Authors:Subhadeep Banik, Vasily Mikhalev, Frederik Armknecht, Takanori Isobe, Willi Meier, Andrey Bogdanov, Yuhei Watanabe, Francesco Regazzoni Pages: 1 - 19 Abstract: Energy optimization is an important design aspect of lightweight cryptography. Since low energy ciphers drain less battery, they are invaluable components of devices that operate on a tight energy budget such as handheld devices or RFID tags. At Asiacrypt 2015, Banik et al. presented the block cipher family Midori which was designed to optimize the energy consumed per encryption and which reduces the energy consumption by more than 30% compared to previous block ciphers. However, if one has to encrypt/decrypt longer streams of data, i.e. for bulk data encryption/decryption, it is expected that a stream cipher should perform even better than block ciphers in terms of energy required to encrypt. In this paper, we address the question of designing low energy stream ciphers. To this end, we analyze for common stream cipher design components their impact on the energy consumption. Based on this, we give arguments why indeed stream ciphers allow for encrypting long data streams with less energy than block ciphers and validate our findings by implementations. Afterwards, we use the analysis results to identify energy minimizing design principles for stream ciphers. PubDate: 2018-06-07 DOI: 10.13154/tosc.v2018.i2.1-19

Authors:Gianira N. Alfarano, Christof Beierle, Takanori Isobe, Stefan Kölbl, Gregor Leander Pages: 20 - 47 Abstract: We study possible alternatives for ShiftRows to be used as cell permutations in AES-like ciphers. As observed during the design process of the block cipher Midori, when using a matrix with a non-optimal branch number for the MixColumns operation, the choice of the cell permutation, i.e., an alternative for ShiftRows, can actually improve the security of the primitive. In contrast, when using an MDS matrix it is known that one cannot increase the minimum number of active S-boxes by deviating from the ShiftRows-type permutation. However, finding the optimal choice for the cell permutation for a given, non-optimal, MixColumns operation is a highly non-trivial problem. In this work, we propose techniques to speed up the search for the optimal cell permutations significantly. As case studies, we apply those techniques to Midori and Skinny and provide possible alternatives for their cell permutations. We finally state an easy-to-verify sufficient condition on a cell permutation, to be used as an alternative in Midori, that attains a high number of active S-boxes and thus provides good resistance against differential and linear attacks. PubDate: 2018-06-07 DOI: 10.13154/tosc.v2018.i2.20-47

Authors:Sébastien Duval, Gaëtan Leurent Pages: 48 - 78 Abstract: MDS matrices are an important element for the design of block ciphers such as the AES. In recent years, there has been a lot of work on the construction of MDS matrices with a low implementation cost, in the context of lightweight cryptography. Most of the previous efforts focused on local optimization, constructing MDS matrices with coefficients that can be efficiently computed. In particular, this led to a matrix with a direct xor count of only 106, while a direct implementation of the MixColumn matrix of the AES requires 152 bitwise xors. More recently, techniques based on global optimization have been introduced, where the implementation can reuse some intermediate variables. In particular, Kranz et al. used optimization tools to find a good implementation from the description of an MDS matrix. They have lowered the cost of implementing the MixColumn matrix to 97 bitwise xors, and proposed a new matrix with only 72 bitwise xors, the lowest cost known so far. In this work we propose a different approach to global optimization. Instead of looking for an optimized circuit of a given matrix, we run a search through a space of circuits, to find optimal circuits yielding MDS matrices. This results in MDS matrices with an even lower cost, with only 67 bitwise xors. PubDate: 2018-06-07 DOI: 10.13154/tosc.v2018.i2.48-78

Authors:Stian Fauskanger, Igor Semaev Pages: 79 - 110 Abstract: Multidimensional linear cryptanalysis of block ciphers is improved in this work by introducing a number of new ideas. Firstly, formulae is given to compute approximate multidimensional distributions of the encryption algorithm internal bits. Conventional statistics like LLR (Logarithmic Likelihood Ratio) do not fit to work in Matsui’s Algorithm 2 for large dimension data, as the observation may depend on too many cipher key bits. So, secondly, a new statistic which reflects the structure of the cipher round is constructed instead. Thirdly, computing the statistic values that will fall into a critical region is presented as an optimisation problem for which an efficient algorithm is suggested. The algorithm works much faster than brute forcing all relevant key bits to compute the statistic. An attack for 16-round DES was implemented. We got an improvement over Matsui’s attack on DES in data and time complexity keeping success probability the same. With 241.81 plaintext blocks and success rate 0.83 (computed theoretically) we found 241.46 (which is close to the theoretically predicted number 241.81) key-candidates to 56-bit DES key. Search tree to compute the statistic values which fall into the critical region incorporated 245.45 nodes in the experiment and that is at least theoretically inferior in comparison with the final brute force. To get success probability 0.85, which is a fairer comparison to Matsui’s results, we would need 241.85 data and to brute force 241.85 key-candidates. That compares favourably with 243 achieved by Matsui. PubDate: 2018-06-07 DOI: 10.13154/tosc.v2018.i2.79-110

Authors:Maria Eichlseder, Daniel Kales Pages: 111 - 132 Abstract: The TWEAKEY/STK construction is an increasingly popular approach for designing tweakable block ciphers that notably uses a linear tweakey schedule. Several recent attacks have analyzed the implications of this approach for differential cryptanalysis and other attacks that can take advantage of related tweakeys. We generalize the clustering approach of a recent differential attack on the tweakable block cipher MANTIS5 and describe a tool for efficiently finding and evaluating such clusters. More specifically, we consider the set of all differential characteristics compatible with a given truncated characteristic, tweak difference, and optional constraints for the differential. We refer to this set as a semi-truncated characteristic and estimate its probability by analyzing the distribution of compatible differences at each step. We apply this approach to find a semi-truncated differential characteristic for MANTIS6 with probability about 2−67.73 and derive a key-recovery attack with a complexity of about 255.09 chosen-plaintext queries and 255.52 computations. The data-time product is 2110.61 << 2126. PubDate: 2018-06-07 DOI: 10.13154/tosc.v2018.i2.111-132

Authors:Lorenzo Grassi Pages: 133 - 160 Abstract: At Eurocrypt 2017 the first secret-key distinguisher for 5-round AES - based on the “multiple-of-8” property - has been presented. Although it allows to distinguish a random permutation from an AES-like one, it seems rather hard to implement a key-recovery attack different than brute-force like using such a distinguisher. In this paper we introduce “Mixture Differential Cryptanalysis” on round-reduced AESlike ciphers, a way to translate the (complex) “multiple-of-8” 5-round distinguisher into a simpler and more convenient one (though, on a smaller number of rounds). Given a pair of chosen plaintexts, the idea is to construct new pairs of plaintexts by mixing the generating variables of the original pair of plaintexts. Here we theoretically prove that for 4-round AES the corresponding ciphertexts of the original pair of plaintexts lie in a particular subspace if and only if the corresponding pairs of ciphertexts of the new pairs of plaintexts have the same property. Such secret-key distinguisher - which is independent of the secret-key, of the details of the S-Box and of the MixColumns matrix (except for the branch number equal to 5) - can be used as starting point to set up new key-recovery attacks on round-reduced AES. Besides a theoretical explanation, we also provide a practical verification both of the distinguisher and of the attack. PubDate: 2018-06-07 DOI: 10.13154/tosc.v2018.i2.133-160

Authors:Patrick Derbez, Tetsu Iwata, Ling Sun, Siwei Sun, Yosuke Todo, Haoyang Wang, Meiqin Wang Pages: 161 - 191 Abstract: A dedicated pseudorandom function (PRF) called AES-PRF was proposed by Mennink and Neves at FSE 2018 (ToSC 2017, Issue 3). AES-PRF is obtained from AES by using the output of the 5-th round as the feed-forward to the output state. This paper presents extensive security analysis of AES-PRF and its variants. Specifically, we consider unbalanced variants where the output of the s-th round is used as the feed-forward. We also analyze the security of “dual” constructions of the unbalanced variants, where the input state is used as the feed-forward to the output of the s-th round. We apply an impossible differential attack, zero-correlation linear attack, traditional differential attack, zero correlation linear distinguishing attack and a meet-in-the-middle attack on these PRFs and reduced round versions. We show that AES-PRF is broken whenever s ≤ 2 or s ≥ 6, or reduced to 7 rounds, and Dual-AES-PRF is broken whenever s ≤ 4 or s ≥ 8. Our results on AES-PRF improve the initial security evaluation by the designers in various ways, and our results on Dual-AES-PRF give the first insight to its security. PubDate: 2018-06-07 DOI: 10.13154/tosc.v2018.i2.161-191