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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 179 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 78)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 313)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 266)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 105)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 86)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 92)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Embedded Systems Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access  
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189)
Haptics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access  
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Nano Devices, Sensors and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access  
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Magnetics Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Nanotechnology Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Pulse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Solid-State Circuits Magazine, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Wireless Power Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Women in Engineering Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Energy Storage Materials
Journal Prestige (SJR): 5.208
Citation Impact (citeScore): 13
Number of Followers: 3  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 2405-8297
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3158 journals]
  • Understanding Aggregation Hindered Li-Ion Transport in Transition Metal
           Oxide at Mesoscale
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Xiao Zhang, Yue Zhu, Andrea M. Bruck, Lisa M. Housel, Lei Wang, Calvin D. Quilty, Kenneth J. Takeuchi, Esther S. Takeuchi, Amy C. Marschilok, Guihua Yu Conversion based transition-metal oxides as a promising class of anode materials, require proper nanostructuring for enhanced Li-ion storage capabilities. However, aggregation is found to be a common issue in nanomaterial systems, and can have detrimental effects on transport properties in composite electrodes. By employing a model transition-metal oxide anode with unique two-dimensional holey nanostructures, we investigated underlying reasons for the limited electrochemical kinetics induced by mesoscale aggregation. Through combined electrochemical and in situ characterization techniques, we demonstrate that aggregation leads to hindered interfacial charge transfer and retarded phase transformation, with the influence on kinetics escalating with more aggregation. These results shed light on more dedicated structural design for effective battery electrodes across multiple length scales.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • 3D rGO aerogel with a superior electrochemical performance for K –
           Ion battery
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Liyuan Liu, Zifeng Lin, Jean-Yves Chane-Ching, Hui Shao, Pierre-Louis Taberna, Patrice Simon As one possible alternative metal to lithium in ion batteries, potassium has recently attracted considerable attention as a result of its geochemical abundance and low cost. In this work, a detailed study of the electrochemical properties of potassium ion storage was performed using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) aerogel as a negative electrode material. The influence of the nature of the electrolyte and the drying methods used were investigated in order to optimize the electrochemical performance of freeze-dried rGO in potassium-ion batteries (PIBs). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to assess the performance of our rGO material in PIBs. Used as the negative electrode, freeze-dried rGO can deliver a high capacity of 267 mA h/g at C/3 rate together with 78% capacity retention during 100 cycles, combined with high rate capability (92 mA h/g at 6.7C). This set of results makes rGO aerogel a promising electrode material for PIBs.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Electrode design methodology for all-solid-state batteries: 3D structural
           analysis and performance prediction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Joonam Park, Dohwan Kim, Williams A. Appiah, Jihun Song, Kyung Taek Bae, Kang Taek Lee, Jimin Oh, Ju Young Kim, Young-Gi Lee, Myung-Hyun Ryou, Yong Min Lee The key challenge in all-solid-state batteries is to construct well-developed ionic and electric conductive channels within an all-solid-state electrode, with an extensive contact area between electrode components. Hence, a new design methodology is proposed for all-solid-state electrodes utilizing a 3D geometry interpretation tool and electrochemical simulator. Firstly, the 3D structures of all-solid-state electrodes are generated using the voxel array formation. Secondly, with these structures, not only physical properties such as the specific contact area of the active materials, but also conductivity values can be identified. Subsequently, the main parameters derived from the 3D structures are utilized to build an electrochemical model to predict the cell performance. This three-step process will provide key insights on how 3D structures of all-solid-state electrodes must be constructed by predicting their preliminary physical and electrochemical properties with the help of computational simulations.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Ionic liquid - Electrode materials interactions studied by NMR
           spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): E. Zhang, N. Fulik, S. Paasch, L. Borchardt, S. Kaskel, E. Brunner The interactions between two selected porous carbon materials and ionic-liquid based electrolyte solutions consisting of the ionic liquid 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EmimBF4) diluted with acetonitrile are investigated within the present paper by combined use of cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy. The commercially available microporous YP50F and the hierarchically organized micro- and mesoporous OM-CDC (ordered mesoporous carbide derived carbon) are selected as model materials to achieve a better understanding of the electrolyte behavior, especially its mobility, in porous carbons. The ionic liquid chosen as electrolyte leads to high specific capacities approaching 180 Fg-1 for OM-CDC. Due to the hierarchical pore system, OM-CDC shows a better rate performance than YP50F.NMR analyses provide an understanding of the molecular processes giving rise to the above-mentioned observations. They reveal a limited accessibility of the narrow pores in YP50F for pure EmimBF4 in contrast to OM-CDC. It was found that about 30% of the entire pore volume of YP50F remain unfilled by electrolyte ions without dilution. Dilution with acetonitrile significantly increases the anion mobility as the NMR signal of adsorbed ions becomes narrower. A mixture containing 60% EmimBF4 and 40% acetonitrile was identified as the optimum for electrochemical applications.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Liquid electrolyte immobilized in compact polymer matrix for stable sodium
           metal anodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Qipeng Yu, Qingwen Lu, Xingguo Qi, Shuyang Zhao, Yan-Bing He, LiLu Liu, Jia Li, Dong Zhou, Yong-Sheng Hu, Quan-Hong Yang, Feiyu Kang, Baohua Li Sodium metal batteries suffer from severe capacity decay due to the continuous side-reactions between sodium metal anode and conventional carbonate electrolyte using porous glass fiber (GF) membranes as the separator, especially at elevated temperature. Moreover, sodium dendrites preferentially propagate through the low-modulus pores and cause severe safety issues. Here a compact gel polymer electrolyte (GF-GPE) with high ionic conductivity is developed by tightly immobilizing liquid electrolyte in polymer matrix embedded in GF membranes. The extensive interaction between the liquid electrolyte and polymer matrix promotes the formation of a stable Na/GF-GPE interface to effectively reduce the side reactions at both room and elevated temperature. The GF-GPE could regulate the depth concentration profile of NaF, a key solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) component, to deter sodium dendrites formation and side reactions. As a result, the Na3V2(PO4)3/GF-GPE/Na cell presents outstanding cycling stability. Its capacity retention after 2000 cycles at 1C under room temperature is as high as 95% and that after 500 cycles at 60 °C reaches 84%. This study successfully develops a robust and scalable approach by using a compact gel polymer electrolyte to achieve stable sodium metal anodes at room and elevated temperature.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Black phosphorus nanosheets promoted 2D-TiO2-2D heterostructured anode for
           high-performance lithium storage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Jun Mei, Yuanwen Zhang, Ting Liao, Xiaomin Peng, Godwin A. Ayoko, Ziqi Sun A novel 2D-TiO2-2D van der Waals (vdW) heterostructured (BPNs@TiO2@G) hydrogel is developed as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries by coating black phosphorus nanosheets (BPNs) onto porous graphene/TiO2 composite hydrogel (TiO2@G). This unique 2D-TiO2-2D vdW heterostructure not only prevents close restack between 2D nanosheets, but also provides rapid interlayer transfer paths and enhanced interfacial storage, together with some inherited advantages from 2D BPNs and graphene, such as shortened diffusion pathways, improved conductivity, supressed volume changes and lithium dendrite growth over cycling. As a result, BPNs@TiO2@G anode delivers an attractive initial discharge capacity as high as 1336.1 mAh g−1 (at 0.2 A g−1), a superior rate capability (271.1 mAh g−1 at 5.0 A g−1), and a good cycling life (502 mAh g−1 for 180 cycles) under a potential window close to 3.0 V. This study thus opens a new window for designing novel high-performance electrodes for electrochemical energy storage devices.Graphical abstractA novel 2D-TiO2-2D heterostructured (BPNs@TiO2@G) hydrogel was synthesized by coating black phosphorus nanosheets (BPNs) onto porous graphene/TiO2 composite hydrogel (TiO2@G) as a high-performance anode material for Li+ storage.Image 1
  • Recent advances in triboelectric nanogenerator based self-charging power
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Jianjun Luo, Zhong Lin Wang Over the last few decades, tremendous efforts have been focused on developing high performance energy storage systems such as batteries and supercapacitors for the applications in portable devices. However, limited lifetime of these storage systems is still a crucial challenge, meaning inconvenient recharging or replacement is inevitable. Since 2012, a novel technology of triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been proposed for converting tiny mechanical energy into electricity, and various breakthroughs have been achieved for self-powered systems. Integrating TENG with energy storage devices could be a promising way to provide sustainable power supply for long-term operations. In this review article, we present the recent advances in the TENG-based self-charging power systems (SCPSs), which will have significant applications in internet of things, portable electronics, and wearable electronics. Hybrid SCPSs combining other energy conversion technologies are also included. The key approaches for improving the total efficiency of the SCPSs are systematically summarized. Finally, some of the important challenges and future directions to be pursued are also highlighted.
  • Two-dimensional energy materials: Opportunities and perspectives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Pratteek Das, Zhong-Shuai Wu, Feng Li, Ji Liang, Hui-Ming Cheng
  • Lithium metal batteries capable of stable operation at elevated
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Zhen Geng, Jiaze Lu, Quan Li, Jiliang Qiu, Yi Wang, Jiayue Peng, Jie Huang, Wenjun Li, Xiqian Yu, Hong Li Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have attracted wide attention due to high theoretical energy density. For practical applications, high-temperature performance of lithium batteries is essential due to complex application environments, in terms of safety and cycle life. However, it's difficult for normal operation of lithium metal batteries at high temperature above 55–60 °C using current lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) electrolyte systems. Herein, a kind of new electrolyte system is designed by adding two thermal-stable lithium salts together (i.e. lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonimide) (LiTFSI) and lithium difluoro(oxalato)borate (LiDFOB)) into carbonate solvents with high boiling/flashing point (i.e. ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate(PC)). Small amount of LiPF6 is also added to prevent the corrosion of aluminum current collector. The results indicate that the new electrolyte possesses superior high-temperature performance, meanwhile, it effectively suppresses the formation of lithium dendrite by synergy effects of salts and solvents. Li/LiCoO2 cells with high LiCoO2 real capacity (2.4 mAh/cm2) using this kind of new electrolyte shows excellent cycling performance at elevated temperature up to 80 °C. Such performance is achieved for the first time for rechargeable Li metal battery using liquid organic electrolytes. It overcomes the operation temperature upper limit of traditional Li-ion batteries (i.e. 55–60 °C), which would effectively reduce thermal runaway risk and simplify the thermal management of Li metal batteries in reality.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • A rational design to buffer volume expansion of CoSn intermetallic in
           lithium and sodium storage: Multicore-shell versus monocore-shell
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Shaohua Wang, Zheng Yi, Xuxu Wang, Qujiang Sun, Yong Cheng, Limin Wang Carbon coated core-shell structured anode has been reported with advantages to enhance conductivity and partly buffer the volume expansion. However, huge mechanical stress and long lithium/sodium transmission distance also hinder the lithium/sodium storage performances. For maximum buffer effect, we herein design a multicore-shell CoSn@C nanocages with decreased particle size and enhanced extra space in comparison with the monocore-shell sample. This unique structure can effectively buffer the volume expansion in the deintercalation process, alleviate electrode pulverization and improve cyclic stability. Electrochemical tests show that multicore-shell CoSn@C nanocubes have excellent discharge capacities of 1010.9 mAh g−1 at 0.5 A g−1 after 160 cycles and 818 mAh g−1 at 1 A g−1 after 300 cycles for lithium ion battery anode, much higher than that of the monocore-shell sample. The sodium storage performance of the multicore-shell CoSn@C is also far more than the monocore-shell one. Above results suggests that fabrication of multicore-shell structure is an excellent design to buffer volume expansion and enhance performance for lithium and sodium storage.
  • A mechanically durable and device-level tough Zn-MnO2 battery
           with high flexibility
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Zhuoxin Liu, Donghong Wang, Zijie Tang, Guojin Liang, Qi Yang, Hongfei Li, Longtao Ma, Funian Mo, Chunyi Zhi Practical application of flexible energy storage devices has not been realized despite the booming of experimental researches. One major concern is their poor mechanical durability, which has seldom been investigated in literatures. On one hand, their flexibility is not good enough to accommodate arbitrary deformations, which was merely demonstrated by statically bending at certain angles. Thus, stability against dynamic mechanical stimuli is highly desired. On the other hand, these devices are not strong enough to endure severe mechanical stimuli including large shear forces and impacts, which greatly limits their practicability. Therefore, device-level toughness to ensure long-term usability is also needed. Here, a mechanically durable Zn-MnO2 battery is developed based on a dual-crosslinked hydrogel electrolyte without the usage of separator. Due to the effective energy dissipation of the hydrogel, the as-fabricated battery maintains a stable energy output when being dynamically deformed under severe mechanical stimuli. It can be vastly deformed into various shapes without electrochemical performance decay, showing excellent flexibility. It also exhibits super toughness that can endure two days' treading pressure and survive 20 times of random run-over by cars on road. These demonstrations reveal its outstanding mechanical stability and durability, suggesting great potential in truly flexible and wearable applications.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Mixed copper-zinc hexacyanoferrates as cathode materials for aqueous
           zinc-ion batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Ghoncheh Kasiri, Jens Glenneberg, Amir Bani Hashemi, Robert Kun, Fabio La Mantia Aqueous rechargeable metal-ion batteries have become potentially advantageous for the integration of renewable energy sources into the electric power grid thanks to their high rate capability, low cost, environmental friendliness, and intrinsic safety. In this work, we tried to improve the electrochemical stability of CuHCF and prevent/postpone its aging upon cycling. At first we investigated the phase transformation occurring in CuHCF during intercalation of zinc using XRD, SEM and EDX. We observed that large particles are formed upon cycling, which are depleted from copper and are zinc- or iron-rich. In order to prevent this, we modified the CuHCF structure by partially substituting its transition metals with zinc ions during synthesis. We observed that CuZnHCF mixtures with Cu:Zn ratios of 93:7 exhibited an excellent cycle life up to 1000 cycles, with improved specific charge retention with respect to its CuHCF counterpart. Also in the case of CuZnHCF mixtures the formation of large particles upon cycling is observed, but less extended as in pure CuHCF. It appears that different morphologies of the particles show different compositions in term of zinc, iron and potassium.
  • Graphene aerogel derived compact films for ultrafast and high-capacity
           aluminum ion batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Haibo Huang, Feng Zhou, Xiaoyu Shi, Jieqiong Qin, Zhigang Zhang, Xinhe Bao, Zhong-Shuai Wu Rechargeable aluminum ion batteries (AIBs) with low cost and nonflammability have attracted considerable interest for electronics and grid energy storage, however, developing densely-compact cathodes, with rapid ion/electron transport channels and high energy storage capability remains challenging. Herein, we reported the facile construction of the nanoporous densely-stacked films derived from three-dimensional (3D) graphene aerogels, prepared by the self-propagating combustion rapid reduction of graphene oxide aerogels within seconds, as advanced binder-free cathode for ultrafast and high-capacity AIBs. Owing to the notable characteristics of 3D interconnected yet nanoporous structure, large surface area (513 m2 g−1), high electrical conductivity (581 S cm−1), dense stacking (0.61 g cm−3), expanded interlayer spacing (3.69 Å) of graphene aerogel-derived compact film, the as-assembled AIBs deliver considerably high capacity of 245 mAh g−1 at 1 A g−1, at least twice of graphite for AIBs. Impressively, our AIBs display exceptional rate capability, showing 70 mAh g−1 at a high current density of 15 A g−1, coupled with superior cycling stability without obvious capacity decay after 5000 times, and wide temperature operation from 0 to 60 °C, outperforming most reported carbon based cathodes for AIBs.Graphical abstractGraphene aerogel derived compact film is demonstrated as an advanced cathode for ultrafast and high-capacity aluminum ion batteries, with exceptional rate capability, long-term cyclability and wide temperature operation.Image 1
  • Hybridization design of materials and devices for flexible electrochemical
           energy storage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Ruizuo Hou, Girish Sambhaji Gund, Kai Qi, Puritut Nakhanivej, Hongfang Liu, Feng Li, Bao Yu Xia, Ho Seok Park Electrochemical energy storage devices are considered promising flexible energy storage systems because of their high power, fast charging rates, long-term cyclability, and simple configurations. However, the critical issues including low energy density, performance degradation, safety, versatile form factors, and compact device integration should be considered. Herein, we comprehensively review the key aspects of flexible electrochemical energy storage systems with hybrid design from the electrode materials and devices to overcome these impediments and simultaneously achieve both performance and flexibility. We address the fundamental aspects, classification, and design guidelines of flexible hybrid electrochemical energy storage systems in terms of the hybridizations of materials and devices. We finally offer our perspective on the current impediments and future directions to promote continuous innovation and practical application of flexible electrochemical energy storage systems and beyond.Graphical abstractThe key aspects of hybridization design in material and device for flexible electrochemical energy storages are comprehensively reviewed, covering the fundamental aspects, classification, technological advances and limitations, and design guidelines of hybrid systems in terms of materials and devices in detail. The perspective on the potential applications, current impediments and future directions of flexible hybrid energy storage devices is provided to promote continuous innovation.Image 1
  • A solid-state single-ion polymer electrolyte with ultrahigh ionic
           conductivity for dendrite-free lithium metal batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Chen Cao, Yu Li, Yiyu Feng, Cong Peng, Zeyu Li, Wei Feng For lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with lithium metal anode, the Li-dendrite penetration has captured much attention due to the safety issue. Single-ion solid polymer electrolytes (SSPEs), due to their minimality of the concentration gradient near the anode, are widely considered as effective substitutions to lower the driving force for dendrite generating. In this work, we prepare a novel SSPE of the high transference number of the lithium ion (tLi+ = 0.97). The prepared SSPE membrane exhibits the decent ionic conductivity (σ = 3.08 × 10−4 S cm−1 at 25 °C). The symmetric Li/SSPE/Li cell exhibits a favorable cycle performance without any short circuiting, suggesting the great ability of the novel SSPE to restrict the growth of Li dendrites. Sandwiched by lithium metal anode and LiFePO4 cathode, the 20 wt% SSPE membrane performs good compatibility with these electrodes and the battery displays fantastic cycling performance. In consequence, this novel SSPE membrane possesses the potential of the application in high-performance LIBs.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • 3D self-branched zinc-cobalt Oxide@N-doped carbon hollow nanowall arrays
           for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors and oxygen
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Dezhi Kong, Ye Wang, Shaozhuan Huang, Junping Hu, Yew Von Lim, Bo Liu, Shuang Fan, Yumeng Shi, Hui Ying Yang This study reports the design and fabrication of ultrathin zinc-cobalt oxide nanoflakes@N-doped carbon hollow nanowall arrays (ZnCo2O4@NC NWAs) from vertically aligned 2D Co-MOF solid nanowall arrays by controllable cation ion-exchange and post annealing strategies. The unique 3D self-branched nanostructure anchored on flexible carbon textiles (CTs) can offer short ion diffusion length, fast and continuous electron transport pathway, and abundant reaction active sites. More importantly, the rational incorporation of Zn2+ generates hollow structure as well as reduces the intrinsic band gap, which further enhance the ion transportation efficiency and electronic conductivity. The above superiorities endow the 3D self-branched ZnCo2O4@NC/CTs electrodes with remarkable performances in terms of flexible asymmetric supercapacitor and oxygen electrocatalysis. When evaluated as a flexible cathode for asymmetric supercapacitor, the as-fabricated ZnCo2O4@NC/CTs electrode exhibits outstanding electrochemical performance with a wide work voltage up to 2.0 V, high areal energy density of 0.278 mWh cm−2 (or volumetric energy density of 2.32 mWh cm−3) and long-term cycling stability (∼85.89% capacitance retention over 6000 cycles). Additionally, the ZnCo2O4@NC/CTs electrode shows excellent oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performance with a small overpotential of 196.4 mV at 10 mA cm−2 and long-term durability (over 45 h). This work provides a rational design strategy for controllable synthesis of 3D self-branched hollow nanostructure on flexible substrate for energy storage and conversion applications.Graphical abstract3D self-branched ZnCo2O4@NC hollow nanowall arrays tightly anchored on the flexible carbon textiles have been synthesized by an an ion-exchange, etching and subsequent annealing processes and further investigated as electrode materials for both flexible asymmetric supercapacitors and oxygen electrocatalysis.Image 1
  • Realizing discrete growth of thin Li2O2 sheets on black phosphorus quantum
           dots-decorated δ-MnO2catalyst for long-life lithium–oxygen cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Hao Cheng, Jian Xie, Gaoshao Cao, Yunhao Lu, Dong Zheng, Yuan Jin, Kangyan Wang, Xinbing Zhao Lithium–oxygen (Li–O2) cells have attained increasing attention in recent years due to their extremely high energy density. An efficient catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a key factor for high-performance Li–O2 cells. In this work, a unique design of catalytic cathode composed of black phosphorus quantum dots-decorated δ-MnO2 nanobelts (BPQD/δ-MnO2) on carbon cloth is proposed. The thin belt-like architecture of δ-MnO2 and porous structure of the catalytic cathode not only provide numerous catalytic sites for ORR/OER but also facilitate transportation of the reactants and deposition of the discharge product. The synergic effect of δ-MnO2 and BPQD enables discrete growth of thin Li2O2 sheets on δ-MnO2, leading to high capacity (8463 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1) and long cycle life (182 cycles at 400 mA g−1 with a limited capacity of 1000 mAhg−1) of the cells. Density functional theory calculations support that Li2O2 favors conformal growth on δ-MnO2 in the presence of BPQD.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Lithium ion capacitors (LICs): Development of the materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Ajay Jagadale, Xuan Zhou, Rui Xiong, Deepak P. Dubal, Jun Xu, Sen Yang High-performance energy storage devices are extremely useful in sustainable transportation systems. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs) are well-known energy storage technologies due to their exceptional role in consumer electronics and grid energy storage. However, in the present state of the art, both devices are inadequate for many applications such as hybrid electric vehicles and so on. Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) are combinations of LIBs and SCs which phenomenally improve the performance by bridging the gap between these two devices. In this review, we first introduce the concept of LICs, criteria for materials selection and recent trends in the anode and cathode materials development. Then, the achievements and prospects associated with LICs are discussed. Finally, we give our recommendations on fabricating anode with hybrid and nanostructured form and cathode with improved capacitive performance.
  • Suppressing dendrite growth by a functional electrolyte additive for
           robust Li metal anodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Gang Wang, Xunhui Xiong, Dong Xie, Xiangxiang Fu, Xiangdong Ma, Youpeng Li, Yanzhen Liu, Zhang Lin, Chenghao Yang, Meilin Liu Lithium (Li) metal is considered as an attractive anode for next-generation energy storage systems due to its higher energy density and the lowest redox potential. However, great challenges including safety issues associated with dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency (CE) related to poor cycle stability, especially at high charge current densities, are still impeding its practical uses in Li metal secondary batteries. Herein we propose that an optimal amount of lithium iodide (LiI) as a functional additive in ether-based electrolyte for dendrite-free Li deposition. The additive could induce the electrolyte polymerization to in-situ form a robust solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer enriched with elastic oligomer on Li surface. Furthermore, the LiI in the electrolyte heightens the ionic conductive of formed SEI and facilitates the migration of Li ion, remarkably promoting the uniform deposition of Li at Li/electrolyte interface and suppressing the growth of Li dendrite. With a controlled Li deposition in an optimal amount (2 wt%) of LiI as an additive in ether-based electrolytes, a prolonged cycling lifespan (>1200 h) with a hysteresis voltage of ∼250 mV at 2 mA cm−2, as well as a very high CE up to 98.1% for 200 cycles at 0.5 mA cm−2. Moreover, the fabricated Li Se battery system delivers an improved cycling stability and decreased polarization.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Superionic conduction and interfacial properties of the low temperature
           phase Li7P2S8Br0.5I0.5
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Yuxing Wang, Dongping Lu, Jie Xiao, Yang He, Garrett J. Harvey, Chongmin Wang, Ji-Guang Zhang, Jun Liu Sulfide-based solid electrolytes have attracted much attention for their potential application in high energy and power bulk-type all-solid-state lithium batteries, due to their excellent transport properties and favorable mechanical properties. The Li10GeP2S12-type materials with extremely high ionic conductivity have been demonstrated in all-solid-state cathodes, however they cannot be deployed directly in common anodes due to the interfacial instability. An electrolyte stable with anodes is urgently needed for construction of all-solid-state batteries. In this work, we explore the phase and transport properties of mechanically-milled Li7P2S8Br0.5I0.5, with emphasis on the favorable kinetics at Li metal anode. The low temperature crystalline phase Li7P2S8Br0.5I0.5 (LT-LPSBI) has exceptionally high ionic conductivity of 4.7 mS/cm at room temperature. Moreover, the LT-LPSBI supports long-term Li cycling at 0.5 mA cm−2 with low and stable interfacial resistance (5 Ω cm2). Transport phenomenon of Li/LT-LPSBI interface and cycling behavior of Li symmetric cells are studied and discussed in detail.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Oxygen-free cell formation process obtaining LiF protected electrodes for
           improved stability in lithium-oxygen batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Zhuang Sun, Hao-Ran Wang, Jing Wang, Tao Zhang The unsatisfactory stabilities of carbon-based cathodes and lithium anodes are the major hurdles limiting the development of Li-air (O2) batteries. Herein, we propose an extremely simple cell formation process for non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries, by a discharge-charge process in argon prior to O2 atmosphere, to produce protective films on both CNTs-cathode and lithium-anode surfaces. The films are mainly composed of lithium fluoride derived from LiTFSI decomposition and endows lithium oxygen batteries with enhanced cycling stability (>200 cycles) under a consistent capacity condition (1000 mAh g−1). This study reveals that LiF-rich films could effectually suppress the parasitic reactions of electrodes against the reactive intermediates and electrolyte attacks. This simple approach provides a new strategy to protect both electrodes for lithium oxygen batteries.Graphical abstractAn extremely simple cell formation process for non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries, by a discharge-charge process in O2-free atmosphere prior to O2 atmosphere, is designed to produce LiF-rich films on both electrodes surfaces. The protective films can significantly suppress the well-known oxidation of CNTs cathode by reduced oxygen species and severe corrosion of Li metal anode upon cycling for improved stability in Li-O2 batteries.Image 1
  • A high-entropy metal oxide as chemical anchor of polysulfide for
           lithium-sulfur batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Yuenan Zheng, Yikun Yi, Meihong Fan, Hanyu Liu, Xue Li, Rui Zhang, Mingtao Li, Zhen-An Qiao Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is anticipated as one of the most promising candidates for the next-generation rechargeable cell. In order to conquer the shuttle effect of dissolution lithium polysulfides (LIPSs), the chemical interactions between sulfur host and LIPSs on the performance of Li-S batteries has recently been highlighted. Herein, a facile strategy is proposed, which produces a high-entropy metal oxide (HEMO-1) as an anchor to restrain LIPSs in Li-S batteries via chemical confinement as demonstrated by strong bonding interaction between HEMO-1 and Li2S6. The as-prepared HEMO-1 incorporates five metal components, Ni, Mg, Cu, Zn and Co, into a metal oxide crystalline structure. The homogeneously dispersive multiple metal active species in HEMO-1 favor the restriction of LIPSs and facilitate the redox reaction in the cathode of Li-S batteries. Especially, the synergistic contribution of Li-O and S-Ni bonds from the interaction between HEMO-1 and LIPSs effectively alleviate the shuttle of LIPSs between the cathode and anode. As the promoter catalyst for LIPSs, HEMO-1 shows a competitive reversible capacity, outstanding cycling stability, and a low capacity decay of 0.077% per cycle after 600 cycles. This study not only presents a high-entropy oxide promoter for polysulfide immobilizing in Li-S batteries, but also provides an avenue of high-entropy metal oxides to a variety of energy conversion and storage fields.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides in supercapacitors and
           secondary batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Liangxu Lin, Wen Lei, Shaowei Zhang, Yuqing Liu, Gordon G. Wallace, Jun Chen Supercapacitors and secondary batteries are indispensable and widely used energy storage components in modern electrical and electronic facilities/devices. However, they both suffer from different technical weaknesses which need to be thoroughly addressed to satisfy the increasing demand for clean energy technologies. For many years efforts to overcome these technical challenges have reached their practical limits, but recent progress on two dimensional (2D) materials, such as thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), has been considered more encouraging. Owing to their thin and flexible aspects, large electrochemical active surface area (EASA), high surface tunability, rich coordination sites, and both “Faradaic” and “Non-Faradaic” electrochemical behaviours, 2D TMDs play particular roles in improving many aspects of energy storage devices. This concise review summarizes current challenges facing both supercapacitors and secondary batteries, and discusses how 2D TMDs can be utilized to improve their performance. Building on their thin and flexible features, we further discuss how the emerging flexible and thin energy storage devices can benefit from the 2D TMDs, and make suggestions as to how these 2D TMDs can be engineered for future energy storage applications.
  • Regulating capillary pressure to achieve ultralow areal mass loading
           metallic lithium anodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Wei Deng, Wenhua Zhu, Xufeng Zhou, Fei Zhao, Zhaoping Liu Placing metallic Li inside 3D porous scaffold is effective to improve its reversibility. However, in most cases, excessive Li jeopardizes energy density of cells, and causes deterioration of electrochemical performances, due to uncontrollable thermal infusion process. Herein, by analyzing parameters that influence capillary pressure acting on molten Li using Young-Laplace equation, a novel strategy to control Li content in 3D scaffolds by regulating pore size and surface lithiophilicity of scaffolds is proposed. Especially, choosing lightweight 3D graphene with tunable surface lithiophilicity as the scaffold can generate appropriate capillary pressure to achieve ultralow areal mass loading (1.8 mg cm−2) of Li. The as-prepared Li anode possesses comparable weight with thinnest commercial Li foil, but exhibits improved reversibility to sustain 700 h of stable stripping/plating at 3.0 mAh cm−2. Moreover, the relationship between areal Li loading and lithiophilicity of graphene scaffold is established. Thus, the areal loadings of Li can be tuned in a wide range from 1.8 mg cm−2 to over 9.0 mg cm−2, making this novel anode applicable to pair with a variety of high areal loading (∼10 mg cm−2) cathodes, including lithium iron phosphate, Li-rich layered oxide and sulfur, showing great application potentials in practical Li metal batteries.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Verification for trihalide ions as redox mediators in Li-O2
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Hun Kim, Won-Jin Kwak, Hun-Gi Jung, Yang-Kook Sun Redox mediators have been intensively studied for increasing the energy efficiency and cycle life of Li-O2 batteries by reducing the high overpotential, which induces degradation of cell components. Lithium halides have been explored as representative redox mediators in Li-O2 batteries because of their low redox potential under 3.6 V. However, there is still controversy about the proper form of halide materials as redox mediators to decompose the discharge product of Li-O2 batteries, lithium peroxide (Li2O2). Therefore, we conducted quantitative analyses such as UV–Vis and GC-MS to confirm the ability of different halide materials to decompose Li2O2 as redox mediators in Li-O2 batteries. By controlling the byproducts during discharge and exempting the misunderstandings when using commercial Li2O2 powder, we clearly demonstrated that triiodide (I3−) and tribromide (Br3−) have sufficient ability to decompose Li2O2 in Li-O2 batteries.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Recent advances in shuttle effect inhibition for lithium sulfur batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Wenchen Ren, Wei Ma, Shufen Zhang, Bingtao Tang Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are one of the most promising batteries in the future due to its high theoretical specific capacity (1675 mAh g−1) and energy density (2600 Wh kg−1). However, the severe capacity fading caused by shuttle effect of polysulfide needs to be addressed before the practical application of Li-S batteries. In this review, we summarized the formation mechanism and the corresponding inhibition strategies of shuttle effect. The formation of polysulfide shuttle effect is classified into five steps: (i) formation of long-chain polysulfide, (ii) detaching of polysulfide from sulfur host, (iii) dissolution of polysulfide into electrolyte, (iv) migration of polysulfide toward lithium anode side, and (v) reaction between polysulfide and lithium anode. The corresponding strategies are reviewed and discussed step by step according to the shuttle effect formation steps of polysulfide. Evaluation and perspective of the current strategies are also discussed in this review in order to provide new view points for researchers.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • A proof-of-concept of Na-N2 rechargeable battery
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Bingcheng Ge, Yangyang Wang, Yong Sun, Yunping Li, Jianyu Huang, Qiuming Peng Developing a rechargeable metal-nitrogen battery is desirable for energy conversion and nitrogen fixation as well as an alternative route for a potential and mild ammonia synthesis. Herein, we realized a proof-of-concept for sodium-nitrogen (Na-N2) rechargeable batteries by introducing the alpha-MnO2 (α-MnO2) nanowire as a catalyst. In addition, we have also demonstrated a reversible reaction of 6Na + N2. ↔ 2Na3N. This system reveals an outstanding reversible capacity of 600 mAh g−1 at 50 mAg−1, runs ∼80 cycles with a controlled capacity of 400 mAh g−1 at discharge terminal voltage below 1.6 V and achieves a high actual specific energy density based on total active materials (about 4900 Wh/KgMnO2) at the current density of 100 mAg−1. In addition, a good efficiency of nitrogen fixation (∼26%) has been achieved. These attractive performances are mainly associated with the distinctive channel structure, high conductivity, and outstanding catalytic activity in terms of in-situ environmental transmission electron microscopy investigations. The success of Na-N2 batteries not only provides an alternative strategy for the next-generation of electrochemical energy-storage devices, but also builds a new trajectory toward green recycling and utilization of N2.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • High capacity aqueous periodate batteries featuring a nine-electron
           transfer process
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Zhiqian Wang, Xianyang Meng, Kun Chen, Somenath Mitra We present sodium manganese periodate (NaMnIO6) as a novel cathode material, which exhibited a nine-electron discharge process, for the development of high-performance aqueous battery systems. Purified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were selected as conductive cathode additive. Along with an anion exchange membrane, acid-salt water dual electrolytes were used to reduce anode corrosion. NaMnIO6 showed a specific capacity as high as 750 mAh g−1 in prototype batteries, which was nearly 94% of the theoretical capacity. Different anode metals were studied and the Mg system showed the highest specific energy of 746 Wh kg−1. Furthermore, these batteries fabricated using 3D-printed casings also feature replaceable electrodes once they are consumed.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Aqueous alkaline–acid hybrid electrolyte for zinc-bromine battery
           with 3V voltage window
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Feng Yu, Le Pang, Xiaoxiang Wang, Eric R. Waclawik, Faxing Wang, Kostya (Ken) Ostrikov, Hongxia Wang Considerable efforts have been devoted to the development of zinc (Zn) batteries with new battery chemistries (eg. Zn-ion battery, Zn-halogen battery, Zn-alkaline battery, Zn-air battery) that are alternatives to Li-ion technology. Unfortunately, the progress of Zn batteries is hindered by their limited operating voltages (
  • 2D materials for 1D electrochemical energy storage devices
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Shengli Zhai, Li Wei, H. Enis Karahan, Xuncai Chen, Chaojun Wang, Xinshi Zhang, Junsheng Chen, Xin Wang, Yuan Chen One-dimensional (1D) electrochemical energy storage devices, such as fiber supercapacitors and cable-shaped batteries, are promising energy storage solutions for emerging wearable electronics due to their advantages in flexibility, weavability, and wearability. Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique structures and properties can be used to create novel 1D electrochemical energy storage devices. Here, we reviewed recent research efforts in using various 2D materials, such as graphene, transitional metal dichalcogenides, transition metal oxides, transition metal hydroxides, and transitional metal carbides and carbonitrides, to construct fiber supercapacitors and cable-shaped batteries. For every 2D material, we first examined its intrinsic properties and their impacts on its energy storage performance. Next, we reviewed several universal approaches which have been used to enhance its performance, including creating nanostructures, controlling the stacking/alignment, modulating chemical properties via doping or phase engineering, forming nanocomposites to increase electrical conductivity or stability, and designing fiber/cable electrode architectures. Further, we also compared the key characteristics and energy storage performance of recently reported 1D electrochemical energy storage devices containing 2D materials. Last, we offer our perspectives on the challenges and potential future research directions in this area. We hope this review can stimulate more research to realize the applications of 2D materials in practical 1D electrochemical energy storage devices.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Graphene/oligoaniline based supercapacitors: Towards conducting polymer
           materials with high rate charge storage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Haosen Wang, Ziwei Yu, Maher F. El-Kady, Mackenzie Anderson, Matthew D. Kowal, Mengping Li, Richard B. Kaner Carbon-based supercapacitors exhibit great rate capability, power density and cycle life, but suffer from relatively low energy density. Polyaniline provides high specific capacitance, but lacks cycling stability. By combining carbon-based materials with tetraaniline, an oligomer of polyaniline, a hybrid composite is formed that demonstrates improved supercapacitor performance relative to either material alone. In this study, the reduced graphene oxide-oligoaniline composites have been synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal process without the need for adding any oxidizing or reducing agents. FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy indicate the successful reduction of GO to rGO and the formation of aniline oligomers. Unlike most polyaniline nanostructures for which charge storage kinetics are limited by slow diffusion-controlled reactions, the majority of oligoaniline in this composite is exposed to the electrolyte and stores charge through fast surface-controlled reactions. The unique microstructure of the rGO-oligoaniline composites facilitates transport of ions and electrons, leading to greater utilization of the active materials, high specific capacitance of 640 F/g at 0.2 mA/cm2 (corresponding to 707 C/g specific capacity), great rate capability and good cycle stability (91% retention after 2000 cycles).
  • Na4Fe3(PO4)2P2O7/C nanospheres as low-cost, high-performance cathode
           material for sodium-ion batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Xiangjun Pu, Huiming Wang, Tianci Yuan, Shunan Cao, Shuangyu Liu, Li Xu, Hanxi Yang, Xinping Ai, Zhongxue Chen, Yuliang Cao Sodium-ion battery is regarded as a promising power source for large-scale energy storage systems. However, the development of sodium-ion batteries is hindered by the lack of applicable cathode materials with low cost and long cycle life. Here, we report a successful synthesis of Na4Fe3(PO4)2P2O7/C nanospheres with tunable particle size and carbon coating thickness by a template approach. The as-prepared Na4Fe3(PO4)2P2O7/C nanospheres deliver a high discharge capacity of 128.5 mAh g−1 (near to the theoretical capacity: 129 mAh g−1) at 0.2C, with capacity retention of 63.5% at 10 C after 4000 cycles. Particularly, a high reversible capacity of 79 mAh g−1 is exhibited at an ultrahigh current rate of 100 C (charge/discharge in 36s). The excellent performances result from the shortened Na+ ion diffusion length within the nanospheres (∼30 nm) and highly conductive pathways for electrons in the carbon coating layers (∼3 nm). Owing to their low cost, long lifespan and outstanding rate capability, we believe that the Na4Fe3(PO4)2P2O7/C nanospheres are considerable competitive to other cathode materials for application in stationary sodium-ion batteries.
  • Reduced graphene oxide aerogel as stable host for dendrite-free sodium
           metal anode
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Feng Wu, Jiahui Zhou, Rui Luo, Yongxin Huang, Yang Mei, Man Xie, Renjie Chen Sodium (Na) metal has attracted great attention as a promising anode for next-generation energy storage systems because of its abundant resources, potentially low cost, and high theoretical capacity. However, severe dendrite growth, large volume expansion during plating/stripping lead to poor cycle performance and limit the practical application of sodium metal anodes. Here, oriented freeze-drying and molten infusion are used to synthesize a Na-infused reduced graphene oxide aerogel (Na@rGa) composite anode using a reduced graphene oxide aerogel (rGa) as a stable host. This unique host shows ultra-light weight which guarantees high capacity (1064 mAh g−1), and the large specific surface area and uniform pores effectively lower the local current density and uniform electrolyte distribution from the inner to the outside of electrode. The Na@rGa anode exhibits low overpotential (50 mV) and stable cycle performance for 1000 cycles at 5 mA cm−2 in carbonate electrolyte system. The electrochemical performance of a full cell using the Na@rGa composite anode is clearly superior to that of a reference cell. This work provides a new horizon for construction of three-dimensional stable hosts and safe sodium metal anodes.Graphical abstractOriented freeze-drying was used to produce a uniform pores and ultra-light graphene aerogel (1.75%wt of the whole composite anode) as host for dendrite-free Na metal anode. Uniform pores of aerogel host assure uniform Na nucleation, and effectively reduces the local current density. Composite anode shows low overpotential and stable cycle performance in carbonate electrolyte system without any additives and superior electrochemical performances in full cell.Image 1
  • Temperature-independent capacitance of carbon-based supercapacitor from
           −100 to 60 °C
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Jiang Xu, Ningyi Yuan, Joselito M. Razal, Yongping Zheng, Xiaoshuang Zhou, Jianning Ding, Kyeongjae Cho, Shanhai Ge, Ruijun Zhang, Yury Gogotsi, Ray H. Baughman Building supercapacitors that can provide high energy density over a wide range of temperatures, where traditional energy storage devices fail to operate, requires tailoring of electrolyte and/or electrode material. Here, we show that record gravimetric capacitances of 164 and 182 F g−1 can be attained at −100 and 60 °C, respectively, nearly equivalent to the room-temperature value of 177 F g−1, when activated carbon-based electrodes with predominantly slit-shaped micropores and a low freezing-point electrolyte are used. Experimental data and density functional theory calculations suggest that electrode material characteristics, such as pore size and shape, matched with the effective size of partially solvated ions of the electrolyte, are the key factors in achieving such performance. This study provides evidence for the effective design of robust supercapacitors with sustained performance at both low and high temperatures.
  • Mesoporous Cu2-xSe nanocrystals as an ultrahigh-rate and long-lifespan
           anode material for sodium-ion batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Yunjie Li, Xiucai Sun, Zhenjie Cheng, Xiao Xu, Jun Pan, Xianfeng Yang, Fang Tian, Yanlu Li, Jian Yang, Yitai Qian Transitional metal chalcogenides, one important family of promising candidates as electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries, gradually convert to Cu2S or Cu2Se in the discharge/charge processes, due to electrochemically driven copper diffusion. Thus, their performances after the electrochemical activation, actually come from copper chalcogenides. In this regard, the thorough investigation on the electrochemical properties of copper chalcogenides is important and necessary for the rational design of transitional metal chalcogenides. Here, mesoporous Cu2-xSe nanocrystals synthesized by a simple solvothermal reaction, are used as a model. They experience the complicated intercalation reaction and the conversion reaction upon cycling, as supported by in-situ/ex-situ techniques and first-principle calculations. All these reactions are highly reversible, leading to 96.1% of the theoretical capacity. These nanocrystals preserve 88% of the initial capacity after 3000 cycles at 5 A g−1. Even at 10 A g−1, the capacity is still kept as 92.1% of that at 0.1 A g−1. In full cells, the nanocrystals without any pre-sodiation and pre-activation, present a lifespan up to 2000 cycles at 0.5 A g−1 and a capacity retention about 74.2%.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • A low-cost deep eutectic solvent electrolyte for rechargeable
           aluminum-sulfur battery
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Weiqin Chu, Xu Zhang, Jie Wang, Shu Zhao, Shiqi Liu, Haijun Yu Aluminum-sulfur (Al-S) battery is a promising candidate of next generation rechargeable batteries owing to its high theoretical energy density, high safety and low cost, but currently greatly impeded by the shortage of high-performance and cost-effective electrolytes. In this work, a low-cost deep eutectic solvent, i.e., AlCl3/acetamide, as the electrolyte for reversible room-temperature Al-S battery has been reported. The Al-S battery delivers an initial capacity above 1500 mA h g−1 and good rate performance, which is most probably caused by the presence of AlCl4−, Al2Cl7− and [AlCl2·(acetamide)2]+ ions as indicated by spectroscopic analysis. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on the discharged sulfur cathode suggests the presence of aluminum sulfides including Al2S3 as electrochemical conversion products. Density functional theory calculations on the energy barriers provide insights into the electrochemical reaction pathways. This AlCl3/acetamide based Al-S battery presents a promising prospect for high-performance and low-cost energy storage system in future.
  • Valence and surface modulated vanadium oxide nanowires as new high-energy
           and durable negative electrode for flexible asymmetric supercapacitors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Kai Zheng, Yinxiang Zeng, Si Liu, Chenghui Zeng, Yexiang Tong, Zhikun Zheng, Tingshun Zhu, Xihong Lu Designing high-energy and durable negative electrode materials is highly desirable for advancing the performance of asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The feasibility of vanadium oxides (VOx) as negative electrodes in ASCs has been revealed, but most of them suffered from fast capacitance fading. Additionally, achieving high areal capacitance and gravimetric capacitance for an electrode simultaneously is very challenging. In this work, we solve well these issues through introducing low-valence-state V3+ and phosphate ions into vanadium oxides (PVO) nanowires by a simple and innovative strategy, which exhibits unprecedented capacitive properties and long-term stability in negative potential window. Because of the dramatically increased active sites, improved electrochemical reversibility, enhanced electron and Li+ ion transport rates, the as-prepared PVO electrode delivers ultrahigh areal and gravimetric capacitances of 1.57 F/cm2 and 1652.3 F/g at 2 mA/cm2. Furthermore, an impressive cyclic durability of 20000 cycles (almost 100% retention) is obtained for the PVO electrode, substantially superior to the untreated vanadium oxide electrode (22.8% retention). When employing this PVO as a negative electrode, a 1.8 V-flexible and stable ASC device with an admirable energy density of 1.93 mWh/cm3 is achieved.Graphical abstractValence- and surface-tuned vanadium oxide (PVO) nanowires have been demonstrated as a new high-energy and durable negative electrode for flexible asymmetric supercapacitors. The optimized PVO electrode could achieve exceptionally high areal capacitance and gravimetric capacitances of 1.57 F/cm2 and 1652.3 F/g at 2 mA/cm2 as well as unprecedented cyclic stability. Furthermore, a 1.8 V-flexible and stable ASC device with an admirable energy density of 1.93 mWh/cm3 is also obtained based on this PVO negative electrode.Image 1
  • Toward wearable electronics: A lightweight all-solid-state supercapacitor
           with outstanding transparency, foldability and breathability
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Jian-Long Xu, Yan-Hua Liu, Xu Gao, Su Shen, Sui-Dong Wang Wide applications of smart wearable electronics have triggered tremendous needs for energy storage devices featuring lightweight, transparency, foldability and breathability. However, conventional supercapacitor electrodes are always substrate-supported with a compact film structure, which strongly limits their air permeability, flexibility and transparency. In this report, we demonstrate the use of a freestanding, ultrathin (∼ 6 μm), highly conductive (4 × 105 S/m), highly transparent (> 91%), air permeable (2600 mm/s at 10 Pa) and foldable metallic mesh electrode, decorated with active MnO2 microstructures, as a breathable, transparent and foldable supercapacitor electrode. By introducing Au nanoparticles as the “nanoglue” between Ni and MnO2, excellent electrochemical performances including large areal capacitance (268 mF/cm2) and high cycling stability (90.1% capacitance retention after 10000 cycles) are obtained in the MnO2-Au-Ni mesh electrode. Furthermore, the assembled all-solid-state supercapacitor device delivers high optical transparency (∼83.6%), high air permeability (45.4 mm/s at 100 Pa), superior electrochemical performances and can withstand various deformations including bending, folding, and crumpling. The present freestanding mesh structure electrode could be further explored and applied in more potential applications, such as ion batteries, wearable sensors, and conformal healthcare devices.Graphical abstractUltrathin, lightweight and freestanding mesh electrodes with outstanding breathability, transparency and foldability are successfully designed and fabricated by a simple and low-cost method. The electrode obtained by such freestanding mesh structures exhibits both excellent capacitive performance and high optical transparency, based on which high-performance, breathable, transparent and foldable all-solid-state supercapacitors are constructed.Image 1
  • New insight into the effect of fluorine doping and oxygen vacancies on
           electrochemical performance of Co2MnO4 for flexible quasi-solid-state
           asymmetric supercapacitors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Shude Liu, Ying Yin, Dixing Ni, Kwan San Hui, Ming Ma, Sewon Park, Kwun Nam Hui, Chu-Ying Ouyang, Seong Chan Jun Anion doping and oxygen-defect creation have been extensively employed to modify the electronic properties and increase concentration of electrochemically active sites of electrode materials for electrical energy storage technologies; however, comprehensive study of the roles of anion doping and oxygen vacancy on the enhancement of electrochemical performance is not clear. Herein, we provide new insight into the effect of fluorine dopant and oxygen vacancy on electrochemical performance of fluorine-doped oxygen-deficient Co2MnO4 (F-Co2MnO4-x) nanowires grown on carbon fiber (CF) as advanced electrode materials for supercapacitor. An experimental and theoretical study reveals that the structural and electronic properties in F-Co2MnO4-x is effectively tuned by introducing F dopants and oxygen vacancies, synergistically increasing electrical conductivity and providing rich Faradaic redox chemistry. The resultant F-Co2MnO4-x achieves a high specific capacity of 269 mA h g−1 at 1 A g−1, and superior cyclic stability with 93.2% capacity retention after 5000 cycles at 15 A g−1. A flexible quasi-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) is constructed with F-Co2MnO4-x/CF as the positive electrode and Fe2O3/CF as the negative electrode. The ASC device exhibits a high energy density of 64.4 W h kg−1 at a power density of 800 W kg−1. Significantly, the device yields 89.9% capacitance retention after 2000 bending tests at a bending angle ranging from 0 to 30°, demonstrating the high integration of excellent mechanical flexibility and cycling stability.Graphical abstractFluorine-doped oxygen-deficient Co2MnO4 nanowires were fabricated on a flexible carbon fiber for use as electrode materials for supercapacitor. Experimental and theoretical studies provide new insight on the effect of the introduced F dopant and O vacancies on electrochemical performance of F-Co2MnO4-x. Flexible quasi-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors comprising the F-Co2MnO4-x as the positive electrode material and Fe2O3 as the negative electrode material achieve high energy density of 64.4 W h kg−1 at a power density of 800 W kg−1, and highly integrative features with excellent cycling performance and mechanical flexibility (89.9% retention of the initial capacitance at 10 mV s−1 after 2000 bending cycles with an angle ranging from 0 to 30°).Image 1
  • Heteromat-framed metal-organic coordination polymer anodes for
           high-performance lithium-ion batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Seung-Hyeok Kim, Hyun Ho Lee, Ju-Myung Kim, Sung You Hong, Sang-Young Lee Electroactive organic-based electrode materials have garnered considerable attention as an emerging candidate to replace inorganic counterparts because of their lightweight, mechanical flexibility, and molecular diversity. Yet, their low energy and power densities associated with poor electronic conductivity and limited ion accessibility often impose a critical impediment for practical applications. Herein, we report that all-fibrous heteromat framework comprising intermingled polyacrylonitrile nanofibers and carbon nanotubes offers three-dimensional bicontinuous electron/ion conductive pathways toward organic-based active materials. At the same time, the framework eliminates heavy metallic current collectors to allow the overall mechanical flexibility of the rechargeable system. Nickel 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate (NiNDC) is prepared as a model organic-based anode material for this electrode strategy. Driven by the structural uniqueness, the self-standing heteromat NiNDC anode ultimately affords facile redox kinetics and outstanding electrochemical performance, while surpassing the performance of conventional lithium-ion battery organic-based anodes.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Corrigendum to “Moderately concentrated electrolyte improves
           solid–electrolyte interphase and sodium storage performance of hard
           carbon” Energy Storage Mater. 16 (2019) 146–154
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Jagabandhu Patra, Hao-Tzu Huang, Weijiang Xue, Chao Wang, Ahmed S. Helal, Ju Li, Jeng-Kuei Chang
  • Facet selectivity of Cu current collector for Li electrodeposition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Yun-Jung Kim, Sung Hyun Kwon, Hyungjun Noh, Seongmin Yuk, Hongkyung Lee, Hyun soo Jin, Jinhong Lee, Ji-Guang Zhang, Seung Geol Lee, Hwanuk Guim, Hee-Tak Kim Fabricating a uniform thin-film Li metal anode on a heterogeneous Cu substrate is a critical step toward high energy density lithium metal batteries. Here, we explore a facet selective lithium (Li) nucleation and growth phenomenon on copper (Cu) substrate and demonstrate that controlling the facet structure can improve the uniformity in electro-deposition of Li and the electrochemical performances of the resulting thin Li electrode. Preferential Li deposition on the Cu(100) plane is demonstrated by electrochemical analysis of the Cu single crystal surfaces and by electron-backscatter diffraction analysis of the Li-deposited Cu surfaces. DFT calculations show that a difference in the Li adsorption energy among the Cu facets during the initial Li deposition process is responsible for the facet selectivity. A majorly (100) plane-orientated Cu foil fabricated by a simple annealing method exhibits more uniform Li nucleation and leads to a 10-fold higher nuclei density and a two-fold enhancement in the Li cycling stability compared with a conventional Cu foil with randomly oriented surface facets. The control of the surface facet provides a new design principle for the thin-film Li metal anode used in lithium metal batteries.Graphical abstractOur research investigates the selective Li deposition behavior on Cu(100) plane rather than other Cu planes by various and detailed analyses. Based on this phenomenon, we further demonstrate that the majorly (100) plane-orientated Cu foil exhibits more uniform Li deposition on it with lower nucleation energy, which resulting in a two-fold enhancement in the Li cycling stability compared with using a conventional Cu foil with randomly oriented surface facets.Image 1
  • UV-cured polymer electrolyte for LiNi0.85Co0.05Al0.1O2//Li solid state
           battery working at ambient temperature
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Zhenyao Wei, Zhihua Zhang, Shaojie Chen, Zhihao Wang, Xiayin Yao, Yonghong Deng, Xiaoxiong Xu A novel solid state polymer electrolyte with high ionic conductivity was fabricated by “solvent-free” photo-polymerization method and applied in solid state lithium battery with high-voltage cathode. The polymer structure was confirmed by FT-IR, and polymer electrolyte exhibits high ionic conductivity of 2.35×10−-4 S cm−1 at ambient temperature, wide electrochemical window of 0–4.63 V (vs. Li+/Li), excellent compatibility with lithium metal electrode for over 2000 h without short-circuit occurrence. Besides, LiMn0.8Fe0.2PO4 //Li batteries were assembled to evaluate battery performance, delivering maximum discharge capacity of 168.7 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C and 154.7 mAh g−1 at 0.5 C with capacity retention of 89.72% after 450th cycle at 60 °C. Also, the battery operated well at ambient temperature with capacity of 124.6 mAh g−1 and the capacity retention was 92.1% after 200 cycles. Importantly, the new polymer electrolyte is qualified to be applied in high-voltage cathode of LiNi0.85Co0.05Al0.1O2, delivering 108.8 mAh g-1 after 100th cycle at 0.5 C at 40 °C. The integrated cathode with electrolyte reducing interfacial resistance contributes excellent battery performance. The results demonstrate that this solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) is a promising candidate electrolyte for high energy density solid-state lithium metal battery.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Two-dimensional materials for advanced Li-S batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Qinjun Shao, Zhong-Shuai Wu, Jian Chen Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are recognized as one of the most promising advanced energy storage systems due to high energy density, inexpensive and environmentally friendly elemental sulfur. However, the actual applications of Li-S batteries have been intrinsically plagued by capacity fading and low Coulombic efficiency mainly derived from the severe shuttle effect of lithium polysulfides (LiPSs). Recently, two-dimensional (2D) materials have been extensively explored to enhance the performance of Li-S batteries because of their unique 2D structure and diversified physicochemical properties. In this review, we summarized the state-of-the-art advances of 2D materials for advanced high-energy Li-S batteries. To specify their applications, we first overviewed various 2D materials (e.g. graphene, oxides, sulfides, carbides, nitrides) serving as insulating sulfur hosts with high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity and enriched functionality, to significantly buffer the volumetric variation and reduce the pulverization of the active sulfur, and boost the sulfur utilization and the improvement of cycle stability. Second, 2D materials with large lateral size, controllable interspaces, and enriched catalytic sites were good choices for separators and interlayers, which can efficiently prevent the diffusion and migration of the dissolved polysulfides via physical confinement and chemical interaction, revealing the synergistic effects for suppressing shuttle effect and stabilizing high performance. Besides, the 2D nanosheets-based interlayers and separators also contributed to prevent lithium anode from side reaction with LiPSs. Third, graphene and their analogues can act as the integrated interfacial layer and host of lithium metal, and effectively restrain the growth of lithium dendrite and guarantee the prolonged lithium stripping/plating. Particular emphases are given to the unique structures, interfacial interactions, strategies for ingenious assembly and innovations of configuration in Li-S batteries. Finally, the remaining challenges and perspectives of Li-S batteries using 2D materials are briefly discussed.
  • Applying chemometrics to study battery materials: Towards the
           comprehensive analysis of complex operando datasets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Marcus Fehse, Antonella Iadecola, Moulay Tahar Sougrati, Paolo Conti, Marco Giorgetti, Lorenzo Stievano In the last decade, a rapidly growing number of operando spectroscopy analyses have helped unravelling the electrochemical mechanism of lithium and post-lithium battery materials. The corresponding experiments usually produce large datasets containing many tens or hundreds of spectra. This considerable amount of data is calling for a suitable strategy for their treatment in a reliable way and within reasonable time frame. To this end, an alternative and innovating approach allowing one to extract all meaningful information from such data is the use of chemometric tools such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR).PCA is generally used to discover the minimal particular structures in multivariate spectral data sets. In the case of operando spectroscopy data, it can be used to determine the number of independent components contributing to a complete series of collected spectra during electrochemical cycling. The number of principal components determined by PCA can then be used as the basis for MCR analysis, which allows the stepwise reconstruction of the “real” spectral components without needing any pre-existing model or any presumptive information about the system.In this paper, we will show how such approach can be effectively applied to different techniques, such as Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy or transmission soft X-ray microscopy, for the comprehension of the electrochemical mechanisms in battery studies.
  • Modeling of contact stress among compound particles in high energy
           lithium-ion battery
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Xiang Gao, Peng He, Jianguo Ren, Jun Xu Compared to other high capacity anodes, Silicon (Si) has the highest gravimetric capacity, volumetric capacity, a relatively low discharge voltage and abundant storage on the earth, Si and Si based materials has become more and more popular in battery industries among which Silicon-Carbon (Si-C) core-shell particle has been one of the most promising and commercially feasible candidates to achieve ultrahigh capacity of the anode for lithium-ion batteries. Silicon-Carbon (Si-C) core-shell particle has been one of the most promising and commercially feasible candidates to achieve ultrahigh capacity of the anode for lithium-ion batteries. However, most silicon-based anode materials suffer from severe performance deterioration especially during fast charging process. Modeling the mechanical stress and deformation of anode particles is thus of great fundamental and practical interest to understand the mechanism of silicon-carbon anodes. We establish both computational and theoretical methods to describe the stress distribution and contact behaviors within and among Si-C particles, as well as the Li+ diffusion within Si particle. We further analyze the charging rate dependent behavior of the core-shell structure. Our analysis reveals a complete link between stress, charging rate, Li+ diffusion and the structural variables. Our study thus opens a novel pathway to design the structured high-capacity silicon-carbon at nano-scale for expanding Si-based anode application within limited amount beyond cylindrical configuration and increasing the glass ceiling of battery energy density based on graphite anode.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Self-luminous wood composite for both thermal and light energy storage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Haiyue Yang, Weixiang Chao, Siyuan Wang, Qianqian Yu, Guoliang Cao, Tinghan Yang, Feng Liu, Xin Di, Jian Li, Chengyu Wang, Guoliang Li High efficient energy storage devices for both thermal energy and light energy are scarce in the development of modern society to reduce energy consumption. In this work, a novel self-luminous wood composite based on phase change materials (PCMs) with superior thermal energy storage and long afterglow luminescence (LAL) materials with excellent light energy storage is reported. The obtained self-luminous wood composites shows high latent heat of fusion (146.7 J g-1), suitable phase change temperature at about 37 ℃, favorable thermal reliability and thermal stability below 105 ℃ with excellent shape-stability. More importantly, the self-luminous wood composites can absorb ultraviolet and visible light from lighting source and natural light, and emit green light in the dark for 11 h. More interesting, the addition of LAL particles can improve the thermal conductivity of self-luminous wood composites. All results demonstrate self-luminous wood composites can store both thermal energy and light energy, and have great potential in applications including furniture, emergency light, storage and building energy conservation.
  • Flower-shaped lithium nitride as a protective layer via facile plasma
           activation for stable lithium metal anodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Ke Chen, Rajesh Pathak, Ashim Gurung, Ezaldeen A. Adhamash, Behzad Bahrami, Qingquan He, Hui Qiao, Alevtina L. Smirnova, James J. Wu, Qiquan Qiao, Yue Zhou Unstable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formation and uncontrolled lithium (Li) dendrites growth are two major obstacles that hinder the application of Li metal as the anode in Li batteries. To solve these problems, a multifunctional protective layer was designed for the first time using N2 plasma activation of the Li metal. A highly [001] oriented and flower shaped Li3N layer was obtained on the surface of Li metal with a plasma activation time less than 5 min. Due to high Young's modulus (48 GPa) and high ionic conductivity (5.02×10-1 mS cm-1), this unique protective layer can physically block the direct contact between reactive Li metal and the liquid organic electrolyte, and suppress the Li dendrites formation. It gives rise to a stable voltage profile with plating/stripping for 30,000 min in a symmetric cell. For Li/LCO full cell, the plasma activated Li3N electrode shows better capacity retention of more than 96% and higher capacity at a 5 C rate compared to bare Li anode. This plasma activation strategy provides a facile, scalable and efficient approach to realize a safe Li metal battery with superior electrochemical performance.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Nanopore confined anthraquinone in MOF-derived N-doped microporous carbon
           as stable organic cathode for lithium-ion battery
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Liyi Zhao, Jing Yu, Chitian Xing, Zaka Ullah, Congcong Yu, Shoupu Zhu, Mingliang Chen, Weiwei Li, Qi Li, Liwei Liu Anthraquinone (AQ), as organic cathode material, has provided an excellent opportunity to update the preexisting energy storage technologies owing to its facile and desirable fabrication at molecular level, higher theoretical gravimetric capacities and remarkable sustainability. However, some of its pristine properties like insulation and dissolution into electrolyte of organic active materials during cycling, have been inevitable obstacles to boost its electrochemical performance. Herein, we report a rational strategy to improve lithium ion storage performance of AQ by confining nanosized amorphous AQ into zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8)-derived nitrogen-doped microporous carbon scaffold (AQ@N-ZIF-8). The AQ@N-ZIF-8 cathode delivers a high reversible specific capacity of 240 mAh g−1 at current rate of 0.1 C and retains ~216 mAh g−1 after 300 cycles (remarkably low capacity fading rate of 0.08% per cycle) with coulombic efficiency up to 99%. The exceptional lithium ion storage capacity of AQ@N-ZIF-8 is mainly ascribed to the synergistic effect of high loading capacity of AQ encapsulation and nanopore confinement of AQ dissolution in carbon scaffolds, and the enhanced conductivity of the encapsulated AQ by higher contents of nitrogen dopant. Moreover, the N-ZIF-8 with micropores facilitates the fast diffusion of organic electrolyte ions.Graphical The AQ/MOF-derived carbon materials based cathode is designed and fabricated for significant application in the organic lithum-ion batteries.fx1
  • An advanced zinc air battery with nanostructured superwetting electrodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Wenwen Xu, Zhiyi Lu, Tianyu Zhang, Yiren Zhong, Yueshen Wu, Guoxin Zhang, Junfeng Liu, Hailiang Wang, Xiaoming Sun Rechargeable zinc air batteries (ZABs) have gained considerable attention as a promising energy technique recently owing to their high theoretical energy and power density, safety and economic viability; however, the state-of-art ZABs have been plagued by two major drawbacks, unsatisfying achievable power density and low voltage efficiency. Our superwetting electrodes are hereby designed to circumvent these issues through controlling the O2 bubbles adsorption/evolution behavior at electrode surface while maintaining the outstanding electrocatalysis performance. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the application of superwetting catalytic electrodes in the tri-electrode rechargeable ZABs. Two different functional electrodes, namely superaerophilic cobalt-incorporated nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes hybrid catalyst and superaerophobic NiFe-layered double hydroxide arrays, serve as exceptional catalysts for discharging and charging process respectively, thus achieving superior battery performance. The low-cost superwetting cathode pairs even exhibit a much better catalytic activity and durability than the combination of precious Pt/C and Ir/C catalysts. The as-assembled ZABs deliver a greatly improved peak power current of 245 mW cm−2 at 396 mA cm−2 over that of the ZABs composed of precious metal electrodes (186 mW cm−2), together with small polarization, high reversibility, and stability over long cycles. The design of superwetting electrode marks a general and effective strategy to achieve high-performance rechargeable ZABs.
  • Tri-high designed graphene electrodes for long cycle-life supercapacitors
           with high mass loading
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Tieqi Huang, Xingyuan Chu, Shengying Cai, Qiuyan Yang, Hao Chen, Yingjun Liu, Karthikeyan Gopalsamy, Zhen Xu, Weiwei Gao, Chao Gao Practical supercapacitor electrodes require high mass loading to enhance the energy density of the entire devices, which would limit ion diffusions in thicker electrodes and thus generally result in poor specific capacitance, rate capability and cycle life. Here, we demonstrate a "highly oriented, highly crumpled and highly doped" (3H) design for fabrication of high mass loading yet high performance nitrogen-doped graphene film (NGF) electrodes. NGF exhibits a unique long-range orientating and short-range crumpling structure, ensuring high packing density (up to 1.64 g cm-3) and efficient ion transmission simultaneously. The NGF-based symmetric supercapacitors (NGF-SC) displayed a specific capacitance 413 F cm-3 or 252 F g-1 at areal mass loading 0.32 mg cm-2, and 370 F cm-3 or 226 F g-1 at 11.2 mg cm-2 in aqueous electrolyte. For the case of high mass loading (11.2 mg cm-2), 90.1% retention was achieved after 100,000 cycles. In ionic liquid, the NGF-SC showed a high specific capacitance 352 F cm-3 or 215 F g-1 at 11.2 mg cm-2 in potential window 0–3.5 V, affording an ultrahigh electrode-based energy density 138 W h L-1. Due to the 3H design and high mass loading, the energy density of the whole NGF-SC device attains 65 W h L-1, much higher than those of commercial supercapacitors. Notably, such NGF-SC showed long lifespan up to 50,000 cycles with 84.8% retention, a record cycle-life for high mass loading supercapacitors. The 3H design provides a constructive principle for production of practical supercapacitors with both high energy density and power density.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Synthesis of interconnected graphene framework with two-dimensional
           protective layers for stable lithium metal anodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Xiao Nie, Anyi Zhang, Yihang Liu, Chenfei Shen, Mingrui Chen, Chi Xu, Qingzhou Liu, Jiansong Cai, Abdulrahman Alfaraidi, Chongwu Zhou Severe lithium (Li) dendrite growth during the plating/stripping process, which results in low Coulombic efficiency and safety issues, strongly hinders the practical applications of Li metal anodes. Herein, we propose a novel design of three-dimensional (3D) interconnected graphene (IG) framework synthesized with the help of nickel (Ni) microspheres for stable Li metal anodes. The as-prepared IG framework consists of multiple stacks of two-dimensional (2D) graphene layers and plenty of hollow graphene microspheres in between, and thus provides protective layers on the top to suppress lithium dendrites, sufficient surface area to reduce the effective current density, as well as ion channels for fast Li transport, which is confirmed by post-cycle morphology characterization. When Li foil was used as the counter electrode for Li deposition, the assembled coin cell maintained an average Coulombic efficiency of more than 97.5% for 100 cycles at current density of 1 mA cm−2 with a Li loading of 1 mAh cm−2. Furthermore, we achieved stable cycling for more than 300 h at a current density of 1 mA cm−2 with a Li loading of 2 mAh cm−2 when assembled as symmetric cells. This strategy of vertically stacking 2D materials provides a novel approach towards dendrite-free Li metal anodes for the next-generation energy storage systems.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Highly selective core-shell structural membrane with cage-shaped pores for
           flow battery
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Wenjing Lu, Dingqin Shi, Huamin Zhang, Xianfeng Li A blend membrane with the core-shell structure was designed and prepared for vanadium flow batteries (VFBs). The core is the membrane manufactured by poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) anion exchange resin, while the shell is composed of cage-shaped pores induced by VO2+ treatment. The high ion selectivity of PVDF-HFP/PVP blend membranes with the core-shell structure is assured by the ion sieving effect of cage-shaped pores and Donnan exclusion effect of anion exchange resin. The convection mechanism of charge carriers across pores on the surface and surface layers, together with the Grotthuss mechanism across the deep-seated anion exchange membrane jointly contributes to high ion conductivity of blend membranes. A great balance between high ion selectivity and high ion conductivity can thus be achieved. Moreover, the formation of cage-shaped pores can remedy the loss of chemical stability caused by anion exchange groups in PVP. A VFB with the resultant membrane could achieve a columbic efficiency of 98.16%, and an energy efficiency of 88.01% at 80 mA cm−2, much higher than those of Nafion 115. This core-shell structural blend membrane is an entirely novel concept to combine advantages of porous membranes and ion exchange membranes, while avoid their drawbacks simultaneously.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Designing a high-loading sulfur cathode with a mixed ionic-electronic
           conducting polymer for electrochemically stable lithium-sulfur batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Pauline Han, Sheng-Heng Chung, Arumugam Manthiram As one of the most widely regarded candidates for energy storage, Li-S are attractive as due to their high theoretical energy density. To be considered for practical viability, a high active material loading must be considered. This is limited by the insulating nature of the active material, amplified polysulfide shuttling, and the cracking in the cathode due to the large volume change between charge and discharge products. A copolymer is prepared with poly(styrene 4-sulfonate) (PSS) and polypyrrole (PPy) to enable rational design of high sulfur loading Li-S batteries. The copolymer with a mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) facilitates cooperative charge transport and stabilization during cycling, allowing a high sulfur loading of 6.0 mg cm−2. The resulting Li-S cell displays a high initial discharge capacity of 1108 mA h g−1 at a C/10 rate with a capacity retention of 64% after 200 cycles. The copolymer with MIEC offers a promising approach for realizing practical, long-life Li-S batteries.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Solid polymer electrolyte soft interface layer with 3D lithium anode for
           all-solid-state lithium batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Shang-Sen Chi, Yongchang Liu, Ning Zhao, Xiangxin Guo, Ce-Wen Nan, Li-Zhen Fan Garnet electrolyte-based lithium (Li) metal batteries, which employ garnet-type Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) as electrolyte and Li metal as anode, are regarded as a promising candidate for high-energy batteries. However, Li dendrites formation as well as poor solid-solid contact between the electrolyte and electrodes result in high interfacial resistance, large polarizations, and low Coulombic efficiency. Herein, we demonstrated that solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) soft interface layer deposited on garnet electrolyte (Ta-doped LLZO (LLZTO)) surface along with 3D Li metal anode can address these obstacles. In this architecture, SPE layer was deposited on garnet electrolyte surface to endow connected interface between the electrolyte and electrodes and thus settled the interface contact issue. 3D Li metal anode can accomplish dendrite-suppression by increasing Li ions deposition sites to lower the effective current density and render a uniform Li nucleation with 3D frameworks. With this ingenious arrangement, the solid-state 3D Li︱SPE-LLZTO-SPE︱3D Li symmetrical cell exhibits a stable voltage profile over 700 h and solid-state LiFePO4︱SPE-LLZTO-SPE︱3D Li full cell also shows an extremely superior cyclability and high Coulombic efficiency even at 90 °C. This work provides an alternative option for manufacturing safe and stable solid-state Li metal batteries.Graphical abstractSolid polymer electrolyte (SPE) soft interface layers with 3D Li metal anode are directly assembled in garnet LLZTO-based solid-state battery. Benefiting from the cooperation of SPE interface layer's enhancement to solid-solid contact together with 3D Li metal anode to suppress dendrite growth, an excellent electrochemical performance could be achieved in solid-state Li metal battery at 90 °C.fx1
  • Free-standing amorphous nanoporous nickel cobalt phosphide prepared by
           electrochemically delloying process as a high performance energy storage
           electrode material
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Wence Xu, Teng Wang, Hongxia Wang, Shengli Zhu, Yanqin Liang, Zhenduo Cui, Xianjin Yang, Akihisa Inoue Energy storage system based on supercapacitors has recently received lots of attention as a complementary technology to batteries to meet the different requirement for energy usage in practice. Herein we demonstrate a new battery-type electrode material for supercapacitors which is based on free-standing amorphous nanoporous nickel-cobalt-phosphide (np-Ni-Co-P) prepared by electrochemical dealloying of Ni-Co-P precursor. Benefiting from the semi-metallic properties of Ni-Co-P in the bulk and the fast kinetics of Faraday charge transfer of the active material in the porous structure, the as-prepared amorphous material exhibited excellent specific capacitance of 1236 F cm−3 (171.4 mAh cm−3 at 1 A cm−3), high retention rate (782 F cm−3, 108.5 mAh cm−3 at 100 A cm−3) and outstanding stability (85.3% capacity retention after 20,000 cycles). Hybrid supercapacitors based on the synthesized materials and a carbon electrode delivered an impressive energy density of 31.7 mWh cm−3 (power density = 0.7 W cm−3) and robust stability with capacity retention of 79.0% after 20,000 charging/discharging cycles.Graphical abstractsfx1
  • 3D-crosslinked tannic acid/poly(ethylene oxide) complex as a three-in-one
           multifunctional binder for high-sulfur-loading and high-stability cathodes
           in lithium-sulfur batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Hong Zhang, Xuanhe Hu, Yi Zhang, Shuangyin Wang, Fei Xin, Xudong Chen, Dingshan Yu Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries with traditional PVDF binders suffer from low active material utilization, poor cycling stability and low sulfur loading, which remarkably hinders their practical application. To address these issues once for all, we developed a three-in-one multifunctional binder based on three-dimensional (3D)-crosslinked tannic acid (TA)/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) complex, wherein TA can drastically enhance the stability of PEO in electrolyte solution. As-designed TA/PEO binder integrates multiple functions in one material: (1) greatly retard the shuttle effect, (2) effectively maintain cathodes integrity, (3) improve lithium ions transfer capacity, yet this point is often ignored in many existing binders. Benefiting from the above merits, even with a simple sulfur/carbon composite as cathode materials as a proof-of-concept, the assembled Li-S batteries using the TA/PEO binder present a discharge capacity of 476.7 mA h g−1 over 1000 cycles at 0.2 C, much higher than that with the PVDF binder (only 30 mA h g−1). The corresponding capacity fade is approximately 0.03%, superior to most reported binders. Even at a high sulfur loading of 5.0 mg cm−2, the cell delivers a capacity retention of 74.5% over 150 cycles. Additionally, the cathode preparation using our TA/PEO binder is an aqueous process, making it particularly promising for large-scale manufacturing.Graphical abstractA three-in-one multifunctional binder based on 3D-crosslinked tannic acid (TA)/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) complex was synthesized via an aqueous and easy-to-scale up process, which not only functions as a highly adhesive agent, but also effectively retards the shuttle effect, maintains cathodes integrity and improves lithium ions transfer, thus leading to high-sulfur-loading and high-stability Li-S batteries.fx1
  • Cyclic carbonate for highly stable cycling of high voltage lithium metal
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Chi-Cheung Su, Meinan He, Rachid Amine, Zonghai Chen, Ritu Sahore, Nancy Dietz Rago, Khalil Amine The lithium metal battery (LMB) is one of the most promising next-generation battery systems due to its ultrahigh energy density. However, problematic dendrite formation and low Coulombic efficiency (CE) greatly limit its practical application. Carbonate electrolyte solvents are still indispensable for the operation of LMBs using a transition metal oxide cathode. We determined the impact of different cyclic carbonates, which actively participate in the formation of the solid-electrolyte interface (SEI), on the stable cycling of LMBs using a nickel-rich layered cathode LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (NMC622). The substitution of fluorine atoms in the cyclic carbonate profoundly enhances the stability of the lithium metal anode while fluoroalkyl and alkoxy substituents are detrimental. Cyclic carbonate trans-difluoroethylene carbonate (DFEC) was identified as a novel SEI enabler on the lithium metal anode, facilitating the formation of a protective SEI with relatively high lithium fluoride content. A Li/NMC622 cell utilizing DFEC electrolyte solvent as SEI enabler displayed a capacity retention larger than 82% after 400 cycles and an average CE of 99.95%. In contrast, the cycling retention after 400 cycles for a Li/NMC622 cell using monofluoroethylene carbonate was only 31% with an average CE of 99.73%. Other fluoroalkyl or alkoxy cyclic carbonates do not provide improved stabilization of the lithium metal anode over ethylene carbonate. The fundamental studies in this work provide critical insight for the further development of advanced electrolytes in LMBs.Graphical abstractfx1
  • A temperature-sensitive poly(3-octylpyrrole)/carbon composite as a
           conductive matrix of cathodes for building safer Li-ion batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Hui Li, Feng Wang, Chongrong Zhang, Weixiao Ji, Jiangfeng Qian, Yuliang Cao, Hanxi Yang, Xinping Ai The thermal runaway is now recognized to be a main cause for the unsafety of Li-ion batteries, which poses a serious concern for large scale electric vehicles and energy storage applications. To address this issue, we propose in this work a new positive-temperature-coefficient (PTC) material, poly(3-Octylpyrrole):poly(styrenesulfonate) (P3OPy:PSS)/carbon composite, and use it as conductive matrix of cathode to enhance thermal stability of Li-ion batteries. The electrochemical and safety evaluations reveal that the such-fabricated graphite/LiCoO2 full pouch cells exhibit not only improved electrochemical performances compared to the conventional cells at ambient temperature conditions, but also a reliable thermal-switching function at an elevated temperature of ≥ 120 °C, demonstrating a strong tolerance to overcharge, thermal impact and short-circuiting. Such a thermal stable mechanism originates from the PTC effect of the cathode matrix, which turns the conductive network into an insulating state under thermally abusive conditions and therefore terminates the charge/discharge reactions, thus protecting the cell from thermal runaway. This work provides a new strategy and electrode design for constructing safer LIBs. In addition, the materials and fabrication technique of the thermal stable cathode is facile and also fully compatible with the present industrial manufacture process, making it convenient for use in practical LIBs.Graphical abstractfx1
  • High air-stability and superior lithium ion conduction of
           Li3+3x P1-x Zn x S4-x O x by aliovalent substitution of ZnO for
           all-solid-state lithium batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Gaozhan Liu, Dongjiu Xie, Xuelong Wang, Xiayin Yao, Shaojie Chen, Ruijuan Xiao, Hong Li, Xiaoxiong Xu A series of new solid electrolytes of Li3+3xP1-xZnxS4-xOx (x = 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.06) are synthesized successfully via Zn, O co-doping the Li3PS4 glass-ceramic for the first time. The result shows that Li3PS4 aliovalent substitution of 2 mol% ZnO (Li3.06P0.98Zn0.02S3.98O0.02) presents the highest conductivity of 1.12×10−3 S cm−1 at room temperature, which is twice that of the pristine Li3PS4. Besides, Li3.06P0.98Zn0.02S3.98O0.02 exhibits excellent stability against humid air, lithium metal and chlorobenzene solvent. The mechanisms of the enhancement of conductivity and air-stability are well understood by conducting first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculation and Bond-Valence (BV) analysis, and the results well demonstrate that the conductivity and air-stability of Li3PS4 could be improved via Zn, O dual-doping, in which partial P5+ could be substituted by Zn2+, and a part of S2- could be replaced by O2-. Finally, the all-solid-state lithium battery (ASSLB) with bi-layer electrolytes of LiCoO2/Li10GeP2S12/Li3.06P0.98Zn0.02S3.98O0.02/Li is assembled, and it delivers an initial discharge capacity of 139.1 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C and a capacity retention of 81.0% after 100 cycles at room temperature. This work combines systematical experimental characterizations and sufficient theoretical calculations to develop a new promising sulfide electrolyte with superior lithium ion conductivity and high air-stability for ASSLBs application.
  • High Coulombic efficiency cathode with nitryl grafted sulfur for Li-S
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Xuejun Liu, Tao Qian, Jie Liu, Mengfan Wang, Hongli Chen, Chenglin Yan The development of lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries has provided a popular alternative to the current state-of-art battery technologies because of their low cost as well as high theoretical specific energy. However, it is still challenging to develop sulfur cathodes with high Coulombic efficiency due to the polysulfide dissolution problem. Herein, we present a new strategy to improve the Coulombic efficiency by using nitryl grafted sulfur cathode, which is confirmed by in-situ XRD measurement and XPS analysis. The formed SEI layer on the nitryl grafted sulfur cathode could effectively trap the soluble polysulfide and avoid polysulfide migration from cathode into electrolyte, which allows significant improvement in the capacity retention of 80.6% after 450 cycles. In addition, a Coulombic efficiency of ~ 100% is achieved for the nitryl grafted sulfur (Nitryl-S) cathode, which is superior to the value of bare S cathode. The excellent performance is owing to the significantly reduced concentration of soluble polysulfide as evidenced by in-situ UV/Vis spectroscopy analysis. Thus this strategy might open up a new avenue for practical application of Li-S batteries.
  • Unique 3D nanoporous/macroporous structure Cu current collector for
           dendrite-free lithium deposition
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Huan Liu, Errui Wang, Qi Zhang, Yibin Ren, Xianwei Guo, Lin Wang, Guangyin Li, Haijun Yu Lithium metal anode is considered one of the most promising anode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries due to its highest theoretical specific capacity and lowest anode potential. However, dendritic growth during Li planting leads a safety concern and hinders the application of lithium (Li) metal batteries. Herein, unique 3D nanoporous/macroporous structure conductive Cu was designed and used as the current collector for Li planting/stripping to regulate metal Li deposition and inhibit the growth of lithium dendrite. The nanoporous/macroporous Cu current collector can effectively reduce the local current density and guide the metallic Li nucleation, leading Li to deposit uniformly on its surface. As a result, the modified Li@nanoporous/macroporous Cu current collector composite anode possesses a dendrite-free morphology and an enhanced cycling stability with a high average Coulombic efficiency of 98% for 400 h. When matching the LiFePO4 cathode, the LiFePO4 and Li@porous Cu current collector anode resultant full cell exhibits stable cycling performance.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Constructing radially oriented macroporous spheres with central cavities
           as ultrastable lithium-ion battery anodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Yu Zhang, Yong Xu, Yongjun Ji, Xi Wang, Jing Li, Hezhi Liu, Dingsheng Wang, Ziyi Zhong, Yoshio Bando, Fabing Su Huge volume expansion and structural degradation of transition-metal oxide electrode materials upon cycling often lead to severe capacity fading in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). To overcome these technical barriers, here we report the design and synthesis of a new type of high-performance anode material composed of CuO or hybrid MxOy-CuO (M = Zn, Ni, Co, Mn or both of them), which has three unique structural features: (i) 1D porous nanorods with multi-phase intergrowth feature as building blocks, (ii) central cavity originated from the radially aligned nanorods, and (iii) constructed microspheres with low outer surface area. When applied for LIBs anode, 10ZnO-CuO exhibited high capacity retention with 612 mA h g-1 even after 600 cycles. This enhanced lithium storage is closely related to the unique structural features and the generated multi-phase synergistic effect that could facilitate fast electro/ion transport and buffer volume expansion. For example, the in-situ TEM observation confirmed that the central cavity and porous geometry had almost “zero” volume stress, thus being able to effectively accommodate the volume change; the presence of the “Job-sharing” mechanism among multi-phases contributed to the enhanced capacities, etc. This work demonstrates that this strategy is versatile and facile for constructing the 3-order hierarchy structures for various metal oxide systems, and the formed structures have ample applications in various areas.Graphical abstractA 3-order hierarchy structure, in which the porous nanorods are radially assembled into hierarchical porous microspheres with a cavity at the center, was designed and synthesized as high-performance anodes for lithium ion batteries.fx1
  • A general, highly efficient, high temperature thermal pulse toward high
           performance solid state electrolyte
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Chengwei Wang, Hua Xie, Weiwei Ping, Jiaqi Dai, Guolin Feng, Yonggang Yao, Shuaiming He, Jamie Weaver, Howard Wang, Karen Gaskell, Liangbing Hu Surface contamination and degradation are two main issues leading to performance decay of ceramic-based solid-state electrolytes (SSEs). The typical strategies used to clean surface contaminants and restore ceramic materials involve mechanical polishing or high temperature thermal treatment. However, mechanical polishing can cause other side reactions and cannot clean contaminants on the grain boundaries of SSEs, while conventional thermal treatment using a furnace is often energy- and time-intensive, as the heating and cooling processes are slow. In this work, we for the first time demonstrate a high temperature thermal pulse technique for rapid ceramic surface processing. As a demonstration, we cleaned a garnet-based Li conductive SSE featuring lithium carbonate surface contamination in less than 2 s. The thermal pulsed garnet SSE exhibits an improved ionic conductivity of 3.2 × 10−4 S/cm—a two-fold increase compared to the starting material. Symmetric cells featuring the thermal pulsed garnet SSE can cycle at current densities up to 500 µA/cm2, while control cells short-circuit at a current density of 100 µA/cm2.Graphical abstractfx1
  • A 3D free-standing thin film based on N, P-codoped hollow carbon fibers
           embedded with MoP quantum dots as high efficient oxygen electrode for
           Li-O2 batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Minghui Wei, Bao Li, Chao Jin, Yichen Ni, Cong Li, Xiaowei Pan, Jiawen Sun, Chenghao Yang, Ruizhi Yang An efficient oxygen electrode with excellent electrocatalytic activity and mass transportation efficiency is highly desired for the practical applications of Li-O2 batteries (LOBs). Here, we report a novel 3D free-standing film oxygen electrode based on N, P-codoped hollow carbon fiber embedded with MoP quantum dots (MoP QD@HCF). The MoP QD@HCF oxygen electrode delivers a higher discharge specific capacity of 6.75 mA h cm−2, a lower charge voltage of
  • Flexible electrolyte-cathode bilayer framework with stabilized interface
           for room-temperature all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Pei Zhu, Chaoyi Yan, Jiadeng Zhu, Jun Zang, Ya Li, Hao Jia, Xia Dong, Zhuang Du, Chunming Zhang, Nianqiang Wu, Mahmut Dirican, Xiangwu Zhang Lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs) are promising next-generation energy storage system beyond state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries because of their low cost and high energy density. However, liquid electrolyte-based LSBs suffer from “polysulfide shuttle”, and safety concerns originated from the use of flammable organic electrolytes and the formation of lithium dendrites. Herein, we report a novel bilayer framework through integrating a three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanofiber/sulfur (CNF/S) cathode with one-dimensional (1D) ceramic Li0.33La0.557TiO3 (LLTO) nanofiber-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) solid composite electrolyte to serve as both cathode and electrolyte for room-temperature ASSLSBs. The stabilized cycling performance of this novel bilayer structure design lies in the reduced interfacial resistance and enhanced electrode/electrolyte interfacial stability due to the addition of Li+ conducting 1D LLTO nanofibers, as well as the formed fast-continuous electron/ion transportation pathways within the 3D cathode architecture. Meanwhile, the mechanically robust bilayer framework with micro-/meso-pores could also accommodate the large volume change of sulfur during continuous charge-discharge process and help suppress the Li dendrite formation. As a result of the aforementioned benefits of the novel bilayer structure design, the introduced ASSLSBs could deliver a stable cycling performance at room temperature with high Coulombic efficiency of over 99%.Graphical abstractA flexible electrolyte-electrode bi-layer framework was prepared by integrating a three-dimentional carbon nanofiber cathode with one-dimentional ceramic Li0.33La0.557TiO3 nanofiber-poly(ethylene oxide) solid composite electrolyte for room-temperature all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries (ASSLSBs). Due to the novel bi-layer structure with reduced interfacial resistance and enhanced interfacial stability, the ASSLSBs can deliver a stable cycling performance at room temperature with high Coulombic efficiency of over 99%.fx1
  • Atomistic insights into the reaction mechanism of nanostructured LiI:
           Implications for rechargeable Li-I2 batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Zhixiao Liu, Xiong Pu, Fei Gao, Wangyu Hu, Huiqiu Deng Using LiI nanoparticles as the active material is a promising way to improve the performance of the Li-I2 battery. In this study, a first-principles approach is employed to reveal the reaction mechanism of an ultra-small LiI nanoparticle, represented by a Li14I14 cluster, with and without nanoconfined environment. This study is the first time to report that there are polyiodides longer than I5− as intermediate products. For the free Li14I14 cluster, the super-long polyiodides (I11− and I13−) are observed at the deep state of charge (delithiation). However, the super-long chains are converted to a compact I14 cluster at the end of delithiation process. The theoretical open circuit voltage between the I14 and Li14I14 clusters exhibits three plateaus. The highest plateau corresponds to the conversion between the compact I14 cluster and super-long chain-like polyiodides, and the wide medium-voltage plateau is attributed to the transmission between super-long chains and short chains. When the Li14I14 cluster is confined in a (14, 0) single wall carbon nanotube (weight ratio of LiI is 38%), the nanoconfined effect can change the cluster to one-dimensional LiI nanowire. The nanoconfined environment can eliminate the voltage plateau above 3 V, because the nanoconfined effect prohibits the formation of super-long polyiodides and the final charge products are Ix = 2, 3, 5 molecules.
  • Development of an all-solid-state lithium battery by slurry-coating
           procedures using a sulfidic electrolyte
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Tugce Ates, Marlou Keller, Jörn Kulisch, Torben Adermann, Stefano Passerini All-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) are promising candidates to significantly exceed the energy densities of today's lithium-ion batteries. However, for their successful commercialization, an easily scalable production procedure is needed. The tape casting procedure herein described allows to process a composite cathode by using an inert (polyoleophine) binder, conductive carbon, β-Li3PS4 and Li1+x[Ni0.6Mn0.2Co0.2]1-xO2. The inorganic electrolyte β-Li3PS4 layer is either coated onto the composite cathode or applied as a self-standing tape. In both cases a pressing step at room temperature is used to remove the porosity. Finally, a polymer electrolyte layer is added prior to the lithium metal anode to avoid the reaction between the latter and the inorganic solid electrolyte. Such dual-electrolyte, solid-state cells demonstrate good cycle performance and specific capacity. The type of conductive carbon in the composite cathode is seen to play a crucial role.
  • Synthesis of amorphous nickel–cobalt–manganese hydroxides for
           supercapacitor-battery hybrid energy storage system
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Hai Chao Chen, Yanliang Qin, Haijie Cao, Xinxin Song, Chenghao Huang, Hongbin Feng, X.S. Zhao In this work, amorphous nickel–cobalt–manganese hydroxide (NiCoMn–OH) was hydrothermally synthesized using a mixed solvent strategy and used as positive electrode materials for supercapacitor-battery hybrid energy storage system. The experimental results show that the mixed solvent is indispensable to form the amorphous phase of NiCoMn–OH, which exhibits significantly improved electrochemical activity and rate capability in comparison with the crystalline counterpart because of more grain boundaries and ion diffusion channels in the former phase. A strong synergy between the transition metal ions in the amorphous NiCoMn–OH is found to significantly contribute to the electrochemical activity, rate capability and cycling stability. In addition to battery behavior, the amorphous NiCoMn–OH exhibits pseudocapacitive behavior, which contributes approximately 40% to the total energy storage capacity. The pseudocapacitive property significantly enhances the rate performance. The robust synthesis method described in this paper was also used to fabricate the NiCoMn–OH porous network on Ni foam, which shows a specific capacity close to its theoretical value, indicating a complete utilization of the electroactive material. Furthermore, a supercapacitor-battery hybrid cell fabricated with the amorphous NiCoMn–OH as the positive electrode and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as the negative electrode exhibits both high-energy and high-power performances with a specific energy of 42.8 Wh kg–1 at a specific power of 749 W kg–1 or a specific energy of 19.9 Wh kg–1 at a specific power of 20.9 kW kg–1.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Novel Keplerate type polyoxometalate-surfactant-graphene hybrids as
           advanced electrode materials for supercapacitors
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Dawid Pakulski, Adam Gorczyński, Włodzimierz Czepa, Zhaoyang Liu, Luca Ortolani, Vittorio Morandi, Violetta Patroniak, Artur Ciesielski, Paolo Samorì The development of novel materials for enhanced electrochemical energy storage applications, in particular for the fabrication of supercapacitors (SCs) displaying increased properties, is a milestone of both fundamental and technological relevance. Among nanostructured materials, polyoxometalates (POMs) combined with various carbon-based nanostructures represent a very promising class of hybrid systems for energy storage, yet, guidelines for their rational design and synthesis leading to high-performance SCs is still lacking. Here, we have produced a novel hybrid architecture based on Keplerate type POM (Mo132) functionalized with dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), which upon mixing with electrochemically exfoliated graphene (EEG) nanosheets results in the formation of porous 3D superstructures. Mo132-DTAB-EEG combines the redox activity of POMs and high electrical conductivity of graphene, all synergically mediated by the surfactant-assisted porosity enhancement, to form new electrode materials for SCs. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge electrochemical studies on Mo132-DTAB-EEG performed in aqueous H2SO4 electrolyte revealed that the unique combination of these three components yields highly efficient energy storage materials. In particular, our highly porous hybrids system exhibits high specific capacitance of 65 F g−1 (93 F cm−3, 93mFcm−2) combined with excellent stability (99% of specific capacitance retained) after 5000 charge/discharge cycles at different current densities, overall displaying significantly improved performance compared to pristine electrochemically exfoliated graphene material. Strong non-covalent interactions between Keplerate type polyoxometalate Mo132-DTAB and graphene surface offer higher stability compared to other hybrid POM/carbon-based systems, and unique electrical properties of the multicomponent structure, thereby paving the way towards the development of novel, and potentially multifunctional, POM-based architectures to be exploited as SC electrode materials.
  • Graphene-tailored molecular bonds for advanced hydrogen and lithium
           storage performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Yuqin Huang, Guanglin Xia, Jian Zhang, Zaiping Guo, Xuebin Yu The practical application of sodium alanate (NaAlH4) as a hydrogen and lithium storage material has attracted intensive attention. The high energy barrier for breaking the Al-H bonds of NaAlH4, however, remains a key challenge. Here, we report that graphene could act as an effective platform to tailor the metal-hydrogen bonds of NaAlH4 through their favorable molecular interaction. Theoretical and experimental results confirm that graphene is capable of weakening the Al-H bonds of NaAlH4, thus facilitating the breaking and recombination of Al-H bonds towards advanced hydrogen and lithium storage performance. In addition, owing to this favorable interaction, a robust nanostructure composed of homogeneous NaAlH4 nanoparticles with an average size of ~12 nm encapsulated in graphene nanosheets has been developed via a facile solvent evaporation induced deposition method with a tunable loading and distribution. The synergistic effects of the favorable molecular interaction between graphene and NaAlH4 and the noticeable decrease in particle size significantly boost the hydrogen and lithium storage performances of NaAlH4. This method provides new avenues to tailoring the molecular bonds of metal hydrides for a new range of applications in various fields.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Enhanced cycling performance of rechargeable Li–O2 batteries via LiOH
           formation and decomposition using high-performance MOF-74@CNTs hybrid
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Xiahui Zhang, Panpan Dong, Jung-In Lee, Jake T. Gray, Young-Hwan Cha, Su Ha, Min-Kyu Song Li–O2 batteries have received much attention for next-generation energy storage devices due to their high specific energy. However, Li–O2 batteries still face several challenges including low energy efficiency and poor cycle life, which are mainly caused by the low stability of electrolytes and cathodes towards aggressive reduced oxygen species, e.g., O2− intermediate and Li2O2. It has been reported that water can be used as an effective additive in aprotic Li–O2 batteries to increase the discharge capacity and to alleviate parasitic reactions by solvating and trapping the highly aggressive O2− intermediate. In this study, Mn-MOF-74 nanoparticles directly grown on carbon nanotubes (Mn-MOF-74@CNTs) via a facile additive-mediated synthesis are proposed as catalytic cathode materials for Li–O2 batteries to be operated in humid oxygen environment to generate less-reactive discharge product LiOH compared to Li2O2. Due to the formation of LiOH by the nano-architectured Mn-MOF-74@CNTs hybrid catalyst, Mn-MOF-74@CNTs-based oxygen cathode exhibits less side reactions during battery operation and much-enhanced cycling performance in humid oxygen containing 200 ppm moisture than those of conventional carbon cathodes (Ketjenblack and CNTs) in both dry and humid oxygen where Li2O2 was formed as discharge products. Furthermore, a series of controlled experiments and thermodynamic analysis are conducted to investigate the formation mechanism of LiOH. Based on the results, we report that the formation pathway of LiOH is a chemically-catalytic process via a chemical conversion of Li2O2 occurring at Mn2+/Mn3+ metal centers in Mn-MOF-74@CNTs hybrid, instead of an electrocatalytic process via a direct four-electron reduction of oxygen.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Ultra-fast transfer and high storage of Li+/Na+ in MnO quantum dots@carbon
           hetero-nanotubes: Appropriate quantum dots to improve the rate
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Huanxin Li, Lanlan Jiang, Qiaoxia Feng, Zhongyuan Huang, Haihui Zhou, Yi Gong, Zhaohui Hou, Wenji Yang, Chaopeng Fu, Yafei Kuang Carbon materials play indispensable roles in energy-related systems, and constructing fast chargeable carbon anodes is still one of the most interesting and meaningful topics in energy storage and conversion fields. Selection of an appropriate structure and quantity of quantum dots can improve the rate performances. Here we report a unique molecular beam template approach to inlay MnO quantum dots (MnOQD) into walls of carbon hetero-nanotubes to form a brand-new composite (MnOQD@CHNTs) and investigate the influences of the inlaid quantum dots on the structures and the fast charging properties of carbon hetero-nanotubes. Plenty of tiny inlaid MnOQD in the walls of carbon nanotubes are proved to be capable of expanding the carbon layer spacing, decreasing the degree of order, forming heterojunctions with carbon, and altering the local electronic cloud density of carbon. Therefore, the capability of MnOQD@CHNTs for Li+/Na+ transfer and storage is greatly improved due to the quantum dot effect of MnO. As a result, the MnOQD@CHNTs exhibit excellent cycling and rate performances as both lithium-ion battery (LIB) and sodium-ion battery (SIB) anodes, e.g. fully charged in 28.3 s with a capacity of 392.8 mA h g-1 (~ 125.6 C) in LIB (the best ever reported).Graphical abstractMnO quantum dots inlaid carbon hetero-nanotubes (MnOQD@CHNTs) was prepared by a unique molecular beam template approach. The quantum dot effect of MnO was proved to capable of enhancing the storage and increasing the migration speed of ions significantly, e.g. fully charged in 28.3 s with a capacity of 392.8 mAh g-1 in LIB.fx1
  • High capacity 3D structured tin-based electroplated Li-ion battery anodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Pengcheng Sun, Jerome Davis, Luoxia Cao, Zhelong Jiang, John B. Cook, Hailong Ning, Jinyun Liu, Sanghyeon Kim, Feifei Fan, Ralph G. Nuzzo, Paul V. Braun 3D structured porous electrodes have been considered as a possible solution for accommodating the volume change of alloying lithium ion battery anode materials during cycling. However, lab-scale porous electrodes tend to be thin, and the loading of the activity materials is also small, the combination of which results in electrodes with impractically low areal and volumetric capacities. Here, we develop a high areal and volumetric capacity 3D-structured Sn/C anode by using a two steps electroplating process. An electrode with a 20%v/v Sn loading exhibits a high volumetric/areal capacity of ∼879 mA h/cm3/6.59 mA h/cm2 after 100 cycles at 0.5 C and a good rate performance of about 750 mA h/cm3 and 5.5 mA h/cm2 (delithiation) at 10 C in a half-cell configuration. The 3D Sn/C anode also shows good compatibility with a commercial LCO cathode in a full cell configuration.Graphical abstractHere we show how a simple two step electroplating process enables synthesis of 75 µm thick 3D structured Sn/carbon anodes with high Sn loadings. The electrode-based volumetric and areal capacity of a 20% v/v Sn loaded scaffolded anode reached 1352 mA h cm−3 and 10.14 mA h cm−2. Enabled by the electrode mesostructure, the structured anode provides an outstanding power performance, delivering up to 750 mA h cm−3 and 5.6 mA h cm−2 at 10 C, which to the best of our knowledge, is the highest rate capability reported for such a high-energy anode.fx1
  • Freestanding graphene/VO2 composite films for highly stable aqueous Zn-ion
           batteries with superior rate performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Xi Dai, Fang Wan, Linlin Zhang, Hongmei Cao, Zhiqiang Niu Aqueous Zn-ion batteries (ZIBs) are promising energy storage systems owing to their high safety and low cost. However, their unsatisfactory energy and power densities as well as the cycling performance have hindered their practical application. Herein, we demonstrate a highly reversible zinc/vanadium dioxide system, where freestanding reduced graphene oxide/vanadium dioxide (RGO/VO2) composite films are used as the cathodes. Owing to the synergistic effects from continuously porous network of RGO and the robust structure of VO2, RGO/VO2 composite films not only enhance the transport of electrons and ions, but also accommodate the considerable deformations caused by Zn2+ extraction/insertion. Therefore, the Zn/VO2 batteries exhibit an energy density of 65 Wh kg-1 even at a high power density of 7.8 kW kg-1. More impressively, they deliver excellent capacity retention of 99% after 1000 cycles. In addition, the RGO/VO2 composite films can serve as the electrodes of flexible ZIBs. Flexible soft-packaged Zn/VO2 batteries demonstrated stable electrochemical performance at various bending states. Therefore, the rechargeable Zn/VO2 battery can bridge the gap between conventional batteries and supercapacitors, opening new opportunities for powering portable electronic devices and hybrid electric vehicles.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Accordion-like stretchable Li-ion batteries with high energy density
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Changmin Shi, Tianyang Wang, Xiangbiao Liao, Boyu Qie, Pengfei Yang, Meijie Chen, Xue Wang, Arvind Srinivasan, Qian Cheng, Qin Ye, Alex Ceng Li, Xi Chen, Yuan Yang High-performance stretchable batteries are key components for stretchable devices. However, it is challenging to have both high stretchability and high energy density simultaneously. Herein, we report a design of accordion-like stretchable lithium ion batteries, where the rigid energy storage units are connected by wrinkled and stretchable components. Simulation results show that such accordion-like design and the tape/metal/tape sandwiched structure reduces maximum stress of Al foil in the structure from 31.2 MPa to only 17.1 MPa, which significantly enhance the cell stability. Meanwhile, as the volume of rigid segments are larger than the stretchable part, such design can achieve stretchability of 29% while maintaining 77% (233 Wh L−1) of volumetric energy density of that in conventional packing. Experimentally, the cell shows a high capacity retention of 95.4% even after stretching by 22% for 10,000 times, bending for 20,000 times, and 100 cycles at 0.5 C. It also provides steady power output during continuous dynamic mechanical tests. The corresponding average discharge voltage is only reduced by 1 mV. This accordion-like battery provides an alternative strategy to design stretchable batteries for stretchable devices.
  • Boosting sodium storage properties of titanium dioxide by a multiscale
           design based on MOF-derived strategy
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Hui Xu, Yunting Liu, Taotao Qiang, Liguang Qin, Jian Chen, Peigen Zhang, Yao Zhang, Wei Zhang, Wubian Tian, Zhengming Sun Cost-effective sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are the most promising candidate for grid-scale energy storage. However, the lack of suitable high-performance anode materials has hindered their large-scale applications. In this study, we report a multiscale design to optimize a TiO2-based anode from atomic, microstructural, and macrostructural levels. A key point in our design is the use of Co-doped amine-functionalized Ti-MOFs as multi-functional precursors, which not only achieves Co, N double-doping, and encapsulation of ultrafine TiO2 nanoparticles in mesoporous C frameworks, but also endows the precursors with positive surface charges, driving them to combine with graphene nanosheets into a 3D macroporous network architecture by self-assembly. The well-designed anode delivered high reversible capacities of 174 mA h g−1 at 6 C for over 5000 cycles, 121 mA h g−1 at 15 C for over 10,000 cycles, and 100 mA h g−1 at 30 C for over 3000 cycles, demonstrating the most efficient TiO2-based anode ever reported for SIBs. The unprecedented sodium storage performance is attributed to the multiscale integration yielding a high content of oxygen vacancies, 3D continuous conductive networks, and open diffusion channels, promoting both electron conduction and Na+ diffusion not only inside and around the TiO2 nanoparticles but also through overall electrode. The unique multiscale design based on MOF-derived strategy holds great potential in generalizable synthesis of versatile electrode materials for advanced battery systems.
  • A facile and effective sulfur loading method: Direct drop of liquid Li2S8
           on carbon coated TiO2 nanowire arrays as cathode towards commercializing
           lithium-sulfur battery
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Chenyang Zha, Donghai Wu, Tikai Zhang, Jinghua Wu, Houyang Chen The development of high performance lithium-sulfur batteries is trapped by the shuttle effect of intermediate polysulfides and the insulating nature of sulfur. To overcome these drawbacks, numerous state-of-the-art encapsulation/wrap of sulfur strategies have been developed. However, most of these methods have challenges to implement in commercializing applications of lithium-sulfur batteries. Herein, a facile and effective sulfur loading method is presented by droping liquid Li2S8 into carbon coated TiO2 nanowire arrays without any complex pre-processing. As a result, these electrodes with 2.0 and 4.0 mg/cm2 sulfur have high initial capacities of 1280 and 1240 mAh/g, and maintain 930 and 680 mAh/g after 500 cycles under 3.2 mA, respectively. For a quick-acting cycling, it holds 520 mAh/g after 500 cycles at 5.8 mA with 4.0 mg/cm2 sulfur loading. The facile sulfur loading approach may provide a new opportunity to construct high performance sulfur-based cathodes for their industrial applications.Graphical abstractThe liquid Li2S8 directly dropping into carbon coated TiO2 nanowire arrays for better Lithium-sulfur batteries.fx1
  • LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 as both a trapper and accelerator of polysulfides
           for lithium-sulfur batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Kai Shi, Chen Lai, Xuejun Liu, Yinping Wei, Wei Lv, Jinshu Wang, Jia Li, Chenglin Yan, Baohua Li, Quan-Hong Yang, Feiyu Kang, Yan-Bing He Achieving long-life is a crucial step for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries as one of most promising next generation energy storage devices. Whereas, the severe shuttling and low redox reaction kinetics of polysulfides (LiPSs) cause the rapid loss of active material, poor rate performance and severe self-discharge. To address above issues, herein, for the first time, we reported the layered LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) particles as a host to trap LiPSs and accelerate LiPSs conversion simultaneously. We theoretically elucidate and experimentally verify the strong adsorption for Li2S6 through the NCA (104), (003) and (110) crystal planes by the formation of the strong Li-O and Co-S bonds to capture and immobilize LiPSs solidly. At the same time, the intrinsic catalytic effects of NCA with polar surface as an accelerator can propel the LiPSs redox reactions. In addition, NCA can effectively improve static stability of Li-S batteries and suppress their self-discharge behavior. Therefore, the Li-S cells with NCA achieved a high discharge capacity of 755.4 mA h g−1 with a low capacity decay rate of 0.02%/cycle after 500 cycles at 1 C. This work opens up a convenient and effective way to substantially enhance the capability of Li-S batteries for their practical application.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Hierarchical Sb2MoO6 microspheres for high-performance sodium-ion battery
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Xuan Lu, Zhenyu Wang, Kun Liu, Jianmin Luo, Ping Wang, Chunming Niu, Hongkang Wang, Weiyang Li Antimony (Sb)-based materials have been extensively studied as anodes for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) because of the high theoretical capacity of Sb (660 mA h/g). However, the poor electrochemical behaviors caused by the severe volume expansion of Sb during the sodiation/desodiation process constrains its practical applications. Herein we report a facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal method for the synthesis of hierarchical Sb2MoO6 microspheres assembled by one-dimensional nanobelts without the use of any surfactants. When used as an anode material for SIBs, it delivers large reversible capacities of 637.3 and 498.7 mA h/g at current densities of 200 and 1000 mA/g after 100 cycles, respectively, exceptional rate capability with 428.1 mA h/g retained at 5 A/g and long cycle life (460.6 mA h/g with capacity retention of 98.7% after 450 cycles at 2 A/g). Moreover, a sodium-ion full cell with Sb2MoO6 anode was assembled, presenting a large capacity and stable cyclability with a high output voltage. Based on extensive experimental analyses and first-principles calculations, we find that such superior electrochemical performances can be attributed to its distinctive capability of forming a self-constructing conductive Na-Mo-O buffer matrix during discharge/charge process, which not only efficiently buffers the volume expansion of the Na-Sb alloying/dealloying, but also provides good electronic conductivity to facilitate electron transfer. Notably, the novel hierarchical Sb2MoO6 microsphere anode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances without hybridizing with any special carbonaceous materials. Such high-performance novel anode material together with the new findings in electrochemical mechanism in this work may open a way for the design of future energy storage devices.Graphical abstractfx1
  • A flexible micro/nanostructured Si microsphere cross-linked by
           highly-elastic carbon nanotubes toward enhanced lithium ion battery anodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Zheng Yi, Ning Lin, Yingyue Zhao, Weiwei Wang, Yong Qian, Yongchun Zhu, Yitai Qian Inspired by the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with high elasticity, we design a flexible conductive Si/CNT composite where the CNTs are in situ grown in the porous Si particles with mesoscale porosity to solve the problems facing high capacity Si-based anodes. The Si/CNT composite with CNTs in situ grown into the Si wall and mesoscale porosity has advantages in several aspects, including improving the electron transport within the Si particle, holding the Si domains together without getting pulverized, and exhibiting excellent mechanical properties. As a result, the as-obtained Si/CNT composites delivers a reversible capacity of 1275.5 mA h g-1 at 0.2 A g-1 after 100 cycles and a capacity of 715.5 mA h g-1 at 1 A g-1 after 400 cycles. When assembled with the Si/CNT composite as anode and commercial LiCoO2 as cathode, the full cell delivers a reversible capacity of 127.4 mA h g−1 with a working potential beyond 3.0 V based on the cathode active material. The enhanced performance could be attributed to the flexible conductive microstructured design, which can significantly improve conductivity, stabilize SEI film, and maintain the integrity of the porous Si-based electrodes.
  • Performance of microporous carbon electrodes for supercapacitors:
           Comparing graphene with disordered materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Trinidad Méndez-Morales, Nidhal Ganfoud, Zhujie Li, Matthieu Haefele, Benjamin Rotenberg, Mathieu Salanne Over the past decades, the specific surface area and the pore size distribution have been identified as the main structural features that govern the performance of carbon-based supercapacitors. As a consequence, graphene nanostructures have been identified as strong candidates for maximizing their capacitance. However, this hypothesis could not be thoroughly tested so far due to the difficulty of synthesizing perfect materials with high pore accessibility and a sufficiently large density. Here we perform molecular simulations of a series of perforated graphene electrodes with single pore sizes ranging from 7 to 10 Å  in contact with an adsorbed ionic liquid, and compare the capacitances (using various metrics) to the one obtained with a typical disordered nanoporous carbon. The latter displays better performances, an observation that we explain by analyzing the structure of the liquid inside the pores. It appears that although the smaller pores are responsible for the largest surface charges, larger ones are also necessary to store the co-ions and avoid the formation of detrimental opposite charges on the carbon. These results rationalize the need for disordered or activated carbon materials to design efficient supercapacitors.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Layered germanium phosphide-based anodes for high-performance lithium- and
           sodium-ion batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Ki-Hun Nam, Ki-Joon Jeon, Cheol-Min Park A layered germanium phosphide (GeP3) was synthesized in a straightforward manner using a simple solid-state synthetic method, and its electrochemical behavior for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) was investigated. During Li-insertion and extraction, the GeP3 experienced a sequential three-step (topotactic-transition, conversion, and alloying) and two-step (dealloying and recombination) reaction. During Na-insertion and extraction, GeP3 had a one-step (conversion) and two-step (recombination and topotactic-transition) reaction. Based on the interesting phase change mechanisms during Li- and Na-insertion/extraction, the GeP3–based nanocomposite exhibited superior electrochemical performance, such as large reversible capacity (first reversible capacity: 1526 mAh g-1 for LIB, 984 mAh g-1 for SIB), high initial Coulombic efficiencies (86.3% for LIB, 81.3% for SIB), stable cycle life (capacity retention for LIB: 95% in 0–2 V after 30 cycles, 87% in 0.35–2 V after 100 cycles, and 93% in 0.64–2 V after 100 cycles, capacity retention for SIB: 95% in 0–2 V after 30 cycles), and rapid rate-capabilities (LIB: 860 mAh g-1 in 0.35–2 V at 2C-rate, SIB: 520 mAh g-1 in 0–2 V at 2C-rate). Overall, the layered GeP3–based anode with its interesting Li- and Na-reaction mechanisms will be a promising alternative anode for high-performance LIBs and SIBs.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Synthesis and understanding of Na11Sn2PSe12 with enhanced ionic
           conductivity for all-solid-state Na-ion battery
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Zhaoxin Yu, Shun-Li Shang, Daiwei Wang, Yuguang C. Li, Hemant P. Yennawar, Guoxing Li, Haw-Tyng Huang, Yue Gao, Thomas E. Mallouk, Zi-Kui Liu, Donghai Wang All-solid-state Na-ion batteries (NIBs) that incorporate nonflammable solid-state electrolytes and an inexhaustible alkali metal offer a potential solution to the safety and cost concerns associated with conventional Li-ion batteries that use liquid electrolytes. Na-ion solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) with high ionic conductivity are the key to success for all-solid-state NIBs. Here, we report a new Na-ion SSE, Na11Sn2PSe12, with a superior grain conductivity of 3.04 mS cm−1 and a total ionic conductivity of 2.15 mS cm−1 at 25 °C. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction, first-principles phonon calculations, and the proposed bonding energy model indicate that its superior ionic conductivity stems from the presence of a high density of dispersive Na+ vacancies, three-dimensional Na-ion conduction pathways, and a low bonding energy of the Na+ ion with its neighboring atoms. Na11Sn2PSe12 is used for the first time as the electrolyte in all-solid-state Na-Sn/TiS2 battery cell, which shows excellent rate performance and delivers a high reversible capacity of 66.2 mAh (g of TiS2)−1 after 100 cycles with cycling retention of 88.3% at a rate of 0.1 C at room temperature.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Rational design of a Si–Sn–C ternary anode having exceptional
           rate performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Byoung-Sun Lee, Ho-Sung Yang, Kang Hee Lee, Sungsoo Han, Woong-Ryeol Yu It is urgent to develop a new anode material that addresses the needs on high energy density as well as high power density of Li-ion batteries to meet the growing demands of high-performance mobile devices and electric vehicles. In this work, a new ternary composite (Si–Sn–C) anode material was designed to achieve exceptional rate performance by scavenging lost Si charge capacity at higher working potential of Sn (~ 0.9 V) under increased current densities. Si and Sn nanoparticles were separately compartmentalized in double-holed carbon nanofibers (Si–Sn–DHCNFs) to elucidate the working potential effect without a kinetic improvement by Sn. Si–Sn–DHCNFs showed high specific capacity (1000 mA h g−1 at 100 mA g−1) and exceptional rate performance (720 mA h g−1 at 10,000 mA g−1). Our work demonstrates that the design of new anode materials is a fruitful route to enhancing the power density of batteries.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Tailor-made metal-nitrogen-carbon bifunctional electrocatalysts for
           rechargeable Zn-air batteries via controllable MOF units
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Xuan Zhang, Jiangshui Luo, Heng-Fu Lin, Pengyi Tang, Joan Ramon Morante, Jordi Arbiol, Kai Wan, Bing-Wei Mao, Li-Min Liu, Jan Fransaer The majority of chemical syntheses involve the use of catalysts, which play a crucial role in the yield and conversion rates of chemical reactions. In view of the increasing demand for chemical commodities and specialties linked to the growth of the world's population and the living standards, highly efficient and low-cost catalysts are urgently required. The metal-nitrogen-carbon (M-N-C) catalysts family is one of the most promising candidates. In this work, a series of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate linker based metal organic frameworks (MOFs) were used as self-sacrificial templates and tunable platform for designable preparation of M-N-C catalysts. Changing the pillars between the 2D layers and the nature of the metal ions in the pristine MOFs significantly influenced the structure, chemical composition and catalytic activity of the resulting M-N-C catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Furthermore, the influence of the MOF units on the catalyst performance, the role of the metals in the M-N-C catalysts and the primary catalytically active sites for ORR were explored by a combination of density functional theory (DFT), in-depth structural and chemical/elemental characterizations, and electrochemical studies. Among the prepared catalysts, Co-BTC-bipy-700 exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), which showed a larger limiting current density and similar half-wave potentials with less catalyst degradation and much higher methanol tolerance than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. Meanwhile, as a bifunctional electrocatalyst, Co-BTC-bipy-700 catalyst was also employed for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and demonstrated a lower overpotential (lowered by 140 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm−2) and better durability than IrO2. Furthermore, in terms of device performance, the Zn-air battery enabled by Co-BTC-bipy-700 catalyst reached a maximum specific energy as high as 1009.8 Wh kg−1, which is 76.5% of the theoretical value (1320 Wh kg−1), and demonstrated higher discharge potential and lower charge potential than that based on the Pt/C catalyst. Importantly, the presented strategy for tailor-made M-N-C catalysts by controlling the synthesis of the pristine MOFs could offer a guide map for the future design of M-N-C catalysts family not only for electrochemical reactions but also beyond electrochemistry.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Low-cost AlCl3/Et3NHCl electrolyte for
           high-performance aluminum-ion battery
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Hanyan Xu, Tianwen Bai, Hao Chen, Fan Guo, Jiabin Xi, Tieqi Huang, Shengying Cai, Xingyuan Chu, Jun Ling, Weiwei Gao, Zhen Xu, Chao Gao The aluminum-ion battery is a very promising rechargeable battery system for its high-power-density and three-electron-redox aluminum anode. Currently, the aluminum-ion battery is mainly composed of aluminum anode and graphitic cathode, separated by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMIC)-based ionic liquid electrolyte. Despite of the progress made for cathode materials, its practical application is severely restricted by the high cost and low productivity of EMIC. Here we report a low-cost AlCl3/Et3NHCl room temperature ionic liquid electrolyte to fabricate practical yet high-performance Al-graphene battery. The battery shows 112 mAh g-1 cathodic capacity with 97.3% retention after 30,000 cycles and 84% retention even after an ultrahigh current density at 18 A g-1 (150 C, charged in 18 second). In this battery, electrochemical deposition/dissolution of aluminum at the anode while intercalation/de-intercalation of chloroaluminate anions in the graphene cathode take place during charge-discharge. The formation of a stage 3 graphene intercalation compound at fully charged state is confirmed. This pragmatic and cost-effective AlCl3/Et3NHCl room temperature ionic liquid grants the aluminum-ion battery with high performance and higher practical value.
  • Porous insulating matrix for lithium metal anode with long cycling
           stability and high power
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Bingqing Xu, Haowei Zhai, Xiangbiao Liao, Boyu Qie, Jyotirmoy Mandal, Tianyao Gong, Laiyuan Tan, Xiujia Yang, Kerui Sun, Qian Cheng, Meijie Chen, Yupeng Miao, Mian Wei, Bin Zhu, Yanke Fu, Aijun Li, Xi Chen, Wei Min, Ce-Wen Nan, Yuan-Hua Lin Lithium metal anode has great potential for high-energy-density lithium batteries due to its high theoretical capacity, but its practical applications are limited by the uncontrollable growth of lithium dendrites. In this work, we fabricate a facile 3D porous polymer structure with one-step phase inversion method and verify the structure by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy. Such 3D porous structure leads to uniform lithium plating and striping, improving the electrochemical performance remarkably. In Li/Cu cell tests, the porous structure modified Cu delivers high Coulombic Efficiency (CE) of 96% after 240 cycles at 1 mA/cm2, while bare Cu drops to less than 20% after 42 cycles. As for Li/Li cell tests, it delivers stable cycling over 1275 cycles with only 200 mV over potential at 3 mA/cm2 and 1 mAh/cm2 in Li/Li cells. At as high as 4 mA/cm2, it delivers more than 200 cycles with less than 200 mV. With PVdF-HFP interfacial layer, it could hold up to 4 mAh/cm2, it delivers more than 110 hours at 4 mA/cm2 and 4 mAh/cm2. The as-assembled LiFePO4/porous polymer/lithium full cell shows stable capacity around 153 mAh/g and no obvious voltage polarization over 350 cycles at 0.5 C. The stable cycling performance can be attributed to the lower current density from the large specific surface area of as-deposited lithium in porous polymer matrix and confined dendrite growth path in 3D porous structure.Graphical abstractLeft: The design of PVdF-HFP porous film.Middle: Cycling performance of Li/Li cells at 3 mA/cm2, 1 mAh/cm2Right: Effect of porous structure to suppress lithium dendritefx1
  • From double-helix structured seaweed to S-doped carbon aerogel with
           ultra-high surface area for energy storage
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Daohao Li, Guojing Chang, Lu Zong, Pan Xue, Yu Wang, Yanzhi Xia, Chao Lai, Dongjiang Yang :A sustainable biomass conversion and green strategy, using red algae derived carrageenan-Fe hydrogel as precursor, is developed to fabricate the 3D hierarchical macro-meso-microporous sulfur-doped carbon aerogel (HPSCA) with tunable nanopores and ultra-high surface area up to 4037.0 m2 g−1. The molecular-level dispersions of Fe3+ ions in carrageenan contribute to the ultra-high surface area of HPSCA after carbonization, acid washing and activation process. The attracting structure features make it an applicable candidate material in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries and double-layer supercapacitors (SCs). The highly developed porous structure of HPSCA can accommodate more sulfur (up to 80 wt%) to produce high-energy composite cathode with high specific capacity, cycle stability and long cycle life (400 cycles) in Li-S batteries. Meanwhile, HPSCA can present high specific capacitance of 335 and 217 F g−1 (1 A g−1) in the aqueous and organic electrolyte. Superior rate performance also can be obtained, and high capacitance of 204 F g−1 at 100 A g−1 and 173 F g−1 at 50 A g−1 in aqueous and organic electrolytes, respectively, is retained.Graphical abstractA sustainable biomass conversion strategy is developed to fabricate hierarchical porous sulfur-doped carbon aerogel with ultra-high surface area up to 4037.0 m2 g−1 for energy storage applications.fx1
  • Exceptional supercapacitor performance from optimized oxidation of
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Zhuangnan Li, Srinivas Gadipelli, Yuchen Yang, Guanjie He, Jian Guo, Juntao Li, Yue Lu, Christopher A. Howard, Dan J.L. Brett, Ivan P. Parkin, Feng Li, Zhengxiao Guo Graphene-based materials are highly desirable for supercapacitors, but vary considerably in reported properties despite being prepared by similar procedures; therefore, a clear route to improve the performance is currently lacking. Here, a direct correlation between the initial oxidation of graphene-oxide precursors and final supercapacitor performance is demonstrated. Building on this significant understanding, the optimized three-dimensional graphene frameworks achieve a superior gravimetric capacitance of 330 F g−1 in an aqueous electrolyte. This extraordinary performance is also validated in various electrolytes at a device level. In a commercially used organic electrolyte, an excellent volumetric energy density of 51 Wh L−1 can be delivered, which significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art commercial carbon-based devices. Furthermore, solid-state supercapacitor with a gel electrolyte shows an impressive capacitance of 285 F g−1 with a rate capability of 79% at 20 A g−1 and capacitance retention of 93% after 20,000 cycles. This study presents a versatile design principle for engineering chemically derived graphene towards diverse applications in energy storage.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Free-standing SnS/C nanofiber anodes for ultralong cycle-life lithium-ion
           batteries and sodium-ion batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Jing Xia, Li Liu, Sidra Jamil, Jianjun Xie, Hanxiao Yan, Yiting Yuan, Yue Zhang, Su Nie, Jing Pan, Xianyou Wang, Guozhong Cao The development of flexible energy storage devices is the key to widen the application of flexible electronics and wearable devices. Flexible electrodes with superior electrochemical performance are critical components for flexible energy storage devices. Herein, we propose a simple and versatile electrospinning strategy to prepare the SnS/C nanofibers (SnS/C NFs) film. By using SnS/C NFs film directly as a free-standing anode in both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), it can provide outstanding electrochemical performance. For LIBs, it delivers high capacities of 648 and 548 mA h g-1 at 200 and 500 mA g-1 respectively after 500 cycles. It even shows outstanding cyclability for 1000 cycles. For SIBs, it retains capacity of 481 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at 50 mA g-1. Moreover, the capacity remains as high as 349 mA h g-1 at 200 mA g-1 after 500 cycles. The outstanding electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the fact that the fine SnS nanoparticles dispersed in one-dimensional porous nanofibers with uniform diameters around 130 nm shorten the transport path of ions and electrons, and the presence of N-doped carbon enhanced the electrical conductivity as well as relieve the volume change caused by the alloying/de-alloying reaction. Besides, the ultra-robust mechanical flexibility of SnS/C NFs film makes it a promising anode candidate for flexible LIB and SIB in future.Graphical abstractfx1
  • A new high ionic conductive gel polymer electrolyte enables highly stable
           quasi-solid-state lithium sulfur battery
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Jinqiu Zhou, Haoqing Ji, Jie Liu, Tao Qian, Chenglin Yan Solid-state lithium battery is regarded as high safety and high energy density next-generation energy storage device, but its poor lithium ionic conductivity severely limits its practical application. To address above issues, we report a new super-high ionic conductive gel polymer (SHGP) electrolyte (2.2 × 10–3 S cm–1 at 60 °C and 0.75 × 10–3 S cm–1 at 30 °C), which are significant characteristics for greatly improved quasi-solid-state lithium sulfur battery performance. Moreover, the SHGP electrolyte exhibited strong adsorptivity to lithium polysulfides as the polar functional groups in the SHGP electrolyte through chemical adsorption, leading to the suppressed shuttle effect, which was theoretically confirmed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and experimentally verified by in-situ UV/Vis results. Such high ionic polymer electrolyte enables a greatly improved specific capacity of 950 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C and outstanding cycling performance for 400 cycles at 1.5 C, which is far beyond that of conventional poly (ethylene oxide) based quasi-solid-state battery.Graphical abstractWe report a new super-high ionic conductive gel polymer (SHGP) electrolyte (2.2 × 10–3 S cm–1 at 60 °C and 0.75 × 10–3 S cm–1 at 30 °C), which are significant characteristics for greatly improved quasi-solid-state lithium sulfur battery performance. Moreover, benefited from the strong interaction between lithium polysulfide and the nitrogen donor atoms in amino groups of SHGP, lithium polysulfide molecules are preferentially immobilized rightly on the surface of SHGP contacted with sulfur cathode rather than diffuse in the electrolyte, which could be theoretically confirmed by DFT calculations and MD simulations.fx1
  • Sustainable treatment of dye wastewater for high-performance rechargeable
           battery cathodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Jie Yang, Yun Yang, Anran Li, Zicheng Wang, Hua Wang, Dandan Yu, Pengfei Hu, Mengmeng Qian, Jie Lin, Lin Guo Currently, energy scarcity and environmental pollution are two severe challenges facing humanity. On one hand, significant efforts are being devoted to the development of sustainable, cheap, high-performance rechargeable battery cathodes. On the other hand, organic dyes are one of main contaminating components in plant effluents, damaging the ecological balance of surrounding areas as well as wasting a lot of valuable chemical raw materials. In this study, we rationally designed a strategy to simultaneously address these two issues. After carefully studying the chemical structure of dye molecules, we find that two types of widely-used dyes including phenothiazine dyes and anthraquinone derivatives with intrinsic redox centers can be effectively decolorized by adsorption removal with mesoporous carbon and directly resource-utilized for lithium-ion battery electrode materials. For example, the composite based on mesoporous carbon hosting methylene blue dye achieves an outstanding specific capacity of 107 mAh g-1 even at a high current of 3 A g-1 and long-term cycling stability with 82% initial capacity retention after 1000 cycles, which is comparable to the classic LiFePO4 material, and superior to many recently-reported organic cathode materials. Our strategy therefore “kills two birds with one stone”, enabling the development of high-performance battery cathodes based on organic dyes in combination with effective valorization of dye-containing wastewaters.Graphical abstractNovel cathode materials for rechargeable batteries can be fabricated by the adsorption removal of two types of widely-used organic dye wastewater with mesoporous carbon. The dye-based batteries exhibit high specific capacities, exceptionally high-rate and long-cycle-life electrochemical performance. Our work provides some new insights for the sustainable treatment and resource-utilization of dye wastewater.fx1
  • Insight on lithium metal anode interphasial chemistry: Reduction mechanism
           of cyclic ether solvent and SEI film formation
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Qi Liu, Arthur Cresce, Marshall Schroeder, Kang Xu, Daobin Mu, Borong Wu, Lili Shi, Feng Wu While the solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) originating from carbonate-based electrolytes has been extensively studied due to the success of Li-ion batteries, significantly less is known about the SEI formed in ether-based electrolytes, which have become increasingly important for many “beyond-Li ion” batteries, including lithium-sulfur and other lithium metal battery systems. Li dendrite growth and poor cycling efficiencies related to high rate and/or high capacity cycling of lithium are two of the primary factors limiting practical application of Li metal anodes. Similar to graphite in Li-ion batteries, these behaviors are inextricably linked to the mechanism for SEI formation, the resulting interphase chemistry, and the film stability during cycling—all of which require further understanding. Employing both computational and experimental means in this effort, we investigated the reduction chemistry of dimethoxyethane (DME) and 1,3-dioxolane (DOL) on the surface of metallic lithium. We determined that ether-based SEIs are layer-structured, with an outer organic/polymeric layer consisting of lithium oligoethoxides with C-C-O or O-C-O linkages and an inner layer of simple inorganic oxides (Li2O). Remarkably, although Li+ is preferentially solvated by DME, it is the cyclic DOL that primarily contributes to the interphase chemistry. This selective electrochemical reduction of ether solvents is corroborated by precise calculation of transition state structures and energies, providing a valuable guide for future design and manipulation of Li anode interphasial chemistries.
  • Bimetallic metal-organic frameworks derived Ni-Co-Se@C hierarchical
           bundle-like nanostructures with high-rate pseudocapacitive lithium ion
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Energy Storage Materials, Volume 17Author(s): Tao Yang, Yangai Liu, Dexin Yang, Bingbing Deng, Zhaohui Huang, Chris D. Ling, Hao Liu, Guoxiu Wang, Zaiping Guo, Rongkun Zheng Metal-organic frameworks and its derivates have attracted much attention for energy storage application. In this work, three-dimensional bimetallic metal-organic frameworks with novel hierarchical bundle-like micro/nanostructure were synthesized at room temperature for the first time. After initial carbonization and subsequent selenization, hierarchical porous Ni-Co-Se nanoparticles embedded in 3D carbon network with a high surface area that obviously inherited the original morphology of the bimetallic metal organic frameworks. The resulting materials demonstrated superior performance as the anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs): they provide high reversible Li-storage capacity, excellent cyclability (2061 mA h/g after 300 cycles) and high rate performance (493 mA h/g at 8 A/g). The features of Ni-Co-Se@C electrode include the synergistic effect of two metal selenides species for Li-storage, well-designed hierarchical porous bundle-like structure, steady carbon network and as-formed size-reduced particles after initial cycle process. These features not only enhanced the electronic properties and alleviated the volume variation of metal selenides during the repeated cycles, but also produced more active sites for lithium storage and a shorter lithium diffusion pathway to expedite the fast charge transfer and preserve a stable SEI layer, resulting in outstanding lithium storage performance. In addition, the pseudocapacitive behaviour contributes much to the high energy storage of lithium ions. These results uncover a facile methodology for the design of well-organized MOFs and transition metal dichalcogenides with 3D hierarchical structures.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Tailoring multi-layer architectured FeS2@C hybrids for superior sodium-,
           potassium- and aluminum-ion storage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Zhongchen Zhao, Zhengqiang Hu, Ruishun Jiao, Zhanhong Tang, Peng Dong, Yadong Li, Shandong Li, Hongsen Li The development of new rechargeable metal-ion (Na+, K+ or Al3+) batteries (MIBs) with high performance would break the global monopoly on lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, because of the larger ionic sizes of Na+, K+ and Al3+ in comparison to Li+, the requirement of electrode materials with suitable tunnels for these metal ions insertion/extraction is more stringent. Over years, a large number of electrodes materials are studied and optimized for a specific type of MIB, yet a universal suitable candidate that can be applied for all of them still remains scarce. Here we report a solvothermal method coupled with the sulfidation strategy to engineer novel multi-layer architecture of FeS2@C hybrids which is constructed from building blocks of ultrathin nanoflakes, favoring fast electrochemical energy storage. Electrochemical measurements show that the multi-layer structured FeS2@C hybrids enables reversible sodium-, potassium- and aluminum-ion storage process with high specific capacities, excellent rate capability and outstanding cycling stability. We hope that this research will inspire new ideas for developing various electrode materials for high-performance MIBs.Graphical abstractMulti-layer architecture of FeS2@C with ultrathin nanoflakes is synthesized by a solvothermal method coupled with the sulfidation strategy, which exhibits excellent electrochemical performance for sodium-, potassium- and aluminum-ion batteries.fx1
  • Stable cycling of mesoporous Sn4P3/SnO2@C nanosphere anode with high
           initial coulombic efficiency for Li-ion batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Yu Xia, Shaobo Han, Yuanming Zhu, Yongye Liang, Meng Gu Tin dioxide is one promising anode due to its high-capacity of conversion-reaction during lithiation. However, its applications are often hindered by its low initial Coulombic efficiency caused by irreversible Li2O formation and huge volume expansion during lithiation. Here, we synthesized Sn4P3/SnO2 hollow nanospheres in carbon matrix as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The in-situ phosphorization of SnO2 promotes the initial Coulombic efficiency to ~77% with a high capacity of 975 mA h g−1. Moreover, it exhibits an excellent rate performance of 713 mA h g−1 at 2 A g−1. Using in-situ transmission electron microscopy, its volume increase was closely monitored to be only ~84.8% (largely improved compared with over 200% increase for SnO2) during the first lithiation and Sn4P3/SnO2@C can maintain structural integrity and form a stable SEI layer. Our approach is low-cost and simple enough for large-scale manufacture and can be widely applied to other oxide anodes to enhance its performance through phosphorization and forming composite with conductive carbon matrix.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Sustainable supercapacitor electrodes produced by the activation of
           biomass with sodium thiosulfate
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Marta Sevilla, Noel Diez, Guillermo A. Ferrero, Antonio B. Fuertes High-surface area carbons are produced from biomass-based products (wood sawdust and tannic acid) by means of an environmentally friendly process based on the use of sodium thiosulfate as activating agent and an inert salt (KCl) that serves as a confinement medium for the activation reaction. These porous carbons have high BET surface areas of up to 2650 m2 g-1, large pore volumes of up to 2.3 cm3 g-1 and a porosity that combines micro- and mesopores in different amounts depending on the quantity of activating agent employed. Such carbons have two additional remarkable properties: a) they are S-doped (2–6 wt% S) and b) they have good electrical conductivities in the 2.5–4.5 S cm-1 range. The above properties make these carbon materials highly attractive as supercapacitor electrodes. Indeed, when tested in a variety of electrolytes (H2SO4, TEABF4/AN and EMImTFSI) using commercial-level mass loadings, they show high specific capacitances (up to 200 F g-1, 140 F g-1 and 160 F g-1 in aqueous, organic and ionic liquid electrolytes, respectively) and high capacitance retention at high rates in all the electrolytes in combination with a good stability under cycling and floating modes.Graphical fx1
  • Electrode thickness matching for achieving high-volumetric-performance
           lithium-ion capacitors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2019Source: Energy Storage MaterialsAuthor(s): Daliang Han, Zhe Weng, Pei Li, Ying Tao, Changjun Cui, Lina Zhang, Wenna Lin, Yang Gao, Debin Kong, Quan-Hong Yang For lithium-ion capacitors (LICs), the electrode mass balancing and the electrode potential tuning are two techniques that have been widely used to maximize the gravimetric specific capacity and voltage to achieve a maximum gravimetric energy density. However, it is also great important to consider the volumetric performances of energy storage devices for the compact and portable applications. Herein, for achieving high-volumetric-performance LICs, we propose an electrode thickness matching strategy, which is to minimize the thickness of thick cathodes as close to the one of thin anodes as possible via increasing the gravimetric specific capacity and density of cathode materials. It is demonstrated that introducing a highly dense but porous activated carbon/graphene (AC/G) composite rather than the low-density traditional activated carbon as the cathode material, the volumetric energy density of the assembled AC/G//graphite LIC can be increased by 62% to reach a maximum of 98 Wh L-1, which represents one of the highest records for the contemporary LICs. We believe that the thickness matching should be a universal strategy for achieving high volumetric performances and can be applicable to other electrochemical energy storage devices.Graphical abstractThe thickness reduced cathode can remarkably improve the volumetric energy density of the assembled lithium-ion capacitor by 62%.fx1
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Heriot-Watt University
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