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Journal Cover Nature
  [SJR: 21.323]   [H-I: 829]   [3123 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0028-0836 - ISSN (Online) 1476-4687
   Published by Nature Publishing Group Homepage  [112 journals]
  • Digital intuition
    • Pages: 437 - 437
      Abstract: A computer program that can outplay humans in the abstract game of Go will redefine our relationship with machines.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529437a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • In praise of parks
    • Pages: 437 - 438
      Abstract: Our affection for national parks is well founded, but many more areas need protection.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-26
      DOI: 10.1038/529437b
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Found out
    • Pages: 438 - 438
      Abstract: Self-doubt is a pernicious affliction that can overwhelm researchers.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529438a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • India needs home-grown GM food to stop starvation
    • Authors: Anurag Chaurasia
      Pages: 439 - 439
      Abstract: Indian scientists must develop domestic genetically modified crops rather than rely on unsuitable foreign technology, says Anurag Chaurasia.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529439a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Plant science: Plants count to five
    • Pages: 440 - 440
      Abstract: Venus flytraps count the number of touches from trapped insect prey before producing digestive juices.Erwin Neher at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen and Rainer Hedrich of the University of Würzburg, both in Germany, and their colleagues touched the leaves of
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529440a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Infectious disease: Antibody for range of ebolaviruses
    • Pages: 440 - 440
      Abstract: Antibodies that recognize multiple ebolavirus species could treat the deadly infection.Humans infected with ebolaviruses make antibodies that bind to proteins on the surface of virus particles. This prevents the virus from infecting more cells, but it is unclear whether antibodies for one of the
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529440b
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Astronomy: Turbulence roils luminous galaxy
    • Pages: 440 - 440
      Abstract: The brightest-known galaxy is blasting gas out into space — and providing astronomers with a rare glimpse of how extreme galaxies evolve.Known as W2246-0526, the galaxy is as bright as 350 trillion Suns and is powered by a supermassive black hole at its heart.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529440c
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Bioengineering: Shielded cells treat diabetes
    • Pages: 440 - 440
      Abstract: Insulin-producing cells derived from human stem cells restore blood sugar to normal levels when encased in a porous biomaterial and implanted in diabetic mice.People with severe type 1 diabetes can sometimes be treated with a transplant of insulin-producing cells from cadavers, but the cell
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529440d
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Oceanography: Rising seas differ by region
    • Pages: 440 - 441
      Abstract: The expansion of oceans as the climate warms has contributed to a rise in global sea levels of about 1.38 millimetres per year — roughly twice that of previous estimates.Roelof Rietbroek at the University of Bonn in Germany and his colleagues analysed sea-surface heights
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529440e
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Metabolism: Beige fat boosts metabolism
    • Pages: 441 - 441
      Abstract: Human 'beige' fat cells implanted in mice can improve the animals' glucose metabolism and liver-fat profiles.The presence of beige fat — brown fat cells within white fat-storing tissue — is correlated with better metabolic health, but it was not known whether beige fat causes
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529441a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Materials: Add water for 3D-printed flowers
    • Pages: 441 - 441
      Abstract: Researchers have 3D-printed hydrogel composites that swell and morph into flower shapes when immersed in water.Lakshminarayanan Mahadevan and Jennifer Lewis at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and their colleagues used an ink made of cellulose fibrils embedded in a hydrogel matrix, which mimics plant-cell
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529441b
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Chemistry: Polymers woven into stretchy web
    • Pages: 441 - 441
      Abstract: Organic polymers woven into a 3D framework offer a new way of making flexible materials with tunable properties.Covalent organic frameworks are highly porous structures with many promising applications, but they are typically rigid. Omar Yaghi of the University of California, Berkeley, Osamu Terasaki of
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529441c
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Animal behaviour: Voles console stressed friends
    • Pages: 441 - 441
      Abstract: Prairie voles seem to console their distraught cage-mates — a behaviour previously seen only in humans and in other animals with advanced cognition, such as great apes and elephants.James Burkett, Larry Young and their colleagues at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, separated pairs of
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529441d
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Creepy-crawlies, cultural tales and clever canines: this week’s hot
           topics
    • Authors: Dalmeet Singh Chawla
      Pages: 441 - 441
      Abstract: Studies about the diversity of indoor insects, fairy-tale origins and insightful dog gazes attracted attention on social media.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-22
      DOI: 10.1038/529441f
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • The week in science: 22–28 January 2016
    • Pages: 442 - 443
      Abstract: The hottest year; a new frog genus; and the loss of Marvin Minsky.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529442a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Google AI algorithm masters ancient game of Go
    • Authors: Elizabeth Gibney
      Pages: 445 - 446
      Abstract: Deep-learning software defeats human professional for first time.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529445a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Dog DNA probed for clues to human psychiatric ills
    • Authors: Heidi Ledford
      Pages: 446 - 447
      Abstract: Pet project hunts genetic links to behaviour by polling owners on their companions’ quirks.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-26
      DOI: 10.1038/529446a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Hawking’s latest black-hole paper splits physicists
    • Authors: Davide Castelvecchi
      Pages: 448 - 448
      Abstract: Some welcome his latest report as a fresh way to solve a black-hole conundrum; others are unsure of its merits.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529448a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Monkeys genetically modified to show autism symptoms
    • Authors: David Cyranoski
      Pages: 449 - 449
      Abstract: But it is unclear how well the results match the condition in humans.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-25
      DOI: 10.1038/529449a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Paris climate deal hinges on better carbon accountancy
    • Authors: Jeff Tollefson
      Pages: 450 - 451
      Abstract: Local expertise is required to provide detailed emissions reports.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-26
      DOI: 10.1038/529450a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • 2015 declared the hottest year on record
    • Authors: Jeff Tollefson
      Pages: 450 - 450
      Abstract: Warming in the Pacific Ocean helps to shatter past records, and could bring even faster temperature rises.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2016.19216
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Slaughter of the song birds
    • Authors: Shaoni Bhattacharya
      Pages: 452 - 455
      Abstract: Songbirds are a culinary delicacy in Cyprus — but catching and eating them is illegal. Even so, the practice is on the rise and could be threatening rare species.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-26
      DOI: 10.1038/529452a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • How quality control could save your science
    • Authors: Monya Baker
      Pages: 456 - 458
      Abstract: It may not be sexy, but quality assurance is becoming a crucial part of lab life.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529456a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Research integrity: Don't let transparency damage science
    • Authors: Stephan Lewandowsky, Dorothy Bishop
      Pages: 459 - 461
      Abstract: Stephan Lewandowsky and Dorothy Bishop explain how the research community should protect its members from harassment, while encouraging the openness that has become essential to science.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-25
      DOI: 10.1038/529459a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • In retrospect: The selfish gene
    • Authors: Matt Ridley
      Pages: 462 - 463
      Abstract: Matt Ridley reassesses Richard Dawkins's pivotal reframing of evolution, 40 years on.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529462a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • History: Archive of wonders
    • Authors: Philip Ball
      Pages: 464 - 464
      Abstract: Philip Ball browses remnants of the celebrated library of mathematician and occultist John Dee.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529464a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Government: Concern grows for Turkey's academics
    • Authors: Caghan Kizil
      Pages: 466 - 466
      Abstract: We strongly urge the Turkish government to stop prosecuting academics, to abide by international human-rights values and to respect civil liberties — including freedom of speech (see Naturehttp://doi.org/bbxj; 2016).In a petition to the government this month, more than 2,000 academics from
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529466a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Environmental management: Synthesize evidence to steer decisions
    • Authors: Anne-Christine Mupepele, Carsten F. Dormann
      Pages: 466 - 466
      Abstract: Using evidence mapping to display and categorize environmental studies cannot replace 'evidence synthesis' in guiding decision-making (M. C.McKinnonet al. Nature528, 185–187;10.1038/528185a2015). There are no shortcuts to evidence-based practice.The results of investigations need
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529466b
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Climate adaptation: Hold atmosphere in trust for all
    • Authors: Robert Costanza
      Pages: 466 - 466
      Abstract: We, the undersigned, call on the V20 — the 20 countries that are most vulnerable to the effects of climate change — to take the lead in creating an 'atmospheric trust' that establishes community property rights over the atmospheric commons (www.claimthesky.org). The V20
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529466c
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Funding: What stops women getting more grants?
    • Authors: David McAllister, Jan Juillerat, Jackie Hunter
      Pages: 466 - 466
      Abstract: Women make up 33% of the applicants who are eligible for programmes funded by the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), but they lead only 21% of grant applications. The percentage receiving large grants of more than £2 million (US$2.8 million) remains stubbornly
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529466d
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Renewables: Solar energy needs focus
    • Authors: Abu Bakar Munir, Firdaus Muhammad-Sukki, Nurul Aini Bani
      Pages: 466 - 466
      Abstract: The high cost of solar photovoltaic installations prevents them from providing more than about 1% of the world's electricity requirement. A solution would be to incorporate an optical concentrator in the solar photovoltaic module that would save on expensive materials without compromising electrical output.Optical
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529466e
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Genome editing: The domestication of Cas9
    • Authors: Fyodor Urnov
      Pages: 468 - 469
      Abstract: The enzyme Cas9 is used in genome editing to cut selected DNA sequences, but it also creates breaks at off-target sites. Protein engineering has now been used to make Cas9 enzymes that have minimal off-target effects. See Article p.490
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529468a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Neuroscience: Fluorescent boost for voltage sensors
    • Authors: Viviana Gradinaru, Nicholas C. Flytzanis
      Pages: 469 - 470
      Abstract: The development of a voltage sensor in which a microbial rhodopsin protein is fused with a fluorescent protein enables the neuronal activity of single cells in live animals to be measured with unprecedented speed and accuracy.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529469a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Evolution: A lizard that generates heat
    • Authors: Colleen G. Farmer
      Pages: 470 - 472
      Abstract: Birds and mammals generate heat to regulate body temperature, but most non-avian reptiles cannot. The discovery of endothermy during the reproductive period of a tegu lizard sheds light on the evolution of this characteristic.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529470a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Infection biology: Small RNA with a large impact
    • Authors: Matthias P. Machner, Gisela Storz
      Pages: 472 - 473
      Abstract: A simultaneous comparison of the RNA molecules expressed by Salmonella bacteria and human cells during infection reveals how a bacterial small RNA alters the transcript profiles of both the bacteria and the host cells. See Article p.496
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature16872
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Stellar astrophysics: The mystery of globular clusters
    • Authors: Antonella Nota, Corinne Charbonnel
      Pages: 473 - 474
      Abstract: The discovery of multiple stellar populations — formed at different times — in several young star clusters adds to the debate on the nature and origin of such populations in globular clusters from the early Universe. See Letter p.502
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529473a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Neuroscience: A mechanism for myelin injury
    • Authors: Aiman S. Saab, Klaus-Armin Nave
      Pages: 474 - 475
      Abstract: The cells that insulate neuronal processes with a myelin membrane sheath are damaged during stroke. Data now show that an influx of calcium ions mediated by the TRPA1 protein contributes to myelin injury. See Letter p.523
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-13
      DOI: 10.1038/nature16865
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Bioanalytical devices: Technological leap for sweat sensing
    • Authors: Jason Heikenfeld
      Pages: 475 - 476
      Abstract: Sweat analysis is an ideal method for continuously tracking a person's physiological state, but developing devices for this is difficult. A wearable sweat monitor that measures several biomarkers is a breakthrough. See Letter p.509
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529475a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Allowable CO2 emissions based on regional and impact-related climate
           targets
    • Authors: Sonia I. Seneviratne, Markus G. Donat, Andy J. Pitman, Reto Knutti, Robert L. Wilby
      Pages: 477 - 483
      Abstract: Global temperature targets, such as the widely accepted limit of an increase above pre-industrial temperatures of two degrees Celsius, may fail to communicate the urgency of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The translation of CO2 emissions into regional- and impact-related climate
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature16542
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search
    • Authors: David Silver, Aja Huang, Chris J. Maddison, Arthur Guez, Laurent Sifre, George van den Driessche, Julian Schrittwieser, Ioannis Antonoglou, Veda Panneershelvam, Marc Lanctot, Sander Dieleman, Dominik Grewe, John Nham, Nal Kalchbrenner, Ilya Sutskever, Timothy Lillicrap, Madeleine Leach, Koray Kavukcuoglu, Thore Graepel, Demis Hassabis
      Pages: 484 - 489
      Abstract: The game of Go has long been viewed as the most challenging of classic games for artificial intelligence owing to its enormous search space and the difficulty of evaluating board positions and moves. Here we introduce a new approach to computer Go that uses ‘value
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nature16961
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • High-fidelity CRISPR–Cas9 nucleases with no detectable genome-wide
           off-target effects
    • Authors: Benjamin P. Kleinstiver, Vikram Pattanayak, Michelle S. Prew, Shengdar Q. Tsai, Nhu T. Nguyen, Zongli Zheng, J. Keith Joung
      Pages: 490 - 495
      Abstract: CRISPR–Cas9 nucleases are widely used for genome editing but can induce unwanted off-target mutations. Existing strategies for reducing genome-wide off-target effects of the widely used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) are imperfect, possessing only partial or unproven efficacies and other limitations that constrain their use.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-06
      DOI: 10.1038/nature16526
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Dual RNA-seq unveils noncoding RNA functions in host–pathogen
           interactions
    • Pages: 496 - 501
      Abstract: Bacteria express many small RNAs for which the regulatory roles in pathogenesis have remained poorly understood due to a paucity of robust phenotypes in standard virulence assays. Here we use a generic ‘dual RNA-seq’ approach to profile RNA expression simultaneously in pathogen and host during
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature16547
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Formation of new stellar populations from gas accreted by massive young
           star clusters
    • Pages: 502 - 504
      Abstract: Stars in clusters are thought to form in a single burst from a common progenitor cloud of molecular gas. However, massive, old ‘globular’ clusters—those with ages greater than ten billion years and masses several hundred thousand times that of the Sun—often harbour multiple stellar populations, indicating that more than one star-forming event occurred during their lifetimes. Colliding stellar winds from late-stage, asymptotic-giant-branch stars are often suggested to be triggers of second-generation star formation. For this to occur, the initial cluster masses need to be greater than a few million solar masses. Here we report observations of three massive relatively young star clusters (1–2 billion years old) in the Magellanic Clouds that show clear evidence of burst-like star formation that occurred a few hundred million years after their initial formation era. We show that such clusters could have accreted sufficient gas to form new stars if they had orbited in their host galaxies’ gaseous disks throughout the period between their initial formation and the more recent bursts of star formation. This process may eventually give rise to the ubiquitous multiple stellar populations in globular clusters.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nature16493
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Measurement noise 100 times lower than the quantum-projection limit using
           entangled atoms
    • Authors: Onur Hosten, Nils J. Engelsen, Rajiv Krishnakumar, Mark A. Kasevich
      Pages: 505 - 508
      Abstract: Quantum metrology uses quantum entanglement—correlations in the properties of microscopic systems—to improve the statistical precision of physical measurements. When measuring a signal, such as the phase shift of a light beam or an atomic state, a prominent limitation to achievable precision arises from the noise associated with the counting of uncorrelated probe particles. This noise, commonly referred to as shot noise or projection noise, gives rise to the standard quantum limit (SQL) to phase resolution. However, it can be mitigated down to the fundamental Heisenberg limit by entangling the probe particles. Despite considerable experimental progress in a variety of physical systems, a question that persists is whether these methods can achieve performance levels that compare favourably with optimized conventional (non-entangled) systems. Here we demonstrate an approach that achieves unprecedented levels of metrological improvement using half a million 87Rb atoms in their ‘clock’ states. The ensemble is 20.1 ± 0.3 decibels (100-fold) spin-squeezed via an optical-cavity-based measurement. We directly resolve small microwave-induced rotations 18.5 ± 0.3 decibels (70-fold) beyond the SQL. The single-shot phase resolution of 147 microradians achieved by the apparatus is better than that achieved by the best engineered cold atom sensors despite lower atom numbers. We infer entanglement of more than 680 ± 35 particles in the atomic ensemble. Applications include atomic clocks, inertial sensors, and fundamental physics experiments such as tests of general relativity or searches for electron electric dipole moment. To this end, we demonstrate an atomic clock measurement with a quantum enhancement of 10.5 ± 0.3 decibels (11-fold), limited by the phase noise of our microwave source.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature16176
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ
           perspiration analysis
    • Authors: Wei Gao, Sam Emaminejad, Hnin Yin Yin Nyein, Samyuktha Challa, Kevin Chen, Austin Peck, Hossain M. Fahad, Hiroki Ota, Hiroshi Shiraki, Daisuke Kiriya, Der-Hsien Lien, George A. Brooks, Ronald W. Davis, Ali Javey
      Pages: 509 - 514
      Abstract: Wearable sensor technologies are essential to the realization of personalized medicine through continuously monitoring an individual’s state of health. Sampling human sweat, which is rich in physiological information, could enable non-invasive monitoring. Previously reported sweat-based and other non-invasive biosensors either can only monitor a single analyte at a time or lack on-site signal processing circuitry and sensor calibration mechanisms for accurate analysis of the physiological state. Given the complexity of sweat secretion, simultaneous and multiplexed screening of target biomarkers is critical and requires full system integration to ensure the accuracy of measurements. Here we present a mechanically flexible and fully integrated (that is, no external analysis is needed) sensor array for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis, which simultaneously and selectively measures sweat metabolites (such as glucose and lactate) and electrolytes (such as sodium and potassium ions), as well as the skin temperature (to calibrate the response of the sensors). Our work bridges the technological gap between signal transduction, conditioning (amplification and filtering), processing and wireless transmission in wearable biosensors by merging plastic-based sensors that interface with the skin with silicon integrated circuits consolidated on a flexible circuit board for complex signal processing. This application could not have been realized using either of these technologies alone owing to their respective inherent limitations. The wearable system is used to measure the detailed sweat profile of human subjects engaged in prolonged indoor and outdoor physical activities, and to make a real-time assessment of the physiological state of the subjects. This platform enables a wide range of personalized diagnostic and physiological monitoring applications.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nature16521
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Lithium-ion battery structure that self-heats at low temperatures
    • Authors: Chao-Yang Wang, Guangsheng Zhang, Shanhai Ge, Terrence Xu, Yan Ji, Xiao-Guang Yang, Yongjun Leng
      Pages: 515 - 518
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries suffer severe power loss at temperatures below zero degrees Celsius, limiting their use in applications such as electric cars in cold climates and high-altitude drones. The practical consequences of such power loss are the need for larger, more expensive battery packs to perform engine cold cranking, slow charging in cold weather, restricted regenerative braking, and reduction of vehicle cruise range by as much as 40 per cent. Previous attempts to improve the low-temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries have focused on developing additives to improve the low-temperature behaviour of electrolytes, and on externally heating and insulating the cells. Here we report a lithium-ion battery structure, the ‘all-climate battery’ cell, that heats itself up from below zero degrees Celsius without requiring external heating devices or electrolyte additives. The self-heating mechanism creates an electrochemical interface that is favourable for high discharge/charge power. We show that the internal warm-up of such a cell to zero degrees Celsius occurs within 20 seconds at minus 20 degrees Celsius and within 30 seconds at minus 30 degrees Celsius, consuming only 3.8 per cent and 5.5 per cent of cell capacity, respectively. The self-heated all-climate battery cell yields a discharge/regeneration power of 1,061/1,425 watts per kilogram at a 50 per cent state of charge and at minus 30 degrees Celsius, delivering 6.4–12.3 times the power of state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells. We expect the all-climate battery to enable engine stop–start technology capable of saving 5–10 per cent of the fuel for 80 million new vehicles manufactured every year. Given that only a small fraction of the battery energy is used for self-heating, we envisage that the all-climate battery cell may also prove useful for plug-in electric vehicles, robotics and space exploration applications.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature16502
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice
           age
    • Authors: K. M. Costa, J. F. McManus, R. F. Anderson, H. Ren, D. M. Sigman, G. Winckler, M. Q. Fleisher, F. Marcantonio, A. C. Ravelo
      Pages: 519 - 522
      Abstract: The equatorial Pacific Ocean is one of the major high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions in the global ocean. In such regions, the consumption of the available macro-nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate is thought to be limited in part by the low abundance of the critical micro-nutrient iron. Greater atmospheric dust deposition could have fertilized the equatorial Pacific with iron during the last ice age—the Last Glacial Period (LGP)—but the effect of increased ice-age dust fluxes on primary productivity in the equatorial Pacific remains uncertain. Here we present meridional transects of dust (derived from the 232Th proxy), phytoplankton productivity (using opal, 231Pa/230Th and excess Ba), and the degree of nitrate consumption (using foraminifera-bound δ15N) from six cores in the central equatorial Pacific for the Holocene (0–10,000 years ago) and the LGP (17,000–27,000 years ago). We find that, although dust deposition in the central equatorial Pacific was two to three times greater in the LGP than in the Holocene, productivity was the same or lower, and the degree of nitrate consumption was the same. These biogeochemical findings suggest that the relatively greater ice-age dust fluxes were not large enough to provide substantial iron fertilization to the central equatorial Pacific. This may have been because the absolute rate of dust deposition in the LGP (although greater than the Holocene rate) was very low. The lower productivity coupled with unchanged nitrate consumption suggests that the subsurface major nutrient concentrations were lower in the central equatorial Pacific during the LGP. As these nutrients are today dominantly sourced from the Subantarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean, we propose that the central equatorial Pacific data are consistent with more nutrient consumption in the Subantarctic Zone, possibly owing to iron fertilization as a result of higher absolute dust fluxes in this region. Thus, ice-age iron fertilization in the Subantarctic Zone would have ultimately worked to lower, not raise, equatorial Pacific productivity.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nature16453
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Proton-gated Ca2+-permeable TRP channels damage myelin in conditions
           mimicking ischaemia
    • Authors: Nicola B. Hamilton, Karolina Kolodziejczyk, Eleni Kougioumtzidou, David Attwell
      Pages: 523 - 527
      Abstract: The myelin sheaths wrapped around axons by oligodendrocytes are crucial for brain function. In ischaemia myelin is damaged in a Ca2+-dependent manner, abolishing action potential propagation. This has been attributed to glutamate release activating Ca2+-permeable N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Surprisingly, we now show that NMDA does not raise the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in mature oligodendrocytes and that, although ischaemia evokes a glutamate-triggered membrane current, this is generated by a rise of extracellular [K+] and decrease of membrane K+ conductance. Nevertheless, ischaemia raises oligodendrocyte [Ca2+]i, [Mg2+]i and [H+]i, and buffering intracellular pH reduces the [Ca2+]i and [Mg2+]i increases, showing that these are evoked by the rise of [H+]i. The H+-gated [Ca2+]i elevation is mediated by channels with characteristics of TRPA1, being inhibited by ruthenium red, isopentenyl pyrophosphate, HC-030031, A967079 or TRPA1 knockout. TRPA1 block reduces myelin damage in ischaemia. These data suggest that TRPA1-containing ion channels could be a therapeutic target in white matter ischaemia.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-13
      DOI: 10.1038/nature16519
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Mitofusin 2 maintains haematopoietic stem cells with extensive lymphoid
           potential
    • Authors: Larry L. Luchsinger, Mariana Justino de Almeida, David J. Corrigan, Melanie Mumau, Hans-Willem Snoeck
      Pages: 528 - 531
      Abstract: Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which sustain production of all blood cell lineages, rely on glycolysis for ATP production, yet little attention has been paid to the role of mitochondria. Here we show in mice that the short isoform of a critical regulator of HSCs, Prdm16 (refs 4, 5), induces mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), a protein involved in mitochondrial fusion and in tethering of mitochondria to the endoplasmic reticulum. Overexpression and deletion studies, including single-cell transplantation assays, revealed that Mfn2 is specifically required for the maintenance of HSCs with extensive lymphoid potential, but not, or less so, for the maintenance of myeloid-dominant HSCs. Mfn2 increased buffering of intracellular Ca2+, an effect mediated through its endoplasmic reticulum–mitochondria tethering activity, thereby negatively regulating nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells (Nfat). Nfat inhibition rescued the effects of Mfn2 deletion in HSCs, demonstrating that negative regulation of Nfat is the prime downstream mechanism of Mfn2 in the maintenance of HSCs with extensive lymphoid potential. Mitochondria therefore have an important role in HSCs. These findings provide a mechanism underlying clonal heterogeneity among HSCs and may lead to the design of approaches to bias HSC differentiation into desired lineages after transplantation.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature16500
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Graded Foxo1 activity in Treg cells differentiates tumour immunity from
           spontaneous autoimmunity
    • Authors: Chong T. Luo, Will Liao, Saida Dadi, Ahmed Toure, Ming O. Li
      Pages: 532 - 536
      Abstract: Regulatory T (Treg) cells expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 have a pivotal role in maintaining immunological self-tolerance; yet, excessive Treg cell activities suppress anti-tumour immune responses. Compared to the resting Treg (rTreg) cell phenotype in secondary lymphoid organs, Treg cells in non-lymphoid tissues exhibit an activated Treg (aTreg) cell phenotype. However, the function of aTreg cells and whether their generation can be manipulated are largely unexplored. Here we show that the transcription factor Foxo1, previously demonstrated to promote Treg cell suppression of lymphoproliferative diseases, has an unexpected function in inhibiting aTreg-cell-mediated immune tolerance in mice. We find that aTreg cells turned over at a slower rate than rTreg cells, but were not locally maintained in tissues. aTreg cell differentiation was associated with repression of Foxo1-dependent gene transcription, concomitant with reduced Foxo1 expression, cytoplasmic localization and enhanced phosphorylation at the Akt sites. Treg-cell-specific expression of an Akt-insensitive Foxo1 mutant prevented downregulation of lymphoid organ homing molecules, and impeded Treg cell homing to non-lymphoid organs, causing CD8+ T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. Compared to Treg cells from healthy tissues, tumour-infiltrating Treg cells downregulated Foxo1 target genes more substantially. Expression of the Foxo1 mutant at a lower dose was sufficient to deplete tumour-associated Treg cells, activate effector CD8+ T cells, and inhibit tumour growth without inflicting autoimmunity. Thus, Foxo1 inactivation is essential for the migration of aTreg cells that have a crucial function in suppressing CD8+ T-cell responses; and the Foxo signalling pathway in Treg cells can be titrated to break tumour immune tolerance preferentially.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature16486
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • A mechanism of viral immune evasion revealed by cryo-EM analysis of the
           TAP transporter
    • Authors: Michael L. Oldham, Richard K. Hite, Alanna M. Steffen, Ermelinda Damko, Zongli Li, Thomas Walz, Jue Chen
      Pages: 537 - 540
      Abstract: Cellular immunity against viral infection and tumour cells depends on antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules. Intracellular antigenic peptides are transported into the endoplasmic reticulum by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and then loaded onto the nascent MHC I molecules, which are exported to the cell surface and present peptides to the immune system. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize non-self peptides and program the infected or malignant cells for apoptosis. Defects in TAP account for immunodeficiency and tumour development. To escape immune surveillance, some viruses have evolved strategies either to downregulate TAP expression or directly inhibit TAP activity. So far, neither the architecture of TAP nor the mechanism of viral inhibition has been elucidated at the structural level. Here we describe the cryo-electron microscopy structure of human TAP in complex with its inhibitor ICP47, a small protein produced by the herpes simplex virus I. Here we show that the 12 transmembrane helices and 2 cytosolic nucleotide-binding domains of the transporter adopt an inward-facing conformation with the two nucleotide-binding domains separated. The viral inhibitor ICP47 forms a long helical hairpin, which plugs the translocation pathway of TAP from the cytoplasmic side. Association of ICP47 precludes substrate binding and prevents nucleotide-binding domain closure necessary for ATP hydrolysis. This work illustrates a striking example of immune evasion by persistent viruses. By blocking viral antigens from entering the endoplasmic reticulum, herpes simplex virus is hidden from cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which may contribute to establishing a lifelong infection in the host.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature16506
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Structure of the E6/E6AP/p53 complex required for HPV-mediated degradation
           of p53
    • Pages: 541 - 545
      Abstract: The p53 pro-apoptotic tumour suppressor is mutated or functionally altered in most cancers. In epithelial tumours induced by ‘high-risk’ mucosal human papilloma viruses, including human cervical carcinoma and a growing number of head-and-neck cancers, p53 is degraded by the viral oncoprotein E6 (ref. 2). In this process, E6 binds to a short leucine (L)-rich LxxLL consensus sequence within the cellular ubiquitin ligase E6AP. Subsequently, the E6/E6AP heterodimer recruits and degrades p53 (ref. 4). Neither E6 nor E6AP are separately able to recruit p53 (refs 3, 5), and the precise mode of assembly of E6, E6AP and p53 is unknown. Here we solve the crystal structure of a ternary complex comprising full-length human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) E6, the LxxLL motif of E6AP and the core domain of p53. The LxxLL motif of E6AP renders the conformation of E6 competent for interaction with p53 by structuring a p53-binding cleft on E6. Mutagenesis of critical positions at the E6–p53 interface disrupts p53 degradation. The E6-binding site of p53 is distal from previously described DNA- and protein-binding surfaces of the core domain. This suggests that, in principle, E6 may avoid competition with cellular factors by targeting both free and bound p53 molecules. The E6/E6AP/p53 complex represents a prototype of viral hijacking of both the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation pathway and the p53 tumour suppressor pathway. The present structure provides a framework for the design of inhibitory therapeutic strategies against oncogenesis mediated by human papilloma virus.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature16481
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Structure of a HOIP/E2~ubiquitin complex reveals RBR E3 ligase mechanism
           and regulation
    • Pages: 546 - 550
      Abstract: Ubiquitination is a central process affecting all facets of cellular signalling and function. A critical step in ubiquitination is the transfer of ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme to a substrate or a growing ubiquitin chain, which is mediated by E3 ubiquitin ligases. RING-type
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature16511
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Structure of transcribing mammalian RNA polymerase II
    • Pages: 551 - 554
      Abstract: RNA polymerase (Pol) II produces messenger RNA during transcription of protein-coding genes in all eukaryotic cells. The Pol II structure is known at high resolution from X-ray crystallography for two yeast species. Structural studies of mammalian Pol II, however, remain limited to low-resolution electron microscopy analysis of human Pol II and its complexes with various proteins. Here we report the 3.4 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of mammalian Pol II in the form of a transcribing complex comprising DNA template and RNA transcript. We use bovine Pol II, which is identical to the human enzyme except for seven amino-acid residues. The obtained atomic model closely resembles its yeast counterpart, but also reveals unknown features. Binding of nucleic acids to the polymerase involves ‘induced fit’ of the mobile Pol II clamp and active centre region. DNA downstream of the transcription bubble contacts a conserved ‘TPSA motif’ in the jaw domain of the Pol II subunit RPB5, an interaction that is apparently already established during transcription initiation. Upstream DNA emanates from the active centre cleft at an angle of approximately 105° with respect to downstream DNA. This position of upstream DNA allows for binding of the general transcription elongation factor DSIF (SPT4–SPT5) that we localize over the active centre cleft in a conserved position on the clamp domain of Pol II. Our results define the structure of mammalian Pol II in its functional state, indicate that previous crystallographic analysis of yeast Pol II is relevant for understanding gene transcription in all eukaryotes, and provide a starting point for a mechanistic analysis of human transcription.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-20
      DOI: 10.1038/nature16482
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Psychology: Faking it
    • Authors: Chris Woolston
      Pages: 555 - 557
      Abstract: In the face of routine rejection, many scientists must learn to cope with the insidious beast that is impostor syndrome.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7587-555a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Turning point: Louis Picker
    • Authors: Virginia Gewin
      Pages: 557 - 557
      Abstract: Louis Picker pursued an unusual HIV vaccine that is now in clinical trials, and was once considered a fool's errand.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7587-557a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
  • Robot burial
    • Authors: H. E. Roulo
      Pages: 560 - 560
      Abstract: A moment to reflect.
      Citation: Nature 529, 7587 (2016)
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.1038/529560a
      Issue No: Vol. 529, No. 7587 (2016)
       
 
 
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