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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 156 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 31)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Embedded Systems Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Energy Harvesting and Systems : Materials, Mechanisms, Circuits and Storage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access  
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Giroskopiya i Navigatsiya     Open Access  
Haptics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription  
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Aerospace Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computer & Electronics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Electronics & Data Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Nano Devices, Sensors and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling:Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal on Communication     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal on Electrical and Power Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 103)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Jurnal Infotel     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Magnetics Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Nanotechnology Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Paladyn, Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Pulse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Patents on Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Recent Patents on Telecommunications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription  
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Solid-State Circuits Magazine, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription  
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access  
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Wireless Power Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Women in Engineering Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access  

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Journal Cover IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
  [SJR: 2.866]   [H-I: 128]   [39 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0885-8993
   Published by IEEE Homepage  [191 journals]
  • IEEE Power Electronics Society Information
    • Abstract: Provides a listing of board members, committee members, editors, and society officers.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Table of Contents
    • Abstract: Presents the table of contents for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics publication information
    • Abstract: Provides a listing of the editors, board members, and current staff for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Editorial Special Issue on Impedance-Source Converter Topologies and
    • Pages: 7417 - 7418
      Abstract: The papers in this special issue focus on impedance-source converter topologies and applications for this use.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • New Magnetically Coupled Impedance (Z-) Source Networks
    • Authors: Siwakoti; Y.P.;Blaabjerg, F.;Loh, P.C.;
      Pages: 7419 - 7435
      Abstract: Various magnetically coupled impedance source (MCIS) networks have been proposed in the literature for increasing voltage gain and modulation index simultaneously while reducing the number of passive components used in the converter. However, applications of such networks have been limited by their discontinuous currents drawn from the sources and/or high stresses experienced by their components. This paper thus proposes three new MCIS networks named, respectively, as quasi-Y-source, quasi-Γ-Z-source, and quasi-T-source or quasi-trans-Z-source networks. These new networks inherit all advantages of the existing MCIS networks. In addition, they demonstrate advantages like continuous input currents, reduced source stresses, and lower component ratings that are not achievable by other existing networks. Further, dc-current-blocking capacitors used in the networks help to avoid saturation of magnetic core. Derivations of all two-winding MCIS networks, including existing and new networks, from the generalized three-winding MCIS networks are then systematically illustrated, before comparing them. Operational principles, mathematical derivations, simulation, and experimental results of all studied networks have been presented in the paper.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Z-Source Matrix Converter: An Overview
    • Authors: Ellabban; O.;Abu-Rub, H.;Bayhan, S.;
      Pages: 7436 - 7450
      Abstract: Conventional matrix converters (MCs) have limited voltage gain that is less than 0.866, whether for direct MC (DMC) or indirect MC (IMC). The Z-source MCs (ZSMCs) overcome the voltage gain limitation of the traditional MC and achieve buck and boost operation with reduced switches count, thereby achieving low cost, high efficiency, and reliability, compared to the back-to-back converter. Furthermore, it will leads to more MC industrial applications. This paper presents an up-to-date comprehensive overview of the different ZSMC topologies and their configurations, circuit analyses, modulation schemes, and applications. This study offers a comprehensive and systematic reference for the future development of the ZSMCs.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Three-Phase Split-Source Inverter (SSI): Analysis and Modulation
    • Authors: Abdelrazek; A.;Mattavelli, P.;Spiazzi, G.;
      Pages: 7451 - 7461
      Abstract: In several electrical dc–ac power conversions, the ac output voltage is higher than the input voltage. If a voltage-source inverter (VSI) is used, then an additional dc–dc boosting stage is required to overcome the step-down VSI limitations. Recently, several impedance source converters are gaining higher attentions [1], [2], as they are able to provide buck-boost capability in a single conversion stage. This paper proposes the merging of the boost stage and the VSI stage in a single stage dc–ac power conversion, denoted as split-source inverter (SSI). The proposed topology requires the same number of active switches of the VSI, three additional diodes, and the same eight states of a conventional space-vector modulation. It also shows some merits compared to Z-source inverters, especially in terms of reduced switch voltage stress for voltage gains higher than 1.15. This paper presents the analysis of the SSI and compares different modulation schemes. Moreover, it presents a modified modulation scheme to eliminate the low frequency ripple in the input current and the voltage across the inverter bridge. The proposed analysis has been verified by simulation and experimental results on a 2.0-kW prototype.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Quasi-Z-Source Inverter With a T-Type Converter in Normal and Failure Mode
    • Authors: Fernao Pires; V.;Cordeiro, A.;Foito, D.;Martins, J.F.;
      Pages: 7462 - 7470
      Abstract: This paper presents a three-phase multilevel quasi-Z-source inverter (qZSI) topology operating in normal and fault-tolerant operation mode. This structure is composed by two symmetrical quasi-Z-source networks and a three-phase T-type inverter. Besides the intrinsic advantages of multilevel voltage source inverters, the proposed structure is also characterized by their semiconductor fault tolerance capability. This feature is only obtained through changes on the modulation scheme after the semiconductor fault and does not require additional extra-phase legs or collective switching states. In certain fault types, the reduction of the output power capacity will be compensated by the boost characteristic of the qZSI. The fault-tolerant behavior of the proposed topology is demonstrated by several simulation results of the converter in normal and fault condition. To validate the characteristics of this multilevel qZSI, an experimental prototype was also built to experimentally confirm the results.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Practical Layouts and DC-Rail Voltage Clamping Techniques of Z-Source
    • Authors: Cha; H.;Li, Y.;Peng, F.Z.;
      Pages: 7471 - 7479
      Abstract: The Z-source inverters (ZSIs) have many advantages over the conventional voltage-fed and current-fed inverters, and extensive research works are conducing recently. However, relatively difficult physical layouts of the Z-source networks make them less attractive in the industry applications. A good hardware design is important to handle with the inherent long high-frequency loop in order to avoid generating severe voltage overshoot in the dc-rail voltage of the ZSIs. In this paper, the high-frequency loops in various ZSIs are investigated. A dc-rail voltage clamping technique for magnetically coupled impedance source converters is proposed by using an intuitive circuit modification and addition of a clamping diode. The proposed technique is verified through simulation and experiment.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • A Fault-Tolerant Strategy Based on Fundamental Phase-Shift Compensation
           for Three-Phase Multilevel Converters With Quasi-Z-Source Networks With
           Discontinuous Input Current
    • Authors: Aleenejad; M.;Mahmoudi, H.;Ahmadi, R.;
      Pages: 7480 - 7488
      Abstract: This paper proposes a new fault-tolerant strategy for a multilevel converter with an integrated impedance-source network. The proposed fault-tolerant strategy leverages the flexibility provided by the impedance-source network to implement the fundamental phase-shift compensation (FPSC) method in order to restore operation of a multilevel converter with one or more faulty switches to the prefault conditions. In case of a fault occurrence, the proposed fault-tolerant strategy makes the most use of the remaining converter capacity and generates balanced line-to-line voltages, while evenly distributing an inevitable voltage stress increase, over all converter switches. In this paper, first, a brief background about an impedance-source based cascaded H-bridge converter and a suitable modulation method for it is provided. Then, the FPSC method is explained and the proposed fault-tolerant strategy based on this method is introduced. Finally, several experimental results from a prototype converter are provided to validate the operation of the proposed strategy.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Ultracapacitor-Battery Hybrid Energy Storage System Based on the
           Asymmetric Bidirectional Z -Source Topology for EV
    • Authors: Hu; S.;Liang, Z.;He, X.;
      Pages: 7489 - 7498
      Abstract: This paper proposes an ultracapacitor (UC)-battery hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for electric vehicle based on asymmetric bidirectional Z-source topology. Compared with the conventional two-stage design, the HESS can be incorporated into the traction inverter system, leading to better performance and lower cost. The UC energy can be effectively utilized due to the buck/boost characteristic in the Z-source converter; meanwhile, the battery converter gets eliminated in this case. The assumption about the symmetry in the Z-source topology impendence network states for the conventional analysis no longer applies to the proposed HESS configuration. The asymmetric characteristic related with the uneven power distribution of UCs and battery is mathematically excavated in detail. The frequency dividing coordinated control is proposed to exploit the advantages of UCs and battery. The battery peak current estimation is then investigated. Finally, the steady performance and transient response in both traction and regenerative modes are verified by simulation and experimental results.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • On the Design Process of a 6-kVA Quasi-Z-inverter Employing SiC Power
    • Authors: Zdanowski; M.;Peftitsis, D.;Piasecki, S.;Rabkowski, J.;
      Pages: 7499 - 7508
      Abstract: This paper presents the design process of a 6-kVA quasi-Z-source inverter built with SiC power devices, in particular, employing SiC MOSFETs and SiC Schottky diodes. The main design target is to find the optimal parameters and a good agreement between the efficiency and power density of the converter. The performance of the system may be influenced not only by the switching frequency but also from the specific pulsewidth modulated (PWM) method or type of SiC MOSFET, and, therefore, various design cases are analyzed. At a final step, the 6 kVA/3 × 400 VAC inverter employing the 80 mΩ SiC MOSFETs and operating at 100 kHz with the minimum switching number method is chosen for investigation and a laboratory prototype is built. From experiments, the high performance of the designed system is confirmed. More specifically, it is shown that an efficiency above 95.6% (at 400 VDC, B = 1.9) and a power density higher than 2 kW/dm3 have been reached. Last but not least, the obtained results, which can be recognized as leading in the area of impedance source converters, show the great benefits gained by employing the new power semiconductor devices.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Hybrid Switched Inductor Impedance Source Converter—A Decoupled
    • Pages: 7509 - 7521
      Abstract: Power electronic converters having capability of driving hybrid (ac and dc) loads are becoming popular in specific applications such as standalone nanogrid. The proposed hybrid switched inductor impedance source converter (HLZSC) is derived from the switched inductor impedance source inverter (LZSI). It can independently regulate both ac and dc voltages in continuous conduction mode (CCM). However, discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) injects significant dc ripple voltage that restricts HLZSC operation for wide load variations and standalone ac or dc loads. Modification in the form of forced continuous conduction mode to replace DCM is, therefore, proposed for modified HLZSC (or MHLZSC), which can decouple the voltage regulation of ac and dc load without getting affected by the modes of operation. MHLZSC also permit the standalone operation of ac/dc load. The control scheme for HLZSC/MHLZSC, which is similar to the established simple boost control of ZSI, is discussed briefly to utilize the salient features of the proposed converter. Theoretical analysis of the proposed converters is supported with the simulation and experimental results. Interestingly, the proposed converters—HLZSC and MHLZSC—avoid the use of lossy snubber resistance.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • A Family of High-Frequency Isolated Single-Phase Z-Source AC–AC
           Converters With Safe-Commutation Strategy
    • Pages: 7522 - 7533
      Abstract: This paper extends the high-frequency transformer isolation concept to the Z-source (ZS) ac–ac converters and introduces a new family of high-frequency transformer isolated (HFTI) ZS ac–ac converters. The proposed HFTI-ZS converters retain all the benefits of their existing nonisolated counterparts, such as providing a larger range of output voltage with buck–boost functionality, reversing or maintaining the phase angle, reducing the in-rush and harmonic currents, and improving reliability. In addition to these benefits, the high-frequency (20 kHz) transformer (HFT) in the proposed ZS ac–ac converters provides the electrical isolation and safety with high power density as it eliminates the need for bulky and heavy line frequency (50 or 60 Hz) transformer for galvanic isolation, in applications such as dynamic voltage restorers, etc. The dc-blocking capacitor added in series with the HFT results in only ac voltage applied across its windings, which avoids its saturation. Various ZS-based HFTI ac–ac converters are proposed in this paper, and to verify their operation and advantages, example of quasi-ZS (qZS)-based isolated ac–ac converter is considered in detail. The commutation strategy is also developed to achieve the safe commutation, which avoids the current and voltage spikes without using any RC snubber. A 200-W laboratory prototype of HFTI-qZS ac–ac converter is fabricated and experiments are performed to validate the advantages of the proposed ac–ac converters.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • A Coupled Inductor Based High Boost Inverter with Sub-unity Turns-Ratio
    • Pages: 7534 - 7543
      Abstract: Voltage source inverter cannot provide an output voltage higher than its input and needs a dead-time scheme for its switches to prevent dc-link short circuit due to spurious turn-on of switches by electromagnetic interference (EMI). Impedance source inverters have eliminated these disadvantages by providing boost functionality with improved EMI immunity. Coupled inductor-based impedance source inverters provided increased gain at the expense of increased coupled inductor turns-ratio. In this paper, a coupled inductor based high gain inverter is proposed, which achieves higher gain by increasing the coupled inductor turns-ratio $(n = n_{2}/n_{1})$ within a very narrow turns-ratio range of $0 leq n < 1$ , which is a major improvement over the other coupled inductor based high boost impedance source inverters. The proposed inverter, named Improved Trans–Current–Fed Switched Inverter, is described along with its equivalent operating states and relation between its input and output variables are derived. The steady-state inverter waveforms are shown using PSpice simulations. The operation of the inverter is validated by the experimental results, which show strong correlation with the theoretical analysis. A 110-V RMS ac output is obtained from 26-V dc input using a coupled inductor with turns-ratio of 0.33 to demonstrate its high-boost operation.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Modeling, Analysis, and Parameters Design of
           LC-Filter-Integrated Quasi-Z -Source
           Indirect Matrix Converter
    • Pages: 7544 - 7555
      Abstract: Through coupling the impedance network between the grid and the conventional indirect matrix converter (IMC), the LC-filter-integrated quasi-Z-source (qZS) IMC overcomes the 0.866 voltage gain limitation of the conventional IMC and also avoids the input filter that is required to mitigate current harmonics of the conventional qZS matrix converters. This paper further investigates the voltage boosting and LC filtering function of the LC-filter-integrated qZS IMC. The voltage gain, the filtering function, and qZS network parameters design are presented using a small-signal model and circuit analysis. Simulation and experimental results validate the built model, the voltage gain analysis, and the parameters design of this type of qZS IMC. The input current of the LC-filter-integrated qZS network is compared to the conventional Z-source and qZS IMCs to investigate the integrated LC filtering capability. The experimental results verify that the LC-filter-integrated qZS network provides the necessary filtering function. Thus, the traditional input filter can be eliminated, which reduces the cost, power loss, volume, and weight for the overall system, when compared with the other conventional topologies that require the input filter, even those with impedance-source networks.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Z-Impedance Compensation for Wireless Power Transfer Based on Electric
    • Pages: 7556 - 7563
      Abstract: Capacitive power transfer (CPT) has been investigated as an alternative wireless power transfer technology based on electric field coupling. The coupling interface of CPT is formed by a pair of “capacitors” in series with the power source and load. The effective capacitance ranges from tens to a few hundreds of picofarads, yielding high impedance. Therefore, in most CPT systems, a tuning inductor is connected in series with the coupling interface for circuit compensation and power transfer capability enhancement. However, this compensation method suffers from high voltage spikes from the inductor if the secondary side load is removed suddenly causing electrical and health hazards. To address the issue, this paper proposes a CPT system based on a Z-impedance compensation network with inherent open-circuit and short-circuit immunity. It also has the voltage boost capability as a Z-source inverter. Its operating principle is described and a set of design equations are given. Both simulations and experimental results from a 5 W low power design have demonstrated that the proposed compensation method using the Z-impedance matching network exhibited open-circuit and short-circuit immunity, could boost up the output voltage by 50% with power efficiency exceeding 80%.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Comparison of Impedance-Source Networks for Two and Multilevel
           Buck–Boost Inverter Applications
    • Pages: 7564 - 7579
      Abstract: Impedance-source networks are an increasingly popular solution in power converter applications, especially in single-stage buck–boost power conversion to avoid additional front-end dc–dc power converters. In the survey papers published, no analytical comparisons of different topologies have been described, which makes it difficult to choose the best option. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive analytical comparison of the impedance-source-based buck–boost inverters in terms of passive component count and semiconductor stress. Based on the waveform of the input current, i.e., with or without a transformer, and with or without inductor coupling, the impedance-source converters are classified. The main criterion in our comprehensive comparison is the energy stored in the passive elements, which is considered both under constant and predefined high frequency current ripple in the inductors and the voltage ripple across the capacitors. Two-level and multilevel solutions are described. The conclusions provide a “one-stop” information source and a selection guide of impedance-source-based buck–boost inverters for different applications.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Novel Family of Single-Phase Modified Impedance-Source Buck-Boost
           Multilevel Inverters With Reduced Switch Count
    • Pages: 7580 - 7591
      Abstract: This paper describes novel single-phase solutions with increased inverter voltage levels derived by means of a nonstandard inverter configuration and impedance source networks. Operation principles based on special modulation techniques are presented. Detailed component design guidelines along with simulation and experimental verification are also provided. Possible application fields are discussed, as well as advantages and disadvantages. Finally, future studies are addressed for the new solutions.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Inductor Current Ripple Comparison Between ZSVM4 and ZSVM2 for Z-Source
    • Authors: Dong; S.;Zhang, Q.;Cheng, S.;
      Pages: 7592 - 7597
      Abstract: Yushan et al., and Siwakoti et al., proposed that “the ZSVM4 resulted in the lower current ripples when compared to ZSVM2.” However, some different opinions were presented in this paper. With the space vector modulations (SVMs) strategy, the ZSVM4 results in the lower current ripples when compared to ZSVM2 in parts angle intervals. While in other intervals, the conclusion will be opposite. The maximum current ripple of ZSVM2 is lower than that of ZSVM4. Both simulations and experimental results have verified these theoretical findings.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Hybrid Ultracapacitor–Battery Energy Storage System Based on
           Quasi-Z-source Topology and Enhanced Frequency Dividing
           Coordinated Control for EV
    • Pages: 7598 - 7610
      Abstract: An ultracapacitor–battery hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for an electric vehicle (EV) based on a bidirectional quasi-Z-source inverter (qZSI) is proposed in this paper. The buck/boost characteristic in the qZSI enables the HESS incorporated into the traction inverter system. The battery converter can be eliminated and the rated voltages for the battery package and UCs are reduced. The steady power distribution principle is explained under various operation modes. An enhanced frequency dividing coordinated control strategy is established to optimize the dynamic power regulation and the battery current stress in short timescale. Both the simulation and experimental results in time and frequency domain validate the performance of the proposed HESS.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Model Predictive-Based Maximum Power Point Tracking for Grid-Tied
           Photovoltaic Applications Using a Z-Source Inverter
    • Pages: 7611 - 7620
      Abstract: This paper presents a model predictive-based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method for a photovoltaic energy harvesting system based on a single-stage grid-tied Z-source inverter. First, it provides a brief review of Z-source inverters, MPPT methods and model predictive control. Next, it introduces the proposed model predictive-based MPPT method. Finally, it provides experimental results to verify the theoretical outcomes.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Small-Signal Modeling and Comprehensive Analysis of Magnetically Coupled
           Impedance-Source Converters
    • Pages: 7621 - 7641
      Abstract: Magnetically coupled impedance-source (MCIS) networks are recently introduced impedance networks intended for various high-boost applications. It employs coupled magnetic in the circuit to achieve higher voltage gain. Various MCIS networks have been proposed in the literature for myriad applications; however, due to effective role of system modeling in the closed-loop controller design, this paper is allocated to small-signal modeling and analysis of MCIS converters. The modeling is performed by means of the circuit averaging and averaged switch technique. A generalized small-signal derivation is demonstrated for pulse width modulation (PWM) MCIS converters and it is shown that the derived transfer functions can simply be applied to Y-source, Γ-source, and T-source impedance networks. Various transfer functions for capacitor voltage, output voltage, magnetizing current, input and output impedance are derived and have been validated through frequency and dynamic responses of computer simulation results. In addition, a comprehensive analysis has been done for all mentioned PWM MCIS converters regarding their circuit parameters. Furthermore, the effect of considering the equivalent series resistances of capacitor and inductor on the stability margin of MCIS converters is revealed in this paper. Finally, in order to validate the derived transfer functions and to consolidate the perfumed analysis, experimental results are presented for all mentioned MCIS converters.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Abnormal Operation State Analysis and Control of Asymmetric Impedance
           Network-Based Quasi-Z-Source PV Inverter (AIN-qZSI)
    • Authors: Kayiranga; T.;Li, H.;xinchun, l.;Shi, Y.;Li, H.;
      Pages: 7642 - 7650
      Abstract: Since its conception, the quasi-Z-source inverter (qZSI) has been extensively studied, especially in renewable energy applications fields due to its ability to withstand shoot-through and provide continuous current. However, research thus far has only explored symmetric qZSI/ZSI impedance network with large inductances and capacitances. By utilizing next-gen wideband-gap devices at high-switching frequency, the impedance network can be significantly reduced. However, the reduced qZS impedance network will result in abnormal operation modes, in addition to frequency resonances, in several kilohertz range. Thus, this paper first thoroughly explains the occurrence of the abnormal states, analyzes the effects of the abnormal states on the frequency resonance, and then proposes a control method to suppress the resonance that result from the reduced impedance network. A 1-kW prototype is built and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the analysis and proposed control method.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • “Z” and “qZ” Source Inverters as Electronic
    • Authors: Vazquez; N.;Baeza, J.;Perea, A.;Hernandez, C.;Vazquez, E.;Lopez, H.;
      Pages: 7651 - 7660
      Abstract: Electronic ballasts are implemented for obtaining a high power factor and a good operation of the lamp; these goals are reached traditionally by implementing multiple stages. On the first stage, a unity power factor is obtained and the second stage is designed in order to feed properly the lamp. Different topologies have been studied not only for decreasing the number of employed controllers and stages, but also reducing the number of components and active switches. Electronic ballasts, which are based on the “Z” and “qZ” source inverters, are considered in this paper, where the proposed systems have a single stage. Two topologies are illustrated: the first one for the fluorescent lamps and the second one for the high intensity discharge lamps, where electronic ballasts with a high power factor are obtained. The operation, analysis, and experimental results are shown.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • A Quasi-Z-Source Integrated Multiport Power Converter as
           Switched Reluctance Motor Drives for Capacitance Reduction and
           Wide-Speed-Range Operation
    • Authors: Yi; F.;Cai, W.;
      Pages: 7661 - 7676
      Abstract: This paper presents a quasi-Z-source integrated multiport converter (ZIMPC) for switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives to reduce the dc-link capacitance and enable wide-speed-range operation. In conventional SRM drives, employing multiphase asymmetrical H-bridge (ASHB) topology, large capacitors are necessary to absorb the transient energy during phase current commutation. However, electrolytic capacitors would affect the lifetime, cost, and power density of the drive system. With switch multiplexing technique, a ZIMPC is derived to achieve power ripple reduction using relatively small capacitors. The power ripple generation principle and requirement of capacitance in ASHB and ZIMPC are analyzed. The model of the overall system including SRM and the proposed drive is developed using mode analysis. Advanced control method with repetitive control is proposed and developed based on the system model. Also, the ZIMPC can boost the equivalent phase exciting voltage and widen the constant power speed range. At last, simulation and experimental results verify the feasibility of the proposed ZIMPC and its superior performance with smaller capacitance as compared with ASHB.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Commutation Torque Ripple Reduction Strategy of Z-Source Inverter Fed
           Brushless DC Motor
    • Pages: 7677 - 7690
      Abstract: Based on the Z-source inverter, this paper proposes a novel commutation torque ripple reduction strategy for brushless DC motor (BLDCM). The proposed strategy employs the same modulation mode in both the normal conduction period and the commutation period, and the commutation torque ripple is reduced by regulating the shoot-through vector and active vector duty cycles. The proposed detection method acquires the end point of commutation by comparing the clamped terminal voltages with reference zero level, and the signal-noise-ratio of the detection is improved by avoiding the attenuation of the terminal voltages. Furthermore, a certain pulse width of the shoot-through vector can not only reduce the commutation torque ripple but also provide a new opportunity to detect the end point of commutation. Moreover, Z-source inverter provides the buck–boost ability for BLDCM drive system, then the dc voltage utilization can be improved, and the safety of the drive system can also be improved. In addition, this paper analyzes the terminal voltages during each vector. The experimental results verify the correctness of the theories and the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Z-Source Resonant Converter With Power Factor Correction for Wireless
           Power Transfer Applications
    • Pages: 7691 - 7700
      Abstract: In this paper, the Z-source converter is introduced to power factor correction (PFC) applications. The concept is demonstrated through a wireless power transfer (WPT) system for electric vehicle battery charging, namely Z-source resonant converter (ZSRC). Due to the Z-source network (ZSN), the ZSRC inherently performs PFC and regulate the system output voltage simultaneously, without adding extra semiconductor devices and control circuitry to the conventional WPT system such as conventional PFC converters do. In other words, the ZSN can be categorized as a family of the single-stage PFC converters. In addition, the ZSN is suitable for high-power applications since it is immune to shoot-through states, which increases reliability and adds a boost feature to the system. The ZSRC-based WPT system operating principle is described and analyzed in this paper. Simulations and experimental results based on a 1-kW prototype with 20-cm air gap between the system primary and secondary sides are presented to validate the analysis and demonstrate the effectiveness of the ZSN in the PFC of the WPT system.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • An Analytical Approach for the Design of Class-E Resonant DC–DC
    • Pages: 7701 - 7713
      Abstract: We present a new approach to design resonant dc–dc converters, that allows us to achieve both a more accurate implementation and a simpler architecture, by reducing the number of required passive components. The approach is applied to a class-E topology, and it is based on the analytic solution of the system of differential equations regulating the converter evolution. Our technique is also capable of taking into account the most important circuit nonidealities. This represents an important breakthrough with respect to the state of the art, where class-E circuit analysis is based on strong simplifying assumptions, and the final circuit design is achieved by means of numerical simulations after many time-consuming parametric sweeps. The developed methodology is dimensionless, and the achieved design curves can be denormalized to easily get the desired circuit design. Measurements on two different prototypes confirm an extremely high adherence to the developed mathematical approach.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Time-Domain Analysis of a Phase-Shift-Modulated Series Resonant Converter
           with an Adaptive Passive Auxiliary Circuit
    • Pages: 7714 - 7734
      Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive time-domain analysis of series resonant converters operating with phase-shift-modulated full-bridge above resonance. Closed-form formulas for all quantities are derived using two methods: the commonly used fundamental harmonic approximation as well as a precise time-domain analysis considering the effect of all the harmonics. Detailed analytical method describes steady-state behavior of the converter in three mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive modes of operation based on continuity of the resonant inductor current: a discontinuous mode and two continuous modes. The difference between two continuous modes is in the existence of natural zero-voltage switching in the leading leg of the full bridge. Quantitative predictions of the key quantities from two methods are compared and the accuracy of the first harmonic approximation is examined. The time-domain approach provides useful insights for design considerations with no need to know the load value. It precisely determines closed-form equations for the boundary conditions of the three operation modes. An adaptive passive auxiliary circuit is suggested to guarantee zero-voltage switching for the entire operating conditions. Experimental results from a 100 W prototype confirm the predicted time-domain behavior and achievement of soft switching using the proposed auxiliary circuit.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • A Systematic Approach to Modeling Complex Magnetic Devices Using SPICE:
           Application to Variable Inductors
    • Pages: 7735 - 7746
      Abstract: In this paper, a methodology to develop SPICE-based models of complex magnetic devices is presented. The proposed methodology is based on a reluctance equivalent circuit, which allows the user to study both the magnetic and electric behavior of the structure under any operating conditions. The different elements required to implement the reluctance model, namely, constant reluctances, variable reluctances, and windings, are implemented using SPICE behavioral modeling. These elements can thus be used to build a complete model for any magnetic device. The modeling process is illustrated with a particular example for a variable inductor. Simulations and experimental results are presented and compared to evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of the proposed modeling procedure.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • A Novel Phase-Shift Dual Full-Bridge Converter With Full Soft-Switching
           Range and Wide Conversion Range
    • Authors: Shi; K;Zhang, D.;Zhou, Z.;Zhang, M.;Zhang, D.;Gu, Y.;Zhang, D.;
      Pages: 7747 - 7760
      Abstract: This paper proposes a novel phase-shift dual full-bridge converter with shared leading leg and dual outputs in series. Full soft-switching range of the active switches can be achieved based on the parallel full-bridge configuration of the converter, and the dual outputs of the proposed converter are connected in series. The output voltage can be regulated by primary-side phase-shift and secondary-side phase–shift dual-mode control scheme, and a wide conversion range can be achieved. Furthermore, the circulating current in the primary-side full-bridge circuits can be extinguished. Therefore, the proposed converter would be useful for constant peak power and wide output voltage range applications. Steady-state operation and relevant analysis results of the proposed converter are presented and verified on a 1.5-kW hardware prototype. The experimental results show that the proposed converter can achieve a peak efficiency of 95.3%.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Control of Circulating Currents in Modular Multilevel Converters Through
           Redundant Voltage Levels
    • Authors: Konstantinou; G.;Pou, J.;Ceballos, S.;Picas, R.;Zaragoza, J.;Agelidis, V.G.;
      Pages: 7761 - 7769
      Abstract: Among the main control targets in a modular multilevel converter (MMC) is the control of the circulating currents within the phase legs of the topology. This paper presents a controller for the circulating current of the MMC that utilizes the available redundancies of the multilevel waveform in $2N+1$ modulated MMCs in order to regulate the circulating current to its reference. The main advantages of the approach are the elimination of control loops that generate the reference voltages for the control of the circulating current, simple implementation and very fast dynamic performance. The controller is implemented at the modulation stage and its operation is independent of the circulating current reference. An extension of the controller to track large deviations in the circulating current is also demonstrated. The simplicity and effectiveness of the proposed controller is illustrated through detailed simulations and experimental results from a single-phase laboratory prototype.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • A Class-E Power Amplifier Design Considering MOSFET Nonlinear
           Drain-to-Source and Nonlinear Gate-to-Drain Capacitances at Any Grading
    • Authors: Hayati; M.;Roshani, S.;Kazimierczuk, M.K.;Sekiya, H.;
      Pages: 7770 - 7779
      Abstract: This paper presents theory and analysis for class-E power amplifier considering MOSFET nonlinear gate-to-drain and nonlinear drain-to-source capacitances at any grading coefficient of the MOSFET body junction diode. The nonlinearity degree of a MOSFET parasitic capacitance is determined by the grading coefficient. When the grading coefficient is not considered in design procedure, the switch voltage waveform of the class-E power amplifier does not satisfy the switching conditions, which results in a decrease of the power conversion efficiency. Therefore, the grading coefficient is an important parameter to satisfy the class-E zero-voltage switching (ZVS) and zero-derivative switching (ZDS) conditions. The MOSFET gate-to-drain capacitance is highly nonlinear, and it is more nonlinear than drain-to-source capacitance for most MOSFETs. In some cases, the change in the gate-to-drain capacitance can be as large as 100 times. The results show that this nonlinearity affects the class-E power amplifier properties, such as switch voltage, power output capability, and maximum switch voltage. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the nonlinearity of the gate-to-drain capacitance, along with the drain-to-source capacitance. A design example at 4 MHz operating frequency is also given to describe the design procedure. The ZVS and ZDS conditions are achieved in the obtained switch voltage. The circuit simulation was performed using PSpice software. For verification of the presented theory, a class-E power amplifier is fabricated. The measured results are verified with simulation and theory results.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • A Comprehensive DC Short-Circuit Fault Ride Through Strategy of Hybrid
           Modular Multilevel Converters (MMCs) for Overhead Line Transmission
    • Authors: Cui; S.;Sul, S.;
      Pages: 7780 - 7796
      Abstract: The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is a promising candidate for voltage-sourced-converter-based high-voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) transmission. The dc short-circuit fault management is a crucial issue especially for overhead line transmission, where the nonpermanent dc short-circuit faults occasionally occur. In this paper, a comprehensive dc short-circuit fault ride through (FRT) strategy is proposed for a hybrid MMC which combines half-bridge submodules and full-bridge submodules. By the proposed method, the hybrid MMC-based VSC-HVDC system is able to ride through a pole-to-pole short-circuit fault supporting the ac grid as a static synchronous compensator. Moreover, the transmission system can still transmit one-half of the rated active power in case of a pole-to-ground short-circuit fault without increasing power semiconductor stresses or requiring higher insulation levels of the electric equipment. The proposed method ensures successful regulation of arm currents and submodule capacitor voltages during the FRT process. Validity of the proposed strategy is verified by both computer simulation and experiment results.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Magnetic Integration for Parallel Interleaved VSCs Connected in a
           Whiffletree Configuration
    • Authors: Gohil; G.;Bede, L.;Teodorescu, R.;Kerekes, T.;Blaabjerg, F.;
      Pages: 7797 - 7808
      Abstract: The voltage source converters (VSCs) are often connected in parallel to realize a high current rating. In such systems, the harmonic quality of the output voltage can be improved by interleaving the carrier signals of the parallel VSCs. However, an additional inductive filter is often required to suppress the circulating current that flows between the parallel interleaved VSCs. One of the ways to deal with the circulating current problem is to use the coupled inductors in a whiffletree configuration. This paper proposes the integration of the line filter inductor and the circulating current filter inductor in a single magnetic component for such systems. The fundamental frequency component of the flux is mostly confined to the limbs around which the coils are placed, whereas other parts of the magnetic structure only experiences high-frequency flux excitation. As a result, the integrated inductor can be made smaller and the power density of the overall converter system can be increased. The magnetic structure of the integrated inductor is analyzed and performance is verified by simulation and experimental studies.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • A Capacitor Voltage Balancing Method With Fundamental Sorting Frequency
           for Modular Multilevel Converters Under Staircase Modulation
    • Authors: Peng; H.;Xie, R.;Wang, K.;Deng, Y.;He, X.;Zhao, R.;
      Pages: 7809 - 7822
      Abstract: A fundamental frequency-sorting algorithm with staircase modulation is proposed to balance the floating capacitors for modular multilevel converters. The driving pulses are assigned to the submodules at every fundamental period according to their charging capabilities for the capacitors. The charging capabilities of the driving pulses can be evaluated by sorting the voltage increments of the capacitors or derived from the symmetrical characteristic of the curve between the voltage increments and the pulse numbers. With this method, all the power devices switch only once per fundamental period, which is suitable for high-power applications. Meanwhile, the sorting frequency decreases to the fundamental frequency. Hence, a large number of calculation resources can be saved. Moreover, it does not need to measure the arm currents so that several current sensors can be saved and the communication protocol between the central and local controllers can be simplified. At last, a three-phase simulation platform with 20 submodules per arm and a down-scaled experimental prototype with eight submodules in each arm are built to validate the proposed voltage-balancing method.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Improved Testing Capability of the Model-Assisted Testing Scheme for a
           Modular Multilevel Converter
    • Authors: Tang; Y.;Ran, L.;Alatise, O.;Mawby, P.;
      Pages: 7823 - 7836
      Abstract: Modular multilevel converters (MMCs) for high-power applications may contain over a thousand submodules. In work such as submodule design or innovation to build a full system with as many levels to test the submodule is time consuming and costly. To solve the problem, testing schemes are being developed to allow an individual submodule to be tested without a complete MMC. This paper presents a new submodule testing scheme that builds on a recent development to improve the testing capability. The improved structure is introduced along with design and control techniques. A design example of a test platform to test SMs with 2000-V rated voltage is introduced, which only requires a 545-V dc supply. The voltage testing capability is increased by more than five times when compared with the original scheme. In addition, simulation results show that the proposed method can offer better current tracking accuracy than the original with the same parameter settings. A prototype test platform, designed to test submodules with 400-V rated voltage and 14-A current, has been built and tested experimentally in order to verify the design.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • An Adaptive Network-Based Reinforcement Learning Method for MPPT Control
           of PMSG Wind Energy Conversion Systems
    • Authors: Wei; C.;Zhang, Z.;Qiao, W.;Qu, L.;
      Pages: 7837 - 7848
      Abstract: This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN)-based reinforcement learning (RL) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm for permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)-based variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (WECSs). The proposed MPPT algorithm first learns the optimal relationship between the rotor speed and electrical power of the PMSG through a combination of the ANNs and the Q-learning method. The MPPT algorithm is switched from the online RL to the optimal relation-based online MPPT when the maximum power point is learned. The proposed online learning algorithm enables the WECS to behave like an intelligent agent with memory to learn from its own experience, thus improving the learning efficiency. The online RL process can be reactivated any time when the actual optimal relationship deviates from the learned one due to the aging of the system or a change in the environment. Simulation and experimental results are provided to validate the proposed ANN-based RL MPPT control algorithm for a 5-MW PMSG-based WECS and a small emulated PMSG-based WECS, respectively.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • A Quasi-Switched-Capacitor Resonant Converter
    • Authors: Zhang; X.;Yao, C.;Wang, J.;
      Pages: 7849 - 7856
      Abstract: A quasi-switched-capacitor (QSC) resonant converter is proposed for isolated dc/dc conversion in offline power supply application. Similar to the Φ2 resonant converter, the proposed converter is operated most efficiently at fixed switching frequency and duty ratio, and it features trapezoidal voltage waveforms on all switches. Full soft switching combining ZCS, ZVS on and off is achieved within a wide load range, and, therefore, the switching loss is minimized. In addition, compared to half/full-bridge converters (e.g., the LLC resonant converter and the dual-active-bridge converter), the proposed converter reduces the voltage stress on primary-side switches to 2/3 of the input voltage, and, thus, enables more choices of low-voltage devices, which are more efficient because of better figure of merit. Furthermore, the proposed converter reduces the transformer turns ratio by 2/3, and, thus, enables less number of turns of the winding, lower winding loss, and lower transformer leakage inductance, making it suitable for high-frequency operation. A 90-W 88-V/19-V 700-kHz prototype is built with 100-V eGaN FETs. The transformer design and PCB layout are presented to minimize the transformer leakage inductance and stray inductance. The prototype achieved a power density of 172 W/in3, and a flat efficiency curve with a peak value of 96%.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • A Single-Inductor Multiple-Output Auto-Buck–Boost DC–DC
           Converter With Tail-Current Control
    • Authors: Zheng; Y.;Ho, M.;Guo, J.;Leung, K.N.;
      Pages: 7857 - 7875
      Abstract: A single-inductor multiple-output (SIMO) auto-buck–boost dc–dc converter with proposed tail-current control to achieve fast and robust reference tracking of inductor current is proposed in this paper. Moreover, the proposed backward– $V_{x1}$ control algorithm and frequency-control loop enable the proposed SIMO dc–dc converter to operate at a fixed switching frequency and achieve high power-conversion efficiency in both the buck-dominated and boost-dominated cases. The proposed SIMO auto-buck–boost dc–dc converter has four output channels and is implemented in a standard 0.35-μm CMOS process. Measurement results show that the proposed dc–dc converter achieves a peak efficiency of more than 91% at a total output power of about 0.5 W and load transient response time of less than 80 μs.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Wireless Power Transfer With Automatic Feedback Control of Load Resistance
    • Authors: Ahn; D.;Kim, S.;Moon, J.;Cho, In-Kui;
      Pages: 7876 - 7886
      Abstract: This paper proposes a wireless power transfer with automatic feedback control of load resistance transformation to maintain high efficiency over wide variations of coupling current and load current. The receiver (Rx) first determines the desired current level of transmitter (Tx) coil such that the receiver-side converter can transform the load resistance into optimum effective resistance, based on load current and Tx-to-Rx distance information. The determined Tx coil current data are sent to the transmitter, which then adjusts the Tx coil current accordingly. In this way, the effective resistance transformed by the receiver-side converter remains optimum under the variations of distance and load current. One of the advantages of the proposed automatic feedback control is faster response and simple hardware because it does not use operating point sweep and observation. The receiver-side switching converter also incorporates the ability to send data from receiver to transmitter by modulating the duty cycle of converter at data frequency, eliminating the need for separate RF communication hardware. This proposed communication does not require shunt current dissipation from dc output to ground, resulting in low loss. Experimental result demonstrates that the system maintains high efficiency under wide variations of coupling and load current.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Active Balancing System for Electric Vehicles With Incorporated
           Low-Voltage Bus
    • Authors: Evzelman; M.;Ur Rehman, M.;Hathaway, K.;Zane, R.;Costinett, D.;Maksimovic, D.;
      Pages: 7887 - 7895
      Abstract: Electric-drive vehicles, including hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and electric vehicles, require a high-voltage (HV) battery pack for propulsion and a low-voltage (LV) dc bus for auxiliary loads. This paper presents an architecture that uses modular dc–dc bypass converters to perform active battery cell balancing and to supply current to auxiliary loads, eliminating the need for a separate HV-to-LV high step-down dc–dc converter. The modular architecture, which achieves continuous balancing of all cells, can be used with an arbitrary number of cells in series, requires no control communication between converters, and naturally shares the auxiliary load current according to the relative state-of-charge (SOC) and capacities of the battery cells. Design and control details are provided for LV low-power dual active bridge (DAB) power converters serving as the bypass converter modules. Furthermore, current sharing is examined and worst-case SOC and current deviations are derived for mismatches in cell capacities, SOCs, and parasitic resistances. Experimental results are presented for a system consisting of 21 series 25 Ah Panasonic lithium-ion NMC battery cells and 21 DAB bypass converters, with combined outputs rated to supply a 650-W auxiliary load.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Heat Management in Power Converters: From State of the Art to Future
           Ultrahigh Efficiency Systems
    • Authors: Laloya; E.;Lucia, O.;Sarnago, H.;Burdio, J.M.;
      Pages: 7896 - 7908
      Abstract: Thermal management is a key design aspect of power converters since it determines their reliability as well as their final performance and power density. Cooling technologies have been a research area in electronics since the 1940s and, in the last 15 years, the number of articles related to this field has grown significantly. At present, thermal management is essential in new disciplines and it is a critical enabling technology in the development of power electronic systems. This paper aims at presenting a review of the state-of-the-art technology and provides future design guidelines for high efficiency power electronic converters. The main design trends are focused on the need to develop cooling systems able to manage high local density heat fluxes due to two converging trends: higher power dissipation and smaller module size. Considering the latest advances in thermal management, as well as the huge improvement in power electronics in the last decades, a review and classification of the main thermal management techniques is presented. Besides, they are compared considering important parameters such as peak power dissipation, efficiency, cost/complexity, power density or technical maturity, and a design example for an ultrahigh efficiency converter is presented.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Measurements and Performance Factor Comparisons of Magnetic Materials at
           High Frequency
    • Authors: Hanson; A.J.;Belk, J.A.;Lim, S.;Sullivan, C.R.;Perreault, D.J.;
      Pages: 7909 - 7925
      Abstract: The design of power magnetic components for operation at high frequency (HF, 3–30 MHz) has been hindered by a lack of magnetic material performance data and by the limited design theory in that frequency range. To address these deficiencies, we have measured and present core loss data for a variety of commercially available magnetic materials in the HF range. In addition, we extend the theory of performance factor for appropriate use in the HF design. Since magnetic materials suitable for HF applications tend to have low permeability, we also consider the impact of low permeability on design. We conclude that, with appropriate material selection and design, increased frequencies can continue to yield improved power density well into the HF regime.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Very High Frequency PWM Buck Converters Using Monolithic GaN Half-Bridge
           Power Stages With Integrated Gate Drivers
    • Authors: Zhang; Y.;Rodriguez, M.;Maksimovic, D.;
      Pages: 7926 - 7942
      Abstract: Integration is a key step in utilizing advances in GaN technologies and enabling efficient switched-mode power conversion at very high frequencies (VHF). This paper addresses design and implementation of monolithic GaN half-bridge power stages with integrated gate drivers optimized for pulsewidth-modulated (PWM) dc–dc converters operating at 100 MHz switching frequency. Three gate-driver circuit topologies are considered for integration with half-bridge power stages in a 0.15- $mu$ m depletion-mode GaN-on-SiC process: an active pull-up driver, a bootstrapped driver, and a novel modified active pull-up driver. An analytical loss model is developed and used to optimize the monolithic GaN chips, which are then used to construct 20 V, 5 W, 100 MHz synchronous buck converter prototypes. With the bootstrapped and the modified pull-up gate-driver circuits, power stage efficiencies above 91% and total efficiencies close to 88% are demonstrated. The modified active pull-up driver, which offers 80% reduction in the driver area, is found to be the best-performing approach in the depletion-mode GaN process. These results demonstrate feasibility of high-efficiency VHF PWM dc–dc converters based on high levels of integration in GaN processes.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Switching Battery Charger Integrated Circuit for Mobile Devices in a
           130-nm BCDMOS Process
    • Authors: Jung; Min-Gyu;Kim, Sang-Hyun;Yoo, C.;
      Pages: 7943 - 7952
      Abstract: A switching battery charger integrated circuit (IC) for a mobile device is described which can regulate the system supply voltage and charge a Li-ion battery simultaneously. The charging current level is adaptively controlled according to the system load current and a battery can be forced to supply current to the system load when the input power is not sufficient. In order to allow a mobile device to supply power to peripheral devices, the battery charger IC can also be configured to operate as a boost dc–dc converter with the reversed direction of power flow. The operation mode of the battery charger IC is smoothly switched by adopting a diode-based mode selection scheme. Implemented in a 130-nm BCDMOS process, the battery charger IC occupies 12.25 mm2 and has been verified to provide the appropriate charging profile for a Li-ion battery and regulate the system supply voltage under various operating conditions. The maximum charging current is 1.5 A and the output voltage ranges from 2.5 to 4.2 V. The maximum power efficiency of dc–dc conversion is 90% and 92%, respectively, for the buck and boost modes.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Analysis of the Results of Accelerated Aging Tests in Insulated Gate
           Bipolar Transistors
    • Authors: Astigarraga; D.;Ibanez, F.;Galarza, A.;Echeverria, J.;Unanue, I.;Baraldi, P.;Zio, E.;
      Pages: 7953 - 7962
      Abstract: The introduction of fully electric vehicles (FEVs) into the mainstream has raised concerns about the reliability of their electronic components such as IGBT. The great variability in IGBT failure times caused by the very different operating conditions experienced and the stochasticity of their degradation processes suggests the adoption of condition-based maintenance approaches. Thus, the development of methods for assessing their healthy state and predicting their remaining useful life (RUL) is of key importance. In this paper, we investigate the results of performing accelerated aging tests. Our objective is to discuss the design and the results of accelerated aging tests performed on three different IGBT types within the electrical powertrain health monitoring for increased safety (HEMIS) of FEVs European Community project. During the tests, several electric signals were measured in different operating conditions. The results show that the case temperature $(T_{C})$ , the collector current $(I_{C})$ , and the collector–emitter voltage $(V_{{rm CE}})$ are the failure precursor parameters that can be used for the development of a prognostic and health monitoring (PHM) system for FEV IGBTs and other medium-power switching supplies.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Comparative Analysis of Two Modulation Strategies for an Active
           Buck–Boost Inverter
    • Authors: Tang; Y.;Xu, F.;Bai, Y.;He, Y.;
      Pages: 7963 - 7971
      Abstract: The inverter used in the new energy power generation system should have the ability to adapt a wide range of dc input voltage. Based on the active buck–boost inverter, which consists of a full bridge and boost ac/ac part, two modulation methods are compared: constant boost ratio modulation and dual-mode modulation. Along with the relationship of the input dc voltage and the reference ac voltage, the converter completes buck or boost inversion with different equivalent circuits and there are fewer switches working at high frequency in dual-mode modulation, which is in favor of the system with high efficiency. The current of the inductor and the current stress of the switches are analyzed in this paper. Experimental results are presented to verify that the proposed topology can achieve the dual-mode operation with a wide range of input voltage.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Low-Frequency Input Current Ripple Reduction Based on Load Current
           Feedforward in a Two-Stage Single-Phase Inverter
    • Authors: Shi; Y.;Liu, B.;Duan, S.;
      Pages: 7972 - 7985
      Abstract: A large amount of ripple at twice the output frequency will emerge in the input current due to the pulsating output power in a two-stage single-phase inverter. To reduce the low-frequency input current ripple, a control strategy is presented in this paper based on the front-end dc–dc converter load current feedforward. It intends to control the dc bus voltage to swing properly at twice the output frequency, making the dc bus capacitor supply nearly all the pulsating power. The implementation method is illustrated, and the operation performance analysis as well as the key parameter design principle is provided. Introducing the proposed feedforward path is able to significantly suppress the input current ripple with little impacts on the original system stability, steady-state tracking accuracy, and dynamic response. Finally, experimental results performed on a buck-type stand-alone two-stage single-phase inverter prototype verify the validity of proposed method and the correctness of analysis.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Distributed Control for State-of-Charge Balancing Between the Modules of a
           Reconfigurable Battery Energy Storage System
    • Authors: Morstyn; T.;Momayyezan, M.;Hredzak, B.;Agelidis, V.G.;
      Pages: 7986 - 7995
      Abstract: This paper presents a distributed control strategy for state-of-charge balancing between the battery modules of a reconfigurable battery energy storage system. The autonomous modules share state-of-charge information with their neighbors over a sparse communication network and cooperate to reach a balanced state of charge. The proposed control strategy provides advantages in terms of reduced communication requirements and increased modularity, over a centralized battery management system. Steady-state analysis provides bounds on the mean error and mean-squared error of the distributed average state-of-charge estimates used for autonomous balancing control. The proposed control strategy enforces module topology constraints specific to the particular reconfigurable battery implementation. The state-of-charge balancing mode current controller prevents current spikes during module topology transitions. Experimental results demonstrate the performance of the proposed control strategy for a reconfigurable energy storage system made up of four 6-V, 7-Ah lead-acid battery modules.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • A Variable Duty Cycle Soft Startup Strategy for LLC
           Series Resonant Converter Based on Optimal Current-Limiting Curve
    • Authors: Yang; D.;Chen, C.;Duan, S.;Cai, J.;Xiao, L.;
      Pages: 7996 - 8006
      Abstract: For the LLC series resonant converter (LLC-SRC), the resonant current inrush during the startup is a threat to the safe operation of the main switches, and frequency-decreasing startup method is usually adopted. The very high initial start-up frequency can suppress this inrush effectively, but increases the output current demand of drive ICs. In this paper, a variable duty cycle soft startup strategy based on optimal current-limiting curve is presented, which can realize the suppression of the resonant current inrush under low startup frequency. Due to the nonlinearity of the LLC-SRC, the mode transition conditions are illustrated and a generalized numerical model of the LLC-SRC is established, providing a highly accurate prediction on resonant variables and output during the startup process. Based on the numerical model, the relationship between the startup current, initial startup frequency, and the duty cycle is revealed to quantify the startup process and achieve optimal initial startup parameters. A numerical algorithm is presented to obtain the optimal current-limiting curve during the startup. Two variable duty cycle startup methods are applied to verify the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, namely the PWM startup method and the phase-shift startup method. The experimental results are presented to verify the proposed soft startup strategy.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
  • Mathematical Modeling and Control of a Cost Effective AC Voltage
    • Authors: Liu; H.;Wang, J.;Kiselychnyk, O.;
      Pages: 8007 - 8016
      Abstract: AC voltage regulation is required in both the domestic and industrial sectors to avoid undesired effects from random voltage variations of the power supply. The paper introduces an ac voltage stabilizer/converter (ACVS) that is based on a controllable autotransformer technology. The proposed ACVS offers a specified strategy of voltage regulation, less harmonics, and low cost. The paper explains the operating principle of the ACVS and derives its nonlinear mathematical model. To ensure the desired performance of the ACVS while it is subject to uncertain input voltage and load variations, an optimal control strategy is designed. It is achieved via transforming the ACVS model extending with fictive axis emulation into a rotating reference frame and the linearization of the model via specific orientation of the reference frame and introducing a linear control action. Operation of the ACVS is simulated under different disturbances due to load and grid voltage changes, and compared to voltage stabilization with application of I and PI controllers. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the voltage regulation technology.
      PubDate: Nov. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 11 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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