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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 175 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 76)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 305)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 253)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 104)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 85)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 91)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Embedded Systems Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access  
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 185)
Haptics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access  
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Nano Devices, Sensors and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Magnetics Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Nanotechnology Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Pulse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Solid-State Circuits Magazine, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Wireless Power Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Women in Engineering Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access  

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Journal Cover
Energy Storage Materials
Journal Prestige (SJR): 5.208
Citation Impact (citeScore): 13
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 2405-8297
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • High-performance lithium sulfur batteries enabled by a synergy between
           sulfur and carbon nanotubes
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Amir Abdul Razzaq, Yuanzhou Yao, Rahim Shah, Pengwei Qi, Lixiao Miao, Muzi Chen, Xiaohui Zhao, Yang Peng, Zhao Deng The urgent demand on high performance energy storage devices makes lithium sulfur batteries with a high energy density up to 2600 Wh kg−1 extremely attractive. However, the low capacity reversibility and poor rate capability still pose a significant hurdle on their real-world applications. Here, a freestanding thin-film composite containing sulfurized polyacrylonitrile with conductive backbone of carbon nanotubes has been fabricated by an electrospinning method followed by vulcanization, and employed as the binder-free cathode for lithium sulfur batteries without any aid of current collectors. A synergic effect from sulfur and carbon nanotubes, when co-spun together, has been discovered on promoting the electrochemical performance of the cathodes by simultaneously creating material porosity and conductive pathway. The optimized composite fibers made from a ternary precursor solution containing 20% carbon nanotubes present the best performance, delivering a high initial discharge capacity of 1610 mAh g−1 at 0.2C and outstanding cycle stability of 1106 mAh g−1 at 1C over 500 cycles. It is anticipated that the porous composite nanofibers and the multi-variant fabrication methodology reported here can be extended to more energy storage applications, particularly for flexible lithium sulfur batteries.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Heterogeneous nucleation and growth of electrodeposited lithium metal on
           the basal plane of single-layer graphene
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Qianqian Meng, Bing Deng, Huimin Zhang, Biyan Wang, Wenfeng Zhang, Yuehua Wen, Hai Ming, Xiayu Zhu, Yuepeng Guan, Yu Xiang, Meng Li, Gaoping Cao, Yusheng Yang, Hailin Peng, Hao Zhang, Yaqin Huang Lithium metal anode has attracted soaring attention for high energy batteries. However, uncontrollable growth of dendritic Li and high chemical reactivity with electrolyte incur serious safety issues, hindering its practical applications. Carbon materials and their composites with controllable structures and properties, have been explored to address these issues and show great potential for lithium anode protection as stable scaffolds or Li storage reservoirs. However, the study of heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Li on carbon surfaces, especially on the basal plane of graphite layers, which is the dominating surface for graphene, carbon nanotube, and many other advanced carbon materials, remains empty, attributing to the lack of a perfect (planar and clean) deposition substrate. Herein, we adopt a single-layer graphene grown on Cu foil as an ideal Li plating substrate to reveal the fundamental behavior of Li metal nucleation and growth on carbon surface for the first time. We demonstrate that single-layer graphene on Cu foil, with nearly perfect structure, has a higher energy barrier for Li nucleation than Cu. Thus, it is more likely to form isolated and thicker dendrite layer on the carbon basal plane, and continuous dendrite was formed easily from Li nuclei even at a low Li deposited capacity of 30 µA h cm−2. Thereby, carbon materials with basal plane-dominated structures are proved lithiophobic and not suitable for the matrix of Li-metal anode. Our approach could lead to the realization of fundamental understanding of Li metal heterogeneous nucleation and growth on carbon surface with various electronic properties.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Rational design of graphitic-inorganic Bi-layer artificial SEI for stable
           lithium metal anode
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Jinguo Zhu, Pengkun Li, Xiang Chen, Dominik Legut, Yanchen Fan, Ruifeng Zhang, Yingying Lu, Xinbing Cheng, Qianfan Zhang Lithium metal batteries (LMBs) have attracted increasing attentions for their ultrahigh specific capacity (3860 mAh g−1) and the lowest electrode potential (−3.04 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode). However, the dynamic volume changes, the complex interfacial reactions, and the dendrite growth remain as the grand challenges in LMBs that prevent their practical applications. A bi-layer artificial solid electrolyte interphase (BL-SEI), which is composed of covalent graphitic materials (graphene and h-BN) and inorganic components (LiF, Li2O, Li3N, and Li2CO3), is rationally designed through comprehensive first-principles calculation to render a stable Li metal anode. Key interfacial properties, such as chemical stability, ionic conductivity, and mechanical strength, are systematically investigated to achieve a rational design of the BL-SEI. Among all the considered BL-SEI, the graphene/LiF combination is hopeful to exhibit the best interfacial stability and electrochemical performance. The protective role of BL-SEI for Li metal anode comes from the coupled effects through the anisotropic character and the defective structure. This work reveals the origin of the significant role of BL-SEI for achieving a stable Li metal anode from the atomic and electronic level, affording a paradigm for rational deign of a high-performance artificial SEI in working LMBs.Graphical abstractThe bi-layer artificial solid electrolyte interphase for lithium metal anode, composed of covalent graphitic materials and inorganic components, is rationally designed. The graphitic layers possess high mechanical strength and stiffness which can effectively release the stress produced by the non-uniform growth of lithium while the inorganic layers can prevent the graphitic layers from corroding by electrolyte and stably cover on the lithium metal surface.fx1
       
  • Regulating Li deposition by constructing LiF-rich host for dendrite-free
           lithium metal anode
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Yanxia Yuan, Feng Wu, Ying Bai, Yu Li, Guanghai Chen, Zhaohua Wang, Chuan Wu Lithium (Li) metal anode is among the most promising anodes due to its high energy density. However, the long-standing issue of Li dendrites growth hinders the practical application of lithium metal batteries (LMBs) in portable electronics and electric vehicles. Engineering a dendrite-free Li metal anode is therefore critical for the development of long-life batteries. Here, an artificial LiF host with cuboid feature is constructed on Li metal surface by a facial one-step reaction of ammonium hydrogen difluoride (NH4HF2) with bare Li metal. During cycling, Li grows continuously from the bottom gaps to the top of the LiF host and finally cover the surface of the modified anode. Particularly, with the increasing of cycling capacity, the Li metal tend to deposit into scaly morphology which contributes to a dendrite-free anode. The as-obtained smooth Li anodes enabled stable cycling in working batteries with a low overpotential and a high Coulombic efficiency (CE) of 98.5% at the current density of 1 mA cm−2. This work provides a facile approach to prepare LiF-rich Li anode which paves the way to construct high-energy and safe LMBs.Graphic abstractOur research demonstrates the feasibility of a novel, simple and safe method to prepare LiF-rich Li anode, which possesses high Li ions diffusion rate and cuboid surface structure simultaneously. The LiF host guides the Li metal deposit into a smooth and wafer-like morphology. Particularly, the scaly deposition feature under high cycling capacity make for a dendrite-free Li anode and thus enhance the performance of lithium metal batteries.fx1
       
  • BaNb3.6O10 nanowires with superior electrochemical performance towards
           ultrafast and highly stable lithium storage
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Xing Cheng, Shangshu Qian, Haoxiang Yu, Haojie Zhu, Ying Xie, Runtian Zheng, Tingting Liu, Miao Shui, Jie Shu High-performance anode materials for development of long cycling life and environmental benignity lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are greatly desired. Here, the nanostructure, electrochemical performance and structural evolution of barium niobates in LIBs are reported of the first time. One-dimensional barium niobium oxide (BaNb3.6O10) nanowires are prepared by electrospinning technique, displaying the “nanoparticle-in-nanowire” morphology. The BaNb3.6O10 nanowires show high structural stability, high reversible specific capacity (263.8 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1), superior rate performance and long-term cycling capability (keeping 60% of the initial reversible capacity at a high current density of 1000 mA g−1 after 5000 cycles). In addition, the mechanism for lithium storage in BaNb3.6O10 is also studied by using ex-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), in-situ TEM and theory calculations. The results show that BaNb3.6O10 nanowires have reversibility and structural stability for the lithiation and delithiation process. The fabricated BaNb3.6O10/LiMn2O4 full cell demonstrates a practical energy density of 270 Wh Kg−1. This work perfectly confirms that the one-dimensional BaNb3.6O10 nanowires are an ideal material for LIBs.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • High voltage asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors using lithium- and
           sodium-containing ionic liquids
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Simon Fleischmann, Mathias Widmaier, Anna Schreiber, Hwirim Shim, Frank M. Stiemke, Thomas J.S. Schubert, Volker Presser Asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors (AHSCs) combine high specific energy and power by merging two electrodes with capacitive and Faradaic charge storage mechanisms. In this study, we introduce AHSC cells that use lithium titanate and activated carbon electrodes in an alkali-ion containing ionic liquid electrolyte. With this cell concept, it is possible to operate the activated carbon electrode in a higher potential window. Consequently, higher cell voltages and a reduced carbon electrode mass can be used, resulting in significantly increased energy compared to aqueous or organic electrolytes. We demonstrate the feasibility of this cell concept for both lithium- and sodium-ion intercalation, underlining the general validity of our approach. Our prototype cells already reach high specific energies of 100 W h/kg, while maintaining a specific power of up to 2 kW/kg and cycling stability of over 1500 cycles. Owing to the IL electrolyte, stable cycling of an AHSC at 80 °C is demonstrated for the first time.
       
  • Robust graphene layer modified Na2MnP2O7 as a durable high-rate and high
           energy cathode for Na-ion batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Huangxu Li, Xiaobin Chen, Ting Jin, Weizhai Bao, Zhian Zhang, Lifang Jiao Na2MnP2O7 has been considered as a promising cathode candidate for advanced sodium-ion batteries due to its high potential, low cost and non-toxicity. However, the low initial Coulombic efficiency, poor high-rate and unsatisfactory cycling ability originated from the intrinsic inferior electronic conductivity and manganese dissolution severely hinder its practical application. Herein, we report an approach based on a feasible high energy vibrating activation process to fabricate a robust graphene layers (GL) modified Na2MnP2O7 material (noted as NMP@GL) for the first time. The as-prepared NMP@GL could exhibit an ultrahigh initial Coulombic efficiency of 90%, and a high energy density over 300 Wh kg-1. In addition, rate performance and cycling stability were also improved, with high capacity retention of 83% after 600 cycles at 2 C. These impressive progresses should be ascribed to the enhanced electron transportation with distinctive framework through graphene layer modifying, and structural stability of triclinic Na2MnP2O7 with spacious 3D ion migration channels. Ex-situ XRD and GITT demonstrate a consecutive multi-phase reaction mechanism with facile sodium diffusion. Our design makes Na2MnP2O7@GL to achieve its potential for practical application.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • N-doped Fe3C@C as an efficient polyselenide reservoir for high-performance
           sodium-selenium batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Hui Wang, Yang Jiang, Arumugam Manthiram Sodium-selenium batteries are receiving intense attention due to their high theoretical energy density and low cost, but their pragmatic realization are still impinged by sluggish electrode kinetics and dissolution of sodium polyselenide. Here, we present a strategy to enable porous N-doped Fe3C@C matrix to better entrap polyselenide and enhance the capability of the cell, whereby Fe3C serves as an efficient polyselenide reservoir via stronger chemisorption, as clearly evidenced by experimental analysis and DFT simulations. The as-fabricated half cells with 72.6 wt.% selenium content exhibit highly reversible capacities of 620 mA h g−1 at 0.1C rate and 405 mA h g−1 at a high rate of 5 C. Moreover, the cell provides superior static stability (shelf-life) as illustrated by its 98.7% capacity retention even after storing for three months. This material is also paired with Na3V2O2(PO4)2F cathode in full cells to realize a stable discharge capacity of 108 mAh g−1 (based on the weights of both the anode cathode) at 0.1 C rate over 50 cycles, thus demonstrating N-doped Fe3C@C a superior host for sodium-selenium batteries.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Over-potential induced Li/Na filtrated depositions using stacked graphene
           coating on copper scaffold
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Feihong Ren, Zhe Peng, Muqin Wang, Yang Xie, Zhendong Li, Hao Wan, Huan Lin, Deyu Wang Alkaline metals play paramount roles for developing high-energy-density batteries, while the stabilities of Li/Na anodes are still challenged by the side reactions with electrolytes on their hostless surfaces. In this work, we propose a novel protective strategy, called “over-potential induced Li/Na filtrated deposition”, to isolate the fresh metals from the solvents. This special function is realized by using the home-made stacked graphene (SG), which possesses the higher Li/Na nucleation over-potentials than that on copper (Cu), leading to orientated and filtrated Li+/Na+ flux through this carbon layer and underneath metal deposition on the Cu substrates. By further grafting the stacked graphenes on a rational nano-structured Cu scaffold, Li/Na plating/stripping could be tailored with uniform morphologies and high Coulombic efficiencies. In corrosive carbonate electrolyte, the Coulombic efficiencies could be stably maintained at ~ 97.1% and 93.3% for Li and Na anodes. The special behavior of filtrated deposition developed in this work could establish an alternative guideline for improving the reversibility of Li/Na anodes in high-energy-density batteries.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Structural and mechanistic revelations on high capacity cation-disordered
           Li-rich oxides for rechargeable Li-ion batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Enyue Zhao, Lunhua He, Baotian Wang, Xiyang Li, Junrong Zhang, Yang Wu, Jie Chen, Shaoying Zhang, Tianjiao Liang, Yuanbo Chen, Xiqian Yu, Hong Li, Liquan Chen, Xuejie Huang, Hesheng Chen, Fangwei Wang High capacity cation-disordered Li-rich oxides not only enlarge the chemical design space of cathode materials, but also play an important role in promoting the development of high energy density Li-ion batteries. However, there are still some issues, such as capacity degradation, that impede their practical applications. In-depth understanding of the structure and mechanisms in cation-disordered Li-rich oxides is favorable for their further performance optimization. Herein, taking the new designed high capacity (~ 280 mA h/g) disordered Li1.2Ti0.35Ni0.35Nb0.1O1.8F0.2 as a model compound, we meticulously study its structure evolution and electrochemical reaction mechanisms upon cycling by combination of first principles calculation, synchrony X-ray diffraction (SXRD), X-ray pair distribution function (XPDF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), in situ XRD, and Neutron powder diffraction (NPD) et al. The excellent structure stability and robust anions framework of cation-disordered Li-rich oxides are experimentally demonstrated. Meanwhile, the high capacity mechanisms rely on the simultaneous cations and anions redox reactions and the capacity degradation mechanism induced by oxygen loss upon cycling are also proposed. Based on these revelations, the optimization strategy and potential applications of cation-disordered Li-rich oxides are further proposed.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • A robust sulfur host with dual lithium polysulfide immobilization
           mechanism for long cycle life and high capacity Li-S batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Xiwen Wang, Chenghao Yang, Xunhui Xiong, Guilin Chen, Mingzhi Huang, Jeng-Han Wang, Yong Liu, Meilin Liu, Kevin Huang Beyond the physical lithium polysulfide (Li2Sx) entrapment of various 3D porous sulfur hosts, the importance of chemical interactions between sulfur host and Li2Sx on performance of Li-S batteries has recently been highlighted. However, most of these studies focus mainly on one type of chemical interaction and effective suppression of Li2Sx migration is still lacking. Here, we report a uniquely designed sulfur host that can immobilize Li2Sx through a dual chemisorption mechanism. The new sulfur host is consisted of an MXene matrix and polydopamine (PDA) overcoat, where Mxene forms a strong Ti–S bonding by the Lewis acid-base mechanism while PDA withholds Li2Sx through the polar-polar interaction. Benefited from the double chemisorption, the new cathode with a high sulfur loading of 5 mg cm−2 has been demonstrated with an initial capacity of 1001 mA h g−1 at a capacity retention of 65% over 1000 cycles at 0.2 C. Overall, this study not only presents a unique chemical mechanism to entrap Li2Sx, but also provides a new way to rationally design a practical sulfur cathode for high-performance Li-S batteries.
       
  • Enhanced electrochemical performance of hyperbranched poly(amidographene)
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Kiran Babasaheb Dhopte, K. Mohanapriya, Neetu Jha, Parag R. Nemade We report a facile route for the synthesis of hyperbranched polyamido-graphenes (HBP(A-G)) as non-metallic high capacity electrodes for charge storage in supercapacitors. HBP(A-G) were synthesized by Michael addition of polyamines, ethylene diamine (EDA), diethylene triamine (DETA), triethylene tetraamine (TETA), to acrylamide grafted graphene oxide, followed by reduction in situ. A 3D network of stiff graphene sheets connected by flexible polyamine chain was formed. Hyperbranching increased d-spacing and BET surface area of graphene stacks, which enhanced accessibility of sites for ion storage, and prevented restacking. HBP(A-G) electrodes displayed electric double layer capacitance behaviour with excellent specific capacitance. The charge storage capacity of the electrodes increased with an increase in the amine chain length. Specific capacitance of electrodes containing HBP(TETA-G) was found to be 269 F g-1 in a symmetric two electrode electrochemical cell, using 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte at a current density of 1 A g-1 for voltage range of 0–1 V. An increase in the length of amine chains improved ion mobility, lowered equivalent distributed resistance and time constant of the electrodes. The time constant of HBP(TETA-G) capacitor was only 538 ms. Hydrophilic amine linkages on graphene backbone provided stability against electrode volume changes during charging and discharging and gave 89% capacity retention over 10,000 cycles at 10 A g-1 current density for HBP(TETA-G) electrodes. HBP(A-G) electrodes demonstrated superior performance as electrodes for supercapacitors and has shown potential for use in other electrochemical applications.Graphical abstractSymmetric supercapacitor fabricated using hyperbranched poly(amidographene)s, synthesized via novel route by Michael addition of polyamines to acrylamide-grafted-graphene oxide followed by in situ reduction to graphene, gave high specific capacitance with good energy density.fx1
       
  • The advance of nickel-cobalt-sulfide as ultra-fast/high sodium storage
           materials: The influences of morphology structure, phase evolution and
           interface property
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Sijie Li, Peng Ge, Feng Jiang, Honglei Shuai, Wei Xu, Yunling Jiang, Yang Zhang, Jiugang Hu, Hongshuai Hou, Xiaobo Ji Numerous interests have been captured for bimetallic NiCo2S4 ascribed to its excellent electrical conductivity, whilst its sluggish sodium-ion kinetics at high-rate limits the advancement of reversible sodium storage. Herein, NiCo2S4 nanodots (~ 9 nm) uniformly incorporated with N-doped carbon are prepared (NiCo2S4@NC) through bottom-up strategy from 0D to stable structure. Considering that the suitable ether-based electrolyte (NaCF3SO3/DEGDME) may well promote faster sodium-ion transportation due to flexible one-dimensional chain structure and favorable solvent-salt interaction, and the optimal voltage region (0.4–3.0 V) could effectively successfully sidestep the side reaction and maintain reversible phase transformation. Such multi-factors tuned NiCo2S4@NC offers remarkable electrochemical performance as anode for SIBs. It delivers a stable capacity of 570.1 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles at 0.2 A g−1, and still retains 395.6 mAh g−1 at 6.0 A g−1 after 5,000 loops. Significantly, the mechanism and dynamics explorations by cyclic voltammetry (CV) profoundly reveal the dominant surface-capacitive behaviors of NiCo2S4@NC. A suite of in-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses further explore the regular dual-interface resistances of NiCo2S4@NC during the sodiation/desodiation process, corresponding to the reversible phase evolution and stable carbon matrix. This systematic study establishes a firm foundation for the later research of TMDs as excellent energy-storage anode materials for SIBs.Graphical abstractBy tuning multi-factor functioning of both ether-based electrolyte and optimal voltage window, NiCo2S4 nanodots (~9 nm) homogeneously encapsulated in the N-doped carbon matrix are constructed to impart improvement on electrochemical properties.fx1
       
  • Spatially uniform deposition of lithium metal in 3D Janus hosts
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Bo Hong, Hailin Fan, Xin-Bing Cheng, Xiaolin Yan, Shu Hong, Qingyuan Dong, Chunhui Gao, Zhian Zhang, Yanqing Lai, Qiang Zhang Three-dimensional (3D), high-specific-surface-area, and porous current collectors are strongly considered as the hosts of lithium deposition to avoid dendrite growth of lithium metal in rechargeable batteries. However, a major hurdle in these hosts is the poor affinity of lithium in non-polar framework and favorable lithium deposition toward the conductive separator-facing surface while leaving the interior voids empty. Herein, we demonstrate an effective strategy to address the issue of spatially heterogeneous lithium deposition in 3D Janus current collectors by modifying its separator-away surface with low Li/Li+ over-potential nanoparticles as nucleation sites to guide lithium deposition. The metallic lithium preferentially nucleates around the gold nanoparticles that are sputtered on the separator-away surface of the carbon paper. The lithium metal then grows along the adjacent carbon fiber and renders it spatially homogeneous for deposition/dissolution during the repeated charge/discharge processes. The Janus gold nanoparticle-modified carbon paper (Au/CP) electrode exhibits an excellent Coulombic efficiency of 99.1% over 100 cycles at 1.0 mA cm⁻2 in the ether electrolyte, while the pristine carbon paper (CP) and stainless steel foil (SS) electrodes exhibit Coulombic efficiencies of less than 80.0% after 74 and 59 cycles, respectively. The strategy is universal and similar results are obtained when replacing gold, carbon paper, and ether electrolyte with zinc oxide, nickel foam, and carbonate electrolyte, respectively. Therefore, this strategy presents a general approach to regulate lithium ion distribution, nucleation, and deposition behavior for long-lifespan lithium metal batteries.Graphical abstract3D Janus host with one lithiophilic surface and another lithiophobic surface is proposed to guide Li metal deposition in a working rechargeable battery. The Au nanoparticles serves as lithiophilic sites at the separator-away surface, which induce dendrite-free deposition/dissolution during the repeated charge/discharge process.fx1
       
  • Open porous graphene nanoribbon hydrogel via additive-free interfacial
           self-assembly: Fast mass transport electrodes for high-performance
           biosensing and energy storage
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Joonwon Lim, Gil Yong Lee, Ho Jin Lee, Seung Keun Cha, Dong Sung Choi, Sung Hwan Koo, Won Jun Lee, Sang Ouk Kim Customized assembly of nanomaterials into three-dimensional macroscopic objects may offer versatile functional nanostructures. Gelation is a common route to this end, but unstable assembly of typical one-dimensional nanomaterials arising from their non-flat geometry of weakly interacting building blocks has remained a significant challenge. We report versatile reliable open nanoporous graphene nanoribbon hydrogel formation via straightforward interfacial layer-by-layer self-assembly. Atomically flat surface of graphene nanoribbon enables a stable gelation, overcoming the geometrical penalty of one-dimensional building blocks. The resultant hydrogel readily provides compact open porous web-like gel framework along with a wide range of controllability in the engineering of surface functionality, composite preparation and three-dimensional customized morphology formation. Large surface area and open porosity of the synergistic hydrogel structure simultaneously attain fast responsivity and high sensitivity in enzymatic biosensor application as well as fast rate capability and high capacitance in supercapacitor application.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Decorating Co/CoNx nanoparticles in nitrogen-doped carbon nanoarrays for
           flexible and rechargeable zinc-air batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Cao Guan, Afriyanti Sumboja, Wenjie Zang, Yuhong Qian, Hong Zhang, Ximeng Liu, Zhaolin Liu, Dan Zhao, Stephen J. Pennycook, John Wang Efficient and stable air cathodes which catalyze both the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are highly desirable but challenging for flexible and rechargeable Zn-air batteries. Here we synthesize unique hybrid cobalt/cobalt nitride (Co/CoNx) nanoparticles well-integrated with nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) nanoarrays through a facile fabrication using a two-dimensional metal–organic framework (MOF) precursor. Such NC-Co/CoNx nanoarrays show promising bifunctional catalytic properties toward both ORR and OER, and can be directly used as an active and durable air cathode for flexible sandwich-like layered Zn-air batteries. In addition, a coaxial fiber-shaped solid-state Zn-air battery is assembled using a carbon microfiber covered with the NC-Co/CoNx nanoarrays as the cathode, a Zn microfiber as the anode and a gel electrolyte. Such fiber-shaped Zn-air battery exhibits much enhanced volumetric power density coupled with good flexibility, showing promising application for flexible energy storage devices.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Manipulation of conjugation to stabilize N redox-active centers for the
           design of high-voltage organic battery cathode
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Gaole Dai, Xuelan Wang, Yumin Qian, Zhihui Niu, Xi Zhu, Jing Ye, Yu Zhao, Xiaohong Zhang Organic redox compounds are promising candidates for lithium ion batteries owing to the elemental abundance and structural diversity. However, the low redox potential and chemical bond cleavage/recombination during lithiation/delithiation have significantly limited their practical application. We demonstrate here the manipulation of conjugation to stabilize N redox-active centers in a p-type, two-electron-transfer oligomer of N,N’-diphenyl-5,10-dihydrophenazine as a high-voltage organic battery cathode material, which exhibits high redox potentials of 4.1 and 3.3 V (vs. Li+/Li), good stability, and a galvanometric energy density of ca. 530 Wh kg–1. The redox active electron localized on the dihydrophenazine unit in this oligomer are believed to contribute to the good electrochemical performances.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Carbon@titanium nitride dual shell nanospheres as multi-functional hosts
           for lithium sulfur batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Yuankun Wang, Ruifang Zhang, Yuan-chao Pang, Xu Chen, Jinxin Lang, Jingjing Xu, Chunhui Xiao, Huanglong Li, Kai Xi, Shujiang Ding Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) cells have received particular attention as a “post lithium ion” energy storage system. However, low sulfur utilization and poor redox kinetics are still key challenges to improving cycling efficiency. Herein, we develop a multi-functional polysulfide mediator based on carbon hollow nanospheres supported titanium nitride (C@TiN) dual-shell hollow nanospheres, in which the physical confinement, chemical adsorption, and catalysis for sulfur species conversion were successfully achieved simultaneously. As a result, C@TiN-S composites (approximately 70 wt% sulfur content) exhibit faster reaction kinetics and a higher polysulfide trap capability than that of C@TiO2-S composites when used as cathode materials in Li-S batteries. The C@TiN-S electrode delivers a reversible capacity of 453 mA h g−1, coupled with a high average Coulombic Efficiency (~ 99.0%). There is also limited capacitance decay (only 0.0033% per cycle), at a current density of 3 C, over 300 cycles. In particular, when the sulfur loading is increased to 4.2 mg cm−2, the C@TiN-S electrode can provide a high capacity of 820 mA h g−1 over 150 cycles at 0.2 C. DFT calculations reveal that the long-chain Li2S8 tend to break down into two shorter chain segments due to the strong interaction of TiN and LiPSs. Electrochemical analysis techniques indicate that TiN can effectively catalyze the reduction of polysulfide and the oxidation of Li2S during discharge and charge processes, respectively. Our work offers a new strategy to develop high-performance Li-S batteries based on multi-functional mediators.Graphical abstractC@TiN nanospheres are designed as efficient multi-functionalized polysulfides mediators and the mechanism of TiN catalysed LiPSs conversion is clarified.fx1
       
  • Cladding nanostructured AgNWs-MoS2 electrode material for high-rate and
           long-life transparent in-plane micro-supercapacitor
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Jiahui Li, Qiuwei Shi, Yuanlong Shao, Chengyi Hou, Yaogang Li, Qinghong Zhang, Hongzhi Wang The rapid increment of integrated electronics and the boom in miniaturized and portable devices have developed the requirement for miniaturized and carriable energy storage cell. However, recently energy storage units still subject to manifold limiting their practical application, such as short lifetime, low power density, low rate stability and complex architecture. Here, the focus is on new strategy to design cladding nanostructured electrode AgNWs-MoS2 material and the material engineering of transparent electrode and in-plane micro-supercapacitors. The integrated cladding AgNWs-MoS2 materials based micro-supercapacitor with high transparency of 77.5% showed a high rate stability (specific areal capacitance of 27.6 mF cm−2 and 16.9 mF cm−2 at high rate of 0.2 and 3 V s−1 receptively), long-life cycling (96.4% retention after 10, 000 cycles) and bending stability (under 180-degree bend for 100 times, only 1.4% loss at a high rate of 8 V s−1). We trust this strategy may be extended to the syntheses of other cladding hybrid materials with such fascinating nanostructure for in-plane architectures micro-supercapacitors. It is also expected that the advances in such energy storage will offer more opportunities for the miniaturization and integration of energy-storage units for portable devices.Graphical abstractTransparent and flexible micro-supercapacitor based on a hybrid nanostructure is developed with employing AgNWs as the collector, and liquid exfoliated MoS2 NSs as the active material. Outstanding transparency, rate, long-time and bending stability, and electrochemical performance are realized simultaneously owing to the synergetic effect of the chosen materials and designed cladding nanostructure.fx1
       
  • PMMA-assisted Li deposition towards 3D continuous dendrite-free lithium
           anode
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Yanpeng Guo, Yan Ouyang, Dian Li, Yaqing Wei, Tianyou Zhai, Huiqiao Li Uncontrolled dendrite growth, continuous dead Li formation together with host-less volume changes associated with lithium metal greatly hamper the commercialization of high-energy-density lithium metal batteries (LMBs). Manipulating the deposition behavior of lithium ions is generally believed effective to root out undesired sharp protrusions over the anode surface and various kinds of 3D conductive inert substrates/hosts are introduced to mitigate volume changes and dead Li formation. However, the introduction of alien host would inevitably sacrifice partial energy density of cells. Herein, we successfully achieved in-situ deposition of a 3D continuous dendrite-free lithium deposition with blunt surface at the absence of inert host by simply adding an electrochemical active polymer-PMMA into the electrolyte to manipulate the deposition behavior of lithium ions. The function mechanism of PMMA upon Li deposition is investigated in detail. Upon discharging, lithium ions could react with PMMA and become immobilized. These pre-trapped lithium ions are then in-situ reduced into initial lithium seeds to guide sequential lithium deposition at the vicinity, ending up with a morphology modeled after the 3D PMMA molecular chains. Such morphology provides 3D continuous pathways for fast electron transport to eliminate dead Li formation without the help of foreign host. Li-LCO full cells equipped with such a 3D anode present greatly enhanced rate and cycle performance and highly preserved morphology upon rate testing and cycling.Graphical abstractPMMA in electrolytes could enable a 3D continuous sponge-like lithium depositions with blunt dendrite-proof surface. Upon discharging, lithium ions could react with PMMA and become immobilized. These pre-trapped lithium ions are then in-situ reduced into initial lithium seeds to guide sequential lithium deposition at the vicinity, ending up with a morphology modeled after the 3D PMMA molecular chains. Such morphology provides 3D continuous pathways for fast electron transport to eliminate dead Li formation without the help of foreign host. Li-LCO full cells equipped with such lithium anode present greatly enhanced performance and highly preserved morphology upon rate testing and cycling.fx1
       
  • Rechargeable potassium-ion batteries enabled by potassium-iodine
           conversion chemistry
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Ke Lu, Hong Zhang, Fangliang Ye, Wei Luo, Houyi Ma, Yunhui Huang Potassium-ion batteries (KIBs) have emerged as attractive alternatives to dominative lithium-ion batteries for grid-level electricity storage due to lower potential of K+/K redox couple in non-aqueous electrolyte and abundant potassium resource. The current intercalation cathodes used in KIBs provide limited active sites in their frameworks while conversion chemistry offers the feasibility for much improved potassium-ion storage capability. We for the first time demonstrate a rechargeable potassium-iodine (K-I2) battery enabled by a two-electron K-I2 conversion reaction. With the help of in-situ Raman and ex-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we confirm that the highly reversible conversion among I2, KI3 and KI involves solid-liquid-solid phase transitions and the formation of soluble KI3 intermediate enables the fast reaction kinetics. The K-I2 battery delivers a reversible capacity of 156 mA h/g and a small capacity decay of 0.058% per cycle over 500 cycles.Graphical abstractThe reversible conversion reactions of I2/KI3 and KI3/KI enable the K-iodine battery with a high energy density. The formation of soluble KI3 intermediate bridges the solid-liquid two-phase reactions and ensures fast reaction kinetics.fx1
       
  • Tent-pitching-inspired high-valence period 3-cation pre-intercalation
           excels for anode of 2D titanium carbide (MXene) with high Li storage
           capacity
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Ming Lu, Wenjuan Han, Haojie Li, Wen Shi, Jiaheng Wang, Bingsen Zhang, Yan Zhou, Haibo Li, Wei Zhang, Weitao Zheng MXenes exhibit potentials as electrode materials for metal ion batteries because of high electronic conductivity. However, ionic conductivity of MXenes has set the bottleneck to meet high energy and powder density demand in energy storage. Even though significant progresses have been made for more delicate design of electrodes, it remains very challenging for how to enhance the ion transport capability with the aid of external electric field upon charging process. Herein, high-valence cation (i.e., Al3+ in Period 3) pre-intercalation was utilized to construct an expanded ion transfer channel, which allows for further broadening upon the charging process, in order to enhance the ionic conductivity. This approach was confirmed to effectively improve Li storage capacity and cyclic stability of 2D Ti3C2Tx MXene anode. Compared to low-valence cation Na+, high-valence Al3+ into MXenes layer affords a strong Coulombic interaction upon lithiation/charging process to sustain ion transport channels. Moreover, the common deformation of electrodes upon cycling was limited due to a lower Li diffusion barriers. These findings raise the prospects of an enhanced ion transport capability and reinvent our knowledge of high-valence cations incorporation into 2D and layered materials.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • 3D Ag/NiO-Fe2O3/Ag nanomembranes as carbon-free cathode materials for
           Li-O2 batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Xueyi Lu, Yin Yin, Long Zhang, Shaozhuan Huang, Lixia Xi, Lixiang Liu, Steffen Oswald, Oliver G. Schmidt The Li-O2 battery is considered as an appealing candidate for future energy supplies due to its exceptionally high energy density. A key issue of prevailing aprotic Li-O2 batteries is exploring carbon-free electrode materials to avoid the irreversible side reactions produced by carbonaceous electrode. Here, three-dimensional (3D) curved Ag/NiO-Fe2O3/Ag hybrid nanomembranes induced by a facile thermal treatment method are fabricated, for the first time, as carbon-free cathode materials in Li-O2 batteries. A competing scheme between the intrinsic strain built in the oxide nanomembranes and the external driving force provided by the metal nanoparticles is introduced to tune the morphology of the 3D tubular architectures. The tubular structure of the nanomembranes provides continuous tunnels for the diffusion of O2 and electrolyte as well as the accommodation of discharge products without clogging. More importantly, the side reactions are effectively mitigated by such carbon-free nanomembrane materials. Therefore, enabled by such 3D hybrid nanomembranes with particularly interesting morphology and structure, the Li-O2 batteries exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance with low overvoltages, high capacity retention and greatly prolonged cycle life.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Moderately concentrated electrolyte improves solid–electrolyte
           interphase and sodium storage performance of hard carbon
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Jagabandhu Patra, Hao-Tzu Huang, Weijiang Xue, Chao Wang, Ahmed S. Helal, Ju Li, Jeng-Kuei Chang Hard carbon (HC) is a promising anode for sodium-ion batteries. The current hurdles for the HC electrodes are insufficient coulombic efficiency (CE), rate capability, and cyclic stability. This study reveals that an intelligent electrolyte design can effectively overcome these limitations. The sodium salt, concentration, and solvent of the electrolytes are systematically investigated. Incorporation of ethylene carbonate (EC) in propylene carbonate (PC) electrolyte can promote the formation of contact ion pairs and ion aggregates between Na+ and FSI–. At a moderate concentration, the 3 mol dm−3 NaFSI in PC:EC electrolyte with reasonable conductivity and viscosity can lead to the formation of a robust organic–inorganic balanced solid–electrolyte interphase, which is thoroughly examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. With this, the first-cycle and steady-state CE of the HC electrode is increased to 85% and>99.9%, respectively, and the reversible sodiation/desodiation capacities at high rates are markedly improved. In addition, 95% of the initial capacity can be retained after 500 charge–discharge cycles. The proposed electrolyte represents a huge step towards HC electrodes with high effectiveness and durability for electrochemical Na+ storage.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • K3V2(PO4)2F3 as a robust cathode for potassium-ion batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Xiuyi Lin, Jiaqiang Huang, Hong Tan, Jianqiu Huang, Biao Zhang Potassium-ion batteries have emerged as promising candidates for low-cost and sustainable energy storage systems. The development of potassium-ion batteries is relatively slow due to the large size of potassium ions, rendering great difficulty in designing appropriate host materials. Herein, a K3V2(PO4)2F3 cathode is inherited from Na3V2(PO4)2F3 analog. The crystallographic structure and phase transformations are unveiled through in-situ X-ray diffraction, which shows only minor volume change of 6.2% during potassium ions insertion/extraction. Nearly two potassium ions could be provided by the electrode, delivering a capacity of over 100 mA h g−1 with a high average potential of ~3.7 V vs. K+/K. An energy density of around 400 W h kg−1 together with a respectable rate capability have been obtained. Coupling with a graphite anode, a 3.4 V-Class battery has been demonstrated, making potassium-ion batteries promising contenders to sodium ion batteries in large-scale energy storage. This discovery also sheds insights into the quest for potential electrodes from the analogs in Li/Na-ion batteries.Graphical abstractK3V2(PO4)2F3 is developed as a robust cathode for potassium ion batteries delivering a capacity of over 100 mA h g−1 with an average potential of ~3.7 V.fx1
       
  • Particle based method and X-ray computed tomography for pore-scale flow
           characterization in VRFB electrodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Dario Maggiolo, Filippo Zanini, Francesco Picano, Andrea Trovò, Simone Carmignato, Massimo Guarnieri Porous electrodes are pivotal components of Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries, which influence the power density, pressure drop losses, activation overpotentials, limit current density, bulk and contact resistance, and ohmic losses. The quantification of the fluid-mechanic efficiency of porous electrodes based on their real geometry is a useful measure, as it primarily affects the mass transport losses and the overall battery performances. Although several studies, both numerical and experimental, have been devoted to the electrode enhancement, most analyses are carried out under the simplifying assumption of linear, macrohomogeneous and isotropic behavior of the fluid mechanics in the porous material. We present an original approach built on the Lattice-Boltzmann Method and Lagrange Particle Tracking that makes use of pore-scale accurate geometrical data provided by X-ray computed tomography with the aim of studying the dispersion and reaction rates of liquid electrolyte reactants in the flow battery porous electrode. Following this methodology, we compare the fluid-dynamic performances provided by a commonly used carbon felt and an unconventional material, that is, a carbon vitrified foam. Surprisingly, results unveil the possibility of achieving higher fluid-mechanic efficiencies with the foam electrode, whose intrinsic microstructure promotes higher reaction rate.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • One-pot solution coating of high quality LiF layer to stabilize Li metal
           anode
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Jialiang Lang, Yuanzheng Long, Jiale Qu, Xinyi Luo, Hehe Wei, Kai Huang, Haitian Zhang, Longhao Qi, Qianfan Zhang, Zhengcao Li, Hui Wu The high reactivity of Li metal anodes towards liquid electrolytes leads to an unstable and accumulated solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film, which results in dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency (CE). Lithium fluoride (LiF) coating is considered as a reliable and dense SEI film to protect the reactive anode, however, the chemistry to form uniform, conformal and high quality LiF protection layer on Lithium metals remains as a major challenge. Here we develop a simple solution method to obtain LiF coating on Li metal anodes. We have discovered a chemical method to fabricate LiF coating via the in-situ reaction between metallic Li and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution. Owing to the chemically and mechanically stable artificial SEI film, the LiF-coated Li anode delivers a better cycling performance than bare Li anode under various current densities in symmetrical cells. Stable cycling over 300 plating/striping cycles was achieved with LiF-coated Li electrodes under a high current density of 3 mA cm−2. The LiF coating also effectively suppresses dendrite formation and reduces side reactions between the metallic Li and the carbonate-based electrolyte. Therefore, this simple and low-cost method may benefit the future applications of the next generation Li metal batteries.
       
  • Large-scale stationary energy storage: Seawater batteries with high rate
           and reversible performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Yongil Kim, Guk-Tae Kim, Sangsik Jeong, Xinwei Dou, Chenxi Geng, Youngsik Kim, Stefano Passerini A new electrolyte (anolyte) for the negative electrode of seawater batteries, based on the combination of two ionic liquids (ILs), a sodium salt, and a SEI-forming additive, is herein reported. The quaternary anolyte is composed of N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (0.6 mol fraction), N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide) (0.3 mol fraction), and sodium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (0.1 mol fraction). Ethylene carbonate (5 wt% with respect to the ILs and salt mixture) is added to promote SEI formation. The thermal, physicochemical, and electrochemical characterization of the quaternary electrolyte indicate its suitability as an anolyte, as well as the formation of a highly stable interface with the negative (hard carbon) electrode. Lab-scale seawater full cells employing a hard carbon anode and the ionic liquid-based quaternary anolyte show remarkable results in terms of capacity, cyclability, and rate capability at room temperature. Additionally, these cells showed better energy efficiency (voltage efficiency) and cyclability than those based on a conventional organic carbonate-based anolyte.Graphical abstractIn this article, the feasibility of seawater batteries (SWBs) for large-scale stationary energy storage is demonstrated. This innovative battery chemistry makes use of a newly designed ionic liquid-based electrolyte (anolyte) composed of two ionic liquids, a sodium ion salt, and an additive to promote SEI formation. Lab-scale seawater cells delivering high capacities at the 2C-rate for 600 cycles without capacity decay were realized. The ionic liquid-based anolyte demonstrates high stability in the low voltage region typical of the hard carbon anode, contributing to the formation of a stable interface.fx1
       
  • Graphene-scroll-sheathed α-MnS coaxial nanocables embedded in N, S
           Co-doped graphene foam as 3D hierarchically ordered electrodes for
           enhanced lithium storage
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Xu Gao, Boya Wang, Yun Zhang, Heng Liu, Huakun Liu, Hao Wu, Shixue Dou One-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials have been recognized as ideal nanoscale building blocks to build multi-dimensional and multi-functional electrode configurations for electrochemical energy storage, owing to their unique structural advantages. Herein, a hierarchical transition-metal-sulfide-based electrode configuration is designed by constructing N, S co-doped 3D graphene foam with embedded 1D ultra-long α-MnS nanowires sheathed within graphene scrolls. This structural engineering strategy relies on forming coaxial nanocables comprising core-sheath α-MnS@graphene scrolls via a hydrothermally-assisted self-scrolling and self-assembly process, coupled with a sulfidation treatment. The coaxial nanocable as the structural unit is able to accommodate the volume expansion of the enclosed α-MnS by external elastic graphene scrolls together with internal void spaces, and thus ensures the interfacial stabilization of the solid electrolyte interphase layer. Meanwhile, N, S co-doped graphene foam with a cross-linked 3D structure offers continuous conductive paths for fast electron transfer, and also helps to maintain the structural and electrical integrity of the electrode. Because of the unique structural merits, the hierarchically ordered electrode delivers remarkably enhanced rate (406 mAh g−1 at 2000 mA g−1) and cycling capability (519 mAh g−1 after 400 cycles at 1000 mA g−1). Such a hierarchical structure design may present rational synthetic strategies to develop durable transition-metal-sulfide-based electrodes.Graphical abstractA 3D hierarchically ordered transition-metal-sulfides-based electrode configuration is designed by engineering N, S co-doped graphene foam with embedded ultra-long graphene-scrolls-sheathed α-MnS coaxial nanocables. Benefiting from the unique structural merits, the resulted electrode shows remarkably enhanced lithium storage properties.fx1
       
  • Nature of extra capacity in MoS2 electrodes: Molybdenum atoms
           accommodate with lithium
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Longlu Wang, Qingfeng Zhang, Jingyi Zhu, Xidong Duan, Zhi Xu, Yutang Liu, Hongguan Yang, Bingan Lu Two-dimensional (2D) layered transition metal sulfide based materials are promising candidates for electrodes of lithium ion batteries (LIBs). As one of the representatives, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), exhibits additional reversible capacity beyond their theoretical value although the lithium storage mechanism is still poorly understood. In this report, we developed a highly conducting metallic phase 1T(octahedral)-MoS2 based electrode with metal Mo atoms confined in “graphene nanoreactor” of abnormal lithium-storage sites, which delivered a high specific capacity of ~1800 mAh g−1 at 1 A g-1, about 2.6 times of its intercalation reactions value. Contrary to previous reports, a new lithium-storage mechanism for the high and ever-increasing capacity was proposed. The theoretical calculations and experiments show that a major contribution to the extra capacity in MoS2 anodes is due to Mo atoms accommodate with Li+. The Mo precipitates and their full contact with Li2S matrix enabled the reversible Mo→LixMo→Mo→1T-MoS2 reaction during charging/discharging processes. Over prolonged cycling, per Mo atomic could accommodate six Li+ ions. This new proposal could help to establish an accurate electrochemical reaction mechanism of MoS2 LIBs, which may lead to inspiration on new methods to greatly improve the performance of the MoS2 anode.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • One-step nonlinear electrochemical synthesis of TexSy@PANI nanorod
           materials for Li-TexSy battery
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Jun Li, Yifei Yuan, Huile Jin, Huihang Lu, Aili Liu, Dewu Yin, Jichang Wang, Jun Lu, Shun Wang As a promising cathode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries, tellurium has attracted a great deal of attention due to its high conductivity and high theoretical capacity. Yet, the large volume expansion (~104 vol%) during Li-Te alloying process prevents the application of Li-Te battery. Here, by using a novel one-step nonlinear electrochemical approach, we prepared a TexSy@polyaniline nanorod composites, in which elemental sulfur is successfully embedded into tellurium matrix to effectively tackle the volumetric variation problem. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the Li-Te (de)alloying process on single TexSy@polyaniline particle demonstrated that the volumetric variation was efficiently suppressed in comparison to the situation of pristine Te particles. Moreover, polyaniline binder effectively trapped Te and sulfur species in its network and guaranteed stable electric contact and fast transport of Li ions, which resulted in significant improvement of the battery performance. Interestingly, the as-obtained composites display a high initial capacity of 1141 mA h g−1 with typical Li-S battery characteristics at a low current density of 0.1 A g−1, while it shows a good cycling stability at high current density of 5 A g−1 with Li-Te battery features.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Scalable preparation and stabilization of atomic-thick CoNi layered double
           hydroxide nanosheets for bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysis and
           rechargeable zinc-air batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Tingting Wang, Jinghua Wu, Yiling Liu, Xiao Cui, Pan Ding, Jun Deng, Chenyang Zha, Emerson Coy, Yanguang Li Development of non-precious metal based oxygen electrocatalysts, particularly bifunctional ones for both oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution is at the heart of electrochemical energy research. Layered double hydroxides have great promise, and to fulfill their full potentials requires effective strategies to engineer and stabilize their structures at the nanoscale. In this study, we report the scalable preparation and delamination of atomic-thick CoNi layered double hydroxide nanosheets, and the subsequent flocculation from their colloidal dispersion upon the introduction of negatively charged graphene oxide nanosheets. Thanks to the large surface areas of CoNi layered double hydroxide monolayers and the high electrical conductivity of reduced graphene oxide support, the thus-formed composite exhibits bifunctional activity and stability far more superior to its close competitors for oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution in both 1 M and 6 M KOH. It could also be used as the oxygen electrocatalyst of rechargeable Zn-air batteries to enable remarkable discharge peak power density and stable cycling stability.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Metal oxide/graphene composite anode materials for sodium-ion batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Lei Wang, Zengxi Wei, Minglei Mao, Hongxia Wang, Yutao Li, Jianmin Ma Due to the abundance of sodium sources and relatively high safety, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are considered as a promising candidate for next-generation large-scale energy storage systems. However, currently the lack of suitable anode materials is limiting the development of SIBs. Metal oxides (MOs) which have the advantage of rich material sources and high theoretical capacity have attracted lots of attention as anode for SIBs in scientific community. Nevertheless, due to the low conductivity, large volumetric change during charge/discharge process of SIBs, the material often demonstrates unsatisfactory cycling stability and capacity rate. Construction of material composites through incorporation of graphene to MOs with tailored nanostructure and composition has demonstrated promising performance in SIBs. In this review, we attempt to provide a comprehensive summary of the research development on the low-cost metal oxides/graphene composites (MOs/G) as anode materials for SIBs. The characteristics of different morphology, composition, crystal phases of MOs/G composites and their electrochemical properties in SIBs are demonstrated. The correlation of the morphological and structural properties of the MOs materials with their performance in SIBs is discussed. This timely review sheds light on the path towards achieving cost effective, safe SIBs with high energy density and long cycling life using MOs/G as anode materials.Graphical abstractLow-cost metal oxide/graphene composite anode materials for sodium-ion batteries are summarized in this Review. Moreover, the reaction mechanisms, the relationship between structure/composite and electrochemical performance are also discussed for different metal oxides. Additionally, some drawbacks, challenges and perspectives are pointed out. We believe that this review can provide a right direction for the further development of anode materials of sodium-ion batteries in future.fx1
       
  • 2D material as anode for sodium ion batteries: Recent progress and
           perspectives
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Ying Wu, Yan Yu Sodium ion batteries (NIBs) have attracted extensive attention recently and been regarded as a promising alternative to lithium ion batteries (LIBs) meeting the demands of large-scale electrical energy storage systems. Both LIBs and NIBs show similar working principal that is based on the “rocking-chair” mechanism. However, the electrode materials match well with lithium ion batteries are not suitable for the NIBs system due to the large diameter of Na+ (0.98 Å) than that of Li+ (0.69 Å). Two-dimensional (2D) materials have gained great progress in recent years served as anode materials for NIBs with unique 2D layered structure, infinite planar lengths and much exposed active sites, which confirms to be a promising alternative anode material for NIBs. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the synthesis and application of the 2D materials including graphene, phosphorene, MoS2 and MXenes in NIBs and the relationship between structure and electrochemical performance. We also offer some insight on the future perspectives of the improvement on sodium storage performance of such 2D materials.
       
  • Recent progress in phosphorus based anode materials for lithium/sodium ion
           batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Weili Liu, Hanqian Zhi, Xuebin Yu Phosphorus has aroused growing concern as a promising anode material for both lithium and sodium ion batteries, owning to its high theoretical capacity and appropriately low redox potential. However, the poor electronic conductivity and large volume expansion of phosphorus during cycling lead to low electrochemical activity and unstable cyclability, which limits its practical application. Recently, various nanostructured phosphorus based anodes, which efficiently restrained the pulverization and supplied faster reaction kinetics, have been developed to solve these issues. This review aims to summarize the major progress of nanostructured phosphorus based electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries. We first examine the most widely-used design strategy of compositing phosphorus with various carbon materials, ranging from 0D particles, 1D tubes or fibers, 2D sheets to 3D frameworks. And then, the progress of various metal phosphides and their composites is discussed, which mainly include Sn-P phosphides, Ni-P phosphides, Cu-P phosphides, Fe-P phosphides, Co-P phosphides, etc., and their composites. This is followed by a comparison of different compositing methods, which involve in preparing phosphorus-carbon composites and nanostructured metal phosphides or their composites. Finally, the challenges and perspectives regarding the phosphorus based anode materials are proposed.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Modeling and theoretical design of next-generation lithium metal batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Yanchen Fan, Xiang Chen, Dominik Legut, Qianfan Zhang Rechargeable lithium metal batteries (LMBs) with an ultrahigh theoretical energy density have attracted more and more attentions for their crucial applications of portable electronic devices, electric vehicles, and smart grids. However, the implementation of LMBs in practice is still facing numerous challenges, such as low Coulombic efficiency, poor cycling performance, and complicated interfacial reactions. First-principles calculations have become a powerful technique in lithium battery research field, in terms of modeling the structures and properties of specific electrode materials, understanding the charge/discharge mechanisms at the atomic scale, and delivering rational design strategies for electrode materials as well as electrolytes. In this review, theoretical studies on sulfur cathodes, oxygen cathodes, lithium metal anodes, and solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) of LMBs are summarized. A brief introduction of simulation methods is offered at first. The next two chapters mainly focus on issues concerning cathodes of LMBs. Then the theoretical researches on the Li metal anode and SSEs are particularly reviewed. The current challenges and potential research directions in each field of LMBs are prospected from a theoretical viewpoint.
       
  • Carbon electrodes for capacitive technologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Paula Ratajczak, Matthew E. Suss, Friedrich Kaasik, François Béguin An overview of capacitive technologies based on carbon materials (energy storage in electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), capacitive deionization (CDI), energy harvesting, capacitive actuation, and potential controlled chromatography) is presented. The review reveals the role of carbon for these scientific and industrial purposes with disclosing the benefits and limitations of various nanostructured carbons for a certain application. A special attention is placed on the electrical double-layer (EDL) formation mechanisms affected by the porous texture of carbon and the electrode architecture. The importance of a careful selection of the electrolytic solution for the EDL formation inside the intraparticle pores of carbon electrodes is also enlightened.
       
  • Graphene and MXene-based transparent conductive electrodes and
           supercapacitors
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Chuanfang (John) Zhang, Valeria Nicolosi The great popularity of portable, smart electronics has intensively stimulated the development of energy storage devices and other cutting-edge products, such as displays and touch panels. Interactive devices such as smart phone, tablets, and other touchable devices require mechanical robust transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs). Developing transparent supercapacitor as the power source is of significance to the next generation transparent electronics. Recently, graphene and MXene, the two representatives in the large two-dimensional family, have shown excellent electronic conductivity and attracted great research attention in the energy storage field. Importantly, high-performance TCEs are the prerequisite of building transparent supercapacitors. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of graphene and MXene-based flexible TCEs covering detailed thin film fabrication methods, evaluation metrics, performance limitations as well as approaches to beat these limitations. We especially focus on the fundamentals in the TCEs, such as figure of merit, percolations as well as conductivity behaviours. Graphene and MXene-based transparent supercapacitors are analysed, with a particular focus on transparent, freestanding graphene papers. Finally, the challenges and prospects of MXene for TCEs and transparent supercapacitors, in conjunction with a critical analysis of MXene shortcomings, are discussed.
       
  • Rechargeable batteries based on anion intercalation graphite cathodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Miao Zhang, Xiaohe Song, Xuewu Ou, Yongbing Tang Owing to the low cost, abundance and high working voltage, graphite cathodes have attracted tremendous attention in rechargeable batteries, especially in aluminum ion batteries (AIBs) and dual-ion batteries (DIBs). In this review, firstly, a general introduction is given to distinguish the working mechanism of graphite from the conventional metal oxide used as cathode in batteries. Secondly, the characterization methods of anion intercalated compounds, theoretical simulation of anion intercalation behavior into the graphitic cathode and the kinetic study of anion diffusion in graphite are discussed. Then, progresses and challenges of AIBs with different types of graphite cathode materials are presented. Next, typical DIBs systems with graphite cathode, a variety of anodes and electrolytes are introduced in detail. Finally, a conclusion for battery systems with anion intercalation graphite cathodes is draw, and a perspective is outlined to address the existing technical barriers that need to be overcome in future research direction.
       
  • Sodium metal anodes for room-temperature sodium-ion batteries:
           Applications, challenges and solutions
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Xueying Zheng, Clement Bommier, Wei Luo, Linghao Jiang, Yanan Hao, Yunhui Huang Room-temperature (RT) sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have gained much attention due to rich sodium resource and low cost for potential application in large-scale energy storage. To date, cathode materials have been well investigated, but anode materials still face long-standing challenges including low capacity and high cost, which have led to comprehensive research efforts in resolving these issues. Among the many candidate anode materials best suited to meet these challenges, Na metal possesses the most future potential: the lowest redox potential, highest theoretical capacity, earth-abundancy and a demonstrated feasibility in previous electrochemical systems. Yet several factors still hinder the applicability of Na metal anodes in future larger scale, such as unstable solid electrolyte interphase, large volume change upon cycling and safety concerns related to the uncontrolled dendritic Na growth. As such, this review summarizes the applications of Na metal anodes before providing an in-depth review of research efforts attempting to solve the aforementioned challenges. Specifically, recently-developed strategies to protect Na metal anodes by electrolyte optimization, artificial solid electrolyte interphase, and electrode structure design are outlined and analyzed in detail. We also highlight recent progresses on Na metal protection based on solid-state batteries and conclude by providing a future outlook on the development of Na metal anodes.
       
  • Abundant nanoscale defects to eliminate voltage decay in Li-rich cathode
           materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 16Author(s): Haocheng Guo, Zhen Wei, Kai Jia, Bao Qiu, Chong Yin, Fanqi Meng, Qinghua Zhang, Lin Gu, Shaojie Han, Yan Liu, Hu Zhao, Wei Jiang, Hongfu Cui, Yonggao Xia, Zhaoping Liu Li-rich layered oxides are promising high energy-density cathode, but will gradually become defective during cycling, thus suffer detrimental voltage decay. For countering these challenges, here we incorporate abundant nanoscale defects into materials’ lattices to construct a bulk-modified Li-rich composites via a direct in-depth chemical de-lithiation. Due to considerable subtle pre-rearrangements, the yielded complex poses certain features as the electrochemically induced hybrids, but turns out to be superior. Involving rebalanced redox activities, it preserves high specific capacities up to 287 mA h g-1 while presents starting working-potentials close to post-cycled values. Most importantly, this defective structure is capable to enhance the electrochemical stability: except good cycling performances concerning capacity, the tricky and intrinsic voltage decay can also be significantly suppressed to only a fraction of initial levels. This concept of pre-constructing nanoscale disordered system is anticipated to inspire more novel designs of composite cathodes and consequently advance the development of rechargeable lithium-ion battery techniques.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • A reversible nonaqueous room-temperature potassium-sulfur chemistry for
           electrochemical energy storage
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Xingwen Yu, Arumugam Manthiram Earth-abundant element potassium (K) exhibiting a low reduction potential and a high gravimetric capacity is an ideal anode material for the development of low-cost and high-energy batteries. We present herein a mechanistic study of a reversible room-temperature nonaqueous potassium-sulfur (K-S) chemistry and demonstrate a rechargeable K-S cell. Electrochemical and spectroscopic studies reveal that the discharge-charge of the K-S couple involves transition processes of potassium polysulfide species, resembling that of the lithium-sulfur chemistry. Through the design of a proper cathode-separator assembly, a deep discharge of the K-S cell with a high utilization of sulfur cathode is accessible.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Generating lithium vacancies through delithiation of Li(NixCoyMnz)O2
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Yihui Zou, Guojing Chang, Yi (Alec) Jia, Rongsheng Cai, Shuai Chen, Yanzhi Xia, Wolfgang Theis, Dongjiang Yang, Xiangdong Yao Defects in the catalyst are considered to be important for generating the active sites for electrocatalytic reactions, due to the changed distribution of the charge density. In this work, Li vacancy defects are purposely created in a series of one-dimensional (1D) porous multi-shell Li(NixCoyMnz)O2 hollow fibers by a facile electrochemical lithium ion (Li+) intercalation and extraction. The total Li vacancy concentrations are 0.52, 0.49, and 0.53 in one unit of delithiated Li(NixCoyMnz)O2 hollow fibers (De-Li(NixCoyMnz)O2) for De-Li(Ni0.20Co0.60Mn0.20)O2, De-Li(Ni0.33Co0.33Mn0.33)O2, De-Li(Ni0.65Co0.25Mn0.10)O2, respectively. When evaluated as oxygen electrocatalysts, the De-Li(Ni0.2Co0.6Mn0.2)O2 shows the best performance with onset potential of ~ 1.46 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) outperforming IrO2/C at 1 M KOH in OER and much improved onset potential of ~ 0.85 V vs. RHE than that of Li(Ni0.2Co0.6Mn0.2)O2 (~ 0.71 V vs. RHE) at 0.1 M KOH in ORR. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations for the sample before and after delithiation certified that the delithiated samples have a significantly improved carrier concentration and electronic conductivity in the Co-d orbitals near the sites of Li vacancies. This results in enhanced H2O (3.34 eV) and O2 (2.75 eV) adsorption energies and thus greatly reduces the OER-ORR potential difference (∆E) (0.17 V). A ZAB with the De-Li(Ni0.2Co0.6Mn0.2)O2 as the air cathode was also assembled, which shows high efficiency and long-term stability. At a constant current rate of 5 mA cm-2, the final charge and discharge potential is ~ 1.97 V and ~ 1.23 V after 441 h.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Electrochemical activated MoO2/Mo2N heterostructured nanobelts as superior
           zinc rechargeable battery cathode
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Wangwang Xu, Kangning Zhao, Ying Wang Aqueous Zn-ion batteries are desirable for large-scale application over Li-ion batteries due to the low cost, high safety and environment friendliness. However, the development of Zn-ion batteries is seriously impeded by a limited choice of positive electrodes. Herein, we report an electrochemical activated porous MoO2/Mo2N heterostructured nanobelts cathode. During the electrochemical activation, it is interesting to find that MoO2 grains in-situ generate in Mo2N matrix. The generated MoO2 grains can not only accommodate the intercalated zinc ions, leading to high reversible capacity, but also provide high electronic conductivity, thereby improving the rate capability. On the other hand, the Mo2N matrix could protect the MoO2 grains from structure degradation during cycling and keep stable in the slight acidic electrolyte. Based on the synergic effect of MoO2 and Mo2N, electrochemical activated MoO2/Mo2N heterostructured nanobelts exhibit a high reversible capacity of 113 mAh/g at high current density of 1 A/g for 1000 cycles, showing long-term cyclic stability (capacity retention is 78.8%) and remarkable rate capability. It is believed that the superior performance is attributed to the synergistic effect of integrated MoO2 grains and Mo2N nanobelt matrix. This strategy of electrochemical activation process can be expanded to other metal nitride as zinc battery cathode.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Low-temperature synthesis of edge-rich graphene paper for high-performance
           aluminum batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Qingfeng Zhang, Longlu Wang, Jue Wang, Chenyang Xing, Junmin Ge, Ling Fan, Zhaomeng Liu, Xianlu Lu, Mingguang Wu, Xinzhi Yu, Han Zhang, Bingan Lu Aluminum (Al) based rechargeable batteries offer the possibilities of safety, high energy density and low cost. Graphene with excellent mechanical properties and high electronic conductivity contributes to the excellent long-term cycle stability and superior rate performance, rendering it an attractive cathode material for Al batteries. However, the synthesis process of the high quality graphene, which is high energy consumption and complex, is not appropriate for the mass application of Al batteries. In this work, we presented a cost-effective and low-temperature (600 °C) synthesis of edge-rich graphene paper for the cathode of Al batteries. The edge-rich and interconnected design of graphene could effectively improve its performance in Al batteries. A reversible capacity as high as 128 mA h g−1 was achieved at 2000 mA g−1. It also displayed a superior cycling stability, displaying no capacity decay and a Coulombic efficiency higher than 99.2% after 20,000 cycles at even a high current density of 8000 mA g−1. Significantly, this novel cathode material would present a new opportunity for the practical application of Al batteries.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Rechargeability of aqueous sulfate Zn/MnO2 batteries enhanced by
           accessible Mn2+ ions
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Mylad Chamoun, William R. Brant, Cheuk-Wai Tai, Gunder Karlsson, Dag Noréus The Zn/MnO2 battery is safe, low cost and comes with a high energy density comparable to Li-ion batteries. However, irreversible spinel phases formed at the MnO2 electrode limits its cyclability. A viable solution to overcome this inactive phase is to use an aqueous ZnSO4-based electrolyte, where pH is mildly acidic leading to a different reaction mechanism. Most importantly, the addition of MnSO4 achieves excellent cyclability. How accessible Mn2+ ions in the electrolyte enhances the reversibility is presented. With added Mn2+, the capacity retention is significantly improved over 100 cycles. Zn2+ insertion plays an important role on the reversibility and a hydrated layered Zn-buserite structure formed during charge is reported. Furthermore, Zn4SO4(OH)6 · 5H2O precipitates during discharge but is not involved in the electrochemical reaction. This precipitate both buffers the pH and partly insulates the surface. Described in operando study show how the phase transformations and the failure mechanisms depend on the presence of Mn2+-ions in the electrolyte. These results give insight necessary to improve this battery further to make it a worthy contender to the Li-ion battery in large scale energy storage solutions.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Novel coaxial fiber-shaped sensing system integrated with an asymmetric
           supercapacitor and a humidity sensor
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Jingxin Zhao, Lili Li, Yan Zhang, Chaowei Li, Qichong Zhang, Jianhong Peng, Xiaoxin Zhao, Qiulong Li, Xiaona Wang, Jixun Xie, Juan Sun, Bing He, Conghua Lu, Weibang Lu, Ting Zhang, Yagang Yao A high-performance fiber-shaped integrated multifunctional sensing system was designed and fabricated based on flexible fiber-shaped supercapacitors (FFSCs) and humidity sensors. A facile and cost-effective method was proposed to grow three-dimensional MnO2 nanoballs (NBs)@Ni cone/carbon nanotube (CNT) film with a high specific capacitance of 609.06 mF cm−2 at a current density of 0.5 mA/cm2. In addition, asymmetric coaxial FFSCs (ACFFSCs) with a maximum operating voltage of 1.8 V were assembled by wrapping MnO2 NBs@Ni cone/CNT film on MoS2 nanosheet arrays/carbon nanotube fibers as the inner and outer electrodes of the ACFFSCs device, respectively, with poly(vinyl alcohol)/KOH as the gel electrolyte. The assembled ACFFSCs device embraces a high specific capacitance of 195.38 mF cm−2, and a superior areal energy density of 83.59 μWh cm−2. Moreover, the ACFFSCs device acts as the stable power supply for the coaxial fibrous humidity sensor, and the obtained flexible humidity sensing system possesses high sensitivity (2.483/%RH) in the detection of relative humidity (RH), with a fast response speed of 0.39 s.Graphical abstractA self-energy monitoring system was developed that exhibited excellent electrochemical performance and rapid humidity response.fx1
       
  • Oxygen-rich carbon nanotube networks for enhanced lithium metal anode
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Ke Liu, Zhenhua Li, Wenfu Xie, Jianbo Li, Deming Rao, Mingfei Shao, Bingsen Zhang, Min Wei Developing safe and efficient lithium (Li)-metal anode is promising for the next-generation rechargeable batteries, such as Li–S and Li–O2 batteries. The design of lithium plating host with unique nanostructure and lithiophilic surface has been proven to be one of the most efficient strategies to control Li plating/stripping process and inhibit lithium dendrite growth. Here we first report the fabrication of well-defined oxygen-rich carbon nanotube (O-CNT) network via a facile and scalable ultrafast “barbecue” approach. Remarkably, the as-obtained three-dimensional (3D) O-CNT network electrode can serve as a promising Li-metal host with a low Li deposition overpotential and a flat voltage profile at various current densities, as well as long-term durability. The DFT calculation and experimental results further prove that the ketonic (C=O) group on CNT surface acts as efficient lithiophilic site to guide Li-metal nucleation and growth. In addition, the 3D porous network structure of O-CNT network with high conductivity facilitates electron and Li ions transport. Thus, this work provides a new strategy to construct high-performed Li-metal anodes toward high-performance Li-based batteries.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Lithium sulfur batteries with compatible electrolyte both for stable
           cathode and dendrite-free anode
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Huijun Yang, Ahmad Naveed, Qinyu Li, Cheng Guo, Jiahang Chen, Jingyu Lei, Jun Yang, Yanna Nuli, Jiulin Wang Because of high theoretical energy density and low cost, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries possess great promise for next-generation energy storage and conversions. However, their adoption is plagued by poor cycle life due to the electrochemical instability of electrodes. Here, we apply a promising fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC)-based electrolyte for Li-S batteries to fully exploit its compatibility with both sulfur composite cathode and lithium anode. Li-S batteries maintain ultra-stable cycling (capacity retention of 96.3% over 4000 times at 6 C). The Coulombic efficiency of lithium plating/stripping approaches 98.1% and Li symmetrical cells show stable cycling for 2450 h at 1.0 mA cm−2 and 1350 h at 2.0 mA cm−2. Furthermore, high-loading Li-S batteries deliver stable capacity of 7.7 mAh cm−2 without polysulfide dissolution. The excellent electrochemical performances are attributed to the elastic and robust solid electrolyte interphases both at sulfur composite cathode and lithium metal anode. This work provides an alternative direction to obtain high-energy-density Li-S batteries for commercial availability.Graphical abstractHighly stable lithium-sulfur batteries have been achieved by utilizing the compatibility of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) with both lithium anode and sulfur composite cathode (S@pPAN).fx1
       
  • Carbonate decomposition: Low-overpotential Li-CO2 battery based on
           interlayer-confined monodisperse catalyst
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Shu-Mao Xu, Zhi-Chu Ren, Xin Liu, Xiao Liang, Kai-Xue Wang, Jie-Sheng Chen The operation of Li-air batteries is currently limited to O2 instead of air, mainly attributed to the formation of wide-bandgap insulator Li2CO3 during discharge caused by the presence of CO2 in air. A thorough understanding of the decomposition mechanism of Li2CO3 is crucial but challenging owing to the existence of side reactions induced by the large charge overpotential. Here, monodisperse RuO2 supported on layered double oxide is utilized as cathodes for Li-CO2 batteries with ultralow charge overpotential (only ~0.4 V larger than equilibrium potential, 2.80 V). The reversibility of Li-CO2 battery is mainly attributed to the decomposition of Li2CO3 upon charging instead of the degradation of the electrolyte. These results advance the fundamental understanding of the carbonate decomposition in Li-CO2 batteries and offer a promising route to utilizing agglomeration of layered-confined monodisperse catalyst to enlarge the layered spacings of layered support with complementary catalytic activity for Li-CO2 batteries with high energy efficiency and superior cycle life.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Highly stable garnet solid electrolyte based Li-S battery with modified
           anodic and cathodic interfaces
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Yang Lu, Xiao Huang, Zhen Song, Kun Rui, Qingsong Wang, Sui Gu, Jianhua Yang, Tongping Xiu, Michael E. Badding, Zhaoyin Wen A highly cycling stable Li-S battery has been fabricated using a Ta-doped garnet (Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12, LLZTO) solid electrolyte. The battery has achieved high reversible specific capacity of 805 mA h g−1 after 500 cycles at a charge/discharge current density of 0.5 and 1.5 mA cm−2, respectively at 25 °C, and the decay rate of 0.0058% (comparing with 20th discharge capacity). The high stability of the battery is attributed to the modifications of both anodic and cathodic interfaces. At the anode side, an Au coating on the LLZTO surface is introduced to reduce the interfacial resistance by improving the Li wetting towards LLZTO. Under semi-solid state mode, it is verified that the Li-Au-garnet based interface could undergo a high current density of 1.5 mA cm−2. At the cathode side, P2S5/Li2S additive in liquid catholyte enhances the solubility of the Li2S to increase the sulfur utilization, and also contributes to the construction of Li3PS4 based Li-ion conductive SEI on the cathode. Coin cells and pouch cells with high sulfur loadings of 3.2 and 5.3 mg cm−2 are assembled to validate the potential of practical application. Both cells exhibit high reversible specific capacities of 1088 mA h g−1 and 799 mA h g−1, delivering areal capacity of 3.5 mA h cm−2, 4.23 mA h cm−2, respectively.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Dendrite-free Na metal plating/stripping onto 3D porous Cu hosts
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Tian-Shi Wang, Yongchang Liu, Ya-Xiang Lu, Yong-Sheng Hu, Li-Zhen Fan Metallic sodium (Na) has been generally regarded as one of the most promising anode materials due to its high specific capacity and natural abundance. However, uneven deposition, large volume change, and dendrite growth during Na plating/stripping process severely restrict its feasibility for energy storage devices. Here we propose a copper nanowire-reinforced three-dimensional (3D) Cu foam current collector (CuNW-Cu) to achieve highly reversible Na storage. The in-situ growth of Cu nanowires can provide abundant active nucleation sites and reduce the local electric current by increasing surface area of the current collector, leading to homogeneous Na deposition. The Na metal anode can run for more than 1400 h (350 cycles) on CuNW-Cu with a low thickness variation of 2% and a stable voltage hysteresis of 25 mV. Moreover, controllable Na loading ranging from 2 to 12 mA h cm−2 can be plated into CuNW-Cu with a long steady life-span over 1000 h and a high Coulombic efficiency over 97.5% owing to the synergistic effect between copper nanowires and interconnected 3D porous Cu foam, which delivers an excellent compatibility for cathodes with different areal loadings. Our results indicate that this hierarchically nanostructured current collector holds great potential for next-generation Na-based batteries.Graphical abstractPrestoring metallic Na in a Copper nanowire-reinforced 3D Cu foam current collector by electrodepositing, which guides uniform Na plating via Cu nanowires with the formation of stable SEI films, accommodates sufficient Na in the porous structure to achieve a reversible plating/stripping process with large areal loadings and efficiently utilizes deposited Na to maximum the energy density of Na-based batteries, can extremely enhance the stability of Na metal anode.fx1
       
  • Graphene nested porous carbon current collector for lithium metal anode
           with ultrahigh areal capacity
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Wei Deng, Wenhua Zhu, Xufeng Zhou, Zhaoping Liu Li metal is regarded as the ultimate anode material for high energy density lithium-ion battery. Practical utilization of Li metal anode requires excellent electrochemical reversibility of metallic Li under high charge/discharge depth, however, high areal capacity of Li metal anode is usually accompanied by the formation of large amounts of irreversible Li composites and low Coulombic efficiency. To solve this problem, herein, we propose a novel graphene nested carbon fiber cloth current collector with surface decoration by lithiophilic seeds for metallic lithium anode, which is able to sustain long-term (over 1500 h) reversible stripping/plating of Li metal under ultrahigh areal capacity (12.0 mAh cm−2). This elaborately designed current collector combines the advantages of powerful electrical conductive network, abundant deposition sites for Li and strong surface affinity with Li, which synergistically gives rise to unprecedented electrochemical performance of metallic lithium anode, and promises the application of Li metal in high-energy density batteries.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • New insights into understanding the exceptional electrochemical
           performance of P2-type manganese-based layered oxide cathode for sodium
           ion batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Xiaobo Zheng, Peng Li, Haojie Zhu, Kun Rui, Guoqiang Zhao, Jie Shu, Xun Xu, Wenping Sun, Shi Xue Dou Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) are emerging as one of the most promising candidates for large-scale energy storage due to the abundance of sodium. Layered manganese-based oxides, owing to relatively high capacity and low cost, exhibit great potential as SIBs cathode materials, but the cycling life remains a big challenge towards practical applications. Herein, unprecedented electrochemical performance is achieved in P2-type layered Na2/3Ni1/3Mn2/3O2 cathode, and new insights into understanding the structure-performance correlation are gained. Na2/3Ni1/3Mn2/3O2 delivers outstanding cycling stability (~ 80% capacity retention for 2000 cycles, 0.01% capacity loss per cycle),excellent rate capability (70.21% capacity retention at 20 C compared to 0.1 C), and a useable reversible capacity of about 84 mAh g-1 through tailoring its operating voltage range of 2.0–4.0 V. Moreover, the crystal structure of Na2/3Ni1/3Mn2/3O2 is investigated in depth at atomic resolution, and sodium atoms located at 2d Wyckoff sites in different layers are clearly observed and directly distinguished for the first time. Both in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ex-situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results reveal that the exceptional electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the superior structural stability of Na2/3Ni1/3Mn2/3O2 during the Na+ insertion/extraction process. The present results suggest that P2-type Na2/3Ni1/3Mn2/3O2 is an extremely promising cathode material for advanced long-life SIBs towards grid storage application.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Stable Li metal anode with protected interface for high-performance Li
           metal batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Qian Wang, Chenkai Yang, JiJin Yang, Kai Wu, Liya Qi, Hui Tang, Zhenyu Zhang, Wen Liu, Henghui Zhou Li metal is regarded as the most attractive anode because of its high specific capacity, low reduction potential, and low density. However, low coulombic efficiency and the formation of Li dendrites cause challenges in short cycle life and safety issues, highlighting a need for an innovative design of lithium metal anode with high areal capacity, high rate capability and high safety. Herein, we demonstrate a nanostructured lithium metal anode with stable solid electrolyte interface achieved by electro-deposition of Li metal in a commercial carbon fiber cloth matrix. The as-obtained composite Li metal anode with a high areal capacity of 10 mA h cm−2 can mitigate volume expansion and suppress the formation of dendrites effectively, which cycle in both ether and ester electrolyte with high current density and large capacity, showing an exceptionally low overpotential of 18 mV and stable cycle over 350 cycles. A full cell with LiFePO4 cathode can stable cycle at 10 C for 200 cycles with only 5.6% capacity fading, and the general applicability also demonstrated by full cell paired with LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • A self-buffering structure for application in high-performance sodium-ion
           batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Zhiming Liu, Chuang Yue, Chaoji Chen, Juan Xiang, Fang Hu, Dongsoo Lee, Donghyeok Shin, Seho Sun, Liangbing Hu, Taeseup Song Electrode materials with high specific capacities such as metal sulfides always experience conversion and/or alloying reactions, which cause large volume changes during cycling. These repetitive volume changes eventually pulverize the active material and electrically isolate it from the current collector, consequently diminishing cycle stability. Here, we develop a self-buffering electrode constructed by ultra-large Fe7S8 nanoplates (S-Fe7S8) for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). This hierarchical structure has a self-buffering effect on the large volume changes during cycling, which greatly enhances the cycling stability. In addition, the nano-micro hybrid structure as a whole does not show any apparent volume changes during cycling. Therefore, it is safe to conclude that the self-buffering structure is expected to be effective in accommodating volume changes in real batteries. Moreover, the combination of pseudocapacitance and redox reactions in the sodiation and desodiation processes provides the S-Fe7S8 electrode an exceptional rate capability.Graphical abstractThis nano-micro hierarchical structure has a self-buffering effect on the large volume changes during cycling, which greatly enhances the cycling stability.fx1
       
  • Sandwich-like Ni2P nanoarray/nitrogen-doped graphene nanoarchitecture as a
           high-performance anode for sodium and lithium ion batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Caifu Dong, Lijun Guo, Yanyan He, Chaoji Chen, Yitai Qian, Yanan Chen, Liqiang Xu Transition metal phosphides as battery electrode materials for energy storage have attracted tremendous attention owing to their high specific capacity and safety. However, challenges remain toward their ultimate applications in full potential, such as agglomeration of active materials during electrode fabrication and pulverization of electrode structure associated with volume changes during the long-term charge-discharge process. Here, for the first time, sandwich-like Ni2P nanoarray/nitrogen-doped graphene nanoarchitecture (Ni2P/NG/Ni2P) is designed as a novel battery anode for both sodium ion batteries (SIBs) and lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The as-prepared Ni2P/NG/Ni2P nanoarchitecture exhibits an excellent cycling stability with a high capacity retention of 188 mAh g−1 (57% of its initial capacity) at 0.5 A g−1 over 300 cycles as a SIB anode. Simultaneously, the synthesized nanoarchitecture delivers a capacity of 417 mA h g−1 at 0.3 A g−1 after 100 cycles when applied as anode for LIBs. The outstanding performance should be attributed to the highly conductive graphene intermediary that facilities the fast transport of electrons and the reinforced interaction between Ni2P and the nitrogen-doped graphene matrix that stabilizes the hybrid structure upon volume expansion during discharging. The excellent cycling stability, high capacity combined with the facile synthesis procedure position the sandwich-like Ni2P/NG/Ni2P nanoarchitecture a new kind of prospective anode material for SIBs and LIBs.
       
  • Synergistic electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reactions of Pd/B4C for
           ultra-stable Zn-air batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Ya-Nan Chen, Xu Zhang, Huijuan Cui, Xin Zhang, Zhaojun Xie, Xin-Gai Wang, Menggai Jiao, Zhen Zhou Highly active and durable electrocatalysts are desired to promote oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) for Zn-air batteries. Here we report a promising catalyst of Pd nanoparticles supported on boron carbide (Pd/B4C) through a facile hydrothermal route. The Pd/B4C electrode not only shows the same onset potential of 0.96 V vs. RHE as the Pt/C electrode, but also an obviously larger limiting current density. More importantly, compared with noble metal electrodes, Pd/B4C shows higher power density (187 mW cm-2) and much more durable cycle life (up to 1333 h) in Zn-air batteries. To gain insight into the enhanced ORR activity by B4C support, first-principles computations reveal the synergistic effect between B4C and Pd; B4C could significantly promote O2 adsorption and splitting on Pd/B4C composites, while Pd particles on B4C have a major effect on the transformation of O* to OH-. The computations are consistent with the experimental characterizations. This work opens up a new avenue for seeking novel and durable electrocatalysts for Zn-air batteries with B4C substrates, which are chemically and electrochemically stable in hash alkaline electrolytes during operation.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Sustainable, inexpensive, naturally multi-functionalized biomass carbon
           for both Li metal anode and sulfur cathode
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Chengbin Jin, Ouwei Sheng, Wenkui Zhang, Jianmin Luo, Huadong Yuan, Tao Yang, Hui Huang, Yongping Gan, Yang Xia, Chu Liang, Jun Zhang, Xinyong Tao Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regarded as the promising energy storage device. However, this technology faces great challenges from both anode and cathode, which are mainly caused by the nature of materials. Here, we report a kind of multifunctional carbon derived from biomass like rice husk for optimizing both lithium (Li) metal anode and sulfur (S) cathode for Li-S batteries. It has been proved that the surface functionalized rice husk derived carbon could effectively achieve the controllable deposition of Li. Notably, the nucleation overpotential is reduced and the Coulombic efficiency is also improved. As for the cathode, the biomass carbon with high specific surface area and natural SiO2 nanoparticles is benificial for confining sulfur and sulfides. As a result, when the modified Li metal anode paired with carbon/sulfur composite, the battery delivers improved discharge capacity, rate capability and cycling stability. Moreover, the overpotential between charge and discharge process in Li-S batteries is obviously lowered compared with bare Li foil. This novel and straightforward design via employing sustainable biomass for constructing both anode and cathode materials may do great help to achieve the commercialization of Li-S batteries.Graphical abstractThis novel design of deriving carbon from the sustainable biomass for optimizing both Li metal anode and sulfur cathode is facile, straightforward and inexpensive.fx1
       
  • A Li-ion sulfur full cell with ambient resistant Al-Li alloy anode
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Ju Sun, Qingcong (Ray) Zeng, Ruitao Lv, Wei Lv, Quan-Hong Yang, Rose Amal, Da-Wei Wang Lithium (Li) metal as anode for Li-S batteries has encountered some issues, eg., dendrite formation and ambient instability, both of which imposed safety problems on the operation and manufacturing of Li metal sulfur batteries. Exploring safer Li metal replacement is thus of fundamental and technical importance for enabling Li-metal-free sulfur batteries. Aluminium (Al) is an appealing Li-alloy anode material for the sake of its high capacity, natural abundance, and safety. Pairing Al-Li alloy with sulfur (S) could be a promising strategy to achieve high-energy rechargeable batteries with improved safety. Herein we show the suppressed dendrite growth and the enhanced ambient stability of Al-Li alloy anode. A Li-metal-free Li-ion sulfur battery was assembled with an Al-Li alloy anode, a sulfurized polyacrylonitrile cathode and a carbonate electrolyte. This Li-ion sulfur full cell exhibited good reversibility and stability, with a slow decaying rate at 0.09% per cycle. The specific energy of the full cell based on the total weight of active materials is estimated to be in a range of 589–762 Wh/kg.Graphical abstractHerein we report Li-metal-free Li-ion sulfur battery assembled with an Al-Li alloy anode, a sulfurized polyacrylonitrile cathode and a carbonate electrolyte. Pairing Al-Li alloy with sulfur (S) could be a promising strategy to achieve high-energy rechargeable batteries with improved safety due to the improved dendrite suppression and ambient resistance of the anode.fx1
       
  • Self-template construction of mesoporous silicon submicrocube anode for
           advanced lithium ion batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Bangrun Wang, Wenwen Li, Tian Wu, Jing Guo, Zhaoyin Wen Three-dimensional (3D) porous silicon has been widely studied as an exceptional anode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to its extraordinary theoretical capacity and high structural stability. The self-sacrificing template is an effective route to synthesize 3D porous Si. Herein, we report the high quality of mesoporous silicon submicrocube (CM-Si) derived from zeolite SSZ-13 template through a facilely modified magnesiothermic reduction method. The CM-Si architecture possesses a 3D porous interconnected silicon network composed of Si nanoparticles (5–10 nm). Carbon-coated CM-Si (CM-Si@C) anodes exhibit a high reversible capacity of 1338 mAh g−1 at 2 A g−1 with an outstanding capacity retention of 77.6% after 200 cycles and an excellent rate capability (740 mAh g−1 at 30 A g−1 after 200 cycles). Furthermore, full cells consisting of CM-Si@C anodes and LiFePO4 cathodes deliver good cycling performance and high energy density. Thus, this synthetic strategy exploit the potency of unique CM-Si@C as anode materials for advanced LIBs.Graphical abstractThe unique mesoporous submicrocube architecture endows the superior electrochemical performance of CM-Si@C nanocomposite.fx1
       
  • Controlling the sustainability and shape change of the zinc anode in
           rechargeable aqueous Zn/LiMn2O4 battery
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Wenlong Xiong, Dongjie Yang, Tuan K.A. Hoang, Moin Ahmed, Jian Zhi, Xueqing Qiu, P. Chen The use of thixotropic gel electrolytes in the rechargeable hybrid aqueous battery improves the battery performance but it is required to have a corrosion inhibitor in the gel electrolyte. These inhibitors are not always friendly to the environment. In this work, we use lignin – a renewable material – to neutralize strong acid sites of the fumed silica gelling agent prior to gel preparation. Linear polarization, chronoamperometry, and ex-situ scanning electron microscopy examinations show that the new gel electrolyte reduces the corrosion on zinc (up to 43%) and supports planar zinc deposit. In other words, the shape of the zinc surface is controlled and it is further confirmed by the XRD and SEM of post-battery run anodes. Moreover, the battery using this new lignin coated fumed silica based gel electrolyte exhibits a float charge current as low as 0.0025 mA after 24 h of monitoring, which is 30.6% lower than the reference. The capacity retention of gelled battery is as high as 82% after 1000 cycles at 4 C, which is 14% higher than the reference battery using reference liquid electrolyte under the same CC-CV test, complemented by lower self-discharge and higher rate capability. The results lead the team nearer to a commercializable gelled battery system.Graphical abstractThe green and sustainable QAL/FS based gel electrolyte can suppress the growth of zinc dendrite during cycling and improve the cyclability of the rechargeable hybrid aqueous Zn/LiMn2O4 battery compared with that of the reference liquid electrolyte.fx1
       
  • Defect-rich carbon fiber electrocatalysts with porous graphene skin for
           flexible solid-state zinc–air batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Hao-Fan Wang, Cheng Tang, Bin Wang, Bo-Quan Li, Xiaoyang Cui, Qiang Zhang Rechargeable flexible Zn–air batteries have attracted great attentions as promising next-generation energy storage devices for portable and wearable electronics. Bifunctional oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts on the air electrode are critical for improving the energy storage performance of Zn–air batteries. Free-standing electrocatalysts with superb OER/ORR reactivity render promising flexible power sources for the wearable and stretchable devices. In this contribution, a metal-free electrocatalyst based on surface modification of flexible carbon cloth is proposed. A coaxial cable-like structure with carbon fiber skeleton coated by nanostructured porous and defect-rich graphene skin is in situ fabricated through a facile H2 etching approach. With abundant heteroatoms and defects as active sites, the nanocarbon shells coated carbon cloth exhibits excellent OER/ORR bifunctional activity. The OER and ORR current densities on graphene skin modified carbon fiber are 20 and 3 times higher than those of pristine carbon cloth, respectively. This emerging carbon cloth derived electrocatalyst with porous graphene skin also serves as the air electrode in a rechargeable flexible solid-state Zn air battery with polymer gel electrolyte, and demonstrates stable charge/discharge cycling even under bending. This strategy of constructing nanostructures directly on carbon fibers benefits the rational design of flexible and functionalized materials for electrocatalytic energy applications.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • A Li-dual carbon composite as stable anode material for Li batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Feng Guo, Yalong Wang, Tuo Kang, Chenghao Liu, Yanbin Shen, Wei Lu, Xiaodong Wu, Liwei Chen Tremendous amount of effort has been dedicated to revisit metallic lithium as anode material for high-energy-density lithium batteries in recent years. Although some progresses have been achieved within this field, development of lithium metal anode material with higher specific capacity and better stability is still urgently needed considering the practical application of batteries. Here we report a Li-carbon nanotube-acetylene black (Li-CNT-AB) composite microsphere anode material by a simple and scalable method. The lithiophilic CNTs were used to construct a porous sphere framework, while the lithiophilic AB particles well distributed in the sphere framework were used to utilize the pore space of the sphere thus increasing the lithium content of the composite, and to act as a lithium deposition promoter during battery cycling because AB has lower lithium nucleation barrier. As a result, the Li-CNT-AB composite exhibits a specific capacity as high as 2800 mA h g-1 and a life span of ~ 700 cycles can be achieved when it was cycled with a commercial LiFePO4 (LFP) cathode at 0.5 C (1.25 mA cm-2) in an ether-based electrolyte with the capacity ratio of cathode to anode being 1:8, corresponding to a high Coulombic efficiency (CE) of ~ 98.7%. Furthermore, it was observed that there is no lithium dendrite formation and negligible volume change on the Li-CNT-AB during electrochemical cycling.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Superior Na-ion storage achieved by Ti substitution in Na3V2(PO4)3
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Yangyang Huang, Xiang Li, Jinsong Wang, Lin Miao, Chang Li, Jiantao Han, Yunhui Huang The development of sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) remains a great challenge due to poor stability and sluggish kinetics of cathode materials. Here, we present Ti-substituted Na3-xV2-xTix(PO4)3/C (NVP-Tix/C,0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) as high-performance cathode materials for SIBs. Crystal structure and Na storage properties are investigated by experiment and theoretical calculation. X-ray diffraction results reveal that NVP-Tix have same rhombohedral structure as NVP but shrunk lattice parameters. Pair distribution function spectra and the calculated crystal structure suggest that the local structural distortion of the doped samples originates from slight decrease of V‒O bond. As SIB cathode materials, greatly enhanced structural stability and electrochemical performance are achieved by Ti substitution. Especially, NVP-Ti0.15/C exhibits excellent rate capability and cyclability with capacity retention of 60% after 2000 cycles at high rate of 10 C. Importantly, even at 20 C, a reversible capacity of 63 mAh g−1 is maintained after 300 cycles at elevated temperature of 60 °C. Density functional theory calculations demonstrate that the superior electrochemical performance of the Ti-doped samples can be attributed to the enhanced intrinsic electronic conductivity, low Na+ diffusion energy barrier and high structural stability.
       
  • Bifunctional porous iron phosphide/carbon nanostructure enabled
           high-performance sodium-ion battery and hydrogen evolution reaction
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Yew Von Lim, Shaozhuan Huang, Yingmeng Zhang, Dezhi Kong, Ye Wang, Lu Guo, Jun Zhang, Yumeng Shi, Tu Pei Chen, Lay Kee Ang, Hui Ying Yang Transition metal phosphides, such as iron phosphide (FeP), have recently been studied as promising high performance active materials for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) due to their excellent energy storage and conversion capabilities. To achieve long cycle lifetime, high rate sodium storage performance and stable HER reactivity, porous FeP/C nanostructures have been designed and synthesized through low temperature phosphorization of the Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) nanostructure. The resulting FeP/C composite consists of highly porous nanocubic structure with FeP nanoparticles distributing the carbon scaffolding, showing high surface area and small pore size distribution. This unique nanostructure enables fast and efficient electrons/ions transportation, and provides abundant reactive sites uniformly distributing the highly-ordered MOF-derived nanocubes. Benefitting from the unique porous structure, the FeP/C nanocubes exhibit remarkable sodium storage performance in terms of high capacity (410 mA h g−1, 100 mA g−1), excellent rate capacity (up to 1 A g−1) and long cycle life (>200 cycles). The electrochemical reaction mechanisms of the FeP/C composite upon sodiation/desodiation are investigated in detail via ex-situ XRD, SEM and TEM methods, which show that the sodium storage in FeP is based on both the intercalation/conversion reactions. In addition, FeP/C as HER electrodes maintain its reactivity for at least 40 h and exhibit an low onset overpotential of 80 mV and a low Tafel slope of 40 mV dec−1. These results reveal the sodium storage mechanism of FeP and suggest that the MOF-derived FeP/C composite is a promising candidate for high-performance SIBs and HER electrode material.Graphical abstractUnique three-dimensional iron phosphide/carbon nanocubes are synthesized via phosphorization of Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) and exhibits significant improvement in electrochemical performance such as sodium-ion anode materials (SIBs) and hydrogen evolution catalyst (HER). The SIBs charge/discharge mechanisms are revealed via ex-situ investigations. This study demonstrates the use of MOF-derivative in realizing the potential of performance of FeP-based materials as SIBs and HER catalysts.fx1
       
  • In situ TEM study of the sodiation/desodiation mechanism of MnO2 nanowire
           with gel-electrolytes
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Zhi Zhang, Jiasheng Qian, Wei Lu, Cheuk Ho Chan, Shu Ping Lau, Ji-Yan Dai In this work, in situ transmission electron microscopy study of the electrochemical sodiation and desodiation processes was performed in a nanobattery which consisted of a single MnO2 nanowire and different kinds of gel-electrolyte. It is found that after full sodiation, single crystalline MnO2 nanowire is transformed to a mixed nanocrystalline phases of Na2O and MnO, and the following cycles are controlled by the reversible conversion reaction between NaMnO2 and MnO. Both in situ electrochemical test and ex situ battery test show that the glyme-based gel-electrolyte is more suitable for the MnO2 nanowires anode materials. It is also revealed that the MnO2 nanowire expansion ratio strongly depends on the diameter of the nanowires. This work provides a new insight on the sodiation/desodiation mechanism in MnO2 nanowire and gel-electrolyte, and may pave the path for the development of practical sodium-ion batteries with gel-electrolyte.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Alkali metal boosted atom rearrangement in amorphous carbon towards
           crystalline graphitic belt skeleton for high performance supercapacitors
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Chao Shi, Lintong Hu, Junxian Hou, Kai Guo, Tianyou Zhai, Huiqiao Li Specific surface area (SSA) and graphitization degree are the most critical factors for carbon used for supercapacitors. However, synthesizing carbon materials with high SSA and graphitization degree in one material is still a challenge. Herein, we successfully get a carbon material with 3D graphitic belt skeleton and high SSA (>2600 m2 g−1) by using alkali metal as a catalyst to boost the graphitization of amorphous carbon at a relatively low temperature. The alkali metal with high activity can induce rearrangement of carbon atoms by firstly generating and then recoupling carbon dangling bonds to form graphene layers and followed self-stack into crystalline graphitic skeleton, which results in the high graphitization degree and elimination of non-carbon atoms in O-containing groups. Besides, the alkali derivatives can further produce rich porosity thus can maintain a high SSA. When used as an electrode material for supercapacitors, this carbon can deliver a large capacitance in a wide voltage window of 3.2 V in organic electrolyte and 1.0 V in aqueous electrolyte with excellent rate performance even up to 100 A g−1 and superior cycling stability over 13,000 cycles at the same time. A high energy density of 44.7 W h kg−1 can be obtained at a high power density of 12.8 kW kg−1. The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to its high surface area with rich mesopores for rapid ion transport, high conductivity from 3D intercrossed graphitic skeleton, and good chemical stability from low content of surface functional groups and carbon dangling bonds.Graphical abstractAlkali metal is used as a new catalyst to boost atom rearrangement in amorphous carbon at a low temperature (2600 m2 g−1), which is several times higher than that of other reported graphitic carbon. The graphitization mechanism triggered by alkali metals is investigated in detail. When used as an electrode material, this carbon shows a wide working window of 3.2 V, a high charge/discharge ability up to 100 A g−1, and an excellent cycling stability, which ranks top level of the reported graphitic carbon.fx1
       
  • Self-assembled superstructure of carbon-wrapped, single-crystalline Cu3P
           porous nanosheets: One-step synthesis and enhanced Li-ion battery anode
           performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Jinliang Zhu, Qili Wu, Julian Key, Mingmei Wu, Pei Kang Shen Robust superstructures of self-assembling nanoscale building blocks are of functional and practical interest for improving the performance of materials in various advanced technological applications. Herein, we successfully synthesize a self-assembled, three-dimensional (3D) superstructure of carbon-wrapped, single-crystalline Cu3P porous nanosheets by one-step heat treatment of Cu foam with a phosphorus-containing resin. In this 3D superstructure, continuous single-crystalline Cu3P sheets are wrapped by uniform 5 nm-thick carbon shells (
       
  • MoS2 nanobelts with (002) plane edges-enriched flat surfaces for high-rate
           sodium and lithium storage
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Zhenyu Zhang, Shuilin Wu, Junye Cheng, Wenjun Zhang Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal chalcogenides (TMDs) have shown great potential as high-performance anode materials in lithium and sodium ion batteries (LIBs and SIBs). Due to the greater density of active sites on the edges of (002) planes and favorable insertion/desertion of Li/Na ions along the inter-planar direction, control on the crystal structures of 2D TMD has been demonstrated to be significant to their high-rate and stable-cycling performances. Here, we synthesized MoS2 nanobelts (NBs) with richly exposed (002) plane edges on their flat surfaces through in situ sulfuration of MoO3 NBs. In contrast to the conventional MoS2 nanosheets that exposed richly the (002) lateral surface, the MoS2 NBs were featured with abundant active edge sites, short ions diffusion distance and structural stability during electrochemical reactions. High specific capacities and outstanding stability were achieved for their anode applications, i.e., in LIBs ~ 820 and ~ 480 mA h g−1 at the current densities of 1 and 20 A g−1, respectively, and in SIBs ~ 520 and ~ 380 mA h g−1 at 1 and 20 A g−1 after 100 cycles, respectively. MoS2 NBs also exhibited decent performance in a wide temperature range from − 20 °C to 60 °C, in particular as anodes in LIBs. Electrochemical kinetics analysis confirmed that the pseudocapacitive behavior had an over 90% contribution in the overall energy storage process of MoS2 NBs, which led to their excellent high-rate performance in both sodium and lithium storage.
       
  • Designing 3D nanostructured garnet frameworks for enhancing ionic
           conductivity and flexibility in composite polymer electrolytes for lithium
           batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Jiwoong Bae, Yutao Li, Fei Zhao, Xingyi Zhou, Yu Ding, Guihua Yu Solid-state electrolytes provide excellent electrochemical stability, mechanical strength and safety as compared to conventional liquid electrolytes for lithium ion batteries. Recent developments of polymer electrolytes mixed with nanofillers have enhanced ionic conductivity and stability owing to the interaction between nanoscale fillers and polymer matrix/lithium salt. However, the agglomeration of the nanofillers limits the concentration of the filler, thereby preventing the composite electrolyte from further improving the conductivity and stability. In this study, we first report three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured garnet framework as 3D nanofillers for composite polymer electrolyte. The well-percolated structure of garnet framework enables a high weight ratio of 62 wt% in composite electrolyte and improves conductivity to 8.5 × 10−5 S cm−1 at 25 °C with ~ 10−3 S cm−1 at 60 °C. The excellent conductivity and high garnet content of composite electrolyte also lead to enhanced electrochemical and thermal stability as well as interfacial stability with lithium metal. Our 3D interconnected garnet framework design represents a useful strategy for developing high-performance composite polymer electrolytes for next-generation lithium batteries.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Dendrite-free Li metal deposition in all-solid-state lithium sulfur
           batteries with polymer-in-salt polysiloxane electrolyte
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Long Chen, Li–Zhen Fan Replacement of solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) to routine liquid electrolyte is highly desirable for high-energy-density lithium sulfur batteries due to its low volatility, high safety and the ability to suppress shuttle effect. Herein, a polymer-in-salt polysiloxane SPE was fabricated with bi-grafted polysiloxane copolymer, lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and poly(vinylidene fluoride), which shows higher ionic conductivity (7.8 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 25 °C). To obtain the satisfactory ionic conductivity and high mechanical property of solid electrolyte simultaneously, cellulose acetate matrix was combined as a rigid substrate to prepare composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) that possesses high ionic conductivity (4.0 × 10-4 S cm-1), enhanced mechanical strength (6.8 MPa), wide electrochemical stability window (4.7 V vs. Li+/Li), and high ion transference number (0.52) at ambient temperature. In addition, the CPE effectively inhibits the growth of lithium dendrites and diffusion of polysulfides. The assembled lithium sulfur battery with CPE exhibits good room-temperature cycling performance at 1C, which indicates that such polymer-in-salt polysiloxane based composite electrolyte membranes can be applied to ambient temperature all-solid-state lithium sulfur batteries.Graphical abstractPolymer–in–salt polysiloxane based composite solid electrolytes using cellulose acetate membranes as rigid frameworks are prepared by solution casting technique. The resultant electrolytes exhibit satisfactory ionic conductivities and mechanical properties simultaneously and could impede lithium dendrites and shuttle effect of polysulfides. The assembled batteries deliver high cycling performance, demonstrating a promising strategy for ambient temperature all–solid–state lithium sulfur batteries.fx1
       
  • Large-scale synthesis of high-quality lithium-graphite hybrid anodes for
           mass-controllable and cycling-stable lithium metal batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Sufu Liu, Xinhui Xia, Shengjue Deng, Liyuan Zhang, Yuqian Li, Jianbo Wu, Xiuli Wang, Jiangping Tu Lithium (Li) metal is extremely attractive for rechargeable high–energy density batteries, but suffers from uncontrolled dendrite growth, infinite relative volume change and poor solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). Herein, we report large-scale fabrication of lithium−graphite hybrid (LGH) anodes through a facile one-step stirring molten process. Li metal shell is uniformly combined with commercial graphite core forming high-quality LGH anodes. Impressively, the mass loading of Li metal can be precisely controlled in the LGH and avoids vast excess of Li in full cells. Compared to plain Li foil, the as-obtained LGH possesses stable graphite hosts for Li metal and can effectively reduce local current density during stripping/plating process, thus mitigating dendrite formation and stabilizing interface. Consequently, symmetric cell with LGH electrodes exhibit ultra-stable cycling and low polarization even in carbonate electrolytes. The LGH shows stable operation at 5 mA cm−2 for 100 cycles, with a capacity of 1.5 mAh cm−2 and Li utilization of 25% per cycle. Furthermore, the LGH–Li4Ti5O12 prototype cells are further demonstrated with highly improved capacity retention. All these superiorities make the LGH as promising anodes for next-generation high-performance electrochemical energy storage.Graphical abstractLarge-scale Li−graphite hybrid (LGH) anodes are first realized by a facile stirring molten method and show enhanced electrochemical performance with better rate performance and much smaller voltage hysteresis.fx1
       
  • Three-dimensional carbon frameworks enabling MoS2 as anode for dual ion
           batteries with superior sodium storage properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Chunyu Cui, Zengxi Wei, Jiantie Xu, Yiqiong Zhang, Shenghong Liu, Huakun Liu, Minglei Mao, Shuangyin Wang, Jianmin Ma, Shixue Dou A (MoS2/carbon fiber (CF))@MoS2@C hybrid has been prepared by an efficient method combining the electrospinning, hydrothermal and annealing techniques. Coupled with graphite as cathode, the hybrid enables the full cell (i.e., dual ion batteries) to deliver a high initial discharge capacity of 112.3 mAh g−1 at 0.2 A g−1 and maintain a high reversible capacity of 90.5 mAh g−1 at 0.5 A g−1 after 500 cycles. These remarkable sodium storage properties of (MoS2/CF)@MoS2@C are mainly attributed to its three-dimensional framework with its highly conductive, cross-linked structure, which effectively increases the conductivity of the hybrid and the mass loading of MoS2. Moreover, the MoS2 nanoplates embedded inside CF, as well as being sandwiched between the CF/MoS2 and a thin carbon layer, also can effectively buffer the pulverization and aggregation of the electrode, and thus maintain the structural integrity of (MoS2/CF)@MoS2@C during the charge-discharge process.Graphical abstractA (MoS2/carbon fiber (CF))@MoS2@C hybrid with high mass loading of MoS2 has been successfully prepared by an efficient method combining the electrospinning, hydrothermal and annealing techniques. The highly conductive and cross-linked 3D framework enable the hybrid delivering supervior sodium storage properties for sodium ion batteries (lithium metal as anode) and sodium related dual ion batteries (graphite as cathode).fx1
       
  • A long-life aqueous Zn-ion battery based on Na3V2(PO4)2F3 cathode
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Wei Li, Kangli Wang, Shijie Cheng, Kai Jiang Aqueous “rocking-chair” Zn-ion batteries based on the intercalation/deintercalation chemistry of divalent Zn2+ ions are appealing area, but the lack of suitable cathodes to tolerate the stable insertion/extraction of Zn2+ ions as well as practical approaches to minimize the dendrite growth of zinc anode are still the major challenges. Here, we report a rechargeable aqueous Zn-ion battery based on a new intercalated Na3V2(PO4)2F3 cathode coupled with a carbon film functionalizing Zn anode and 2 M Zn(CF3SO3)2 electrolyte. This battery exhibits a high voltage of 1.62 V, energy density of 97.5 W h kg−1, as well as superior cyclability of 95% capacity retention over 4000 cycles. The remarkable performance originates from the dendrite-free of Zn anode assisted by a carbon film changing the deposition behavior of Zn, the protective layer of “solid electrolyte interphase” on Na3V2(PO4)2F3 cathode and the highly reversible insertion/extraction chemistry of Zn2+ ions in Na3V2(PO4)2F3 with a much small volume change of 0.22% as evidenced by ex-situ XPS and XRD analysis. Moreover, this system can be delicately designed as a flexible soft package battery with both good flexibility and cyclability (80.6% capacity retention over 600 cycles).Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Highly reversible Na and K metal anodes enabled by carbon paper protection
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Peirong Li, Tianhui Xu, Pan Ding, Jun Deng, Chenyang Zha, Yunling Wu, Yeyun Wang, Yanguang Li Alkali metal batteries are now under revival for their large energy density. But their practical viability hinges on the successful development of safe and cyclable alkali metal anodes, preferrentially via scalable and cost-effective methods. Despite tremendous research efforts on the Li metal anode, the attention on Na and K is considerably less. In this work, we report a general and straightforward strategy to enhance the electrochemical performances of Na and K metal anodes. When their surfaces are covered with a thin piece of commercial carbon paper as the protection layer, both Na and K metal anodes exhibit significantly improved overpotentials and cycling stability (up to ~1200 cycles for Na and ~3000 cycles for K) within carbonate or ether electrolyte and even under large current density (5 mA cm−2). Proof-of-concept sodium metal batteries are also assembled using the protected Na metal anode and Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode, and demonstrate large areal capacity and impressive cycle life. Given its effectiveness, scalability and low cost, we believe that our strategy holds great promise for practical implementation.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Tunnel-structured Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2-x F x (x
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Qin-Chao Wang, Qi-Qi Qiu, Na Xiao, Zheng-Wen Fu, Xiao-Jing Wu, Xiao-Qing Yang, Yong-Ning Zhou Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are attracting significant research attentions for large-scale energy storage applications. Cathode material is the vital part of SIBs to determine the capacity and cycle performance. Here, a series of F-doped Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2-xFx (x
       
  • Progress and prospects of next-generation redox flow batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Changkun Zhang, Leyuan Zhang, Yu Ding, Sangshan Peng, Xuelin Guo, Yu Zhao, Gaohong He, Guihua Yu As one of the most promising electrochemical energy storage systems, redox flow batteries (RFBs) have received increasing attention due to their attractive features for large-scale storage applications. However, their practical deployment in commerce and industry is still impeded by their relatively high cost and low energy density. Therefore, developments of the next-generation RFBs should address these challenges by exploring new redox-active electrolytes and novel membranes with higher ionic selectivity and conductivity, which help to achieve lower cost, longer life and higher energy and power density. In this review, we present a critical overview of the latest progress on the key components of RFBs, including redox species and membranes. Current progress on optimization strategies of the performance of RFB systems, computational modeling, prospects and opportunities in exploration of the advanced RFB systems are also summarized.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Non-noble metal-transition metal oxide materials for electrochemical
           energy storage
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Xiaotian Guo, Guangxun Zhang, Qing Li, Huaiguo Xue, Huan Pang Most transition metal oxides (TMOs) with medium conductivity and large volume expansion upon lithiation have a relatively poor rate capability and cycling life. To improve the electrochemical performances of electrochemical energy storage devices (EESDs), low-cost non-noble metals can be coupled to TMOs to yield diversified nanostructures, such as non-noble metal decorated-TMO nanoparticles (NPs) or nanoarrays, non-noble metal-TMO core-shell nanostructures. Notably, in recent years, conductive metal (Cu, Ni, Ti) substrates have been effectively employed as current collectors for the direct growth of TMO nanostructures, which have attracted much attention. Thus, non-noble metal-TMO materials can be divided into three types: 1) TMOs on non-noble metal substrates (TMO/NM-S), 2) non-noble metal-TMO (NM/TMO), 3) non-noble metal-TMO on substrates (NM/TMO/S). In this review, we focus on the three types of non-noble metal-TMO materials based on their synthetic methods, morphologies and electrochemical performances for supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries. Furthermore, future perspectives and challenges of non-noble metal-TMO materials for EESDs are briefly discussed.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Perspectives for restraining harsh lithium dendrite growth: Towards robust
           lithium metal anodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Feng Wu, Yan-Xia Yuan, Xin-Bing Cheng, Ying Bai, Yu Li, Chuan Wu, Qiang Zhang Lithium (Li) metal is regarded as a “Holy Grail” anode for next-generation high-energy-density rechargeable batteries due to its high volumetric (2046 mA h cm−3) and gravimetric specific capacity (3862 mA h g−1) as well as the lowest reduction potential (−3.04 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode). However, undesirable dendrite growth and repeated destruction/formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on Li metal anode during the long-term charging/discharging cycles have limited the practical applications of Li metal batteries. In this review, we summarize the strategies to restrain Li dendrites through electrolyte modification, multifunctional barriers, composite metallic lithium electrode, and 3D current collectors. The Li metal anode protection can be achieved by efficiently regulating the diffusion and distribution behavior of Li ions and electrons. The further exploration on rational integration of these strategies is highly expected to afford more fundamental understanding and engineering applications to practical Li metal batteries.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Progress and perspective of organosulfur polymers as cathode materials for
           advanced lithium-sulfur batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 15Author(s): Jie Liu, Mengfan Wang, Na Xu, Tao Qian, Chenglin Yan Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery offers a superior alternative to currently commercial lithium-ion batteries because of high energy density, low cost and satisfying safety. However, during the battery operation, the shuttle effect seriously destroys the battery cycle life and leads to serious capacity degeneration. In recent years, copolymerization strategy, in which elemental sulfur is melted to linear polysulfane and then copolymerized with polymerizable linker monomer to form stable organosulfur polymers, is believed as an innovative and effective method to improve the stability of Li-S batteries. Due to the strong covalent bonds between sulfur and copolymer framework, the polysulfides dissolution could be effectively suppressed upon cycling. This paper reviews some recent efforts on the organosulfur copolymers as cathode materials of Li-S battery. Based on these considerations, some remaining challenges and the perspective of the copolymers on Li-S system are also discussed.
       
  • Solid polymer electrolyte soft interface layer with 3D lithium anode for
           all-solid-state lithium batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Shang-Sen Chi, Yongchang Liu, Ning Zhao, Xiangxin Guo, Ce-Wen Nan, Li-Zhen Fan Garnet electrolyte-based lithium (Li) metal batteries, which employ garnet-type Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) as electrolyte and Li metal as anode, are regared as a promising candidate for high-energy batteries. However, Li dendrites formation as well as poor solid-solid contact between the electrolyte and electrodes result in high interfacial resistance, large polarizations, and low Coulombic efficiency. Herein, we demonstrated that solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) soft interface layer deposited on garnet electrolyte (Ta-doped LLZO (LLZTO)) surface along with 3D Li metal anode can address these obstacles. In this architecture, SPE layer was deposited on garnet electrolyte surface to endow connected interface between the electrolyte and electrodes and thus settled the interface contact issue. 3D Li metal anode can accomplish dendrite-suppression by increasing Li ions deposition sites to lower the effective current density and render a uniform Li nucleation with 3D frameworks. With this ingenious arrangement, the solid-state 3D Li︱SPE-LLZTO-SPE︱3D Li symmetrical cell exhibits a stable voltage profile over 700 h and solid-state LiFePO4︱SPE-LLZTO-SPE︱3D Li full cell also shows an extremely superior cyclability and high Coulombic efficiency even at 90 °C. This work provides an alternative option for manifacturing safe and stable solid-state Li metal batteries.Graphical abstractSolid polymer electrolyte (SPE) soft interface layers with 3D Li metal anode are directly assembled in garnet LLZTO-based solid-state battery. Benefiting from the cooperation of SPE interface layer's enhancement to solid-solid contact together with 3D Li metal anode to suppress dendrite growth, an excellent electrochemical performance could be achieved in solid-state Li metal battery at 90 °C.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Highly Selective Core-shell Structural Membrane with Cage-shaped Pores for
           Flow Battery
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2018Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Wenjing Lu, Dingqin Shi, Huamin Zhang, Xianfeng Li A blend membrane with the core-shell structure was designed and prepared for vanadium flow batteries (VFBs). The core is the membrane manufactured by poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) anion exchange resin, while the shell is composed of cage-shaped pores induced by VO2+ treatment. The high ion selectivity of PVDF-HFP/PVP blend membranes with the core-shell structure is assured by the ion sieving effect of cage-shaped pores and Donnan exclusion effect of anion exchange resin. The convection mechanism of charge carriers across pores on the surface and surface layers, together with the Grotthuss mechanism across the deep-seated anion exchange membrane jointly contributes to high ion conductivity of blend membranes. A great balance between high ion selectivity and high ion conductivity can thus be achieved. Moreover, the formation of cage-shaped pores can remedy the loss of chemical stability caused by anion exchange groups in PVP. A VFB with the resultant membrane could achieve a columbic efficiency of 98.16%, and an energy efficiency of 88.01% at 80 mA cm−2, much higher than those of Nafion 115. This core-shell structural blend membrane is an entirely novel concept to combine advantages of porous membranes and ion exchange membranes, while avoid their drawbacks simultaneously.Graphical Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • An advanced zinc air battery with nanostructured superwetting electrodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2018Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Wenwen Xu, Zhiyi Lu, Tianyu Zhang, Yiren Zhong, Yueshen Wu, Guoxin Zhang, Junfeng Liu, Hailiang Wang, Xiaoming Sun Rechargeable zinc air batteries (ZABs) have gained considerable attention as a promising energy technique recently owing to their high theoretical energy and power density, safety and economic viability; however, the state-of-art ZABs have been plagued by two major drawbacks, unsatisfying achievable power density and low voltage efficiency. Our superwetting electrodes are hereby designed to circumvent these issues through controlling the O2 bubbles adsorption/evolution behavior at electrode surface while maintaining the outstanding electrocatalysis performance. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the application of superwetting catalytic electrodes in the tri-electrode rechargeable ZABs. Two different functional electrodes, namely superaerophilic cobalt-incorporated nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes hybrid catalyst and superaerophobic NiFe-layered double hydroxide arrays, serve as exceptional catalysts for discharging and charging process respectively, thus achieving superior battery performance. The low-cost superwetting cathode pairs even exhibit a much better catalytic activity and durability than the combination of precious Pt/C and Ir/C catalysts. The as-assembled ZABs deliver a greatly improved peak power current of 245 mW cm−2 at 396 mA cm−2 over that of the ZABs composed of precious metal electrodes (186 mW cm−2), together with small polarization, high reversibility, and stability over long cycles. The design of superwetting electrode marks a general and effective strategy to achieve high-performance rechargeable ZABs.
       
  • Sustainable Treatment of Dye Wastewater for High-Performance Rechargeable
           Battery Cathodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2018Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Jie Yang, Yun Yang, Anran Li, Zicheng Wang, Hua Wang, Dandan Yu, Pengfei Hu, Mengmeng Qian, Jie Lin, Lin Guo Currently, energy scarcity and environmental pollution are two severe challenges facing humanity. On one hand, significant efforts are being devoted to the development of sustainable, cheap, high-performance rechargeable battery cathodes. On the other hand, organic dyes are one of main contaminating components in plant effluents, damaging the ecological balance of surrounding areas as well as wasting a lot of valuable chemical raw materials. In this study, we rationally designed a strategy to simultaneously address these two issues. After carefully studying the chemical structure of dye molecules, we find that two types of widely-used dyes including phenothiazine dyes and anthraquinone derivatives with intrinsic redox centers can be effectively decolorized by adsorption removal with mesoporous carbon and directly resource-utilized for lithium-ion battery electrode materials. For example, the composite based on mesoporous carbon hosting methylene blue dye achieves an outstanding specific capacity of 107 mAh g-1 even at a high current of 3 A g-1 and long-term cycling stability with 82% initial capacity retention after 1000 cycles, which is comparable to the classic LiFePO4 material, and superior to many recently-reported organic cathode materials. Our strategy therefore “kills two birds with one stone”, enabling the development of high-performance battery cathodes based on organic dyes in combination with effective valorization of dye-containing wastewaters.Graphical abstractNovel cathode materials for rechargeable batteries can be fabricated by the adsorption removal of two types of widely-used organic dye wastewater with mesoporous carbon. The dye-based batteries exhibit high specific capacities, exceptionally high-rate and long-cycle-life electrochemical performance. Our work provides some new insights for the sustainable treatment and resource-utilization of dye wastewater.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Uncovering the Cu-driven electrochemical mechanism of transition metal
           chalcogenides based electrodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2018Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Qidong Li, Qiulong Wei, Qinyou An, Lei Huang, Wen Luo, Xiaoji Ren, Kwadwo Asare Owusu, Feng Dong, Li Li, Peng Zhou, Liqiang Mai, Qingjie Zhang, Khalil Amine, Jun Lu Transition-metal chalcogenides (TMCs) have emerged as attractive anode materials for rechargeable batteries due to their excellent performance and abundant resources. Here, for the first time, we disclose a unique copper (Cu)-driven conversion process in TMC-based battery systems that involves classic Cu current collector and is considered to be an “activation process”. According to state-of-the-art characterization techniques, Cu was evidenced to gradually replace the transition-metal elements in TMCs to be the active material during cycling. Based on this unique Cu-driven conversion mechanism, we used a facile method to design a new type of sulfur-based battery that presents excellent performance: a reversible capacity of 1.045 mAh cm−2 after 700 cycles at 2 A g−1, and a good rate capability up to a capacity of 0.33 mAh cm−2 at 20 A g−1. With respect to the large family of TMC compounds, this study introduces a new direction for the design of high-performance energy storage systems.Graphical abstractA new sulfur-based battery system has been developed based on a unique Cu-driven conversion mechanism which possesses a superior electrochemical performance. This new type of sulfur-based battery shows great potential for large-scale energy storage systems.fx1
       
  • Tri-high designed graphene electrodes for long cycle-life supercapacitors
           with high mass loading
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2018Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Tieqi Huang, Xingyuan Chu, Shengying Cai, Qiuyan Yang, Hao Chen, Yingjun Liu, Karthikeyan Gopalsamy, Zhen Xu, Weiwei Gao, Chao Gao Practical supercapacitor electrodes require high mass loading to enhance the energy density of the entire devices, which would limit ion diffusions in thicker electrodes and thus generally result in poor specific capacitance, rate capability and cycle life. Here, we demonstrate a "highly oriented, highly crumpled and highly doped" (3 H) design for fabrication of high mass loading yet high performance nitrogen-doped graphene film (NGF) electrodes. NGF exhibits a unique long-range orientating and short-range crumpling structure, ensuring high packing density (up to 1.64 g cm-3) and efficient ion transmission simultaneously. The NGF-based symmetric supercapacitors (NGF-SC) displayed a specific capacitance 413 F cm-3 or 252 F g-1 at areal mass loading 0.32 mg cm-2, and 370 F cm-3 or 226 F g-1 at 11.2 mg cm-2 in aqueous electrolyte. For the case of high mass loading (11.2 mg cm-2), 90.1% retention was achieved after 100,000 cycles. In ionic liquid, the NGF-SC showed a high specific capacitance 352 F cm-3 or 215 F g-1 at 11.2 mg cm-2 in potential window 0–3.5 V, affording an ultrahigh electrode-based energy density 138 W h L-1. Due to the 3 H design and high mass loading, the energy density of the whole NGF-SC device attains 65 W h L-1, much higher than those of commercial supercapacitors. Notably, such NGF-SC showed long lifespan up to 50,000 cycles with 84.8% retention, a record cycle-life for high mass loading supercapacitors. The 3 H design provides a constructive principle for production of practical supercapacitors with both high energy density and power density.Graphical Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Design and understanding of dendritic mixed-metal hydroxide
           nanosheets@N-doped carbon nanotube array electrode for high-performance
           asymmetric supercapacitors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2018Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Qiaobao Zhang, Zaichun Liu, Bote Zhao, Yong Cheng, Lei Zhang, Hong-Hui Wu, Ming-Sheng Wang, Shuge Dai, Kaili Zhang, Dong Ding, Yuping Wu, Meilin Liu Design and fabrication of supercapacitors (SCs) with high energy density, fast discharge rate, and long cycle life is of great importance; however, the performances of SCs depend critically on advances in materials development. Here we report the development of a high-performance electrode material composed of hierarchical, porous interlaced ultrathin Zn and Ni co-substituted Co carbonate hydroxides (ZnNiCo-CHs) nanosheets branched on N-doped carbon nanotube arrays (C@ZnNiCo-CHs), which were grown directly on a nickel foam current collector. The mesoporous features and large open spaces of the interlaced ultrathin ZnNiCo-CHs nanosheets provide more active sites for redox reactions and facilitate fast mass transport; the self-standing N-doped carbon nanotube arrays offer large surface area, promote fast electron transport, and enhance structure stability, resulting in outstanding rate capability and long-term stability. Density functional theory calculations suggest that the ZnNiCo-CHs nanosheets have low deprotonation energy, greatly facilitating the rate of redox reactions. Further, an asymmetric SC constructed from a C@ZnNiCo-CHs positive electrode and an N-, S-codoped rGOs negative electrode demonstrates a high energy density of 70.9 W h kg−1 at a power density of 966 W kg−1 while maintaining a capacity retention of 91% even after 20,000 cycles at 20 A g−1. The findings provide some important insight into rational design of transition metal compounds based materials for fast energy storage, which may be applicable to creating efficient and robust electrode materials for other energy-related devices.Graphical abstractA high-performance composite electrode enables excellent capacity, rate capability, and cycle stability of asymmetric supercapacitors. The electrode is composed of hierarchical, porous interlaced ultrathin Zn and Ni co-substituted Co carbonate hydroxides (ZnNiCo-CHs) nanosheets branched on N-doped carbon nanotube arrays grown on porous Ni foam.fx1
       
  • A polymeric nanocomposite interlayer as ion-transport-regulator for
           trapping polysulfides and stabilizing lithium metal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2018Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Xuewei Fu, Yu Wang, Louis Scudiero, Wei-Hong Zhong Inserting an interlayer between cathode and separator represents a feasible approach for potentially addressing two severe issues in lithium-sulfur batteries: diffusion of polysulfides and growth of lithium dendrites. Thus far, there is a lack of cost-effective strategies to fabricate and characterize the interlayers, as well as a comprehensive understanding of their roles. Herein, we design, fabricate, characterize and gain understanding of an advanced battery interlayer capable of addressing the above two critical issues simultaneously. This porous-structured interlayer with a design of integrating polysulfide-blocking function, good mechanical properties and good adhesion to separator is fabricated by coating a functional porous polymeric nanocomposite on the separator. These functions/properties are realized via a rational combination of two polymers (a “functional” polymer of ultra-high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) and a “structural” polymer of poly(vinylidene fluoride)) with conductive fillers. The synergistic effect from the two polymers and the resulting porous structure make the interlayer an excellent ion-transport-regulator, which can benefit trapping the dissolved polysulfides, and more importantly, improve the stability of the lithium metal anode. Further, through comprehensive characterizations on the interlayer, the structure-property-performance relationships for the multifunctional interlayer are established, which favors the development of advanced energy storage devices pursuing controllable and express ion-transport between two electrodes.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Bimetallic metal-organic frameworks derived Ni-Co-Se@C hierarchical
           bundle-like nanostructures with high-rate pseudocapacitive lithium ion
           storage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2018Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Tao Yang, Yangai Liu, Dexin Yang, Bingbing Deng, Zhaohui Huang, Chris D. Ling, Hao Liu, Guoxiu Wang, Zaiping Guo, Rongkun Zheng Metal-organic frameworks and its derivates have attracted much attention for energy storage application. In this work, three-dimensional bimetallic metal-organic frameworks with novel hierarchical bundle-like micro/nanostructure were synthesized at room temperature for the first time. After initial carbonization and subsequent selenization, hierarchical porous Ni-Co-Se nanoparticles embedded in 3D carbon network with a high surface area that obviously inherited the original morphology of the bimetallic metal organic frameworks. The resulting materials demonstrated superior performance as the anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs): they provide high reversible Li-storage capacity, excellent cyclability (2061 mA h/g after 300 cycles) and high rate performance (493 mA h/g at 8 A/g). The features of Ni-Co-Se@C electrode include the synergistic effect of two metal selenides species for Li-storage, well-designed hierarchical porous bundle-like structure, steady carbon network and as-formed size-reduced particles after initial cycle process. These features not only enhanced the electronic properties and alleviated the volume variation of metal selenides during the repeated cycles, but also produced more active sites for lithium storage and a shorter lithium diffusion pathway to expedite the fast charge transfer and preserve a stable SEI layer, resulting in outstanding lithium storage performance. In addition, the pseudocapacitive behaviour contributes much to the high energy storage of lithium ions. These results uncover a facile methodology for the design of well-organized MOFs and transition metal dichalcogenides with 3D hierarchical structures.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
 
 
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