions is an effective approach for inactivating a protein machine.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-08-24
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13660
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Transcriptional interference by antisense RNA is required for circadian
           clock function
    • Authors: Zhihong Xue, Qiaohong Ye, Simon R. Anson, Jichen Yang, Guanghua Xiao, David Kowbel, N. Louise Glass, Susan K. Crosthwaite, Yi Liu
      Pages: 650 - 653
      Abstract: Eukaryotic circadian oscillators consist of negative feedback loops that generate endogenous rhythmicities. Natural antisense RNAs are found in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms. Nevertheless, the physiological importance and mode of action of most antisense RNAs are not clear. frequency (frq) encodes a component of the Neurospora core circadian negative feedback loop, which was thought to generate sustained rhythmicity. Transcription of qrf, the long non-coding frq antisense RNA, is induced by light, and its level oscillates in antiphase to frq sense RNA. Here we show that qrf transcription is regulated by both light-dependent and light-independent mechanisms. Light-dependent qrf transcription represses frq expression and regulates clock resetting. Light-independent qrf expression, on the other hand, is required for circadian rhythmicity. frq transcription also inhibits qrf expression and drives the antiphasic rhythm of qrf transcripts. The mutual inhibition of frq and qrf transcription thus forms a double negative feedback loop that is interlocked with the core feedback loop. Genetic and mathematical modelling analyses indicate that such an arrangement is required for robust and sustained circadian rhythmicity. Moreover, our results suggest that antisense transcription inhibits sense expression by mediating chromatin modifications and premature termination of transcription. Taken together, our results establish antisense transcription as an essential feature in a circadian system and shed light on the importance and mechanism of antisense action.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-08-17
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13671
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Corrigendum: Immune clearance of highly pathogenic SIV infection
    • Authors: Scott G. Hansen, Michael Piatak, Abigail B. Ventura, Colette M. Hughes, Roxanne M. Gilbride, Julia C. Ford, Kelli Oswald, Rebecca Shoemaker, Yuan Li, Matthew S. Lewis, Awbrey N. Gilliam, Guangwu Xu, Nathan Whizin, Benjamin J. Burwitz, Shannon L. Planer, John M. Turner, Alfred W. Legasse, Michael K. Axthelm, Jay A. Nelson, Klaus Früh, Jonah B. Sacha, Jacob D. Estes, Brandon F. Keele, Paul T. Edlefsen, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Louis J. Picker
      Pages: 654 - 654
      Abstract: Nature502, 100–104 (2013); doi:10.1038/nature12519The Acknowledgements section of this Letter should have included the following sentence: “We acknowledge the contribution of M. A. Jarvis to the design, construction and initial in vitro characterization of all the strain
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/nature13840
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Development hubs: Rust no more
    • Authors: Cameron Walker
      Pages: 655 - 656
      Abstract: Ohio's investments into research are ushering the state from a manufacturing past into a knowledge-economy future.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7524-655a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Dumpster diving
    • Authors: Alvaro Zinos-Amaro
      Pages: 658 - 658
      Abstract: The silent treatment.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514658a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524 (2014)
       
  • Rice
    • Rice

      Nature. doi:10.1038/514S49a

      Author: Chris Woolston

      Nature2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514S49a
       
  • Rice by the numbers: A good grain
    • Authors: Emily Elert
      Pages: S50 - S51
      Abstract: Millions of people around the world rely on rice as the bulk of their daily diet. This snapshot of the crop's production, consumption and trade shows an overall surplus, but population growth in future decades may affect the situation, writes Emily Elert.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514S50a
       
  • Agribiotechnology: Blue-sky rice
    • Authors: Leigh Dayton
      Pages: S52 - S54
      Abstract: Rice is a staple food, but production is not keeping pace with the rise in global population. So scientists are dreaming big and aiming high to change the future for this crucial grain.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514S52a
       
  • Biotechnology: Against the grain
    • Authors: Michael Eisenstein
      Pages: S55 - S57
      Abstract: Golden rice could help to end a nutritional crisis — but only if researchers can overcome some daunting technical and political hurdles.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514S55a
       
  • Domestication: The birth of rice
    • Authors: Ewen Callaway
      Pages: S58 - S59
      Abstract: From a wild Asian grass to a refined crop that is the staple diet of half the world's population, the domestication of Oryza sativa spans centuries, but the grain's ancestry is hotly contested.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514S58a
       
  • Yield: The search for the rice of the future
    • Authors: Felix Cheung
      Pages: S60 - S61
      Abstract: Scientists are hoping to make the world's most successful crop even better.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514S60a
       
  • Contamination: The toxic side of rice
    • Authors: Emily Sohn
      Pages: S62 - S63
      Abstract: Around the world, researchers are looking for ways to rid rice of a troublesome companion.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514S62a
       
  • Agriculture: The next frontier
    • Authors: Karen Ravn
      Pages: S64 - S65
      Abstract: Africa's newfound taste for an old grain has experienced problems — drought, low yields and costly imports. But new projects are driving the continent towards self-sufficiency.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514S64a
       
  • Perspective: Time to unleash rice
    • Authors: Robert Zeigler
      Pages: S66 - S66
      Abstract: Corporate inefficiency and government meddling are curbing production of the vital crop in the countries that need it most, says Robert Zeigler.
      Citation: Nature
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      DOI: 10.1038/514S66a
       
  • Rules for reproducibility win support
    • Pages: 539 - 539
      Abstract: Nearly a decade after writing a scathing critique of biomedical research, 'Why Most Published Research Findings Are False', Stanford University scientist John Ioannidis has published a follow-up. The health-policy researcher suggests a blueprint for making scientific results more reliable, including increasing the statistical certainty of
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      DOI: 10.1038/514539e
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524
       
  • The top 100 papers
    • Authors: Richard Van Noorden, Brendan Maher, Regina Nuzzo
      Pages: 550 - 553
      Abstract: Nature explores the most-cited research of all time.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      DOI: 10.1038/514550a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524
       
  • The Ebola questions
    • Authors: Erika Check Hayden
      Pages: 554 - 557
      Abstract: Scientists know a lot about the virus that causes Ebola — but there are many puzzles that they have yet to solve.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      DOI: 10.1038/514554a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524
       
  • Human spaceflight: Find asteroids to get to Mars
    • Authors: Richard P. Binzel
      Pages: 559 - 561
      Abstract: Asteroid retrieval is a distraction, says Richard P. Binzel. Better steps to interplanetary travel abound.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      DOI: 10.1038/514559a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524
       
  • Bibliometrics: Is your most cited work your best'
    • Authors: John P. A. Ioannidis, Kevin W. Boyack, Henry Small, Aaron A. Sorensen, Richard Klavans
      Pages: 561 - 562
      Abstract: John P. A. Ioannidis and colleagues asked the most highly cited biomedical scientists to score their top-ten papers in six ways.
      Citation: Nature 514, 7524 (2014)
      DOI: 10.1038/514561a
      Issue No: Vol. 514, No. 7524
       
 
 
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