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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 186 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 89)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 331)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 289)
ECTI Transactions on Computer and Information Technology (ECTI-CIT)     Open Access  
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access  
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 116)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 96)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 99)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Embedded Systems Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 202)
Haptics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 99)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access  
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access  
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access  
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal ELTIKOM : Jurnal Teknik Elektro, Teknologi Informasi dan Komputer     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Magnetics Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Nanotechnology Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Pulse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Revue Méditerranéenne des Télécommunications     Open Access  
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Solid-State Circuits Magazine, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Wireless Power Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Women in Engineering Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.839
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 19  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0018-9383
Published by IEEE Homepage  [191 journals]
  • IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices publication information
    • PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices information for authors
    • PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Blank page
    • PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Bipolar AC Switch for Specific Mains Applications: Design, Realization,
           and Characterization
    • Authors: Hiba Rizk;Abdelhakim Bourennane;Marie Breil;Jean-Pierre Laur;
      Pages: 3704 - 3709
      Abstract: This paper deals with the design of an ac switch structure for specific ac mains applications 230 V–50 Hz. The targeted power level is about a hundred watts, and the currently used converter circuits make use of bidirectional switches that are realized using anti-series connected MOS transistors. Despite the improvements in performance provided by some of these structures, their fabrication cost is still high and limits their widespread diffusion in a market shared with the triac. To replace the triac, an original current and voltage bidirectional bipolar device called a Bipolar ac (Bipac) is proposed, designed, realized, and characterized. It can be controlled both to turn-on and turn-off with respect to a single reference electrode. It exhibits a very low ON-state voltage drop that makes it interesting for specific mains applications with low load current (0.5 $text{A}_{{text {rms}}}$ ). The study of the Bipac structure is carried out using 2-D Sentaurus physical simulations. The Bipac structure is realized on n-type and on p-type substrates for two different wafer thicknesses. The operating modes of the monolithic bidirectional Bipac switch were validated through electrical characterizations.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • An Analytical Model of Single-Event Transients in Double-Gate MOSFET for
           Circuit Simulation
    • Authors: Y. M. Aneesh;S. R. Sriram;K. R. Pasupathy;B. Bindu;
      Pages: 3710 - 3717
      Abstract: In this paper, a physics-based bias-dependent model of single-event transients (SETs) in double-gate (DG) MOSFET suitable for circuit simulation is presented. The existing approaches that use double exponential and dual double-exponential current sources to emulate these transient currents in the circuit simulators depend on the parameters extracted from TCAD device simulations. In order to capture the essential physics behind these current transients in the circuit simulations, there is a need for a physics-based bias-dependent SET current model that considers the electrostatics in the chosen device. The proposed SET current model is developed from the solution of 2-D Poisson’s equation with proper boundary conditions of DG MOSFET. It takes into account the dependence of the transient potential and drain current on linear energy transfer (LET), strike positions, drain and gate biases, device dimensions, and channel doping. The results from the model are validated with the simulation results from TCAD. The SET current model is integrated in Cadence circuit simulator and observed through simulations the voltage perturbation at the output of the CMOS inverter due to heavy ion strike on nMOS transistor in OFF state for different LETs and loads. The proposed model captures the current plateau region effect in CMOS inverter.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Improvements in the Electrical Performance of IC MOSFET Components Using
           Diamond Layout Style Versus Traditional Rectangular Layout Style
           Calculated by Conformal Mapping
    • Authors: D. Barri;P. Vacula;V. Kotě;J. Jakovenko;J. Voves;
      Pages: 3718 - 3725
      Abstract: In the first part of this article, we have proposed an innovative approach to improve the drain current model of the MOSFETs implemented with the diamond layout style (DLS), regarding the longitudinal corner effect (LCE). The proposed model is more accurate than a previous model compared to 3-D Technology Computer-Aided Design (3-D TCAD) simulation results. The new model has an innovative analytical description based on a conformal mapping theory. As a conformal mapping, there has been chosen a Schwarz–Christoffel transformation (SC). The maximal deviation values of the aspect ratio calculated by LCE are in the range from −27% to +38%. In counterpart with the new SC analytical description of DLS, the maximal deviation values are in the range from 0% to −5.5%. The second part of this article describes improvements in the electrical performance of the N-MOSFET components by using DLS counterpart to traditional rectangular layout style (RLS). Both layout style DLS, RLS, respectively, have the same process settings, as well as they are keeping the same gate area ${A}$ , and an aspect ratio width to length ${W}/{L}$ to preserve the same input conditions for their analysis. The maximal drain current increasing for the simulated DLS MOS transistor is over 20% for effective aspect ratio ( ${W}/{L}$ ) $_{text {eff,SCT,num}}$ equal to 2.0 and angle is set to 60°. The presented model has a very good analytic description with the error level lower than 3%.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Advanced Short-Channel-Effect Modeling With Applicability to Device
           Optimization—Potentials and Scaling
    • Authors: F. Ávila Herrera;Y. Hirano;M. Miura-Mattausch;T. Iizuka;H. Kikuchihara;H. J. Mattausch;A. Ito;
      Pages: 3726 - 3733
      Abstract: Silicon-thickness scaling has been used as the main parameter for short-channel-effect (SCE) reduction. Nevertheless, SCEs are still present in advanced thin-layer MOSFETs. Here, for enlarging the insight into SCE suppression, a new compact model is developed based on the SCE origin, which is demonstrated to be the potential distribution at the contact/channel junctions. In addition, it is shown that the potential distribution along the MOSFET channel can be modeled by overlapping potentials coming from the source and drain sides. The developed compact model is verified with leading-edge multi-gate MOSFETs, further demonstrating that device optimization with SCE suppression becomes possible due to the accurate reproduction of the device characteristics. The model validation is done with 2-D device simulations for different channel lengths, oxide, and silicon thicknesses as well as channel-doping concentration, for which an accurate compact-model reproduction is achieved. In addition, the general properties of the potential-based SCE model are extended to other MOSFET device structures.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • 555-Timer and Comparators Operational at 500 °C
    • Authors: Muhammad Shakir;Shuoben Hou;Alexey Metreveli;Arman Ur Rashid;Homer Alan Mantooth;Carl-Mikael Zetterling;
      Pages: 3734 - 3739
      Abstract: This paper reports an industry standard monolithic 555-timer circuit designed and fabricated in the in-house silicon carbide (SiC) low-voltage bipolar technology. This paper demonstrates the 555-timer integrated circuits (ICs) characterization in both astable and monostable modes of operation, with a supply voltage of 15 V over the wide temperature range of 25 °C–500 °C. Nonmonotonic temperature dependence was observed for the 555-timer IC frequency, rise time, fall-time, and power dissipation.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Theoretical Study of Electron Transport Properties in GaN-Based HEMTs
           Using a Deterministic Multi-Subband Boltzmann Transport Equation Solver
    • Authors: Suhyeong Cha;Sung-Min Hong;
      Pages: 3740 - 3747
      Abstract: A high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with a GaN channel is simulated using a deterministic multi-subband Boltzmann transport equation solver. A structure that includes an InGaN back barrier is considered. The electron mobility is calculated for the 1-D heterostructure to identify the contribution of each scattering mechanism to the electron mobility. For GaN-based HEMTs, electron transport in a non-equilibrium state is determined by solving the multi-subband Boltzmann equation expanded with Fourier harmonics. The polar optical phonon and the deformation potential phonon are considered to explain the scattering of the device while considering the Pauli principle. The results of a simulation conducted to assess the mobility and ${I}$ – ${V}$ characteristics are compared with experimental results from the AlInN/AlN/GaN/InGaN HEMT structure. The cutoff frequency of the HEMT is also estimated under the quasi-static approximation.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Self-Heating and Equivalent Channel Temperature in Short Gate Length GaN
    • Authors: Xuesong Chen;Slim Boumaiza;Lan Wei;
      Pages: 3748 - 3755
      Abstract: In this paper, we study the self-heating mechanism and its impact on electrical performance of short gate length GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on electrothermal TCAD simulations. We propose an equivalent channel temperature to quantify the current degradation due to self-heating and also resolve the discrepancies between temperature measurements through electrical methods and thermal methods in the literature. We then explain the equivalent channel temperature’s behavior using the temperature- and field-dependent electron transport theory for short gate length HEMTs. The implications and guidelines to the various aspects of device design are also discussed.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • ESD Reliability of AlGaN/GaN HEMT Technology
    • Authors: Bhawani Shankar;Srinivasan Raghavan;Mayank Shrivastava;
      Pages: 3756 - 3763
      Abstract: This experimental study reports new aspects of electrostatic discharge (ESD) behavior in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. The role of Schottky gate and MESA is investigated using special test structures. Influence of piezoelectric field, carrier trapping, and self-heating on ESD behavior is studied. A unique power-law-like behavior is found. Linear scaling of failure current with source–drain spacing is reported. Spot measured drain-to-source DC current is realized as an important parameter to monitor degradation. Unique degradation trends are observed for the first time and a correlation between snapback depth and % degradation is established. Cumulative nature of device degradation is discovered. Change from soft to hard failure with an increase in pulsewidth (PW) is reported. Finally, the cause of snapback instability observed in device, at low PW, is discussed.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Silicon Carbide Bipolar Analog Circuits for Extreme Temperature Signal
    • Authors: Sajib Roy;Arman Ur Rashid;Affan Abbasi;Robert C. Murphree;MD Maksudul Hossain;Asif Faruque;Alex Metreveli;Carl-Mikael Zetterling;John Fraley;Brett Sparkman;H. Alan Mantooth;
      Pages: 3764 - 3770
      Abstract: This paper presents functional high-temperature analog circuits in silicon carbide bipolar technology. The circuits will collectively form the analog signal conditioning block for a wireless telemetry system in an extreme environment (above 400°C). The signal conditioning block is composed of a low dc gain operational amplifier, a negative voltage charge pump (CP), an RC oscillator, and a voltage regulator. The circuits are tested up to 450°C. The measured open-loop gain for the amplifier at 450°C is 30 dB. The regulator provides approximately 9-V output at 450°C for a fixed load current of up to 18 mA and an applied reference of 4.5 V. The negative voltage CP requires an oscillating signal at its input, which is provided by the RC cross-coupled oscillator. The CP provides about −5 V at 450°C.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Feasibility Study of Wafer-Level Backside Process for InP-Based ICs
    • Authors: Takuya Tsutsumi;Hiroshi Hamada;Kimikazu Sano;Minoru Ida;Hideaki Matsuzaki;
      Pages: 3771 - 3776
      Abstract: This paper reports wafer-level backside process technology, established with the intent to ensure stable operation of InP ICs in the submillimeter wavelength band, which generally suffer from ground bounce and substrate resonance. Our process consists of thinning a 3-in InP wafer, forming dense vias with interval cooling steps, backside metallization with single-level wiring and crack-free dicing. We investigate the effects of the backside process on InP-based heterojunction bipolar transistors and high electron mobility transistors. The results show that the backside process contributes to stable operation up to the 300-GHz range without any degradation of transistor characteristics.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Reproducing GaN HEMT Kink Effect by Simulating Field-Enhanced Barrier
           Defect Ionization
    • Authors: Matt Grupen;
      Pages: 3777 - 3783
      Abstract: The kink effect, long observed in GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), is investigated with the Fermi kinetics transport hot electron simulation method. Fermi kinetics assigns piecewise Fermi-Dirac electron distributions to the conduction band valleys determined by the GaN electronic band structure and computes their behavior according to the thermodynamics of ideal Fermi gases. Charge fluxes are determined from moments of the Boltzmann equation, including nonparabolic electron densities of states and group velocities, as well as phonon and ionized impurity scattering. The model has been further generalized to include field-enhanced tunneling ionization of deep traps. Comparing simulations with measured data suggests that the kink effect could be caused by field-enhanced ionization of deep AlGaN barrier traps beneath the gate and close to the GaN/AlGaN interface. Further simulations indicate hot electrons may play key roles in both the trap emission and capture processes.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Evidence of GaN HEMT Schottky Gate Degradation After Gamma Irradiation
    • Authors: Xiang Zheng;Shiwei Feng;Chao Peng;Gang Lin;Lin Bai;Xuan Li;Ying Yang;Shijie Pan;Zhaoxu Hu;Xiaoyang Li;Yamin Zhang;
      Pages: 3784 - 3788
      Abstract: The effects of gamma rays on two kinds of GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been investigated in this paper. We have identified a gate degradation using a combination of optical and electrical measurements. We have demonstrated that the channel current under the degradation position is outside of the gate’s control. This degradation prevents the gate from fully pinching off the channel, creating a current concentration region when applying a reverse gate voltage. An integrated analysis, including ${I}$ – ${V}$ characterization, the emission microscope (EMMI) technique, and temperature-dependent measurements, was applied to study its mechanism. It is attributed to an irradiation-induced degradation in the Schottky contact.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • ${I}_{+mathrm{scriptscriptstyle+OFF}}$+ +Under+Switching+Operation+in+Schottky-Type+p-GaN+Gate+HEMTs&rft.title=IEEE+Transactions+on+Electron+Devices&rft.issn=0018-9383&;&rft.aufirst=Yuru&;Jin+Wei;Song+Yang;Jiacheng+Lei;Mengyuan+Hua;Kevin+J.+Chen;">Investigation of Dynamic ${I}_{ mathrm{scriptscriptstyle OFF}}$ Under
           Switching Operation in Schottky-Type p-GaN Gate HEMTs
    • Authors: Yuru Wang;Jin Wei;Song Yang;Jiacheng Lei;Mengyuan Hua;Kevin J. Chen;
      Pages: 3789 - 3794
      Abstract: In this paper, systematic characterization and the corresponding suppression strategies of dynamic OFF-state leakage current ( ${I}_{ mathrm{scriptscriptstyle OFF}}$ ) in Schottky-type p-GaN gate high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) are presented based on fast pulsed ${I}$ – ${V}$ measurement and consecutive switching measurement. It is found that the high ${I}_{ mathrm{scriptscriptstyle OFF}}$ under dynamic pulse mode without hole injection is a result of the reduced voltage blocking capabilities (both lateral and vertical) with weaker trapping effect in the buffer, and the dynamic ${I}_{ mathrm{scriptscriptstyle OFF}}$ induced by ON-state hole injection is caused by further increased lateral conductivity through the buffer from source to drain. The corresponding behaviors under continuous waveforms with different switching conditions are analyzed to identify effective approaches for the suppression of dynamic ${I}_{ mathrm{scriptscriptstyle OFF}}$ in practical switching operations. A higher temperature is shown to be beneficial to the reduction of the dynamic ${I}_{ mathrm{scriptscriptstyle OFF}}$ induced by ON-state hole injection. To completely eliminate the dynamic ${I}_{ mathrm{scriptscriptstyle OFF}}$ caused by ON-state hole injection and minimize the OFF-state power consumption in practical power switching applications, a sufficiently large negative OF--state gate bias (e.g., ${V}_{text {GS}, mathrm{scriptscriptstyle OFF}}le -{3}$ V) is recommended in the gate driver turn-off voltage design for the Schottky-type p-GaN gate HEMTs.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Volatile Resistive Switching Memory Based on Ag Ion Drift/Diffusion Part
           I: Numerical Modeling
    • Authors: Wei Wang;Mario Laudato;Elia Ambrosi;Alessandro Bricalli;Erika Covi;Yu-Hsuan Lin;Daniele Ielmini;
      Pages: 3795 - 3801
      Abstract: Resistive-switching random access memory (RRAM) devices based on filamentary switching are attracting widespread interest for their unique properties, such as high ON–OFF ratio, ultrasteep slope, good endurance, and low-current operation. Recently, volatile RRAMs based on Ag drift and diffusion were also demonstrated for possible applications such as crosspoint array selectors and neuromorphic computing. However, the mechanism of the volatile switching, namely, the spontaneous dissolution of the Ag filament, is still not clear. A deep understanding of the metallic filament formation and spontaneous disruption would strongly help the engineering of the device for optimized performances. Here, we present a numerical physics-based drift/diffusion modeling framework to describe the threshold switching, ${I}$ – ${V}$ characteristics, and morphological evolution of the metallic filament. The model can support TCAD-type device simulations for scaling, reliability, and variability studies.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Volatile Resistive Switching Memory Based on Ag Ion
           Drift/Diffusion—Part II: Compact Modeling
    • Authors: Wei Wang;Mario Laudato;Elia Ambrosi;Alessandro Bricalli;Erika Covi;Yu-Hsuan Lin;Daniele Ielmini;
      Pages: 3802 - 3808
      Abstract: Resistive-switching random access memory (RRAM) based on Cu or Ag filament is a promising selector device for high-density crosspoint arrays. These devices display high ON-OFF ratio, volatile switching, high switching speed, and long endurance, supporting the adoption in large memory arrays. However, the mechanism of volatile switching is not clear yet, which prevents the development of compact models for circuit design and simulation. Based on an extensive study of the switching mechanism, we report an analytical model that captures all electrical characteristics of the device, including switching, recovery, and their dependence on the applied voltage. We use the analytical model to simulate the circuit-level behavior of the device as long/short term memory synapse.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Energy Bandpass Filtering in Superlattice Phase Change Memories
    • Authors: Jyotsna Bahl;Pankaj Priyadarshi;Bhaskaran Muralidharan;
      Pages: 3809 - 3815
      Abstract: We propose energy bandpass filtering employed using the idea of antireflection heterostructures as means to reduce the energy requirements of a superlattice phase change memory (PCM) based on germanium telluride (GeTe) and Sb2Te3 heterostructures. Different configurations of GeTe/Sb2Te3 superlattices are studied using the nonequilibrium Green’s function approach. Our electronic transport simulations calculate the coupling parameter for the high-resistance covalent state, to 97% that of the stable low-resistance resonant state, maintaining the ON/OFF ratio of 100 for a reliable read operation. By examining various configurations of the superlattice structures, we conclude that the inclusion of antireflection units on both sides of the superlattice increases the overall ON/OFF ratio by an order of magnitude which can further help in scaling down of the memory device. It is also observed that the device with such antireflection units exhibits 32% lesser RESET voltage than the most common PCM superlattice configurations. Moreover, we also find that the ON/OFF ratio in these devices is also resilient to the variations in the periodicity of the superlattice.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Temperature-Dependent Contact Resistance to Nonvolatile Memory Materials
    • Authors: Sanchit Deshmukh;Eilam Yalon;Feifei Lian;Kirstin E. Schauble;Feng Xiong;Ilya V. Karpov;Eric Pop;
      Pages: 3816 - 3821
      Abstract: Emerging nonvolatile memories store data by reversible resistive switching in phase-change materials or metal oxides. As memory cell dimensions are reduced to ~10-nm scale or below, electrical contacts can dominate the device behavior, yet are often poorly understood. Here, we study the contact resistance to memory materials Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST), TiO2, and HfO2 with low-current and temperature-dependent measurements. We find that the contact resistivity varies over ten orders of magnitude depending on the material; contact resistivity to cubic GST is near $10^{-{2}} Omega cdot $ cm2 (~1000 times greater than the hexagonal GST) while that to HfO2 is as high as ${5} times 10^{{5}} Omega cdot $ cm2 at room temperature. Contact resistivity decreases with increasing temperature and with increasing current density, the latter due to the non-Ohmic nature of the contacts. These results are important to understand the design, scaling, and behavior of nanoscale data storage devices.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Insight into Effects of Oxygen Reservoir Layer and Operation Schemes on
           Data Retention of HfO2-Based RRAM
    • Authors: Linlin Cai;Wangyong Chen;Yudi Zhao;Xiaoyan Liu;Jinfeng Kang;Xing Zhang;Peng Huang;
      Pages: 3822 - 3827
      Abstract: As a promising new generation of nonvolatile memory, HfO2-based resistive random-access memory (RRAM) has attracted extensive research. However, the problem of data retention has prevented its industrial production as embedded memory. In this paper, from the microscopic understanding, a Monte Carlo simulator is developed to investigate the effects of an oxygen reservoir layer (ORL) on the resistance instability of HfO2-based RRAM. The evolution of conductive filaments (CF) during the retention degradation is visualized by our simulation considering the physical mechanisms of oxygen ions absorbed and released by the ORL. The simulation results are further validated with experiments to provide the prediction of retention performance of RRAMs with different ORLs and operation schemes.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Ferroelectric FETs With 20-nm-Thick HfO2 Layer for Large Memory Window and
           High Performance
    • Authors: Halid Mulaosmanovic;Evelyn T. Breyer;Thomas Mikolajick;Stefan Slesazeck;
      Pages: 3828 - 3833
      Abstract: Hafnium oxide (HfO2)-based ferroelectric field-effect transistor (FeFET) is an attractive device for nonvolatile memory. However, when compared to the well-established flash devices, the memory window (MW) of FeFETs reported so far is rather limited, which might be an obstacle to practical applications. In this article, we report on FeFETs fabricated in the 28-nm high- ${k}$ metal gate (HKMG) bulk technology with 90 and 80 nm for the channel length and width, respectively, which show a large MW of nearly 3 V. This is achieved by adopting 20-nm-thick HfO2 films in the gate stack instead of the usually employed 10-nm-thick films. We show that such a thickness increase leads to only a moderate increase of the switching voltages, and to a significantly improved resilience of the memory characteristics upon the parasitic charge trapping. The devices display a good retention at high temperatures and endure more than $10^{{5}}$ bipolar cycles, thus supporting this technology for a future generation of FeFET memories.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • TFET-Based Robust 7T SRAM Cell for Low Power Application
    • Authors: Sayeed Ahmad;Syed Afzal Ahmad;Mohd Muqeem;Naushad Alam;Mohd Hasan;
      Pages: 3834 - 3840
      Abstract: TFETs have emerged as the potential candidate for future ultralow-power applications. However, the unidirectionality and poor drive current are the biggest hurdles for their deployment in static random-access memories (SRAMs), as they critically impact the write operation. In this article, first, we propose a new device structure with dual-pocket double-gate tunnel FET (DP-DGTFET) based on the earlier p-n-i-n device (SP-DGTFET). The proposed device shows improved characteristics in terms of ${I}_{ mathrm{scriptscriptstyle ON}}$ , ${I}_{ mathrm{scriptscriptstyle ON}}/{I}_{ mathrm{scriptscriptstyle OFF}} $ , and SS with comparable ${I}_{ mathrm{scriptscriptstyle OFF}}$ . The SRAM cells designed using the proposed device significantly improve the write margin (WM). The DP-DGTFET-based outward access-6T (O-6T) cell enhances the WM as high as $18times $ compared with its SP-DGTFET counterpart at ${V}_{text {dd}}={0.7}$ V. Subsequently, a novel 7T SRAM cell is also proposed to further enhance the circuit performance particularly in terms of write-ability. The proposed cell utilizes separate read buffer and column voltage collapse write assist to enhance the read and write stabilities. We also investigate the feasibility of these pocket devices for several other configurations of SRAM cells. The proposed 7T cell designed using new dual-pocket device offers $8times $ higher WM, $1.3times $ smaller write delay, similar RSNM and read delay while consuming $2.2times $ smaller write power, and similar read power compared to the existing 7T cell (at ${V}_{text {dd}}={0.5}$ V). The proposed cell also successfully eliminates half-selected disturb that occurs in the selected column due to voltage collapse. The proposed cell, therefore, could be a good choice for applications that demand high stability and low power requirement.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • New Amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O Thin-Film Transistor-Based Optical Pixel
           Sensor for Optical Input Signal With Short Wavelength
    • Authors: Chia-En Wu;Keisuke Ide;Takayoshi Katase;Hidenori Hiramatsu;Hideo Hosono;Chih-Lung Lin;Toshio Kamiya;
      Pages: 3841 - 3846
      Abstract: This paper presents an optical sensor based on amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O (a-IGZO) photo thin-film transistors (TFTs). To maintain a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the optical sensor against a variety of ambient white light, this paper employed a-IGZO photo-TFTs for detecting optical input signal sensitive only to short-wavelength light. Measurements of the photosensitivity for optical signal with different wavelengths and optical response for optical input signal under various white light irradiances are proposed to support the reliability of the a-IGZO photo-TFTs under different ambient white light conditions. This paper also simulates a-IGZO photo-TFTs under various white light conditions to predict and design the proposed new sensors and circuits. The simulation results indicated that the proposed optical sensor can maintain the obvious difference in the output voltages with or without optical input signal under the white light irradiances of 0, 268, and $750~mu text{W}$ /cm2, demonstrating the feasibility and the reliability of the proposed optical pixel sensor.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Eco-Friendly Fully Water-Driven Metal–Oxide Thin Films and Their
           Applications in Transistors and Logic Circuits
    • Authors: Chong Zhang;Gang He;Bing Yang;Yufeng Xia;Yongchun Zhang;
      Pages: 3847 - 3853
      Abstract: In this paper, a nontoxic and environmentally friendly water-driven (WD) route to prepare InZnO thin films with various molar ratio of In and Zn has been reported. The formation mechanisms and physical properties of InZnO thin films as a function of element molar ratio are investigated by various characterization techniques. By comparing the performance of InZnO/SiO2 thin-film transistors (TFTs) at different element molar ratio, the results indicate that the molar ratio of 2:1 (In:Zn) is the optimal choice. Based on the optimal molar ratio, fully WD InZnO/HfOx TFT is fabricated and the excellent electrical properties are obtained at a low operating voltage of 5 V, including a higher field-effect mobility of 9.1 cm $^{{2}}text{V}^{-{1}}text{s}^{-{1}}$ , a larger ON-/OFF-state current ratio of ${1.5} times {10}^{{7}}$ , a smaller subthreshold swing of 0.09 V/dec, and a smaller threshold voltage shift of 0.44 V after 5400-s bias stressing, separately. Finally, to further validate the feasibility of InZnO TFTs in complex logic circuits, an inverter is assembled based on the InZnO/HfOx TFT, exhibiting a high gain of 8.8. More importantly, the excellent properties of InZnO/HfOx TFT are achieved at a low-voltage stage, which stands for the great application prospects of WD TFTs in low-cost and excellent performance electronic devices.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • High-Performance Back-Channel-Etch Thin-Film Transistors With Zinc Tin
           Oxide as Barrier Layer via Spray Coating
    • Authors: Min Li;Dongchen Huang;Meiling Li;Wei Zhang;Hua Xu;Jianhua Zou;Hong Tao;Lei Wang;Junbiao Peng;Miao Xu;
      Pages: 3854 - 3860
      Abstract: Back-channel-etch (BCE) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with the stacked channel of sputtering InZnO (IZO) and spray coating ZnSnO (ZTO) were fabricated. The spray-coated ZTO film shows an ideal surface morphology with technical optimization. The TFT combined with this ZTO film as barrier exhibits superior performance with higher output current, lower threshold voltage, and higher effective electron mobility. Moreover, the short channel effect is less severe with spray-coated ZTO, and the TFTs also demonstrated excellent stability with voltage shift of less than 1.0 V under positive bias temperature stress (PBTS) and negative bias temperature stress (NBTS) with stress time as 7200 s (temperature as 60°). These results indicate that spray-coated ZTO films as a barrier in BCE structure is feasible for the mass production of oxide semiconductor-based TFT backplanes.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Performance and Reliability Comparison of ZnO and IGZO Thin-Film
           Transistors and Inverters Fabricated at a Maximum Process Temperature of
           115 °C
    • Authors: R. A. Rodriguez-Davila;I. Mejia;R. A. Chapman;C. D. Young;M. Quevedo-Lopez;
      Pages: 3861 - 3866
      Abstract: Performance and reliability comparison of oxide-based thin-film transistors fabricated at a maximum process temperature of 115 °C is presented. A fully patterned and passivated process was successfully evaluated and implemented using polycrystalline ZnO and amorphous indium–gallium–zinc–oxide (IGZO) as an active layer in glass substrates. Saturation mobilities of 14.2 and 9.0 cm $^{{2}}cdot text{V}^{-{1}}cdot text{s}^{-{1}}$ were obtained for ZnO and IGZO, respectively, with threshold voltages of 2.2 and 2.0 V, an ON/ OFF ratio $> {1} times 10^{{8}}$ , and an ${I}_{{text {off}}}< {1} times 10^{-{12}}$ A. The small mobility change in IGZO with gate voltage is due to its amorphous character. Longer variation is observed in polycrystalline ZnO due to its grain boundaries. Reliability studies show a threshold voltage shifting of 0.4 and 1.8 V for ZnO and IGZO devices, testing after 1200-s stress. Devices were successfully implemented in ZnO- and IGZO-based inverters using saturation and zero-drive structures, showing a maximum dc gain of 2.4- and 25-V/V, respectively.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Effect of Active Layer Scaling on the Performance of Ge1–x Sn x
    • Authors: Harshvardhan Kumar;Rikmantra Basu;
      Pages: 3867 - 3873
      Abstract: The impact of scaling of the base layer on the noise performance, spectral responsivity, and frequency response of Ge/Ge1–xSnx/Ge p-n-p heterojunction phototransistor (HPT) is presented and evaluated by simulation. The proposed structure consists of Ge1–xSnx alloy in the base layer, allowing extension of the photodetection to the mid-infrared (MIR) region, enabling photodetection over a wide range. This paper also includes the effect of Sn concentration and base bias voltage on the frequency performance of the HPT. In addition, various noise components and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are estimated as a function of base layer thickness and base resistance. The simulated results show that cutoff frequency ( ${f}_{T}$ ) and maximum frequency ( ${f}_{text {max}}$ ) are not only strongly dependent on the base layer thickness but also on the Sn composition in the base layer and applied base-bias voltage. The results show that the proposed HPT provides higher ${f}_{T}>45$ GHz and SNR of >70 dB for the base layer thickness of 50 nm (with Sn = 9%) can be achieved. Therefore, the GeSn p-n-p HPT is promising for future fiber-optic telecommunication and MIR applications.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Low Dark Current and High Responsivity UV Detector Based on TiO2
           Nanowire/RGO Thin Film Heterostructure
    • Authors: Prasenjit Deb;Jay Chandra Dhar;
      Pages: 3874 - 3880
      Abstract: A UV detector was fabricated using glancing angle deposition (GLAD)-synthesized TiO2 nanowires (NWs) over spin-coated reduced graphene oxide (RGO) thin films (TFs) on a Si substrate. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images showed that TiO2 NWs were grown with a length of ~140 nm. The fabricated TiO2 NWs were amorphous in nature, as depicted by the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern which was also verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. On average, ninefold enhanced optical absorption was observed for the TiO2 NW/RGO TF/Si sample compared to the bare TiO2 NW/Si sample. A significantly low dark current of 2.9 nA (at +1 V) was obtained after the incorporation of the RGO TF beneath the TiO2 NWs. The fabricated Au/TiO2 NW/RGO TF/Si device showed high responsivity and detectivity of 75.7 A/W and ${6.86} times {10}^{{13}}$ Jones, respectively, under 380-nm light illumination having a power density of as low as $0.8~mu text{W}$ /cm2. A low noise-equivalent power (NEP) of 49 fW was also obtained from the resulting detector. The rise and fall times of the Au/TiO2 NW/RGO TF/Si detector were 0.8 and 1.09 s, respectively.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Alternating Current III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes With On-Chip
           Schottky Barrier Diode Rectifiers
    • Authors: Jie Liu;Zhenyu Jiang;Guanjun You;Zengzhi Pei;Chen Mo;Min Chang;Bangzhi Liu;Jian Xu;
      Pages: 3881 - 3886
      Abstract: We report in this paper the design and fabrication of single-chip alternating current-LEDs (AC-LEDs) by monolithically integrating, for the first time, high-breakdown Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) and micro-LED arrays using III-nitride LED epi-wafers of standard specs for volume production. A technique of cyclic mixed-etching has been introduced to restore the surface of inductively coupled-plasma (ICP) etching processed gallium nitride to device quality for fabricating high-breakdown Schottky junctions. Proof-of-concept single-chip AC-LED devices and a prototype driver-free white AC-LED lamp were demonstrated, showing high-efficiency LED emission, high chip area utilization efficiency, low power loss of the on-chip SBD bridge rectifier, and good luminous efficacy of the prototype AC-LED lamp. This paper paves the way toward mass-producing reliable and low-cost driver-free AC-LED lamps for solid-state lighting with existing LED manufacturing infrastructures.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Conductive Layer Thickness Enhanced Lateral Photovoltaic Performances in
           the Cu(In, Ga)Se2-Based Multilayer Heterostructure
    • Authors: Zicai Zhang;Shuang Qiao;Yu Wang;Zhiqiang Li;Shufang Wang;Guangsheng Fu;
      Pages: 3887 - 3890
      Abstract: For the photovoltaic effect (PE), the surface potential is suggested to be an adverse factor, and researchers usually try to increase the thickness of the conductive layer or the number of strip electrodes to avoid it. However, the potential can still not be eliminated. More importantly, the huge cost has to be paid, and the photovoltaic performances are largely reduced. While the drawback of potential in PE may become excellent merit in lateral PE (LPE) due to their different working mechanisms. Moreover, the decreasing thickness of the conductive layer may be inversely used as an efficient method to modulate the LPE performances. In this paper, the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive layer thickness-dependent LPE responses are well studied in the copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) heterostructure. The LPE response is significantly improved with ITO thickness decreasing from 150 to 10 nm, and the thickness-dependent enhancement is strongly dependent on the illumination intensity, especially in high illumination intensities, a nonmonotonic thickness dependence is obtained. In addition, it is found that the heterostructure exhibits an ultrafast response speed of ~14.5 $mu$ s/~15.0 $mu$ s, and what is more, the response time nearly remains constant without depending on the ITO thickness.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Optimized Si-Based Blocked Impurity Band Detector Under Alternative
           Operational Mode
    • Authors: He Zhu;Chao Wang;Peng Wang;Jiale He;Weida Hu;
      Pages: 3891 - 3895
      Abstract: In this paper, alternative operational mode (AOM) of Si-based blocked impurity band (BIB) detectors is thoroughly investigated. The basic structure of the detector evolves from the prototype of the ion-implanted BIB detector, which is potentially compatible with CMOS processes. Benefiting from lower dark current, the detectivity of ion-implanted devices studied in this work is comparable with the Si BIB detectors ever reported. For ion implantation devices, a peak blackbody detectivity of ${5} times {10}^{{12}}$ cm $cdot $ Hz1/2/W (background temperature T = 40 K) occurs at 2 V under AOM. These merits make the ion-implanted device a powerful candidate for a wide range of applications from infrared to terahertz band. By analyzing the carrier distribution and the band structure in different functional regions of the device at the measured temperature, depletion junction formed in the region of active layer near active layer/cathode interface side is deduced when the device is operated under AOM. The theory is successfully used to interpret experimental data, including the detectivity comparable to the epitaxial device, significantly reduced dark current.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Thermal Analysis and Performance Optimization of Quantum Dots in LEDs by
           Microsphere Model
    • Authors: Dongdong Yang;Yangyang Xie;Chong Geng;Chongyu Shen;Jay Guoxu Liu;Mingzhu Sun;Shanshan Li;Wengang Bi;Shu Xu;
      Pages: 3896 - 3902
      Abstract: Quantum dots (QDs) have aroused intensive research interest because of their unique optical properties and capability in the fabrication of high-performance light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, the optical performance of the QDs is strongly affected by their intrinsic thermal sensitivity as well as the dispersion state in LEDs, thus demanding more accurate thermal control of the QDs in the LED package to promote performance optimization. In this article, a microsphere model is developed to study the thermal behavior of the QDs in the LED package by considering their monodispersion and heat accumulation. The utilization of the model provides the simulated temperature as well as the heat distribution of the QDs more in line with the experimental results, achieving an average error of only 0.01%–2%. Further study based on the microsphere model reveals that a layered package structure can offer better heat control and light uniformity for the QDs-based LEDs (QD-LEDs). The optimized package realizes a maximum of 12.5 °C temperature reduction for QDs than the conventional structure and the valid operation power for QD-LEDs to operate at 80 °C is promoted by 25%.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • ON-Resistance in Vertical Power FinFETs
    • Authors: Ming Xiao;Tomás Palacios;Yuhao Zhang;
      Pages: 3903 - 3909
      Abstract: This paper presents the first analytical model for the ON-resistance ( ${R}_{ mathrm{scriptscriptstyle ON}}$ ) in vertical power FinFETs. The model allows to extract the channel mobility and series resistance and to separate the current conduction through the bulk fin channel and the accumulation-mode metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) channel. The model was validated by experiments and simulations. The extracted series resistance was verified by measuring a diode fabricated in the same wafer with the FinFETs. At the same time, simulations using the extracted channel mobility and series resistance agreed well with the experiments. The model was then used to analyze a 1200 V GaN vertical power FinFET. The main ${R}_{ mathrm{scriptscriptstyle ON}}$ component was identified to be from the drift layer and the substrate, while the gate-modulated channel resistance only accounts for ~13% of the total device ${R}_{ mathrm{scriptscriptstyle ON}}$ . Our model enables parameter extraction from the dc characteristics of a single device, and therefore, provides a fast and easy way to understand, analyze, and design vertical power FinFETs. Our model can also be adjusted to allow for fast and accurate parameter extraction in other power transistors with a vertical gate-modulated channel, such as trench MOSFETs.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Effects of Neutron Irradiation on the Static and Switching Characteristics
           of High-Voltage 4H-SiC p-type Gate Turn-off Thyristors
    • Authors: Peng Dong;Yingxin Cui;Zhe Chen;Yunfei Gu;Kun Zhou;Shuairong Deng;Le Zhong;Ying Zhang;Jun-Tao Li;
      Pages: 3910 - 3915
      Abstract: Silicon carbide (SiC) has shown substantial promise in the fabrication of high-power devices, and SiC Schottky diodes and field-effect transistors (FETs) have been considered as potential candidates for outerspace and sensors applications. Due to the multipolar structure, SiC gate turn-off thyristor (GTO) device is relatively sensitive to the irradiation-induced point defects. However, how SiC GTO devices perform under neutron irradiation still needs to be clarified. In this paper, the effects of neutron irradiation on the static and dynamic switch characteristics of high-voltage 4H-SiC GTOs are investigated for the first time. For the static electrical properties, it is found that the forward current significantly decreases with the increasing neutron irradiation fluence. While the cathode leakage current in the blocking characteristics shows an insignificant change up to a neutron fluence of ${1.0} times {10}^{{13}}$ n/cm2. For the switching characteristics, both the pulse peak current and di/dt show substantial reduction as the neutron fluence increases while the delay time increases after irradiation. The degraded performance of the static and dynamic characteristics of SiC GTO devices was then analyzed and attributed to the weakened conductivity modulation and reduced carrier injection efficiency into the drift layer. These two aspects originate from the significantly reduced carrier lifetime and deteriorated forward characteristics of anode-gate diodes, respectively.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Comprehensive Physics of Third Quadrant Characteristics for Accumulation-
           and Inversion-Channel 1.2-kV 4H-SiC MOSFETs
    • Authors: Kijeong Han;B. J. Baliga;
      Pages: 3916 - 3921
      Abstract: Detailed physics of the third quadrant electrical characteristics of 1.2-kV rated 4H-SiC accumulation (Acc) and inversion (Inv) channel MOSFETs, based on experimentally measured data and TCAD numerical simulations, are described in this paper for the first time. The power MOSFETs with various channel lengths (0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.1 $mu text{m}$ ) used in this paper were fabricated in a 6-in commercial foundry. Numerical simulations verified that there are two current paths in the third quadrant: 1) through the base region and 2) through the p-n body diode. This paper demonstrates that the Acc MOSFETs have a smaller third quadrant knee voltage ( ${V}_{{text {knee}}})$ of −1.2 V compared with −1.9 V for the Inv MOSFETs (at ${V}_{g} = {0}$ V and room temperature). Numerical simulations show that this difference is due to a smaller potential barrier for electron transport from the drain to the source in the base region for accumulation channel devices than inversion channel devices. Acc devices are shown to have a lower voltage drop in the third quadrant.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • A Vertical Superjunction MOSFET With n-Si and p-3C-SiC Pillars
    • Authors: Mingmin Huang;Youqi Deng;Li Lai;Zhimei Yang;Bo Gao;Min Gong;
      Pages: 3922 - 3928
      Abstract: A vertical superjunction (SJ) MOSFET with n-Si and p-3C-SiC pillars is introduced. Since 3C-SiC has $4times $ higher breakdown electric field than Si, the sensitivity of the breakdown voltage ( ${V}_{text {B}}$ ) to charge imbalances is weakened, which helps to improve the tradeoff between the specific ON -resistance ( ${R}_{ mathrm{scriptscriptstyle ON},text {sp}}$ ) and ${V}_{text {B}}$ . In addition, since the n-Si/p-3C-SiC junction stays off at the ON -state of the body diode and the hole mobility in 3C-SiC is low, the reverse recovery charge ( ${Q}_{text {rr}}$ ) is reduced and the resistance of the p-pillar is increased, which suppresses electric oscillations during reverse recovery. With the optimum design, the proposed SJ MOSFET obtains a 2%–11% lower ${R}_{ mathrm{scriptscriptstyle ON},text {sp}}$ than the conventional SJ MOSFET. Numerical simulation results of 600-V designs show that the proposed SJ MOSFET has a 7% lower ${R}_{ mathrm{scriptscriptstyle ON},text {sp}}$ , a 39% lower ${Q}_{text {rr}}$ , and much smaller electric oscillations during reverse recovery compared to the conventional SJ MOSFET.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Insight Into Ni/4H-SiC Schottky Barrier Inhomogeneity at Microscale Level
    • Authors: Meng-Meng Gao;Ting-Ting Hu;Zhi-Zhan Chen;
      Pages: 3929 - 3934
      Abstract: Ni/4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) are fabricated and then annealed at different annealing temperatures to explore the Schottky barrier inhomogeneity (SBI). The macro- and microelectrical properties of SBDs are characterized by current–voltage ( ${I}$ – ${V}$ ) curves and using a conductive atomic force microscope (CAFM), respectively. The morphologies of the contact surface and the interface are observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. The results show that the annealed SBDs exhibit double-barrier characteristics, which come up with two distinct explanations for the observed SBI at different annealing temperatures. The formation of voids in the contact layer and the hexagonal pits in the SiC leads to the SBI in 600 °C-annealed SBDs. As for the 400 °C- and 500 °C-annealed SBDs, only the formation of voids in the contact layer matters. Schottky barriers on the pit (voids) areas are lower (higher) than that on other areas. The established relationship among the annealing temperatures, morphologies, and microelectrical properties deepens the understanding of the barrier inhomogeneity and provides a direction for improving the Schottky barrier homogeneity.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Reverse-Bias Stress-Induced Electrical Parameters Instability in 4H-SiC
           JBS Diodes Terminated Nonequidistance FLRs
    • Authors: Qingwen Song;Hao Yuan;Qiujie Sun;Chao Han;Xiaoyan Tang;Yimeng Zhang;Lei Yuan;Shuai Yang;Yuming Zhang;
      Pages: 3935 - 3939
      Abstract: In this article, the breakdown voltage ( ${V}_{text {BR}}$ ) shift of 4H-SiC Junction Barrier Schottky (JBS) diodes terminated by optimum nonequidistant field limiting rings (FLRs) subject to reverse-bias stress (RBS) has been investigated, and the corresponding mechanisms are studied in-depth. It can be observed that ${V}_{text {BR}}$ gradually increases with increasing stress time, but there is no obvious shift of the forward voltage ( ${V}_{F}$ ). The increment in the magnitude of ${V}_{text {BR}}$ induced by RBS testing is shown to depend strongly on the degree of applied reverse-bias voltage. The physical mechanism of ${V}_{text {BR}}$ shift has been investigated and explained by means of numerical technical computer-aided design (T-CAD) simulations. Our analysis shows that the hole injection and trapping into SiO2 at the FLR terminal area are identified to be the main cause, resulting in the increase of ${V}_{text {BR}}$ . Besides, a simple model is proposed to explain the behavior of ${V}_{text {BR}}$ instability.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Characterization of Process-Induced Nonuniformity Using Asymmetric
           Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor Capacitive Test Structure
    • Authors: Rajesh Agarwal;
      Pages: 3940 - 3945
      Abstract: For most large-area applications, spatial nonuniformity of transistor characteristics makes it difficult if not impossible, to achieve adequate performance. Nonuniform parameters may lead to variations in color or gray level, which is commercially not viable. A variation in threshold voltage, mobility or ${I}-{V}$ characteristics of an organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) in a pixel circuit can result in unacceptable variation in the current driving the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) which accounts for large nonuniformities in the pixel brightness. Given its importance, a fast and straightforward method for characterization of device variations would be of great help in the process development and optimization. In the present work, a simple, easy to fabricate two-terminal asymmetric metal–insulator–semiconductor (AMIS) capacitive test structure is proposed for quick and accurate characterization of the process-induced nonuniformities in mobility, threshold voltage, and drain current. The capacitance–voltage ( ${C}-{V}$ ) characteristic of the proposed AMIS structure is derived mostly from the channel, and its contribution to the total capacitance at any given frequency depends on channel properties including mobility and threshold voltage. At low frequencies, the ${C}-{V}$ characteristics become independent of the series resistances, and hence, complex techniques can be sidestepped for accurate estimation of channel properties. The simulation results are presented to demonstrate the concept using a single AMIS test structure. The experimental results obtained with top contact pentacene based on AMIS arrays are presented to show the concept and advantages of the proposed structure.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Low-Loss Characteristics of Metal-Foil-Based Passive Components by
           Surface-Activated Bonding Technologies
    • Authors: Keita Matsuura;Jianbo Liang;Koichi Maezawa;Naoteru Shigekawa;
      Pages: 3946 - 3952
      Abstract: Low-loss passive components for RF signals compatible with the on-wafer process are essential for realizing integrated circuits with high-frequency and high-power operations. We successfully fabricate thick-metal-film-based coplanar waveguides (CPWs) and inductors (INDs) by directly bonding a 17- $mu text{m}$ -thick Al foil to a sapphire (0001) substrate and wet etching. The surface-activated bonding (SAB) technologies at room temperature are used. RF characteristics of the foil-based passive components are compared with those of components made of 1- $mu text{m}$ -thick evaporated Al layers. We obtain a better insertion loss and a higher ${Q}$ -factor for foil-based CPWs and INDs, respectively. The measured characteristics are compared with those obtained by an analysis based on the equivalent circuit scheme. Impacts of side etching of foils and surface oxidation on their characteristics are observed. Characteristics of virtual components made of 1- $mu text{m}$ -thick Al foils, i.e., 1- $mu text{m}$ -thick Al films with the same resistivity as that of foils, are analytically investigated.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • A Health Monitoring Method for Bond Wires in IGBT Modules Based on Voltage
           Ringing Characteristics
    • Authors: Jing Lei;Du Mingxing;Wei Kexin;William Gerard Hurley;
      Pages: 3953 - 3960
      Abstract: Bond wire failure is a common failure that seriously affects the reliability of insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules. Real-time health monitoring for bond wires is very important to avoid catastrophic failures. In this article, we introduce a new health monitoring method for bond wires in IGBT modules based on the voltage ringing characteristics. We applied a double pulse circuit to generate voltage ringing in IGBTs and freewheeling diodes (FWDs) during turn off and reverse recovery phases. To monitor bond wire failure, we theoretically and experimentally validated the overshoot and oscillation frequency as indicators. In particular, we investigated the effects of the junction temperature and operating conditions on the overshoot and proposed their influence functions. We designed a measurement circuit to identify small changes in the overshoot. Finally, the health baselines for the overshoot under different conditions were experimentally verified. The novelty of the research lies in the accurate online monitoring for bond wire failure in IGBT modules without any external injection; the measurement circuit adopts the interrupt mode to save the controller resources. Our experimental results showed that after half the bond wire of the IGBT and the FWD failed, their voltage overshoot increased by nearly 5%.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Field Electrons Intercepted by Coplanar Gates in Nanoscale Air Channel
    • Authors: Wen-Teng Chang;Po-Heng Pao;
      Pages: 3961 - 3966
      Abstract: Air-channel transistors can exhibit ballistic transport and immunity from carrier scattering if the channel distance is smaller than the mean free path (MFP) of electrons in an ambient environment. This study explored metal-based air-channel transistors with coplanar gates with different air-channel distances. The results indicate that the devices can exhibit field-enhanced features, but will eventually be field-lowered with increasing gate potential because the coplanar gates attract and intercept a portion of electron emission. The air-channel distance determines the device conductivity with or without a gate electric field, whereas the gate-to-gate distance determines the interception of electron emission. These devices may be utilized as inverters for vacuum transistors.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Modeling of Organic Metal–Insulator– Semiconductor Capacitor
    • Authors: Prashanth Kumar Manda;Logesh Karunakaran;Sandeep Thirumala;Anjan Chakravorty;Soumya Dutta;
      Pages: 3967 - 3972
      Abstract: In this paper, we present the operation principle of an organic metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) capacitor where the organic semiconductor is undoped. In spite of a low charge concentration within the semiconductor, this device exhibits a capacitance variation with respect to the applied gate voltage yielding the capacitance–voltage characteristics similar to that of a traditional MIS capacitor based on the doped semiconductor. A physics-based model is developed to derive the charge concentration, surface potential, and the capacitance of the organic MIS capacitor. The model is validated with TCAD simulation results as well as with experimental data obtained from the fabricated organic MIS capacitor consisting of poly(4-vinylphenol) and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl) as an insulator and a semiconductor, respectively.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Two-Terminal and Multi-Terminal Designs for Next-Generation Quantized Hall
           Resistance Standards: Contact Material and Geometry
    • Authors: Mattias Kruskopf;Albert F. Rigosi;Alireza R. Panna;Dinesh K. Patel;Hanbyul Jin;Martina Marzano;Michael Berilla;David B. Newell;Randolph E. Elmquist;
      Pages: 3973 - 3977
      Abstract: In this paper, we show that quantum Hall resistance measurements using two terminals may be as precise as four-terminal measurements when applying superconducting split contacts. The described sample designs eliminate resistance contributions of terminals and contacts such that the size and complexity of next-generation quantized Hall resistance devices can be significantly improved.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • ZnO Nanorod Humidity Sensor and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells as a
           Self-Powered Device
    • Authors: Sheng-Joue Young;Kuo-Wei Yuan;
      Pages: 3978 - 3981
      Abstract: In this paper, ZnO nanorod humidity sensors with dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) were prepared on indium tin oxide conductive glass. The average diameter and length of the ZnO nanorods were ~100 nm and $sim 1.5~mu text{m}$ , respectively. After ZnO nanorods were grown, TiO2 film was coated by TiO2 with a nanoparticle size of approximately 26 nm through the doctor blade method. The sensitizer N3 was used for charge transfer on the DSCs. The solar photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the DSCs was approximately 4.7%. Humidity sensors were used for measurement under ultraviolet (UV) light at 365 nm. During UV illumination, the current increased under low humidity and gradually decreased under high humidity. The integrated device exhibited similar stable and sensitive performance as the traditional ZnO humidity sensor. Experimental results revealed that DSCs could be integrated with ZnO nanorod humidity sensors to create a self-powered integrated device that has potential Internet of Things applications.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Fabrication, Characterization, and Gas Sensing Performance of Pd, RGO, and
           MnO2 Nanoflowers-Based Ternary Junction Device
    • Authors: Sanghamitra Ghosal;Partha Bhattacharyya;
      Pages: 3982 - 3987
      Abstract: Pd, reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and MnO2 nanoflowers-based ternary hybrid junction was fabricated, characterized, and its gas sensing potentiality was established and reported in this paper. Four different types of devices, viz., pristine MnO2 nanoflowers (Device I), Pd/MnO2 nanoflowers (Device II), RGO/MnO2 nanoflowers (Device III), and Pd/RGO/MnO2 nanoflowers (Device IV) were fabricated to study the influence of each of the elements and to account for its contribution towards improving the gas sensor device performance towards alcohol vapors as the test species. After detailed structural characterizations, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, alcohol vapor sensing performance was studied using methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol in the temperature range of room temperature (~27 °C) to 150 °C targeting the concentration range of 5–100 ppm. Ternary structure (Device IV) was found to offer remarkably superior performance in terms of response magnitude (RM) (~92.52% at 100 ppm), response time (~11 s), and recovery time (~16 s) compared to its binary (For Pd/MnO2: (~86.86%, ~36 s, ~43 s and for RGO/MnO2: ~80.85%, ~21 s, ~27 s) or pristine counterparts (~27.22%, ~59 s, ~67 s). The plausible cause of such remarkable improvement was attributed to the synergistic contribution of both RGO and Pd. While Pd as a catalyst helped in easy dissociation of target species ensuring the improved performance at low temperature, RGO enhanced the vapor adsorption rate du- to of its additional adsorption sites and fast response/recovery kinetics due to high carrier mobility.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Performance Assessment of New Dual-Pocket Vertical Heterostructure Tunnel
           FET-Based Biosensor Considering Steric Hindrance Issue
    • Authors: Amit Bhattacharyya;Manash Chanda;Debashis De;
      Pages: 3988 - 3993
      Abstract: In this paper, a new dual-pocket (DP), dielectric modulated (DM) heterostructured tunnel field-effect transistor (DM-HTFET)-based biosensor has been reported. First, the efficacy of the DP-hetero-TFET (HTFET) has been analyzed by comparing it with other existing TFET structures. Next, a comprehensive assessment of sensitivity between single-pocket (SP) and DP-DM-HTFET biosensors for pocket thickness ( ${T}_{text {pocket}}$ ), pocket length ( ${L}_{text {pocket}}$ ), pocket doping ( ${N}_{text {pocket}}$ ), work function of the gate metal, molar fraction of Ge, gate oxide layer, and gate oxide layer thickness ( ${T}_{text {ox}}$ ) was done. Hence, a nonuniform arrangement of biomolecules inside the cavity simulation has been done using ATLAS device simulation software to validate the working ability of the proposed sensor. Significant improvement in the sensitivity due to threshold voltage (ON-current) i.e., 26.78% (78.5%), 60.8% (40.4%), 56% ( ${2.2} times {10}^{{2}}$ %), and 40.6% (80.68%) has been observed for the DP-DM-HTFET over SP with the variation of ${T}_{text {pocket}}$ , ${L}_{text {pocket}}$ , ${N}_{text {pocket}}$ , and ${T}_{text {ox}}$ , respectively. DP-DM-HTFET-based current mirror circuit has also been demonstrated at the end. Sensitivity evaluation discloses that the DP-DM-HTFET can be a promising candidate for CMOS-based label-free biosensing applications.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Low-Noise Schottky Junction Trigate Silicon Nanowire Field-Effect
           Transistor for Charge Sensing
    • Authors: Xi Chen;Si Chen;Shi-Li Zhang;Paul Solomon;Zhen Zhang;
      Pages: 3994 - 4000
      Abstract: Silicon nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistors (SiNWFETs) are of great potential as a high-sensitivity charge sensor. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of an SiNWFET sensor is ultimately limited by the intrinsic device noise generated by carrier trapping/detrapping processes at the gate oxide/silicon interface. This carrier trapping/detrapping-induced noise can be significantly reduced by replacing the noisy oxide/silicon interface with a Schottky junction gate (SJG) on the top of the SiNW. In this paper, we present a tri-SJG SiNWFET (Tri-SJGFET) with the SJG formed on both the top surface and the two sidewalls of the SiNW so as to enhance the gate control over the SiNW channel. Both experiment and simulation confirm that the additional sidewall gates in a narrow Tri-SJGFET indeed can confine the conduction path within the bulk of the SiNW channel away from the interfaces and significantly improve the immunity to the traps at the bottom buried oxide/silicon interface. Therefore, the optimal low-frequency noise performance can be achieved without the need for any substrate bias. This new gating structure holds promises for further development of robust SiNWFET-based charge sensors with low noise and low operation voltage.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Low-Power, High-Sensitivity Temperature Sensor Based on Ultrathin SOI
           Lateral p-i-n Gated Diode
    • Authors: Guoli Li;Nicolas André;Qi Chen;Huiru Wang;Laurent A. Francis;Yun Zeng;Lei Liao;Denis Flandre;
      Pages: 4001 - 4007
      Abstract: In this work, we present a silicon-based p-i-n thermal diode, with post-CMOS MEMS processing (deep reactive ion etching and Al deposition) and annealing (at 250 °C). The MEMS processing degraded device stability as well as thermal sensing linearity and sensitivity, while the local annealing recovered the device performance (forward and reverse characteristics) by reducing the trap density and improving the carrier lifetime. After annealing, the on-membrane diode can achieve stabilized thermal linearity with a high sensitivity of ~ 2.25 mV/°C at 0.02– $0.03~mu text{A}$ low constant current, in the temperature range from room temperature to 200 °C, under a back-gate bias of 90 V to achieve a fully-depleted condition in the intrinsic (I) region and decrease the trap-assisted recombination at the front surface which dominates and degrades the device forward output current. To be compatible with commercial 1.0- $mu text{m}$ SOI CMOS technology, a front gate with a 25-nm-thick oxide dielectric is proposed and simulated in Atlas/SILVACO to optimize the device performance and achieve the same thermal characteristics under a front-gate bias of 1.0 V, showing its potential in low-power consumption electronics. The temperature sensor investigated in this work shows its industrial capability in gas sensing and integrated circuit applications.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Multiphysics Modeling of Insert Cooling System for a 170-GHz, 2-MW
           Long-Pulse Coaxial-Cavity Gyrotron
    • Authors: P. C. Kalaria;M. George;S. Illy;K. A. Avramidis;G. Gantenbein;S. Ruess;M. Thumm;J. Jelonnek;
      Pages: 4008 - 4015
      Abstract: High-power, high-frequency gyrotrons are the only promising sources for the electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive (ECRH&CD) in the present thermonuclear fusion plasma experiments and in future power plants. Compared to the hollow-cavity gyrotron design, the coaxial cavity gyrotron design facilitates improved mode competition control, which eventually increases the output power per tube. At KIT-IHM, the successful operation of a 170-GHz gyrotron has been demonstrated in the short-pulse regime, and the ongoing research activities are aiming to upgrade the existing coaxial cavity gyrotron from short-pulse (1–10 ms) to long-pulse (~ 1s) operation. In this paper, with the help of multiphysics simulations, the performance of the insert cooling system is verified for the continuous wave (CW) operation and the operating limits of the insert cooling systems are determined. The perfectly aligned coaxial Glidcop insert will be able to withstand operating conditions leading to a maximal heat flux of about 0.39 kW/cm2. The influence of insert misalignment on insert loading is also studied systematically in this paper.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Theoretical Analysis and PIC Simulation of a 220-GHz Second-Harmonic
           Confocal Waveguide Gyro-TWT Amplifier
    • Authors: Chenxiang An;Dian Zhang;Jun Zhang;Huihuang Zhong;
      Pages: 4016 - 4021
      Abstract: Confocal gyrotron traveling-wave tube (gyro-TWT) is capable of operating in higher order modes, so it is attractive in high-frequency (> 100 GHz) band. However, the reported experimental and simulation results of confocal gyro-TWT usually operated at fundamental harmonic, so high external magnetic field was essential. In this paper, a second harmonic 220-GHz confocal gyro-TWT was designed through linear and nonlinear theory and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The key problem of suppressing the backward-wave oscillations (BWOs) of both fundamental and second harmonics was solved by limiting the cavity length of the first section less than the critical BWOs length. In PIC simulations, the gyro-TWT operates at HE07 mode with an output power of 4.55 kW, the efficiency of 2.2% gain of 21.8 and the −3 dB bandwidth of 6 GHz. The calculated results from the nonlinear theory are in good agreement with the results from PIC simulation.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Analysis of the Small Signal Gain of a Sheet Beam BWO With a Partially
           Dielectric-Loaded Nonuniform Grating
    • Authors: Fengzhen Zhang;Zhaochuan Zhang;Dongping Gao;Xiaoyan Wang;
      Pages: 4022 - 4028
      Abstract: A partially dielectric-loaded (PDL) nonuniform grating with lower ohmic losses for a sheet beam backward wave oscillator (BWO) and a clinotron is proposed in this paper. The expressions of the electromagnetic fields for the PDL nonuniform-grating-based slow-wave structure (SWS) are derived by using Maxwell’s equations and Floquet’s theorem. The dispersion equation is derived using the field-matching method and is verified by simulation. The expression of the Pierce small signal gain of a BWO with a PDL nonuniform grating is obtained by using the electromagnetic field expressions and the small signal gain theory. The effects of different parameters on the gain of a BWO with a nondielectric-loaded (NDL) nonuniform grating and those of a BWO with a PDL nonuniform grating are discussed, and the mode competition of this kind of BWO is analyzed in terms of gain. The oscillation frequencies obtained from the mode competition analysis are verified by a particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation, confirming the validity of the analysis.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Effect of Insert Misalignment on a Triangular Corrugated Coaxial Cavity
    • Authors: S. Yuvaraj;Delphine Alphonsa Jose;Sukwinder Singh;M. V. Kartikeyan;
      Pages: 4029 - 4035
      Abstract: In this paper, the field analysis of a triangular corrugated coaxial cavity with misaligned insert is carried out for a megawatt-class sub-terahertz wave gyrotron. In misalignment analysis, both parallel displacement of the insert axis and tilting of the insert axis with the outer resonator axis are considered. Graff’s addition theorem is used for deriving the eigenvalue equation of the coaxial cavity with such a misaligned insert. Mathematical formulations are carried out to include the effect of insert misalignment on the beam coupling coefficient and ohmic wall loading of the outer cavity and insert of the coaxial cavity gyrotron. The effect of structural misalignment of the insert on the operation of 2-MW, 220-GHz coaxial cavity gyrotron is analyzed. It is shown that insert misalignment reduces RF output power as well as increases ohmic wall loading of the insert beyond the prescribed cooling limit. Compared to tilting of the insert, parallel displacement of the insert causes more deterioration in the gyrotron operation. Comparative studies are also performed for a coaxial cavity with rectangular slots on the insert.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Optimum Design and Performance of an Electron Gun for a
           Ka-Band TWT
    • Authors: P. Livreri;R. Badalamenti;A. Muratore;
      Pages: 4036 - 4041
      Abstract: This paper deals with optimum design and development of a thermionic electron gun to meet specified beam requirements within defined electric and geometric constraints for a Ka-band traveling wave tube (TWT) for space applications. The electron gun design is based on the Pierce method and carried out according to the iterative process indicated by Vaughan. The design of a periodic permanent magnet (PPM) beam focusing system for the stability of the beam is also required. A sensitivity analysis, by varying electric parameters and geometric parameters, is presented and taken into account as a fundamental role to the aim of optimizing the design of the Pierce gun. A cathode current value of 550 mA at a cathode voltage value of 20 KV with a beam diameter value of less than 0.55 mm, as a result of the analysis, is imposed as a goal design parameter, to obtain a TWT output power value more than 500 W. The simulated results show very good agreement with the beam tester experimental results. The body current measured value, in excellent agreement with the simulated one, shows the effectiveness of the design procedure. Data from the experimental beam tester demonstrate 98% beam transmission to the collector.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • DIMOHA: A Time-Domain Algorithm for Traveling-Wave Tube Simulations
    • Authors: Damien F. G. Minenna;Yves Elskens;Frédéric André;Alexandre Poyé;Jérôme Puech;Fabrice Doveil;
      Pages: 4042 - 4047
      Abstract: To simulate traveling-wave tubes (TWTs) in time domain and, more generally, the wave–particle interaction in vacuum devices, we developed the DIscrete MOdel with HAmiltonian approach (DIMOHA) model as an alternative to current particle-in-cell (PIC) and frequency approaches. Indeed, it is based on a longitudinal ${N}$ -body Hamiltonian approach satisfying Maxwell’s equations. Advantages of DIMOHA comprise: 1) it allows arbitrary waveform (not just field envelope), including continuous waveform (CW), multiple carriers, or digital modulations (shift keying); 2) the algorithm is much faster than PIC codes, thanks to a field discretization allowing a drastic degree-of-freedom reduction, along with a robust symplectic integrator; 3) it supports any periodic slow wave structure (SWS) design such as a helix or folded waveguides; 4) it reproduces harmonic generation, reflection, oscillation, and distortion phenomena; and 5) it handles nonlinear dynamics, including intermodulations, trapping, and chaos. DIMOHA accuracy is assessed by comparing it against measurements from a commercial ${Ku}$ -band tapered helix TWT and against simulations from a subterahertz folded-waveguide TWT with a staggered double-grating SWS. The algorithm is also tested for multiple carriers simulations with success.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Mode Control Analysis and Large-Signal Design of a High-Power Terahertz
           Extended Interaction Oscillator
    • Authors: Hooman Bahman Soltani;Habibollah Abiri;
      Pages: 4048 - 4055
      Abstract: A high-power 200-GHz extended interaction oscillator (EIO) is designed by large-signal analysis. Analyzing different resonant modes, we calculated the mode called, here, as ${L}_{{1}} $ to be the most efficient one for our structure. From eigenmode analysis, it was predicted that the resonator-slow wave structure (SWS) coupling region has a considerable effect on resonant RF mode due to a ${L}_{{1}} rightarrow {L}_{-{1}} $ mode transformation, where ${L}_{-{1}} $ is a parasitic low-output power resonant mode of the resonator. Using the eigenmode outcomes in addition to large-signal results, we found the optimum dimensions for the coupling region. The designed oscillator was then simulated by Particle-in-Cell (PIC) solver, leading to approximately the same results as those predicted by the mentioned procedure. The observed mode competition of different modes of the oscillator is analyzed and then removed by inserting a lossy layer at a proper location. By properly introducing a stub mode tuner near the output coupler, we could selectively excite the ${L}_{{1}} $ mode and maximize the RF output power to values even higher than those observed in the absence of mode tuner. Stable RF powers up to 2 kW are predicted to be obtainable by the sheet electron beams with beam densities lower than the state of the art.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • ${W}$+ -Band+Pulsed+Traveling-Wave+Tubes&rft.title=IEEE+Transactions+on+Electron+Devices&rft.issn=0018-9383&;&rft.aufirst=Jinsheng&;Xiaoqing+Zhang;Yinghua+Du;Jun+Cai;Jinjun+Feng;">Design of a Multistage Depressed Collector for ${W}$ -Band Pulsed
           Traveling-Wave Tubes
    • Authors: Jinsheng Yang;Xiaoqing Zhang;Yinghua Du;Jun Cai;Jinjun Feng;
      Pages: 4056 - 4061
      Abstract: This article presents a design method for multistage depressed collectors (MDCs) in ${W}$ -band traveling -wave tubes (TWTs) using microwave tube simulation studio (MTSS) code. First, the conditions of the spent electron beam, including electron position and velocity distributions, were simulated. Then, to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the simulation, the output power, electronic efficiency, collector efficiency and overall efficiency of the existing 250-W ${W}$ -band pulsed TWT with a single-stage collector were also simulated making use of the above-spent beam conditions at the entrance of the collector. The simulated data were compared with the test results, indicating a reasonable agreement between them. Finally, the spent beam conditions at the entrance of the collector were employed to design a four-stage depressed collector, based on the folded waveguide circuit of the TWT. The simulated results showed that the overall efficiency of the TWT with the designed four-stage depressed collector increased by more than 37.26% in the whole frequency band, with the maximum overall efficiency of 44.65%. In comparison with the single-stage depressed collector, the collector efficiency and the overall efficiency of the TWT were increased from 75% to 88.85% and 26.45% to 44.65%, respectively. This article is believed to provide some guidance for the design of MDC of higher frequency band TWTs.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Switching Performance Comparison With Low Switching Energy Due to Initial
           Temperature Increment in CoFeB/MgO-Based Single and Double Barriers
    • Authors: B. Teso;A. Siritaratiwat;A. Kaewrawang;A. Kruesubthaworn;A. Namvong;S. Sainon;C. Surawanitkun;
      Pages: 4062 - 4067
      Abstract: Spin-transfer torque magnetic random-access memory (STT-MRAM) based on a single-barrier magnetic tunnel junction (SBMTJ) and a double-barrier magnetic tunnel junction (DBMTJ) has evolved along with a low switching current and low energy consumption to obtain a high areal density and a fast switching speed. The increment of initial temperature, ${T}_{{text {in}}}$ , in STT-MRAM can achieve low switching energy, ${E}_{{text {SW}}}$ . However, this leads to an unavoidable decrease in $Delta $ and switching efficiency. In this paper, SBMTJ and DBMTJ were analyzed in terms of the switching efficiency factor with ${E}_{{text {SW}}}$ reduction by increasing the ${T}_{{text {in}}}$ . The switching temperature, ${T}_{{text {SW}}}$ , was investigated using a finite-element method simulation. The results show that the DBMTJ(A) and SBMTJ with the same MgO layer thickness of 0.9 nm provide a higher switching current, ${I}_{{text {C}}}$ , than the DBMTJ(B) with a MgO layer thickness of 1.3 nm. The ${T}_{{text {SW}}}$ in a DBMTJ(A) is higher than that in an SBMTJ, while ${T}_{{text {SW}}}$ for a DBMTJ(B) is the smallest because of its low ${I}_{{text {C}}}$ . The DBMTJ(A) and DBMTJ(B) can be applied in a higher temperature range than the SBMTJ at a $Delta $ of 40. In addition, the STT efficiency factor, $Delta /{I}_{{text {C0}}}$ , for a DBMTJ is better than the factor for an SBMTJ. Although the temperature increment would cause an undesirable reduction in $Delta $ , it can reach a low ${E}_{{text {SW}}}$ for the requirement of a fast write access time. Therefore, the control device for increasing the ${T}_{{text {in}}}$ in the MTJs is attractive and should be promoted in the advancement of memory technology.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Impact of Fin Width on Tri-Gate GaN MOSHEMTs
    • Authors: Jun Ma;Giovanni Santoruvo;Luca Nela;Taifang Wang;Elison Matioli;
      Pages: 4068 - 4074
      Abstract: In this paper, we present a detailed investigation of the impact of fin width ( ${w}_{text {fin}}$ ) on tri-gate AlGaN/GaN metal–oxide–semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MOSHEMTs). As ${w}_{text {fin}}$ is reduced, the threshold voltage ( ${V}_{text {TH}}$ ) increases, which is due to the enhanced gate control (especially for ${w}_{text {fin}} < {200}$ nm) thanks to the 3-D geometry of the tri-gate, and the reduced carrier concentration ( ${N}_{text {s}}$ ) caused by a more pronounced strain relaxation and sidewall depletion, as explored using Hall and capacitance–voltage ( ${C}$ – ${V}$ ) measurements. Normally- OFF operation was achieved for ${w}_{text {fin}}$ close to the sidewall depletion width ( ${w}_{text {dep}}$ ) of 19.5 nm, since the fin is depleted from its two sidewalls. The impact of ${w}_{text {fin}}$ on ON-resistance ( ${R} _{{{ {6{8} {text {ON}}}}}}$ ) and current capability ( ${I} _{text {D},text {max}}$ ) was also investigated, along with the influence of the effective source injection, th- trench conduction and the filling factor (FF) on these key characteristics. The degradation caused by the tri-gate fin etching could be fully recovered by increasing the FF. Finally, we show that the tri-gate can reduce gate capacitance ( ${C}_{text {G}}$ ) and charge ( ${Q}_{text {G}}$ ) in normally- ON MOSHEMTs, depending on the design of the tri-gate and the gate voltage ( ${V}_{text {G}}$ ), leading to a smaller ${R}_{{{ {6{8} {text {ON}}}}}} cdot {Q}_{text {G}}$ product that is beneficial for high-frequency switching applications. The results in this paper offer insights into important phenomena in tri-gate GaN devices and are fundamental for the further advance of this technology.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Application of Differential Electrodes in a Dielectrophoresis-Based Device
           for Cell Separation
    • Authors: V. Shirmohammadli;N. Manavizadeh;
      Pages: 4075 - 4080
      Abstract: In this paper, a microfluidic device is introduced based on direct current (dc) dielectrophoresis for the separation of circulating tumor cells from normal blood cells. Differential sidewall electrodes are designed inside the channel and two middle-channel outlets are located after the end of the electrodes, which are assigned to collect the normal blood cells. A maximum dc potential of 3 V is applied to the electrodes, resulting in a differential dielectrophoretic forces acting on the cells. This paper involves isolating MCF-7 breast cancer cells from white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs), eliminating the demand for primary RBC lysis. Numerical simulation results revealed that the differential electrodes not only suppressed successfully the need for high applied voltages by dc dielectrophoresis but also diminished the joule heating effects. Besides that, the arrangement of the differential electrodes was observed to play a critical role in the separation performance. In particular, designing the outlets, as well as adjusting the electrode potentials, has effectively assisted the device to be tunable for different cancer cells even with different radii. More strikingly, the ability of the device to deflect the waste cells (WBCs and RBCs) to out of the microchannel prior to the cancer cells was proven to positively affect the separation efficiency and purity. The proposed device was capable of separating different cells leveraging various diameters with capture purity and efficiency of higher than 83% and 100%, respectively.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Impact of Gate–Source Overlap on the Device/Circuit Analog
           Performance of Line TFETs
    • Authors: Abhishek Acharya;A. B. Solanki;S. Glass;Q. T. Zhao;Bulusu Anand;
      Pages: 4081 - 4086
      Abstract: The gate–source overlap length ( ${L}_{{text {OV}}}$ ) in the line tunneling FET (L-TFET) can be used as a design parameter to improve the analog circuit performance. In this paper, we investigate the drain current ( ${I}_{D}$ ) dependence on ${L}_{{text {OV}}}$ , considering the electrostatics of the gate–source overlap region. It is observed that ${I}_{D}$ increases with ${L}_{{text {OV}}}$ exhibiting a nonlinear behavior. This happens as the impact of the lateral electric field at the far end of the tunnel junction reduces, thereby reducing the tunneling rate. Based on our semiempirical physical ${I}_{D}$ – ${L}_{{text {OV}}}$ model, a novel ${L}_{{text {OV}}}$ variation-aware small signal model for L-TFET is also proposed. The output resistance and the gate–drain capacitance remain almost independent of ${L}_{{text {OV}}}$ in the saturation regime. The gate–source capacitance and the transconductance linearly increase with ${L}_{{text {OV}}}$ . A common source amplifier is demonstrated with ~2.4 times increase in the voltage gain when ${L}_{{text {OV}}}$ is incr-ased from 20 to 50 nm, with a penalty of ~10% in the bandwidth. We observe that it is not possible to achieve the gain similar to one obtained using 2.5 times increase in ${L}_{{text {OV}}}$ even after increasing the device width five times. However, the bandwidth reduces 30% at such width owing to an increase in the gate capacitances.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Room Temperature-Processed a-IGZO Schottky Diode for Rectifying Circuit
           and Bipolar 1D1R Crossbar Applications
    • Authors: Quantan Wu;Guanhua Yang;Congyan Lu;Guangwei Xu;Jiawei Wang;Bingjie Dang;Yuxin Gong;Xuewen Shi;Xichen Chuai;Nianduan Lu;Di Geng;Hong Wang;Ling Li;Ming Liu;
      Pages: 4087 - 4091
      Abstract: In this paper, we demonstrate a tunable Schottky diode based on amorphous indium–gallium–zinc–oxide (a-IGZO) film with high performance for rectifying circuit and bipolar one diode-one resistor (1D1R) crossbar applications. By modulating the oxygen content in the a-IGZO film, the device shows adjustable behavior. Under the high oxygen content condition, the device displays outstanding diode features with a large rectification ratio up to 108 at ±1 V and a high forward current density of 100 A/cm2 at ±1 V when used Cu as the top electrode. The thermionic emission model is proposed to explain the Schottky diode behavior. And by utilizing the superior rectifying performance, we successfully demonstrate the dynamic rectifying application. In addition, we combine the optimized Schottky diode device with the bipolar-type resistive random access memory (RRAM) device to investigate the Schottky diode device in 1D1R crossbar application. As a result of its tunable nature and low processing temperature, the a-IGZO Schottky diode is a promising element for rectifying circuit and bipolar 1D1R crossbar applications.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • A Compact Model for 2-D Poly-MoS2 FETs With Resistive Switching in
           Postsynaptic Simulation
    • Authors: Lingfei Wang;Lin Wang;Kah-Wee Ang;Aaron Voon-Yew Thean;Gengchiau Liang;
      Pages: 4092 - 4100
      Abstract: The analog resistive switching (RS) characteristics in 2-D polycrystalline (poly-) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) field-effect transistors (FETs) enable new electronic devices capable of emulating biological synaptic behaviors. In 2-D poly-materials, grain boundary (GB)-induced trap states are of major significance to RS behaviors. However, there is still a lack of appropriate compact models that capture accurate physical mechanisms. Therefore, we developed a surface potential-based compact model, based on the theories of the GB energy barrier and space charge limited current (SCLC). By calibrating to experimental data of MoS2, the physical parameters are extracted, and the model explains the scaling behaviors of channel lengths and grain sizes. Due to the electric-field-induced defect redistribution, the energy barrier modulation at a single-GB (e.g., intersecting GB) quantitatively matches the reported experiments. Moreover, the possible SCLC-based RS behavior is also investigated. Furthermore, we have optimized the set/reset process and simulated the postsynaptic current (PSC) with a tunable potentiation (or depression) process, and then the gate voltage dependence and statistical effects on RS and PSC have been investigated. Thus, this model provides important devices physics insights of 2-D poly-materials and it guides device design, fabrication, and material engineering, to meet the requirements of the future neuromorphic computing application.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Ultrathin Junctionless Nanowire FET Model, Including 2-D Quantum
    • Authors: Danial Shafizade;Majid Shalchian;Farzan Jazaeri;
      Pages: 4101 - 4106
      Abstract: In this paper, we develop an explicit model to predict the dc electrical behavior in ultrathin surrounding gate junctionless (JL) nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs). The proposed model considers 2-D electrical and geometrical confinements of carrier charge density within few discrete subbands. Combining a parabolic approximation of the Poisson equation, the first-order perturbation theory for the Schrödinger subband energy eigen-values and the Fermi–Dirac statistics for the confined carrier density lead to an explicit solution of the dc characteristic in ultrathin JL devices. Validity of the model has been verified with technology computer-aided design simulations. The results confirm its validity for all regions of operation, i.e., from deep depletion to accumulation and from linear to saturation. This represents an essential step toward analysis of circuits based on JL nanowire devices.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • $pi$+ -SCR+Device+for+Broadband+ESD+Protection+in+Low-Voltage+CMOS+Technology&rft.title=IEEE+Transactions+on+Electron+Devices&rft.issn=0018-9383&;&rft.aufirst=Chun-Yu&;Yu-Hsuan+Lai;">$pi$ -SCR Device for Broadband ESD Protection in Low-Voltage CMOS
    • Authors: Chun-Yu Lin;Yu-Hsuan Lai;
      Pages: 4107 - 4110
      Abstract: Electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection design is needed for integrated circuits; however, the ESD protection devices near the I/O pad may cause negative impacts on the high-frequency performance. To achieve both excellent ESD robustness and good broadband performance, a silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) with trigger diodes, a matching inductor, and a reversed diode to form a novel $pi $ -SCR device is presented in this brief. As compared with the conventional $pi $ -diode in silicon, the $pi $ -SCR can reduce the clamping voltage during the critical positive-to- $V_{text {SS}}$ (PS) ESD test, and the high-frequency performance is not seriously degraded (insertion loss < 2 dB within 0–20 GHz in this brief). In addition, the $pi $ -SCR device does not suffer the latch-up issue in low-voltage CMOS technology, and it has the potential to further reduce the clamping voltage during other ESD tests. Therefore, the novel $pi $ -SCR device will be a good choice for broadband ESD protection in low-voltage CMOS technology.
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Call for Papers - T-ED special issue on Memory Devices and Technologies
           for the Next Decade
    • Pages: 4111 - 4112
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Ultra Wide Band Gap Semiconductors for Power Control and Conversion
    • Pages: 4113 - 4114
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Introducing IEEE Collabratec
    • Pages: 4115 - 4115
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
  • Together, we are advancing technology
    • Pages: 4116 - 4116
      PubDate: Sept. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 9 (2019)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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