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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 202 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advanced Materials Technologies     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 99)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Australian Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 304)
ECTI Transactions on Computer and Information Technology (ECTI-CIT)     Open Access  
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 123)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 108)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 103)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
EPE Journal : European Power Electronics and Drives     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 100)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Letters on Electromagnetic Compatibility Practice and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Magnetics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Open Journal of Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Open Journal of Industry Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 77)
IEEE Pulse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 363)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221)
IEEE Transactions on Haptics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
IEEE Women in Engineering Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access  
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal ELTIKOM : Jurnal Teknik Elektro, Teknologi Informasi dan Komputer     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Revue Méditerranéenne des Télécommunications     Open Access  
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ural Radio Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)

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Journal Cover
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2313-0105
Published by MDPI Homepage  [222 journals]
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 21: SEI Growth Impacts of Lamination, Formation
           and Cycling in Lithium Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Frankenberger, Trunk, Seidlmayer, Dinter, Dittloff, Werner, Gernhäuser, Revay, Märkisch, Gilles, Pettinger
      First page: 21
      Abstract: The accumulation of solid electrolyte interphases (SEI) in graphite anodes related to elevated formation rates (0.1C, 1C and 2C), cycling rates (1C and 2C), and electrode-separator lamination is investigated. As shown previously, the lamination technique is beneficial for the capacity aging in graphite-LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cells. Here, surface resistance growth phenomena are quantified using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The graphite anodes were extracted from the graphite NMC cells in their fully discharged state and irreversible accumulations of lithium in the SEI are revealed using neutron depth profiling (NDP). In this post-mortem study, NDP reveals uniform lithium accumulations as a function of depth with lithium situated at the surface of the graphite particles thus forming the SEI. The SEI was found to grow logarithmically with cycle number starting with the main formation in the initial cycles. Furthermore, the EIS measurements indicate that benefits from lamination arise from surface resistance growth phenomena aside from SEI growth in superior anode fractions.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6020021
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 3: The Impact of Environmental Factors on the
           Thermal Characteristic of a Lithium–ion Battery

    • Authors: Liebig, Kirstein, Geißendörfer, Schuldt, Agert
      First page: 3
      Abstract: To draw reliable conclusions about the thermal characteristic of or a preferential cooling strategy for a lithium–ion battery, the correct set of thermal input parameters and a detailed battery layout is crucial. In our previous work, an electrochemical model for a commercially-available, 40 Ah prismatic lithium–ion battery was validated under heuristic temperature dependence. In this work the validated electrochemical model is coupled to a spatially resolved, three dimensional (3D), thermal model of the same battery to evaluate the thermal characteristics, i.e., thermal barriers and preferential heat rejection patterns, within common environment layouts. We discuss to which extent the knowledge of the batteries’ interior layout can be constructively used for the design of an exterior battery thermal management. It is found from the study results that: (1) Increasing the current rate without considering an increased heat removal flux at natural convection at higher temperatures will lead to increased model deviations; (2) Centralized fan air-cooling within a climate chamber in a multi cell test arrangement can lead to significantly different thermal characteristics at each battery cell; (3) Increasing the interfacial surface area, at which preferential battery interior and exterior heat rejection match, can significantly lower the temperature rise and inhomogeneity within the electrode stack and increase the batteries’ lifespan.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-01-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010003
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 4: State-of-Charge Monitoring and Battery
           Diagnosis of NiCd Cells Using Impedance Spectroscopy

    • Authors: Kurzweil, Scheuerpflug
      First page: 4
      Abstract: With respect to aeronautical applications, the state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) of rechargeable nickel–cadmium batteries was investigated with the help of the frequency-dependent reactance Im Z(ω) and the pseudo-capacitance C(ω) in the frequency range between 1 kHz and 0.1 Hz. The method of SOC monitoring using impedance spectroscopy is evaluated with the example of 1.5-year long-term measurements of commercial devices. A linear correlation between voltage and capacitance is observed as long as overcharge and deep discharge are avoided. Pseudo-charge Q(ω) = C(ω)⋅U at 1 Hz with respect to the rated capacity is proposed as a reliable SOH indicator for rapid measurements. The benefit of different evaluation methods and diagram types for impedance data is outlined.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010004
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 5: Synthesis of a NiMoO4/3D-rGO Nanocomposite via
           Starch Medium Precipitation Method for Supercapacitor Performance

    • Authors: Shahrzad Arshadi Rastabi, Rasoul Sarraf Mamoory, Nicklas Blomquist, Manisha Phadatare, Håkan Olin
      First page: 5
      Abstract: This paper presents research on the synergistic effects of nickel molybdate and reduced graphene oxide as a nanocomposite for further development of energy storage systems. An enhancement in the electrochemical performance of supercapacitor electrodes occurs by synthesizing highly porous structures and achieving more surface area. In this work, a chemical precipitation technique was used to synthesize the NiMoO4/3D-rGO nanocomposite in a starch media. Starch was used to develop the porosities of the nanostructure. A temperature of 350 °C was applied to transform graphene oxide sheets to reduced graphene oxide and remove the starch to obtain the NiMoO4/3D-rGO nanocomposite with porous structure. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the NiMoO4 nano particles indicated a monoclinic structure. Also, the scanning electron microscope observation showed that the NiMoO4 NPs were dispersed across the rGO sheets. The electrochemical results of the NiMoO4/3D-rGO electrode revealed that the incorporation of rGO sheets with NiMoO4 NPs increased the capacity of the nanocomposite. Therefore, a significant increase in the specific capacity of the electrode was observed with the NiMoO4/3D-rGO nanocomposite (450 Cg−1 or 900 Fg−1) when compared with bare NiMoO4 nanoparticles (350 Cg−1 or 700 Fg−1) at the current density of 1 A g−1. Our findings show that the incorporation of rGO and NiMoO4 NP redox reactions with a porous structure can benefit the future development of supercapacitors.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-01-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010005
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 6: Accelerated Aging Characterization of
           Lithium-ion Cells: Using Sensitivity Analysis to Identify the Stress
           Factors Relevant to Cyclic Aging

    • Authors: Tanja Gewald, Adrian Candussio, Leo Wildfeuer, Dirk Lehmkuhl, Alexander Hahn, Markus Lienkamp
      First page: 6
      Abstract: As storage technology in electric vehicles, lithium-ion cells are subject to a continuous aging process during their service life that, in the worst case, can lead to a premature system failure. Battery manufacturers thus have an interest in the aging prediction during the early design phase, for which semi-empirical aging models are often used. The progress of aging is dependent on the application-specific load profile, more precisely on the aging-relevant stress factors. Still, a literature review reveals a controversy on the aging-relevant stress factors to use as input parameters for the simulation models. It shows that, at present, a systematic and efficient procedure for stress factor selection is missing, as the aging characteristic is cell-specific. In this study, an accelerated sensitivity analysis as a prior step to aging modeling is proposed, which is transferable and allows to determine the actual aging-relevant stress factors for a specific lithium-ion cell. For the assessment of this accelerated approach, two test series with different acceleration levels and cell types are performed and evaluated. The results show that a certain amount of charge throughput, 100 equivalent full cycles in this case, is necessary to conduct a statistically significant sensitivity analysis.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010006
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 7: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Batteries in

    • Authors: Batteries Editorial Office
      First page: 7
      Abstract: The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...]
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010007
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 8: Degradation and Aging Routes of Ni-rich
           Cathode Based Li-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Teichert, Eshetu, Jahnke, Figgemeier
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Driven by the increasing plea for greener transportation and efficient integration of renewable energy sources, Ni-rich metal layered oxides, namely NMC, Li [Ni1−x−yCoyMnz] O2 (x + y ≤ 0.4), and NCA, Li [Ni1−x−yCoxAly] O2, cathode materials have garnered huge attention for the development of Next-Generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The impetus behind such huge celebrity includes their higher capacity and cost effectiveness when compared to the-state-of-the-art LiCoO2 (LCO) and other low Ni content NMC versions. However, despite all the beneficial attributes, the large-scale deployment of Ni-rich NMC based LIBs poses a technical challenge due to less stability of the cathode/electrolyte interphase (CEI) and diverse degradation processes that are associated with electrolyte decomposition, transition metal cation dissolution, cation–mixing, oxygen release reaction etc. Here, the potential degradation routes, recent efforts and enabling strategies for mitigating the core challenges of Ni-rich NMC cathode materials are presented and assessed. In the end, the review shed light on the perspectives for the future research directions of Ni-rich cathode materials.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010008
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 9: Corrections of Voltage Loss in Hydrogen-Oxygen
           Fuel Cells

    • Authors: Lyu, Kudiiarov, Lider
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Normally, the Nernst voltage calculated from the concentration of the reaction gas in the flow channel is considered to be the ideal voltage (reversible voltage) of the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell. The Nernst voltage loss in fuel cells in most of the current literature is thought to be due to the difference in concentration of reaction gas in the flow channel and concentration of reaction gas on the catalyst layer at the time as when the high net current density is generated. Based on the Butler–Volmer equation in the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell, this paper demonstrates that Nernst voltage loss caused by concentration difference of reaction gas in the flow channel and reaction gas on the catalyst layer at equilibrium potential. According to the relationship between the current density and the concentration difference it can be proven that Nernst voltage loss does not exist in hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells because there is no concentration difference of reaction gas in the flow channel and on the catalytic layer at equilibrium potential when the net current density is zero.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010009
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 10: In Situ Measurement of Orthotropic Thermal
           Conductivity on Commercial Pouch Lithium-Ion Batteries with Thermoelectric

    • Authors: Aiello, Kovachev, Brunnsteiner, Schwab, Gstrein, Sinz, Ellersdorfer
      First page: 10
      Abstract: In this paper, the direct measurement of the orthotropic thermal conductivity on a commercial Li-ion pouch battery is presented. The samples under analysis are state-of-the art batteries obtained from a fully electric vehicle commercialized in 2016. The proposed methodology does not require a laboratory equipped to manage hazardous chemical substances as the battery does not need to be disassembled. The principle of the measurement methodology consists of forcing a thermal gradient on the battery along the desired direction and measuring the heat flux and temperature after the steady state condition has been reached. A thermoelectric device has been built in order to force the thermal gradient and keep it stable over a long period of time in order to be able to observe the temperatures in steady state condition. Aligned with other measurement methodologies, the results revealed that the thermal conductivity in the thickness direction (0.77 Wm−1K−1) is lower with respect to the other two directions (25.55 Wm−1K−1 and 25.74 Wm−1K−1) to about a factor 35.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010010
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 11: Comparison of Single-Ion Conducting Polymer
           Gel Electrolytes for Sodium, Potassium, and Calcium Batteries: Influence
           of Polymer Chemistry, Cation Identity, Charge Density, and Solvent on

    • Authors: Hunter O. Ford, Chuanchuan Cui, Jennifer L. Schaefer
      First page: 11
      Abstract: From the standpoint of material diversification and sustainability, the development of so-called “beyond lithium-ion” battery chemistries is important for the future of energy storage. Na, K, and Ca are promising as the basis for battery chemistries in that these elements are highly abundant. Here, a series of single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes (SIPEs) for Na, K, and Ca batteries are synthesized and investigated. The two classes of metal cation neutralized SIPEs compared are crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate-x-styrene sulfonate (PEGDMA-SS) and poly(tetrahydrofuran) diacrylate-x-4-styrenesulfonyl (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (PTHFDA-STFSI); three cation types, three charge densities, and four swelling states are examined. The impact on conductivity of all of these parameters is studied, and in conjunction with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), it is found that promoting ion dissociation and preventing the formation of dense ionic aggregates facilitates ion transport. These results indicate many of the lessons learned from the Li SIPE literature can be translated to beyond Li chemistries. At 25 °C, the best performing Na/K and Ca exchanged polymers yield active cation conductivity on the order of 10−4 S/cm and 10−6 S/cm, respectively, for ethylene carbonate:propylene carbonate gelled SIPEs, and 10−5 S/cm and 10−7 S/cm, respectively, for glyme gelled SIPEs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010011
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 12: Inhomogeneous Temperature Distribution

    • Authors: Werner, Paarmann, Wiebelt, Wetzel
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Temperature has a significant influence on the behavior of batteries and their lifetime. There are several studies in literature that investigate the aging behavior under electrical load, but are limited to homogeneous, constant temperatures. This article presents an approach to quantifying cyclic aging of lithium-ion cells that takes into account complex thermal boundary conditions. It not only considers different temperature levels but also spatial and transient temperature gradients that can occur despite-or even due to-the use of thermal management systems. Capacity fade and impedance rise are used as measured quantities for degradation and correlated with the temperature boundary conditions during the aging process. The concept and definition of an equivalent aging temperature (EAT) is introduced to relate the degradation caused by spatial and temporal temperature inhomogeneities to similar degradation caused by a homogeneous steady temperature during electrical cycling. The results show an increased degradation at both lower and higher temperatures, which can be very well described by two superimposed exponential functions. These correlations also apply to cells that are cycled under the influence of spatial temperature gradients, both steady and transient. Only cells that are exposed to transient, but spatially homogeneous temperature conditions show a significantly different aging behavior. The concluding result is a correlation between temperature and aging rate, which is expressed as degradation per equivalent full cycle (EFC). This enables both temperature-dependent modeling of the aging behavior and its prediction.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010012
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 13: Inhomogeneous Temperature Distribution
           Affecting the Cyclic Aging of Li-Ion Cells. Part I: Experimental

    • Authors: Werner, Paarmann, Wiebelt, Wetzel
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Alongside electrical loads, it is known that temperature has a strong influence on battery behavior and lifetime. Investigations have mainly been performed at homogeneous temperatures and non-homogeneous conditions in single cells have at best been simulated. This publication presents the development of a methodology and experimental setup to investigate the influence of thermal boundary conditions during the operation of lithium-ion cells. In particular, spatially inhomogeneous and transient thermal boundary conditions and periodical electrical cycles were superimposed in different combinations. This required a thorough design of the thermal boundary conditions applied to the cells. Unlike in other contributions that rely on placing cells in a climatic chamber to control ambient air temperature, here the cell surfaces and tabs were directly connected to individual cooling and heating plates. This improves the control of the cells’ internal temperature, even with high currents accompanied by strong internal heat dissipation. The aging process over a large number of electrical cycles is presented by means of discharge capacity and impedance spectra determined in repeated intermediate characterizations. The influence of spatial temperature gradients and temporal temperature changes on the cyclic degradation is revealed. It appears that the overall temperature level is indeed a decisive parameter for capacity fade during cyclic aging, while the intensity of a temperature gradient is not as essential. Furthermore, temperature changes can have a substantial impact and potentially lead to stronger degradation than spatial inhomogeneities.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010013
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 14: Modelling Lithium-Ion Battery Ageing in
           Electric Vehicle Applications—Calendar and Cycling Ageing Combination

    • Authors: Eduardo Redondo-Iglesias, Pascal Venet, Serge Pelissier
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Battery ageing is an important issue in e-mobility applications. The performance degradation of lithium-ion batteries has a strong influence on electric vehicles’ range and cost. Modelling capacity fade of lithium-ion batteries is not simple: many ageing mechanisms can exist and interact. Because calendar and cycling ageings are not additive, a major challenge is to model battery ageing in applications where the combination of cycling and rest periods are variable as, for example, in the electric vehicle application. In this work, an original approach to capacity fade modelling based on the formulation of reaction rate of a two-step reaction is proposed. A simple but effective model is obtained: based on only two differential equations and seven parameters, it can reproduce the capacity evolution of lithium-ion cells subjected to cycling profiles similar to those found in electric vehicle applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010014
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 15: Development of Flow Fields for Zinc Slurry
           Air Flow Batteries

    • Authors: Nak Heon Choi, Diego del Olmo, Peter Fischer, Karsten Pinkwart, Jens Tübke
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The flow field design and material composition of the electrode plays an important role in the performance of redox flow batteries, especially when using highly viscous liquids. To enhance the discharge power density of zinc slurry air flow batteries, an optimum slurry distribution in the cell is key. Hence, several types of flow fields (serpentine, parallel, plastic flow frames) were tested in this study to improve the discharge power density of the battery. The serpentine flow field delivered a power density of 55 mW∙cm−2, while parallel and flow frame resulted in 30 mW∙cm−2 and 10 mW∙cm−2, respectively. Moreover, when the anode bipolar plate material was changed from graphite to copper, the power density of the flow frame increased to 65 mW∙cm−2, and further improvement was attained when the bipolar plate material was further changed to copper–nickel. These results show the potential to increase the power density of slurry-based flow batteries by flow field optimization and design of bipolar plate materials.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010015
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 16: Behavior of Battery Metals Lithium, Cobalt,
           Manganese and Lanthanum in Black Copper Smelting

    • Authors: Dańczak, Klemettinen, Kurhila, Taskinen, Lindberg, Jokilaakso
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Recycling of metals from different waste streams must be increased in the near future for securing the availability of metals that are critical for high-tech applications, such as batteries for e-mobility. Black copper smelting is a flexible recycling route for many different types of scrap, including Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) and some end-of-life energy storage materials. Fundamental thermodynamic data about the behavior of battery metals and the effect of slag additives is required for providing data necessary for process development, control, and optimization. The goal of our study is to investigate the suitability of black copper smelting process for recycling of battery metals lithium, cobalt, manganese, and lanthanum. The experiments were performed alumina crucibles at 1300 °C, in oxygen partial pressure range of 10−11‒10−8 atm. The slags studied contained 0 to 6 wt% of MgO. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques were utilized for phase composition quantifications. The results reveal that most cobalt can be recovered into the copper alloy in extremely reducing process conditions, whereas lithium, manganese, and lanthanum deport predominantly in the slag at all investigated oxygen partial pressures.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010016
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 17: Thermal Analysis of Cold Plate with Different
           Configurations for Thermal Management of a Lithium-Ion Battery

    • Authors: Seyed Saeed Madani, Erik Schaltz, Søren Knudsen Kær
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Thermal analysis and thermal management of lithium-ion batteries for utilization in electric vehicles is vital. In order to investigate the thermal behavior of a lithium-ion battery, a liquid cooling design is demonstrated in this research. The influence of cooling direction and conduit distribution on the thermal performance of the lithium-ion battery is analyzed. The outcomes exhibit that the appropriate flow rate for heat dissipation is dependent on different configurations for cold plate. The acceptable heat dissipation condition could be acquired by adding more cooling conduits. Moreover, it was distinguished that satisfactory cooling direction could efficiently enhance the homogeneity of temperature distribution of the lithium-ion battery.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010017
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 18: Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging

    • Authors: Venet, Redondo-Iglesias
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Electrochemical energy storage is a key element of systems in a wide range of sectors, such as electro-mobility, portable devices, or renewable energy [...]
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010018
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 19: Electrospun Al2O3 Film as Inhibiting
           Corrosion Interlayer of Anode for Solid Aluminum–Air Batteries

    • Authors: Yuxin Zuo, Ying Yu, Hao Liu, Zhiqing Gu, Qianqian Cao, Chuncheng Zuo
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Solid Al–air batteries are a promising power source for potable electronics due to their environmentally friendly qualities and high energy density. However, the solid Al–air battery suffers from anodic corrosion and it is difficult to achieve a higher specific capacity. Thus, this work aims at suppressing the corrosion of Al anode by adding an electrospun Al2O3 interlayer on to the surface of the anode. The Al2O3 interlayer effectively inhibits the self-corrosion of the Al anode. Further, the effects of the thickness of the Al2O3 film on corrosion behavior were investigated. The results showed that the Al–air battery with a 4 μm Al2O3 interlayer is more suitable for a low current density discharge, which could be applied for mini-watt devices. With a proper thickness of the Al2O3 interlayer, corrosion of the anode was considerably suppressed without sacrificing the discharge voltage at a low current density. The Al–air battery with a 4 μm Al2O3 interlayer provided a significantly high capacity (1255 mAh/g at 5 mA/cm2) and an excellent stability. This wo presents a promising approach for fabricating an inhibiting corrosion interlayer for solid Al–air battery designed for mini-watt devices.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010019
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 20: The Influence of Micro-Structured Anode
           Current Collectors in Combination with Highly Concentrated Electrolyte on
           the Coulombic Efficiency of In-Situ Deposited Li-Metal Electrodes with
           Different Counter Electrodes

    • Authors: Fabian Heim, Tina Kreher, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 20
      Abstract: This paper compares and combines two common methods to improve the cycle performance of lithium metal (Li) electrodes. One technique is to establish a micro-structured current collector by chemical separation of a copper/zinc alloy. Furthermore, the use of a highly concentrated ether-based electrolyte is applied as a second approach for improving the cycling behavior. The influence of the two measures compared with a planar current collector and a 1 M concentrated carbonate-based electrolyte, as well as the combination of the methods, are investigated in test cells both with Li and lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (NCM) as counter electrodes. In all cases Li is in-situ plated onto the micro-structured current collectors respectively a planar copper foil without presence of any excess Li before first deposition. In experiments with Li counter electrodes, the effect of a structured current collector is not visible whereas the influence of the electrolyte can be observed. With NCM counter electrodes and carbonate-based electrolyte structured current collectors can improve Coulombic efficiency. The confirmation of this outcome in experiments with highly concentrated ether-based electrolyte is challenging due to high deviations. However, these results indicate, that improvements in Coulombic efficiency achieved by structuring the current collector’s surface and using ether-based electrolyte do not necessarily add up, if both methods are combined in one cell.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2020-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010020
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 1: Sensor Fault Detection and Isolation for
           Degrading Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles Using Parameter
           Estimation with Recursive Least Squares

    • Authors: Manh-Kien Tran, Michael Fowler
      First page: 1
      Abstract: With the increase in usage of electric vehicles (EVs), the demand for Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is also on the rise. The battery management system (BMS) plays an important role in ensuring the safe and reliable operation of the battery in EVs. Sensor faults in the BMS can have significant negative effects on the system, hence it is important to diagnose these faults in real-time. Existing sensor fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods have not considered battery degradation. Degradation can affect the long-term performance of the battery and cause false fault detection. This paper presents a model-based sensor FDI scheme for a Li-ion cell undergoing degradation. The proposed scheme uses the recursive least squares (RLS) method to estimate the equivalent circuit model (ECM) parameters in real time. The estimated ECM parameters are put through weighted moving average (WMA) filters, and then cumulative sum control charts (CUSUM) are implemented to detect any significant deviation between unfiltered and filtered data, which would indicate a fault. The current and voltage faults are isolated based on the responsiveness of the parameters when each fault occurs. The proposed FDI scheme is then validated through conducting a series of experiments and simulations.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-12-20
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010001
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 6, Pages 2: Measuring Test Bench with Adjustable Thermal
           Connection of Cells to Their Neighbors and a New Model Approach for
           Parallel-Connected Cells

    • Authors: Alexander Fill, Tobias Mader, Tobias Schmidt, Raphael Llorente, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 2
      Abstract: This article presents a test bench with variable temperature control of the individual cells connected in parallel. This allows to reconstruct arising temperature gradients in a battery module and to investigate their effects on the current distribution. The influence of additional contact resistances induced by the test bench is determined and minimized. The contact resistances are reduced from R Tab + = 81.18 μ Ω to R Tab + = 55.15 μ Ω at the positive respectively from R Tab − = 35.59 μ Ω to R Tab − = 28.2 μ Ω at the negative tab by mechanical and chemical treating. An increase of the contact resistance at the positive tab is prevented by air seal of the contact. The resistance of the load cable must not be arbitrarily small, as the cable is used as a shunt for current measurement. In order to investigate their impacts, measurements with two parallel-connected cells and different load cables with a resistance of R Cab + = 0.3 m Ω , R Cab + = 1.6 m Ω and R Cab + = 4.35 m Ω are conducted. A shift to lower current differences with decreasing cable resistance but qualitatively the same dynamic of the current distribution is found. An extended dual polarization model is introduced, considering the current distribution within the cells as well as the additional resistances induced by the test bench. The model shows a high correspondence to measurements with two parallel-connected cells, with a Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) of ξ RMSD = 0.083 A.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-12-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010002
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 64: Design Strategies for High Power vs. High
           Energy Lithium Ion Cells

    • Authors: Lain, Brandon, Kendrick
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Commercial lithium ion cells are now optimised for either high energy density or high power density. There is a trade off in cell design between the power and energy requirements. A tear down protocol has been developed, to investigate the internal components and cell engineering of nine cylindrical cells, with different power–energy ratios. The cells designed for high power applications used smaller particles of the active material in both the anodes and the cathodes. The cathodes for high power cells had higher porosities, but a similar trend was not observed for the anodes. In terms of cell design, the coat weights and areal capacities were lower for high power cells. The tag arrangements were the same in eight out of nine cells, with tags at each end of the anode, and one tag on the cathode. The thicknesses of the current collectors and separators were based on the best (thinnest) materials available when the cells were designed, rather than materials optimised for power or energy. To obtain high power, the resistance of each component is reduced as low as possible, and the lithium ion diffusion path lengths are minimised. This information illustrates the significant evolution of materials and components in lithium ion cells in recent years, and gives insight into designing higher power cells in the future.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-10-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5040064
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 65: From Bench-Scale to Prototype: Case Study on
           a Nickel Hydroxide—Activated Carbon Hybrid Energy Storage Device

    • Authors: Alberto Adan-Mas, Pablo Arévalo-Cid, Teresa Moura e Silva, João Crespo, Maria de Fatima Montemor
      First page: 65
      Abstract: Hybrid capacitors have been developed to bridge the gap between batteries and ultracapacitors. These devices combine a capacitive electrode and a battery-like material to achieve high energy-density high power-density devices with good cycling stability. In the quest of improved electrochemical responses, several hybrid devices have been proposed. However, they are usually limited to bench-scale prototypes that would likely face severe challenges during a scaling up process. The present case study reports the production of a hybrid prototype consisting of commercial activated carbon and nickel-cobalt hydroxide, obtained by chemical co-precipitation, separated by means of polyolefin-based paper. Developed to power a 12 W LED light, these materials were assembled and characterized in a coin-cell configuration and stacked to increase device voltage. All the processes have been adapted and constrained to scalable conditions to ensure reliable production of a pre-commercial device. Important challenges and limitations of this process, from geometrical constraints to increased resistance, are reported alongside their impact and optimization on the final performance, stability, and metrics of the assembled prototype.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5040065
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 66: Development of a Polymeric Arrayed Waveguide
           Grating Interrogator for Fast and Precise Lithium-Ion Battery Status

    • Authors: Jan Meyer, Antonio Nedjalkov, Elke Pichler, Christian Kelb, Wolfgang Schade
      First page: 66
      Abstract: We present the manufacturing and utilization of an all-polymer arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) interacting with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) for battery status monitoring on the example of a 40 Ah lithium-ion battery. The AWG is the main component of a novel low-cost approach for an optical interrogation unit to track the FBG peak wavelength by means of intensity changes monitored by a CMOS linear image sensor, read out by a Teensy 3.2 microcontroller. The AWG was manufactured using laser direct lithography as an all-polymer-system, whereas the FBG was produced by point-by-point femtosecond laser writing. Using this system, we continuously monitored the strain variation of a battery cell during low rate charge and discharge cycles over one month under constant climate conditions and compared the results to parallel readings of an optical spectrum analyzer with special attention to the influence of the relative air humidity. We found our low-cost interrogation unit is capable of precisely and reliably capturing the typical strain variation of a high energy pouch cell during cycling with a resolution of 1 pm and shows a humidity sensitivity of −12.8 pm per %RH.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5040066
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 67: Analytical Dissection of an Automotive Li-Ion
           Pouch Cell

    • Authors: Kovachev, Schröttner, Gstrein, Aiello, Hanzu, Wilkening, Foitzik, Wellm, Sinz, Ellersdorfer
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Information derived from microscopic images of Li-ion cells is the base for research on the function, the safety, and the degradation of Li-ion batteries. This research was carried out to acquire information required to understand the mechanical properties of Li-ion cells. Parameters such as layer thicknesses, material compositions, and surface properties play important roles in the analysis and the further development of Li-ion batteries. In this work, relevant parameters were derived using microscopic imaging and analysis techniques. The quality and the usability of the measured data, however, are tightly connected to the sample generation, the preparation methods used, and the measurement device selected. Differences in specimen post-processing methods and measurement setups contribute to variability in the measured results. In this paper, the complete sample preparation procedure and analytical methodology are described, variations in the measured dataset are highlighted, and the study findings are discussed in detail. The presented results were obtained from an analysis conducted on a state-of-the-art Li-ion pouch cell applied in an electric vehicle that is currently commercially available.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5040067
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 68: A Critical Review of Lithium-Ion Battery
           Recycling Processes from a Circular Economy Perspective

    • Authors: Velázquez-Martínez, Valio, Santasalo-Aarnio, Reuter, Serna-Guerrero
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are currently one of the most important electrochemical energy storage devices, powering electronic mobile devices and electric vehicles alike. However, there is a remarkable difference between their rate of production and rate of recycling. At the end of their lifecycle, only a limited number of LIBs undergo any recycling treatment, with the majority go to landfills or being hoarded in households. Further losses of LIB components occur because the the state-of-the-art LIB recycling processes are limited to components with high economic value, e.g., Co, Cu, Fe, and Al. With the increasing popularity of concepts such as “circular economy” (CE), new LIB recycling systems have been proposed that target a wider spectrum of compounds, thus reducing the environmental impact associated with LIB production. This review work presents a discussion of the current practices and some of the most promising emerging technologies for recycling LIBs. While other authoritative reviews have focused on the description of recycling processes, the aim of the present was is to offer an analysis of recycling technologies from a CE perspective. Consequently, the discussion is based on the ability of each technology to recover every component in LIBs. The gathered data depicted a direct relationship between process complexity and the variety and usability of the recovered fractions. Indeed, only processes employing a combination of mechanical processing, and hydro- and pyrometallurgical steps seemed able to obtain materials suitable for LIB (re)manufacture. On the other hand, processes relying on pyrometallurgical steps are robust, but only capable of recovering metallic components.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-11-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5040068
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 69: Stabilizing Li-rich NMC Materials by Using
           Precursor Salts with Acetate and Nitrate Anions for Li-ion Batteries

    • Authors: Khaleel I. Hamad, Yangchuan Xing
      First page: 69
      Abstract: Lithium-rich layered oxide cathode materials of Li1.2Mn0.5100Ni0.2175Co0.0725O2 have been synthesized using metal salts with acetate and nitrate anions as precursors in glycerol solvent. The effects of the precursor metal salts on particle size, morphology, cationic ordering, and ultimately, the electrode performance of the cathode powders have been studied. It was demonstrated that the use of cornstarch as a gelling agent with nitrate-based metal salts results in a reduction of particle size, leading to higher surface area and initial discharge capacity. However, the cornstarch gelling effect was minimized when acetate salts were used. As observed in the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, cornstarch can react with acetates to form acetyl groups during the synthesis, effectively preventing the cornstarch gel from capping the particles, thus leading to larger particles. A tradeoff was found when nitrate and acetate salts were mixed in the synthesis. It was shown that the new cathode powder has the best cationic ordering and capacity retention, promising a much stable Li-rich cathode material for lithium-ion batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5040069
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 70: Experimental Study of Heat Generation Rate
           during Discharge of LiFePO4 Pouch Cells of Different Nominal Capacities
           and Thickness

    • Authors: Shashank Arora, Ajay Kapoor
      First page: 70
      Abstract: High manufacturing cost and thermal stability of Li-ion battery cells are currently the two main deterrents to prolific demand for electric vehicles. A plausible solution to this issue is a modular/scalable battery thermal management system (TMS). A modular TMS can ensure thermal reliability for battery cells of different capacities and size without needing major structural revision besides facilitating mass-production. However, understanding the relationship of heat generation rates with cell capacity and thickness is essential for developing a scalable TMS. The present paper discusses results derived from an experimental investigation undertaken with this purpose. Heat generation rates for LiFePO4 pouch cells of different nominal capacities are measured at discharge rates of 0.33C, 1C and 3C in ambient temperatures ranging between −10 and 50 °C using a custom-designed calorimeter. It is observed that heat generation rates of the LiFePO4 pouch cells become independent of their nominal capacity and thickness if the ambient temperature is regulated at 35 °C. In ambient temperatures lower than 35 °C though, the thin battery cells are found to be generating heat at rates greater than those of thick battery cells and vice-versa at temperatures over 35 °C for all discharge rates.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-11-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5040070
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 71: EIS Study on the Electrode-Separator
           Interface Lamination

    • Authors: Martin Frankenberger, Madhav Singh, Alexander Dinter, Karl-Heinz Pettinger
      First page: 71
      Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive study of the influences of lamination at both electrode-separator interfaces of lithium-ion batteries consisting of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes and graphite anodes. Typically, electrode-separator lamination shows a reduced capacity fade at fast-charging cycles. To study this behavior in detail, the anode and cathode were laminated separately to the separator and compared to the fully laminated and non-laminated state in single-cell format. The impedance of the cells was measured at different states of charge and during the cycling test up to 1500 fast-charging cycles. Lamination on the cathode interface clearly shows an initial decrease in the surface resistance with no correlation to aging effects along cycling, while lamination on both electrode-separator interfaces reduces the growth of the surface resistance along cycling. Lamination only on the anode-separator interface shows up to be sufficient to maintain the enhanced fast-charging capability for 1500 cycles, what we prove to arise from a significant reduction in growth of the solid electrolyte interface.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5040071
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 72: Designs of Experiments for Beginners—A
           Quick Start Guide for Application to Electrode Formulation

    • Authors: Olivier Rynne, Matthieu Dubarry, Corentin Molson, David Lepage, Arnaud Prébé, David Aymé-Perrot, Dominic Rochefort, Mickael Dollé
      First page: 72
      Abstract: In this paper, we will describe in detail the setting up of a Design of Experiments (DoE) applied to the formulation of electrodes for Li-ion batteries. We will show that, with software guidance, Designs of Experiments are simple yet extremely useful statistical tools to set up and embrace. An Optimal Combined Design was used to identify influential factors and pinpoint the optimal formulation, according to the projected use. Our methodology follows an eight-step workflow adapted from the literature. Once the study objectives are clearly identified, it is necessary to consider the time, cost, and complexity of an experiment before choosing the responses that best describe the system, as well as the factors to vary. By strategically selecting the mixtures to be characterized, it is possible to minimize the number of experiments, and obtain a statistically relevant empirical equation which links responses and design factors.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5040072
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 73: Influence of Laser-Generated Cutting Edges on
           the Electrical Performance of Large Lithium-Ion Pouch Cells

    • Authors: Tobias Jansen, Maja W. Kandula, Sven Hartwig, Louisa Hoffmann, Wolfgang Haselrieder, Klaus Dilger
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Laser cutting is a promising technology for the singulation of conventional and advanced electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. Even though the continuous development of laser sources, beam guiding, and handling systems enable industrial relevant high cycle times, there are still uncertainties regarding the influence of, for this process, typical cutting edge characteristics on the electrochemical performance. To investigate this issue, conventional anodes and cathodes were cut by a pulsed fiber laser with a central emission wavelength of 1059–1065 nm and a pulse duration of 240 ns. Based on investigations considering the pulse repetition frequency, cutting speed, and line energy, a cell setup of anodes and cathodes with different cutting edge characteristics were selected. The experiments on 9 Ah pouch cells demonstrated that the cutting edge of the cathode had a greater impact on the electrochemical performance than the cutting edge of the anode. Furthermore, the results pointed out that on the cathode side, the contamination through metal spatters, generated by the laser current collector interaction, had the largest impact on the electrochemical performance.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-12-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5040073
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 74: Lithium-Ion Capacitor Safety Testing for
           Commercial Application

    • Authors: Omonayo Bolufawi, Annadanesh Shellikeri, Jim P. Zheng
      First page: 74
      Abstract: The lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is a recent innovation in the area of electrochemical energy storage that hybridizes lithium-ion battery anode material and an electrochemical double layer capacitor cathode material as its electrodes. The high power compared to batteries and higher energy compared to capacitors has made it a promising energy-storage device for powering hand-held and portable electronic systems/consumer electronics, hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. The swelling and gassing of the LIC when subjected to abuse conditions is still a critical issue concerning the safe application in power electronics and commercial devices. However, it is imperative to carry out a thorough investigation that characterizes the safe operation of LICs. We investigated and studied the safety of LIC for commercial applications, by conducting a comprehensive abuse tests on LIC 200 F pouch cells with voltage range from 3.8 V to 2.2 V manufactured by General Capacitors LLC. The abuse tests include overcharge, external short circuit, crush (flat metal plate and blunt indentation), nail penetration test, and external heat test.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-12-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5040074
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 75: Future Portable Li-Ion Cells’ Recycling
           Challenges in Poland

    • Authors: Agnieszka Sobianowska-Turek, Weronika Urbańska
      First page: 75
      Abstract: The paper presents the market of portable lithium-ion batteries in the European Union (EU) with particular emphasis on the stream of used Li-ion cells in Poland by 2030. In addition, the article draws attention to the fact that, despite a decade of efforts in Poland, it has not been possible to create an effective management system for waste batteries and accumulators that would include waste management (collection and selective sorting), waste disposal (a properly selected mechanical method) and component recovery technology for reuse (pyrometallurgical and/or hydrometallurgical methods). This paper also brings attention to the fact that this EU country with 38 million people does not have in its area a recycling process for used cells of the first type of zinc-carbon, zinc-manganese or zinc-air, as well as the secondary type of nickel-hydride and lithium-ion, which in the stream of chemical waste energy sources will be growing from year to year.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-12-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5040075
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 50: An Accurate and Precise Grey Box Model of a
           Low-Power Lithium-Ion Battery and Capacitor/Supercapacitor for Accurate
           Estimation of State-of-Charge

    • Authors: Qamar Navid, Ahmed Hassan
      First page: 50
      Abstract: The fluctuating nature of power produced by renewable energy sources results in a substantial supply and demand mismatch. To curb the imbalance, energy storage systems comprising batteries and supercapacitors are widely employed. However, due to the variety of operational conditions, the performance prediction of the energy storage systems entails a substantial complexity that leads to capacity utilization issues. The current article attempts to precisely predict the performance of a lithium-ion battery and capacitor/supercapacitor under dynamic conditions to utilize the storage capacity to a fuller extent. The grey box modeling approach involving the chemical and electrical energy transfers/interactions governed by ordinary differential equations was developed in MATLAB. The model parameters were extracted from experimental data employing regression techniques. The state-of-charge (SoC) of the battery was predicted by employing the extended Kalman (EK) estimator and the unscented Kalman (UK) estimator. The model was eventually validated via loading profile tests. As a performance indicator, the extended Kalman estimator indicated the strong competitiveness of the developed model with regard to tracking of the internal states (e.g., SoC) which have first-order nonlinearities.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5030050
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 51: Methodological Approaches to End-Of-Life
           Modelling in Life Cycle Assessments of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Anders Nordelöf, Sofia Poulikidou, Mudit Chordia, Felipe Bitencourt de Oliveira, Johan Tivander, Rickard Arvidsson
      First page: 51
      Abstract: This study presents a review of how the end-of-life (EOL) stage is modelled in life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Twenty-five peer-reviewed journal and conference papers that consider the whole LIB life cycle and describe their EOL modelling approach sufficiently were analyzed. The studies were categorized based on two archetypal EOL modelling approaches in LCA: The cutoff (no material recovery, possibly secondary material input) and EOL recycling (material recovery, only primary material input) approaches. It was found that 19 of the studies followed the EOL recycling approach and 6 the cutoff approach. In addition, almost a third of the studies deviated from the expected setup of the two methods by including both material recovery and secondary material input. Such hybrid approaches may lead to double counting of recycling benefits by both including secondary input (as in the cutoff approach) and substituting primary materials (as in the EOL recycling approach). If the archetypal EOL modelling approaches are not followed, it is imperative that the modelling choices are well-documented and motivated to avoid double counting that leads to over- or underestimations of the environmental impacts of LIBs. Also, 21 studies model hydrometallurgical treatment, and 17 completely omit waste collection.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5030051
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 52: Operational Experience of 5 kW/5 kWh
           All-Vanadium Flow Batteries in Photovoltaic Grid Applications

    • Authors: Enrique García-Quismondo, Ignacio Almonacid, Maria Ángeles Cabañero Martínez, Veselin Miroslavov, Enrique Serrano, Jesús Palma, Juan Pedro Alonso Salmerón
      First page: 52
      Abstract: The purpose of this work was to analyse and characterize the behavior of a 5 kW/5 kWh vanadium battery integrated in an experimental facility with all the auxiliary equipment and determine whether it would be possible to ascertain the most appropriate application for storage of electricity in photovoltaic (PV) grid applications. The battery has been in operation for 9–10 months. During this time the battery has achieve a full cycle efficiency of approximately 65%. A slight reduction in efficiency is the result of the constant auxiliary power consumption from pumps amounting to 8–9% of rated power, meanwhile the stack is quite efficient showing a cycle efficiency of 73%.The operation of the pumps has been adjusted to fix the current density applied together with the state of charge in order to reduce unnecessary consumption related to the energy required for pumping. According to the results obtained, the intended improvement in global efficiency for the system has not been achieved by this proposed strategy. However, the flow factor evolution selected at this stage needs further optimization in order to establish a trade-off between the concentration overpotential and a detrimental loss in energy due to pumping. Therefore, one should be able to improve system performance through a better configuration of flow factors in order to reach total system efficiencies of 70–75% required for achieving a commercially viable product.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5030052
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 53: Generalized Distribution of Relaxation Times
           Analysis for the Characterization of Impedance Spectra

    • Authors: Michael A. Danzer
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Impedance spectroscopy is a universal nondestructive tool for the analysis of the polarization behavior of electrochemical systems in frequency domain. As an extension and enhancement of the standard impedance spectroscopy, the distribution of relaxation times (DRT) analysis was established, where the spectra are transferred from frequency into time domain. The DRT helps to analyze complex impedance spectra by identifying the number of polarization processes involved without prior assumptions and by separating and quantifying their single polarization contributions. The DRT analysis, as introduced in literature, claims to be a model-free approach for the characterization of resistive-capacitive systems. However, a data preprocessing step based on impedance models is often required to exclude non-resistive-capacitive components off the measured impedance spectra. The generalized distribution of relaxation times (GDRT) analysis presented in this work is dedicated to complex superposed impedance spectra that include ohmic, inductive, capacitive, resistive-capacitive, and resistive-inductive effects. The simplified work flow without preprocessing steps leads to a reliable and reproducible DRT analysis that fulfills the assumption of being model-free. The GDRT is applicable for the analysis of electrochemical, electrical, and even for non-electrical systems. Results are shown for a lithium-ion battery, a vanadium redox flow battery, and for a double-layer capacitor.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5030053
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 54: Machine Learning Approaches for Designing
           Mesoscale Structure of Li-Ion Battery Electrodes

    • Authors: Yoichi Takagishi, Takumi Yamanaka, Tatsuya Yamaue
      First page: 54
      Abstract: We have proposed a data-driven approach for designing the mesoscale porous structures of Li-ion battery electrodes, using three-dimensional virtual structures and machine learning techniques. Over 2000 artificial 3D structures, assuming a positive electrode composed of randomly packed spheres as the active material particles, are generated, and the charge/discharge specific resistance has been evaluated using a simplified physico-chemical model. The specific resistance from Li diffusion in the active material particles (diffusion resistance), the transfer specific resistance of Li+ in the electrolyte (electrolyte resistance), and the reaction resistance on the interface between the active material and electrolyte are simulated, based on the mass balance of Li, Ohm’s law, and the linearized Butler–Volmer equation, respectively. Using these simulation results, regression models, using an artificial neural network (ANN), have been created in order to predict the charge/discharge specific resistance from porous structure features. In this study, porosity, active material particle size and volume fraction, pressure in the compaction process, electrolyte conductivity, and binder/additives volume fraction are adopted, as features associated with controllable process parameters for manufacturing the battery electrode. As a result, the predicted electrode specific resistance by the ANN regression model is in good agreement with the simulated values. Furthermore, sensitivity analyses and an optimization of the process parameters have been carried out. Although the proposed approach is based only on the simulation results, it could serve as a reference for the determination of process parameters in battery electrode manufacturing.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5030054
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 55: A Bilevel Equalizer to Boost the Capacity of
           Second Life Li Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Ngalula Sandrine Mubenga, Kripa Sharma, Thomas Stuart
      First page: 55
      Abstract: There is a strong interest in second life applications for the growing number of used electric vehicle (EV) batteries, but capacity variations amongst these used cells present a problem. Even when these cells are matched for capacity, some imbalance is bound to remain, and a few lower capacity cells are also likely to develop after the pack begins its second life. Conventional cell voltage equalizers (EQU) do not address this problem, and they only provide a battery discharge capacity that is exactly equal to that of the weakest cell in the pack. This can easily result in a capacity loss of perhaps 20% to 25%, or more. This indicates the need for a new class of EQUs that can provide a discharge capacity that is close to the average of the cells, instead of the weakest cell. It is proposed to call these “capacity EQUs”, and the properties they must have are described. One such EQU is the bilevel equalizer (BEQ), described previously. This present paper provides an enhanced analysis of the BEQ and improved modelling methods. It also presents more details that are necessary to implement the microcontroller algorithm for the BEQ hardware.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5030055
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 56: Glycine-Nitrate Process for Synthesis of
           Na3V2(PO4)3 Cathode Material and Optimization of Glucose-Derived Hard
           Carbon Anode Material for Characterization in Full Cells

    • Authors: Ronald Väli, Jaan Aruväli, Meelis Härmas, Alar Jänes, Enn Lust
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Cost-effective methods need to be developed to lower the price of Na-ion battery (NIB) materials. This paper reports a proof-of-concept study of using a novel approach to the glycine-nitrate process (GNP) to synthesize sodium vanadium phosphate (Na3V2(PO4)3 or NVP) materials with both high-energy (102 mAh g−1 at C/20) and high-power characteristics (60 mAh g−1 at 20 C). Glucose-derived hard carbons (GDHCs) were optimized to reduce both sloping and irreversible capacity. The best results were achieved for electrodes with active material heat treated at 1400 °C and reduced Super P additive. Sloping region capacity 90 mAh g−1, irreversible capacity 47 mAh g−1, discharge capacity 272 mAh g−1 (of which plateau 155 mAh g−1) and 1st cycle coulombic efficiency (CE) 85% were demonstrated. GDHC NVP full cell achieved 80 mAh g−1 (reversible) by NVP mass out of which 60 mAh g−1 was the plateau (3.4 V) region capacity. Full cell specific energy and energy density reached 189 Wh kg−1 and 104 Wh dm−3, respectively. After 80 cycles, including rate testing from C/20 to 10 C, the cell cycled at 65 mAh g−1 with 99.7% CE. With further optimization, this method can have very high industrial potential.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5030056
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 57: Effect of Current Rate and Prior Cycling on
           the Coulombic Efficiency of a Lithium-Ion Battery

    • Authors: Seyed Saeed Madani, Erik Schaltz, Søren Knudsen Kær
      First page: 57
      Abstract: The determination of coulombic efficiency of the lithium-ion batteries can contribute to comprehend better their degradation behavior. In this research, the coulombic efficiency and capacity loss of three lithium-ion batteries at different current rates (C) were investigated. Two new battery cells were discharged and charged at 0.4 C and 0.8 C for twenty times to monitor the variations in the aging and coulombic efficiency of the battery cell. In addition, prior cycling was applied to the third battery cell which consist of charging and discharging with 0.2 C, 0.4 C, 0.6 C, and 0.8 C current rates and each of them twenty times. The coulombic efficiency of the new battery cells was compared with the cycled one. The experiments demonstrated that approximately all the charge that was stored in the battery cell was extracted out of the battery cell, even at the bigger charging and discharging currents. The average capacity loss rates for discharge and charge during 0.8 C were approximately 0.44% and 0.45% per cycle, correspondingly.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-08-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5030057
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 58: Factors Affecting Capacity Design of
           Lithium-Ion Stationary Batteries

    • Authors: Choong-koo Chang
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Lead-acid batteries are currently the most popular for direct current (DC) power in power plants. They are also the most widely used electric energy storage device but too much space is needed to increase energy storage. Lithium-ion batteries have a higher energy density, allowing them to store more energy than other types of batteries. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the factors affecting the capacity design of lithium-ion stationary batteries. Factors that need to be considered in calculating the capacity of stationary lithium-ion batteries are investigated and reviewed, and based on the results, a method of calculating capacity of stationary lithium-ion batteries for industrial use is proposed. In addition, the capacity and area required for replacing the lead-acid batteries for nuclear power plants with lithium-ion batteries are reviewed as part of this case study.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5030058
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 59: Incremental Capacity Analysis-Based Impact
           Study of Diverse Usage Patterns on Lithium-Ion Battery Aging in
           Electrified Vehicles

    • Authors: Meng Huang
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Aging assessment is critical for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) as the technology of choice for energy storage in electrified vehicles (EVs). Existing research is mainly focused on either increasing modeling precision or improving algorithm efficiency, while the significance of data applied for aging assessment has been largely overlooked. Moreover, reported studies are mostly confined to a specific condition without considering the impacts of diverse usage patterns on battery aging, which is practically challenging and can greatly affect battery degradation. This paper addresses these issues through incremental capacity (IC) analysis, which can both utilize data directly available from on-board sensors and interpret degradations from a physics-based perspective. Through IC analysis, the optimal health feature (HF) and the state of charge (SOC)-based optimal data profile for battery aging assessment have been identified. Four stress factors, i.e., depth-of-discharge (DOD), charging C-rate, operating mode, and temperature, have been selected to jointly characterize diverse usage patterns. Impact analysis of different stress factors through the optimal HF with the SOC-based optimal data profile from aging campaign experiments have generated practical guidance on usage patterns to improve battery health monitoring and lifetime control strategies.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5030059
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 60: Copper-Decorated CNTs as a Possible Electrode
           Material in Supercapacitors

    • Authors: Mateusz Ciszewski, Dawid Janas, Krzysztof K. Koziol
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Copper is probably one of the most important metal used in the broad range of electronic applications. It has been developed for many decades, and so it is very hard to make any further advances in its electrical and thermal performance by simply changing the manufacture to even more oxygen-free conditions. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) due to their excellent electrical, thermal and mechanical properties seem like an ideal component to produce Cu-CNT composites of superior electrochemical performance. In this report we present whether Cu-CNT contact has a beneficial influence for manufacturing of a new type of carbon-based supercapacitor with embedded copper particles. The prepared electrode material was examined in symmetric cell configuration. The specific capacity and cyclability of composite were compared to parent CNT and oxidized CNT.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-09-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5030060
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 61: Analysis of Li-Ion Battery Gases Vented in an
           Inert Atmosphere Thermal Test Chamber

    • Authors: David Sturk, Lars Rosell, Per Blomqvist, Annika Ahlberg Tidblad
      First page: 61
      Abstract: One way to support the development of new safety practices in testing and field failure situations of electric vehicles and their lithium-ion (Li-ion) traction batteries is to conduct studies simulating plausible incident scenarios. This paper focuses on risks and hazards associated with venting of gaseous species formed by thermal decomposition reactions of the electrolyte and electrode materials during thermal runaway of the cell. A test set-up for qualitative and quantitative measurements of both major and minor gas species in the vented emissions from Li-ion batteries is described. The objective of the study is to measure gas emissions in the absence of flames, since gassing can occur without subsequent fire. Test results regarding gas emission rates, total gas emission volumes, and amounts of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and CO2 formed in inert atmosphere when heating lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and lithium nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) dioxide/lithium manganese oxide (LMO) spinel cell stacks are presented and discussed. Important test findings include the large difference in total gas emissions from NMC/LMO cells compared to LFP, 780 L kg−1 battery cells, and 42 L kg−1 battery cells, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in the total amount of HF formed for both cell types, suggesting that LFP releases higher concentrations of HF than NMC/LMO cells.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-09-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5030061
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 62: Parameterization and Validation of an
           Electrochemical Thermal Model of a Lithium-Ion Battery

    • Authors: Gerd Liebig, Gaurav Gupta, Ulf Kirstein, Frank Schuldt, Carsten Agert
      First page: 62
      Abstract: The key challenge in developing a physico-chemical model is the model parameterization. The paper presents a strategic model parameterization procedure, parameter values, and a developed model that allows simulating electrochemical and thermal behavior of a commercial lithium-ion battery with high accuracy. Steps taken are the analysis of geometry details by opening a battery cell under argon atmosphere, building upon reference data of similar material compositions, incorporating cell balancing by a quasi-open-circuit-voltage experiment, and adapting the battery models reaction kinetics behavior by comparing experiment and simulation of an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and hybrid pulse power characterization. The electrochemical-thermal coupled model is established based on COMSOL Multiphysics® platform (Stockholm, Sweden) and validated via experimental methods. The parameterized model was adopted to analyze the heat dissipation sources based on the internal states of the battery at different operation modes. Simulation in the field of thermal management for lithium-ion batteries highly depends on state of charge-related thermal issues of the incorporated cell composition. The electrode balancing is an essential step to be performed in order to address the internal battery states realistically. The individual contribution of the cell components heat dissipation has significant influence on the temperature distribution pattern based on the kinetic and thermodynamic properties.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5030062
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 63: Energy Management of a DC Microgrid Composed
           of Photovoltaic/Fuel Cell/Battery/Supercapacitor Systems

    • Authors: Ahmed A. Kamel, Hegazy Rezk, Nabila Shehata, Jean Thomas
      First page: 63
      Abstract: In this paper, a classic proportional–integral (PI) control strategy as an energy management strategy (EMS) and a microgrid stand-alone power system configuration are proposed to work independently out of grid. The proposed system combines photovoltaics (PVs), fuel cells (FCs), batteries, and supercapacitors (SCs). The system supplies a dump load with its demand power. The system includes DC/DC and DC/AC converters, as well as a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) to maximize the harvested energy from PV array. The system advantages are represented to overcome the problem of each source when used individually and to optimize the hydrogen consumption. The classic PI control strategy is used to control the main system parameters like FC current and the state-of-charge (SOC) for the battery and SC. In order to analyze and monitor the system, it was implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation done for fuzzy logic and high frequency decoupling and state machine control strategies to validate the PI classic control strategy. The obtained results confirmed that the system works efficiently as a microgrid system. The results show that the SOC for the battery is kept between 56 and 65.4%, which is considered a proper value for such types of batteries. The DC bus voltage (VDC) is kept within the acceptable level. Moreover, the H2 fuel consumption is 12.1 gm, as the FCs are used as supported sources working with the PV. A big area for improvement is available for cost saving, which suggests the need for further research through system optimization and employing different control strategies.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5030063
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 37: Innovative Incremental Capacity Analysis
           Implementation for C/LiFePO4 Cell State-of-Health Estimation in Electrical

    • Authors: Elie Riviere, Ali Sari, Pascal Venet, Frédéric Meniere, Yann Bultel
      First page: 37
      Abstract: This paper presents a fully embedded state of health (SoH) estimator for widely used C/LiFePO4 batteries. The SoH estimation study was intended for applications in electric vehicles (EV). C/LiFePO4 cells were aged using pure electric vehicle cycles and were monitored with an automotive battery management system (BMS). An online capacity estimator based on incremental capacity analysis (ICA) is developed. The proposed estimator is robust to depth of discharge (DoD), charging current and temperature variations to satisfy real vehicle requirements. Finally, the SoH estimator tuned on C/LiFePO4 cells from one manufacturer was tested on C/LiFePO4 cells from another LFP (lithium iron phosphate) manufacturer.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5020037
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 38: Segmented Printed Circuit Board Electrode for
           Locally-Resolved Current Density Measurements in All-Vanadium Redox Flow

    • Authors: Tobias Gerber, Peter Fischer, Karsten Pinkwart, Jens Tübke
      First page: 38
      Abstract: One of the most important parameters for the design of redox flow batteries is a uniform distribution of the electrolyte solution over the complete electrode area. The performance of redox flow batteries is usually investigated by general measurements of the cell in systematic experimental studies such as galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling. Local inhomogeneity within the electrode cannot be locally-resolved. In this study a printed circuit board (PCB) with a segmented current collector was integrated into a 40 cm2 all-vanadium redox flow battery to analyze the locally-resolved current density distribution of the graphite felt electrode. Current density distribution during charging and discharging of the redox flow battery indicated different limiting influences. The local current density in redox flow batteries mainly depends on the transport of the electrolyte solution. Due to this correlation, the electrolyte flow in the porous electrode can be visualized. A PCB electrode can easily be integrated into the flow battery and can be scaled to nearly any size of the electrode area. The carbon coating of the PCB enables direct contact to the corrosive electrolyte, whereby the sensitivity of the measurement method is increased compared to state-of-the-art methods.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5020038
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 39: Effect of Mixed Li+/Na+-ion Electrolyte on
           Electrochemical Performance of Na4Fe3(PO4)2P2O7 in Hybrid Batteries

    • Authors: Nina V. Kosova, Alexander A. Shindrov
      First page: 39
      Abstract: The mixed sodium-iron ortho-pyrophosphate Na4Fe3(PO4)2P2O7 (NFPP) is a promising Na-containing cathode material with the highest operating voltage among sodium framework structured materials. It operates both in Na and Li electrochemical cells. When cycled in a hybrid Li/Na cell, a competitive co-intercalation of the Li+ and Na+ ions occurs at the cathode side. The present study shows that this process can be tuned by changing the concentration of the Na+ ions in the mixed Li+/Na+-ion electrolyte and current density. It is shown that if the Na concentration in the electrolyte increases, the specific capacity of NFPP also increases and its high-rate capability is significantly improved.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5020039
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 40: Considerations when Modelling EV Battery
           Circularity Systems

    • Authors: Martin Kurdve, Mats Zackrisson, Mats Johansson, Burcak Ebin, Ulrika Harlin
      First page: 40
      Abstract: The electric vehicle market is expected to grow substantially in the coming years, which puts new requirements on the end-of-life phase and on the recycling systems. To a larger extent, the environmental footprint from these vehicles is related to raw material extraction and production, and, consequently, a material- and energy-efficient 3R system (reuse, remanufacturing, recycling) is urgently needed. The ability to understand and model the design and development of such a system therefore becomes important. This study contributes to this by identifying factors that affect 3R system design and performance, relating these factors to the various actors and processes of the system and categorising them according to time from implementation to impact. The above is achieved by applying a PEST analysis (political, economic, social and technological factors), differentiating between political, economic, social and technological factors. Data were gathered from literature, by interviews and by a number of workshops in the automotive industry and the 3R system and observations at meetings, etc. The study confirms some previous results on how vehicle battery 3R systems work and adds knowledge about the influencing factors, especially the timeframes and dynamics of the system, necessary for modelling the system and the influencing factors. For practitioners, the results indicate how to use appropriate models and which factors are most relevant to them.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5020040
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 41: On the Use of Statistical Entropy Analysis as
           Assessment Parameter for the Comparison of Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling

    • Authors: Omar Velázquez-Martinez, Antti Porvali, Karl Gerard van den Boogaart, Annukka Santasalo-Aarnio, Mari Lundström, Markus Reuter, Rodrigo Serna-Guerrero
      First page: 41
      Abstract: The principle of the circular economy is to reintroduce end-of-life materials back into the economic cycle. While reintroduction processes, for example, recycling or refurbishing, undoubtedly support this objective, they inevitably present material losses or generation of undesired by-products. Balancing losses and recoveries into a single and logical assessment has now become a major concern. The present work broadens the use of relative statistical entropy and material flow analysis to assess the recycling processes of two lithium-ion batteries previously published in the literature. Process simulation software, that is, HSC Sim®, was employed to evaluate with a high level of accuracy the performance of such recycling processes. Hereby, this methodology introduces an entropic association between the quality of final recoveries and the pre-processing stages, that is, shredding, grinding, and separation, by a parameter based on information theory. The results demonstrate that the pre-processing stages have a significant impact on the entropy value obtained at the final stages, reflecting the losses of materials into waste and side streams. In this manner, it is demonstrated how a pre-processing system capable of separating a wider number of components is advantageous, even when the final quality of refined products in two different processes is comparable. Additionally, it is possible to observe where the process becomes redundant, that is, where processing of material does not result in a significant concentration in order to take corrective actions on the process. The present work demonstrates how material flow analysis combined with statistical entropy can be used as a parameter upon which the performance of multiple recycling processes can be objectively compared from a material-centric perspective.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5020041
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 42: Synthetic vs. Real Driving Cycles: A
           Comparison of Electric Vehicle Battery Degradation

    • Authors: George Baure, Matthieu Dubarry
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Automobile dependency and the inexorable proliferation of electric vehicles (EVs) compels accurate predictions of cycle life across multiple usage conditions and for multiple lithium-ion battery systems. Synthetic driving cycles have been essential in accumulating data on EV battery lifetimes. However, since battery deterioration is path-dependent, the representability of synthetic cycles must be questioned. Hence, this work compared three different synthetic driving cycles to real driving data in terms of mimicking actual EV battery degradation. It was found that the average current and charge capacity during discharge were important parameters in determining the appropriate synthetic profile, and traffic conditions have a significant impact on cell lifetimes. In addition, a stage of accelerated capacity fade was observed and shown to be induced by an increased loss of lithium inventory (LLI) resulting from irreversible Li plating. New metrics, the ratio of the loss of active material at the negative electrode (LAMNE) to the LLI and the plating threshold, were proposed as possible predictors for a stage of accelerated degradation. The results presented here demonstrated tracking properties, such as capacity loss and resistance increase, were insufficient in predicting cell lifetimes, supporting the adoption of metrics based on the analysis of degradation modes.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5020042
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 43: Optimized Process Parameters for a
           Reproducible Distribution of Relaxation Times Analysis of Electrochemical

    • Authors: Markus Hahn, Stefan Schindler, Lisa-Charlotte Triebs, Michael A. Danzer
      First page: 43
      Abstract: The distribution of relaxation times (DRT) analysis offers a model-free approach for a detailed investigation of electrochemical impedance spectra. Typically, the calculation of the distribution function is an ill-posed problem requiring regularization methods which are strongly parameter-dependent. Before statements on measurement data can be made, a process parameter study is crucial for analyzing the impact of the individual parameters on the distribution function. The optimal regularization parameter is determined together with the number of discrete time constants. Furthermore, the regularization term is investigated with respect to its mathematical background. It is revealed that the algorithm and its handling of constraints and the optimization function significantly determine the result of the DRT calculation. With optimized parameters, detailed information on the investigated system can be obtained. As an example of a complex impedance spectrum, a commercial Nickel–Manganese–Cobalt–Oxide (NMC) lithium-ion pouch cell is investigated. The DRT allows the investigation of the SOC dependency of the charge transfer reactions, solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and the solid state diffusion of both anode and cathode. For the quantification of the single polarization contributions, a peak analysis algorithm based on Gaussian distribution curves is presented and applied.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5020043
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 44: Recovery of Cobalt from Spent Lithium-Ion
           Mobile Phone Batteries Using Liquid–Liquid Extraction

    • Authors: Daniel Quintero-Almanza, Zeferino Gamiño-Arroyo, Lorena Eugenia Sánchez-Cadena, Fernando Israel Gómez-Castro, Agustín Ramón Uribe-Ramírez, Alberto Florentino Aguilera-Alvarado, Luz Marina Ocampo Carmona
      First page: 44
      Abstract: The aim of this paper was to propose and test a continuous cobalt recovery process from waste mobile phone batteries. The procedure started with dismantling, crushing, and classifying the materials. A study on leaching with sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide was carried out with subsequent selective separation of cobalt by means of liquid–liquid extraction. The best extraction conditions were determined based on a sequence of experiments that consisted of selecting the best extractant for cobalt, then assessing the impact of extractant concentration, pH, and contact time on the extraction yield. With these conditions, an extraction isotherm was obtained and correlated with a mathematical model to define the number of extraction stages for a countercurrent process using the McCabe–Thiele method. Then, a similar study was done for stripping conditions and, as a last step, cobalt electroplating was performed. The proposed process offers a solution for the treatment of these batteries, avoiding potential problems of contamination and risk for living beings, as well as offering an opportunity to recover valuable metal.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5020044
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 45: A Post-Mortem Study of Stacked 16 Ah
           Graphite//LiFePO4 Pouch Cells Cycled at 5 °C

    • Authors: Arianna Moretti, Diogo Vieira Carvalho, Niloofar Ehteshami, Elie Paillard, Willy Porcher, David Brun-Buisson, Jean-Baptiste Ducros, Iratxe de Meatza, Aitor Eguia-Barrio, Khiem Trad, Stefano Passerini
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Herein, the post-mortem study on 16 Ah graphite//LiFePO4 pouch cells is reported. Aiming to understand their failure mechanism, taking place when cycling at low temperature, the analysis of the cell components taken from different portions of the stacks and from different positions in the electrodes, is performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Also, the recovered electrodes are used to reassemble half-cells for further cycle tests. The combination of the several techniques detects an inhomogeneous ageing of the electrodes along the stack and from the center to the edge of the electrode, most probably due to differences in the pressure experienced by the electrodes. Interestingly, XPS reveals that more electrolyte decomposition took place at the edge of the electrodes and at the outer part of the cell stack independently of the ageing conditions. Finally, the use of high cycling currents buffers the low temperature detrimental effects, resulting in longer cycle life and less inhomogeneities.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5020045
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 46: Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of
           Ni-Doped VO2(B) as a Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Qian Yang, Zhengguang Zou, Xingyu Wu, Shengyu Li, Yanjiao Zhang
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Ni-doped VO2(B) samples (NixVO2(B)) were fabricated by a facile one-step hydrothermal method. When evaluated as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), these Ni-doped VO2(B) exhibited improved lithium storage performance as compared to the pure VO2(B). In particular, when the doping amount is 3%, NixVO2(B) showed the highest lithium storage capacity, best cycling stability, smallest electrochemical reaction resistance, and largest lithium diffusion coefficient. For example, after 100 cycles at a current density of 32.4 mA/g, NixVO2(B) delivered a high specific discharge capacity of 163.0 mAh/g, much higher than that of the pure VO2(B) sample (95.5 mAh/g). Therefore, Ni doping is an effective strategy for enhancing the lithium storage performance of VO2(B).
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5020046
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 47: Estimation Accuracy and Computational Cost
           Analysis of Artificial Neural Networks for State of Charge Estimation in
           Lithium Batteries

    • Authors: Angelo Bonfitto, Stefano Feraco, Andrea Tonoli, Nicola Amati, Francesco Monti
      First page: 47
      Abstract: This paper presents a tradeoff analysis in terms of accuracy and computational cost between different architectures of artificial neural networks for the State of Charge (SOC) estimation of lithium batteries in hybrid and electric vehicles. The considered layouts are partly selected from the literature on SOC estimation, and partly are novel proposals that have been demonstrated to be effective in executing estimation tasks in other engineering fields. One of the architectures, the Nonlinear Autoregressive Neural Network with Exogenous Input (NARX), is presented with an unconventional layout that exploits a preliminary routine, which allows setting of the feedback initial value to avoid estimation divergence. The presented solutions are compared in terms of estimation accuracy, duration of the training process, robustness to the noise in the current measurement, and to the inaccuracy on the initial estimation. Moreover, the algorithms are implemented on an electronic control unit in serial communication with a computer, which emulates a real vehicle, so as to compare their computational costs. The proposed unconventional NARX architecture outperforms the other solutions. The battery pack that is used to design and test the networks is a 20 kW pack for a mild hybrid electric vehicle, whilst the adopted training, validation and test datasets are obtained from the driving cycles of a real car and from standard profiles.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5020047
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 48: Life Cycle Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries
           for Automotive Applications

    • Authors: Qiang Dai, Jarod C. Kelly, Linda Gaines, Michael Wang
      First page: 48
      Abstract: In light of the increasing penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) in the global vehicle market, understanding the environmental impacts of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) that characterize the EVs is key to sustainable EV deployment. This study analyzes the cradle-to-gate total energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, SOx, NOx, PM10 emissions, and water consumption associated with current industrial production of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) batteries, with the battery life cycle analysis (LCA) module in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model, which was recently updated with primary data collected from large-scale commercial battery material producers and automotive LIB manufacturers. The results show that active cathode material, aluminum, and energy use for cell production are the major contributors to the energy and environmental impacts of NMC batteries. However, this study also notes that the impacts could change significantly, depending on where in the world the battery is produced, and where the materials are sourced. In an effort to harmonize existing LCAs of automotive LIBs and guide future research, this study also lays out differences in life cycle inventories (LCIs) for key battery materials among existing LIB LCA studies, and identifies knowledge gaps.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5020048
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 49: Model-Based Investigation of Porosity
           Profiles in Graphite Anodes Regarding Sudden-Death and Second-Life of
           Lithium Ion Cells

    • Authors: Daniel Müller, Thomas Dufaux, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 49
      Abstract: The second-life concept helps to reduce the cost for electric vehicles by adding monetary value to disused automotive batteries. However, the sudden-death effect, a change in ageing behaviour limits the total lifetime and might reduce the second-life timespan. In this paper, we utilize a common pseudo two-dimensional (P2D) cell model to investigate the influence of different porosity profiles in the graphite electrode on the battery’s ageing. Ageing is modeled by two irreversible side reactions at the anode, the formation of solid electrolyte interface (SEI) and lithium plating. We use parameters of a high-energy cell with thick electrodes. A constant initial anode porosity as a reference is compared with two optimized porosity profiles. Simulation results show that by using a layered anode, a two-stage porosity profile with higher porosity at the separator side, the cycle count until sudden-death and especially the cycles for second-life applications can both almost be doubled.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5020049
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 2: Investigation of Reactant Conversion in the
           Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Using Spatially Resolved State of Charge

    • Authors: Purna C. Ghimire, Arjun Bhattarai, Rüdiger Schweiss, Günther G. Scherer, Nyunt Wai, Tuti M. Lim, Qingyu Yan
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Segmented cells enable real time visualization of the flow distribution in vanadium redox flow batteries by local current or voltage mapping. The lateral flow of current within thick porous electrodes, however, impairs the local resolution of the detected signals. In this study, the open circuit voltage immediately after the cessation of charge/discharge is used for the mapping of reactant conversion. This quantity is not hampered by lateral flow of current and can be conveniently transformed to the corresponding state of charge. The difference between theoretically calculated and experimentally determined conversion (change in the state of charge) across the electrode is used to determine local variations in conversion efficiency. The method is validated by systematic experiments using electrodes with different modifications, varying current densities and flow configurations. The procedure and the interpretation are simple and scalable to any size of flow cell.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010002
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 3: Prototype System of Rocking-Chair Zn-Ion
           Battery Adopting Zinc Chevrel Phase Anode and Rhombohedral Zinc
           Hexacyanoferrate Cathode

    • Authors: Munseok S. Chae, Seung-Tae Hong
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs) have received attention as one type of multivalent-ion batteries due to their potential applications in large-scale energy storage systems. Here we report a prototype of rocking-chair ZIB system employing Zn2Mo6S8 (zinc Chevrel phase) as an anode operating at 0.35 V, and K0.02(H2O)0.22Zn2.94[Fe(CN)6]2 (rhombohedral zinc Prussian-blue analogue) as a cathode operating at 1.75 V (vs. Zn/Zn2+) in ZnSO4 aqueous electrolyte. This type of cell has a benefit due to its intrinsic zinc-dendrite-free nature. The cell is designed to be positive-limited with a capacity of 62.3 mAh g−1. The full-cell shows a reversible cycle with an average discharge cell voltage of ~1.40 V, demonstrating a successful rocking-chair zinc-ion battery system.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-01-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010003
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 4: Real-Time State-of-Charge Estimation via
           Particle Swarm Optimization on a Lithium-Ion Electrochemical Cell Model

    • Authors: Arun Chandra Shekar, Sohel Anwar
      First page: 4
      Abstract: With the ever-increasing usage of lithium-ion batteries, especially in transportation applications, accurate estimation of battery state of charge (SOC) is of paramount importance. A majority of the current SOC estimation methods rely on data collected and calibrated offline, which could lead to inaccuracies in SOC estimation under different operating conditions or when the battery ages. This paper presents a novel real-time SOC estimation of a lithium-ion battery by applying the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method to a detailed electrochemical model of a single cell. This work also optimizes both the single-cell model and PSO algorithm so that the developed algorithm can run on an embedded hardware with reasonable utilization of central processing unit (CPU) and memory resources while estimating the SOC with reasonable accuracy. A modular single-cell electrochemical model, as well as the proposed constrained PSO-based SOC estimation algorithm, was developed in Simulink©, and its performance was theoretically verified in simulation. Experimental data were collected for healthy and aged Li-ion battery cells in order to validate the proposed algorithm. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the developed algorithm is able to accurately estimate the battery SOC for 1C charge and 1C discharge operations for both healthy and aged cells.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010004
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 5: Monitoring the State of Charge of the Positive
           Electrolyte in a Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with a Novel Amperometric

    • Authors: Isabelle Kroner, Maik Becker, Thomas Turek
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Vanadium redox-flow batteries are a promising energy storage technology due to their safety, long-term stability, and independent adjustability of power and capacity. However, the vanadium crossover through the membrane causes a self-discharge, which results in a capacity shift towards one half cell. This leads to a gradual decrease in its efficiency over time. Capacity balancing methods for compensation of this effect require a reliable online state of charge (SoC) monitoring. Most common methods cannot provide exact values of the individual concentration of each species in both electrolytes. In particular, the state of the positive electrolyte cannot yet be precisely determined. In this work, an amperometric SoC monitoring is proposed as a new approach. First, the suitability of the principle is investigated with a rotating disc electrode (RDE). Then, a sensor based on a gas diffusion layer (GDL) is developed and tested in the positive electrolyte. The dependencies between oxidative current and V(IV)-concentration are examined as well as those between reduction current and V(V)-concentration. Using both relationships, a reliable measurement of all relevant concentrations is possible.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010005
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 6: Investigations on a Mesoporous Glass Membrane
           as Ion Separator for a Redox Flow Battery

    • Authors: Ioannis Michos, Zishu Cao, Zhi Xu, Wenheng Jing, Junhang Dong
      First page: 6
      Abstract: This article reports extensive studies of a Vycor® porous glass (VPG) membrane as an ion separator for an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The VPG membrane had an average pore size of 4 nm and porosity of ~28%. The VPG ion separator exhibited higher proton diffusivity but lower conductivity than the Nafion® 117 membrane because the former is intrinsically nonionic. The VRFB equipped with the VPG ion separator (VPG-VRFB) exhibited much better stability during long-term cyclic operation than the VRFB equipped with the Nafion-117 membrane (Nafion-VRFB) because the ionic Nafion membrane could be contaminated by vanadium ions exchanged into the water channels. This increases its area specific resistance, while the VPG does not have ion exchange capacity and hence has less vanadium ion contamination. The VPG-VRFB was found to outperform the Nafion-VRFB in energy efficiency (EE) during long-term cyclic operation although the former underperformed the latter in the initial period of continued operation. The VPG ion separator also showed markedly better thermal stability and temperature tolerance than the Nafion membrane as indicated by the significantly smaller losses of EE and discharge capacity for the VPG-VRFB than for the Nafion-VRFB after operating at 45 °C. The outstanding temperature tolerance of the VPG ion separator is due primarily to its rigid and non-swelling pore structure and nonionic nature, which are highly resistant to thermal distortion and vanadium ion contamination. The excellent temperature tolerance of the VPG may be useful for applications where temperature control is difficult.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010006
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 7: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Batteries in

    • Authors: Batteries Editorial Office
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010007
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 8: Characterizing Large-Scale, Electric-Vehicle
           Lithium Ion Transportation Batteries for Secondary Uses in Grid

    • Authors: Christopher Valant, Gabrielle Gaustad, Nenad Nenadic
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Lithium ion battery modules have significant capacity left after their useful life in transportation applications. This empirical study successfully tested the used modules in secondary grid applications in laboratory conditions. The selection of the secondary application was based on the construction features of the modules and the growing need for storage in grid operations. Description of the laboratory setup is provided in the context of a critical practical constraint where the battery management system and the usage and health history are not available to the secondary battery integrator. Charge and discharge profiles were developed based upon applications for peak shaving and firming renewables. Techno-economic analysis was focused on peak shaving at the utility level, considering a growing need for an affordable and environmentally friendly replacement to the traditional solutions based on environmentally costly peaker plants. The analysis showed strong evidence that near-term and future storage markets will be characterized by a large mismatch between the demand and supply of reused batteries from automotive primary applications for peak-shaving purposes in the generation side. The paper includes a discussion on successful adoption of cascaded use of batteries and their potential to reduce both economic and environmental cost of peak shaving.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010008
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 9: Real-Time Performance Optimization and
           Diagnostics during Long-Term Operation of a Solid Anolyte Microbial Fuel
           Cell Biobattery

    • Authors: Ademola Adekunle, Vijaya Raghavan, Boris Tartakovsky
      First page: 9
      Abstract: This study describes a novel approach for real-time energy harvesting and performance diagnostics of a solid anolyte microbial fuel cell (SA-MFC) representing a prototype smart biobattery. The biobattery power output was maximized in real time by combining intermittent power generation with a Perturbation-and-Observation algorithm for maximum power point tracking. The proposed approach was validated by operating the biobattery under a broad range of environmental conditions affecting power production, such as temperature (4–25 °C), NaCl concentration (up to 2 g L−1), and carbon source concentration. Real-time biobattery performance diagnostics was achieved by estimating key internal parameters (resistance, capacitance, open circuit voltage) using an equivalent electrical circuit model. The real time optimization approach ensured maximum power production during 388 days of biobattery operation under varying environmental conditions, thus confirming the feasibility of biobattery application for powering small electronic devices in field applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-01-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010009
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 10: Exploring the Economic Potential of
           Sodium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Jens F. Peters, Alexandra Peña Cruz, Marcel Weil
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are a recent development being promoted repeatedly as an economically promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, only one detailed study about material costs has yet been published for this battery type. This paper presents the first detailed economic assessment of 18,650-type SIB cells with a layered oxide cathode and a hard carbon anode, based on existing datasheets for pre-commercial battery cells. The results are compared with those of competing LIB cells, that is, with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide cathodes (NMC) and with lithium-iron-phosphate cathodes (LFP). A sensitivity analysis further evaluates the influence of varying raw material prices on the results. For the SIB, a cell price of 223 €/kWh is obtained, compared to 229 €/kWh for the LFP and 168 €/kWh for the NMC batteries. The main contributor to the price of the SIB cells are the material costs, above all the cathode and anode active materials. For this reason, the amount of cathode active material (e.g., coating thickness) in addition to potential fluctuations in the raw material prices have a considerable effect on the price per kWh of storage capacity. Regarding the anode, the precursor material costs have a significant influence on the hard carbon cost, and thus on the final price of the SIB cell. Organic wastes and fossil coke precursor materials have the potential of yielding hard carbon at very competitive costs. In addition, cost reductions in comparison with LIBs are achieved for the current collectors, since SIBs also allow the use of aluminum instead of copper on the anode side. For the electrolyte, the substitution of lithium with sodium leads to only a marginal cost decrease from 16.1 to 15.8 €/L, hardly noticeable in the final cell price. On the other hand, the achievable energy density is fundamental. While it seems difficult to achieve the same price per kWh as high energy density NMC LIBs, the SIB could be a promising substitute for LFP cells in stationary applications, if it also becomes competitive with LFP cells in terms of safety and cycle life.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-01-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010010
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 11: Silicon/Mesoporous Carbon (Si/MC) Derived
           from Phenolic Resin for High Energy Anode Materials for Li-ion Batteries:
           Role of HF Etching and Vinylene Carbonate (VC) Additive

    • Authors: Arlavinda Rezqita, Hristina Vasilchina, Raad Hamid, Markus Sauer, Annette Foelske, Corina Täubert, Hermann Kronberger
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Silicon/mesoporous carbon (Si/MC) composites with optimum Si content, in which the volumetric energy density would be maximized, while volume changes would be minimized, have been developed. The composites were prepared by dispersing Si nanoparticles in a phenolic resin as a carbon source, subsequent carbonization, and etching with hydrofluoric acid (HF). Special attention was paid to understanding the role of HF etching as post-treatment to provide additional void spaces in the composites. The etching process was shown to reduce the SiO2 native layer on the Si nanoparticles, resulting in increased porosity in comparison to the non-etched composite material. For cell optimization, vinylene carbonate (VC) was employed as an electrolyte additive to build a stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on the electrode. The composition of the SEI layer on Si/MC electrodes, cycled with and without VC-containing electrolytes for several cycles, was then comprehensively investigated by using ex-situ XPS. The SEI layers on the electrodes working with VC-containing electrolyte were more stable than those in configurations without VC; this explains why our sample with VC exhibits lower irreversible capacity losses after several cycles. The optimized Si/MC composites exhibit a reversible capacity of ~800 mAhg−1 with an average coulombic efficiency of ~99 % over 400 cycles at C/10.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-01-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010011
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 12: Critical Review of the Use of Reference
           Electrodes in Li-Ion Batteries: A Diagnostic Perspective

    • Authors: Rinaldo Raccichini, Marco Amores, Gareth Hinds
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Use of a reference electrode (RE) in Li-ion batteries (LIBs) aims to enable quantitative evaluation of various electrochemical aspects of operation such as: (i) the distinct contribution of each cell component to the overall battery performance, (ii) correct interpretation of current and voltage data with respect to the components, and (iii) the study of reaction mechanisms of individual electrodes. However, care needs to be taken to ensure the presence of the RE does not perturb the normal operation of the cell. Furthermore, if not properly controlled, geometrical and chemical features of the RE can have a significant influence on the measured response. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the range of RE types and configurations reported in the literature, with a focus on critical aspects such as electrochemical methods of analysis, cell geometry, and chemical composition of the RE and influence of the electrolyte. Some of the more controversial issues reported in the literature are highlighted and the benefits and drawbacks of the use of REs as an in situ diagnostic tool in LIBs are discussed.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010012
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 13: Vanadium Electrolyte for All-Vanadium
           Redox-Flow Batteries: The Effect of the Counter Ion

    • Authors: Nataliya Roznyatovskaya, Jens Noack, Heiko Mild, Matthias Fühl, Peter Fischer, Karsten Pinkwart, Jens Tübke, Maria Skyllas-Kazacos
      First page: 13
      Abstract: In this study, 1.6 M vanadium electrolytes in the oxidation forms V(III) and V(V) were prepared from V(IV) in sulfuric (4.7 M total sulphate), V(IV) in hydrochloric (6.1 M total chloride) acids, as well as from 1:1 mol mixture of V(III) and V(IV) (denoted as V3.5+) in hydrochloric (7.6 M total chloride) acid. These electrolyte solutions were investigated in terms of performance in vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The half-wave potentials of the V(III)/V(II) and V(V)/V(IV) couples, determined by cyclic voltammetry, and the electronic spectra of V(III) and V(IV) electrolyte samples, are discussed to reveal the effect of electrolyte matrix on charge-discharge behavior of a 40 cm2 cell operated with 1.6 M V3.5+ electrolytes in sulfuric and hydrochloric acids. Provided that the total vanadium concentration and the conductivity of electrolytes are comparable for both acids, respective energy efficiencies of 77% and 72–75% were attained at a current density of 50 mA∙cm−2. All electrolytes in the oxidation state V(V) were examined for chemical stability at room temperature and +45 °C by titrimetric determination of the molar ratio V(V):V(IV) and total vanadium concentration.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010013
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 14: Design and Analysis of the Use of Re-Purposed
           Electric Vehicle Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage in Canada

    • Authors: John W. A. Catton, Sean B. Walker, Paul McInnis, Michael Fowler, Roydon A. Fraser, Steven B. Young, Ben Gaffney
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Vehicle electrification increases the fuel efficiency of the transportation sector while lowering emissions. Eventually, however, electric vehicle batteries will reach their end-of-life (EOL) point, when the capacity of the battery is insufficient for operating a motor vehicle. At this point, the battery is typically removed for recycling. This treatment of the electric vehicle battery is not efficient, as there is still a high enough storage capacity that they can be used in various non-vehicular uses. Unfortunately, there are numerous barriers limiting the adoption of re-used electric vehicle batteries. Herein, the authors analyze the limitations and current codes and standards that affect re-purposed battery pack designs. Utilizing these requirements, a bench test setup is designed and built, to determine feasibility of a repurposed electric vehicle (EV) battery for stationary energy storage in Canada.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 15: Mechanism of Ionic Impedance Growth for
           Palladium-Containing CNT Electrodes in Lithium-Oxygen Battery Electrodes
           and Its Contribution to Battery Failure

    • Authors: Neha Chawla, Amir Chamaani, Meer Safa, Marcus Herndon, Bilal El-Zahab
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and on CNT (carbon nanotube) cathode with a palladium catalyst, palladium-coated CNT (PC-CNT), and palladium-filled CNT (PF-CNT) are assessed in an ether-based electrolyte solution in order to fabricate a lithium-oxygen battery with high specific energy. The electrochemical properties of the CNT cathodes were studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Palladium-filled cathodes displayed better performance as compared to the palladium-coated ones due to the shielding of the catalysts. The mechanism of the improvement was associated to the reduction of the rate of resistances growth in the batteries, especially the ionic resistances in the electrolyte and electrodes. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and spectroscopy were used to analyze the products of the reaction that were adsorbed on the electrode surface of the battery, which was fabricated using palladium-coated and palladium-filled CNTs as cathodes and an ether-based electrolyte.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010015
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 16: Degradation Phenomena of Bismuth-Modified

    • Authors: Jonathan Schneider, Eduard Bulczak, Gumaa A. El-Nagar, Marcus Gebhard, Paul Kubella, Maike Schnucklake, Abdulmonem Fetyan, Igor Derr, Christina Roth
      First page: 16
      Abstract: The performance of all-V redox flow batteries (VRFB) will decrease when they are exposed to dynamic electrochemical cycling, but also when they are in prolonged contact with the acidic electrolyte. These phenomena are especially severe at the negative side, where the parasitic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) will be increasingly favored over the reduction of V(III) with ongoing degradation of the carbon felt electrode. Bismuth, either added to the electrolyte or deposited onto the felt, has been reported to suppress the HER and therefore to enhance the kinetics of the V(II)/V(III) redox reaction. This study is the first to investigate degradation effects on bismuth-modified electrodes in the negative half-cell of a VRFB. By means of a simple impregnation method, a commercially available carbon felt was decorated with Bi 2 O 3 , which is supposedly present as Bi(0) under the working conditions at the negative side. Modified and unmodified felts were characterized electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in a three-electrode setup. Surface morphology of the electrodes and composition of the negative half-cell electrolyte were probed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF), respectively. This was done before and after the electrodes were subjected to 50 charge-discharge cycles in a battery test bench. Our results suggest that not only the bismuth catalyst is dissolved from the electrode during battery operation, but also that the presence of bismuth in the system has a strong accelerating effect on electrode degradation.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010016
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 17: Low Reversible Capacity of Nitridated
           Titanium Electrical Terminals

    • Authors: David Klein, Yaolin Xu, Robert Schlögl, Sébastien Cap
      First page: 17
      Abstract: The currently preferred manufacturing method for Lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes is via the slurry route. While such an approach is appealing, the complexity of the electrode layers containing the active materials, conductivity helpers, and binders, has hampered detailed investigations of the active materials. As an alternative, an active material can be deposited as a thin film on a planar substrate, which enables a more robust and detailed analysis. However, due to the small areal capacity of nanometric thin films, the electrochemical activity of the cell casing must be negligible or at least well determined. We reported on the capacity and the differential capacity metrics of several materials used in the construction of the electrical terminals in LIBs. Among these materials, Ti was revealed to have the minimum reversible capacity for lithium-ion storage. The mechanical and electrochemical properties of the Ti–based materials were further improved through surface nitridation with thermal treatment in an ammonia-rich atmosphere. The nitridated Ti electrical terminal achieved a reversible capacity that was at least fifteen times lower than that of stainless steel, with a featureless differential capacity representation creating quasi-ideal experimental conditions for a detailed investigation of electroactive thin films.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010017
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 18: Discharge by Short Circuit Currents of
           Parallel-Connected Lithium-Ion Cells in Thermal Propagation

    • Authors: Sascha Koch, Alexander Fill, Katerina Kelesiadou, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 18
      Abstract: The increasing need for high capacity batteries in plug-in hybrids and all-electric vehicles gives rise to the question of whether these batteries should be equipped with a few large capacity cells or rather many low capacity cells in parallel. This article demonstrates the possible benefits of smaller cells connected in parallel because of discharge effects. Measurements have been conducted proving the beneficial influence of a lower SoC on the thermal runaway behaviour of lithium-ion cells. A second test series examines the short circuit currents during an ongoing thermal propagation in parallel-connected cells. With the help of a developed equivalent circuit model and the results of the test series two major system parameters, the ohmic resistance of a cell during thermal runaway R tr and the resistance post thermal runaway R ptr are extracted for the test set-up. A further developed equivalent circuit model and its analytical description are presented and illustrate the great impact of R ptr on the overall discharged capacity. According to the model, cells with a capacity of no more than C cell = 10–15 Ah and a parallel-connection of 24 cells show the most potential to discharge a significant amount.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010018
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 19: Recent Advances in Non-Flammable Electrolytes
           for Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Neha Chawla, Neelam Bharti, Shailendra Singh
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries are the most commonly used source of power for modern electronic devices. However, their safety became a topic of concern after reports of the devices catching fire due to battery failure. Making safer batteries is of utmost importance, and several researchers are trying to modify various aspects in the battery to make it safer without affecting the performance of the battery. Electrolytes are one of the most important parts of the battery since they are responsible for the conduction of ions between the electrodes. In this paper, we discuss the different non-flammable electrolytes that were developed recently for safer lithium-ion battery applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010019
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 20: Optimal Charging of Vanadium Redox Flow
           Battery with Time-Varying Input Power

    • Authors: Md. Parvez Akter, Yifeng Li, Jie Bao, Maria Skyllas-Kazacos, Muhammed Fazlur Rahman
      First page: 20
      Abstract: The battery energy storage system has become an indispensable part of the current electricity network due to the vast integration of renewable energy sources (RESs). This paper proposes an optimal charging method of a vanadium redox flow battery (VRB)-based energy storage system, which ensures the maximum harvesting of the free energy from RESs by maintaining safe operations of the battery. The VRB has a deep discharging capability, long cycle life, and high energy efficiency with no issues of cell-balancing, which make it suitable for large-scale energy storage systems. The proposed approach determines the appropriate charging current and the optimal electrolyte flow rate based on the available time-varying input power. Moreover, the charging current is bounded by the limiting current, which prevents the gassing side-reactions and protects the VRB from overcharging. The proposed optimal charging method is investigated by simulation studies using MATLAB/Simulink.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010020
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 21: Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Ion
           Battery with Different Nanoporous Current Collectors

    • Authors: Huajun Feng, Yuan Chen, Yihua Wang
      First page: 21
      Abstract: In this work, we use ultrasonication and chemical etching agents to assist preparation of metal current collectors with nano-scale pores on the surface. Four different current collectors (copper foil, copper foam, aluminum foil, and aluminum foam) are prepared. The preparation parameters, ultrasonic time and etching agent concentration, are investigated and optimized accordingly. The morphologies of the as-prepared current collectors are observed under a scanning electronic microscope. Soft-packed lithium ion batteries with various current collectors are fabricated and tested. The prepared lithium ion batteries show good long-term cycle stability. The nanoporous structure of the current collector has little impact on the improvement of battery capacity under slow charging/discharging rates but has a positive impact on capacity retention under fast charging/discharging rates.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010021
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 22: Comparative Life Cycle Environmental Impact
           Analysis of Lithium-Ion (LiIo) and Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) Batteries

    • Authors: M. A. Parvez Mahmud, Nazmul Huda, Shahjadi Hisan Farjana, Candace Lang
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Batteries have been extensively used in many applications; however, very little is explored regarding the possible environmental impacts for their whole life cycle, even though a lot of studies have been carried out for augmenting performance in many ways. This research paper addresses the environmental effects of two different types of batteries, lithium-ion (LiIo) and nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries, in terms of their chemical constituents. Life cycle impact analysis has been carried out by the CML, ReCiPe, EcoPoints 97, IPCC, and CED methods. The impacts are considered in categories such as global warming, eutrophication, freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity, human toxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. The results reveal that there is a significant environmental impact caused by nickel-metal hydride batteries in comparison with lithium-ion batteries. The reason behind these impacts is the relatively large amount of toxic chemical elements which are present as constituents of NiMH batteries. It can be anticipated that a better environmental performance can be achieved through optimization, especially by cautiously picking the constituents, taking into account the toxicity aspects, and by minimizing the impacts related to these chemicals.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010022
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 23: Eco-Efficiency of a Lithium-Ion Battery for
           Electric Vehicles: Influence of Manufacturing Country and Commodity Prices
           on GHG Emissions and Costs

    • Authors: Maeva Philippot, Garbiñe Alvarez, Elixabete Ayerbe, Joeri Van Mierlo, Maarten Messagie
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Lithium-ion battery packs inside electric vehicles represents a high share of the final price. Nevertheless, with technology advances and the growth of the market, the price of the battery is getting more competitive. The greenhouse gas emissions and the battery cost have been studied previously, but coherent boundaries between environmental and economic assessments are needed to assess the eco-efficiency of batteries. In this research, a detailed study is presented, providing an environmental and economic assessment of the manufacturing of one specific lithium-ion battery chemistry. The relevance of parameters is pointed out, including the manufacturing place, the production volume, the commodity prices, and the energy density. The inventory is obtained by dismantling commercial cells. The correlation between the battery cost and the commodity price is much lower than the correlation between the battery cost and the production volume. The developed life cycle assessment concludes that the electricity mix that is used to power the battery factory is a key parameter for the impact of the battery manufacturing on climate change. To improve the battery manufacturing eco-efficiency, a high production capacity and an electricity mix with low carbon intensity are suggested. Optimizing the process by reducing the electricity consumption during the manufacturing is also suggested, and combined with higher pack energy density, the impact on climate change of the pack manufacturing is as low as 39.5 kg CO2 eq/kWh.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010023
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 24: Vanadium Oxygen Fuel Cell Utilising High
           Concentration Electrolyte

    • Authors: Mandar Risbud, Chris Menictas, Maria Skyllas-Kazacos, Jens Noack
      First page: 24
      Abstract: A vanadium oxygen fuel cell is a modified form of a conventional vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) where the positive electrolyte (VO2+/VO2+ couple) is replaced by the oxygen reduction (ORR) process. This potentially allows for a significant improvement in energy density and has the added benefit of overcoming the solubility limits of V (V) at elevated temperatures, while also allowing the vanadium negative electrolyte concentration to increase above 3 M. In this paper, a vanadium oxygen fuel cell with vanadium electrolytes with a concentration of up to 3.6 M is reported with preliminary results presented for different electrodes over a range of current densities. Using precipitation inhibitors, the concentration of vanadium can be increased considerably above the commonly used 2 M limit, leading to improved energy density.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010024
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 25: A One-Dimensional Stack Model for Redox Flow
           Battery Analysis and Operation

    • Authors: John L. Barton, Fikile R. Brushett
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Current redox flow battery (RFB) stack models are not particularly conducive to accurate yet high-throughput studies of stack operation and design. To facilitate system-level analysis, we have developed a one-dimensional RFB stack model through the combination of a one-dimensional Newman-type cell model and a resistor-network to evaluate contributions from shunt currents within the stack. Inclusion of hydraulic losses and membrane crossover enables constrained optimization of system performance and allows users to make recommendations for operating flow rate, current densities, and cell design given a subset of electrolyte and electrode properties. Over the range of experimental conditions explored, shunt current losses remain small, but mass-transfer losses quickly become prohibitive at high current densities. Attempting to offset mass-transfer losses with high flow rates reduces system efficiency due to the increase in pressure drop through the porous electrode. The development of this stack model application, along with the availability of the source MATLAB code, allows for facile approximation of the upper limits of performance with limited empiricism. This work primarily presents a readily adaptable tool to enable researchers to perform either front-end performance estimates based on fundamental material properties or to benchmark their experimental results.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010025
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 26: Correlation of Mechanical and Electrical
           Behavior of Polyethylene Oxide-Based Solid Electrolytes for All-Solid
           State Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Fabian Peters, Frederieke Langer, Nikolai Hillen, Katharina Koschek, Ingo Bardenhagen, Julian Schwenzel, Matthias Busse
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Mechanical and electrochemical stability are key issues for large-scale production of solid state Li-ion batteries. Polymer electrolytes can provide good ionic conductivity, but mechanical strength needs to be improved. In this study, we investigate the correlation of mechanical and electrical properties of poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based solid electrolytes for Li-ion batteries. The influence of alumina and LiClO4 addition are investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to study the thermal behavior of salt-free and salt-containing samples and to identify the melting temperature. Dynamic mechanical analysis reveals the elastic properties as a function of temperature. Electrochemical properties are investigated using impedance spectroscopy. It is found that addition of alumina increases mechanical strength, while LiClO4 decreases it. Addition of LiClO4 and Al2O3 increases ionic conductivity and improves mechanical properties. However, there is no overlapping window of high mechanical strength and high ionic conductivity.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010026
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 27: Fabrication of Porous Si@C Composites with
           Core-Shell Structure and Their Electrochemical Performance for Li-ion

    • Authors: Shuo Zhao, Yue Xu, Xiaochao Xian, Na Liu, Wenjing Li
      First page: 27
      Abstract: The pores in silicon particles can accommodate the volume expansion of silicon during the charging–discharging process. However, pores in silicon particles are easily occupied by carbon during the preparation of silicon/carbon composites. In this paper, sulfur was adsorbed in the pores of porous silicon particles before polyaniline (PANI) coating by in-situ polymerization, so that the pores were preserved in porous silicon@carbon (p-Si/@C) composites after the sublimation of sulfur during carbonization. The microstructure and the electrochemical performances of the obtained p-Si/@C composites were investigated. The results indicate that p-Si/@C composites prepared with a sulfur-melting process show a better high-rate performance than those without a sulfur-melting process. Remarkably, the former show a better capacity retention when returning to a low current density. The reversible capacities of the former were 1178 mAh·g−1, 1055 mAh·g−1, 944 mAh·g−1, and 751 mAh·g−1 at 0.2 A·g−1, 0.3 A·g−1, 0.5 A·g−1, and 1.0 A·g−1, respectively. Moreover, the reversible capacities could return to 870 mAh·g−1, 996 mAh·g−1, and 1027 mAh·g−1 when current densities returned to 0.5, 0.3, and 0.2 A·g−1, respectively.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010027
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 28: Lifetime Prediction of Lithium-Ion Capacitors
           Based on Accelerated Aging Tests

    • Authors: Nagham El Ghossein, Ali Sari, Pascal Venet
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Lithium-ion Capacitors (LiCs) that have intermediate properties between lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors are still considered as a new technology whose aging is not well studied in the literature. This paper presents the results of accelerated aging tests applied on 12 samples of LiCs. Two high temperatures (60 °C and 70 °C) and two voltage values were used for aging acceleration for 20 months. The maximum and the minimum voltages (3.8 V and 2.2 V respectively) had different effects on capacitance fade. Cells aging at 2.2 V encountered extreme decrease of the capacitance. After storing them for only one month at 60 °C, they lost around 22% of their initial capacitance. For this reason, an aging model was developed for cells aging at the lowest voltage value to emphasize the huge decrease of the lifetime at this voltage condition. Moreover, two measurement tools of the capacitance were compared to find the optimal method for following the evolution of the aging process. It was proved that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is the most accurate measurement technique that can reveal the actual level of degradation inside a LiC cell.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010028
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 29: A Suggested Improvement for Small Autonomous
           Energy System Reliability by Reducing Heat and Excess Charges

    • Authors: Christophe Savard, Emiliia V. Iakovleva
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Devices operating in complete energy autonomy are multiplying: small fixed signaling applications or sensors often operating in a network. To ensure operation for a substantial period, for applications with difficult physical access, a means of storing electrical energy must be included in the system. The battery remains the most deployed solution. Lead-acid batteries still have a significant share of this market due to the maturity of their technology. However, even by sizing all the system elements according to the needs and the available renewable energy, some failure occurs. The battery is the weak element. It can be quickly discharged when the renewable energy source is no longer present for a while. It can also be overloaded or subjected to high temperatures, which affects its longevity. This paper presents a suggested improvement for these systems, systematically adding extra devices to reduce excess charges and heat and allowing the battery use at lower charges. The interest of this strategy is presented by comparing the number of days of system failure and the consequences for battery aging. To demonstrate the interest of the proposed improvement track, a colored Petri net is deployed to model the battery degradation parameters evolution, in order to compare them.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010029
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 30: Refractive Index Measurement of Lithium Ion
           Battery Electrolyte with Etched Surface Cladding Waveguide Bragg Gratings
           and Cell Electrode State Monitoring by Optical Strain Sensors

    • Authors: Antonio Nedjalkov, Jan Meyer, Alexander Gräfenstein, Benjamin Schramm, Martin Angelmahr, Julian Schwenzel, Wolfgang Schade
      First page: 30
      Abstract: In this scientific publication, a new sensor approach for status monitoring, such as state of charge and state of health, of lithium ion batteries by using special Bragg gratings inscribed into standard optical glass fibers is presented. In addition to well-known core gratings, embedded into the anode of 5 Ah lithium ion pouch cells as a strain monitoring unit, the manufacturing of a surface cladding waveguide Bragg grating sensor incorporated into the cell’s separator, that is sensitive to changes of the refractive index of the surrounding medium, is demonstrated. On the basis of the experiments carried out, characteristics of the cell behavior during standard cyclization and recognizable marks in subsequent post-mortem analyses of the cell components are shown. No negative influence on the cell performance due to the integrated sensors have been observed; however, the results show a clear correlation between fading cell capacity and changes of the interior optical signals. Additionally, with the novel photonic sensor, variations in the electrolyte characteristics are determinable as the refractive index of the solution changes at different molar compositions. Furthermore, with the manufactured battery cells, abuse tests by overcharging were conducted, and it was thereby demonstrated how internal battery sensors can derive additional information beyond conventional battery management systems to feasibly prevent catastrophic cell failures. The result of the research work is an early stage photonic sensor that combines chemical, mechanical and thermal information from inside the cell for an enhanced battery status analysis.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010030
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 31: An Electrical Equivalent Circuit Model of a
           Lithium Titanate Oxide Battery

    • Authors: Seyed Saeed Madani, Erik Schaltz, Søren Knudsen Kær
      First page: 31
      Abstract: A precise lithium-ion battery model is required to specify their appropriateness for different applications and to study their dynamic behavior. In addition, it is important to design an efficient battery system for power applications. In this investigation, a second-order equivalent electrical circuit battery model, which is the most conventional method of characterizing the behavior of a lithium-ion battery, was developed. The current pulse procedure was employed for parameterization of the model. The construction of the model was described in detail, and a battery model for a 13 Ah lithium titanate oxide battery cell was demonstrated. Comprehensive characterization experiments were accomplished for an extensive range of operating situations. The outcomes were employed to parameterize the suggested dynamic model of the lithium titanate oxide battery cell. The simulation outcomes were compared to the laboratory measurements. In addition, the proposed lithium-ion battery model was validated. The recommended model was assessed, and the proposed model was able to anticipate precisely the current and voltage performance.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010031
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 32: Improved Discharge Capacity of Zinc Particles
           by Applying Bismuth-Doped Silica Coating for Zinc-Based Batteries

    • Authors: Tobias Michlik, Andreas Rosin, Thorsten Gerdes, Ralf Moos
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Corrosion and discharge behavior of battery-grade zinc particles coated with a silica layer doped with bismuth was investigated and compared with untreated zinc powder. Electrochemical investigations were carried out in half-cell configuration. The electrolyte was 6 M KOH in excess. Coated zinc particles provided a discharge capacity of 737 mAh g−1 (89.9% DoD) versus 633 mAh g−1 (77.2% DoD) of untreated zinc particles after a dwell time of 1 h in KOH. The silica coating reduced the direct contact of the zinc surface with the electrolyte and thus minimized the hydrogen evolution reaction, which led to an increased discharge capacity. Additionally, bismuth doping enhanced conductivity within the silica coating and increased zinc utilization. Those coated zinc particles inhibited corrosion, i.e., corrosion efficiency reached 87.9% compared to uncoated zinc. Additionally, the coating achieved a capacity retention of 90.9% (670 mAh g−1) after 48 h dwell time in 6 M KOH. The coatings were prepared by sol-gel technology and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface determination.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010032
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 33: Fast Electrical Characterizations of
           High-Energy Second Life Lithium-Ion Batteries for Embedded and Stationary

    • Authors: Honorat Quinard, Eduardo Redondo-Iglesias, Serge Pelissier, Pascal Venet
      First page: 33
      Abstract: This paper focuses on the fast characterization of automotive second life lithium-ion batteries that have been recently re-used in many projects to create battery storages for stationary applications and sporadically for embedded applications. Specific criteria dedicated to the second life are first discussed. After a short review of the available state of health indicators and their associated determination techniques, some electrical characterization tests are explored through an experimental campaign. This offline identification aims to estimate the remaining ability of the battery to store energy. Twenty-four modules from six different commercial electric vehicles are analyzed. Well-known methodologies like incremental capacity analysis (ICA) and constant voltage phase analysis during CC-CV charge highlight the difficulty—and sometimes the impossibility—to apply traditional tools on a battery pack or on individual modules, in the context of real second life applications. Indeed, the diversity of the available second life batteries induces a combination of aging mechanisms that leads to a complete heterogeneity from a cell to another. Moreover, due to the unknown first life of the battery, typical state of health determination methodologies are difficult to use. A new generic technique based on a partial coulometric counter is proposed and compared to other techniques. In the present case study, the partial coulometric counter allows a fast determination of the capacity aging. In conclusion, future improvements and working tracks are addressed.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010033
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 34: Methods for Durability Testing and Lifetime
           Estimation of Thermal Interface Materials in Batteries

    • Authors: Ralf Stadler, Arno Maurer
      First page: 34
      Abstract: To ensure sufficient thermal performance within electric vehicle (EV) batteries, thermal interface materials (TIMs), such as pastes or adhesives, are widely used to fill thermally insulating voids between cells and cooling components. However, TIMs are composite materials that are subject to degradation over the battery’s lifetime. Using TIMs for battery applications is a new and emerging topic, creating the need to rapidly acquire knowledge about appropriate lifetime testing and evaluation methods, in close collaboration with the battery manufacturers. This paper reviews suitable methods for durability testing as well as basic modeling approaches which allow for the transfer of laboratory results to the longtime behavior of interface materials during a vehicle’s lifetime.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010034
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 35: Recycling of Alkaline Batteries via a
           Carbothermal Reduction Process

    • Authors: Selçuk Yeşiltepe, Mehmet Buğdaycı, Onuralp Yücel, Mustafa Kelami Şeşen
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Primary battery recycling has important environmental and economic benefits. According to battery sales worldwide, the most used battery type is alkaline batteries with 75% of market share due to having a higher performance than other primary batteries such as Zn–MnO2. In this study, carbothermal reduction for zinc oxide from battery waste was completed for both vacuum and Ar atmospheres. Thermodynamic data are evaluated for vacuum and Ar atmosphere reduction reactions and results for Zn reduction/evaporation are compared via the FactSage program. Zn vapor and manganese oxide were obtained as products. Zn vapor was re-oxidized in end products; manganese monoxide and steel container of batteries are evaluated as ferromanganese raw material. Effects of carbon source, vacuum, temperature and time were studied. The results show a recovery of 95.1% Zn by implementing a product at 1150 °C for 1 h without using the vacuum. The residues were characterized by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) methods.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010035
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • Batteries, Vol. 5, Pages 36: Combining a Fatigue Model and an Incremental
           Capacity Analysis on a Commercial NMC/Graphite Cell under Constant Current
           Cycling with and without Calendar Aging

    • Authors: Tiphaine Plattard, Nathalie Barnel, Loïc Assaud, Sylvain Franger, Jean-Marc Duffault
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Reliable development of LIBs requires that they be correlated with accurate aging studies. The present project focuses on the implementation of a weighted ampere-hour throughput model, taking into account the operating parameters, and modulating the impact of an exchanged ampere-hour by the well-established three major stress factors: temperature, current intensity (rated), and state of charge (SoC). This model can drift with time due to repeated solicitation, so its parameters need to be updated by on-field measurements, in order to remain accurate. These on-field measurements are submitted to the so-called Incremental Capacity Analysis method (ICA), consisting in the analysis of dQ/dV as a function of V. It is a direct indicator of the state of health of the cell, as the experimental peaks are related to the active material chemical/structural evolution, such as phase transitions and recorded potential plateaus during charging/discharging. It is here applied to NMC/graphite based commercial cells. These peaks’ evolution can be correlated with the here-defined Ah-kinetic and t -kinetic aging, which are chemistry-dependent, and therefore, has to be adjusted to the different types of cells.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2019-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries5010036
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
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