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Journal Cover Nature
  [SJR: 21.936]   [H-I: 948]   [4236 followers]  Follow
    
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   ISSN (Print) 0028-0836 - ISSN (Online) 1476-4687
   Published by NPG Homepage  [135 journals]
  • Archaeologists say human-evolution study used stolen bone
    • Authors: Ewen Callaway
      Pages: 279 - 280
      Abstract: Bizarre tale of theft and suspicious packages casts doubt on claims for early-human occupation in northern Europe.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2017.22984
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Lab mice's ancestral ‘Eve’ gets her genome sequenced
    • Authors: Sara Reardon
      Pages: 281 - 281
      Abstract: Effort aims to help scientists understand how generations of inbreeding have altered the genetics of research rodents.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2017.22974
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Puerto Rico struggles to assess hurricane’s health effects
    • Authors: Sara Reardon
      Pages: 282 - 283
      Abstract: While dealing with their own losses, public-health researchers are regrouping to study the aftermath of Hurricane Maria.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2017.22973
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • UK government appoints next chief scientific adviser
    • Authors: Elizabeth Gibney
      Pages: 282 - 282
      Abstract: A former pharmaceutical boss will help navigate the UK’s exit from the European Union.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2017.22956
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • World’s carbon emissions set to spike by 2% in 2017
    • Authors: Jeff Tollefson
      Pages: 283 - 283
      Abstract: Increased coal use in China appears to be driving the first increase in global greenhouse-gas output since 2014.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2017.22995
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • China fires up next-generation neutron-science facility
    • Authors: David Cyranoski
      Pages: 284 - 284
      Abstract: Beam generator puts country in elite company for doing experiments in materials science and other fields.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-14
      DOI: 10.1038/nature.2017.22976
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Bioethics: Justice in genomics
    • Authors: Rosario Isasi
      Pages: 296 - 297
      Abstract: Rosario Isasi examines a study on the societal impact of grand sequencing projects.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.1038/551296a
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Economics: How science got a golden ticket
    • Authors: Ehsan Masood
      Pages: 297 - 298
      Abstract: Ehsan Masood hails an account of the mixed implications of governments valuing research as an investment.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.1038/551297a
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Computer science: Visionary of virtual reality
    • Authors: Aldo Faisal
      Pages: 298 - 299
      Abstract: Aldo Faisal explores the immersive journey of technology pioneer Jaron Lanier.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.1038/551298a
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Planetary science: Haze cools Pluto's atmosphere
    • Authors: Robert A. West
      Pages: 302 - 303
      Abstract: Modelling suggests that Pluto's atmospheric temperature is regulated by haze, unlike the other planetary bodies in the Solar System. The finding has implications for our understanding of exoplanetary atmospheres. See Letter p.352
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.1038/551302a
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Microbiology: Bacteria disarm host-defence proteins
    • Authors: John D. MacMicking
      Pages: 303 - 305
      Abstract: Infection with Shigella flexneri bacteria is a major cause of infant death. It emerges that S. flexneri evades intracellular defences by releasing a protein that triggers the destruction of members of a key family of host enzymes. See Letter p.378
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-10-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24157
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • 50 & 100 Years Ago
    • Pages: 304 - 304
      Abstract: 50 Years AgoLast week's first Saturn V flight (called Apollo 4) may have helped NASA to catch up on the lagging timetable for landing two Americans on the Moon by 1970. By combining in one flight the first operational tests of several important components,
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.1038/551304a
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Biogeochemistry: Ocean hotspots of nitrogen loss
    • Authors: Katja Fennel
      Pages: 305 - 306
      Abstract: Microbial activity in the sea results in a loss of bioavailable nitrogen. It emerges that the climate phenomenon called the El Niño–Southern Oscillation has a surprisingly large effect on the size of this loss.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.1038/551305a
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Gene therapy: Transgenic stem cells replace skin
    • Authors: Mariaceleste Aragona, Cédric Blanpain
      Pages: 306 - 307
      Abstract: The treatment of a patient affected by an incurable genetic skin disease demonstrates the efficacy, feasibility and safety of replacing almost the whole skin using genetically corrected stem cells. See Letter p.327
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24753
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Geophysics: The buoyancy of Earth's deep mantle
    • Authors: Barbara Romanowicz
      Pages: 308 - 309
      Abstract: The physical nature of two regions called large low-shear-velocity provinces at the base of Earth's mantle is uncertain. A measurement of their density has implications for our understanding of mantle dynamics. See Article p.321
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.1038/551308a
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Ecology: The effect of conservation spending
    • Authors: Hugh P. Possingham, Leah R. Gerber
      Pages: 309 - 310
      Abstract: Statistical analysis of data on threatened species provides a model that can predict how rates of investment in conservation affect biodiversity under changing human population levels and agricultural and economic conditions. See Letter p.364
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-10-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24158
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Influenza: A broadly protective antibody
    • Authors: Peter Palese
      Pages: 310 - 311
      Abstract: A single antibody uses multiple antiviral mechanisms to block the replication of influenza B viruses in mice and ferrets. The development could inform research into improved flu vaccines.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.1038/551310a
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Progress in and promise of bacterial quorum sensing research
    • Authors: Marvin Whiteley, Stephen P. Diggle, E. Peter Greenberg
      Pages: 313 - 320
      Abstract: This Review highlights how we can build upon the relatively new and rapidly developing field of research into bacterial quorum sensing (QS). We now have a depth of knowledge about how bacteria use QS signals to communicate with each other and to coordinate their activities.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24624
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Tidal tomography constrains Earth’s deep-mantle buoyancy
    • Authors: Harriet C. P. Lau, Jerry X. Mitrovica, James L. Davis, Jeroen Tromp, Hsin-Ying Yang, David Al-Attar
      Pages: 321 - 326
      Abstract: Earth’s body tide—also known as the solid Earth tide, the displacement of the solid Earth’s surface caused by gravitational forces from the Moon and the Sun—is sensitive to the density of the two Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) beneath Africa and the Pacific. These
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24452
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Regeneration of the entire human epidermis using transgenic stem cells
    • Authors: Tobias Hirsch, Tobias Rothoeft, Norbert Teig, Johann W. Bauer, Graziella Pellegrini, Laura De Rosa, Davide Scaglione, Julia Reichelt, Alfred Klausegger, Daniela Kneisz, Oriana Romano, Alessia Secone Seconetti, Roberta Contin, Elena Enzo, Irena Jurman, Sonia Carulli, Frank Jacobsen, Thomas Luecke, Marcus Lehnhardt, Meike Fischer, Maximilian Kueckelhaus, Daniela Quaglino, Michele Morgante, Silvio Bicciato, Sergio Bondanza, Michele De Luca
      Pages: 327 - 332
      Abstract: Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a severe and often lethal genetic disease caused by mutations in genes encoding the basement membrane component laminin-332. Surviving patients with JEB develop chronic wounds to the skin and mucosa, which impair their quality of life and lead to skin
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24487
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • A single-cell survey of the small intestinal epithelium
    • Authors: Adam L. Haber, Moshe Biton, Noga Rogel, Rebecca H. Herbst, Karthik Shekhar, Christopher Smillie, Grace Burgin, Toni M. Delorey, Michael R. Howitt, Yarden Katz, Itay Tirosh, Semir Beyaz, Danielle Dionne, Mei Zhang, Raktima Raychowdhury, Wendy S. Garrett, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Hai Ning Shi, Omer Yilmaz, Ramnik J. Xavier, Aviv Regev
      Pages: 333 - 339
      Abstract: Intestinal epithelial cells absorb nutrients, respond to microbes, function as a barrier and help to coordinate immune responses. Here we report profiling of 53,193 individual epithelial cells from the small intestine and organoids of mice, which enabled the identification and characterization of previously unknown subtypes
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24489
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Inflammation-induced IgA+ cells dismantle anti-liver cancer immunity
    • Authors: Shabnam Shalapour, Xue-Jia Lin, Ingmar N. Bastian, John Brain, Alastair D. Burt, Alexander A. Aksenov, Alison F. Vrbanac, Weihua Li, Andres Perkins, Takaji Matsutani, Zhenyu Zhong, Debanjan Dhar, Jose A. Navas-Molina, Jun Xu, Rohit Loomba, Michael Downes, Ruth T. Yu, Ronald M. Evans, Pieter C. Dorrestein, Rob Knight, Christopher Benner, Quentin M. Anstee, Michael Karin
      Pages: 340 - 345
      Abstract: The role of adaptive immunity in early cancer development is controversial. Here we show that chronic inflammation and fibrosis in humans and mice with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is accompanied by accumulation of liver-resident immunoglobulin-A-producing (IgA+) cells. These cells also express programmed death
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24302
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Dynamics of P-type ATPase transport revealed by single-molecule FRET
    • Authors: Mateusz Dyla, Daniel S. Terry, Magnus Kjaergaard, Thomas L.-M. Sørensen, Jacob Lauwring Andersen, Jens Peter Andersen, Charlotte Rohde Knudsen, Roger B. Altman, Poul Nissen, Scott C. Blanchard
      Pages: 346 - 351
      Abstract: Phosphorylation-type (P-type) ATPases are ubiquitous primary transporters that pump cations across cell membranes through the formation and breakdown of a phosphoenzyme intermediate. Structural investigations suggest that the transport mechanism is defined by conformational changes in the cytoplasmic domains of the protein that are allosterically coupled
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24296
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Haze heats Pluto’s atmosphere yet explains its cold temperature
    • Authors: Xi Zhang, Darrell F. Strobel, Hiroshi Imanaka
      Pages: 352 - 355
      Abstract: Pluto’s atmosphere is cold and hazy. Recent observations have shown it to be much colder than predicted theoretically, suggesting an unknown cooling mechanism. Atmospheric gas molecules, particularly water vapour, have been proposed as a coolant; however, because Pluto’s thermal structure is expected to be in radiative–conductive equilibrium, the required water vapour would need to be supersaturated by many orders of magnitude under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Here we report that atmospheric hazes, rather than gases, can explain Pluto’s temperature profile. We find that haze particles have substantially larger solar heating and thermal cooling rates than gas molecules, dominating the atmospheric radiative balance from the ground to an altitude of 700 kilometres, above which heat conduction maintains an isothermal atmosphere. We conclude that Pluto’s atmosphere is unique among Solar System planetary atmospheres, as its radiative energy equilibrium is controlled primarily by haze particles instead of gas molecules. We predict that Pluto is therefore several orders of magnitude brighter at mid-infrared wavelengths than previously thought—a brightness that could be detected by future telescopes.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24465
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Collective emission of matter-wave jets from driven Bose–Einstein
           condensates
    • Authors: Logan W. Clark, Anita Gaj, Lei Feng, Cheng Chin
      Pages: 356 - 359
      Abstract: Scattering is used to probe matter and its interactions in all areas of physics. In ultracold atomic gases, control over pairwise interactions enables us to investigate scattering in quantum many-body systems. Previous experiments on colliding Bose–Einstein condensates have revealed matter–wave interference, haloes of scattered atoms, four-wave mixing and correlations between counter-propagating pairs. However, a regime with strong stimulation of spontaneous collisions analogous to superradiance has proved elusive. In this regime, the collisions rapidly produce highly correlated states with macroscopic population. Here we find that runaway stimulated collisions in Bose–Einstein condensates with periodically modulated interaction strength cause the collective emission of matter-wave jets that resemble fireworks. Jets appear only above a threshold modulation amplitude and their correlations are invariant even when the number of ejected atoms grows exponentially. Hence, we show that the structures and atom occupancies of the jets stem from the quantum fluctuations of the condensate. Our findings demonstrate the conditions required for runaway stimulated collisions and reveal the quantum nature of matter-wave emission.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24272
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Granular materials flow like complex fluids
    • Authors: Binquan Kou, Yixin Cao, Jindong Li, Chengjie Xia, Zhifeng Li, Haipeng Dong, Ang Zhang, Jie Zhang, Walter Kob, Yujie Wang
      Pages: 360 - 363
      Abstract: Granular materials such as sand, powders and foams are ubiquitous in daily life and in industrial and geotechnical applications. These disordered systems form stable structures when unperturbed, but in the presence of external influences such as tapping or shear they ‘relax’, becoming fluid in nature. It is often assumed that the relaxation dynamics of granular systems is similar to that of thermal glass-forming systems. However, so far it has not been possible to determine experimentally the dynamic properties of three-dimensional granular systems at the particle level. This lack of experimental data, combined with the fact that the motion of granular particles involves friction (whereas the motion of particles in thermal glass-forming systems does not), means that an accurate description of the relaxation dynamics of granular materials is lacking. Here we use X-ray tomography to determine the microscale relaxation dynamics of hard granular ellipsoids subject to an oscillatory shear. We find that the distribution of the displacements of the ellipsoids is well described by a Gumbel law (which is similar to a Gaussian distribution for small displacements but has a heavier tail for larger displacements), with a shape parameter that is independent of the amplitude of the shear strain and of the time. Despite this universality, the mean squared displacement of an individual ellipsoid follows a power law as a function of time, with an exponent that does depend on the strain amplitude and time. We argue that these results are related to microscale relaxation mechanisms that involve friction and memory effects (whereby the motion of an ellipsoid at a given point in time depends on its previous motion). Our observations demonstrate that, at the particle level, the dynamic behaviour of granular systems is qualitatively different from that of thermal glass-forming systems, and is instead more similar to that of complex fluids. We conclude that granular materials can relax even when the driving strain is weak.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24062
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Reductions in global biodiversity loss predicted from conservation
           spending
    • Authors: Anthony Waldron, Daniel C. Miller, Dave Redding, Arne Mooers, Tyler S. Kuhn, Nate Nibbelink, J. Timmons Roberts, Joseph A. Tobias, John L. Gittleman
      Pages: 364 - 367
      Abstract: Halting global biodiversity loss is central to the Convention on Biological Diversity and United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, but success to date has been very limited. A critical determinant of success in achieving these goals is the financing that is committed to maintaining biodiversity; however, financing decisions are hindered by considerable uncertainty over the likely impact of any conservation investment. For greater effectiveness, we need an evidence-based model that shows how conservation spending quantitatively reduces the rate of biodiversity loss. Here we demonstrate such a model, and empirically quantify how conservation investment between 1996 and 2008 reduced biodiversity loss in 109 countries (signatories to the Convention on Biological Diversity and Sustainable Development Goals), by a median average of 29% per country. We also show that biodiversity changes in signatory countries can be predicted with high accuracy, using a dual model that balances the effects of conservation investment against those of economic, agricultural and population growth (human development pressures). Decision-makers can use this model to forecast the improvement that any proposed biodiversity budget would achieve under various scenarios of human development pressure, and then compare these forecasts to any chosen policy target. We find that the impact of spending decreases as human development pressures grow, which implies that funding may need to increase over time. The model offers a flexible tool for balancing the Sustainable Development Goals of human development and maintaining biodiversity, by predicting the dynamic changes in conservation finance that will be needed as human development proceeds.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-10-25
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24295
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Parallel palaeogenomic transects reveal complex genetic history of early
           European farmers
    • Authors: Mark Lipson, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Swapan Mallick, Annamária Pósa, Balázs Stégmár, Victoria Keerl, Nadin Rohland, Kristin Stewardson, Matthew Ferry, Megan Michel, Jonas Oppenheimer, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Eadaoin Harney, Susanne Nordenfelt, Bastien Llamas, Balázs Gusztáv Mende, Kitti Köhler, Krisztián Oross, Mária Bondár, Tibor Marton, Anett Osztás, János Jakucs, Tibor Paluch, Ferenc Horváth, Piroska Csengeri, Judit Koós, Katalin Sebők, Alexandra Anders, Pál Raczky, Judit Regenye, Judit P. Barna, Szilvia Fábián, Gábor Serlegi, Zoltán Toldi, Emese Gyöngyvér Nagy, János Dani, Erika Molnár, György Pálfi, László Márk, Béla Melegh, Zsolt Bánfai, László Domboróczki, Javier Fernández-Eraso, José Antonio Mujika-Alustiza, Carmen Alonso Fernández, Javier Jiménez Echevarría, Ruth Bollongino, Jörg Orschiedt, Kerstin Schierhold, Harald Meller, Alan Cooper, Joachim Burger, Eszter Bánffy, Kurt W. Alt, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Wolfgang Haak, David Reich
      Pages: 368 - 372
      Abstract: Ancient DNA studies have established that Neolithic European populations were descended from Anatolian migrants who received a limited amount of admixture from resident hunter-gatherers. Many open questions remain, however, about the spatial and temporal dynamics of population interactions and admixture during the Neolithic period. Here we investigate the population dynamics of Neolithization across Europe using a high-resolution genome-wide ancient DNA dataset with a total of 180 samples, of which 130 are newly reported here, from the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods of Hungary (6000–2900 bc, n = 100), Germany (5500–3000 bc, n = 42) and Spain (5500–2200 bc, n = 38). We find that genetic diversity was shaped predominantly by local processes, with varied sources and proportions of hunter-gatherer ancestry among the three regions and through time. Admixture between groups with different ancestry profiles was pervasive and resulted in observable population transformation across almost all cultural transitions. Our results shed new light on the ways in which gene flow reshaped European populations throughout the Neolithic period and demonstrate the potential of time-series-based sampling and modelling approaches to elucidate multiple dimensions of historical population interactions.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24476
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Locomotor speed control circuits in the caudal brainstem
    • Authors: Paolo Capelli, Chiara Pivetta, Maria Soledad Esposito, Silvia Arber
      Pages: 373 - 377
      Abstract: Locomotion is a universal behaviour that provides animals with the ability to move between places. Classical experiments have used electrical microstimulation to identify brain regions that promote locomotion, but the identity of neurons that act as key intermediaries between higher motor planning centres and executive circuits in the spinal cord has remained controversial. Here we show that the mouse caudal brainstem encompasses functionally heterogeneous neuronal subpopulations that have differential effects on locomotion. These subpopulations are distinguishable by location, neurotransmitter identity and connectivity. Notably, glutamatergic neurons within the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus (LPGi), a small subregion in the caudal brainstem, are essential to support high-speed locomotion, and can positively tune locomotor speed through inputs from glutamatergic neurons of the upstream midbrain locomotor region. By contrast, glycinergic inhibitory neurons can induce different forms of behavioural arrest mapping onto distinct caudal brainstem regions. Anatomically, descending pathways of glutamatergic and glycinergic LPGi subpopulations communicate with distinct effector circuits in the spinal cord. Our results reveal that behaviourally opposing locomotor functions in the caudal brainstem were historically masked by the unexposed diversity of intermingled neuronal subpopulations. We demonstrate how specific brainstem neuron populations represent essential substrates to implement key parameters in the execution of motor programs.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24064
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Ubiquitination and degradation of GBPs by a Shigella effector to suppress
           host defence
    • Authors: Peng Li, Wei Jiang, Qin Yu, Wang Liu, Ping Zhou, Jun Li, Junjie Xu, Bo Xu, Fengchao Wang, Feng Shao
      Pages: 378 - 383
      Abstract: Interferon-inducible guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) mediate cell-autonomous antimicrobial defences. Shigella flexneri, a Gram-negative cytoplasmic free-living bacterium that causes bacillary dysentery, encodes a repertoire of highly similar type III secretion system effectors called invasion plasmid antigen Hs (IpaHs). IpaHs represent a large family of bacterial ubiquitin-ligases, but their function is poorly understood. Here we show that S. flexneri infection induces rapid proteasomal degradation of human guanylate binding protein-1 (hGBP1). We performed a transposon screen to identify a mutation in the S. flexneri gene ipaH9.8 that prevented hGBP1 degradation. IpaH9.8 targets hGBP1 for degradation via Lys48-linked ubiquitination. IpaH9.8 targets multiple GBPs in the cytoplasm independently of their nucleotide-bound states and their differential function in antibacterial defence, promoting S. flexneri replication and resulting in the death of infected mice. In the absence of IpaH9.8, or when binding of GBPs to IpaH9.8 was disrupted, GBPs such as hGBP1 and mouse GBP2 (mGBP2) translocated to intracellular S. flexneri and inhibited bacterial replication. Like wild-type mice, mutant mice deficient in GBP1–3, 5 and 7 succumbed to S. flexneri infection, but unlike wild-type mice, mice deficient in these GBPs were also susceptible to S. flexneri lacking ipaH9.8. The mode of IpaH9.8 action highlights the functional importance of GBPs in antibacterial defences. IpaH9.8 and S. flexneri provide a unique system for dissecting GBP-mediated immunity.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-10-11
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24467
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • BCAT1 restricts αKG levels in AML stem cells leading to IDHmut-like
           DNA hypermethylation
    • Authors: Simon Raffel, Mattia Falcone, Niclas Kneisel, Jenny Hansson, Wei Wang, Christoph Lutz, Lars Bullinger, Gernot Poschet, Yannic Nonnenmacher, Andrea Barnert, Carsten Bahr, Petra Zeisberger, Adriana Przybylla, Markus Sohn, Martje Tönjes, Ayelet Erez, Lital Adler, Patrizia Jensen, Claudia Scholl, Stefan Fröhling, Sibylle Cocciardi, Patrick Wuchter, Christian Thiede, Anne Flörcken, Jörg Westermann, Gerhard Ehninger, Peter Lichter, Karsten Hiller, Rüdiger Hell, Carl Herrmann, Anthony D. Ho, Jeroen Krijgsveld, Bernhard Radlwimmer, Andreas Trumpp
      Pages: 384 - 388
      Abstract: The branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) pathway and high levels of BCAA transaminase 1 (BCAT1) have recently been associated with aggressiveness in several cancer entities. However, the mechanistic role of BCAT1 in this process remains largely uncertain. Here, by performing high-resolution proteomic analysis of human acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) stem-cell and non-stem-cell populations, we find the BCAA pathway enriched and BCAT1 protein and transcripts overexpressed in leukaemia stem cells. We show that BCAT1, which transfers α-amino groups from BCAAs to α-ketoglutarate (αKG), is a critical regulator of intracellular αKG homeostasis. Further to its role in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, αKG is an essential cofactor for αKG-dependent dioxygenases such as Egl-9 family hypoxia inducible factor 1 (EGLN1) and the ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of DNA demethylases. Knockdown of BCAT1 in leukaemia cells caused accumulation of αKG, leading to EGLN1-mediated HIF1α protein degradation. This resulted in a growth and survival defect and abrogated leukaemia-initiating potential. By contrast, overexpression of BCAT1 in leukaemia cells decreased intracellular αKG levels and caused DNA hypermethylation through altered TET activity. AML with high levels of BCAT1 (BCAT1high) displayed a DNA hypermethylation phenotype similar to cases carrying a mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDHmut), in which TET2 is inhibited by the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate. High levels of BCAT1 strongly correlate with shorter overall survival in IDHWTTET2WT, but not IDHmut or TET2mut AML. Gene sets characteristic for IDHmut AML were enriched in samples from patients with an IDHWTTET2WTBCAT1high status. BCAT1high AML showed robust enrichment for leukaemia stem-cell signatures, and paired sample analysis showed a significant increase in BCAT1 levels upon disease relapse. In summary, by limiting intracellular αKG, BCAT1 links BCAA catabolism to HIF1α stability and regulation of the epigenomic landscape, mimicking the effects of IDH mutations. Our results suggest the BCAA–BCAT1–αKG pathway as a therapeutic target to compromise leukaemia stem-cell function in patients with IDHWTTET2WT AML.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24294
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • A ubiquitin-dependent signalling axis specific for ALKBH-mediated DNA
           dealkylation repair
    • Authors: Joshua R. Brickner, Jennifer M. Soll, Patrick M. Lombardi, Cathrine B. Vågbø, Miranda C. Mudge, Clement Oyeniran, Renana Rabe, Jessica Jackson, Meagan E. Sullender, Elyse Blazosky, Andrea K. Byrum, Yu Zhao, Mark A. Corbett, Jozef Gécz, Michael Field, Alessandro Vindigni, Geir Slupphaug, Cynthia Wolberger, Nima Mosammaparast
      Pages: 389 - 393
      Abstract: DNA repair is essential to prevent the cytotoxic or mutagenic effects of various types of DNA lesions, which are sensed by distinct pathways to recruit repair factors specific to the damage type. Although biochemical mechanisms for repairing several forms of genomic insults are well understood, the upstream signalling pathways that trigger repair are established for only certain types of damage, such as double-stranded breaks and interstrand crosslinks. Understanding the upstream signalling events that mediate recognition and repair of DNA alkylation damage is particularly important, since alkylation chemotherapy is one of the most widely used systemic modalities for cancer treatment and because environmental chemicals may trigger DNA alkylation. Here we demonstrate that human cells have a previously unrecognized signalling mechanism for sensing damage induced by alkylation. We find that the alkylation repair complex ASCC (activating signal cointegrator complex) relocalizes to distinct nuclear foci specifically upon exposure of cells to alkylating agents. These foci associate with alkylated nucleotides, and coincide spatially with elongating RNA polymerase II and splicing components. Proper recruitment of the repair complex requires recognition of K63-linked polyubiquitin by the CUE (coupling of ubiquitin conjugation to ER degradation) domain of the subunit ASCC2. Loss of this subunit impedes alkylation adduct repair kinetics and increases sensitivity to alkylating agents, but not other forms of DNA damage. We identify RING finger protein 113A (RNF113A) as the E3 ligase responsible for upstream ubiquitin signalling in the ASCC pathway. Cells from patients with X-linked trichothiodystrophy, which harbour a mutation in RNF113A, are defective in ASCC foci formation and are hypersensitive to alkylating agents. Together, our work reveals a previously unrecognized ubiquitin-dependent pathway induced specifically to repair alkylation damage, shedding light on the molecular mechanism of X-linked trichothiodystrophy.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24484
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Structure and assembly of the Ebola virus nucleocapsid
    • Authors: William Wan, Larissa Kolesnikova, Mairi Clarke, Alexander Koehler, Takeshi Noda, Stephan Becker, John A. G. Briggs
      Pages: 394 - 397
      Abstract: Ebola and Marburg viruses are filoviruses: filamentous, enveloped viruses that cause haemorrhagic fever. Filoviruses are within the order Mononegavirales, which also includes rabies virus, measles virus, and respiratory syncytial virus. Mononegaviruses have non-segmented, single-stranded negative-sense RNA genomes that are encapsidated by nucleoprotein and other viral proteins to form a helical nucleocapsid. The nucleocapsid acts as a scaffold for virus assembly and as a template for genome transcription and replication. Insights into nucleoprotein–nucleoprotein interactions have been derived from structural studies of oligomerized, RNA-encapsidating nucleoprotein, and cryo-electron microscopy of nucleocapsid or nucleocapsid-like structures. There have been no high-resolution reconstructions of complete mononegavirus nucleocapsids. Here we apply cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging to determine the structure of Ebola virus nucleocapsid within intact viruses and recombinant nucleocapsid-like assemblies. These structures reveal the identity and arrangement of the nucleocapsid components, and suggest that the formation of an extended α-helix from the disordered carboxy-terminal region of nucleoprotein-core links nucleoprotein oligomerization, nucleocapsid condensation, RNA encapsidation, and accessory protein recruitment.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24490
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Corrigendum: Superparamagnetic enhancement of thermoelectric performance
    • Authors: Wenyu Zhao, Zhiyuan Liu, Zhigang Sun, Qingjie Zhang, Ping Wei, Xin Mu, Hongyu Zhou, Cuncheng Li, Shifang Ma, Danqi He, Pengxia Ji, Wanting Zhu, Xiaolei Nie, Xianli Su, Xinfeng Tang, Baogen Shen, Xiaoli Dong, Jihui Yang, Yong Liu, Jing Shi
      Pages: 398 - 398
      Abstract: Nature549, 247–251 (2017); doi:10.1038/nature23667In the Methods subsection ‘Measure the Hall coefficient’ of this Letter, the equation μH = neσ should read μH = σ/(ne). This error has been corrected online.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24479
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Erratum: Non-homeostatic body weight regulation through a
           brainstem-restricted receptor for GDF15
    • Authors: Jer-Yuan Hsu, Suzanne Crawley, Michael Chen, Dina A. Ayupova, Darrin A. Lindhout, Jared Higbee, Alan Kutach, William Joo, Zhengyu Gao, Diana Fu, Carmen To, Kalyani Mondal, Betty Li, Avantika Kekatpure, Marilyn Wang, Teresa Laird, Geoffrey Horner, Jackie Chan, Michele McEntee, Manuel Lopez, Damodharan Lakshminarasimhan, Andre White, Sheng-Ping Wang, Jun Yao, Junming Yie, Hugo Matern, Mark Solloway, Raj Haldankar, Thomas Parsons, Jie Tang, Wenyan D. Shen, Yu Alice Chen, Hui Tian, Bernard B. Allan
      Pages: 398 - 398
      Abstract: Nature550, 255–259 (2017); doi:10.1038/nature24042Owing to an error during the production process, in Fig. 2c of this Letter, all four groups of mice were incorrectly labelled as ‘WT’ (wild type), but the two groups on the left
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24481
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Corrigendum: High-throughput discovery of novel developmental phenotypes
    • Authors: Mary E. Dickinson, Ann M. Flenniken, Xiao Ji, Lydia Teboul, Michael D. Wong, Jacqueline K. White, Terrence F. Meehan, Wolfgang J. Weninger, Henrik Westerberg, Hibret Adissu, Candice N. Baker, Lynette Bower, James M. Brown, L. Brianna Caddle, Francesco Chiani, Dave Clary, James Cleak, Mark J. Daly, James M. Denegre, Brendan Doe, Mary E. Dolan, Sarah M. Edie Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Antonella Galli, Alessia Gambadoro, Juan Gallegos, Shiying Guo, Neil R. Horner, Chih-Wei Hsu, Sara J. Johnson, Sowmya Kalaga, Lance C. Keith, Louise Lanoue, Thomas N. Lawson, Monkol Lek, Manuel Mark, Susan Marschall, Jeremy Mason, Melissa L. McElwee, Susan Newbigging Lauryl M. J. Nutter, Kevin A. Peterson, Ramiro Ramirez-Solis, Douglas J. Rowland, Edward Ryder, Kaitlin E. Samocha, John R. Seavitt, Mohammed Selloum, Zsombor Szoke-Kovacs, Masaru Tamura, Amanda G. Trainor, Ilinca Tudose, Shigeharu Wakana, Jonathan Warren, Olivia Wendling, David B. West, Leeyean Wong, Atsushi Yoshiki, Wolfgang Wurst, Daniel G. MacArthur, Glauco P. Tocchini-Valentini, Xiang Gao, Paul Flicek, Allan Bradley, William C. Skarnes, Monica J. Justice, Helen E. Parkinson, Mark Moore, Sara Wells, Robert E. Braun, Karen L. Svenson, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Yann Herault, Tim Mohun, Ann-Marie Mallon, R. Mark Henkelman, Steve D. M. Brown, David J. Adams, K. C. Kent Lloyd, Colin McKerlie, Arthur L. Beaudet, Maja Bućan Stephen A. Murray
      Pages: 398 - 398
      Abstract: Nature537, 508–514 (2016); doi:10.1038/nature19356In this Article, the author Wolfgang Wurst was erroneously omitted from the author list. They are associated with the affiliations: HelmholtzZentrum Munich, Institute of Developmental Genetics, 85764 Munich-Neuherberg, Germany; Technical University of Munich,
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1038/nature24643
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Survival stories: science endures
    • Authors: Virginia Gewin
      Pages: 401 - 403
      Abstract: Scientists hit hard by powerful hurricanes in 2017 share tips for weathering future disasters.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7680-401a
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Turning point: Gourmet investigator
    • Authors: Virginia Gewin
      Pages: 403 - 403
      Abstract: Cross-cultural chef-turned-scientist cooks up recipe for diversity outreach.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.1038/nj7680-403a
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680 (2017)
       
  • Graduate students face alarming tax hike
    • Pages: 271 - 271
      Abstract: Adding to PhD students’ woes will undermine US research and economy.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      DOI: 10.1038/d41586-017-05925-6
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680
       
  • Chemists get faster on the draw
    • Pages: 271 - 272
      Abstract: A Nature journals guide to drawing the structures of molecules should aid expert and casual chemists alike.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      DOI: 10.1038/d41586-017-05898-6
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680
       
  • How China could make the most of its beamlines
    • Pages: 272 - 272
      Abstract: More international collaboration could build capacity at big physics facilities especially in the south.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      DOI: 10.1038/d41586-017-05924-7
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680
       
  • Immunization needs a technology boost
    • Authors: Seth Berkley
      Pages: 273 - 273
      Abstract: Tracking who receives vaccines is essential, but will be impossible without innovations in digital technologies, says Seth Berkley.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      DOI: 10.1038/d41586-017-05923-8
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680
       
  • New Delhi smog, death-sentence appeal and a porpoise setback
    • Pages: 276 - 277
      Abstract: The week in science: 11–16 November 2017.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      DOI: 10.1038/d41586-017-05926-5
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680
       
  • Biology’s beloved amphibian — the axolotl — is racing
           towards extinction
    • Authors: Erik Vance
      Pages: 286 - 289
      Abstract: Although abundant in captivity, the salamander has nearly disappeared from its natural habitat, and that’s a problem.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      DOI: 10.1038/d41586-017-05921-w
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680
       
  • Chemists can help to solve the air-pollution health crisis
    • Authors: Jos Lelieveld , Ulrich Pöschl
      Pages: 291 - 293
      Abstract: Learning more about how pollutants enter and damage the body would reduce disease and deaths, say Jos Lelieveld and Ulrich Pöschl.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      DOI: 10.1038/d41586-017-05906-9
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680
       
  • Boycott products from states with dirty energy
    • Authors: Christopher Kennedy
      Pages: 294 - 295
      Abstract: Consumer pressure could encourage regions to switch from fossil fuels to cleaner sources of electricity, argues Christopher Kennedy.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      DOI: 10.1038/d41586-017-05907-8
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680
       
  • Fires: fund research for citizen safety
    • Fires: fund research for citizen safety

      Nature 551, 7680 (2017). doi:10.1038/d41586-017-06020-6

      Authors: Georgios Boustras , Enrico Ronchi & Guillermo Rein

      Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      DOI: 10.1038/d41586-017-06020-6
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680
       

  • Fires: degree courses for fire professionals
    • Fires: degree courses for fire professionals

      Nature 551, 7680 (2017). doi:10.1038/d41586-017-06022-4

      Authors: Victor Resco de Dios & Domingo Molina-Terrén

      Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      DOI: 10.1038/d41586-017-06022-4
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680
       

  • International funding: Empower Africa’s electricity sector
    • International funding: Empower Africa’s electricity sector

      Nature 551, 7680 (2017). doi:10.1038/d41586-017-06023-3

      Authors: Philipp Trotter & Sabah Abdullah

      Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      DOI: 10.1038/d41586-017-06023-3
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680
       

  • Preclinical research: Meet patients to sharpen up research
    • Preclinical research: Meet patients to sharpen up research

      Nature 551, 7680 (2017). doi:10.1038/d41586-017-06024-2

      Authors: Mark Yarborough & Ulrich Dirnagl

      Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      DOI: 10.1038/d41586-017-06024-2
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680
       

  • Research reports: An open market for scientific verbiage'
    • Research reports: An open market for scientific verbiage?

      Nature 551, 7680 (2017). doi:10.1038/d41586-017-06031-3

      Author: Kevin B. Marvel

      Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      DOI: 10.1038/d41586-017-06031-3
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680
       

  • Those who favour fire
    • Authors: CB Droege
      Pages: 406 - 406
      Abstract: A final farewell.
      Citation: Nature 551, 7680 (2017)
      DOI: 10.1038/d41586-017-06032-2
      Issue No: Vol. 551, No. 7680
       
 
 
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