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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 193 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advanced Materials Technologies     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 94)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 355)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Australian Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal  
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 310)
ECTI Transactions on Computer and Information Technology (ECTI-CIT)     Open Access  
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 123)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 104)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 103)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Embedded Systems Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage     Hybrid Journal  
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
EPE Journal : European Power Electronics and Drives     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 212)
Haptics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 100)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 75)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 73)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access  
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access  
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access  
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal ELTIKOM : Jurnal Teknik Elektro, Teknologi Informasi dan Komputer     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Magnetics Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Nanotechnology Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Pulse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Revue Méditerranéenne des Télécommunications     Open Access  
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Solid-State Circuits Magazine, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ural Radio Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Wireless Power Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Women in Engineering Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.309
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 73  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0018-926X
Published by IEEE Homepage  [191 journals]
  • IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
    • Abstract: Provides a listing of current staff, committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
    • Abstract: Provides a listing of current committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Institutional Listings
    • Abstract: Presents a listing of institutions relevant for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • 2019 IEEE Electromagnetics Award
    • Pages: 7183 - 7183
      Abstract: The IEEE Electromagnetics Award was established by the IEEE Board of Directors in 1996. It is sponsored by the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Society, IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society, and IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • 2019 Distinguished Achievement Award
    • Pages: 7184 - 7184
      Abstract: The Distinguished Achievement Award was established in 1985 to recognize outstanding technical achievement and meritorious service to the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • 2019 Chen-To Tai Distinguished Educator Award
    • Pages: 7185 - 7185
      Abstract: The Chen-To Tai Distinguished Educator Award was established in 2000 by the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society to recognize outstanding career achievements by a distinguished educator in the field of antennas and propagation.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • 2019 John Kraus Antenna Award
    • Pages: 7186 - 7186
      Abstract: The John Kraus Antenna Award honors an individual or team that has made a significant advance in antenna technology.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • 2019 Lot Shafai Mid-Career Distinguished Achievement Award
    • Pages: 7187 - 7187
      Abstract: The Lot Shafai Mid-Career Distinguished Achievement Award was established in 2013 to recognize the past technical accomplishments and future potential of an outstanding woman of mid-career status in the field of antennas and propagation.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • 2019 Harrington-Mittra Award in Computational Electromagnetics
    • Pages: 7188 - 7188
      Abstract: The Harrington-Mittra Award in Computational Electromagnetics was established in 2013 to recognize the past technical accomplishments and future potential of an outstanding contributor to the area of Computational Electromagnetics.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Donald G. Dudley, Jr., Undergraduate Teaching Award
    • Pages: 7189 - 7189
      Abstract: The Donald G. Dudley, Jr., Undergraduate Teaching Award was established in 2009 to recognize outstanding and original contributions to undergraduate education by an individual at that early stage of his/her career as an educator in the general field of electromagnetics including theory, analytical solutions, numerical methods, antennas, propagation, phenomena visualization, and measurements.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Sergei A. Schelkunoff Transactions Prize Paper Award
    • Pages: 7190 - 7191
      Abstract: The Sergei A. Schelkunoff Transactions Prize Paper Award is presented to the authors of the best paper published in the IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation during the previous year.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Harold A. Wheeler Applications Prize Paper Award
    • Pages: 7192 - 7192
      Abstract: The Harold A. Wheeler Applications Prize Paper Award is presented to the authors of the best applications paper published in the IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation during the previous year.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • R. W. P. King Paper Award
    • Pages: 7193 - 7193
      Abstract: The R. W. P. King Award is presented to an author under 36 years of age for the best paper published in the IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation during the previous year.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Piergiorgio L. E. Uslenghi Letters Prize Paper Award
    • Pages: 7194 - 7194
      Abstract: The Piergiorgio L. E. Uslenghi Letters Prize Paper Award was established in 2009 to recognize the best contribution published in the IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters during the previous year.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Edward E. Altschuler AP-S Magazine Prize Paper Award
    • Pages: 7195 - 7195
      Abstract: The IEEE Antennas and Propagation Edward E. Altschuler AP-S Magazine Prize Paper Award was established in 2010 to recognize the best contribution published in the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine during the previous year.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • 2019 IEEE Fellow Awards From the Antennas and Propagation Society
    • Pages: 7196 - 7196
      Abstract: Presents a listing of APSS members who were elevated to the stauts of IEEE Fellow.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Low-RCS and High-Gain Circularly Polarized Metasurface Antenna
    • Authors: Ya Fan;Jiafu Wang;Yongfeng Li;Jieqiu Zhang;Yajuan Han;Shaobo Qu;
      Pages: 7197 - 7203
      Abstract: High-gain planar antennas always contribute large radar cross section (RCS) to low-observed platforms. To solve this contradiction, we propose a novel design of circularly polarized metasurface antenna characterized by low RCS but high gain. Split ring resonators (SRRs) play a twofold role as the array elements for linear polarization and as the unit cells of metasurface for RCS reduction (RCSR). Four $2 times 2$ arrayed SRRs are positioned with orthogonal orientations as a super-array element (SAE) and fed with a phase shift of 90° in between for left-handed circular polarization. On the other hand, based on its original arrangement, the open-circuited SAE is also designed to be the super-cell of a (0°, 180°) reflective checkerboard metasurface. Owing to anti-phase energy cancellation and scattering, both the in-band and out-of-band RCS can be dramatically reduced. As indicated by the measurements in antenna, the fabricated prototype operating in $X$ -band exhibits a combined bandwidth (3 dB axial ratio (AR), 3 dB gain drop, and −10 dB impedance matching) of 16% with a maximum realized gain of 17.9 dB. Besides, under normal illumination, the measured specular reflection has been reduced by 10 dB within 9.2–10.8 GHz and by 7.5 dB from 10.8 to 14 GHz. This design method simultaneously ensures high-gain antenna performance as well as meets the requirement for low RCS.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Anisotropic Metasurface-Based Beam-Scanning Dual-Polarized Fan-Beam
           Integrated Antenna System
    • Authors: Kranti Kumar Katare;Sandhya Chandravanshi;Abhishek Sharma;Animesh Biswas;M. Jaleel Akhtar;
      Pages: 7204 - 7215
      Abstract: This paper presents a novel anisotropic metasurface (AMS)-based integrated antenna system to facilitate dual-polarized fan-beam patterns with independent beam-scanning ability. In the proposed configuration, the antenna subsystem comprises a specially designed differentially fed microstrip patch antenna (source antenna) along with a polarization rotator (PR). The differential antenna arrangement is realized using a square shaped microstrip patch capacitively coupled with two metallic strips, which are connected to a specially designed wideband hybrid coupler using two metallic vias for the microstrip feeding. This source antenna is loaded with a PR by placing it at a height of $0.35lambda _{0}$ from the radiating aperture. The PR comprised two identical metallic layer patterns, separated by two substrates. Depending upon the relative orientation of these layers, the polarization of the linearly polarized impinging spherical electromagnetic (EM) waves (originating from the source antenna) either remains preserved or gets rotated by 90° while transmitting through this PR. After realizing the antenna subsystem, a novel AMS lens is designed and placed above the PR. The proposed AMS lens is realized by integrating two cylindrical MS (CMS) lenses, $text {CMS}_{Y}$ and $text {CMS}_{X}$ . This integration provides a unique phase profile to the AMS lens, thus introducing appropriate phase correction to the incident orthogonally polarized spherical EM waves along their respective polarization direction. The proposed configuration of AMS lens, thus, results into formation of the independent dual-polarized fan-beam radiation beams. Finally, the steering of the generated fan-beams along the direction of their respective polarization is facili-ated using the proposed system by translating the AMS lens parallel to the source antenna.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Development of Robust Transparent Conformal Antennas Based on Conductive
           Mesh-Polymer Composite for Unobtrusive Wearable Applications
    • Authors: Abu Sadat Md. Sayem;Roy B. V. B. Simorangkir;Karu P. Esselle;Raheel M. Hashmi;
      Pages: 7216 - 7224
      Abstract: In this paper, a detailed investigation of the realization of conformal wearable transparent antennas by integrating conductive mesh with polymer has been presented. The proposed realization method is much simpler and more cost-effective than the existing realization methods of transparent antennas, and the prototype fabricated from the selected composite materials is more flexible and robust in bending operations than other transparent antennas. In this paper, the mechanical, electrical, and optical characteristics of the proposed composite material have been investigated to analyze its suitability for transparent flexible antenna realization. For concept demonstration, a prototype of a dual-band antenna operating at 2.33–2.53 GHz and 4.7–5.6 GHz has been fabricated and tested. These frequencies cover both the instrument, scientific, and measurement (ISM) and the wireless local area network (WLAN) bands. Full ground plane is utilized in the antenna design for on-body operations. The suitability of the antenna for wearable applications has been investigated by measuring its performance under physical deformation and testing its performance on phantom. Next, the RF performance of the antenna has been improved by using two layers of conductor to form the radiating element. Although transparency is slightly compromised, the double-layer element improves the gain and efficiency of the antenna.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Integrated Frequency-Reconfigurable Slot Antenna and Connected Slot
           Antenna Array for 4G and 5G Mobile Handsets
    • Authors: Muhammad Ikram;Emad Al Abbas;Nghia Nguyen-Trong;Khalil H. Sayidmarie;Amin Abbosh;
      Pages: 7225 - 7233
      Abstract: A dual-function slot antenna at microwave and millimeter-wave (mm-wave) band is proposed. The design consists of a slot printed on the edge of the structure ground plane. A short-circuited varactor diode (VAR) is used to achieve the frequency tunability from 2.05 to 2.7 GHz (4G, WLAN) with a maximum realized gain of 4.5 dBi. For mm-waveband, the slot works as a connected slot antenna array (CSAA) by using eight periodic feeders with a wide bandwidth of 23–29 GHz (5G) and a maximum realized gain of 12.5 dBi. To enhance the functionality, two slots are orthogonally arranged for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) application. The whole structure is implemented using Rogers 5880 substrate with a board size of $70times 60times 0.381$ mm3. The envelope correlation coefficient (ECC) and isolation are calculated, showing satisfactory MIMO characteristics. The minimum ECC value is 0.01, while the isolation is more than 20 dB among different feeding ports. Due to the integration of 4G and 5G operations into a single narrow slot, the proposed antenna system is compact, simple, and planar in structure and, thus, attractive for future mobile handheld devices.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • A Novel Stacked Antenna Configuration and its Applications in Dual-Band
           Shared-Aperture Base Station Antenna Array Designs
    • Authors: Yikai Chen;Jiacheng Zhao;Shiwen Yang;
      Pages: 7234 - 7241
      Abstract: A novel stacked antenna configuration is proposed for the designs of shared-aperture base station antennas. An antenna array consisting of a lower-band antenna element working in 690–960 MHz frequency band and four upper-band antenna elements operating in the 3.5–4.9 GHz band is designed to demonstrate the concept. In the proposed configuration, four upper-band antenna elements are placed over the aperture of the lower-band antenna. Four metallic sheets are introduced to provide capacitive loading for the lower-band antenna and simultaneously offer a ground plane for the upper-band antennas. Therefore, low-profile characteristic and high isolations between the dual-band antennas are guaranteed. The overall height of the antenna array is only $0.17lambda _{text {L0}}$ ( $lambda _{text {L0}}$ is the free-space wavelength at the center frequency of the lower band), which is much lower than those of conventional designs. The measured results demonstrate that the designed antenna array achieves 32.7% and 33.3% impedance bandwidth in the lower and upper bands, respectively. High port isolations (>30 dB), high gains (>8 dBi), and stable radiation patterns are achieved in the two frequency bands. Owing to its simple structure and compact size, the resultant antenna array is easy for fabrication and is a promising candidate for sub-6 GHz band and 690–960 MHz band antennas.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Efficient and Wideband Implantable Antenna Based on Magnetic Structures
    • Authors: Hui Li;Baoyi Wang;Lei Guo;Jiang Xiong;
      Pages: 7242 - 7251
      Abstract: Implantable devices are becoming prevalent in the field of biotelemetry. However, designing implantable antennas is challenging, since compact structure, large bandwidth, and relatively high gain are required at the same time in the lossy human tissue. In this paper, we analytically derive the electromagnetic (EM) fields of the electric and magnetic dipoles in the lossy human tissue and compare their radiation performance. Based on the analysis, a coupled small loop antenna is designed to obtain a large bandwidth of 74.1% when embedded in the muscle. The antenna is composed of an inner loop and an outer loop with printed capacitive structures, and it can also be rolled up into a capsule using flexible substrate. The overall dimension is $30times 16times 0.5$ mm3 and $pi times (5)^{2} times 16$ mm3 for the planar and the capsule structure, respectively. Compared with other implantable antennas, a relatively high gain of −23.19 dBi has been achieved for the planar small loop, as the magnetic antenna suffers from less power dissipation in the human tissue. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of the antenna is 177 W/kg with an input power of 1 W, which enables a maximum transmitting power of 9.03 mW according to the IEEE standard. The high transmitting power ensures the reliable communication link. The antenna prototypes were fabricated and measured in the minced pork, which has similar EM properties as the human muscle. The simulated and measured results basically agree with each other. The proposed implantable antenna is competitive in its balanced performance of wide band, high gain, low profile, and low SAR.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • A Wideband Differentially Driven Dual-Polarized Antenna by Using
           Integrated Six-Port Power Divider
    • Authors: Le-Hu Wen;Steven Gao;Qi Luo;Wei Hu;Qingling Yang;Yingzeng Yin;Xiaofei Ren;Jian Wu;
      Pages: 7252 - 7260
      Abstract: A new method to design wideband differentially driven dual-polarized antenna with high common-mode suppression and high port isolation is presented. The presented antenna can be equivalent as a combination of a six-port power divider and four crossed folded dipoles. The six-port power divider is composed of two orthogonal input ports and four equal magnitude output ports. Detailed analysis illustrates that the six-port power divider can have wide bandwidth and high isolation under odd-mode excitation and high common-mode suppression under even-mode excitation. Therefore, based on the wideband and high even-mode suppressed six-port power divider, a wideband differentially driven dual-polarized antenna is developed with high common-mode suppression. To validate the design concept, the proposed antenna was designed, fabricated, and measured. The measured results prove that the antenna has a wide impedance bandwidth of 1.64–3.0 GHz (58.6%) for the return loss higher than 15 dB and isolation higher than 35.4 dB. In addition, very high common-mode suppression is achieved for the measured common-mode reflection coefficient higher than −0.87 dB over the entire bandwidth. With stable antenna gain and half-power beamwidth, the developed antenna is suitable for base station applications.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Novel Compact High-Gain Differential-Fed Dual-Polarized Filtering Patch
           Antenna
    • Authors: Wanchen Yang;Mengzhu Xun;Wenquan Che;Wenjie Feng;Yingqi Zhang;Quan Xue;
      Pages: 7261 - 7271
      Abstract: A novel compact differential-fed dual-polarized filtering patch antenna is proposed. Specific filtering response with radiation nulls is firstly realized for the dual-polarized antenna element by symmetrically loading defected ground structures (DGSs), a cross slot, and eight shorting pins without extra circuits. The DGS with pins can generate a lower edge radiation null for a sharp roll-off rate and simultaneously introduce extra in-band resonance for wide passband. Meanwhile, the cross slot with pins can offer an upper edge null and an in-band resonance. Combining with inherent higher order-mode null of the patch itself, the skirt selectivity and stopband suppression at upper band can be significantly improved. Meanwhile, the $vert $ Sdd $11vert $ at the upper and lower stopbands is close to 0 dB to achieve high stopband suppressions. As a result, a compact high-gain dual-polarized filtering patch antenna is readily constructed. Thanks for complete symmetry of above structures, the proposed method is very suitable for dual-polarized antennas, where all the performance for both polarizations are identical. For demonstration, a prototype of the proposed antenna is fabricated and measured. Good agreements between the measured and simulated results are observed, indicating good performance with a large bandwidth of about 23% and a peak gain of up to 8.9 dBi within the passband, as well as out-of-band suppression levels of more than 20 dB. Compared with other reported filtering antennas, the proposed filtering patch antenna not only exhibits good wideband dual-polarization radiation but also features high gain in a compact structure for very high aperture efficiency and ultralow cross-polarization level due to the differential feeding and complete symmetry.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Continuous Beam Scanning at a Fixed Frequency With a Composite
           Right-/Left-Handed Leaky-Wave Antenna Operating Over a Wide Frequency Band
           
    • Authors: Shu-Lin Chen;Debabrata K. Karmokar;Zheng Li;Pei-Yuan Qin;Richard W. Ziolkowski;Y. Jay Guo;
      Pages: 7272 - 7284
      Abstract: Fixed-frequency beam scanning leaky-wave antennas (LWAs) that can scan their main beam over a specific frequency band are highly desired for future wireless communication systems. A composite right-/left-handed (CRLH) LWA is developed in this article that facilitates fixed-frequency continuous beam scanning over a wide operational frequency band. A variation of a simple single-layer nonreconfigurable frequency-based continuous beam scanning CRLH LWA is considered first. Its dispersion properties are approximately investigated using an equivalent circuit model. It is reported how two groups of varactor diodes can be incorporated into its basic circuit model to electronically control its dispersion behavior. An optimized reconfigurable CRLH LWA with practical dc biasing lines is then realized from this nonreconfigurable design. Fixed-frequency continuous beam scanning, from backward to forward directions through broadside, is reported over a wide operational frequency band. Simulations predict that the antenna can operate from 4.75 to 5.25 GHz with the main beam being continuously scannable at each frequency point. A prototype was fabricated, assembled, and tested. The measured results confirm its simulated performance characteristics.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • A New Design Method for Frequency- Reconfigurable Antennas Using Multiple
           Tuning Components
    • Authors: Laurens A. Bronckers;Anne Roc’h;Adrianus B. Smolders;
      Pages: 7285 - 7295
      Abstract: Frequency-reconfigurable antennas seem a viable solution to achieve better performance and increased flexibility for integrated mobile phone antennas. Due to the lossy nature of many tunable components, the use of multiple combined tuning components in a single design seems attractive, as it can distribute the current over the components. However, many combinations of individual tuning component settings can result in an acceptable input match, while they will significantly vary in terms of radiation efficiency. It is challenging to distinguish between these radiating and nonradiating tuning component settings during the design procedure. In this paper, we propose a method to determine the component settings with the highest efficiency at a desired operating frequency. The method uses a single full-wave simulation, which is combined with circuit-level calculations. We discuss how to apply the method in detail and demonstrate its functionality with an inverted-L antenna sporting three tunable barium-strontium titanate capacitors. It is shown that the method can successfully predict tuning component settings for high antenna efficiency over a 1.4–2.8 GHz tuning band, with total efficiencies up to 35% and radiation efficiencies up to 50%. The method can easily be applied to any desired antenna geometry.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • A 60 GHz Wideband, Low-Power Active Receiving Antenna With Adjustable
           Polarization for SNR Improvement
    • Authors: Tae Hwan Jang;Kwang Kyu Hwang;Geon Ho Park;Hong Yi Kim;Hong Hyun Bae;Chul Woo Byeon;Chul Soon Park;
      Pages: 7296 - 7303
      Abstract: In this article, we propose a polarization adjustable active receiving antenna that covers the full 60 GHz ISM band (57–66 GHz) to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) degenerated by polarization mismatch with the transmitter. The proposed antenna not only controls the receiving angle of linear polarization (LP) but also controls the axial ratio of circular polarization (CP). For LP, the polarization angle is controlled from 0° to 180° in steps of 22.5°, while the axial ratio is controlled up to 2.6 dB by controlling the phase and amplitude of the phase shifter (P/S) and variable-gain low-noise amplifier (VGLNA) for CP case. The structure of the proposed antenna theoretically provides an SNR improvement of at least approximately 3 dB compared with the conventional active antenna in the worst case.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • An Active Antenna Subarray for the Low-Frequency Radio Telescope
           GURT—Part I: Design and Theoretical Model
    • Authors: Peter L. Tokarsky;Alexander A. Konovalenko;Serge N. Yerin;Igor N. Bubnov;
      Pages: 7304 - 7311
      Abstract: The new Giant Ukrainian Radio Telescope (GURT) intended for operation in 8–80 MHz range is now under construction. It employs an active phased array antenna composed of many dipole subarrays, several of which have been implemented and now are used for radio astronomy observations. In this two-part paper, the electrical and noise parameters of the subarray are studied by numerical and experimental ways. In this part, a theoretical model of the subarray based on the wave theory of noisy multiport networks that takes into account the mutual coupling in the dipole array placed over imperfect ground and the correlation between all existing noise sources is proposed. It is assumed that the initial parameters for this model should be obtained using the correct electromagnetic and circuit simulation. A technique for using of this model to calculate the effective area, radiation efficiency, internal and external noise temperatures, as well as sensitivity of the subarray in terms of system equivalent flux density (SEFD) for all possible beam directions in the frequency band of the GURT radio telescope is described.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • An Active Antenna Subarray for the Low-Frequency Radio Telescope
           GURT—Part II: Numerical Analysis and Experiment
    • Authors: Peter L. Tokarsky;Alexander A. Konovalenko;Serge N. Yerin;Igor N. Bubnov;
      Pages: 7312 - 7319
      Abstract: This second part of two articles’ sequence presents the detailed numerical analysis of electrical and noise parameters of a subarray of the Giant Ukrainian Radio Telescope (GURT) designed for operation in the frequency range of 8–80 MHz. The theoretical model of the subarray and calculation technique of its parameters developed in the first part is used. Frequency behaviors of the absorption area, radiation efficiency, and system noise temperature budget of the subarray are studied. Special attention is paid to the subarray sensitivity given in terms of sky noise dominance (SND) and system-equivalent flux density (SEFD). The calculation results show that strong mutual coupling between subarray elements enables a significant increase in the subarray SND and enhancing overall its performance. The frequency dependences of the system noise temperature for 23 beams of the subarray, obtained by in situ measurements, are presented. A good agreement between the measured and calculated results well enough validates the subarray theoretical model.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • An Efficient Approach for the Synthesis of Large Sparse Planar Array
    • Authors: Pengfei Gu;Gui Wang;Zhenhong Fan;Rushan Chen;
      Pages: 7320 - 7330
      Abstract: An innovative noniterative approach based on the matrix enhancement and matrix pencil (MEMP) is proposed for the synthesis of arbitrary sparse planar arrays. In this study, the estimation of array parameters is recast as a 2-D pole extraction problem, and the number of array elements is minimized by the reduced rank processing. Subsequently, the Hankel matrix decomposition algorithm is exploited to accelerate the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the Hankel matrix constructed by the desired pattern samples, which conquers the restriction on the matrix dimension of the sampled Hankel matrix with the increasing of the number of array elements. The MEMP approach is further extended to the synthesis of shaped-beam patterns by using the forward–backward matrix enhancement and matrix pencil method (FBMEMP). A set of representative numerical experiments is provided to validate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Single-Layer Substrate-Integrated Broadside Leaky Long-Slot Array Antennas
           With Embedded Reflectors for 5G Systems
    • Authors: Nima Bayat-Makou;Ke Wu;Ahmed A. Kishk;
      Pages: 7331 - 7339
      Abstract: The single-layer substrate-integrated directive antennas designed for fifth-generation (5G) systems’ application with broadside radiation in the Ka-band are presented. The antennas incorporate a couple of self-consistent embedded reflectors that are used to excite periodic radiating nonresonant long slots. Two concepts are used to provide a 180° phase shift between reflected waves from the reflectors to create the required broadside radiation from the slots within a certain band. For the first time, an open-circuit concept is used to form an integrated reflector, which is considered based on the equivalent magnetic walls of the cavity model of microstrip antennas. The presented designs showed a realized gain of 23 dBi at the design frequency. A good agreement between the prototype measurements and simulated results is observed.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Combinatorial Design of Low-Degradation Linear Arrays in Interferometric
           Aperture Synthesis Radiometers
    • Authors: Dong Zhu;Xiaohui Peng;
      Pages: 7340 - 7347
      Abstract: Radiometric sensitivity is a crucially important performance metric of interferometric aperture synthesis radiometers (IASRs). When synthesizing array geometries for optimum sensitivity performance, the minimum-degradation or low-degradation arrays (MDAs or LDAs) are employed to fulfill requirements of baseline coverage and redundancy distribution. This paper presents a study on combinatorial design of low-degradation linear arrays (LDLAs), based on a concept of multiple difference basis (MDB). Such a deterministic method can attain a satisfactory radiometric sensitivity performance in short computation time and can be easily applied in large array synthesis, compared with stochastic design methods (e.g., simulated annealing). Furthermore, the resultant LDLAs also have advantages of angular resolution and system reliability to element wreckage. Representative experiments are carried out to demonstrate the significance of the proposed MDB-based technique for designing LDLAs.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Characterization of an Eight-Element Circular Patch Array for Helical Beam
           Modes
    • Authors: Gary Junkin;Josep Parrón;Alan Tennant;
      Pages: 7348 - 7355
      Abstract: This paper reports on a new method for characterizing intermodal isolation, power penalty, and reception zone area of helical beam (HB) antennas. As an example, an eight-element circular patch array is fully characterized and its performance is critically assessed. Validation through beam measurements is accompanied with precise electromagnetic modeling using conformal finite-difference time domain computation on a graphics processing unit.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Compact Extended Scan Range Antenna Array Based on Rotman Lens
    • Authors: Enrico Tolin;Oliver Litschke;Simona Bruni;Francesca Vipiana;
      Pages: 7356 - 7367
      Abstract: This article proposes an innovative method for extending the scan range of phased arrays based on Rotman lens by a factor two. The main objective is to take advantage of the performance of the Rotman lens as beamforming network, resolving its intrinsic increase of phase error and coupling losses when wide scan angles are required. The proposed concept aims to overcome these limitations by introducing the combination of two specific operations called “complete beam shifting (CBS)” and “beam mirroring (BM).” The described technique is applied to a 24 GHz scanning array antenna system, designed and manufactured by taking into consideration fabrication and related cost issues. Finally, the proposed concept has been validated through measurements.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • A Metallic 3-D Printed Airborne High-Power Handling Magneto-Electric
           Dipole Array With Cooling Channels
    • Authors: Bing Zhang;Hucheng Sun;Li Wu;Yanping Zhou;Yang Yang;Huacheng Zhu;Fei Cheng;Yingran He;Kama Huang;
      Pages: 7368 - 7378
      Abstract: An airborne $K$ -band (18–26.5 GHz) array antenna is presented in this article. It takes the form of meandering waveguide structure to handle large power in a radar system. The magneto-electric (ME) dipole is used as the array element for the relative broad beamwidth. Good agreement is achieved between simulation and measurement. A single array element demonstrates impedance bandwidth of 19–24 GHz. The maximum gain is 10.76 dBi at 24.2 GHz with 3 dB gain bandwidth covering the whole $K$ -band. Symmetric radiation patterns on both the E- and H-planes are observed with 66° half power beamwidth. The $2,,times2$ array has an impedance bandwidth of 19.9–22.8 GHz. The maximum gain is 16.2 dBi at 25.2 GHz with 3 dB gain bandwidth covering 19.4–26 GHz. Symmetric radiation patterns on both planes show 26° half-power beamwidth. Taking the advantage of 3-D printing technology to implement complex device, the water- and air-cooling channels are considered at the beginning of antenna design. A parametric study is conducted to analyze the influence of fabrication tolerance on antenna’s frequency response. A high-power analysis is conducted to verify the power handling capability of the antenna. The proposed design highlights the capability of 3-D printing technology in fabricating complex and highly integrated microwave devices.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Simultaneous Use of Addition Theorems for Cylindrical and Spherical Waves
           for the Fast Full-Wave Analysis of SIW-Based Antenna Arrays
    • Authors: Jesús Rubio;Alfonso Gómez García;Rafael Gómez Alcalá;Jesús García;Yolanda Campos-Roca;
      Pages: 7379 - 7386
      Abstract: This paper introduces a fast full-wave methodology for the analysis of antenna arrays placed on the top plate of substrate integrated waveguides (SIWs). The methodology is based on the generalized scattering matrix (GSM) of each array element in terms of spherical and cylindrical modes and plane-port feeding modes, and the simultaneous use of addition theorems for spherical and cylindrical waves. Addition theorems allow the analytical translation of spherical and cylindrical modes, so that the GSMs can be simultaneously connected in the SIW layer and in the radiation region, to obtain the full-wave response of the array. The proposed methodology is validated by means of full-wave simulations with commercial and in-house softwares.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Deterministic Synthesis of Wide Scanning Sparse Concentric Ring Antenna
           Arrays
    • Authors: Ashutosh Kedar;
      Pages: 7387 - 7395
      Abstract: This article presents the synthesis of isophoric (equally fed), wideband wide-scan sparse concentric ring antenna arrays (CRAs) with low sidelobe level (SLL). The technique utilizes the characteristics of Bessel functions (BFs) of the first kind for representing the array factor (AF) and propose deterministic design guidelines for SLL reduction. It is shown that higher order BFs are necessary to predict nonsymmetry in the azimuth pattern of CRA. A design process for deriving ring radii and number of elements in the rings is presented to achieve highly sparse CRAs. Numerical test case studies are presented demonstrating the design procedure and its validation with the prior literature. The effect of the mutual coupling on the array performance over wideband and wide-scan volume is also presented. The results show sparser CRAs with comparable values of peak SLL (PSLL) and −3 dB beamwidth. This work may complement the existing stochastic or other efficient optimization techniques in reducing their computational time, especially for large arrays (more than hundreds of elements). This work focuses on phased array antennas for radar applications.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Comparison of Tensor Boundary Conditions With Generalized Sheet Transition
           Conditions
    • Authors: Mojtaba Dehmollaian;Guillaume Lavigne;Christophe Caloz;
      Pages: 7396 - 7406
      Abstract: This paper compares the tensor boundary conditions (TBCs) with the surface-susceptibility-based generalized sheet transition conditions (GSTCs) for the modeling of metasurfaces and 2-D material allotropes. First, we recall the GSTCs, distinguishing the full-tensor (FT) GSTCs and the tangential-tensor (TT) GSTCs, which correspond to the most general and most reported GSTC forms, respectively. We show, by separating tangential and normal polarizations, that the FT-GSTCs involve 36 independent susceptibility parameters, associated with $3times 3$ electric, magnetic, electric-to-magnetic, and magnetic-to-electric susceptibility tensors, despite the 2-D nature of the structure. Moreover, we find that suppressing the normal polarizations nontrivially reduces the number of FT-GSTC parameters to 24, which is greater than the 16 parameters of the TT-GSTCs. Then, the paper recalls the TBCs as originally reported in a previous study, called here scalar-parameter (SP) TBCs, and extends them to their tensorial-parameter (TP) counterparts, called the TP TBCs. In both formulations, we derive the equivalent susceptibilities in terms of the TBC parameters. We show that the SP-TBCs involve eight equivalent susceptibility parameters, among which only three are independent, while the TP-TBCs involve 16 independent susceptibility parameters. Next, we compare the two models, with their two respective formulations, in terms of both generality and physicality. We deduce from the number of independent susceptibility parameters the following ranking between the four formulations: 1) FT-GSTCs (36 independent parameters); 2) TT-GSTCs = TP-TBCs (16 independent parameters); 3) SP-TBCs (3 independent parameters), and illustrate with examples the property and functionality limitations of the TT-GSTCs, TP-TBCs, and SP-TBCs due to their parameter restrictions. Finally, we show that w-ile the GSTCs appropriately describe the physics of the problem, the TBCs are discordant with it.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • A Three-Layered Adjustable Frequency-Selective Surface for Wireless
           Applications
    • Authors: Go Itami;Yohei Toriumi;Jun Kato;
      Pages: 7407 - 7414
      Abstract: A three-layered adjustable frequency-selective surface (FSS) is proposed and investigated. The FSS consists of a main resonator in the middle layer and two subresonators in the upper and lower layers of a sandwich structure. The resonant frequency can be varied by shifting the upper and lower layers symmetrically. This has the advantages that the same frequency characteristics can be obtained in both vertical and horizontal polarizations and that its fabrication is easy, eliminating the need for electronic elements such as varactor diodes to control capacitance, although the FSS is not suitable for situations that require real-time tuning. This article confirms that the resonant frequency can be varied from $f_{0}$ to $1.7f_{0}$ in a microwave band which covers multiple wireless bands, with good angular stability in both vertical and horizontal polarizations, by shifting the upper and lower layer overlaps by up to 1.8 mm. Note that $f_{0}$ is the lowest resonant frequency, and the size of a unit cell is varied from $0.066lambda $ to $0.125lambda $ . Also, the adjustment capability and the angular stability of an FSS fabricated by using a silver inkjet printer are experimentally demonstrated, by simply stacking and shifting the three films.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Characteristic Mode Analysis of Composite Metallic–Dielectric Structures
           Using Impedance Boundary Condition
    • Authors: Qi Wu;
      Pages: 7415 - 7424
      Abstract: In this article, an approach combining the electric field integral equation (EFIE) and impedance boundary condition (IBC) is presented for the characteristic mode analysis (CMA) of composite metallic–dielectric structures. Different from published works, only the electric currents are used in this approach and the computed eigencurrents are in a similar form as those of purely metallic structures. To ensure completeness and orthogonality of the eigencurrents, symmetry of the IBC-EFIE operator has been carefully examined. For lossy structures, a new formulation is deduced for CMA. The presented IBC-EFIE formulation is able to handle a variety of problems, e.g., lossy metals, thin dielectrics, thin dielectric-coated conductors, and metasurfaces. Several numerical examples are provided for those problems, and full-wave CMA solutions are used to verify the IBC-EFIE formulation. It is shown that this method is fairly accurate while computationally efficient, which makes CMA a promising tool for large scale or complex composite structures.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • A Wide-Angle Broadband Converter: From Odd-Mode Spoof Surface Plasmon
           Polaritons to Spatial Waves
    • Authors: Hao Chi Zhang;Lin Liu;Pei Hang He;Jiayuan Lu;Le Peng Zhang;Jie Xu;Liangliang Liu;Fei Gao;Tie Jun Cui;Qijie Wang;Yu Luo;
      Pages: 7425 - 7432
      Abstract: A wide-angle broadband converter from odd-mode spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) to spatial waves is proposed using spatially gradient Vivaldi-shaped flaring structure. We first show the dispersion, Eigen mode, and effective circuit topology of the designed SPP structure and show that it can support a propagating odd mode. A conversion structure between odd-mode spoof SPPs and spatial mode has been designed to realize smooth impedance and wavenumber transition. Through the full-wave simulation method, we obtained the optimized geometric parameters, from which we fabricate the converter using the print circuit board technology. The measured results from both far field and near field show that the proposed structure has successfully excited odd-mode spoof SPPs coming from an extremely wide-angle spatial radiation. The allowed azimuthal and pitched angle ranges are larger than 72°.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • A New Conformal FDTD for Lossy Thin Panels
    • Authors: Miguel Ruiz Cabello;Luis Diaz Angulo;Jesus Alvarez;Amelia Rubio Bretones;Salvador G. Garcia;
      Pages: 7433 - 7439
      Abstract: A novel conformal technique for the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is proposed to deal with curved and arbitrarily oriented lossy thin panels. This is formulated as an extension of the existing conformal relaxed Dey–Mittra (CRDM) method combined with subcell algorithms to handle wave propagation across the panel. Two alternatives are presented for this: the classical impedance network boundary condition (INBC) and a recent subgridding boundary condition (SGBC) developed by the authors. Several test cases are employed to demonstrate the capability of the proposed method to remove errors associated with the usual staircased FDTD method.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • SIE-DDM Based on a Hybrid Direct–Iterative Approach for Analysis of
           Multiscale Problems
    • Authors: Ming Jiang;Zhi Rong;Lin Lei;Xianjin Li;Yongpin Chen;Sheng Sun;Zaiping Nie;Jun Hu;
      Pages: 7440 - 7451
      Abstract: In this article, surface integral equation domain decomposition method (SIE-DDM) based on a hybrid direct–iterative approach is proposed for multiscale electromagnetic simulation. The solution of SIE-DDM matrix system is typically built on the strategy of inner-outer loop. Therefore, the direct approach is preferred to the subsolver in each decomposed domain. Here, a fast direct approach based on an enhanced hierarchically off-diagonal low-rank (HODLR) format involving extended admissibility condition (EAC) is present as an alternative subsolver, in which a reconstructing and recompression technique (RRT) is proposed. The efficiency and accuracy can be further improved by using this technology. The inverse of each subdomain is obtained by Sherman–Morrison–Woodbury algorithm (SMWA), while the global system is still solved by the iterative method. This hybrid framework makes full use of strengths of terative and direct approaches. On the other hand, the fast direct solver provides a robust preconditioner for the matrix system, especially for ill-conditioned cases. Several numerical examples will demonstrate the proposed method.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • A Volume PEEC Formulation Based on the Cell Method for Electromagnetic
           Problems From Low to High Frequency
    • Authors: Riccardo Torchio;
      Pages: 7452 - 7465
      Abstract: A new and general partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) formulation based on electric and magnetic vector potentials and the cell method is presented. The purpose of this paper is manifold. First, a comprehensive review of well-established PEEC method is given and the state-of-the-art of the method with focus on the inclusion of magnetic media in the formulation is discussed. Then, a new and general formulation of the PEEC method based on integral equations is proposed. The formulation is valid for conductive, dielectric, and magnetic media and its advantages with respect to the state-of-the-art PEEC formulations are underlined. Unlike the existing PEEC methods, this novel formulation, thanks to the reinterpretation of PEEC in the context of integral equation methods, allows for maintaining a circuit interpretation for both electric and magnetic media. Thus, a standard Spice-like solver can in principle be adopted for the solution of electromagnetic (EM) problems also when magnetic media are involved. The imposition of the divergence condition for the current density vectors is guaranteed and also the case of inhomogeneous and anisotropic media is considered. A thorough discussion on the suitability of the method for the study of both low- and high-frequency EM problems is also presented. Finally, the case study of a near-field communication antenna is considered as an example of the applicability of the formulation to problems of industrial interest. Comparisons with commercial softwares, measurements, and the state-of-the-art PEEC method are given in order to demonstrate the accuracy and the advantages of the proposed PEEC formulation.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Geometrically Stochastic FDTD Method for Uncertainty Quantification of EM
           Fields and SAR in Biological Tissues
    • Authors: Khadijeh Masumnia-Bisheh;Keyvan Forooraghi;Mohsen Ghaffari-Miab;Cynthia M. Furse;
      Pages: 7466 - 7475
      Abstract: This paper presents a stochastic scheme called geometrically stochastic finite-difference time domain (GS-FDTD) to insert the statistical variation of model geometry directly into the FDTD method. Both 1-D and 2-D GS-FDTD formulations are presented. The method is utilized to investigate the impact of tissue size variation on the calculated EM fields in 1-D and 2-D layered and cylindrical biological models. In addition, we assess the specific absorption rate (SAR) variance in a 2-D slice of a human head model at 835 MHz with the size of the outer layer consisting of skin, ear, and nose varying ±10%. Also, an improved method of calculating SAR variance is presented. The results are verified using the Monte Carlo technique.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Memory Footprint Reduction for the FFT-Based Volume Integral Equation
           Method via Tensor Decompositions
    • Authors: Ilias I. Giannakopoulos;Mikhail S. Litsarev;Athanasios G. Polimeridis;
      Pages: 7476 - 7486
      Abstract: We present a method of memory footprint reduction for FFT-based, electromagnetic (EM) volume integral equation (VIE) formulations. The arising Green’s function tensors have low multilinear rank, which allows Tucker decomposition to be employed for their compression, thereby greatly reducing the required memory storage for numerical simulations. Consequently, the compressed components are able to fit inside a graphical processing unit (GPU) on which highly parallelized computations can vastly accelerate the iterative solution of the arising linear system. In addition, the elementwise products throughout the iterative solver’s process require additional flops, thus, we provide a variety of novel and efficient methods that maintain the linear complexity of the classic elementwise product with an additional multiplicative small constant. We demonstrate the utility of our approach via its application to VIE simulations for the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of a human head. For these simulations, we report an order of magnitude acceleration over standard techniques.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Scattering Field Solutions of Metasurfaces Based on the Boundary Element
           Method for Interconnected Regions in 2-D
    • Authors: Scott A. Stewart;Sanam Moslemi-Tabrizi;Tom J. Smy;Shulabh Gupta;
      Pages: 7487 - 7495
      Abstract: This article presents a method to determine the scattered electromagnetic (EM) fields in the interconnected regions with common metasurface boundaries. This method uses a boundary element method (BEM) formulation of the frequency domain version of Maxwell’s equations, which expresses the fields present in a region due to surface currents on the boundaries. Metasurface boundaries are represented in terms of surface susceptibilities which when integrated with the generalized sheet transition conditions (GSTCs) gave rise to an equivalent configuration in terms of electric and magnetic currents. These representations are then naturally incorporated into the BEM methodology. Four examples are presented for EM scattering of a Gaussian beam to illustrate the proposed method. In the first example, a metasurface is excited with a diverging Gaussian beam, and the scattered fields are validated using a semianalytical method. The second example is concerned with a nonuniform metasurface modeling a diffraction grating, whose results were confirmed with a conventional finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) method. To illustrate the flexibility of the method, the third example uses a metasurface that implements a polarization rotator. Finally, a fully absorbing metasurface is simulated and compared to the FDFD simulations to emphasize the advantages of BEM method.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Ray-Tracing-Based Dual-Domain Analysis Technique Using the Method of
           Moments and the Multilevel Fast Multipole Algorithm
    • Authors: Carlos Delgado;Eliseo García;Manuel Felipe Cátedra;
      Pages: 7496 - 7504
      Abstract: This paper presents a technique for the full-wave analysis of large problems using the method of moments, in combination with the multilevel fast multipole algorithm, based on a decomposition of the scenario into two domains using a ray-tracing analysis. These domains are computed considering the proximity to the critical points. The currents over the main scenario are obtained first and used to modify the excitation of the secondary domain, which in turn can be analyzed using a relaxed iteration error that very noticeably reduces the iteration time without a significant impact on the accuracy. The procedure used for the separation of both domains minimizes the amount of information exchanged between them.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • The Impact of Spatial–Temporal Averaging on the Dynamic–Statistical
           Properties of Rain Fields
    • Authors: Guangguang Yang;David L. Ndzi;Boris Christian Gremont;Kevin Paulson;Misha Filip;Abdul-Hadi Al-Hassani;
      Pages: 7505 - 7517
      Abstract: Knowledge of the spatial–temporal variation of rain fields is required for the planning and optimization of wide-area high-frequency terrestrial and satellite communication networks. This article presents data and a method for characterizing multi-resolution statistical/dynamic parameters describing the spatial–temporal variation of rain fields across ocean climate in North-Western Europe. The data are derived from the NIMROD network of rain radars. The characterizing parameters include 1) statistical distribution of point 1 min rainfall rates, 2) spatial and temporal correlation functions of rainfall rate, and 3) the probability of rain/no rain. The main contributions of this article are the assessment of the impact of varying spatial and temporal integration lengths on these parameters, their dependencies on the integration volumes and area sizes, and the model for both temporal and spatial correlation parameters.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Accelerated Computation of the Physical Optics Approximation for
           Near-Field Single- and Double-Bounces Backscattering
    • Authors: Christophe Bourlier;Gildas Kubické;Philippe Pouliguen;
      Pages: 7518 - 7527
      Abstract: This article deals with the acceleration of the physical optics (PO) approximation for the backscattering computation in the near and far fields, for both single-bounce (SB) and double-bounce (DB) PO contributions. It is based on physical arguments, which allow us to apply either a closed-form expression (rapid calculation) or a numerical double integration to evaluate the scattered field from subsurfaces of a given mesh. The use of the closed-form expression is governed by two criteria, which must be extended to the bistatic case and also to the DB: the conventional Fraunhofer (related to the far-field zone) criterion and the chord error (related to the surface curvature) criterion. The proposed method is tested on a dihedral geometry.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Performance of Phase Retrieval via Phaselift and Quadratic Inversion in
           Circular Scanning Case
    • Authors: Raffaele Moretta;Rocco Pierri;
      Pages: 7528 - 7537
      Abstract: The reconstruction of the field radiated by a source from square amplitude-only data falls into the realm of phase retrieval. In this paper, we tackle the phase retrieval with two different approaches. The first one is based on a convex optimization problem called PhaseLift. The latter exploits the lifting technique to recast phase retrieval as a linear problem with an increased number of unknowns and then, because the linear problem is highly undetermined, it adds further constraints (based on the mathematical properties of the solution) to estimate it. The second approach formulates phase retrieval as a least squares problem and, therefore, it requires to tackle the minimization of a quartic functional which will be carried out by applying a gradient descent method. In the second part of this paper, in order to corroborate the effectiveness of both approaches, we present the numerical results. Afterward, we provide a comparison between the two methods and finally, we emphasize how the ratio between the number of independent data and the number of unknowns impacts on the performance in both approaches.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • A New Poisson Process-Based Model for LOS/NLOS Discrimination in Clutter
           Modeling
    • Authors: Sumit Roy;Morteza Mehrnoush;
      Pages: 7538 - 7549
      Abstract: Clutter loss in the presence of built (urban and suburban) environments significantly depend on whether an unobstructed line-of-sight (LOS) path exists (or does not) between the two endpoints: a base station located at elevation and a client/user equipment at ground level. The objective of this article is to develop a new computationally efficient statistical approach to estimating the probability of LOS versus non-LOS (NLOS) paths for a region of interest. The initial development used a spatial 1-D Poisson process model for built environments that captured two key parameters: 1) the average spatial density and 2) the height distribution of buildings. Thereafter, natural terrain variations was included on top of the built environment to develop a more generalized and accurate 2-D model for discrimination. The final model is driven by input parameters obtained from actual data from different regions, to assess their effectiveness on resulting LOS/NLOS discrimination in real-world scenarios.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • THz Channel Characterization of Chip-to-Chip Communication in Desktop Size
           Metal Enclosure
    • Authors: Jinbang Fu;Prateek Juyal;Alenka Zajić;
      Pages: 7550 - 7560
      Abstract: This article presents characterization of terahertz (THz) wireless channel inside a desktop size metal enclosure with the consideration of several different scenarios. Measurements indicate that both traveling wave and resonating modes exist inside the metal enclosure. Measurements for line-of-sight (LoS) propagation inside the empty metal enclosure show that the path loss significantly changes as a function of the transceiver’s height. It is found that this variation is due the resonant modes, contribution to the received power. Reflected-non-LoS (RNLoS) measurements show that for the same distance, the difference between the mean path loss measured inside the metal box and in a free space is limited to 1 dB, with traveling wave dominating the channel. This indicates that reflectors can be used as wave-guiding objects in metal enclosures. Finally, obstructed-LoS (OLoS) path loss measurements with the parallel dual in-line memory modules (DIMMs) as obstructions show the constructive/destructive effect on the waves due to multipath introduced by the parallel-plate structures. Compared to the free space scenarios, multipath is introduced by the traveling wave bouncing back and forth between the transceiver sides of the cavity, which introduces stronger fluctuations in observed pathloss and reduces the coherence bandwidth of the channel.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • The Scattering of Electromagnetic Fields from Anisotropic Objects Embedded
           in Anisotropic Multilayers
    • Authors: Yunyun Hu;Yuan Fang;Dezhi Wang;Qiwei Zhan;Runren Zhang;Qing Huo Liu;
      Pages: 7561 - 7568
      Abstract: This article presents an efficient method for calculating the scattered electromagnetic (EM) fields from anisotropic objects embedded in general anisotropic multilayers, both with arbitrary anisotropy. The electric field integral equation (EFIE) is derived based on the electric dyadic Green’s functions for general anisotropic multilayers. The volume integral equation (VIE) involves a convolution form between the dyadic Green’s function and equivalent sources. To accelerate the integral computation, the fast Fourier transform technique (FFT) is adopted which reduces the computational cost from $O(N^{2})$ to $O (N log N)$ . The biconjugate gradient stabilized method (BiCGSTAB) is then applied to solve the EFIE efficiently to calculate the total electric fields in the computational domain. In order to validate the algorithm, several examples are modeled for anisotropic objects embedded in both isotropic and anisotropic multilayers. The modeled scattered fields are compared with the finite-element method (FEM) results. The good agreement between the two results shows the algorithm works properly.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Radiation and Scattering of an Arbitrarily Flanged Dielectric-Loaded
           Waveguide
    • Authors: Vito Daniele;Guido Lombardi;Rodolfo S. Zich;
      Pages: 7569 - 7584
      Abstract: In this article, we present a new methodology in spectral domain to study a novel, complex canonical electromagnetic problem constituted of perfectly electrically conducting (PEC) wedges immersed in complex environments. In particular, we present an arbitrarily flanged dielectric-loaded waveguide that resembles practical structures in scattering analysis, radar applications, antenna’s design, and electromagnetic compatibility. The proposed method is based on the recently developed semianalytical method known as the generalized Wiener–Hopf technique that extends the applicability of classical Wiener–Hopf method to a new variety of problems constituted of different geometries and materials. In this article, the method is further extended and it is now capable of handling piecewise constant inhomogeneous dielectric layers by resorting to the application of characteristic Green’s function procedure starting from the wave equation. The method has the benefit to be a comprehensive mathematical model and to be quasi-analytical, thus allowing us to investigate the true physics of the problem in terms of field’s components. The proposed solution is also of interest in computational electromagnetics to benchmark numerical codes. Validation through numerical results is reported in terms of engineering quantities such as geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD)/uniform theory of diffraction (UTD) coefficients, total far fields, and modal fields.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Determining Electromagnetic Exposure Compliance of Multi-Antenna Devices
           in Linear Time
    • Authors: Arash Ebadi-Shahrivar;Patrick Fay;David J. Love;Bertrand M. Hochwald;
      Pages: 7585 - 7596
      Abstract: Electromagnetic exposure metrics such as specific absorption rate (SAR) are used to assess the user safety of portable wireless devices under all transmitting conditions. When there are multiple transmitter chains operating at a single frequency, the process of determining compliance is complicated by the fact that testing needs to cover all possible combinations of transmissions from all antennas. For $N$ antennas, the number of possible distinct transmitted signals can grow quickly with $N$ . We propose a compliance test whose measurement time burden is linear in $N$ , independently of the number or type of transmitted signals. For $Ngeq 3$ antennas, the proposed test requires $7N-12$ excitations and corresponding measurements per probe location. Using analysis, simulations, and measurements with SAR compliance tools, we establish the accuracy of the method as compared with exhaustive measurements over all possible transmitted signals. The method is useful in evaluating the compliance of portable devices that use codebooks or beamforming as part of their transmission capabilities.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • On the Minimum Number of Samples for Sparse Recovery in Spherical Antenna
           Near-Field Measurements
    • Authors: Bernd Hofmann;Ole Neitz;Thomas F. Eibert;
      Pages: 7597 - 7610
      Abstract: A thorough picture is presented on the capability of compressed sensing to reduce the number of measurement samples that are required for a near-field to far-field transformation (NFFFT), based on the spherical vector wave expansion of the radiated field of an antenna under test. To this end, the minimum number of samples for a sparse recovery is determined such that a predefined far-field accuracy can be achieved. As no suitable sampling theorem exists, this is done by performing extensive numerical simulations, considering possible deviations from exact sparsity, the influence of measurement noise, the sampling scheme, and the probe correction. Particularly, the influences are determined not only qualitatively but also quantitatively. The resulting modified phase transition diagrams (PTDs) show that a reconstruction by the quadratically constraint basis pursuit strategy is sufficiently stable and robust for practical purposes. The simulation and measurement results of NFFFTs show that the predictions for the required number of samples hold true. Consequently, the presented approach using modified PTDs allows to reduce the number of measurement samples with predictable accuracy, when the sparsity level is known.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Intuitive Broadband Matching Technique for Top-Loaded Monopole Antennas
    • Authors: Tzu-Hsuan Yang;Daniel F. Sievenpiper;
      Pages: 7611 - 7616
      Abstract: Wheeler/Chu’s theoretical limit serves as a guideline when designing for the optimum performance of small antennas. It relates the electrical size of the antenna to its quality factor, which can be further related to the bandwidth $times $ efficiency product. Friedman designed a top-loaded monopole that is particularly broadband given its size, but it is not intuitively obvious how to design the matching structure in terms of effective circuit parameters. In this article, we follow Friedman’s approach in that we start with designing a matching circuit for a simple top-loaded monopole and obtain performance similar to Friedman’s. However, our design is advantageous in two important ways: 1) the circuit is easily understandable and 2) the correspondence between circuit elements and geometrical features on the antenna is clear and straightforward. These advantages may potentially allow this method to be applied to other types of antennas or scaled to different performance parameters.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Phased Hemispherical Lens Antenna for 1-D Wide-Angle Beam Scanning
    • Authors: Kunning Liu;Shiwen Yang;Shi-Wei Qu;Chen Chen;Yikai Chen;
      Pages: 7617 - 7621
      Abstract: A $Ka$ -band hemispherical lens antenna fed by a phased array antenna (PAA) for 1-D wide-angle beam scanning is presented. The hemispherical lens antenna with two dielectric layers is designed based on the combination of geometrical optics (GOs) and finite-element method (FEM), thus the computational complexity can be reduced without loss of accuracy. A modification procedure is then proposed to efficiently modify the lens antenna for wide-angle scanning property. Finally, the lens is fabricated through 3-D printing technology in spite of its complex shapes. A linear patch array is employed to feed the hemispherical lens antenna. By utilizing the conjugate field matching (CFM) method, the proposed lens antenna is able to achieve 1-D beam scanning with about 2.6 dB/5 dB gain loss as scanning to ±45°/60°. The measured results show that the proposed lens antenna has a low profile with a focus-to-diameter ratio (F/D) of only 0.14, and aperture efficiency for the on-axis beam is 52% at 27.3 GHz. The proposed antenna is highly suitable for 5G mm-wave wireless communication with the advantages of wide-angle beam scanning, low cost, and ease of fabrication.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • $3times4$+ +Butler+Matrix+and+its+Application+in+Multibeam+Antenna+Arrays&rft.title=IEEE+Transactions+on+Antennas+and+Propagation&rft.issn=0018-926X&rft.date=2019&rft.volume=67&rft.spage=7622&rft.epage=7627&rft.aulast=Lancaster;&rft.aufirst=Kai-Ran&rft.au=Kai-Ran+Xiang;Fu-Chang+Chen;Qing-Xin+Chu;Michael+J.+Lancaster;">A Broadband $3times4$ Butler Matrix and its Application in Multibeam
           Antenna Arrays
    • Authors: Kai-Ran Xiang;Fu-Chang Chen;Qing-Xin Chu;Michael J. Lancaster;
      Pages: 7622 - 7627
      Abstract: A novel broadband three-input four-output ( $3 times 4$ ) Butler matrix is proposed in this communication. The proposed Butler matrix achieves equal power division and −90°, 0°, and +90° phase differences between output signals in the 2–4 GHz frequency range. By using the $3 times 4$ Butler matrix as a four-element antenna array feed network, a broadside beam and two symmetrical beams are realized over a wideband frequency range. The proposed Butler matrix has been verified by measurements of S-parameters and radiation patterns using the broadband four-element antenna array. The measurement results are in good agreement with the simulation results. In addition, the proposed $3 times 4$ Butler matrix can be extended for use with antenna arrays with a higher number of beams.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • A Reconfigurable Printed Antenna With Frequency and Polarization Diversity
           Based on Bow-Tie Dipole Structure
    • Authors: Jie Liu;Jian-Ying Li;Rui Xu;Shi-Gang Zhou;
      Pages: 7628 - 7632
      Abstract: In this communication, a novel frequency and polarization-reconfigurable antenna is designed based on simple dipole-type structure. It is composed by two symmetric bow-tie arms and four switching circuits. Four p-i-n diode switches are used to change the connection state of the bow-tie arms and other four patches. By switching the states of four p-i-n diodes, both the amplitude and phase of the surface currents at different frequencies can be controlled. It follows that an adjustable antenna in frequency and polarization can be devised. As a result, this antenna can realize different working modes. It can be mainly classified into six modes: two single broadband frequency linear polarization (LP) modes (Modes 1 and 2), two dual-broadband LP modes (Modes 3 and 4), and two dual-band circular polarization (CP) modes (Modes 5 and 6). In order to verify the accuracy of this design, this antenna is designed, fabricated, and tested. The measurement results agree very well with the simulation results.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Phased Array Shaped-Beam Satellite Antenna With Boosted-Beam Control
    • Authors: Seong-Mo Moon;Sohyeun Yun;In-Bok Yom;Han Lim Lee;
      Pages: 7633 - 7636
      Abstract: This communication presents a beamforming shaped-beam satellite (SBS) antenna based on a phased array technique and a boosted-beam control. The presented SBS antenna is specifically designed to cover the whole regions of Korea including the southern and northern areas. The proposed SBS antenna consists of waveguide feed network, beamforming circuits, waveguide circular polarizers, 19 radiation elements, and a boosted-beam control panel with active component calibration for temperature variation. To maximize the flexible performance, boosted-beam mode is supported to meet the required high-power signal regardless of bad weather conditions. The adjustable effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) range was around 6 dB and there are a total of 19 beamforming units each configured by drive amplifier, phase shifter, and attenuator. Also, one extra beamforming unit synchronized with the other 19 elements is integrated for active component calibration. Each beamforming element can control relative phase shift up to 360° with 5° step and relative amplitude variation up to 10 dB with 1 dB step as well. Also, each radiation element is configured by waveguide horn and the return losses were better than 25 dB at 21 GHz.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • A Novel Periodic Characteristic Mode Analysis Method for Large-Scale
           Finite Arrays
    • Authors: G. S. Cheng;Chao-Fu Wang;
      Pages: 7637 - 7642
      Abstract: A novel technique, namely periodic characteristic mode (CM) analysis (PCMA) method, is proposed for the solution of CMs of large-scale finite periodic arrays. This technique first adopts a small set of CMs of the reference element of the array with larger modal significance (MS) to construct the entire-domain basis functions defined on each array element and then applies them to expand the characteristic currents of the entire array. By using these newly constructed CM-based entire-domain basis functions, the proposed PCMA method can achieve great reduction in the matrix dimension of the resultant generalized eigenvalue problem governed by the entire array structure, thereby significantly reducing the computational time and memory requirement for solving CMs of the entire large-scale finite periodic array. Several typical examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Comprehensive Study on Numerical Aspects of Modified Lorentz Model-Based
           Dispersive FDTD Formulations
    • Authors: Hongjin Choi;Jae-Woo Baek;Kyung-Young Jung;
      Pages: 7643 - 7648
      Abstract: Finite-difference time domain (FDTD) has been widely used to analyze electromagnetic wave interaction with dispersive media. It is of great necessity to incorporate a dispersion model into FDTD formulation for electromagnetic wave analysis of dispersive media. Recently, it was reported that the modified Lorentz model can cover Debye, Drude, Lorentz, critical point, and quadratic complex rational function models. In this work, it is illustrated that the modified Lorentz model can also cover the complex-conjugate pole-residue model which is one of the most popular dispersion models. Modified Lorentz-based dispersive FDTD has not been thoroughly studied, especially for numerical aspects. In this work, we investigate auxiliary differential equation (ADE)-FDTD formulations for the modified Lorentz model based on electric flux density (D), current (J), or polarization (P). We perform a comprehensive study on memory requirement, the number of arithmetic operations, numerical stability, and numerical permittivity for the above three ADE-FDTD formulations. In addition, the bilinear transformation (BT) is incorporated into modified Lorentz-based FDTD formulations and it will be shown that the utilization of the BT can lead to better performance in terms of numerical stability and numerical accuracy. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate our work.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Fast Solution of Volume–Surface Integral Equations for Multiscale
           Structures
    • Authors: Yuan He;Jian Feng Li;Xiao Jun Jing;Mei Song Tong;
      Pages: 7649 - 7654
      Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) problems with conducting and penetrable media are formulated by volume–surface integral equations (VSIEs). Traditionally, the VSIEs are solved by the method of moments (MoM) with Rao–Wilton–Glisson (RWG) and Schaubert–Wilton–Glisson (SWG) basis functions. We develop a hybrid method to discretize the VSIEs where the surface integral equation (SIE) for the conducting part is discretized by the standard MoM, while the volume integral equations (VIEs) for the penetrable part are discretized by a point-matching scheme (PMS). The PMS can use unstructured or nonconforming meshes and make the integral kernels of VIEs be free of material parameters. Also, the VIEs can result in well-conditioned system matrices because they are the second kind of integral equations. For electrically large or complex problems with multiscale structures, we unite the hybrid method with the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) to accelerate the solutions. Since the MLFMA is sensitive to the conditioning of system matrices which the multiscale feature will deteriorate and is tedious to implement, using the VIEs can ameliorate the conditioning of system matrices and using the PMS can facilitate the implementation of MLFMA. The approach is demonstrated by several numerical examples and its good performance has been observed.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Fast Computation of Electromagnetic Scattering From a Metal–Dielectric
           Composite and Randomly Distributed BoRs Cluster
    • Authors: Jihong Gu;Zi He;Hongcheng Yin;Rushan Chen;
      Pages: 7655 - 7660
      Abstract: An efficient equivalence principle algorithm with spherical equivalent source (SEPA) is proposed to analyze the electromagnetic scattering from a metal–dielectric composite and randomly distributed bodies of revolution (BoRs) cluster, which is called SEPA-CBoR for short. Due to the rotationally symmetrical property, the electromagnetic currents on the BoRs and the equivalence spheres (ESs) are all expanded by the basis functions of BoR. In this way, the self-action and the interaction can be both calculated by using the method of moment for BoR (BoR-MoM). With the repeatability fully used, the self-action for the BoRs with the same size just needs to be calculated once. Moreover, the interaction can also be got once when the size and relative displacement vector of their corresponding ESs are the same. Since these self-action/interaction matrices are constructed in mutually orthogonal Fourier modes, the entire problem is eventually solved by a couple of small matrix equations independently. As a result, the SEPA-CBoR method can greatly save the memory requirement and solution time. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency for the composite BoRs cluster problems. Especially, it is helpful to distinguish the fake targets with the accurate echo signs obtained from the efficient SEPA-CBoR method.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • A Correlation-Aware Sparse Bayesian Perspective for DOA Estimation With
           Off-Grid Sources
    • Authors: Jie Yang;Yixin Yang;
      Pages: 7661 - 7666
      Abstract: A sparse Bayesian perspective for off-grid direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation when the correlation information about the unknown coherent sources is taken into account is formulated in this article. A key contribution is to establish a suitable statistical model which inherently exploits the nature of correlation between the nonzero components of the sparse signal. Such a model guarantees to promote the reconstruction accuracy and robustness. Using our model, we derive the adaptive updating formulas for latent variables via the variational Bayesian inference and the resulting algorithm is fully automated, i.e., no user-intervention is needed. In addition, we introduce a refined 1-D searching procedure which utilizes elucidated properties of the marginal likelihood function to refine the DOA estimates one by one based on the reconstruction result. Our experimental results on synthetic data sets show that, compared with state-of-the-art algorithms, the proposed algorithm yields superior estimation performance at the expense of a higher computational complexity.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • Introducing IEEE Collabratec
    • Pages: 7667 - 7667
      Abstract: Advertisements, IEEE.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
  • IEEE Open Access Publishing
    • Pages: 7668 - 7668
      Abstract: Prospective authors are requested to submit new, unpublished manuscripts for inclusion in the upcoming event described in this call for papers.
      PubDate: Dec. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 12 (2019)
       
 
 
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