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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 201 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advanced Materials Technologies     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 99)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Australian Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302)
ECTI Transactions on Computer and Information Technology (ECTI-CIT)     Open Access  
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 123)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 108)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 103)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
EPE Journal : European Power Electronics and Drives     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 100)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Letters on Electromagnetic Compatibility Practice and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Magnetics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Open Journal of Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Open Journal of Industry Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 77)
IEEE Pulse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 361)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 219)
IEEE Transactions on Haptics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
IEEE Women in Engineering Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access  
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal ELTIKOM : Jurnal Teknik Elektro, Teknologi Informasi dan Komputer     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Revue Méditerranéenne des Télécommunications     Open Access  
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ural Radio Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Wireless Power Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.657
Citation Impact (citeScore): 7
Number of Followers: 52  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2168-6777 - ISSN (Online) 2168-6785
Published by IEEE Homepage  [228 journals]
  • IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics
    • Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • IEEE Power Electronics Society Information
    • Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Guest Editorial: Special Section on Modeling, Design, and Application of
           Next-Generation Power Components
    • Authors: Laili Wang;John Shen;
      Pages: 2 - 5
      Abstract: We Have witnessed that each generation of power devices triggered a renovation in power conversion in the past decades. Wide bandgap (WBG) power devices,as the new generation of power devices, will undoubtedly make great changes to today’s power conversion system. Actually, they are now establishing new benchmarks in various applications benefiting from their higher switching frequency,higher power density, and higher efficiency. A broad consensus has been reached that power integration technology should be employed to fully explore the potential of WBG devices.Simultaneously, the characteristics of WBG devices also create a great chance for integration. However, many issues need to be addressed on the WBG-enabled power integration road,including device modeling, gate driving techniques, device and module packaging, and application-oriented integration schemes. Magnetics and capacitors also play a key role in power integration. Their power loss, operating temperature,and integration scheme with active devices also fall in the research interests.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • 7.2-kV/60-A Austin SuperMOS: An Intelligent Medium-Voltage SiC Power
    • Authors: Liqi Zhang;Soumik Sen;Alex Q. Huang;
      Pages: 6 - 15
      Abstract: In order to enable medium-voltage applications at an operation voltage of 5-kV level, a novel 7.2-kV/60-A Austin SuperMOS SiC power switch is developed. Static and dynamic performances are characterized at various voltage and current levels. The device exhibits excellent dynamic performance with a high dV/dt up to 122 V/ns during the turn-off. The output charge of the Austin SuperMOS is also measured to enable accurate dynamic loss estimation. A unique automatic gate turn-on mechanism is identified, which facilitates a substantial reduction of the third quadrant conduction loss during the deadtime in converter operations. A high-voltage isolated power supply with low coupling capacitance and an optically triggered intelligent gate driver circuit with protection functions are integrated into the medium-voltage power switch, enabling safe and reliable medium-voltage operations of the Austin SuperMOS.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Area-Efficient, 600V 4H-SiC JBS Diode-Integrated MOSFETs (JBSFETs) for
           Power Converter Applications
    • Authors: Nick Yun;Justin Lynch;Woongje Sung;
      Pages: 16 - 23
      Abstract: This article reports the demonstration of a low-voltage (
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Monolithic Integration of SiC Power BJT and Small-Signal BJTs for Power
    • Authors: Shiwei Liang;Jun Wang;Linfeng Deng;Fang Fang;Z. John Shen;
      Pages: 24 - 30
      Abstract: Monolithic integration of power transistor and specific functional integrated circuits (power ICs) offers unique advantages for wide bandgap power devices. However, few publications have reported the power ICs based on SiC because of several challenging problems such as fabrication process and cost. This paper explores the monolithic integration possibility of 4H-SiC lateral small-signal bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and vertical power BJT without extra mask or processing step other than Vanadium isolation implantation. A new monolithic power integration architecture is proposed and optimized using TCAD simulations first, and then both the vertical and lateral SiC BJT types are fabricated on the same wafer using the standard power BJT process to experimentally verify the feasibility of the monolithic integration method. The SiC power BJT demonstrates a breakdown voltage of 1320 V and a peak common-emitter current gain of 13.1 while the lateral SiC BJT demonstrated a breakdown voltage of 25 V and a peak common-emitter current gain of 3.8 at room temperature. While the device performance can be further improved, the fact that they can be successfully fabricated on the same wafer without much process modification shows a great promise of realizing monolithic SiC power ICs, which will greatly benefit the next-generation power electronics systems.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • All-GaN Power Integration: Devices to Functional Subcircuits and Converter
    • Authors: Ruize Sun;Yung C. Liang;Yee-Chia Yeo;Cezhou Zhao;Wanjun Chen;Bo Zhang;
      Pages: 31 - 41
      Abstract: This article reports the Au-free GaN power integration platform and a complete integration scheme from devices to functional subcircuits and to application-oriented GaN converter ICs. The design and experimental demonstration of all-GaN dc–dc converter IC with high level of integration is presented. Through the developed GaN power integration platform, devices are monolithically integrated and functional subcircuits are demonstrated, which have realized expected application-oriented functions and are feasible for high-level integration. The all-GaN converter IC with monolithically integrated high-side gate driver, pulse-width modulation (PWM) feedback controller, and over-current protection circuits are proposed, numerically analyzed, experimentally demonstrated, and characterized. It can realize stable 10-V output with constant output ripples below 4% from 15–30-V input line voltage. Stable output with constant ripples can be maintained according to the designed feedback control when input and load conditions are abruptly changed. When subjected to over-current incident, the converter IC can be protected according to the desired over-current threshold values within one duty cycle period. The developed all-GaN power integration platform, together with functional subcircuits and dc–dc converter IC, can be a practical verification of all-GaN IC scheme oriented toward power conversion application, and a useful reference for all-GaN IC designs.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Performance Comparison of Two Hybrid Si/SiC Device Concepts
    • Authors: Zongjian Li;Jun Wang;Zhizhi He;Jiajun Yu;Yuxing Dai;Z. John Shen;
      Pages: 42 - 53
      Abstract: Various Si/SiC hybrid device concepts aim at achieving SiC performance at a significantly reduced cost in comparison to full SiC solutions. Both the insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT)(Si)/Schottky(SiC) hybrid pair and the IGBT(Si)/MOSFET(SiC) hybrid switch offer a substantial reduction in switching losses but operate quite differently. This article compares the performance of these two hybrid device concepts in a voltage source inverter (VSI). The basic operation principle, conduction, and switching characteristics of the two hybrid configurations are directly compared, and an improved power loss model is developed for these two solutions in VSI. Two single-phase VSI prototypes using these two hybrid devices are built and tested, respectively. Experimental results show that a 1200-V hybrid IGBT/MOSFET solution achieves a significant efficiency improvement and a maximum junction temperature reduction compared to the hybrid IGBT/Schottky counterpart. The hybrid IGBT/MOSFET solution achieves a 40% higher power handling capability in the 20-kHz single-phase VSI or 1.5 times higher switching frequency in the 2-kW single-phase VSI than the hybrid IGBT/Schottky solution.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • A Defects-Based Model on the Barrier Height Behavior in 3C-SiC-on-Si
           Schottky Barrier Diodes
    • Authors: Anastasios E. Arvanitopoulos;Marina Antoniou;Mike R. Jennings;Samuel Perkins;Konstantinos N. Gyftakis;Philip Mawby;Neophytos Lophitis;
      Pages: 54 - 65
      Abstract: 3C-silicon carbide (3C-SiC) Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on silicon (Si) substrates (3C-SiC-on-Si) have been found to suffer from excessive subthreshold current, despite the superior electrical properties of 3C-SiC. In turn, that is one of the factors deterring the commercialization of this technology. The forward current–voltage ( $I$ – $V$ ) characteristics in these devices carry considerable information about the material quality. In this context, an advanced technology computer-aided design (TCAD) model is proposed and validated with measurements obtained from a fabricated and characterized platinum/3C-SiC-on-Si SBD with scope to shed light on the physical carrier transport mechanisms, the impact of traps, and their characteristics on the actual device performance. The model includes defects originating from both the Schottky contact and the heterointerface of 3C-SiC with Si, which allows the investigation of their impact on the magnification of the subthreshold current. Furthermore, the simulation results and measured data allowed for the identification of additional distributions of interfacial states, the effect of which is linked to the observed nonuniformities of the Barrier height value. A comprehensive characterization of the defects affecting the carrier transport mechanisms of the investigated 3C-SiC-on-Si power diode is thus achieved, and the proposed TCAD model is able to accurately predict the device current both during forward and reverse bias conditions.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Characterization and Failure Analysis of 650-V Enhancement-Mode GaN HEMT
           for Cryogenically Cooled Power Electronics
    • Authors: Ren Ren;Handong Gui;Zheyu Zhang;Ruirui Chen;Jiahao Niu;Fei Wang;Leon M. Tolbert;Daniel Costinett;Benjamin J. Blalock;Benjamin B. Choi;
      Pages: 66 - 76
      Abstract: In order to evaluate the feasibility of newly developed gallium nitride (GaN) devices in a cryogenically cooled converter, this article characterizes a 650-V enhancement-mode GaN high-electron mobility transistor (GaN HEMT) at cryogenic temperatures. The characterization includes both static and dynamic behaviors. The results show that this GaN HEMT is an excellent device candidate to be applied in cryogenic-cooled applications. For example, transconductance at cryogenic temperature (93 K) is 2.5 times higher than one at room temperature (298 K), and accordingly, peak di/dt during turn-on transients at cryogenic temperature is around 2 times of that at room temperature. Moreover, the ON-resistance of the channel at the cryogenic temperature is only one-fifth of that at room temperature. The corresponding explanations of performance trends at cryogenic temperatures are also given from the view of semiconductor physics. In addition, several device failures were observed during the dynamic characterization of GaN HEMTs at cryogenic temperatures. The ultrafast switching speed-induced high di/dt and dv/dt at cryogenic temperatures amplify the negative effects of parasitics inside the switching loop. Based on failure waveforms, two failure modes were classified, and detailed failure mechanisms caused by ultrafast switching speed are given in this article.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Investigation on Degradation of SiC MOSFET Under Surge Current Stress of
           Body Diode
    • Authors: Xi Jiang;Jun Wang;Jianjun Chen;Zongjian Li;Dongyuan Zhai;Xin Yang;Bing Ji;Z. John Shen;
      Pages: 77 - 89
      Abstract: Eliminating antiparallel silicon carbide Schottky barrier diode (SiC SBD) and making use of the intrinsic body diode of SiC metal–oxide–semiconductor-field-effect transistor (SiC MOSFET) offer a cost-effectiveness solution without obviously sacrificing the conversion efficiency in some power converter applications. Although the body diode of commercial SiC MOSFET has been qualified by several manufacturers, the reliability of SiC MOSFET under repetitive surge current stress of body diode has not been sufficiently studied. In this article, the new degradation phenomena of SiC MOSFET’s gate oxide are observed, and the degradation mechanism is discussed when the intrinsic body diode of the 1200-V SiC planar gate MOSFETs was subjected to surge current stress. TCAD simulation and experimental measurements indicate that the generation and accumulation of electrons or holes within the gate oxide under surge current stress are the main reasons for the degradation of SiC MOSFET. Finally, a mitigation technique with optimal gate turn-off voltage is suggested to suppress the gate oxide degradation of the SiC MOSFET under surge current stress of its body diode.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Short-Circuit Failure Model of SiC MOSFET Including the Interface Trapped
    • Authors: Yuming Zhou;Hangzhi Liu;Shilu Mu;Zhaoquan Chen;Bing Wang;
      Pages: 90 - 98
      Abstract: This article has presented a physics-based model which replicates the failure of SiC MOSFET under short-circuit (SC) case. The model is constructed on the base of the traditional circuit model of SiC MOSFET by introducing two leakage current mechanisms; one is the leakage current between the drain and the source, and another is the gate leakage current. Furthermore, the carrier mobility characterized with trapped charges at the interface of SiC/SiO2 is adopted. The failure model had been validated against the experimental results. With the developed failure model, the failure mechanism of SiC MOSFET under a SC event is analyzed; the impact of interface trapped charges on the SC performances of SiC MOSFET is exploited. Moreover, the SC failure for SiC MOSFET with different OFF-state gate voltages has been addressed; the behavior of interface trapped charges has been analyzed.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • An Analytical Model for Predicting Turn-ON Overshoot in Normally-OFF GaN
    • Authors: Joseph P. Kozak;Ansel Barchowsky;Michael R. Hontz;Naga Babu Koganti;William E. Stanchina;Gregory F. Reed;Zhi-Hong Mao;Raghav Khanna;
      Pages: 99 - 110
      Abstract: Recently, a major challenge in the adoption of wide bandgap semiconductors for power electronic applications is the need to trade device performance for device safety. In this article, methods for predicting gate voltage overshoot in normally-OFF gallium nitride (GAN) high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are derived in order to deliver optimal device performance. Two models are proposed; a simple, yet less accurate second order model and a complex, yet more accurate fourth order model. These models allow for the calculation of gate resistances necessary for a desired amount of gate voltage overshoot. The nonlinear capacitances of the device are considered in the analysis. The models are validated with an experimental double-pulse tester. These newly developed models allow design engineers to extract the best possible performance of commercially available GaN devices while keeping the devices in their safe-operating region.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • $R_{{{mathrm{DS}}},{{mathrm{ON}}}}$+ +of+GaN+Power+Devices+Considering+High-Frequency+Operation&rft.title=IEEE+Journal+of+Emerging+and+Selected+Topics+in+Power+Electronics&rft.issn=2168-6777&rft.date=2020&rft.volume=8&rft.spage=111&rft.epage=123&rft.aulast=He;&rft.aufirst=Yuan&rft.au=Yuan+Li;Yuanfu+Zhao;Alex+Q.+Huang;Liqi+Zhang;Yang+Lei;Ruiyang+Yu;Qingxuan+Ma;Qingyun+Huang;Soumik+Sen;Yunpeng+Jia;Yunlong+He;">Evaluation and Analysis of Temperature-Dependent Dynamic
           $R_{{{mathrm{DS}}},{{mathrm{ON}}}}$ of GaN Power Devices Considering
           High-Frequency Operation
    • Authors: Yuan Li;Yuanfu Zhao;Alex Q. Huang;Liqi Zhang;Yang Lei;Ruiyang Yu;Qingxuan Ma;Qingyun Huang;Soumik Sen;Yunpeng Jia;Yunlong He;
      Pages: 111 - 123
      Abstract: Commercial enhancement-mode gallium nitride (GaN) HEMTs device is a superior candidate for high-frequency power electronics applications. However, GaN power devices have a unique dynamic ${R}_{{mathrm{scriptscriptstyle DS},mathrm{scriptscriptstyle ON}}}$ problem which increases the conduction loss of the converter during operation. In this article, the temperature-dependent dynamic ${R}_{{mathrm{scriptscriptstyle DS},mathrm{scriptscriptstyle ON}}}$ at high frequency is evaluated experimentally for the first time using the double-pulse test (DPT) and multiple-pulse test (MPT) techniques. Different temperature-dependent dynamic ${R}_{{mathrm{scriptscriptstyle DS},mathrm{scriptscriptstyle ON}}}$ characteristics between the DPT and the MPT at high temperatures are investigated. The significance of the dynamic ${R}_{{mathrm{scriptscriptstyle DS},mathrm{scriptscriptstyle ON}}}$ ’s temperature dependence is important since GaN devices are typically operating at elevated temperatures. The results suggest that the traditional wafer-level test method using one pulse or two pulses and the MPT without heating consideration or at lower pulse frequency may not be sufficient to evaluate the dynamic ${R}_{mathrm{scriptscriptstyle DS},mathrm{scriptscriptstyle ON}}$ effect. Combined with high-frequency, high-voltage, and high-current stress, high operating temperatures result in severe ${R}_{mathrm{scriptscriptstyle DS},mathrm{scriptscriptstyle ON}}$ degradation; hence, there is a diminished return o- operating the devices at high temperatures.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • A High Efficiency Model-Based Adaptive Dead-Time Control Method for GaN
           HEMTs Considering Nonlinear Junction Capacitors in Triangular Current Mode
    • Authors: Yi Zhang;Cai Chen;Teng Liu;Ke Xu;Yong Kang;Han Peng;
      Pages: 124 - 140
      Abstract: Gallium nitride (GaN) high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) has the advantages of high switching speed and low ON-resistance, which make it widely used in high-frequency applications to realize high power density. Triangular current mode (TCM) modulation has been used in GaN-based converters to simultaneously achieve high power density and high efficiency through full-range zero voltage switching (ZVS). However, as switching frequency increases, the effect of dead time becomes more significant. Meanwhile, because of the junction capacitors of GaN HEMTs, the optimum dead time changes greatly with the turn-off current. Inappropriate dead time will induce extra loss that goes against the further improvement of power density. In order to minimize the dead-time loss in GaN HEMT-based TCM converter, this article proposes a strategy of adaptive dead-time control. An accurate turn-off transient model is proposed to calculate optimal dead time with consideration of the nonlinear capacitors. Based on this model, a loss model is established to evaluate the effect of dead time involving the short circuit in dead time. A new method of drive signal generation in TCM is proposed to increase the accuracy of dead-time control and reduce the current ripple. By reusing the detection signal in TCM, the adaptive dead-time control is realized without extra sensors. The proposed model is verified by a dual-pulse test, which shows the maximum error between the calculated and the experimental turn-off time is below 3 ns. The proposed adaptive dead-time control is implemented in a GaN HEMT-based boost converter. The experimental results show that the adaptive dead-time control can improve the efficiency over all operation conditions compared with using the fixed dead time, and the total loss is reduced by 26.7% at 800-W load and 70.8% at 50-W load.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Power Loss Model for GaN-Based MHz Critical Conduction Mode Power Factor
           Correction Circuits
    • Authors: Yue Zhang;Chengcheng Yao;Xuan Zhang;Huanyu Chen;He Li;Jin Wang;
      Pages: 141 - 151
      Abstract: Wide bandgap (WBG) devices allow power factor correction (PFC) circuits to operate at megahertz (MHz), which improves power density. In low-power applications, critical conduction mode (CrM) boost PFC circuits are widely used due to its simple structure and minimized turn-on loss. Compared with the kilohertz (kHz) operation, MHz PFC in CrM yields larger inductor valley current during the zero voltage or valley switching turn-on, and significant grid current zero-crossing distortion, both of which are not considered in conventional PFC behavioral models. As a result, the conventional PFC design tool shows substantial inaccuracy in the estimation of switching frequency, inductor current envelopes, and power loss. This article analyzes these issues and proposes an improved power loss model to aid the design of MHz CrM PFC. Experimental results are presented to validate the accuracy.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Analysis and Modeling of SiC MPS Diode and Its Parasitic Oscillation
    • Authors: Xin Li;Fei Xiao;Yifei Luo;Yaoqiang Duan;
      Pages: 152 - 162
      Abstract: SiC merged p-i-n Schottky (MPS) diodes have great potential in the construction of multiple power electronic circuits for their excellent static and dynamic characteristics. The ultrafast switching speed is unfortunately accompanied by undesirable parasitic oscillations, which have direct impact on the stability and reliability of these circuits. The wide use of SiC diodes is still limited by their uncertain reliability and a comprehensive diode physical model, which can be used to describe the device characteristics, including parasitic oscillations during reverse recovery, is still missing for the device safe operation. In this article, an accurate dynamic physical model based on the lumped-charge technique which can accurately estimate the switching oscillations is first developed for an SiC MPS diode considering all parasitic elements. Furthermore, the original static model is improved and many important semiconductor physical phenomenon are also included. In the end, simulation and experiments are carried out by a CETC WCSD60D330F19P SiC MPS diode to verify the proposed model.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • $RC$+ +Snubber+on+Switching+Oscillation+Damping+of+SiC+MOSFET+With+Analytical+Model&rft.title=IEEE+Journal+of+Emerging+and+Selected+Topics+in+Power+Electronics&rft.issn=2168-6777&rft.date=2020&rft.volume=8&rft.spage=163&rft.epage=178&rft.aulast=Ma;&rft.aufirst=Yingzhe&rft.au=Yingzhe+Wu;Shan+Yin;Hui+Li;Wenjie+Ma;">Impact of $RC$ Snubber on Switching Oscillation Damping of SiC MOSFET With
           Analytical Model
    • Authors: Yingzhe Wu;Shan Yin;Hui Li;Wenjie Ma;
      Pages: 163 - 178
      Abstract: As the most popular wide bandgap (WBG) power device, the silicon carbide (SiC) metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) has been widely adopted in the power electronics applications and brings in the benefits, including reduced switching losses, enhanced switching frequency, and improved power density. However, the switching oscillation and the electromagnetic interference (EMI) become more serious due to the rapid switching speed of SiC MOSFET. Thus, adding $RC$ snubber branch is considered as an effective method to suppress such unwanted oscillation in the early works. In this article, the switching transient of SiC MOSFET with $RC$ snubber is investigated with an analytical model based on the finite-state machine (FSM). The accuracy of the proposed analytical model can be verified by comparisons between the calculated and measured waveforms during the switching transition. In addition, the impacts of the $RC$ snubber on switching oscillation, switching loss, and high-frequency (HF) EMI noise have been comprehensively investigated based on the model, which shows that the added $RC$ snubber can effectively avoid the switching oscillation and reduce the level of HF EMI without increasing switching loss.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Accuracy-Enhanced Miller Capacitor Modeling and Switching Performance
           Prediction for Efficient SiC Design in High-Frequency X-Ray High-Voltage
    • Authors: Han Peng;Jimin Chen;Zhipeng Cheng;Yong Kang;Jinglin Wu;Xu Chu;
      Pages: 179 - 194
      Abstract: High-voltage (HV) generators with a wide load range are widely adopted for X-ray beam excitation and density adjustment. A SiC-based LCC HV inverter at high switching frequency will benefit fast transient because of the more efficient utilization of an X-ray beam and its smaller size. A precise prediction of SiC switching characteristics provides important prerequisites for efficiency, thermal and power density, and reliability co-optimized design. Understanding the SiC switching loss at different switching conditions will help the resonant network design to achieve required gain and efficiency over wide operation ranges. SiC switching characteristics are strongly dependent on its parasitic capacitors. A Miller capacitor, existing across the gate–source loop and the drain–source loop, presents strong nonlinear characteristics. This article proposes an accuracy-enhanced Miller capacitor-modeling approach. An internal cascaded configuration of a fixed capacitor and a voltage-dependent capacitor with segmentations based on different doping concentrations is employed. The maximum mismatch between the proposed approach and the datasheet’s $C$ – $V$ data is within 28%. Prediction accuracy improves two times compared with the device SPICE model. An enhanced double-pulse-test (DPT) circuit is used for comprehensive switching behavior verification. The proposed model has highest accuracy in switching loss prediction with up to $15times $ less mismatch compared with the state of the arts. The hard turn-on and turn-off losses are 157.7 and $48.1~mu text{J}$ at 500 V/40 A. The ZV- turn on loss is $1.67~mu text{J}$ at 40 A. The soft turn-off loss is reduced to $4.43~mu text{J}$ with a 3.2-nF snubber capacitor. A SiC transistor with ZVS-ON and soft turn-off has the lowest overall switching loss of $6.1~mu text{J}$ . Such a switching condition corresponds to the region of a switching frequency higher than the resonant frequency in an LCC inverter. Therefore, both high efficiency and high power density will be achieved under this optimal region.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Impact of Repetitive Short-Circuit Tests on the Normal Operation of SiC
           MOSFETs Considering Case Temperature Influence
    • Authors: He Du;Paula Diaz Reigosa;Lorenzo Ceccarelli;Francesco Iannuzzo;
      Pages: 195 - 205
      Abstract: This article presents the impact of repetitive short-circuit (SC) tests on the normal operation of a commercial silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFET and the influence of different case temperatures on the SC degradation process. To ensure repeatable SC test conditions, the maximum SC withstanding time is studied at three different case temperatures and the critical energy is identified. To investigate the effect of SC stress on the normal operation, the static and dynamic characteristics are periodically measured along with the repetitive SC activity. The turn-on switching loss increases gradually with the increasing number of repetitive SC tests. This is associated with the increase in the gate leakage current during the SC tests, which shows a reduction in the ON-state gate voltage because of the gate oxide degradation. Then, since the case temperature of the device is subject to the operating condition in the application, the degradation process of repetitive SC tests with respect to different case temperatures is investigated, and the relationship between the number of repetitions to failure and the initial case temperature is established. Finally, the case temperature influence is explained by a 1-D transient thermal model based on the SC condition.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Experimental and Theoretical Demonstration of Temperature Limitation for
           4H-SiC MOSFET During Unclamped Inductive Switching
    • Authors: Junjie An;Shengdong Hu;
      Pages: 206 - 214
      Abstract: This article focuses on the avalanche energy handing ability and theoretical demonstration of the avalanche failure mechanism for the SiC MOSFET by the unclamped inductive switching (UIS) test, the mathematical model, and the numerical simulation. Two evaluation methods are implemented to understand the effect of the avalanche current density and the avalanche energy on the device failure with the ambient temperature ranging from 300 to 450 K. Moreover, the thermodynamic model based on the thermal diffusion equation is developed to explore the critical temperature limitation. The avalanche capability highly depends on the dimension parameters and premature degradation points. The numerical simulation with the multicells and the real device parameters is used to reveal the electric performances of the SiC MOSFET during the UIS for the first time. At the same time, the temperatures in the SiC lattice and the metal system are precisely separated by the numerical method. The experimental results and simulation study demonstrate that the molten metal system on the surface of the SiC MOSFET induced by the local high temperature is prone to generate the thermal stresses and damage the device during the UIS transient. This failure mechanism is perfectly supported by the experimental, modeling, and numerical results.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • High-Temperature Characterization of a 1.2-kV SiC MOSFET Using Dynamic
           Short-Circuit Measurement Technique
    • Authors: Jiahui Sun;Shu Yang;Hongyi Xu;Long Zhang;Xinke Wu;Kuang Sheng;Kevin J. Chen;
      Pages: 215 - 222
      Abstract: Threshold voltage and channel mobility of a 1.2-kV planar-channel SiC MOSFET at high junction temperature ( $T_{j}$ ) up to 700 °C have been extracted and analyzed for the first time, by virtue of a specially designed short-circuit (SC) measurement technique we developed. Under the SC condition, $T_{j}$ of the SiC MOSFET can rise significantly within a few microseconds, which can be extracted based on the SC waveforms and thermal calculations. The planar-channel SiC MOSFET investigated in this work can maintain normally-off operation at an elevated $T_{j}$ up to 700 °C. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms of the temperature dependence of the threshold voltage and channel mobility are also analyzed. The threshold voltage of the SiC MOSFET exhibits a different temperature dependence over a wide range (120–700 °C) compared with that of Si counterparts, which is attributed to interface traps’ response. The channel mobility shows a non-monotonic temperature dependence, due to divergent scattering mechanisms.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Review of Packaging Schemes for Power Module
    • Authors: Fengze Hou;Wenbo Wang;Liqiang Cao;Jun Li;Meiying Su;Tingyu Lin;Guoqi Zhang;Braham Ferreira;
      Pages: 223 - 238
      Abstract: SiC devices are promising for outperforming Si counterparts in high-frequency applications due to its superior material properties. Conventional wirebonded packaging scheme has been one of the most preferred package structures for power modules. However, the technique limits the performance of a SiC power module due to parasitic inductance and heat dissipation issues that are inherent with aluminum wires. In this article, low parasitic inductance and high-efficient cooling interconnection techniques for Si power modules, which are the foundation of packaging methods of SiC ones, are reviewed first. Then, attempts on developing packaging techniques for SiC power modules are thoroughly overviewed. Finally, scientific challenges in the packaging of SiC power module are summarized.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • A Review of SiC Power Module Packaging Technologies: Challenges, Advances,
           and Emerging Issues
    • Authors: Haksun Lee;Vanessa Smet;Rao Tummala;
      Pages: 239 - 255
      Abstract: Power module packaging technologies have been experiencing extensive changes as the novel silicon carbide (SiC) power devices with superior performance become commercially available. This article presents an overview of power module packaging technologies in this transition, with an emphasis on the challenges that current standard packaging face, requirements that future power module packaging needs to fulfill, and recent advances on packaging technologies. The standard power module structure, which is a widely used current practice to package SiC devices, is reviewed, and the reasons why novel packaging technologies should be developed are described in this article. The packaging challenges associated with high-speed switching, thermal management, high-temperature operation, and high-voltage isolation are explained in detail. Recent advances on technologies, which try to address the limitations of standard packaging, both in packaging elements and package structure are summarized. The trend toward novel soft-switching power converters gave rise to problems regarding package designs of unconventional module configuration. Potential applications areas, such as aerospace applications, introduce low-temperature challenges to SiC packaging. Key issues in these emerging areas are highlighted.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • A Review of Advanced Thermal Management Solutions and the Implications for
           Integration in High-Voltage Packages
    • Authors: Ange-Christian Iradukunda;David R. Huitink;Fang Luo;
      Pages: 256 - 271
      Abstract: A host of high-voltage-capable electronic packaging approaches have emerged in recent years for usage in next-generation power electronics. In this article, the focus is on the challenge of managing the thermal characteristics in these cutting edge packaging options, where power densities are exceeding 25 kW/L. Utilizing wide bandgap semiconductors like SiC and GaN can help reduce the thermal inefficiencies associated with conduction losses by using high-frequency switching topologies, but even so, when considering the demand of high voltage in mobile electrified systems, heat generation is still a primary limiting factor in widespread adoption. Accordingly, the increased power density results in much higher temperatures at the device and package level, which in turn reduces the reliability of such systems, in terms of thermal breakdown or thermomechanical strains within the packages. As a result, the design of cooling systems for these electronics has emerged as a key component to successful implementation, and effective thermal management schemes must be closely integrated with the electronic packaging for maximum benefit. This review looks at various thermal management approaches that have been demonstrated in electronic systems, with a specific emphasis on the challenges and needs for next-generation high-voltage power electronics.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Multibranch Inductance Extraction Procedure for Multichip Power Modules
    • Authors: Ali Shahabi;Andrew N. Lemmon;
      Pages: 272 - 285
      Abstract: This article presents a measurement-based technique for estimating the parasitic inductances associated with the interconnection structures of a multichip power module (MCPM) at a finer granularity than has been previously demonstrated. The technique introduced here makes it possible to determine an estimate of the interconnect inductances at each individual die position within the module geometry. For this purpose, this technique leverages the measured input impedance of an MCPM in the frequency domain, which has been carefully shaped by employing discrete capacitors in place of a semiconductor die. An example of the proposed technique is provided for an MCPM with four die positions per switch position. The provided theoretical formulation is verified by its application to a physical test subject, which is designed to represent a generic MCPM. Owing to the efficiency of this extraction technique and the possibility of providing direct empirical validation for FEA-obtained estimates, the proposed approach is expected to be of particular interest to MCPM designers for use in design optimization.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Estimation, Minimization, and Validation of Commutation Loop Inductance
           for a 135-kW SiC EV Traction Inverter
    • Authors: Radha Sree Krishna Moorthy;Bryce Aberg;Marshal Olimmah;Li Yang;Dhrubo Rahman;Andrew N. Lemmon;Wensong Yu;Iqbal Husain;
      Pages: 286 - 297
      Abstract: With growing interests in low-inductance silicon carbide (SiC)-based power module packaging, it is vital to focus on system-level design aspects to facilitate easy integration of the modules and reap system-level benefits. To effectively utilize the low-inductance modules, busbar and interconnects should also be designed with low stray inductances. A holistic investigation of the flux path and flux cancellations in the module-busbar assembly, which can be treated as differentially coupled series inductors, is thus mandatory for a system-level design. This article presents a busbar design, which can be adopted to effectively integrate the CREE’s low-inductance 1.2-/1.7-kV SiC power modules. This article also proposes a novel measurement technique to measure the inductance of the module-busbar assembly as a whole rather than deducing it from individual components. The inductance of the overall commutation loop of the inverter that encompasses the SiC power module, interconnects, and printed circuit board (PCB) busbar has been estimated using finite-element analysis (FEA). Insights gained from FEA provided the guidelines to decide the placement of the decoupling capacitors in the busbar to minimize the overall commutation loop inductance from 12.8 to 7.4 nH, which resulted in a significant reduction in the device voltage overshoot. The simulation results have been validated through measurements using an impedance analyzer (ZA) with less than 5% difference between the extracted loop inductance from FEA and measurements. The busbar design study and the measurement technique discussed in this article can be easily extended to other power module packages. Finally, the 135-kW inverter has been compared to a similar high-power inverter utilizing a laminated busbar to highlight the performance of the former.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Impact of Power Module Parasitic Capacitances on Medium-Voltage SiC
           MOSFETs Switching Transients
    • Authors: Dipen Narendra Dalal;Nicklas Christensen;Asger Bjørn Jørgensen;Jannick Kjær Jørgensen;Szymon Bęczkowski;Stig Munk-Nielsen;Christian Uhrenfeldt;
      Pages: 298 - 310
      Abstract: Increased switching speeds of wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductors result in a significant magnitude of the displacement currents through power module parasitic capacitances that are inherent in packaging design. This is of increasing concern, particularly in case of newly emerging medium-voltage (MV) SiC MOSFETs since the magnitude of the displacement currents can be several order higher due to the fast switching transients and increased voltage magnitudes of the SiC MOSFETs compared to their Si counter parts. The severity intensifies when the magnitude of the displacement current becomes comparable to a significant fraction of SiC MOSFETs rated current, leading to the worsened impact on the converter electromagnetic interference (EMI) as well as performance in terms of switching losses. The key objective of this article is to provide a detail insight into the impact of the module parasitic capacitances on the SiC MOSFET switching dynamics and losses. To realize this, a well-defined approach to dissect the switching energy dissipation is proposed, based on which the detailed analysis and quantitative measurements of the module parasitic capacitance impact on terms of added switching energy losses, and common-mode currents are investigated using a custom-packaged 10-kV half-bridge SiC MOSFET power modules. The theoretical analysis and experimental results obtained from dynamic as well as static characterization reveal that the impact of the module parasitic capacitance on the switching energy dissipation is twofold and substantially adverse such that it cannot be overlooked considering its intended application in the high-power MV power electronic converters.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Measurement of Thermal Parameters of SiC MOSFET Module by Case Temperature
    • Authors: Shuai Zheng;Xiong Du;Jun Zhang;Yaoyi Yu;Pengju Sun;
      Pages: 311 - 322
      Abstract: SiC-based wide bandgap semiconductor devices such as metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are gradually replacing Si devices in industrial applications because of their excellent electrothermal properties. However, the reliability of these devices and the problem of the junction temperature estimation are concerns that are yet to be resolved for these applications. This article proposes a method to measure the Cauer-type RC thermal network parameters that consider the influence of degradation of the external cooling system using either two or four case temperature cooling curves. The proposed method simplifies the measurement not only of the junction temperature and the power loss but also of the thermal equilibrium condition and it is thus suitable for the application in a power converter. Experiments were performed to prove that the thermal network parameters obtained are both feasible and credible.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Discontinuous PWM for Online Condition Monitoring of SiC Power Modules
    • Authors: Fernando Gonzalez-Hernando;Jon San-Sebastian;Manuel Arias;Alejandro Rujas;Francesco Iannuzzo;
      Pages: 323 - 330
      Abstract: This article presents the utilization of DPWM for the online condition monitoring of SiC power MOSFET switching at high switching frequencies in a three-phase inverter prototype. Due to the settling time imposed by the monitoring system, accurate measurements require low switching frequency and high modulation indexes when monitoring. To overcome these limitations, a DPWM strategy is proposed. This way, the monitored device does not switch during a certain time, and hence, the accuracy of the measurements is not compromised. The effect of the alteration of the modulation is analyzed in terms of power losses and current ripple, comparing the traditional with the proposed modulation. Moreover, online monitoring results performed in a SiC-based inverter prototype in different operating points are presented. An $R_{mathrm {DS}}$ -based thermal model is presented in order to estimate online the junction temperature.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Drain–Source Voltage Clamp Circuit for Online Accurate ON-State
           Resistance Measurement of SiC MOSFETs in DC Solid-State Power Controller
    • Authors: Bin Yu;Li Wang;Daniyal Ahmed;
      Pages: 331 - 342
      Abstract: To obtain the online ON-state resistance ( ${text{R}}_{mathrm {dson}}$ ) of the SiC power MOSFET, during its operation in the dc solid-state-power controller (dc-SSPC), the drain current ( ${text{I}}_{d}$ ) and the ON-state voltage ( ${text{V}}_{mathrm {dson}}$ ) need to be accurately measured in real time. Compared to that of ${text{I}}_{d}$ , the measurement of ${text{V}}_{mathrm {dson}}$ needs to solve more problems, i.e., the high accuracy, the influence of the operating temperature ( ${text{T}}_{w}$ ), and the high OFF-state voltage. The drain–source voltage clamp circuit (DVCC) can be accurately used to measure ${text{R}}_{mathrm {dson}}$ at low operating temperatures. However, the SiC power MOSFETs, owning the low ${text{R}}_{mathrm {dson}}$ characteristics, in the dc-SSPC often operate at the high ${text{T}}_{w}$ . Under this high ${text{T}}_{w}$ , the existing DVCCs cannot perform well and give inaccurate measurements of ${text{V}}_{mathrm {dson}}$ in real time. Therefore, this article presents an innovative design of the DVCC with improved real-time measurement accuracy (< 0.5%), over a wide ${text{T}}_{w}$ range (25 °C–100 °C). The DVCC is analyzed and tested by integrating into a dc-SSPC for measuring the online ${text{R}}_{mathrm {dson}}$ of the SiC power MOSFET at the high ${text{T}}_{w}$ of 100 °C. The experimental results validate the accuracy of the proposed DVCC-based measurement method and highlight the potential for its use in the accurate junction temperature measurement.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Characterization of Nonlinear Field-Dependent Conductivity Layer Coupled
           With Protruding Substrate to Address High Electric Field Issue Within
           High-Voltage High-Density Wide Bandgap Power Modules
    • Authors: Maryam Mesgarpour Tousi;Mona Ghassemi;
      Pages: 343 - 350
      Abstract: In addition to higher blocking voltages of wide bandgap (WBG) power modules, their volume has been targeted to be several times smaller than that of Si-based modules. This translates into higher electric stress within the module and, in turn, a higher risk for unacceptable partial discharge (PD) activities, leading to aging and degradation of both the ceramic substrate and the silicone gel. Due to the small dimensions of power module geometry, in the mm- or $mu text{m}$ (for protrusions)-range, and due to its extremely non-uniform electric field geometry, conventional high-voltage testing electrode geometries cannot simulate real conditions. On the other hand, university-based laboratories often cannot provide manufacturing/factory conditions for testing samples and for high-quality materials. Thus, it is difficult to determine the efficacy of electric field control methods through experiments. In these situations, numerical electric field calculation is the only feasible way to evaluate different electrical insulation designs. To this end, the finite-element method (FEM) models of the electrical insulation system used in WBG power modules are developed in COMSOL Multiphysics. It is shown that the current geometrical techniques alone cannot address the high-electric field issue within high-density WBG modules. To address this issue, for the first time, nonlinear field-dependent conductivity (FDC) materials applied to high-electric stress regions in combination with a recently introduced geometrical technique known as the protruding substrate is proposed. In this regard, the nonlinear FDC layer is characterized and various designs to reduce the electric field are evaluated. Moreover, the effect of the operating frequency on the performance of the solution mentioned above will be studied.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • A High-Performance Embedded SiC Power Module Based on a DBC-Stacked Hybrid
           Packaging Structure
    • Authors: Zhizhao Huang;Cai Chen;Yue Xie;Yiyang Yan;Yong Kang;Fang Luo;
      Pages: 351 - 366
      Abstract: Silicon carbide (SiC) devices have the advantage of high switching speed. However, the switching speed is limited by the high parasitic inductance which could cause high voltage overshoot, parasitic turn-on, oscillation, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) issues. Thus, the parasitic inductance of the SiC power module has to be reduced for better performance. This paper proposed an integrated half-bridge (HB) power module based on a direct bonding copper (DBC)-stacked hybrid packaging structure. This packaging structure utilizes two DBC substrates to stack together, which form a 3-D power commutation loop. The SiC chips are embedded on the top of the bottom DBC substrate to reduce the thermal resistance. Based on an optimized mutual inductance cancellation design, the proposed DBC-stacked hybrid packaging structure has only 1.8-nH commutation power loop inductance for a 1200-V, 120-A HB power module. Moreover, the geometrical parameters of the laminated power terminal have been analyzed and optimized for the symmetrical current sharing in the multichip paralleled power module. A compact 1200-V, 120-A full SiC HB power module with integrated decoupling capacitors has been fabricated and the dc-link capacitor board, gate drivers can be integrated on the power module compactly. Finally, the static and dynamic characteristics of the proposed module have been tested. The results of double pulse test (DPT) under zero external driver resistor indicate that the voltage overshoot of the proposed module is reduced by approximately 55% compared to the commercial power module, and the total switching energy is only 43% of the commercial module. Moreover, the loss of the 5.5-kW single-phase inverter based on the proposed module is reduced by 28.3% compared with the inverter based on the commercial module under 120-kHz switching frequency.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Fan-Out Panel-Level PCB-Embedded SiC Power MOSFETs Packaging
    • Authors: Fengze Hou;Wenbo Wang;Rui Ma;Yonghao Li;Zhonglin Han;Meiying Su;Jun Li;Zhongyao Yu;Yang Song;Qidong Wang;Min Chen;Liqiang Cao;Guoqi Zhang;Braham Ferreira;
      Pages: 367 - 380
      Abstract: In this article, a novel fan-out panel-level printed circuit board (PCB)-embedded package for phase-leg silicon carbide (SiC) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) power module is presented. Electro-thermo-mechanical co-design was conducted, and the maximum package parasitic inductance was found to be about 1.24 nH at 100 kHz. Compared with wire-bonded packages, the parasitic inductances of the PCB-embedded package decreased at least by 87.6%. Compared with blind via structure, the thermal resistance of the proposed blind block structure reduced at most by about 26%, and the stress of the SiC MOSFETs decreased by about 45.2%. Then, a novel PCB-embedded packaging process was developed, and three key packaging processes were analyzed. Furthermore, effect of PCB-embedded package on static characterization of SiC MOSFET was analyzed, and it was found that: 1) Output current of PCB-embedded package was decreased under a certain gate–source voltage compared to SiC die; 2) Miller capacitance of SiC MOSFET was increased thanks to parasitic capacitance induced by package; and 3) compared with SiC die, nonflat miller plateau of the PCB-embedded package extends, and as drain–source voltage increases, the nonflat miller plateau extends. Lastly, switching characteristics of the PCB-embedded package and TO-247 package were compared. The results show that the PCB-embedded package has smaller parasitic inductances.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Design and Experimental Validation of a Wire-Bond-Less 10-kV SiC MOSFET
           Power Module
    • Authors: Christina DiMarino;Bassem Mouawad;C. Mark Johnson;Meiyu Wang;Yan-Song Tan;Guo-Quan Lu;Dushan Boroyevich;Rolando Burgos;
      Pages: 381 - 394
      Abstract: Wide bandgap (WBG) power devices with voltage ratings exceeding 10 kV have the potential to revolutionize medium- and high-voltage systems due to their high-speed switching and lower ON-state losses. However, the present power module packages are limiting the performance of these unique switches. The objective of this article is to push the boundaries of high-density, high-speed, 10-kV power module packaging. The proposed package addresses the well-known electromagnetic and thermal challenges, as well as the more recent and prominent electrostatic and electromagnetic interference (EMI) issues associated with high-speed, 10-kV devices. The module achieves low and balanced parasitic inductances, resulting in a record switching speed of 250 V/ns with negligible ringing and voltage overshoot. An integrated screen reduces the common-mode (CM) current that is generated by these fast voltage transients by ten times. This screen connection simultaneously increases the partial discharge inception voltage (PDIV) by more than 50%. A compact, medium-voltage termination and system interface design is also proposed in this article. With the integrated jet-impingement cooler, the power module prototype achieves a power density of 4 W/mm3. This article presents the design, prototyping, and testing of this optimized package for 10-kV SiC MOSFETs.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Design and Evaluation of Laminated Busbar for Three-Level T-Type NPC Power
           Electronics Building Block With Enhanced Dynamic Current Sharing
    • Authors: Zhao Yuan;Hongwu Peng;Amol Deshpande;Balaji Narayanasamy;Asif Imran Emon;Fang Luo;Cai Chen;
      Pages: 395 - 406
      Abstract: This article focuses on providing the laminated busbar design guidance for a three-level T-type neutral-point-clamped (3L-TNPC) inverter to achieve low stray inductance and balanced inductance distribution between paralleled power switches. As a result, equalized dynamic current sharing can be accomplished. To discover the design strategy, this article first derives the mutual-inductance-decoupled equivalent circuit for 3L-TNPC. Then, the effects of each inductance item on switching performance can be unveiled, and the parametric targets are then summarized. Accordingly, the busbar design considerations are discussed. A step-by-step busbar design procedure to achieve the aforementioned design targets is provided in the next. The design procedure starts from 2-D optimization to achieve the optimal component and terminal allocation, and then, it increases the optimization degree to 3-D. Using this design procedure, we proposed a novel double-side-end busbar structure to achieve the busbar stray inductance of 12.7 nH and the inductance differences between the paralleled switches to be less than 2 nH. Extensive experiments are carried out in the end to evaluate the design procedure and demonstrate the performance of the busbar.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Design of a High-Efficiency, High Specific-Power Three-Level T-Type Power
           Electronics Building Block for Aircraft Electric-Propulsion Drives
    • Authors: Amol Deshpande;Yingzhuo Chen;Balaji Narayanasamy;Zhao Yuan;Cai Chen;Fang Luo;
      Pages: 407 - 416
      Abstract: The electric propulsion drives for the more-electric aircraft need lightweight and high-efficiency power converters. Moreover, a modular approach to the construction of the drive ensures reduced costs, reliability, and ease of maintenance. In this article, the design and fabrication procedure of a modular dc–ac three-level t-type single phase-leg power electronics building block (PEBB) rated for 100-kW, 1-kV dc-link is reported for the first time. A hybrid switch (HyS) consisting of a silicon insulated-gate bipolar junction transistor (IGBT) and silicon carbide metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) was used as an active device to enable high switching frequencies at high power. The topology and semiconductor selection were based on a model-based design tool for achieving high conversion efficiency and lightweight. Due to the unavailability of commercial three-level t-type power modules, a printed circuit board (PCB) and off-the-shelf discrete semiconductor-based high-power switch was designed for the neutral-point clamping. Also, a nontrivial aluminum-based multilayer laminated bus bar was designed to facilitate the low-inductance interconnection of the selected active devices and the capacitor bank. The measured inductance indicated symmetry of both current commutation loops in the bus bar and value in the range of 28–29 nH. The specific power and volumetric power density of the block were estimated to be 27.7 kW/kg and 308.61 W/in3, respectively. The continuous operation of the block was demonstrated at 48 kVA. The efficiency of the block was measured to be 98.2%.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • SiC MOSFETs Gate Driver With Minimum Propagation Delay Time and Auxiliary
           Power Supply With Wide Input Voltage Range for High-Temperature
    • Authors: Zhiliang Zhang;Kaiqi Yao;Guangjie Ke;Ke Zhang;Zhesi Gao;Yakun Wang;Xiaoyong Ren;Qianhong Chen;
      Pages: 417 - 428
      Abstract: Low propagation delay time is essential for SiC drivers at high frequency. The propagation delay time of the commercial parts is normally over 100 ns. A signal isolation circuit and a level shifting circuit are proposed and applied in SiC drivers with minimum propagation delay time. The narrow edge signals of the input pulsewidth modulation (PWM) signal are extracted by nondelay RC differential circuits in the control side and demodulated by an RS flip-flop in the drive side so that only two low-profile transformers are used for low-delay signal isolation. A two-stage isolated auxiliary power supply without linear optocouplers is proposed in order to realize wide input voltage range and wide operation temperature range. Wide input voltage range is achieved by forward- feedback control. The experimental results verify the proposed driver advantages. The propagation delay time at 400 kHz is 49.6 ns for the rising edge and 18.4 ns for the falling edge, which are reduced by over 50% compared with the commercial parts. The prototype is tested under the ambient temperature of 85 °C with the 9–18-V input auxiliary power supply. Considering the temperature rise of 28 °C, the operation temperature of the power supply is 113 °C.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • An Intelligent Versatile Model-Based Trajectory-Optimized Active Gate
           Driver for Silicon Carbide Devices
    • Authors: Shuang Zhao;Xingchen Zhao;Audrey Dearien;Yuheng Wu;Yue Zhao;H. Alan Mantooth;
      Pages: 429 - 441
      Abstract: Using silicon carbide (SiC) power devices can potentially improve the efficiency of a power electronic system, but it may also introduce severe electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems due to the fast switching speed. The conventional gate driver cannot provide the flexibility to adjust the switching speed of SiC dynamically. To address this issue, an intelligent versatile active gate driver (AGD) is proposed to achieve optimized switching trajectory for power devices. The proposed AGD has five operation modes, i.e., faster/normal/slower the turn-on process and slower/normal turn-off process. The availability of multiple operation modes offers extra freedom to improve the switching performance and enable it to be versatile across various systems. The proposed AGD can provide more switching speed adjustment resolution than the other AGDs allowing for fine tuning of the switching speed of SiC power devices. In addition, a novel model-based trajectory optimization strategy is proposed to determine the optimal gate driver output voltage by trading the EMI noise against the switching energy losses. The functionalities of the multi-level AGD are validated with the experimental results. The hardware design consideration is also given for the product commercialization purpose.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Smart Self-Driving Multilevel Gate Driver for Fast Switching and Crosstalk
           Suppression of SiC MOSFETs
    • Authors: Chunhui Liu;Zhengda Zhang;Yifu Liu;Yunpeng Si;Qin Lei;
      Pages: 442 - 453
      Abstract: Wide-bandgap devices, such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride, have high switching speed potential. However, the actual speed in practical application is limited by circuit parasitics and interaction between high-side switch and low-side switch in a phase-leg configuration, known as crosstalk effect. This article proposes an isolated voltage source gate driver with crosstalk suppression capability to take full advantage of the inherent high switching speed ability of silicon-carbide devices. By applying variable gate voltage through the auxiliary circuit, the crosstalk problem can be mitigated. Using the original gate–source voltage as auxiliary circuit driving signal, the gate driver does not introduce any extra control signals, which avoids additional signal/power isolations and makes the auxiliary circuit very convenient to be implemented on the existing commercial gate driver. The auxiliary circuit makes the gate voltage rise from 0 V other than −5 V when the switch turns on, leading to faster switching speed and lower switching loss compared with a traditional gate driver. LTSPICE simulation and double pulse test experiment based on 1.2-kV/60-A silicon-carbide MOSFETs are conducted to evaluate the crosstalk suppression capability of the proposed gate driver.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • An Active Voltage Balancing Control Based on Adjusting Driving Signal Time
           Delay for Series-Connected SiC MOSFETs
    • Authors: Tao Wang;Hua Lin;Shengsheng Liu;
      Pages: 454 - 464
      Abstract: Limited by low availability, high price, and poor switching performance of high-voltage power devices, connecting low-voltage devices in series to block much higher voltages is always an option. However, severe voltage unbalance during turn-off transient remains to be solved. Most of the existing methods designed for low-speed silicon (Si) insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) cannot be directly transplanted to the series-connected silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFETs with high switching speed. To maximum the switching performance of SiC MOSFETs, an elegant implementation of adjusting driving signal time delay method is proposed. In addition, a simplified model during drain–source voltage rising transient is discussed to basically reveal features and problems of the series-connected SiC MOSFETs. The factors affecting the appropriate time delay are discussed as well, especially the influence of the load current. The simplified model and the implementation are both verified by experiments. Indeed, the proposed active voltage balancing control works well and has no penalty of sacrificing switching performance of SiC MOSFETs.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • A Single Voltage-Balancing Gate Driver Combined With Limiting Snubber
           Circuits for Series-Connected SiC MOSFETs
    • Authors: Rui Wang;Lin Liang;Yu Chen;Yong Kang;
      Pages: 465 - 474
      Abstract: Silicon carbide (SiC) metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are required to be connected in series to meet the high-voltage requirement since the blocking voltage of a single device is limited. In order to solve the voltage unbalancing problem in such a series-connection application, a single voltage-balancing gate driver combined with limiting Snubber circuits is proposed in this article. This gate driver only requires one standard driver circuit to drive two series-connected SiC MOSFETs by adding simple coupling circuits, and limiting Snubber circuits are applied for voltage balancing, and thus, low-cost, simple structure and high reliability are acquired. The analysis is given to demonstrate the working process of such a circuit structure, and the key parameters’ design and setting are focused on. In the LTspice simulation of two SiC MOSFETs in series, the proposed gate driver shows good voltage balancing performance as the power loop current increasing. Besides, the branch of series-connected SiC MOSFETs is in reliable ON- or OFF-state during steady process. Finally, the experimental results further verify the performance of proposed single voltage-balancing gate driver.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Bidirectional Bootstrapped Gate Driver for High-Density SiC-Based
           Automotive DC/DC Converters
    • Authors: Alessandro Soldati;Emir Imamovic;Carlo Concari;
      Pages: 475 - 485
      Abstract: Bootstrap-based gate drivers are one of the simplest and cheapest solutions for driving the high-side devices in half-bridge-based power converters. Unfortunately, bootstrapped gate drivers are unable, on their own, to supply the negative gate–source voltage needed for safe turn off of SiC MOSFETs. This article proposes a novel and simple level shifter, applied to bootstrap-based gate drivers, able to supply a negative gate voltage to isolated-gate power devices during turn off. A fully analytical model of the proposed circuit is given, targeting both steady-state and transient performance. Modeling of the power loss connected to the driver is included as well. Performance of the gate driver with a level shifter is assessed experimentally, and the circuit layout for the power stage of a dual active bridge automotive dc/dc converter, set on an insulated metal substrate, is presented, comprising the power devices together with the proposed gate drivers and ancillary circuits.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • $dv/dt$+ +on+Parasitic+Filter+Elements&rft.title=IEEE+Journal+of+Emerging+and+Selected+Topics+in+Power+Electronics&rft.issn=2168-6777&rft.date=2020&rft.volume=8&rft.spage=486&rft.epage=494&rft.aulast=Weatherford;&rft.aufirst=Anup&rft.au=Anup+Anurag;Sayan+Acharya;Subhashish+Bhattacharya;Todd+R.+Weatherford;">Thermal Performance and Reliability Analysis of a Medium-Voltage
           Three-Phase Inverter Considering the Influence of High $dv/dt$ on
           Parasitic Filter Elements
    • Authors: Anup Anurag;Sayan Acharya;Subhashish Bhattacharya;Todd R. Weatherford;
      Pages: 486 - 494
      Abstract: In recent years, the use of silicon carbide (SiC) power semiconductor devices in medium-voltage (MV) applications has been made possible due to the development of high blocking voltage (10–15 kV)-based devices. While the use of these devices brings in a lot of advantages, the semiconductor devices are exposed to high peak stress (of up to 15 kV) and a very high $dv/dt$ (of up to 100 kV/ $mu text{s}$ ). The high $dv/dt$ across the devices leads to a high $dv/dt$ across other components connected to the system. This makes the effect of the parasitic capacitance across the components to be of paramount importance since an additional current flows through the components and, consequently, through the switching device. This additional current flows during each switching transition and leads to increased switching losses in the device. This article analyzes the effect of these additional losses on the lifetime of the device. The thermal performance of a three-phase inverter power block is provided, and a mission profile (solar irradiance and temperature)-based analysis is carried out to account for the additional junction temperature rise. The rainflow counting method is implemented to identify the mean and amplitude of each thermal cycle. An empirical device lifetime model is used to calculate the number of cycles to failure. Finally, the Palgrem Miner rule is used to quantify the total damage in the device. Comparisons have been carried out on basis of lifetime for both the cases (with and without the influence of parasitic capacitances). This analysis can be helpful in validating the importance of the design of filter inductors in these MV applications.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • $LLC$+ +Converter+for+48-V+Bus+Converter+Application&rft.title=IEEE+Journal+of+Emerging+and+Selected+Topics+in+Power+Electronics&rft.issn=2168-6777&rft.date=2020&rft.volume=8&rft.spage=495&rft.epage=505&rft.aulast=Lee;&rft.aufirst=Yinsong&rft.au=Yinsong+Cai;Mohamed+H.+Ahmed;Qiang+Li;Fred+C.+Lee;">Optimal Design of Megahertz $LLC$ Converter for 48-V Bus Converter
    • Authors: Yinsong Cai;Mohamed H. Ahmed;Qiang Li;Fred C. Lee;
      Pages: 495 - 505
      Abstract: Intermediate bus architecture employing 48-V bus converters is widely used in power supply applications. With the rapid increase of demanded power by these loads, higher efficiency and power density are driving better performance power management solutions. In this article, a Gallium Nitride (GaN) based design of a two-stage solution is proposed. The first stage is a multi-phase Buck for regulation. The second stage is an LLC converter with a fixed switching frequency for isolation. The detailed design and optimization of the LLC converter are studied. To achieve high power density and high efficiency, the transformer design becomes critical at megahertz frequency. The matrix transformer concept is applied and a merged winding structure is used for flux cancellation, which effectively reduces the ac winding losses. A novel primary termination and via structure is proposed, resulting in a great loss reduction. In addition, to study the current sharing of parallel winding layers, a 1-D analytic model is proposed, and a symmetrical winding layer scheme is used to balance the current distribution. Finally, the prototype for the two-stage bus converter is developed, with a peak efficiency of 96% and a power density of 615 W/in3.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • A Time-Sharing Current-Fed ZCS High-Frequency Inverter-Based Resonant
           DC–DC Converter With Si-IGBT/SiC-SBD Hybrid Module for Inductive Power
           Transfer Applications
    • Authors: Tomokazu Mishima;
      Pages: 506 - 516
      Abstract: This paper presents a time-sharing frequency doubler principle-based current-fed zero current soft-switching (ZCS) high-frequency-resonant (HF-R) inverter-based dc–dc converter for inductive power transfer (IPT) systems featuring a Silicon (Si) and Silicon Carbide (SiC) hybrid power module. The newly proposed resonant dc–dc converter is suitable for producing a higher frequency resonant current with switching power loss reduction by the effect of a high-speed punch trough Si-insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) and low-forward voltage SiC-Schottky barrier diode (SBD). In order to continuously regulate the output power, resonant current phasor control based on phase shift modulation (PSM) is newly applied. The performances of the newly proposed IPT resonant power converter are demonstrated by experiment, after which the feasibility of the circuit topology and control method is discussed from a practical point of view.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Single-Phase AC–DC Converter With SiC Power Pulsation Buffer for
           Pulse Load Applications
    • Authors: Xiaoyong Ren;Lei Bai;Yu Chen;Zhiliang Zhang;Qianhong Chen;
      Pages: 517 - 528
      Abstract: Single-phase ac–dc converter for low-frequency pulse load normally requires high-capacitance electrolytic capacitors, which reduces the lifetime and may cause reliability problem. To meet the challenges of voltage ripple, this article introduces a power pulsation buffer (PPB) that smooths the output voltage and provides essential pulse power to the load simultaneously. The proposed PPB is realized by a discontinuous current mode (DCM) bidirectional buck/boost converter with real-time duty-cycle calculation (RDC) and peak voltage control. The proposed control method can relieve the capacitance requirement and achieve good dynamic response. The electrolytic capacitor is replaced with the film capacitor which has better reliability. SiC devices are adopted to further reduce the inductor volume of PPB. The core-less design is also proposed to design an integrated air-core inductor for further volume deduction. To meet the DCM requirement of PPB in various operating conditions, the phase shift between the line voltage and pulse load is taken into account. An electrolytic capacitor-less prototype with 1800-W peak power is built to verify the advantages of the proposed method.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Modeling of ZVS Transitions for Efficiency Optimization of the
           Phase-Shifted Full-Bridge Topology
    • Authors: Ali Shahabi;Andrew N. Lemmon;
      Pages: 529 - 544
      Abstract: The emergence of wide bandgap semiconductors paved the way for integration of high-efficiency, high-power-density converters into industrial applications. Key to achieving these performance goals is operation at high switching frequencies, which requires mitigation of switching losses by schemes, such as zero-voltage switching (ZVS). The phase-shifted full-bridge (PSFB) converter is a very appealing converter for such industrial applications. However, the mechanisms that underlie the operation of ZVS within this topology are complex, as they depend on the coupled influence of multiple system parameters. This article aims to provide a detailed analytical treatment of the ZVS mechanisms within this topology, along with a detailed study of the interdependence of the associated critical system parameters. A prototype 10-kW, SiC-based PSFB converter is employed to aid this discourse and provide empirical validations. The outcome of these studies is leveraged to identify a set of practical guidelines for tuning the ZVS mechanisms. These guidelines also consider the impact of practical nonidealities, which are often neglected in the literature. Overall, the theoretical formulations, parametric trade studies, and practical implementation suggestions presented in this article constitute a set of tools that designers can utilize to obtain the full performance entitlement of this topology in practice.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Fault-Tolerant Inverter Operation Based on Si/SiC Hybrid Switches
    • Authors: Zishun Peng;Jun Wang;Zeng Liu;Yuxing Dai;Guoqiang Zeng;Z. John Shen;
      Pages: 545 - 556
      Abstract: The silicon (Si)/silicon carbide (SiC) hybrid switch comprising a Si insulated gate bipolar translator (IGBT) and a SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) in parallel offers not only excellent performance and cost tradeoff but also inherent switch-level redundancy for potential power converter fault-tolerant operation. It is possible to operate the power converter even when either the SiC MOSFET or the Si IGBT experiences an open-circuit fault. This article first analyzes various switch failure scenarios and then proposes a novel fault-tolerant control strategy for a single-phase inverter based on the Si/SiC hybrid switches to mitigate a single-point switch failure and maintain inverter operation. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed fault-tolerant control strategy.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • A New PFC Design With Interleaved MHz-Frequency GaN Auxiliary Active
           Filter Phase and Low-Frequency Base Power Si Phase
    • Authors: Chao Zhang;Jun Wang;Sai Tang;Daming Wang;Xin Yin;Zhikang Shuai;Z. John Shen;
      Pages: 557 - 566
      Abstract: Wide bandgap (WBG) power semiconductors offer lower switching loss and higher power density than silicon but suffer from significantly higher cost. In this article, we introduce a design methodology which uses a low-frequency silicon base power processor to achieve high efficiency and low cost, and a high-frequency WBG fractional power active filter to reduce harmonics and achieve high power quality. The mixed use of WBG and Si delivers the same WBG benefits but at a reduced component cost. A boost PFC converter based on this design principle is reported that comprises two interleaved Si and GaN phases. We develop a new unified control strategy to allow the base power processed efficiently by the Si phase switching at a low frequency of 10 kHz and the harmonics to be minimized by the MHz-frequency GaN phase as an active filter. A 2.1-kW Si/GaN interleaved PFC prototype exhibits a peak efficiency of 98.04% and a power factor of 0.998, even with a frontend diode bridge. The new interleaved PFC is validated by simulation and experimentally to achieve excellent efficiency, power density, and harmonics mitigation at a cost much lower than a full-scale WBG design.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • High-Performance Active-Clamped Isolated SEPIC PFC Converter With SiC
           Devices and Lossless Diode Clamp
    • Authors: Deliang Wu;Rajapandian Ayyanar;Madhura Sondharangalla;Tobin Meyers;
      Pages: 567 - 577
      Abstract: An isolated active-clamped single-ended primary-inductor converter (SEPIC) power factor correction (PFC) converter based on SiC devices is presented. The impact of the resonant inductance on the switch voltage stress and range of zero-voltage switching is analyzed. Analytical expressions for the operating points of the switches over the line cycle are derived and used to evaluate the switching loss. Resonant inductance and snubber capacitance are chosen based on the analysis to reduce the switching loss without overstress of the switches. Lossless diode clamp circuits are designed for the output diode so that the peak voltage and extra losses due to device parasitics-induced oscillation are significantly reduced. The analysis is validated with a 2-kW single-phase PFC rectifier module with a peak efficiency of 96.56% at the 200-kHz switching frequency, total harmonic distortion (THD) < 2%, and power density of 58 W/in3.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Design and Validation of A 250-kW All-Silicon Carbide High-Density
           Three-Level T-Type Inverter
    • Authors: Zhongjing Wang;Yuheng Wu;Mohammad Hazzaz Mahmud;Zhe Zhao;Yue Zhao;H. Alan Mantooth;
      Pages: 578 - 588
      Abstract: This article presents a comprehensive design and validation of a compact all-silicon carbide (SiC) 250-kW T-type traction inverter with a power density of 25 kW/l and 98.5% peak efficiency. All the operation modes and switching transitions in a T-type phase leg are analyzed to model the semiconductor power losses over a fundamental cycle. Special attention has been paid to investigate the behavior and losses due to the reverse conduction of the SiC MOSFETs. Then a loss model is built based upon this analysis to calculate the device loss distribution and system efficiency, which is further used to determine the optimal switching frequency. In addition, detailed inverter system design and prototyping procedure, including the selection of SiC modules and dc-link capacitors, and the optimization of a four-layer laminated busbar, are presented. In this article, the T-type phase leg is formed by a normal half-bridge module and a common-source module. The switching performance and losses in this configuration are different from two-level topology that only uses one SiC module. Therefore, the switching performance and the associated switching energy in each switch position are characterized using a custom clamped inductive load (CIL) test setup designed for a T-type phase leg. The performance of the full power traction inverter prototype has been verified experimentally using pulse testing and continuous power testing.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Low-Loss Integrated Inductor and Transformer Structure and Application in
           Regulated LLC Converter for 48-V Bus Converter
    • Authors: Mohamed H. Ahmed;Ahmed Nabih;Fred C. Lee;Qiang Li;
      Pages: 589 - 600
      Abstract: In this article, an LLC converter using gallium nitride (GaN) transistors is proposed for a 48-V regulated and isolated bus converter. Compared with pulsewidth modulation (PWM)-based topologies, the soft switching capability of an LLC allows operation at very high frequencies. In addition, the size of the magnetic components is reduced without sacrificing the efficiency. In this article, a novel magnetic structure that integrates a matrix transformer and inductor with minimum winding and a single magnetic core is proposed, to allow a high-density and high-efficiency LLC converter design for a bus converter. A 40—60-V input and regulated 12-V output converter is developed to deliver a 1-kW output power in a quarter brick form factor. The designed converter can achieve a power density of 700 W/in3 with a maximum efficiency of 97.82% at half-load, dropping to 97.7% at full-load operation.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • A Magnetic Integrated LCL–EMI Filter for a Single-Phase SiC-MOSFET
           Grid-Connected Inverter
    • Authors: Shiqi Jiang;Yitao Liu;Zhaozhao Mei;Jianchun Peng;Ching-Ming Lai;
      Pages: 601 - 617
      Abstract: Harmonic and electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters are the two important parts in the grid-connected inverter for the harmonic and EMI noise suppression. This article investigates the combined magnetic integration of the harmonic and EMI filters with the volume and weight reduction, which is defined as the integrated LCL–EMI filter in this article. Both common-mode (CM) and differential-mode (DM) models of the integrated inductor with EE-type magnetic core are built and analyzed. By designing the air gap of the center leg and arranging the windings properly, the distribution of magnetic flux on the magnetic branch can be controlled. As a result, harmonic inductors and a CM inductor can be effectively designed in the center leg and side leg, respectively. A symmetrical LCL filter is designed instead of the traditional asymmetrical structure with an integrated magnetic core. The current harmonic distortion analysis and EMI measurement results based on simulation and experiment results verify the effectiveness of the proposed integration method in the silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFET-based grid-connected inverter. Moreover, weight and volume comparisons between the integrated inductor and the traditional discrete inductors also reflect the superiority of the magnetic integrated LCL–EMI filter.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Additive Manufacturing of Spiral Windings for a Pot-Core Constant-Flux
    • Authors: Chao Ding;Shengchang Lu;Jim Moss;Joyce Mullenix;Yunhui Mei;Khai D. T. Ngo;Guo-Quan Lu;
      Pages: 618 - 625
      Abstract: Constant-flux inductors (CFIs) are designed to have a more uniform flux density in the core for efficient use of the magnetic material and higher inductance density. However, these inductors generally require unique winding structures that are difficult to manufacture by conventional means. In this article, we applied a paste-extrusion 3-D printer to fabricate spiral windings with varying turn-by-turn widths to make a pot-core CFI. The printing speed and extrusion rate of the printer were optimized for a commercial silver paste to form the windings. The printed windings were sintered at 850 °C to get electrical conductivity approaching that of bulk silver. To form the magnetic core, a custom-made curable magnetic composite paste was used to encase the windings. After curing at 200 °C, the permeability of the magnetic material can reach over 35 with low core-loss density. A 1- $mu text{H}$ pot-core CFI of 5 mm $times ,,5$ mm $times ,,2$ mm was designed, fabricated, and characterized for its inductance and quality factor versus frequency and inductance versus dc current.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • A Survey of EMI Research in Power Electronics Systems With Wide-Bandgap
           Semiconductor Devices
    • Authors: Boyi Zhang;Shuo Wang;
      Pages: 626 - 643
      Abstract: Wide-bandgap (WBG) power semiconductor devices have become increasingly popular due to their superior characteristics compared to their Si counterparts. However, their fast switching speed and the ability to operate at high frequencies brought new challenges, among which the electromagnetic interference (EMI) is one of the major concerns. Many works investigated the structures of WBG power devices and their switching performance. In some cases, the conductive or radiated EMI was measured. However, the EMI-related topics, including their influence on noise sources, noise propagation paths, EMI reduction techniques, and EMC reliability issues, have not yet been systematically summarized for WBG devices. In this article, the literature on EMI research in power electronics systems with WBG devices is reviewed. Characteristics of WBG devices as EMI noise sources are reviewed. EMI propagation paths, near-field coupling, and radiated EMI are surveyed. EMI reduction techniques are categorized and reviewed. Specifically, the EMI-related reliability issues are discussed, and solutions and guidelines are presented.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • An Integrated Interleaved Ultrahigh Step-Up DC–DC Converter Using Dual
           Cross-Coupled Inductors With Built-In Input Current Balancing for Electric
    • Authors: Hadi Moradisizkoohi;Nour Elsayad;Osama A. Mohammed;
      Pages: 644 - 657
      Abstract: An integrated interleaved dc–dc converter with ultrahigh voltage gain and reduced voltage stress based on the coupled-inductors and switched-capacitor circuits is proposed in this article, which is suitable for interfacing the low-voltage energy sources, such as fuel-cell, with a high-voltage dc bus in electric vehicle applications. Input-parallel connection of the coupled-inductors offers a reduced input current ripple and the current rating of components, as well as automatic input current sharing without a dedicated current sharing controller. A promising power-density improvement technique is given, in which only one magnetic core is utilized to implement two coupled-inductors that can provide the filter functionality, as well as transformer behavior. For suppressing the voltage ringing resulting from the leakage inductors, the active-clamp configuration is employed that can facilitate the soft-switching performance for all switches in a wide range of output power. A voltage multiplier stage is adapted to not only boost the voltage gain but help alleviate the reverse-recovery problem of diodes. The steady-state performance, theoretical analysis, and a comparison with the state-of-the-art converters are given in this article. Finally, the experimental results of a 1-kW, 100-kHz prototype are provided to confirm the validity of the proposed concept.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • A Simulation-Based Multifunctional Differential Mode and Common Mode
           Filter Design Method for Universal Converters
    • Authors: Xinmin Zhang;Masih Khodabandeh;Mahshid Amirabadi;Brad Lehman;
      Pages: 658 - 672
      Abstract: Existing filter design methods for grid-tied power converters either focus on grid current harmonic suppression or electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise attenuation. This article proposes a simulation-based, multifunctional filter design method, which can simultaneously handle multiple objectives, including minimizing grid current total harmonic distortion (THD), conductive EMI noise, ground leakage current, touch current, filter weight, and so on. By modeling equivalent filter circuit and simulating in the Powersim (PSIM) software, the approach avoids traditional complicated circuit analysis and mathematical computation. In addition, unlike most existing filter design approaches that only focus on one specific application or converter topology, this filter design method is a generalized approach and can also be used for universal converters that have variable applications. To demonstrate this feature, the filter design method is applied to a recently proposed series-capacitive-link universal converter. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • An Electrothermal Model for IGBT Based on Finite Differential Method
    • Authors: Han Cao;Puqi Ning;Xuhui Wen;Tianshu Yuan;Huakang Li;
      Pages: 673 - 684
      Abstract: In this article, a practical electrothermal SPICE model is proposed based on finite differential method. Other than the conventional Fourier model and the Hefner model, the distribution of excess carriers can be accurately solved by a finite differential method in the SPICE simulation tool. In this method, the electrothermal behavior of the device is modeled by using a semi-mathematic model. In order to verify the modeling results, a self-packaging insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module is tested in both static characteristics and dynamic characteristics, and the simulation results of the presented model fit well with the experimental results under different junction temperatures. More importantly, the finite differential method provided in this article is an approach for modeling bipolar devices, and it can also be applied to model widebandgap devices such as a SiC IGBT and a SiC BJT.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • A Seven-Level Inverter With Self-Balancing and Low-Voltage Stress
    • Authors: Junfeng Liu;Xiangkai Zhu;Jun Zeng;
      Pages: 685 - 696
      Abstract: Based on the switched-capacitor (SC) principle, a seven-level inverter is proposed, which can synthesize seven levels containing a single dc source. Moreover, it can further generate more levels by a cascaded extension. Meanwhile, the proposed topology does not require any sensor due to the use of SC technology. Furthermore, the capacitor voltage is self-balanced without utilizing the complicated control strategy and additional control circuits. The phase disposition pulsewidth modulation is adopted to reduce the total harmonic distortion. The topology can generate different levels with a wide range of modulation index. In addition, the topology can also work in overmodulation. Compared with the traditional SC multilevel inverter, the absence of H-bridge makes low-voltage stress in proposed topology. The voltage stress of all switches is not more than the input voltage. Operational principles, modulation strategy, and voltage stress analysis are discussed. Simulation and experiment are conducted in low power to verify the feasibility of the proposed topology.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Analysis and Assessment of Modular Multilevel Converter Internal Control
    • Authors: Shuren Wang;Grain P. Adam;Ahmed M. Massoud;Derrick Holliday;Barry W. Williams;
      Pages: 697 - 719
      Abstract: Adoption of distributed submodule (SM) capacitors in a modular multilevel converter (MMC) necessitates complex controllers to ensure the stability of its internal dynamics. This paper presents comprehensive analysis and assessment of different proportional resonant (PR)-based control schemes proposed to stabilize the internal dynamics and ensure ac and dc sides power quality of the MMC within a dc transmission system. With the consideration of passive component tolerances, different energy- and voltage-based control schemes under various conditions are analyzed. It has been established that without vertical voltage balance control, unequal passive component values in the upper and lower arms of the same phase leg may cause: unbalanced fundamental currents in the arms, unequal dc voltage across the arms, and fundamental oscillations in the common-mode currents that lead to fundamental frequency ripple in the dc-link current. The theoretical analysis that explains this mechanism is presented, and is used to show that vertical voltage balancing is necessary for the nullification of arm voltage difference and suppression of odd oscillations caused by capacitive/inductive asymmetry between arms of the same phase leg. Simulations support the theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of voltage balancing in ensuring correct operation, independent of tolerances of the MMC passive elements, and operating conditions. A new direct method for elimination of fundamental oscillations in the common-mode and dc-link current is proposed. Experimental results from a single-phase MMC prototype validate the presented theoretical discussions and simulations.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Decentralized Control Algorithm for the Hybrid Energy Storage of Shipboard
           Power System
    • Authors: Samy Faddel;Ahmed A. Saad;Tarek Youssef;Osama Mohammed;
      Pages: 720 - 731
      Abstract: This paper proposes a decentralized control algorithm for the medium-voltage direct current (MVDC) shipboard storage system to enhance the onboard survivability. The algorithm takes decisions based on local measurements, which makes it robust against cyber-attacks and able to provide a fast response. The voltage profile of the MVDC bus has sufficient information about the system status, which is utilized for managing the hybrid energy storage systems. Insertion/removal of the storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, is made according to the mathematical morphology-based voltage processing and state-machine logic algorithms. To ensure proper power sharing, an adaptive droop control is used, taking into account consideration the state-of-charge of the storage units. Field-programmable gate array in the loop validation results confirms the ability of the proposed controller to maintain the MVDC bus voltage and the adequate operation of the storage entities simultaneously.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Adequate Usage Rate Control of Switching Cycles for DCM Buck PFC Converter
    • Authors: Kai Yao;Chunyan Mao;Kaili Chen;Lei Li;Huanqi Tang;
      Pages: 732 - 748
      Abstract: Buck power factor correction converter is widely used in low-power applications due to its specific advantages. In discontinuous conduction mode operation, the inductor current is zero during part of the switching cycle, leading to a useless period in the whole switching cycle of the power transmission. As a result, the peak value and the root-mean-square (RMS) value of the inductor current as well as the switch current are large. In addition, the current stress of the power devices is high, and so does the switching loss. A new method called adequate usage rate control of switching cycles to improve the effect of the energy transfer is proposed. Compared with the fixed duty ratio control, the critical inductance is increased, and the peak and rms current values of the main power components are reduced. Therefore, the efficiency of the converter is increased. The method brings about higher PF at low input voltages and lower PF at high input voltages. Meanwhile, a reduction of the output ripple voltage is achieved. A prototype is fabricated in the laboratory, and the experimental results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Nonisolated DC–DC Converters With Wide Conversion Range for
           High-Power Applications
    • Authors: George Harrison de Alcântara Bastos;Levy Ferreira Costa;Fernando Lessa Tofoli;Grover Victor Torrico Bascopé;René Pastor Torrico Bascopé;
      Pages: 749 - 760
      Abstract: This paper presents the conception of a family of dc–dc converters with wide conversion range (WCR) based on the multistate switching cell (MSSC) for high-power, high-current applications. The resulting topologies allow achieving high-voltage step-up/step-down in a modular approach, as the WCR-MSSC cell is obtained by using isolated secondary windings coupled to the autotransformer of the MSSC with series-connected controlled rectifiers. Depending on the transformer turns ratio, it is possible to adjust the static gain and reduce the voltage stresses across the main switches, thus allowing the use of metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with low on-resistance $R_{mathrm {DS}(mathrm{scriptscriptstyle ON})}$ , as efficiency is improved as a consequence of minimized conduction losses. A dc–dc boost-type converter based on the four-state switching cell is also implemented, thoroughly analyzed, and evaluated experimentally to demonstrate the advantages associated with the proposed approach in the conception of novel dc–dc converter topologies for this purpose.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • A Hybrid Cascaded DC–DC Boost Converter With Ripple Reduction and
           Large Conversion Ratio
    • Authors: Xuefeng Hu;Penghui Ma;Jianzhang Wang;Guodong Tan;
      Pages: 761 - 770
      Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid cascaded boost converter, in which the input terminal is interlaced in parallel and the output capacitors embedded in voltage multiplier cells are interlaced in series at the output terminal [input parallel output series boost converter (IPOSB)]. The IPOSB can reduce the input current ripples because two primary windings of coupled inductors are connected in parallel with the cross. The voltage multiplier units combine with diode–capacitor and coupled inductor in the output side are charged and discharged in a series and parallel way. In addition, the leakage inductance of the coupled inductor inhibits the inrush current of the capacitors. Therefore, the IPOSB can attain high gain and lower output voltage ripples under a proper duty cycle, and the leakage energy of coupled inductor can also be recycled to the load. At the same time, the voltage stress of power devices is lowered, so the low voltage level MOSFETs can be adopted to reduce the losses and cost. Meanwhile, the soft switching performance of the zero-current-switching is fulfilled, which reduces effectively switching losses. The operational principle and steady-state performance of the converter are analyzed in detail. The correctness of the theoretical analysis is verified by setting up a 450-W experimental prototype.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • New Dynamic Photo-Electro-Thermal Modeling of Light-Emitting Diodes With
           Phosphor Coating as Light Converter Part I: Theory, Analysis, and Modeling
    • Authors: S. Y. Hui;Albert T. L. Lee;Siew-Chong Tan;
      Pages: 771 - 779
      Abstract: Phosphor-coated light-emitting diode (PC-LED) is the dominant LED technology for public lighting. This paper presents a comprehensive theory for analyzing and modeling phosphor coating (PC) in white LEDs as a dynamic light converter. The new PC-LED model not only obeys the traditional diode equation but also includes the energy storage and transient effects of the PC. Major control variables include energy storage in and the luminous flux from the PC. This new model enables the dynamic variations of luminous flux and energy storage and power loss in PC to be accurately predicted. Part I of this paper provides the details of the theory and analysis leading to the new PC-LED model under the framework of the photo-electro-thermal theory. The details of the model parameter determination, model setup, and experimental verification are included in Part II. The model offers the important power loss equation of the PC which highlights the factors affecting the heat loss and the coating’s blackening effects. This equation can be used by engineers to design LED drivers in order to reduce the coating temperature and the blackening effects and to prolong LED lifetime.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • New Dynamic Photo-Electro-Thermal Modeling of Light-Emitting Diodes With
           Phosphor Coating as Light Converter—Part II: Model Parameter
           Determination and Practical Verification
    • Authors: Albert T. L. Lee;Huanting Chen;Siew-Chong Tan;S. Y. Hui;
      Pages: 780 - 793
      Abstract: Based on the dynamic photo-electro-thermal (PET) theory for light-emitting diode (LED) systems, a comprehensive theory for analyzing and modeling the phosphor coating in white LEDs as a dynamic light converter has been presented in Part I of this paper. Part II of this paper provides the details of the model parameter determination, model setup, and experimental verification. The procedures of obtaining the parameters in the experimental setup are explained. Using the comprehensive theory, a dynamic PET computer model of a phosphor-coated LED device has been developed. The simulation results compare well with the practical measurements, confirming the validity of the comprehensive theory in Part I of this paper. The new model provides the novel equations for new information such as the power loss in phosphor coating and transients of the light emitted from the phosphor coating. Such information can be used for the designs of LED drivers and systems.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Single-Phase Two-Stage Seven-Level Power Conditioner for Photovoltaic
           Power Generation System
    • Authors: Sateesh Kumar Kuncham;Kirubakaran Annamalai;Subrahmanyam Nallamothu;
      Pages: 794 - 804
      Abstract: This paper presents a new power conditioner with the inherent benefits of boosting, generation of seven-level output voltage with minimum leakage current in a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power generation system. The proposed power conditioner is an upgrade of a front-end multioutput dc–dc boost converter and an asymmetrical seven-level inverter. A high-frequency transformer (HFT) employed in front-end converter produces balanced dc-link voltages to generate the seven-level output voltage. The leakage current caused by the parasitic capacitance of the PV panel is minimized by providing a common-mode conducting path to the inverter. This results in a reduction of the leakage current well below the VDE0126-1-1 grid standards. Furthermore, the proposed configuration utilizes a minimum number of devices for every level generation, which reduces the control complexity and also improves the system efficiency. The dynamic performance of the system is tested for intermittent changes in the PV characteristics for grid-connected operation. The proposed power conditioner is simulated using MATLAB software, and a laboratory prototype of 750 W is developed to validate its feasibility. Finally, a comparison is made with other recently proposed seven-level inverters to highlight the benefits of this power conditioner over others.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Transformerless Inverter Topologies for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems:
           A Comparative Review
    • Authors: Md Noman H. Khan;Mojtaba Forouzesh;Yam P. Siwakoti;Li Li;Tamas Kerekes;Frede Blaabjerg;
      Pages: 805 - 835
      Abstract: In photovoltaic (PV) applications, a transformer is often used to provide galvanic isolation and voltage ratio transformations between input and output. However, these conventional iron- and copper-based transformers increase the weight/size and cost of the inverter while reducing the efficiency and power density. It is therefore desirable to avoid using transformers in the inverter. However, additional care must be taken to avoid safety hazards such as ground fault currents and leakage currents, e.g., via the parasitic capacitor between the PV panel and ground. Consequently, the grid connected transformerless PV inverters must comply with strict safety standards such as IEEE 1547.1, VDE0126-1-1, EN 50106, IEC61727, and $text{A}S/N$ ZS 5033. Various transformerless inverters have been proposed recently to eliminate the leakage current using different techniques such as decoupling the dc from the ac side and/or clamping the common mode (CM) voltage (CMV) during the freewheeling period, or using common ground configurations. The permutations and combinations of various decoupling techniques with integrated voltage buck–boost for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) allow numerous new topologies and configurations which are often confusing and difficult to follow when seeking to select the right topology. Therefore, to present a clear picture on the development of transformerless inverters for the next-generation grid-connected PV systems, this paper aims to comprehensively review and classify various transformerless inverters with detailed analytical comparisons. To reinforce the findings and comparisons as well as to give more insight on the CM characteristics and leakage current, computer simulations of major transformerless inverter topologies have been performed in PLECS software. Moreover, the cost and size are analyzed properly and summarized in a table. Finally, efficien-y and thermal analysis are provided with a general summary as well as a technology roadmap.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • The Future 5G Network-Based Secondary Load Frequency Control in Shipboard
    • Authors: Meysam Gheisarnejad;Mohammad-Hassan Khooban;Tomislav Dragičevié;
      Pages: 836 - 844
      Abstract: This paper presents the applicability of the future fifth-generation network technology for a marine vessel power system with sea wave energy, photovoltaic, and energy storage systems. In this paper, a new optimal structured interval type-2 fractional order fuzzy proportional derivative/fuzzy proportional integral controller is proposed for the secondary load frequency control (LFC) of a networked shipboard multimicrogrid. The effect of the various degradation factors associated with the communication infrastructure such as the time delay and packet loss is modeled and addressed to assess the system performance in the networked control system (NCS) operation. The parameters embedded in the established structure are decisive factors, which significantly affect the quality of control output actions. Accordingly, by employing the concepts of the black-hole optimization algorithm and Lévy flight, an enhanced JAYA algorithm is proposed to adjust the setting of the established structured controller. Finally, comprehensive studies and hardware-in-the-loop real-time simulations are conducted to appraise the acceptability of the suggested controller for a secondary LFC problem in the face of the uncertain NCS.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Systematic Investigation of Spontaneous Emission Quantum Efficiency Drop
           up to 800 K for Future Power Electronics Applications
    • Authors: Abbas Sabbar;Syam Madhusoodhanan;Sattar Al-Kabi;Binzhong Dong;Jiangbo Wang;Stanley Atcitty;Robert J. Kaplar;Ding Ding;H. Alan Mantooth;Shui-Qing Yu;Zhong Chen;
      Pages: 845 - 853
      Abstract: Future high-density power electronics applications may require high-temperature optoelectronic devices for gate drive. Thus, a systematic study of optoelectronic material from 10 to 800 K has been performed to understand the potential of the high-temperature operation of optoelectronic devices. The temperature dependence of the photoluminescence (PL) of indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiple quantum wells was studied. The integrated PL intensity dropped by an order of magnitude at 800 K compared to 10 K. The spontaneous emission quantum efficiency was calculated from the power-law relation linking the integrated PL signal and the excitation pump power. The validation of the traditional ABC model for solid-state lighting is extended to 800 K. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of developing high-temperature optoelectronic devices, which have operating temperatures over 500 K.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Three-Phase Isolated Multimodular Converter in Renewable Energy
           Distribution Systems
    • Authors: Cristian Verdugo;Jose Ignacio Candela;Frede Blaabjerg;Pedro Rodriguez;
      Pages: 854 - 865
      Abstract: Multilevel converters are widely used in medium and high-voltage applications. Their high performance, power quality, efficiency, and smaller filters make them interesting for renewable energy distribution systems. In utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) plants, these topologies could provide multiple benefits since they are able to connect string of PV panels to independent modules. However, high floating voltages caused by high number of modules limit multilevel converters in medium and high-voltage applications, since all of them are not suitable to provide isolation to each module. To offer a solution, this paper presents a novel multimodular converter that provides multiple isolated modules connected in series through low-frequency transformers to operate at medium voltage levels. This topology is able to achieve the power balancing between the connected modules and independently adjust the dc voltage of each module by means of controlling a circulating current which flows through the arms. Furthermore, the topology implemented in PV renewable energy systems and the control strategy required to regulate the circulating and the output current are presented. The main principle behind this concept and the performance of the converter are evaluated and validated through the simulation and experimental results.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Power Control for Grid-Connected Converter to Comply With Safety Operation
           Limits During Grid Faults
    • Authors: Shida Gu;Xiong Du;Ying Shi;Pengju Sun;Heng-Ming Tai;
      Pages: 866 - 876
      Abstract: This paper presents a new power control strategy for the grid-connected converter under grid faults. Positive- and negative-sequence reactive powers are controlled separately to effectively support the unbalanced grid voltages. Both maximum phase current limit and maximum active power oscillation limit are considered to make sure that the converter operates safely under grid faults. The spare capacity is fully used to generate active power. Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate that the reactive power is generated immediately and a gradual generation of active power reduces the load of crowbar or other energy transfer devices.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • A Self-Sustained and Flexible Control Strategy for Islanded DC Nanogrids
           Without Communication Links
    • Authors: Thanh Lich Nguyen;Josep M. Guerrero;Gerd Griepentrog;
      Pages: 877 - 892
      Abstract: This paper proposes a self-sustained and flexible control strategy for autonomous dc nanogrids (NGs) in remote and rural areas without the need for a communication system. The proposed control strategy of NGs is based upon a hierarchical control, in which the primary control manages the power balance inside the NG and the secondary control is responsible for removing deviation of the dc bus voltage caused by the droop operation. The state of charge of the battery and the external dc bus signal are taken into account in the proposed control strategy in order to avoid the overcharge/deep discharge of the battery as well as the collapse of the external dc bus. Bidirectional power flow among multiple NGs is implemented through a dedicated interconnected bidirectional dual-active-bridge dc/dc converter installed inside the NG to ensure a galvanic isolation among multiple interconnected NGs. Finally, the small-signal model is developed, in which the small-signal transfer function of an entire NG is derived from the small-signal transfer functions of every single converters of the system. From the attained transfer function, the appropriate secondary controller is designed, and the system stability is analyzed. The proposed control strategy is validated through simulations and experiments.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • A Survey on Switching Oscillations in Power Converters
    • Authors: Tianjiao Liu;Thomas T. Y. Wong;Z. John Shen;
      Pages: 893 - 908
      Abstract: High-frequency power converters enabled by wide bandgap (WBG) and silicon semiconductor devices offer distinct advantages in power density and dynamic performance. However, switching oscillations are commonly observed in these circuits with undesirable consequences. This paper reviews the impacts, root causes, and mitigation techniques of switching oscillations through literature survey, modeling analysis, and experimental investigation. We categorize the following root causes for oscillations during switching transients: 1) damped oscillation triggered by high di/dt and/or dv/dt coupled with parasitic elements; 2) undamped oscillation of WBG devices as part of a negative resistance oscillator; and 3) semiconductor device physical mechanisms such as the negative capacitance phenomenon due to conductivity modulation in insulated gate bipolar transistors or impact ionization in MOSFETs, the plasma extraction transit-time effect in bipolar power devices, and the reverse conduction property of GaN HEMTs. Furthermore, this paper discusses various circuit techniques to suppress switching oscillations, and techniques of extracting parasitic inductances of power devices.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Eddy Current Loss and Detuning Effect of Seawater on Wireless Power
    • Authors: Kehan Zhang;Yunshan Ma;Zhengchao Yan;Zhengfei Di;Baowei Song;Aiguo Patrick Hu;
      Pages: 909 - 917
      Abstract: Due to the conductivity of the seawater, the traditional mutual inductance circuit model in the air cannot be used directly to describe wireless power transfer (WPT) systems in seawater applications. This paper proposes a modified mutual inductance circuit model of an underwater WPT system to analyze the eddy current loss (ECL) and the detuning effect caused by the seawater. The time-harmonic electromagnetic field in the seawater and the air near the coil that carries a sinusoidal alternating current is analyzed. The root-mean-square (rms) value and phase angle of the induced voltage on the secondary coil can be obtained by the integral of the electric field intensity along the coil path. By introducing the equivalent ECL impedance at both the primary and secondary sides, a modified mutual inductance circuit model of an underwater WPT system was obtained. Through adding a compensation inductance to the primary circuit, the detuned system in the seawater is turned back to be resonant at the same frequency as in the air. A seawater WPT prototype was built and the experimental results verified the theoretical analysis.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Proceedings of the IEEE
    • Pages: 918 - 918
      Abstract: Advertisement, IEEE.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Introducing IEEE Collabratec
    • Pages: 919 - 919
      Abstract: Advertisement, IEEE.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • how can you get your idea to market first
    • Pages: 920 - 920
      Abstract: Advertisement, IEEE.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
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