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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 207 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advanced Materials Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Australian Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 309)
ECTI Transactions on Computer and Information Technology (ECTI-CIT)     Open Access  
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 124)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 109)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 103)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elektronika ir Elektortechnika     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Emitor : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
EPE Journal : European Power Electronics and Drives     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 102)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Letters on Electromagnetic Compatibility Practice and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Magnetics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Open Journal of Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Open Journal of Industry Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 77)
IEEE Pulse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 367)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 227)
IEEE Transactions on Haptics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
IEEE Women in Engineering Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access  
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Jurnal ELTIKOM : Jurnal Teknik Elektro, Teknologi Informasi dan Komputer     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Revue Méditerranéenne des Télécommunications     Open Access  
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2313-0105
Published by MDPI Homepage  [230 journals]
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 35: A Review on Temperature-Dependent
           Electrochemical Properties, Aging, and Performance of Lithium-Ion Cells

    • Authors: Alipour, Ziebert, Conte, Kizilel
      First page: 35
      Abstract: : Temperature heavily affects the behavior of any energy storage chemistries. In particular, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) play a significant role in almost all storage application fields, including Electric Vehicles (EVs). Therefore, a full comprehension of the influence of the temperature on the key cell components and their governing equations is mandatory for the effective integration of LIBs into the application. If the battery is exposed to extreme thermal environments or the desired temperature cannot be maintained, the rates of chemical reactions and/or the mobility of the active species may change drastically. The alteration of properties of LIBs with temperature may create at best a performance problem and at worst a safety problem. Despite the presence of many reports on LIBs in the literature, their industrial realization has still been difficult, as the technologies developed in different labs have not been standardized yet. Thus, the field requires a systematic analysis of the effect of temperature on the critical properties of LIBs. In this paper, we report a comprehensive review of the effect of temperature on the properties of LIBs such as performance, cycle life, and safety. In addition, we focus on the alterations in resistances, energy losses, physicochemical properties, and aging mechanism when the temperature of LIBs are not under control.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6030035
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 21: SEI Growth Impacts of Lamination, Formation
           and Cycling in Lithium Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Frankenberger, Trunk, Seidlmayer, Dinter, Dittloff, Werner, Gernhäuser, Revay, Märkisch, Gilles, Pettinger
      First page: 21
      Abstract: The accumulation of solid electrolyte interphases (SEI) in graphite anodes related to elevated formation rates (0.1C, 1C and 2C), cycling rates (1C and 2C), and electrode-separator lamination is investigated. As shown previously, the lamination technique is beneficial for the capacity aging in graphite-LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cells. Here, surface resistance growth phenomena are quantified using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The graphite anodes were extracted from the graphite NMC cells in their fully discharged state and irreversible accumulations of lithium in the SEI are revealed using neutron depth profiling (NDP). In this post-mortem study, NDP reveals uniform lithium accumulations as a function of depth with lithium situated at the surface of the graphite particles thus forming the SEI. The SEI was found to grow logarithmically with cycle number starting with the main formation in the initial cycles. Furthermore, the EIS measurements indicate that benefits from lamination arise from surface resistance growth phenomena aside from SEI growth in superior anode fractions.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6020021
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 22: Effect of Ball Milling on the Electrochemical
           Performance of Activated Carbon with a Very High Specific Surface Area

    • Authors: Takuya Eguchi, Yugo Kanamoto, Masahiro Tomioka, Daisuke Tashima, Seiji Kumagai
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Activated carbon (AC) with a very high specific surface area of >3000 m2 g−1 and a number of course particles (average size: 75 µm) was pulverized by means of planetary ball milling under different conditions to find its greatest performances as the active material of an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) using a nonaqueous electrolyte. The variations in textural properties and particle morphology of the AC during the ball milling were investigated. The electrochemical performance (specific capacitance, rate and cyclic stabilities, and Ragone plot, both from gravimetric and volumetric viewpoints) was also evaluated for the ACs milled with different particle size distributions. A trade-off relation between the pulverization and the porosity maintenance of the AC was observed within the limited milling time. However, prolonged milling led to a degeneration of pores within the AC and a saturation of pulverization degree. The appropriate milling time provided the AC a high volumetric specific capacitance, as well as the greatest maintenance of both the gravimetric and volumetric specific capacitance. A high volumetric energy density of 6.6 Wh L−1 was attained at the high-power density of 1 kW L−1, which was a 35% increment compared with the nonmilled AC. The electrode densification (decreased interparticle gap) and the enhanced ion-transportation within the AC pores, which were attributed to the pulverization, were responsible for those excellent performances. It was also shown that excessive milling could degrade the EDLC performances because of the lowered micro- and meso-porosity and the excessive electrode densification to restrict the ion-transportation within the pores.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6020022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 23: Theoretical Impact of Manufacturing Tolerance
           on Lithium-Ion Electrode and Cell Physical Properties

    • Authors: William Yourey
      First page: 23
      Abstract: The range of electrode porosity, electrode internal void volume, cell capacity, and capacity ratio that result from electrode coating and calendering tolerance can play a considerable role in cell-to-cell and lot-to-lot performance variation. Based on a coating loading tolerance of ±0.4 mg/cm2 and calender tolerance of ±3.0 μm, the resulting theoretical range of physical properties was investigated. For a target positive electrode porosity of 30%, the resulting porosity can range from 19.6% to 38.6%. To account for this variation during the manufacturing process, as much as 41% excess or as little as 59% of the target electrolyte quantity should be added to cells to match the positive electrode void volume. Similar results are reported for a negative electrode of 40% target porosity, where a range from 30.8% to 48.0% porosity is possible. For the negative electrode as little as 72% up to 28% excess electrolyte should be added to fill the internal void space. Although the results are specific to each electrode composition, density, chemistry, and loading the presented process highlight the possible variability of the produced parts. These results are further magnified as cell design moves toward higher power applications with thinner electrode coatings.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6020023
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 24: Electrical Modelling and Investigation of
           Laser Beam Welded Joints for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Sören Hollatz, Sebastian Kremer, Cem Ünlübayir, Dirk Uwe Sauer, Alexander Olowinsky, Arnold Gillner
      First page: 24
      Abstract: The growing electrification of vehicles and tools increases the demand for low resistance contacts. Today’s batteries for electric vehicles consist of large quantities of single battery cells to reach the desired nominal voltage and energy. Each single cell needs a contacting of its cell terminals, which raises the necessity of an automated contacting process with low joint resistances to reduce the energy loss in the cell transitions. A capable joining process suitable for highly electrically conductive materials like copper or aluminium is the laser beam welding. This study contains the theoretical examination of the joint resistance and a simulation of the current flow dependent on the contacting welds’ position in an overlap configuration. The results are verified by examinations of laser-welded joints in a test bench environment. The investigations are analysing the influence of the shape and position of the weld seams as well as the influence of the laser welding parameters. The investigation identifies a tendency for current to flow predominantly through a contact’s edges. The use of a double weld seam with the largest possible distance greatly increases the joint’s conductivity, by leveraging this tendency and implementing a parallel connection. A simplistic increase of welded contact area does not only have a significantly smaller effect on the overall conductivity, but can eventually also reduce it.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6020024
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 25: In-Operando Impedance Spectroscopy and
           Ultrasonic Measurements during High-Temperature Abuse Experiments on
           Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Hendrik Zappen, Georg Fuchs, Alexander Gitis, Dirk Uwe Sauer
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Lithium-Ion batteries are used in ever more demanding applications regarding operating range and safety requirements. This work presents a series of high-temperature abuse experiments on a nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide (NMC)/graphite lithium-ion battery cell, using advanced in-operando measurement techniques like fast impedance spectroscopy and ultrasonic waves, as well as strain-gauges. the presented results show, that by using these methods degradation effects at elevated temperature can be observed in real-time. These methods have the potential to be integrated into a battery management system in the future. Therefore they make it possible to achieve higher battery safety even under the most demanding operating conditions.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6020025
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 26: Experimental Data Comparison of an Electric
           Minibus Equipped with Different Energy Storage Systems

    • Authors: Fabio Cignini, Antonino Genovese, Fernando Ortenzi, Adriano Alessandrini, Lorenzo Berzi, Luca Pugi, Riccardo Barbieri
      First page: 26
      Abstract: As electric mobility becomes more important every day, scientific research brings us new solutions that increase performance, reduce financial and economic impacts and increase the market share of electric vehicles. Therefore, there is a necessity to compare technical and economic aspects of different technologies for each transport application. This article presents a comparison of three bus prototypes in terms of dynamic performance. The analysis is based on the collection of real data (acceleration, maximum speed and energy consumption) under different settings. Each developed prototype uses the same bus chassis but relies on different energy storage systems. Results show that the dynamic bus performance is independent on the three energy storage technologies, whereas technologies affect the management costs, charging time and available range. An extensive experimental analysis reveals that the bus equipped with a hybrid storage (lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors) had the most favorable net present value, in comparison with storage composed of only lead–acid or lithium-ion batteries. This result is due to the greater life of lithium-ion batteries and to the capability of supercapacitors, which reduce both batteries depth of discharge and discharge rate.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6020026
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 27: A Newly Designed Modular ZnBr2 Single Cell

    • Authors: Zongqiang Pang, Yutao Gong, Ming Yuan, Xin Li
      First page: 27
      Abstract: We describe a ZnBr2 single cell which has a highly modular symmetrical structure. With designed polyethylene shell frames, membrane frame and composite titanium-carbon felt electrodes, it has a higher energy density and is more flexible compared with traditional flow batteries. We repeatedly tested its performance, which showed good tightness, high reliability and a high energy efficiency of 75%. Due to the special symmetrical structure and modular design, it is easy to assemble and disassemble, which makes it suitable as a test platform for electrodes, membranes and electrolyte performance testing. The designed modular flow cell has low cost and high energy density, and can provide good guidance for flow battery research.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6020027
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 28: Improved Adhesion of Nafion™-Coated
           Separator to Water-Processable LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Electrodes

    • Authors: Laura Malavolta, Antonio Terella, Francesca De Giorgio, Catia Arbizzani
      First page: 28
      Abstract: The adhesion between electrode and separator is a key feature in cell assembly. Nafion™-coated separators for water-processed LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) electrodes are here proposed as an alternative to the polyolefin separators. Specifically, polyolefin separators are modified with Nafion™ solutions and their adhesion to high-potential LNMO electrodes is investigated. The physicochemical properties of the Nafion™-coated separator and its electrochemical performance in Li/LNMO cells are discussed and compared to those obtained with polyolefin Celgard® (Charlotte, NC, USA) PP2075 separator. Improved adhesion and cycling stability, which could be further enhanced by a mild lamination process, were demonstrated with a thin layer of Nafion™ (0.1 mg cm−2).
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6020028
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 29: Effect of the Particle Size Distribution on
           the Cahn-Hilliard Dynamics in a Cathode of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: L’vov, Sibatov
      First page: 29
      Abstract: The phase-field model based on the Cahn-Hilliard equation is employed to simulate lithium intercalation dynamics in a cathode with particles of distributed size. We start with a simplified phase-field model for a single submicron particle under galvanostatic condition. We observe two stages associated with single-phase and double-phase patterns typical for both charging and discharging processes. The single-phase stage takes approximately 10%–15% of the process and plays an important role in the intercalation dynamics. We establish the laws for speed of front propagation and evolution of single-phase concentration valid for different sizes of electrode particles and a wide range of temperatures and C-rates. The universality of these laws allows us to formulate the boundary condition with time-dependent flux density for the Cahn-Hilliard equation and analyze the phase-field intercalation in a heterogeneous cathode characterized by the particle size distribution.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6020029
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 30: Comprehensive Hazard Analysis of Failing
           Automotive Lithium-Ion Batteries in Overtemperature Experiments

    • Authors: Christiane Essl, Andrey W. Golubkov, Eva Gasser, Manfred Nachtnebel, Armin Zankel, Eduard Ewert, Anton Fuchs
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are gaining importance in the automotive sector because of the potential of electric vehicles (EVs) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution. However, there are serious hazards resulting from failing battery cells leading to exothermic chemical reactions inside the cell, called thermal runaway (TR). Literature of quantifying the failing behavior of modern automotive high capacity cells is rare and focusing on single hazard categories such as heat generation. Thus, the aim of this study is to quantify several hazard relevant parameters of a failing currently used battery cell extracted from a modern mass-produced EV: the temperature response of the cell, the maximum reached cell surface temperature, the amount of produced vent gas, the gas venting rate, the composition of the produced gases including electrolyte vapor and the size and composition of the produced particles at TR. For this purpose, overtemperature experiments with fresh 41 Ah automotive lithium NMC/LMO—graphite pouch cells at different state-of-charge (SOC) 100%, 30% and 0% are performed. The results are valuable for firefighters, battery pack designers, cell recyclers, cell transportation and all who deal with batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6020030
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 31: Design and Simulation of Internal Flowing
           Twisted Conduits for Cooling of Lithium-Ion Batteries through Thermal

    • Authors: Madani, Schaltz, Knudsen Kær
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries are extensively used for electric vehicles, owing to their great power and energy density. A battery thermal management system is essential for lithium-ion batteries. With the extensive utilization of liquid-cooling approaches for lithium-ion batteries’ thermal management, temperature homogeneity is considerably influenced by coolant distribution. A lower temperature of the cooling fluid brings about a lower temperature of the cell, but the relation and the amount are important to be analyzed. The cooling efficiency is considerably influenced by the flowing conduit arrangement in the cooling plate. Different parameters are affected by the cooling performance of the battery pack. Consequently, the effect of entrance temperature of coolant fluid, current rate, environment temperature, entrance velocity of the coolant fluid, and plate material on the performance and efficiency of a battery thermal management system were investigated. In this investigation, the program ANSYS/FLUENT was employed as the numerical solver to solve the problem. The simulation was accomplished after the end of the discharge. It was seen that the temperature distributions were the most sensitive to the entrance velocity of coolant fluid. It was concluded that the entrance velocity of coolant fluid has the greatest impact on the cooling efficiency and performance of the cold plate.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6020031
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 32: Unification of Internal Resistance Estimation
           Methods for Li-Ion Batteries Using Hysteresis-Free Equivalent Circuit

    • Authors: S M Rakiul Islam, Sung-Yeul Park, Balakumar Balasingam
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Internal resistance is one of the important parameters in the Li-Ion battery. This paper identifies it using two different methods: electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and parameter estimation based on equivalent circuit model (ECM). Comparing internal resistance, the conventional parameter estimation method yields a different value than EIS. Therefore, a hysteresis-free parameter identification method based on ECM is proposed. The proposed technique separates hysteresis resistance from the effective resistance. It precisely estimated actual internal resistance, which matches the internal resistance obtained from EIS. In addition, state of charge, open circuit voltage, and different internal equivalent circuit components were identified. The least square method was used to identify the parameters based on ECM. A parameter extraction algorithm to interpret impedance spectrum obtained from the EIS. The algorithm is based on the properties of Nyquist plot, phasor algebra, and resonances. Experiments were conducted using a cellphone pouch battery and a cylindrical 18650 battery.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6020032
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 33: Aging of Extracted and Reassembled Li-ion
           Electrode Material in Terms of Coin Cell-Capabilities and Limitations

    • Authors: Alexander Uwe Schmid, Alexander Ridder, Matthias Hahn, Kai Schofer, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Cycling Li-ion cells with large capacities requires high currents and hence an expensive measurement setup. Aging the Li-ion cell material in coin cells offers an orders-of-magnitude-lower power requirement to the battery tester. The preparation procedure used in this work allows one to build coin cells in a reproducible manner. The original 40 Ah pouch cells and the corresponding 4.3 mAh coin cells (PAT-Cell) utilizing electrode material from the original cells are cycled with 1C at different temperatures. The results show the same basic aging mechanisms in both cell types: loss of lithium inventory at room temperature but an increasing proportion of loss of active material toward higher temperatures. This is confirmed by similar activation energies in capacity degradation of the 40 Ah cells and the averaged coin cells. However, the capacity of the coin cells decreases faster over time. This is caused by diffusion of moisture into the coin cell housing. Nonetheless, the increasing water contamination over measurement time is not directly linked to the loss of capacity of the coin cells. Thus, the observed aging mechanisms of the 40 Ah cells can be qualitatively transferred to coin cell level.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6020033
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 34: Investigation of the Effects of Charging
           Processes on Lithium-Ion Cells with SiC Anodes at Low Temperatures

    • Authors: Ralph Bednorz, Tanja Gewald
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Lithium-ion cells with a silicon-graphite (SiC) anode and a nickel-rich cathode are potential candidates for use in electric vehicles (EVs) as this material combination offers high energy densities and low costs. Another desired cell specification that results from an intended short charging time for EVs is the robustness against high charge rates. However, high charge rates can lead to the critical aging mechanism of lithium plating, especially at low temperatures. Investigating this issue, this paper presents a test series on cyclic aging with varying charge rates from 0.2C to 1.5C at ambient temperatures of 0 °C and 10 °C applied to a nickel-rich SiC cell candidate. The resulting effects on cell aging are analyzed with a stripping method, whereby reversible lithium plating can be detected, and a differential voltage analysis (DVA), whereby the overall loss of capacity can be attributed to changes in individual characteristic capacities. The results indicate a degradation sensitivity of SiC anodes at elevated charge rates, evidenced by the loss in the silicon-related characteristic capacity, and question the aging robustness of this material combination.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6020034
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 3: The Impact of Environmental Factors on the
           Thermal Characteristic of a Lithium–ion Battery

    • Authors: Liebig, Kirstein, Geißendörfer, Schuldt, Agert
      First page: 3
      Abstract: To draw reliable conclusions about the thermal characteristic of or a preferential cooling strategy for a lithium–ion battery, the correct set of thermal input parameters and a detailed battery layout is crucial. In our previous work, an electrochemical model for a commercially-available, 40 Ah prismatic lithium–ion battery was validated under heuristic temperature dependence. In this work the validated electrochemical model is coupled to a spatially resolved, three dimensional (3D), thermal model of the same battery to evaluate the thermal characteristics, i.e., thermal barriers and preferential heat rejection patterns, within common environment layouts. We discuss to which extent the knowledge of the batteries’ interior layout can be constructively used for the design of an exterior battery thermal management. It is found from the study results that: (1) Increasing the current rate without considering an increased heat removal flux at natural convection at higher temperatures will lead to increased model deviations; (2) Centralized fan air-cooling within a climate chamber in a multi cell test arrangement can lead to significantly different thermal characteristics at each battery cell; (3) Increasing the interfacial surface area, at which preferential battery interior and exterior heat rejection match, can significantly lower the temperature rise and inhomogeneity within the electrode stack and increase the batteries’ lifespan.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-01-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010003
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 4: State-of-Charge Monitoring and Battery
           Diagnosis of NiCd Cells Using Impedance Spectroscopy

    • Authors: Kurzweil, Scheuerpflug
      First page: 4
      Abstract: With respect to aeronautical applications, the state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) of rechargeable nickel–cadmium batteries was investigated with the help of the frequency-dependent reactance Im Z(ω) and the pseudo-capacitance C(ω) in the frequency range between 1 kHz and 0.1 Hz. The method of SOC monitoring using impedance spectroscopy is evaluated with the example of 1.5-year long-term measurements of commercial devices. A linear correlation between voltage and capacitance is observed as long as overcharge and deep discharge are avoided. Pseudo-charge Q(ω) = C(ω)⋅U at 1 Hz with respect to the rated capacity is proposed as a reliable SOH indicator for rapid measurements. The benefit of different evaluation methods and diagram types for impedance data is outlined.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010004
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 5: Synthesis of a NiMoO4/3D-rGO Nanocomposite via
           Starch Medium Precipitation Method for Supercapacitor Performance

    • Authors: Shahrzad Arshadi Rastabi, Rasoul Sarraf Mamoory, Nicklas Blomquist, Manisha Phadatare, Håkan Olin
      First page: 5
      Abstract: This paper presents research on the synergistic effects of nickel molybdate and reduced graphene oxide as a nanocomposite for further development of energy storage systems. An enhancement in the electrochemical performance of supercapacitor electrodes occurs by synthesizing highly porous structures and achieving more surface area. In this work, a chemical precipitation technique was used to synthesize the NiMoO4/3D-rGO nanocomposite in a starch media. Starch was used to develop the porosities of the nanostructure. A temperature of 350 °C was applied to transform graphene oxide sheets to reduced graphene oxide and remove the starch to obtain the NiMoO4/3D-rGO nanocomposite with porous structure. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the NiMoO4 nano particles indicated a monoclinic structure. Also, the scanning electron microscope observation showed that the NiMoO4 NPs were dispersed across the rGO sheets. The electrochemical results of the NiMoO4/3D-rGO electrode revealed that the incorporation of rGO sheets with NiMoO4 NPs increased the capacity of the nanocomposite. Therefore, a significant increase in the specific capacity of the electrode was observed with the NiMoO4/3D-rGO nanocomposite (450 Cg−1 or 900 Fg−1) when compared with bare NiMoO4 nanoparticles (350 Cg−1 or 700 Fg−1) at the current density of 1 A g−1. Our findings show that the incorporation of rGO and NiMoO4 NP redox reactions with a porous structure can benefit the future development of supercapacitors.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-01-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010005
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 6: Accelerated Aging Characterization of
           Lithium-ion Cells: Using Sensitivity Analysis to Identify the Stress
           Factors Relevant to Cyclic Aging

    • Authors: Tanja Gewald, Adrian Candussio, Leo Wildfeuer, Dirk Lehmkuhl, Alexander Hahn, Markus Lienkamp
      First page: 6
      Abstract: As storage technology in electric vehicles, lithium-ion cells are subject to a continuous aging process during their service life that, in the worst case, can lead to a premature system failure. Battery manufacturers thus have an interest in the aging prediction during the early design phase, for which semi-empirical aging models are often used. The progress of aging is dependent on the application-specific load profile, more precisely on the aging-relevant stress factors. Still, a literature review reveals a controversy on the aging-relevant stress factors to use as input parameters for the simulation models. It shows that, at present, a systematic and efficient procedure for stress factor selection is missing, as the aging characteristic is cell-specific. In this study, an accelerated sensitivity analysis as a prior step to aging modeling is proposed, which is transferable and allows to determine the actual aging-relevant stress factors for a specific lithium-ion cell. For the assessment of this accelerated approach, two test series with different acceleration levels and cell types are performed and evaluated. The results show that a certain amount of charge throughput, 100 equivalent full cycles in this case, is necessary to conduct a statistically significant sensitivity analysis.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010006
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 7: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Batteries in

    • Authors: Batteries Editorial Office
      First page: 7
      Abstract: The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...]
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010007
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 8: Degradation and Aging Routes of Ni-rich
           Cathode Based Li-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Teichert, Eshetu, Jahnke, Figgemeier
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Driven by the increasing plea for greener transportation and efficient integration of renewable energy sources, Ni-rich metal layered oxides, namely NMC, Li [Ni1−x−yCoyMnz] O2 (x + y ≤ 0.4), and NCA, Li [Ni1−x−yCoxAly] O2, cathode materials have garnered huge attention for the development of Next-Generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The impetus behind such huge celebrity includes their higher capacity and cost effectiveness when compared to the-state-of-the-art LiCoO2 (LCO) and other low Ni content NMC versions. However, despite all the beneficial attributes, the large-scale deployment of Ni-rich NMC based LIBs poses a technical challenge due to less stability of the cathode/electrolyte interphase (CEI) and diverse degradation processes that are associated with electrolyte decomposition, transition metal cation dissolution, cation–mixing, oxygen release reaction etc. Here, the potential degradation routes, recent efforts and enabling strategies for mitigating the core challenges of Ni-rich NMC cathode materials are presented and assessed. In the end, the review shed light on the perspectives for the future research directions of Ni-rich cathode materials.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010008
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 9: Corrections of Voltage Loss in Hydrogen-Oxygen
           Fuel Cells

    • Authors: Lyu, Kudiiarov, Lider
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Normally, the Nernst voltage calculated from the concentration of the reaction gas in the flow channel is considered to be the ideal voltage (reversible voltage) of the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell. The Nernst voltage loss in fuel cells in most of the current literature is thought to be due to the difference in concentration of reaction gas in the flow channel and concentration of reaction gas on the catalyst layer at the time as when the high net current density is generated. Based on the Butler–Volmer equation in the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell, this paper demonstrates that Nernst voltage loss caused by concentration difference of reaction gas in the flow channel and reaction gas on the catalyst layer at equilibrium potential. According to the relationship between the current density and the concentration difference it can be proven that Nernst voltage loss does not exist in hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells because there is no concentration difference of reaction gas in the flow channel and on the catalytic layer at equilibrium potential when the net current density is zero.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010009
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 10: In Situ Measurement of Orthotropic Thermal
           Conductivity on Commercial Pouch Lithium-Ion Batteries with Thermoelectric

    • Authors: Aiello, Kovachev, Brunnsteiner, Schwab, Gstrein, Sinz, Ellersdorfer
      First page: 10
      Abstract: In this paper, the direct measurement of the orthotropic thermal conductivity on a commercial Li-ion pouch battery is presented. The samples under analysis are state-of-the art batteries obtained from a fully electric vehicle commercialized in 2016. The proposed methodology does not require a laboratory equipped to manage hazardous chemical substances as the battery does not need to be disassembled. The principle of the measurement methodology consists of forcing a thermal gradient on the battery along the desired direction and measuring the heat flux and temperature after the steady state condition has been reached. A thermoelectric device has been built in order to force the thermal gradient and keep it stable over a long period of time in order to be able to observe the temperatures in steady state condition. Aligned with other measurement methodologies, the results revealed that the thermal conductivity in the thickness direction (0.77 Wm−1K−1) is lower with respect to the other two directions (25.55 Wm−1K−1 and 25.74 Wm−1K−1) to about a factor 35.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010010
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 11: Comparison of Single-Ion Conducting Polymer
           Gel Electrolytes for Sodium, Potassium, and Calcium Batteries: Influence
           of Polymer Chemistry, Cation Identity, Charge Density, and Solvent on

    • Authors: Hunter O. Ford, Chuanchuan Cui, Jennifer L. Schaefer
      First page: 11
      Abstract: From the standpoint of material diversification and sustainability, the development of so-called “beyond lithium-ion” battery chemistries is important for the future of energy storage. Na, K, and Ca are promising as the basis for battery chemistries in that these elements are highly abundant. Here, a series of single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes (SIPEs) for Na, K, and Ca batteries are synthesized and investigated. The two classes of metal cation neutralized SIPEs compared are crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate-x-styrene sulfonate (PEGDMA-SS) and poly(tetrahydrofuran) diacrylate-x-4-styrenesulfonyl (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (PTHFDA-STFSI); three cation types, three charge densities, and four swelling states are examined. The impact on conductivity of all of these parameters is studied, and in conjunction with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), it is found that promoting ion dissociation and preventing the formation of dense ionic aggregates facilitates ion transport. These results indicate many of the lessons learned from the Li SIPE literature can be translated to beyond Li chemistries. At 25 °C, the best performing Na/K and Ca exchanged polymers yield active cation conductivity on the order of 10−4 S/cm and 10−6 S/cm, respectively, for ethylene carbonate:propylene carbonate gelled SIPEs, and 10−5 S/cm and 10−7 S/cm, respectively, for glyme gelled SIPEs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010011
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 12: Inhomogeneous Temperature Distribution

    • Authors: Werner, Paarmann, Wiebelt, Wetzel
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Temperature has a significant influence on the behavior of batteries and their lifetime. There are several studies in literature that investigate the aging behavior under electrical load, but are limited to homogeneous, constant temperatures. This article presents an approach to quantifying cyclic aging of lithium-ion cells that takes into account complex thermal boundary conditions. It not only considers different temperature levels but also spatial and transient temperature gradients that can occur despite-or even due to-the use of thermal management systems. Capacity fade and impedance rise are used as measured quantities for degradation and correlated with the temperature boundary conditions during the aging process. The concept and definition of an equivalent aging temperature (EAT) is introduced to relate the degradation caused by spatial and temporal temperature inhomogeneities to similar degradation caused by a homogeneous steady temperature during electrical cycling. The results show an increased degradation at both lower and higher temperatures, which can be very well described by two superimposed exponential functions. These correlations also apply to cells that are cycled under the influence of spatial temperature gradients, both steady and transient. Only cells that are exposed to transient, but spatially homogeneous temperature conditions show a significantly different aging behavior. The concluding result is a correlation between temperature and aging rate, which is expressed as degradation per equivalent full cycle (EFC). This enables both temperature-dependent modeling of the aging behavior and its prediction.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010012
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 13: Inhomogeneous Temperature Distribution
           Affecting the Cyclic Aging of Li-Ion Cells. Part I: Experimental

    • Authors: Werner, Paarmann, Wiebelt, Wetzel
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Alongside electrical loads, it is known that temperature has a strong influence on battery behavior and lifetime. Investigations have mainly been performed at homogeneous temperatures and non-homogeneous conditions in single cells have at best been simulated. This publication presents the development of a methodology and experimental setup to investigate the influence of thermal boundary conditions during the operation of lithium-ion cells. In particular, spatially inhomogeneous and transient thermal boundary conditions and periodical electrical cycles were superimposed in different combinations. This required a thorough design of the thermal boundary conditions applied to the cells. Unlike in other contributions that rely on placing cells in a climatic chamber to control ambient air temperature, here the cell surfaces and tabs were directly connected to individual cooling and heating plates. This improves the control of the cells’ internal temperature, even with high currents accompanied by strong internal heat dissipation. The aging process over a large number of electrical cycles is presented by means of discharge capacity and impedance spectra determined in repeated intermediate characterizations. The influence of spatial temperature gradients and temporal temperature changes on the cyclic degradation is revealed. It appears that the overall temperature level is indeed a decisive parameter for capacity fade during cyclic aging, while the intensity of a temperature gradient is not as essential. Furthermore, temperature changes can have a substantial impact and potentially lead to stronger degradation than spatial inhomogeneities.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010013
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 14: Modelling Lithium-Ion Battery Ageing in
           Electric Vehicle Applications—Calendar and Cycling Ageing Combination

    • Authors: Eduardo Redondo-Iglesias, Pascal Venet, Serge Pelissier
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Battery ageing is an important issue in e-mobility applications. The performance degradation of lithium-ion batteries has a strong influence on electric vehicles’ range and cost. Modelling capacity fade of lithium-ion batteries is not simple: many ageing mechanisms can exist and interact. Because calendar and cycling ageings are not additive, a major challenge is to model battery ageing in applications where the combination of cycling and rest periods are variable as, for example, in the electric vehicle application. In this work, an original approach to capacity fade modelling based on the formulation of reaction rate of a two-step reaction is proposed. A simple but effective model is obtained: based on only two differential equations and seven parameters, it can reproduce the capacity evolution of lithium-ion cells subjected to cycling profiles similar to those found in electric vehicle applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010014
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 15: Development of Flow Fields for Zinc Slurry
           Air Flow Batteries

    • Authors: Nak Heon Choi, Diego del Olmo, Peter Fischer, Karsten Pinkwart, Jens Tübke
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The flow field design and material composition of the electrode plays an important role in the performance of redox flow batteries, especially when using highly viscous liquids. To enhance the discharge power density of zinc slurry air flow batteries, an optimum slurry distribution in the cell is key. Hence, several types of flow fields (serpentine, parallel, plastic flow frames) were tested in this study to improve the discharge power density of the battery. The serpentine flow field delivered a power density of 55 mW∙cm−2, while parallel and flow frame resulted in 30 mW∙cm−2 and 10 mW∙cm−2, respectively. Moreover, when the anode bipolar plate material was changed from graphite to copper, the power density of the flow frame increased to 65 mW∙cm−2, and further improvement was attained when the bipolar plate material was further changed to copper–nickel. These results show the potential to increase the power density of slurry-based flow batteries by flow field optimization and design of bipolar plate materials.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010015
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 16: Behavior of Battery Metals Lithium, Cobalt,
           Manganese and Lanthanum in Black Copper Smelting

    • Authors: Dańczak, Klemettinen, Kurhila, Taskinen, Lindberg, Jokilaakso
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Recycling of metals from different waste streams must be increased in the near future for securing the availability of metals that are critical for high-tech applications, such as batteries for e-mobility. Black copper smelting is a flexible recycling route for many different types of scrap, including Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) and some end-of-life energy storage materials. Fundamental thermodynamic data about the behavior of battery metals and the effect of slag additives is required for providing data necessary for process development, control, and optimization. The goal of our study is to investigate the suitability of black copper smelting process for recycling of battery metals lithium, cobalt, manganese, and lanthanum. The experiments were performed alumina crucibles at 1300 °C, in oxygen partial pressure range of 10−11‒10−8 atm. The slags studied contained 0 to 6 wt% of MgO. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques were utilized for phase composition quantifications. The results reveal that most cobalt can be recovered into the copper alloy in extremely reducing process conditions, whereas lithium, manganese, and lanthanum deport predominantly in the slag at all investigated oxygen partial pressures.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010016
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 17: Thermal Analysis of Cold Plate with Different
           Configurations for Thermal Management of a Lithium-Ion Battery

    • Authors: Seyed Saeed Madani, Erik Schaltz, Søren Knudsen Kær
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Thermal analysis and thermal management of lithium-ion batteries for utilization in electric vehicles is vital. In order to investigate the thermal behavior of a lithium-ion battery, a liquid cooling design is demonstrated in this research. The influence of cooling direction and conduit distribution on the thermal performance of the lithium-ion battery is analyzed. The outcomes exhibit that the appropriate flow rate for heat dissipation is dependent on different configurations for cold plate. The acceptable heat dissipation condition could be acquired by adding more cooling conduits. Moreover, it was distinguished that satisfactory cooling direction could efficiently enhance the homogeneity of temperature distribution of the lithium-ion battery.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010017
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 18: Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging

    • Authors: Venet, Redondo-Iglesias
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Electrochemical energy storage is a key element of systems in a wide range of sectors, such as electro-mobility, portable devices, or renewable energy [...]
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010018
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 19: Electrospun Al2O3 Film as Inhibiting
           Corrosion Interlayer of Anode for Solid Aluminum–Air Batteries

    • Authors: Yuxin Zuo, Ying Yu, Hao Liu, Zhiqing Gu, Qianqian Cao, Chuncheng Zuo
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Solid Al–air batteries are a promising power source for potable electronics due to their environmentally friendly qualities and high energy density. However, the solid Al–air battery suffers from anodic corrosion and it is difficult to achieve a higher specific capacity. Thus, this work aims at suppressing the corrosion of Al anode by adding an electrospun Al2O3 interlayer on to the surface of the anode. The Al2O3 interlayer effectively inhibits the self-corrosion of the Al anode. Further, the effects of the thickness of the Al2O3 film on corrosion behavior were investigated. The results showed that the Al–air battery with a 4 μm Al2O3 interlayer is more suitable for a low current density discharge, which could be applied for mini-watt devices. With a proper thickness of the Al2O3 interlayer, corrosion of the anode was considerably suppressed without sacrificing the discharge voltage at a low current density. The Al–air battery with a 4 μm Al2O3 interlayer provided a significantly high capacity (1255 mAh/g at 5 mA/cm2) and an excellent stability. This wo presents a promising approach for fabricating an inhibiting corrosion interlayer for solid Al–air battery designed for mini-watt devices.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010019
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 20: The Influence of Micro-Structured Anode
           Current Collectors in Combination with Highly Concentrated Electrolyte on
           the Coulombic Efficiency of In-Situ Deposited Li-Metal Electrodes with
           Different Counter Electrodes

    • Authors: Fabian Heim, Tina Kreher, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 20
      Abstract: This paper compares and combines two common methods to improve the cycle performance of lithium metal (Li) electrodes. One technique is to establish a micro-structured current collector by chemical separation of a copper/zinc alloy. Furthermore, the use of a highly concentrated ether-based electrolyte is applied as a second approach for improving the cycling behavior. The influence of the two measures compared with a planar current collector and a 1 M concentrated carbonate-based electrolyte, as well as the combination of the methods, are investigated in test cells both with Li and lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (NCM) as counter electrodes. In all cases Li is in-situ plated onto the micro-structured current collectors respectively a planar copper foil without presence of any excess Li before first deposition. In experiments with Li counter electrodes, the effect of a structured current collector is not visible whereas the influence of the electrolyte can be observed. With NCM counter electrodes and carbonate-based electrolyte structured current collectors can improve Coulombic efficiency. The confirmation of this outcome in experiments with highly concentrated ether-based electrolyte is challenging due to high deviations. However, these results indicate, that improvements in Coulombic efficiency achieved by structuring the current collector’s surface and using ether-based electrolyte do not necessarily add up, if both methods are combined in one cell.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010020
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
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