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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 202 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advanced Materials Technologies     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 99)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Australian Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 304)
ECTI Transactions on Computer and Information Technology (ECTI-CIT)     Open Access  
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 123)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 108)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 103)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
EPE Journal : European Power Electronics and Drives     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 100)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Letters on Electromagnetic Compatibility Practice and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Magnetics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Open Journal of Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Open Journal of Industry Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 77)
IEEE Pulse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 364)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221)
IEEE Transactions on Haptics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
IEEE Women in Engineering Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access  
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal ELTIKOM : Jurnal Teknik Elektro, Teknologi Informasi dan Komputer     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Revue Méditerranéenne des Télécommunications     Open Access  
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ural Radio Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)

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Electronics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.548
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 108  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2079-9292
Published by MDPI Homepage  [222 journals]
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 542: Implementation of Unbalanced Ternary Logic
           Gates with the Combination of Spintronic Memristor and CMOS

    • Authors: Zhang, Zhang, Gao, Luo, Duan, Dong, Lin
      First page: 542
      Abstract: A memristor is a nanoscale electronic element that displays a threshold property, non-volatility, and variable conductivity. Its composite circuits are promising for the implementation of intelligence computation, especially for logic operations. In this paper, a flexible logic circuit composed of a spintronic memristor and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) switches is proposed for the implementation of the basic unbalanced ternary logic gates, including the NAND, NOR, AND, and OR gates. Meanwhile, due to the participation of the memristor and CMOS, the proposed circuit has advantages in terms of non-volatility and load capacity. Furthermore, the input and output of the proposed logic are both constant voltages without signal degradation. All these three merits make the proposed circuit capable of realizing the cascaded logic functions. In order to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the entire work, series circuit simulations were carried out. The experimental results indicated that the proposed logic circuit has the potential to realize almost all basic ternary logic gates, and even some more complicated cascaded logic functions with a compact circuit construction, high efficiency, and good robustness.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040542
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 543: A New FANET Simulator for Managing Drone
           Networks and Providing Dynamic Connectivity

    • Authors: Mauro Tropea, Peppino Fazio, Floriano De Rango, Nicola Cordeschi
      First page: 543
      Abstract: In the last decade, the attention on unmanned aerial vehicles has rapidly grown, due to their ability to help in many human activities. Among their widespread benefits, one of the most important uses regards the possibility of distributing wireless connectivity to many users in a specific coverage area. In this study, we focus our attention on these new kinds of networks, called flying ad-hoc networks. As stated in the literature, they are suitable for all emergency situations where the traditional networking paradigm may have many issues or difficulties to be implemented. The use of a software simulator can give important help to the scientific community in the choice of the right UAV/drone parameters in many different situations. In particular, in this work, we focus our main attention on the new ways of area covering and human mobility behaviors with the introduction of a UAV/drone behavior model to take into account also drones energetic issues. A deep campaign of simulations was carried out to evaluate the goodness of the proposed simulator illustrating how it works.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040543
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 544: Design and Power Management of a Secured
           Wireless Sensor System for Salton Sea Environmental Monitoring

    • Authors: Diaz, Teh
      First page: 544
      Abstract: An embedded system composed of commercial off the shelf (COTS) peripherals and microcontroller. The system will collect environmental data for Salton Sea, Imperial Valley, California in order to understand the development of environmental and health hazards. Power analysis of each system features (i.e. Central Processing Unit (CPU) core, Input/Output (I/O) buses, and peripheral (temperature, humidity, and optical dust sensor) are studied. Software-based power optimization utilizes the power information with hardware-assisted power gating to control system features. The control of these features extends system uptime in a field deployed finite energy scenario. The proposed power optimization algorithm can collect more data by increasing system up time when compared to a Low Power Energy Aware Processing (LEAP) approach. Lastly, the 128 bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm is applied on the collected data using various parameters. A hidden peripheral requirement that must be considered during design are also noted to impact the efficacy of this method.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040544
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 545: Applications of Extreme Gradient Boosting
           for Intelligent Handovers from 4G To 5G (mm Waves) Technology with Partial
           Radio Contact

    • Authors: Majid, Shah, Marwat
      First page: 545
      Abstract: In a network topology, where 5G (mm Waves) have better coverage footprint compared to 4G (LTE or LTE-A) technology, mobile devices would generally be handed over from 4G to 5G. In this work, a supervised intelligent prediction technique for improved handover success rate (HSR) from 4G to 5G technology is proposed. The technique is applicable for base stations enabled with sub-6-GHz and mm-wave bands. This technique is novel since it can predict HSR even before switching to 5G radio circuitry or initiating its measurement gap for acquisition of mm-wave reference signal received power (RSRP) unlike conventional algorithms. Thus, preempting all handovers which are likely to fail will provide improvements in latency, delay, and handover success rate, as well as decrease call drops. Therefore, this research work answers previous research shortcomings and can unleash applications of supervised intelligent algorithms for predicting the HSR from 4G to 5G. The proposed algorithm is validated by showing improvements obtained through simulation results performed using Python-based framework. The proposed algorithm is tested for reliability with increasing parameters such as the intensity number of UEs and simulation time. Improvements in standard handover algorithm are also proposed.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040545
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 546: Performance of Two Approaches of Embedded
           Recommender Systems

    • Authors: Francisco Pajuelo-Holguera, Juan A. Gómez-Pulido, Fernando Ortega
      First page: 546
      Abstract: Nowadays, highly portable and low-energy computing environments require programming applications able to satisfy computing time and energy constraints. Furthermore, collaborative filtering based recommender systems are intelligent systems that use large databases and perform extensive matrix arithmetic calculations. In this research, we present an optimized algorithm and a parallel hardware implementation as good approach for running embedded collaborative filtering applications. To this end, we have considered high-level synthesis programming for reconfigurable hardware technology. The design was tested under environments where usual parameters and real-world datasets were applied, and compared to usual microprocessors running similar implementations. The performance results obtained by the different implementations were analyzed in computing time and energy consumption terms. The main conclusion is that the optimized algorithm is competitive in embedded applications when considering large datasets and parallel implementations based on reconfigurable hardware.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040546
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 547: Differential Bi-Level Microstrip
           Directional Coupler with Equalized Coupling Coefficients for Directivity
           Improvement

    • Authors: Gruszczynski, Smolarz, Wincza
      First page: 547
      Abstract: In this paper, a bi-level microstrip differential directional coupler has been investigated. It has been shown that the equalization of coupling coefficients can be successfully made with the use of appropriate dielectric stack-up and conductor geometry. The application of additional top dielectric layer can ensure proper equalization of coupling coefficients by lowering the value of capacitive coupling coefficient to the value of the inductive one. The theoretically investigated coupled-line section has been used for the design of a 3-dB differential directional coupler. The measurement results are compared with the theoretical ones.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040547
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 548: Intrinsically Distributed Probabilistic
           Algorithm for Human–Robot Distance Computation in Collision Avoidance
           Strategies

    • Authors: Chiurazzi, Diodato, Vetrò, Alcaide, Menciassi, Ciuti
      First page: 548
      Abstract: Humans and robots are becoming co-workers, both in industrial and medical applications. This new paradigm raises problems related to human safety. To accomplish and solve this issue, many researchers have developed collision avoidance strategies—mainly relying on potential field approaches—in which attractive and repulsive virtual forces are generated between manipulators and objects within a collaborative workspace. The magnitude of such virtual forces strongly depends on the relative distance between the manipulators and the approaching agents, as well on their relative velocity. In this paper, authors developed an intrinsically distributed probabilistic algorithm to compute distances between the manipulator surfaces and humans, allowing tuning the computational time versus estimation accuracy, based on the application requirements. At each iteration, the algorithm computes the human–robot distances, considering all the Cartesian points within a specific geometrical domain, built around humans’ kinematic chain, and selecting a random subset of points outside of it. Experimental validation was performed in a dynamic and unstructured condition to assess the performance of the algorithm, simulating up to six humans into the shared workspace. Tests showed that the algorithm, with the selected hardware, is able to estimate the distance between the human and the manipulator with a RMSE of 5.93 mm (maximum error of 34.86 mm).
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040548
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 549: V2G Strategy for Primary Frequency Control
           of an Industrial Microgrid Considering the Charging Station Operator

    • Authors: Iqbal, Xin, Jan, Salman, Zaki, Rehman, Shinwari, Abdelbaky
      First page: 549
      Abstract: Electric vehicles (EVs) have been receiving greater attention as a tool for frequency control due to their fast regulation capability. The proliferation of EVs for primary frequency regulation is hampered by the need to simultaneously maintain industrial microgrids dispatch and EV state of charge levels. The current research aims to examine the operative and dominating role of the charging station operator, along with a vehicle to grid strategy; where, indeterminate tasks are executed in the microgrid without the EVs charging/discharging statistics. The role of the charging station operator in regulation is the assignment of the job inside the primary frequency control capacity of electric vehicles. Real-time rectification of programmed vehicle to grid (V2G) power ensures electric vehicles’ state of charge at the desired levels. The proposed V2G strategy for primary frequency control is validated through the application of a two-area interconnected industrial micro-grid and another microgrids with renewable resources. Regulation specifications are communicated to electric vehicles and charging station operators through an electric vehicle aggregator in the proposed strategy. At the charging station operator, V2G power at the present time is utilized for frequency regulation capacity calculation. Subsequently, the V2G power is dispatched in light of the charging demand and the frequency regulation. Furthermore, V2G control strategies for distribution of regulation requirement to individual EVs are also developed. In summary, the article presents a novel primary frequency control through V2G strategy in an industrial microgrid, involving effective coordination of the charging station operator, EV aggregator, and EV operator.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040549
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 550: IoT-enabled Microgrid for Intelligent
           Energy-aware Buildings: A Novel Hierarchical Self-consumption Scheme with
           Renewables

    • Authors: Wu, Wu, Guerrero, Vasquez, Palacios-García, Guan
      First page: 550
      Abstract: This paper presents a novel hierarchical Internet of Things (IoT)-based scheme for Microgrid-Enabled Intelligent Buildings to achieve energy digitalization and automation with a renewable energy self-consumption strategy. Firstly, a hierarchical structure of Microgrid-Enabled Intelligent Buildings is designed to establish a two-dimensional fusion layered architecture for the microgrid to interact with the composite loads of buildings. The building blocks and functions of each layer are defined specifically. Secondly, to achieve transparent information fusion and interactive cooperation between the supply-side and demand-side, a state transition mechanism driven by a combination of time and events is proposed to activate the real-time and mutual response of generation and loads dynamically. Thirdly, based on the above hierarchical fusion structure and data-driven state transition mechanism, a power balance control algorithm driven by a self-consumption strategy is further proposed to achieve the autonomous balance of supply and demand. Finally, the IoT Microgrid Laboratory at Aalborg University is introduced to show how to implement this novel hierarchical IoT-based scheme in a Microgrid-Enabled Intelligent Building, and the power consensus control method based on the state transition mechanism is verified to achieve a renewable energy self-consumption strategy.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040550
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 551: Speed Control Optimization for Autonomous
           Vehicles with Metaheuristics

    • Authors: Naranjo, Serradilla, Nashashibi
      First page: 551
      Abstract: The development of speed controllers under execution in autonomous vehicles within their dynamic driving task (DDT) is a traditional research area from the point of view of control techniques. In this regard, Proportional – Integral – Derivative (PID) controllers are the most widely used in order to meet the requirements of cruise control. However, fine tuning of the parameters associated with this type of controller can be complex, especially if it is intended to optimize them and reduce their characteristic errors. The objective of the work described in this paper is to evaluate the capacity of several metaheuristics for the adjustment of the parameters Kp, 1/Ti, and 1/Td of a PID controller to regulate the speed of a vehicle. To do this, an adjustment error function has been established from a linear combination of classic estimators of the goodness of the controller, such as overshoot, settling time (ts), steady-state error (ess), and the number of changes of sign of the signal (d). The error obtained when applying the controller has also been compared to a computational model of the vehicle after estimating the parameters Kp, Ki, and Kd, both for a setpoint sequence used in the adjustment of the system parameters and for a sequence not used during the adjustment, and therefore unknown by the system. The main novelty of the paper is to propose a new global error function, a function that enables the use of heuristic optimization methods for PID tuning. This optimization has been carried out by using three methods: genetic algorithms (GA), memetics algorithms (MA), and mesh adaptive direct search (MADS). The results of the application of the optimization methods using the proposed metric show that the accuracy of the PID controller is improved, compared with the classical optimization based on classical methods like the integral absolute error (IAE) or similar metrics, reducing oscillatory behaviours as well as minimizing the analysed performance indexes.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040551
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 552: Distribution System Renewable Hosting
           Capacity Maximization with Second-use Electric Vehicle Storage Using
           Critical Capacity Retention Calculation Model

    • Authors: Jiang, Tong, Zhao, Zhang, Zhao, Zhou
      First page: 552
      Abstract: The continuous increase of the penetration of distributed generation in the distribution network poses more severe challenges for its full accommodation. In this context, an energy storage system can be installed to enhance the ability to accommodate renewable energy because of its high flexibility. However, the investment cost of brand new energy storage equipment is so high that the widespread application of storage system in the distribution system has been limited. This article proposes a method, which aimed at optimizing energy storage dispatching in a distribution network, and takes the use of second-use electric vehicles (EV) batteries into account. A calculation model of power battery second-use capacity was established, the upper and lower bounds of the initial capacity of second-use energy storage system (SUESS) can be determined after the reorganization of the retired batteries, and then a multi-objective optimal dispatching model for the distribution system with SUESS can be established with reference to the capacity attenuation model and the daily mileage statistics model of the electric vehicle. The case study results show that configured SUESS in the distribution network can not only meet the needs of the distribution network to fully accommodate distributed generation, but also delay the upgrade of the distribution network.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040552
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 553: Comparative Assessment of the LoRaWAN
           Medium Access Control Protocols for IoT: Does Listen before Talk Perform
           Better than ALOHA'

    • Authors: Luca Leonardi, Lucia Lo Bello, Filippo Battaglia, Gaetano Patti
      First page: 553
      Abstract: Low-Power Wide-Area Networks (LPWANs) are emerging as appealing solutions for several Internet of Things (IoT) applications, such as healthcare, smart cities and Industry 4.0, thanks to their ease of deployment, low energy consumption and large coverage range. LoRaWAN is one of the most successful LPWAN standards, as it supports robust long-distance communications using low-cost devices. To comply with the ETSI regulations, LoRaWAN can adopt as medium access control (MAC) layer either a pure ALOHA approach with duty-cycle limitations or a polite spectrum access technique, such as Listen Before Talk (LBT). The two approaches have their pros and cons that need to be carefully evaluated. The studies in the literature that so far have addressed an evaluation of MAC protocols for LoRaWAN refer to a previous and now obsolete version of the ETSI regulations, therefore they do not take into account the current limits on the timing parameters for polite spectrum access, such as that maximum time an end-node is allowed to be transmitting per hour. For this reason, the contribution of this work is two-fold. First, the paper discusses the restrictions that the current ETSI regulations impose on some timing parameters of the two kinds of MAC protocols for LoRaWAN. Second, the paper provides comparative performance assessments of the two protocols through simulations in realistic scenarios under different workload conditions.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040553
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 554: A Novel Fuzzy Entropy-Based Method to
           Improve the Performance of the Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm

    • Authors: Cardone, Di Martino
      First page: 554
      Abstract: One of the main drawbacks of the well-known Fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm (FCM) is the random initialization of the centers of the clusters as it can significantly affect the performance of the algorithm, thus not guaranteeing an optimal solution and increasing execution times. In this paper we propose a variation of FCM in which the initial optimal cluster centers are obtained by implementing a weighted FCM algorithm in which the weights are assigned by calculating a Shannon Fuzzy Entropy function. The results of the comparison tests applied on various classification datasets of the UCI Machine Learning Repository show that our algorithm improved in all cases relating to the performances of FCM.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040554
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 555: CNN-Based Vehicle Target Recognition with
           Residual Compensation for Circular SAR Imaging

    • Authors: Hu, Peng, Ma, Li
      First page: 555
      Abstract: The contour thinning algorithm is an imaging algorithm for circular synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that can obtain clear target contours and has been successfully used for circular SAR (CSAR) target recognition. However, the contour thinning imaging algorithm loses some details when thinning the contour, which needs to be improved. This paper presents an improved contour thinning imaging algorithm based on residual compensation. In this algorithm, the residual image is obtained by subtracting the contour thinning image from the traditional backprojection image. Then, the compensation information is extracted from the residual image by repeatedly using the gravitation-based speckle reduction algorithm. Finally, the extracted compensation image is superimposed on the contour thinning image to obtain a compensated contour thinning image. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on the Gotcha dataset. The convolutional neural network (CNN) is used to recognize the target image. The experimental results show that the image after compensation has a higher target recognition accuracy than the image before compensation.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040555
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 556: Estimation and Correlation Analysis of
           Lower Limb Joint Angles Based on Surface Electromyography

    • Authors: Wang, Wang, Xi, Miran, Xue
      First page: 556
      Abstract: Many people lose their motor function because of spinal cord injury or stroke. This work studies the patient’s continuous movement intention of joint angles based on surface electromyography (sEMG), which will be used for rehabilitation. In this study, we introduced a new sEMG feature extraction method based on wavelet packet decomposition, built a prediction model based on the extreme learning machine (ELM) and analyzed the correlation between sEMG signals and joint angles based on the detrended cross-correlation analysis. Twelve individuals participated in rehabilitation tasks, to test the performance of the proposed method. Five channels of sEMG signals were recorded, and denoised by the empirical mode decomposition. The prediction accuracy of the wavelet packet feature-based ELM prediction model was found to be 96.23% ± 2.36%. The experimental results clearly indicate that the wavelet packet feature and ELM is a better combination to build a prediction model.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040556
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 557: Survey on Approximate Computing and Its
           Intrinsic Fault Tolerance

    • Authors: Gennaro Rodrigues, Fernanda Kastensmidt, Alberto Bosio
      First page: 557
      Abstract: This work is a survey on approximate computing and its impact on fault tolerance, especially for safety-critical applications. It presents a multitude of approximation methodologies, which are typically applied at software, architecture, and circuit level. Those methodologies are discussed and compared on all their possible levels of implementations (some techniques are applied at more than one level). Approximation is also presented as a means to provide fault tolerance and high reliability: Traditional error masking techniques, such as triple modular redundancy, can be approximated and thus have their implementation and execution time costs reduced compared to the state of the art.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040557
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 558: Mathematical Modeling of Current Source
           Matrix Converter with Venturini and SVM

    • Authors: Chodunaj, Szcześniak, Kaniewski
      First page: 558
      Abstract: The study of Current Source Matrix Converter (CSMC) static properties using the averaged state-space method for two modulation strategies Venturini and Space Vector Modulation (SVM) is the subject of this article. The converter properties for both modulation strategies have been examined and compared. The modeling approach based on the averaged state space method presented in this paper is relatively simple and requires only a small number of mathematical transformations. The averaged set equation is obtained directly from the three-phase schematic circuit, taking into account the sequences of switching patterns and modulation strategies. All the obtained results have confirmed that CSMC has some interesting properties, such as buck–boost output voltage regulation unlike the classic Matrix Converter (MC), in which the maximum voltage gain is 0.866.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040558
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 559: Inverse Design of Artificial Materials
           based Lens Antennas Through the Scattering Matrix Method

    • Authors: Palmeri, Isernia
      First page: 559
      Abstract: The design of spatially varying lens antennas based on artificial materials is of high interest for their wide range of applicability. In this paper, we propose a novel design procedure relying on an inverse formulation of the scattering matrix method (SMM). Differently from many adopted approaches, which resort to global optimizations or homogenization procedures, the inverse SMM (I-SMM) allows the synthesis of optimal parameters (geometrical and/or electromagnetic) for the inclusions realizing the overall device in a very effective manner. With reference to the 2D TM case, the proposed tool has been successfully assessed through the synthesis of different kinds of lenses radiating a pencil beam.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040559
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 560: OLIMP: A Heterogeneous Multimodal Dataset
           for Advanced Environment Perception

    • Authors: Amira Mimouna, Ihsen Alouani, Anouar Ben Khalifa, Yassin El Hillali, Abdelmalik Taleb-Ahmed, Atika Menhaj, Abdeldjalil Ouahabi, Najoua Essoukri Ben Amara
      First page: 560
      Abstract: A reliable environment perception is a crucial task for autonomous driving, especially in dense traffic areas. Recent improvements and breakthroughs in scene understanding for intelligent transportation systems are mainly based on deep learning and the fusion of different modalities. In this context, we introduce OLIMP: A heterOgeneous Multimodal Dataset for Advanced EnvIronMent Perception. This is the first public, multimodal and synchronized dataset that includes UWB radar data, acoustic data, narrow-band radar data and images. OLIMP comprises 407 scenes and 47,354 synchronized frames, presenting four categories: pedestrian, cyclist, car and tram. The dataset includes various challenges related to dense urban traffic such as cluttered environment and different weather conditions. To demonstrate the usefulness of the introduced dataset, we propose a fusion framework that combines the four modalities for multi object detection. The obtained results are promising and spur for future research.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040560
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 561: Inversion-Based Approach for Detection and
           Isolation of Faults in Switched Linear Systems

    • Authors: Alexandre Miguel Silveira, Rui Esteves Araújo
      First page: 561
      Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of the left inversion of switched linear systems from a diagnostics perspective. The problem of left inversion is to reconstruct the input of a system with the knowledge of its output, whose differentiation is usually required. In the case of this work, the objective is to reconstruct the system’s unknown inputs, based on the knowledge of its outputs, switching sequence and known inputs. With the inverse model of the switched linear system, a real-time Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) algorithm with an integrated Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) that is capable of detecting and isolating abrupt faults occurring in the system is developed. In order to attenuate the effects of unknown disturbances and noise at the output of the inverse model, a smoothing strategy is also used. The results are illustrated with an example. The performance of the method is validated experimentally in a DC-DC boost converter, using a low-cost microcontroller, without any additional components.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040561
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 562: A Reconfigurable CMOS Inverter-based
           Stacked Power Amplifier with Antenna Impedance Mismatch Compensation for
           Low Power Short-Range Wireless Communications

    • Authors: Kim, Kim, Jeong, Im
      First page: 562
      Abstract: A reconfigurable CMOS inverter-based stacked power amplifier (PA) is proposed to extend impedance coverage, while maintaining an output power exceeding the specific power level under the worst antenna impedance mismatch conditions. The adopted process technology supports multi-threshold metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) devices, and therefore, the proposed PA employs high threshold voltage (Vth) MOSFETs to increase the output voltage swing, and the output power under a given load condition. The unit cell of the last PA stage relies on a cascode inverter that is implemented by adding cascode transistors to the traditional inverter amplifier. By stacking two identical cascode inverters, and enabling one or both of them through digital switch control, the proposed PA can control the maximum output voltage swing and change the optimum load Ropt, resulting in maximum output power with peak power added efficiency (PAE). The cascode transistors mitigate breakdown issues when the upper cascode inverter stage is driven by a supply voltage of 2×VDD, and decrease the output impedance of the PA by changing its operation mode from the saturation region to the linear region. This variable output impedance characteristic is useful in extending the impedance coverage of the proposed PA. The reconfigurable PA supports three operation modes: cascode inverter configuration (CIC), double-stacked cascode inverter configuration (DSCIC) and double-stacked inverter configuration (DSIC). These show Ropt of around 100, 50 and 25 Ω, respectively. In the simulation results, the proposed PA operating under the three configurations showed a saturated output power (Psat) of +6.1 dBm and a peak PAE of 41.1% under a 100 Ω load impedance condition, a Psat of +4.5 dBm and a peak PAE of 44.3% under a 50 Ω load impedance condition, and a Psat of +5.2 dBm and a peak PAE of 37.1% under a 25 Ω load impedance condition, respectively. Compared to conventional inverter-based PAs, the proposed design significantly extends impedance coverage, while maintaining an output power exceeding the specific power level, without sacrificing power efficiency using only hardware reconfiguration.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040562
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 563: 10-GHz Fully Differential Sallen–Key
           Lowpass Biquad Filters in 55nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology

    • Authors: Francesco Centurelli, Pietro Monsurrò, Giuseppe Scotti, Pasquale Tommasino, Alessandro Trifiletti
      First page: 563
      Abstract: Multi-GHz lowpass filters are key components for many RF applications and are required for the implementation of integrated high-speed analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters and optical communication systems. In the last two decades, integrated filters in the Multi-GHz range have been implemented using III-V or SiGe technologies. In all cases in which the size of passive components is a concern, inductorless designs are preferred. Furthermore, due to the recent development of high-speed and high-resolution data converters, highly linear multi-GHz filters are required more and more. Classical open loop topologies are not able to achieve high linearity, and closed loop filters are preferred in all applications where linearity is a key requirement. In this work, we present a fully differential BiCMOS implementation of the classical Sallen Key filter, which is able to operate up to about 10 GHz by exploiting both the bipolar and MOS transistors of a commercial 55-nm BiCMOS technology. The layout of the biquad filter has been implemented, and the results of post-layout simulations are reported. The biquad stage exhibits excellent SFDR (64 dB) and dynamic range (about 50 dB) due to the closed loop operation, and good power efficiency (0.94 pW/Hz/pole) with respect to comparable active inductorless lowpass filters reported in the literature. Moreover, unlike other filters, it exploits the different active devices offered by commercial SiGe BiCMOS technologies. Parametric and Monte Carlo simulations are also included to assess the robustness of the proposed biquad filter against PVT and mismatch variations.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040563
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 564: Sustainable IoT Sensing Applications
           Development through GraphQL-Based Abstraction Layer

    • Authors: Raees Khan, Adnan Noor Mian
      First page: 564
      Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) networks are mostly comprised of power-constrained devices, therefore the most important consideration in designing IoT applications, based on sensor networks is energy efficiency. Minor improvement in energy conservation methods can lead to a significant increase in the lifetime of IoT devices and overall network. To achieve efficient utilisation of energy, different solutions are proposed such as duty cycling optimization, design changes at the MAC layer, etc. In this paper, we propose a new approach to overcome this challenge in cloud-based IoT sensing applications, based on integration of an abstraction layer with constrained application mechanism. To achieve energy conservation and efficient data management in IoT sensing applications, we incorporate modules of efficient web framework with cloud services, in order to minimize the number of round trips for data delivery and graph-based data representation. Our study is the first attempt in the literature, to the best of our knowledge, which introduces the potential of this integration for achieving the aforementioned objectives in the target applications. We implemented the proposed interfacing of abstraction layer in constrained applications, to develop a testbed using Z1 IoT motes, Contiki OS and GraphQL web framework with Google cloud services. Experimental comparisons against baseline REST architecture approach show that our proposed approach achieved significant reductions in data delivery delay and energy consumption (minimum 51.53% and 52.88%, respectively) in IoT applications involving sensor network.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040564
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 565: Accurate Closed-Form Solution for Moving
           Underwater Vehicle Localization Using Two-Way Travel Time

    • Authors: Tianyi Jia, Haiyan Wang, Xiaohong Shen, Yongsheng Yan
      First page: 565
      Abstract: Position information is essential for an underwater vehicle that can affect the performance of many other applications. Vehicle motion during the two-way travel time (TWTT) using an acoustic positioning system can affect the localization accuracy of the estimators based on the traditional static model. A new time measurement model for moving vehicle localization is presented, which compensates for the vehicle motion. The Cramér–Rao lower bounds (CRLBs) of the proposed model are derived for two different cases, where the depth of the underwater vehicle is unknown or known. Then, closed-form solutions for the two cases using the proposed model are derived and the solutions are shown analytically to reach the CRLBs. Simulations collaborate the theoretical performance of the proposed estimators and the moving model significantly improves the localization accuracy in comparison with the static model.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040565
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 566: Iron Loss Minimization Strategy for
           Predictive Torque Control of Induction Motor

    • Authors: Pavel Karlovsky, Ondrej Lipcak, Jan Bauer
      First page: 566
      Abstract: Today’s modern control strategies of an induction motor (IM) drive require a power source with an adjustable output voltage frequency and amplitude. The most commonly used converter topology is a two-level voltage-source inverter (VSI). However, the utilization of a VSI introduces additional voltage and current distortion, which leads to additional power losses in the machine’s magnetic circuit. Both the transistor switching frequency and the type of the inverter control determine the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the motor’s phase currents. In this paper, the influence of the inverter DC-link voltage on the iron losses of an IM controlled by a predictive torque control (PTC) is presented. It is shown that if the IM drive operates below the rated speed, it is possible to modify the PTC algorithm to reduce the additional iron losses caused by the non-harmonic inverter output voltage. The control of the DC-link voltage is achieved by using a silicon-controlled rectifier. Experiments were conducted on a 5.5 kW IM controlled by PTC, and the results are compared against a sinusoidal voltage supply created by a synchronous generator.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040566
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 567: Analysis of HMAX Algorithm on Black Bar
           Image Dataset

    • Authors: Alessandro Carlini, Olivier Boisard, Michel Paindavoine
      First page: 567
      Abstract: An accurate detection and classification of scenes and objects is essential for interacting with the world, both for living beings and for artificial systems. To reproduce this ability, which is so effective in the animal world, numerous computational models have been proposed, frequently based on bioinspired, computational structures. Among these, Hierarchical Max-pooling (HMAX) is probably one of the most important models. HMAX is a recognition model, mimicking the structures and functions of the primate visual cortex. HMAX has already proven its effectiveness and versatility. Nevertheless, its computational structure presents some criticalities, whose impact on the results has never been systematically assessed. Traditional assessments based on photographs force to choose a specific context; the complexity of images makes it difficult to analyze the computational structure. Here we present a new, general and unspecific assessment of HMAX, introducing the Black Bar Image Dataset, a customizable set of images created to be a universal and flexible model of any ‘real’ image. Results: surprisingly, HMAX demonstrates a notable sensitivity also with a low contrast of luminance. Images containing a wider information pattern enhance the performances. The presence of textures improves performance, but only if the parameterization of the Gabor filter allows its correct encoding. In addition, in complex conditions, HMAX demonstrates good effectiveness in classification. Moreover, the present assessment demonstrates the benefits offered by the Black Bar Image Dataset, its modularity and scalability, for the functional investigations of any computational models.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040567
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 568: Learning Effective Skeletal
           Representations on RGB Video for Fine-Grained Human Action Quality
           Assessment

    • Authors: Lei, Zhang, Du, Hsiao, Chen
      First page: 568
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose an integrated action classification and regression learning framework for the fine-grained human action quality assessment of RGB videos. On the basis of 2D skeleton data obtained per frame of RGB video sequences, we present an effective representation of joint trajectories to train action classifiers and a class-specific regression model for a fine-grained assessment of the quality of human actions. To manage the challenge of view changes due to camera motion, we develop a self-similarity feature descriptor extracted from joint trajectories and a joint displacement sequence to represent dynamic patterns of the movement and posture of the human body. To weigh the impact of joints for different action categories, a class-specific regression model is developed to obtain effective fine-grained assessment functions. In the testing stage, with the supervision of the action classifier’s output, the regression model of a specific action category is selected to assess the quality of skeleton motion extracted from the action video. We take advantage of the discrimination of the action classifier and the viewpoint invariance of the self-similarity feature to boost the performance of the learning-based quality assessment method in a realistic scene. We evaluate our proposed method using diving and figure skating videos of the publicly available MIT Olympic Scoring dataset, and gymnastic vaulting videos of the recent benchmark University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) Olympic Scoring dataset. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieved an improved performance, which is measured by the mean rank correlation coefficient between the predicted regression scores and the ground truths.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040568
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 569: Fault Current Limiting Characteristics of
           a Small-Scale Bridge Type SFCL with Single HTSC Element Using
           Flux-Coupling

    • Authors: Tae-Hee Han, Seok-Cheol Ko, Sung-Hun Lim
      First page: 569
      Abstract: In this paper, a bridge type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with a single high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) element is proposed to allow fault current limiting operation in direct current (DC) conditions. First, the principle of operation of the bridge type SFCL with a single HTSC element using flux-coupling was presented. After the fault occurrence, the fault current limiting operation and voltage characteristics, the power load characteristics of each device, and the energy consumption of the two coils and the HTSC element were analyzed in the proposed SFCL. As a result, it is confirmed that in the case of the additive polarity winding, the power consumption and the energy consumption of the HTSC element were lower than those in the subtractive polarity winding, and the fault current limiting characteristics were excellent.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040569
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 570: Building a Better Baseline for Residential
           Demand Response Programs: Mitigating the Effects of Customer Heterogeneity
           and Random Variations

    • Authors: Peter Schwarz, Saeed Mohajeryami, Valentina Cecchi
      First page: 570
      Abstract: Peak-time rebates offer an opportunity to introduce demand response in electricity markets. To implement peak-time rebates, utilities must accurately determine the consumption level if the program were not in effect. Reliable calculations of customer baseline load elude utilities and independent system operators, due to factors that include heterogeneous demands and random variations. Prevailing research is limited for residential markets, which are growing rapidly with the presence of load aggregators and the availability of smart grid systems. Our research pioneers a novel method that clusters customers according to the size and predictability of their demands, substantially improving existing customer baseline calculations and other clustering methods.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040570
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 571: Hardware in the Loop Implementation of the
           Oscillator-based Heart Model: a Framework for Testing Medical Devices

    • Authors: Chiara Di Mascio, Giambattista Gruosso
      First page: 571
      Abstract: The hardware in the loop technologies allow to simulate physical models in combination with real devices in order to validate the behavior of the latter under different conditions, not easily reproducible in the real world. They are widely used in various industrial applications. In this work we want to extend the methodology to medical devices. These must interact with the patient to obtain the desired clinical result, however, during the development and validation phase of medical devices, the patient cannot be involved in the testing process. In this article the hardware in the loop methodology is proposed starting from a mathematical model of the heart, based on oscillators, that can be used to validate pacemakers or other medical devices.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040571
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 572: A User-Friendly Verification Approach for
           IEC 61131-3 PLC Programs

    • Authors: Jiawen Xiong, Gang Zhu, Yanhong Huang, and Jianqi Shi
      First page: 572
      Abstract: Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are special embedded computers that are widely used in industrial control systems. To ensure the safety of industrial control systems, it is necessary to verify the correctness of PLCs. Formal verification is considered to be an effective method to verify whether a PLC program conforms to its specifications, but the expertise requirements and the complexity make it hard to be mastered and widely applied. In this paper, we present a specification-mining-based verification approach for IEC 61131-3 PLC programs. It only requires users to review specifications mined from the program behaviors instead of model checking for specified specifications, which can greatly improve the efficiency of safety verification and is much easier for control system engineers to use. Moreover, we implement a proof-of-concept tool named PLCInspector that supports directly mining LTL specifications and data invariants from PLC programs. Two examples and one real-life case study are presented to illustrate its practicability and efficiency. In addition, a comparison with the existing verification approaches for PLC programs is discussed.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040572
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 573: Design of a Cyberattack Resilient 77 GHz
           Automotive Radar Sensor

    • Authors: Onur Toker and Suleiman Toker, Alsweiss
      First page: 573
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel 77 GHz automotive radar sensor, and demonstrate its cyberattack resilience using real measurements. The proposed system is built upon a standard Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar RF-front end, and the novelty is in the DSP algorithm used at the firmware level. All attack scenarios are based on real radar signals generated by Texas Instruments AWR series 77 GHz radars, and all measurements are done using the same radar family. For sensor networks, including interconnected autonomous vehicles sharing radar measurements, cyberattacks at the network/communication layer is a known critical problem, and has been addressed by several different researchers. What is addressed in this paper is cyberattacks at the physical layer, that is, adversarial agents generating 77 GHz electromagnetic waves which may cause a false target detection, false distance/velocity estimation, or not detecting an existing target. The main algorithm proposed in this paper is not a predictive filtering based cyberattack detection scheme where an “unusual” difference between measured and predicted values triggers an alarm. The core idea is based on a kind of physical challenge-response authentication, and its integration into the radar DSP firmware.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040573
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 574: An AMOLED Pixel Circuit Based on LTPS
           Thin-film Transistors with Mono-Type Scanning Driving

    • Authors: Ke, Deng, Zhen, Wu, Liao, Luo, Huang
      First page: 574
      Abstract: Using low-temperature poly-silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS TFTs) as a basis, a pixel circuit for an active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) with narrow bezel displays was developed. The pixel circuit features mono-type scanning signals, elimination of static power lines, and pixel-integrated emitting control functions. Therefore, gate driver circuits of the display bezel can be simplified efficiently. In addition, the pixel circuit has a high-resolution design due to an increase of the pulse width of the scan signal to extend the threshold voltage and internal–resistance drop (IR drop) detection period. Further, regarding the influences of process–voltage–temperature (PVT) variation in the pixel circuit, comparison investigations were carried out with the proposed circuit and other pixel circuits with mono-type scanning signals using Monte Carlo analysis. The feasibility of the proposed pixel circuit is well demonstrated, as the current variations can be reduced to 2.1% for the supplied power reduced from 5 V to 3 V due to IR drop, and the current variation is as low as 10.6% with operating temperatures from –40 degrees to 85 degrees.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040574
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 575: 92.5% Average Power Efficiency Fully
           Integrated Floating Buck Quasi-Resonant LED Drivers Using GaN FETs

    • Authors: Mei Yu Soh, S. Lawrence Selvaraj, Lulu Peng, Kiat Seng Yeo
      First page: 575
      Abstract: LEDs are highly energy efficient and have substantially longer lifetimes compared to other existing lighting technologies. In order to facilitate the new generation of LED devices, approaches to improve power efficiency with increased integration level for lighting device should be analysed. This paper proposes a fully on-chip integrated LED driver design implemented using heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride (GaN) devices atop BCD circuits. The performance of the proposed design is then compared with the conventional fully on-board integration of power devices with the LED driver integrated circuit (IC). The experimental results confirm that the fully on-chip integrated LED driver achieves a consistently higher power efficiency value compared with the fully on-board design within the input voltage range of 4.5–5.5 V. The maximal percentage improvement in the efficiency of the on-chip solution compared with the on-board solution is 18%.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040575
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 576: FQ-AGO: Fuzzy Logic Q-Learning Based
           Asymmetric Link Aware and Geographic Opportunistic Routing Scheme for
           MANETs

    • Authors: Ali Alshehri, Abdel-Hameed A. Badawy, Hong Huang
      First page: 576
      Abstract: The proliferation of mobile and IoT devices, coupled with the advances in the wireless communication capabilities of these devices, have urged the need for novel communication paradigms for such heterogeneous hybrid networks. Researchers have proposed opportunistic routing as a means to leverage the potentials offered by such heterogeneous networks. While several proposals for multiple opportunistic routing protocols exist, only a few have explored fuzzy logic to evaluate wireless links status in the network to construct stable and faster paths towards the destinations. We propose FQ-AGO, a novel Fuzzy Logic Q-learning Based Asymmetric Link Aware and Geographic Opportunistic Routing scheme that leverages the presence of long-range transmission links to assign forwarding candidates towards a given destination. The proposed routing scheme utilizes fuzzy logic to evaluate whether a wireless link is useful or not by capturing multiple network metrics, the available bandwidth, link quality, node transmission power, and distance progress. Based on the fuzzy logic evaluation, the proposed routing scheme employs a Q-learning algorithm to select the best candidate set toward the destination. We implemented FQ-AGO on the ns-3 simulator and compared the performance of the proposed routing scheme with three other relevant protocols: AODV, DSDV, and GOR. For precise analysis, we considered various network metrics to compare the performance of the routing protocols. The simulation result validates our analysis and demonstrates remarkable performance improvements in terms of total network throughput, packet delivery ration, and end-to-end delay. FQ-AGO achieves up to 15%, 50%, and 45% higher throughput compared to DSDV, AODV, and GOR, respectively. Meanwhile, FQ-AGO reduces by 50% the end-to-end latency and the average number of hop-count.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040576
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 577: A Novel Hybrid IDS Based on Modified
           NSGAII-ANN and Random Forest

    • Authors: Anahita Golrang, Alale Mohammadi Golrang, Sule Yildirim Yayilgan, Ogerta Elezaj
      First page: 577
      Abstract: Machine-learning techniques have received popularity in the intrusion-detection systems in recent years. Moreover, the quality of datasets plays a crucial role in the development of a proper machine-learning approach. Therefore, an appropriate feature-selection method could be considered to be an influential factor in improving the quality of datasets, which leads to high-performance intrusion-detection systems. In this paper, a hybrid multi-objective approach is proposed to detect attacks in a network efficiently. Initially, a multi-objective genetic method (NSGAII), as well as an artificial neural network (ANN), are run simultaneously to extract feature subsets. We modified the NSGAII approach maintaining the diversity control in this evolutionary algorithm. Next, a Random Forest approach, as an ensemble method, is used to evaluate the efficiency of the feature subsets. Results of the experiments show that using the proposed framework leads to better outcomes, which could be considered to be promising results compared to the solutions found in the literature.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040577
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 578: Selective Epitaxial Growth of In Situ
           Doped SiGe on Bulk Ge for p+/n Junction Formation

    • Authors: Konstantinos Garidis, Ahmad Abedin, Ali Asadollahi, Per-Erik Hellström, Mikael Östling
      First page: 578
      Abstract: Epitaxial in situ doped Si0.73Ge0.27 alloys were grown selectively on patterned bulk Ge and bulk Si wafers. Si0.73Ge0.27 layers with a surface roughness of less than 3 nm were demonstrated. Selectively grown p+Si0.73Ge0.27 layers exhibited a resistivity of 3.5 mΩcm at a dopant concentration of 2.5 × 1019 boron atoms/cm3. P+/n diodes were fabricated by selectively growing p+- Si0.73Ge0.27 on n-doped bulk Ge and n-doped Si wafers, respectively. The geometrical leakage current contribution shifts from the perimeter to the bulk as the diode sizes increase. Extracted near midgap activation energies are similar to p+/n Ge junctions formed by ion implantation. This indicates that the reverse leakage current in p+/n Ge diodes fabricated with various doping methods, could originate from the same trap-assisted mechanism. Working p+/n diodes on Ge bulk substrates displayed a reverse current density as low as 2.2·10−2 A/cm2 which was found to be comparable to other literature data. The layers developed in this work can be used as an alternative method to form p+/n junctions on Ge substrates, showing comparable junction leakage results to ion implantation approaches.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040578
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 579: The Experimental Modeling of Quad-Rotor
           Actuators with Undefined Hardware Errors for Safety-Flight

    • Authors: Sun Jee, Hyun Cho, Jongwon Kim
      First page: 579
      Abstract: The speed error of actuators during the flight of a quad-rotor is included in the attitude error, and this error is immediately corrected by the pilot’s observation. As the control authority of the quad-rotor changes to a computer system, the correction of the error is calculated and performed by the attitude sensor and the mathematical model of the quad-rotor. However, there is a response error to the control signal despite driving the same motor, which causes different results from the model prediction and affects the stability of the flight. Therefore, the response characteristics of hardware represented by the same mathematical model but having errors should be reflected in the modeling of the quad-rotor. In this paper, the response error of the actuators assembled with the same propellers and motors is verified through experiments. The actuators model that reflects this error is presented, and the thrust coefficient range by the propellers is also presented. Additionally, the speed error of actuators due to the voltage drop of the battery was verified through experiments, and a method for applying this error to the actuator model is presented.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040579
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 580: An Accurate and Efficient Timing
           Prediction Framework for Wide Supply Voltage Design Based on Learning
           Method

    • Authors: Peng Cao, Wei Bao, Jingjing Guo
      First page: 580
      Abstract: The wide voltage design methodology has been widely employed in the state-of-the-art circuit design with the advantage of remarkable power reduction and energy efficiency enhancement. However, the timing verification issue for multiple PVT (process–voltage–temperature) corners rises due to unacceptable analysis effort increase for multiple supply voltage nodes. Moreover, the foundry-provided timing libraries in the traditional STA (static timing analysis) approach are only available for the nominal supply voltage with limited voltage scaling, which cannot support timing verification for low voltages down to near- or sub-threshold voltages. In this paper, a learning-based approach for wide voltage design is proposed where feature engineering is performed to enhance the correlation among PVT corners based on a dilated CNN (convolutional neural network) model, and an ensemble model is utilized with two-layer stacking to improve timing prediction accuracy. The proposed method was verified with a commercial RISC (reduced instruction set computer) core under the supply voltage nodes ranging from 0.5 V to 0.9 V. Experimental results demonstrate that the prediction error is limited by 4.9% and 7.9%, respectively, within and across process corners for various working temperatures, which achieves up to 4.4× and 3.9× precision enhancement compared with related learning-based methods.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040580
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 581: Simulation and Experimental Validation of
           Novel Trajectory Planning Strategy to Reduce Vibrations and Improve
           Productivity of Robotic Manipulator

    • Authors: Andrea Ariano, Valerio Perna, Adolfo Senatore, Roberto Scatigno, Fabio Nicolò, Francesco Fazioli, Giuseppe Avallone, Stefano Pesce, Alberto Gagliano
      First page: 581
      Abstract: This paper aims at investigating vibrational behaviors of the industrial manipulator Racer 7-1.4, designed and manufactured by COMAU S.p.A., with the target of new trajectory planning strategies to improve productivity rate without any loss of positioning accuracy. Starting from the analysis of a 9DoF multi-body system with lumped parameter, the first natural frequency of the robot was calculated in seven reference positions. Then, static and dynamic simulations were run by applying saturated ramp input and large motions to analyze the vibrational behavior of the manipulator. This research underlines that the optimal way to design the robot move is to set its duration at twice a period of free oscillation according to the first vibrational mode. Due to strong analogy of dynamic response of both 1DoF and 9DoF robot models, the closed-form solution of the 1DoF undamped system—featured by natural frequency equal to the first frequency of the 9DoF system—may be successfully adopted by the real-time trajectory planning process to predict residual vibration at move end-condition. This strategy was confirmed by experimental tests, allowing either residual vibration decrease and execution time reduction as well.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040581
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 582: Energy Efficiency-Oriented Resource
           Allocation for Massive MIMO Systems with Separated Channel Estimation and
           Feedback

    • Authors: Feng Hu, Kaiyue Wang, Shufeng Li, and Libiao Jin
      First page: 582
      Abstract: This paper proposes a dynamic resource allocation scheme to maximize the energy efficiency (EE) for Massive MIMO Systems. The imperfect channel estimation (CE) and feedback are explicitly considered in the EE maximization problem, which aim to optimize the power allocation, the antenna subset selection for transmission, and the pilot assignment. Assuming CE error to be bounded for the complex-constrained Cramer–Rao Bound (CRB), theoretical results show that the lower bound is directly proportional to its number of unconstrained parameters. Utilizing this perspective, a separated and bi-directional estimation is developed to achieve both low CRB and low complexity by exploiting channel and noise spatial separation. Exploiting global optimization procedure, the optimal resource allocation can be transformed into a standard convex optimization problem. This allows us to derive an efficient iterative algorithm for obtaining the optimal solution. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate that the outperformance of the proposed algorithms are superior to existing schemes.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040582
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 583: Detecting Objects from Space: An
           Evaluation of Deep-Learning Modern Approaches

    • Authors: Khang Nguyen, Nhut T. Huynh, Phat C. Nguyen, Khanh-Duy Nguyen, Nguyen D. Vo, Tam V. Nguyen
      First page: 583
      Abstract: Unmanned aircraft systems or drones enable us to record or capture many scenes from the bird’s-eye view and they have been fast deployed to a wide range of practical domains, i.e., agriculture, aerial photography, fast delivery and surveillance. Object detection task is one of the core steps in understanding videos collected from the drones. However, this task is very challenging due to the unconstrained viewpoints and low resolution of captured videos. While deep-learning modern object detectors have recently achieved great success in general benchmarks, i.e., PASCAL-VOC and MS-COCO, the robustness of these detectors on aerial images captured by drones is not well studied. In this paper, we present an evaluation of state-of-the-art deep-learning detectors including Faster R-CNN (Faster Regional CNN), RFCN (Region-based Fully Convolutional Networks), SNIPER (Scale Normalization for Image Pyramids with Efficient Resampling), Single-Shot Detector (SSD), YOLO (You Only Look Once), RetinaNet, and CenterNet for the object detection in videos captured by drones. We conduct experiments on VisDrone2019 dataset which contains 96 videos with 39,988 annotated frames and provide insights into efficient object detectors for aerial images.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040583
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 584: Ultra-Compact Reconfigurable Band Reject
           UWB MIMO Antenna with Four Radiators

    • Authors: Muhammad Saeed Khan, Adnan Iftikhar, Raed M. Shubair, Antonio-Daniele Capobianco, Sajid Mehmood Asif, Benjamin D. Braaten, Dimitris E. Anagnostou
      First page: 584
      Abstract: A compact reconfigurable UWB MIMO antenna with four radiators that accomplish on-demand band rejection from 4.9 to 6.3 GHz is presented. An LC stub is connected to the ground plane by activating the PIN diode for each radiator. Two radiators are placed perpendicular to each other to exploit the polarization diversity on a compact 25 × 50 mm 2 FR4 laminate. Two additional radiators are then fixed obliquely on the same laminate (without increasing size) in angular configuration at ±45 ∘ perpendicular to the first two planar radiators still exploiting polarization diversity. The design is validated by prototyping and comparing the results with the simulated ones. On demand band rejection through the use of PIN diodes, wide impedance matching (2–12 GHz), high isolation amongst the radiators, compactness achieved by angular placement of the radiators, low gain variation over the entire bandwidth, band rejection control achieved by adjusting the gap between stub and ground plane, and low TARC values makes the proposed design very suitable for commercial handheld devices (i.e., Huawei E5785 and Netgear 815S housings). The proposed configuration of the UWB MIMO radiators has been investigated first time as per authors’ knowledge.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040584
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 585: Research on Power Quality Disturbance
           Detection Method Based on Improved Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    • Authors: Wang, Liu, Luo, Xu
      First page: 585
      Abstract: With the increasing proportion of various unbalanced loads in the power grid, power quality is seriously challenged. It is of great significance to effectively detect, analyze, and evaluate the power quality problems. First, this paper introduces the current situation of power quality (PQ) disturbance detection methods. It summarizes that the current PQ disturbance detection methods include Wavelet Transform (WT), Hilbert–Huang Transform (HHT), and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD). EEMD has a better detection accuracy, but its running time is longer. Therefore, to reduce the running time of the EEMD algorithm, this paper proposed two improvements: increasing the screening threshold and selecting piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation polynomial fitting. At the same time, the mathematical models of transient power quality disturbance and harmonic were established for comparative verification. The experimental results showed that the improved Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition(IEEMD) algorithm greatly reduced the running time of the algorithm on the premise of ensuring the detection accuracy. Hence, the improvement of this paper is of great significance for the industrial application of the EEMD algorithm.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040585
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 586: Remote-State PWM with Minimum RMS Torque
           Ripple and Reduced Common-Mode Voltage for Three-Phase VSI-Fed BLAC Motor
           Drives

    • Authors: Baik, Yun, Kim, Kwon, Yoo
      First page: 586
      Abstract: A minimum root mean square (RMS) torque ripple-remote-state pulse-width modulation (MTR-RSPWM) technique is proposed for minimizing the RMS torque ripple under reduced common-mode voltage (CMV) condition of three-phase voltage source inverters (VSI)-fed brushless alternating current (BLAC) motor drives. The q-axis current ripple due to an error voltage vector generated between the reference voltage vector and applied voltage vector is analyzed for all pulse patterns with reduced CMV of the RSPWM. From the analysis result, in the MTR-RSPWM, a sector is divided into five zones, and within each zone, pulse patterns with the lowest RMS torque ripple and reduced CMV are employed. To verify the validity of the MTR-RSPWM, theorical analysis, simulation, and experiments are performed, where the MTR-RSPWM is thoroughly compared with RSPWM3 that generates the minimum RMS current ripple. From the analytical, simulation, and experimental results, it is shown that the MTR-RSPWM significantly reduces the RMS torque ripple under a reduced CMV condition at the expense of an increase in the RMS current ripple, compared to the RSPWM3.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040586
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 587: Secure Information Transmission with Self
           Jamming SWIPT

    • Authors: Akashkumar Rajaram, Rui Dinis, Dushnatha Nalin K. Jayakody, Marko Beko
      First page: 587
      Abstract: This article is focused on implementing simultaneous wireless information and power transmission as a physical layer security measure by using artificial noise. A series of high energy precoded symbols is simultaneously transmitted along with the information symbols over a Rayleigh frequency selective fading channel. The high energy precoded symbols act as an artificial noise for the eavesdroppers. The energy symbols are precoded on the basis of a legitimate user’s channel matrix to form a null space vector, which eliminates the interference of energy symbols at the information symbol receiver antennas, while allowing the rectenna to harvest energy from the superimposed information and energy symbols. We analyze the secrecy rate and error rate performance at the receiver under different circumstances, and we show that the performance of the legitimate user can be improved by using the iterative block decision feedback equalization method at the receiver.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040587
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 588: People Walking Classification using
           Automotive Radar

    • Authors: Linda Senigagliesi, Gianluca Ciattaglia, Adelmo De Santis, Ennio Gambi
      First page: 588
      Abstract: Automotive radars are able to guarantee high performances at the expenses of a relatively low cost, and recently their application has been extended to several fields in addition to the original one. In this paper we consider the use of this kind of radars to discriminate different types of people’s movements in a real context. To this end, we exploit two different maps obtained from radar, that is, a spectrogram and a range-Doppler map. Through the application of dimensionality reduction methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) algorithm, and the use of machine learning techniques we prove that is possible to classify with a very good precision people’s way of walking even employing commercial devices specifically designed for other purposes.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040588
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 589: Deep Learning Framework for Vehicle and
           Pedestrian Detection in Rural Roads on an Embedded GPU

    • Authors: Luis Barba-Guaman, José Eugenio Naranjo, Anthony Ortiz
      First page: 589
      Abstract: Object detection, one of the most fundamental and challenging problems in computer vision. Nowadays some dedicated embedded systems have emerged as a powerful strategy for deliver high processing capabilities including the NVIDIA Jetson family. The aim of the present work is the recognition of objects in complex rural areas through an embedded system, as well as the verification of accuracy and processing time. For this purpose, a low power embedded Graphics Processing Unit (Jetson Nano) has been selected, which allows multiple neural networks to be run in simultaneous and a computer vision algorithm to be applied for image recognition. As well, the performance of these deep learning neural networks such as ssd-mobilenet v1 and v2, pednet, multiped and ssd-inception v2 has been tested. Moreover, it was found that the accuracy and processing time were in some cases improved when all the models suggested in the research were applied. The pednet network model provides a high performance in pedestrian recognition, however, the sdd-mobilenet v2 and ssd-inception v2 models are better at detecting other objects such as vehicles in complex scenarios.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040589
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 590: Carbon-Based Composite Microwave Antennas

    • Authors: Nikolai A. Dugin, Tatiana M. Zaboronkova, Catherine Krafft, Grigorii R. Belyaev
      First page: 590
      Abstract: Applications of metamaterials to microwave antennas are reviewed over the past decade. The manufacturing of microwave antennas using graphene-containing carbon composite materials was developed and prototypes of dipole and horn antennas made from such materials were created. The radiation properties of the designed antennas and their metal analogs were measured and compared. The standing wave ratios, the radiation patterns and the amplitude-frequency characteristics were analyzed for horn antennas at frequencies 1.6 GHz and 5 GHz and for dipole antennas in the frequency range 0.2–0.6 GHz. The polarization characteristics of the horn antennas were studied. The effects of different carbon composite materials’ structures (fiber or fabric) on the antennas’ parameters were estimated. It is shown that antennas made from graphene-containing composite materials are able to operate efficiently and exhibit almost the same radiation properties as conventional metal antennas of the same geometry and size. However, the carbon-based antennas have much smaller weights and enhanced stability in a wide range of temperatures. In the future, such antennas should replace the conventional ones for many applications, especially for the excitation and reception of electromagnetic waves in space plasmas.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040590
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 591: Deep Neural Network Based Ambient Airflow
           Control through Spatial Learning

    • Authors: Sunghak Kim, InChul Choi, Dohyeong Kim, Minho Lee
      First page: 591
      Abstract: As global energy regulations are strengthened, improving energy efficiency while maintaining performance of electronic appliances is becoming more important. Especially in air conditioning, energy efficiency can be maximized by adaptively controlling the airflow based on detected human locations; however, several limitations such as detection areas, the installation environment, and sensor quantity and real-time performance which come from the constraints in the embedded system make it a challenging problem. In this study, by using a low resolution cost effective vision sensor, the environmental information of living spaces and the real-time locations of humans are learned through a deep learning algorithm to identify the living area from the entire indoor space. Based on this information, we improve the performance and the energy efficiency of air conditioner by smartly controlling the airflow on the identified living area. In experiments, our deep learning based spatial classification algorithm shows error less than ± 5 ° . In addition, the target temperature can be reached 19.8% faster and the power consumption can be saved up to 20.5% by the time the target temperature is achieved.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040591
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 592: Output Voltage Analysis of Inductive
           Wireless Power Ttransfer with Series LC and LLC Resonance Operations
           Depending on Coupling Condition

    • Authors: KangHyun Yi
      First page: 592
      Abstract: This paper analyzes the output voltage of an inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) depending on coupling conditions. When the optimum efficiency and maximum output power are obtained, it is called critical coupling, so the receiving coil and the transmitting coil should be separated by a certain distance. When the distance between the transmitting coil and receiving coil is very short, it is called over coupling, and output power decreases with the optimal operating state of the critical coupling condition. To design the entire circuit system for the inductive WPT depending on the coupling condition, it is beneficial to analyze the output voltage according to a load variation, an input voltage, and an operating frequency. Therefore, the output voltage depending on the coupling condition in the inductive WPT is analyzed in this paper. The output voltage gain in critical coupling condition is greater than one and is not affected by a load variation by a series LC resonant operation. The reduced output power in an over coupling condition can be recovered by a series LLC resonant operation. In addition, the output voltage gain is almost one and is affected by the load variation in the over coupling condition. A 5W prototype is implemented with the wireless power consortium standard coils and experimental results are shown to verify theoretical analysis and operation.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040592
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 593: Robust H∞ Load Frequency Control of
           Power Systems Considering Intermittent Characteristics of Demand-Side
           Resources

    • Authors: Kun Yuan, Zhetong Ding, Yaping Li, Mingyu Huang, Kaifeng Zhang
      First page: 593
      Abstract: Recently, demand-side resources (DSRs) have proceeded to participate in frequency control of the power systems. Compared with traditional generation-side resources, DSRs have unique intermittent characteristics. Taking aggregation of air conditions as an example, they must take a break after providing power support for a period of time considering the user comfort. This behavior, known as the intermittent characteristic, obviously affects the stability of the power systems. Therefore, this paper designs a corresponding controller for DSRs based on the intermittent control method. The designed controller is incorporated into the traditional load frequency control (LFC) system. The time delay is also considered. A rigorous stability proof and the robust H ∞ performance analysis is presented for the new LFC system. Then, the sufficient robust frequency stabilization result is presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Finally, a two-area power system is provided to illustrate the obtained results. The results show that the designed intermittent controller can mitigate the impact of intermittent characteristics of DSRs.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040593
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 594: Quantitative Estimation of Differentiated
           Mental Fatigue between Self-Rising Transfer and Multiple Welfare
           Robots-Assisted Rising Transfer

    • Authors: Donghui Zhao, Junyou Yang, Dianchun Bai, Martin Onyeka Okoye, Yokoi Hiroshi
      First page: 594
      Abstract: The multi-robot system (MRS) and relevant control strategy are a potential and effective approach to assist people with weak motion capability for various forms of assisted living. However, the rising transfer, a frequent and strenuous behavior, and its human-robot interaction (HRI) process with MRS, especially mental state, has never been researched, although it directly determines the user experience and security. In this paper, Functional Near-InfraRed Spectroscopy (fNIRS), a brain imaging technique to perform a continuous measure of the mental state, is introduced to monitor the user’s mental fatigue when implementing a behavior transfer in two difficulty levels assisted by multiple welfare-robots. Twenty-five subjects performed self-rising transfer and multiple welfare robots-assisted rising transfer. After removing physiological noises, six features of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (HbO and HbR, respectively) features, which included the mean, slope, variance, peak, skewness, and kurtosis, were calculated. To maximize the distinction of fNIRS between self-rising transfer and assisted-rising transfer (multiple welfare robots assisted rising transfer), the optimal statistical feature combination for linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classification was proposed. In addition, the classification accuracy is regarded as a standard to quantify the difference of mental states between two contrasting behaviors. By fitting the index, we established the mental fatigue model that grows exponentially as the workload increases. Finally, the mental fatigue model is applied to guide the nursing mode of caregivers and the control strategy of the MRS. Our findings disclose that the combinations containing mean and peak values significantly yielded higher classification accuracies for both HbO and HbR than the entire other combinations did, across all the subjects. They effectively quantify mental fatigue to provide an evaluation with a theoretical foundation for enhancing the user experience and optimizing the control strategy of MRS.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040594
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 595: Epidemic and Timer-Based Message
           Dissemination in VANETs: A Performance Comparison

    • Authors: Pietro Spadaccino, Francesca Cuomo, Andrea Baiocchi
      First page: 595
      Abstract: Data dissemination is among the key functions of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs), and it has attracted much attention in the past decade. We address distributed, efficient, and scalable algorithms in the context of VANETs adopting the paradigm. We introduce an epidemic algorithm for message dissemination. The algorithm, named EPIC, is based on few assumptions, and it is very simple to implement. It uses only local information at each node, broadcast communications, and timers. EPIC is designed with the goal to reach the highest number of vehicles “infected” by the message, without overloading the network. It is tested on different scenarios taken from VANET simulations based on real urban environments (Manhattan, Cologne, Luxembourg). We compare our algorithm with a standard-based solution that exploits the contention-based forwarding component of the ETSI GeoNetworking protocol. On the other hand, we adapt literature based on a connected cover set to assess the near-optimality of our proposed algorithm and gain insight into the best selection of relay nodes as the size of the graph over which messages are spread scales up. The performance evaluation shows the behavior of EPIC and allows us to optimize the protocol parameters to minimize delay and overhead.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040595
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 596: Analysis and Design of Harmonic Rejection
           Low Noise Amplifier with an Embedded Notch Filter

    • Authors: Raymond Gyaang, Dong-Ho Lee, Jusung Kim
      First page: 596
      Abstract: This paper presents the analysis and design of the harmonic rejection (HR) low-noise amplifier (LNA) with the fully passive source degeneration notch filter. The proposed HR LNA provides the rejection for the strong harmonics ( 3 r d ) of the local oscillator (LO) frequencies, where the HR mixer does not provide sufficient HR performance. The proposed 3 r d harmonic notch filter modulates the source degeneration factor and the impedance matching performance thereafter. This effect further helps the blocking of the harmonic signal. The proposed LNA provides 11 dB gain at the fundamental frequency (2.1 GHz) while rejecting the 3rd harmonic component by 37 dBc. Compared to the conventional LNA, the 3rd harmonic notch performance is improved by 23 dB. Additionally, the LNA achieves a minimum noise figure of 3.1 dB, third order input intercept point ( I I P 3 ) of 0.5 dBm, input reflection (S 11 ) below −10 dB from 1.8 GHz–2.3 GHz operational frequency range, and consumed 19 mW of power from a 1.2 V supply.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040596
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 597: Deceptive Targets Generation Simulation
           Against Multichannel SAR

    • Authors: Penghui Ji, Shiqi Xing, Dahai Dai, Bo Pang
      First page: 597
      Abstract: Traditional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) deceptive jamming can effectively generate deceptive scenes or false targets in SAR images. However, these false targets or scenes can be easily distinguished or eliminated by the multichannel SAR system. To interfere with the multichannel SAR, we first analyzed the results of SAR deceptive jamming generated by one transponder and two transponders against three-channel SAR- ground moving target indication (GMTI). Then, we propose a new deceptive jamming method against three-channel SAR-GMTI by using three synergetic transponders. By modulating each transponder with a complex coefficient, three synergetic transponders can generate false moving targets with the controllable radial velocity and located azimuth position in three-channel SAR-GMTI. Besides, in this paper, we also introduce an algorithm to deploy three transponders reasonably by utilizing the minimum condition number. In the end, a general architecture of multiple transponders deceiving multichannel SAR is given. The proposed method can not only generate deceptive false targets against multichannel SAR-GMTI, but also guide the production of a deceptive digital elevation model (DEM) against multichannel interferometric SAR (InSAR). Simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040597
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 598: Partial Bicasting with Buffering for Proxy
           Mobile IPV6 Mobility Management in CoAP-Based IoT Networks

    • Authors: Gohar, Anwar, Ali, Choi, Alquhayz, Koh
      First page: 598
      Abstract: Constrained application protocol (CoAP) can be used for message delivery in wireless sensor networks. Although CoAP-based proxy mobile internet protocol (PMIP) was proposed for mobility management, it resulted in handover delay and packet loss. Therefore, an enhanced PMIP version 6, with partial bicasting in CoAP-based internet of things (IoT) networks, is proposed. Here, when an IoT device moved into a new network, the corresponding mobile access gateway (MAG) updated the local mobility anchor (LMA) binding. Further, LMA initiated the “partial” bicasting of data packets to the new and the previous MAGs. The data packets were buffered at the new MAG during handover and were forwarded to Mobile Node (MN) after the handover operations. The proposed scheme was compared with the existing scheme, using ns-3 simulations. We demonstrated that the proposed scheme reduced handover delays, packet losses, end-to-end delay, throughput, and energy consumption, compared to the existing scheme.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040598
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 599: An Overview of FIR Filter Design in Future
           Multicarrier Communication Systems

    • Authors: Lei Jiang, Haijian Zhang, Shuai Cheng, Hengwei Lv, Pandong Li
      First page: 599
      Abstract: Future wireless communication systems are facing with many challenges due to their complexity and diversification. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) in 4G cannot meet the requirements in future scenarios, thus alternative multicarrier modulation (MCM) candidates for future physical layer have been extensively studied in the academic field, for example, filter bank multicarrier (FBMC), generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM), universal filtered multicarrier (UFMC), filtered OFDM (F-OFDM), and so forth, wherein the prototype filter design is an essential component based on which the synthesis and analysis filters are derived. This paper presents a comprehensive survey on the recent advances of finite impulse response (FIR) filter design methods in MCM based communication systems. Firstly, the fundamental aspects are examined, including the introduction of existing waveform candidates and the principle of FIR filter design. Then the methods of FIR filter design are summarized in details and we focus on the following three categories—frequency sampling methods, windowing based methods and optimization based methods. Finally, the performances of various FIR design methods are evaluated and quantified by power spectral density (PSD) and bit error rate (BER), and different MCM schemes as well as their potential prototype filters are discussed.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040599
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 600: A Novel Autoencoder with Dynamic Feature
           Enhanced Factor for Fault Diagnosis of Wind Turbine

    • Authors: Xiaoyin Nie, Shaoguang Liu, Gang Xie
      First page: 600
      Abstract: Due to the complicated operating environment and variable operating conditions, wind turbines (WTs) are extremely prone to failure and the frequency of fault increases year by year. Therefore, the solutions of effective condition monitoring and fault diagnosis are urgently demanded. Since the vibration signals contain a lot of health condition information, the fault diagnosis based on vibration signals has received extensive attention and achieved impressive progress. However, in practice, the collected health condition signals are very similar and contain a lot of noise, which makes the fault diagnosis of WTs more challenging. In order to handle this problem, this paper proposes a model called denoising stacked feature enhanced autoencoder with dynamic feature enhanced factor (DSFEAE-DF). Firstly, a feature enhanced autoencoder (FEAE) is constructed through feature enhancement so that the discriminative features can be extracted. Secondly, a feature enhanced factor which is independent of manual judgments is proposed and embedded into the training process. Finally, the DSFEAE-DF, combining one noise adding scheme, stacked FEAEs and dynamic feature enhanced factor, is established. Through experimental comparisons, the superiorities of the proposed DSFEAE-DF are verified.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040600
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 601: The Influence of Different Levels of
           Cognitive Engagement on the Seated Postural Sway

    • Authors: Bibbo, Conforto, Schmid, Battisti
      First page: 601
      Abstract: In this paper, we introduced and tested a new system based on a sensorized seat, to evaluate the sitting dynamics and sway alterations caused by different cognitive engagement conditions. An office chair was equipped with load cells, and a digital and software interface was developed to extract the Center of Pressure (COP). A population of volunteers was recruited to evaluate alterations to their seated posture when undergoing a test specifically designed to increase the cognitive engagement and the level of stress. Relevant parameters of postural sway were extracted from the COP data, and significant alterations were found in all of them, highlighting the ability of the system to capture the emergence of a different dynamic behavior in postural control when increasing the complexity of the cognitive engagement. The presented system can thus be used as a valid and reliable instrument to monitor the postural patterns of subjects involved in tasks performed in a seated posture, and this may prove useful for a variety of applications, including those associated with improving the quality of working conditions.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040601
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 602: Short Circuit Characteristics of PEM Fuel
           Cells for Grid Integration Applications

    • Authors: Florian Grumm, Marc Schumann, Carsten Cosse, Maik Plenz, Arno Lücken, Detlef Schulz
      First page: 602
      Abstract: The reduction of greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions is a major issue in modern society. Therefore, environmentally friendly technologies like fuel cells should replace conventional energy generation plants. Today, fuel cells are used in households for CHP (combined heat and power) applications, for emergency power supply in many stationary applications and for the power supply of cars, buses and ships and emergency power supply of aircrafts. A significant challenge is the optimal electrical grid integration and selection of the appropriate grid protection mechanism for fuel cell applications. For this, the short circuit capability and behavior needs to be known. This paper gives a mathematical estimation of the short circuit behavior of fuel cells. Five main transient and dynamic phenomena are investigated. The impact of the main transient effect for the provision of additional short circuit energy is simulated, and the simulation is experimentally validated. For this purpose, a 25 c m 2 single cell consisting of a NafionTM 212 membrane and carbon cloth electrodes with a catalyst loading of 0 . 5 m g / c m 2 Pt is analyzed. The magnitude of the transient short circuit current depends on the operating point right before the short circuit occurs, whereas the stationary short circuit current of fuel cells is invariably about twice the operational current. Based on these results, a novel fuel cell model for the estimation of the short circuit behavior is proposed.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040602
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 603: Semi-Supervised FaceGAN for Face-Age
           Progression and Regression with Synthesized Paired Images

    • Authors: Quang T. M. Pham, Janghoon Yang, Jitae Shin
      First page: 603
      Abstract: The performance of existing face age progression or regression methods is often limited by the lack of sufficient data to train the model. To deal with this problem, we introduce a novel framework that exploits synthesized images to improve the performance. A conditional generative adversarial network (GAN) is first developed to generate facial images with targeted ages. The semi-supervised GAN, called SS-FaceGAN, is proposed. This approach considers synthesized images with a target age and the face images from the real data so that age and identity features can be explicitly utilized in the objective function of the network. We analyze the performance of our method over previous studies qualitatively and quantitatively. The experimental results show that the SS-FaceGAN model can produce realistic human faces in terms of both identity preservation and age preservation with the quantitative results of a decent face detection rate of 97% and similarity score of 0.30 on average.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040603
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 604: A Novel Approach towards the Design and
           Implementation of Virtual Network Based on Controller in Future IoT
           Applications

    • Authors: Faisal Mehmood, Israr Ullah, Shabir Ahmad, Do-Hyeun Kim
      First page: 604
      Abstract: The Internet of Things refers (IoT) to the billions of physical devices around the globe that are connected to the Internet, collecting and sharing data. The overall Internet of Things market is projected to be worth more than 50.6 billion U.S. dollars in 2020. IoT devices possess low processing capabilities, limited memory, limited storage, and minimal network protocol support. With the help of cloud computing technology, we can overcome the limited resources of IoT devices. A lot of research has been conducted on IoT device virtualization to facilitate remote access and control. The concept of virtualization in IoT is to provide a virtual representation of physical devices in the form of virtual objects. IoT devices are more likely to be accessed and communicate through virtual objects in the near future. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of building a virtual IoT network for a smart home. The virtual network is based on virtual objects and IoT controller. We derived the concept from Software Defined Network (SDN) and separated the control plane and data plane in the virtual IoT network. This enhanced the rapid development of diverse applications on top of the virtualization layer by establishing a dynamic end-to-end connection between IoT devices. This article briefly explains the design and development of the virtual network. Results achieved during experiments and performance analysis show that IoT controller enhances the capabilities of a virtual network by dynamically controlling the traffic congestion, handling mapping requests, and routing mechanisms.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040604
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 605: Secure PHY Layer Key Generation in the
           Asymmetric Power Line Communication Channel

    • Authors: Federico Passerini, Andrea M. Tonello
      First page: 605
      Abstract: Leakage of information in power line communication (PLC) networks is a threat to privacy and security. A way to enhance security is to encode the transmitted information with the use of a secret key. If the communication channel exhibits common characteristics at both ends and these are unknown to a potential eavesdropper, then it is possible to locally generate a common secret key at the two communication ends without the need for sharing it through the broadcast channel. This is known as physical layer key generation. To this aim, known techniques have been developed exploiting the transfer function of symmetric channels. However, the PLC channel is in general not symmetric, but just reciprocal. Therefore, in this paper, we first analyze the characteristics of the channel to verify whether physical layer key generation can be implemented. Then, we propose two novel methods that exploit the reciprocity of the PLC channel to generate common information by the two intended users. This information is processed through different quantization techniques to generate secret keys locally. To assess the security of the generated keys, we analyze the spatial correlation of PLC channels. This allows verifying whether the eavesdropper’s channels are weakly correlated with the intended users’ channel. Consequently, it is found that the information leaked to a possible eavesdropper has very low correlation to the locally generated key. The analysis and proposed methods are validated on a measurement dataset.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040605
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 606: Development of Real-Time Implementation of
           a Wind Power Generation System with Modular Multilevel Converters for
           Hardware in the Loop Simulation Using MATLAB/Simulink

    • Authors: Shin, Lee
      First page: 606
      Abstract: In this study, we propose a wind power generation system model for operating modular multilevel converter (MMC) in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) application. The application of the MMC is a system that connects wind power to a grid through high-voltage direct current (HVDC) in the form of back-to-back connected MMCs, whereas a HILS is a system used to test or develop hardware or a software algorithm with real time. A real-time operation model of the MMC is required to conduct a HILS experiment. Although some studies have introduced the HILS model of MMCs for grid connection using PSCAD/EMTDC, it is difficult to find a study in the literature on the model using Matlab/Simulink, which is widely used for power electronic simulation. Hence, in this paper, we propose a real-time implementation model employing a detailed equivalent model (DEM) using MATLAB/Simulink. The equivalent model of both wind power generation system and MMC are presented in this paper. In addition, we describe how to implement components such as a variable resistor that is not provided in the Simulink's library. The feasibility of the proposed model is demonstrated with real-time operation of a wind power generation system.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040606
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 607: Dual-Mode FPGA-Based Triple-TDC With
           Real-Time Calibration and a Triple Modular Redundancy Scheme

    • Authors: Yuan-Ho Chen
      First page: 607
      Abstract: This paper proposes a triple time-to-digital converter (TDC) for a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platform with dual operation modes. First, the proposed triple-TDC employs the real-time calibration circuit followed by the traditional tapped delay line architecture to improve the environmental effect for the application of multiple TDCs. Second, the triple modular redundancy scheme is used to deal with the uncertainty in the FPGA device for improving the linearity for the application of a single TDC. The proposed triple-TDC is implemented in a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA platform and has a time resolution of 40 ps root mean square for multi-mode operation. Moreover, the ranges of differential nonlinearity and integral nonlinearity can be improved by 56 % and 37 % , respectively, for single-mode operation.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040607
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 608: Development of Curriculum Design Support
           System Based on Word Embedding and Terminology Extraction

    • Authors: HoSung Woo, JaMee Kim, WonGyu Lee
      First page: 608
      Abstract: The principles of computer skills have been included in primary and secondary educated since the early 2000s, and the reform of curricula is related to the development of IT. Therefore, curricula should reflect the latest technological trends and needs of society. The development of a curriculum involves the subjective judgment of a few experts or professors to extract knowledge from several similar documents. More objective extraction needs to be based on standardized terminology, and professional terminology can help build content frames for organizing curricula. The purpose of this study is to develop a smart system for extracting terms from the body of computer science (CS) knowledge and organizing knowledge areas. The extracted terms are composed of semantically similar knowledge areas, using the word2vec model. We analyzed a higher-education CS standards document and compiled a dictionary of technical terms with a hierarchical clustering structure. Based on the developed terminology dictionary, a specialized system is proposed to enhance the efficiency and objectivity of terminology extraction. The analysis of high school education courses in India and Israel using the technical term extraction system found that (1) technical terms for Software Development Fundamentals were extracted at a high rate in entry-level courses, (2) in advanced courses, the ratio of technical terms in the areas of Architecture and Organization, Programming Languages, and Software Engineering areas was high, and (3) electives that deal with advanced content had a high percentage of technical terms related to information systems.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040608
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 609: Structural Health Monitoring System for
           Snow and Wind Load Measurement

    • Authors: Bogdan Dziadak
      First page: 609
      Abstract: This article presents a system for monitoring the load caused by strong winds and snow on buildings’ roofs. An estimation of the total load on the structure is obtained by measuring the strain on the main roof girders. The system is based on a wireless sensor network structure. The measurement node uses metal strain gauges and strain sensors based on conductive carbon polymers. The application of such sensors allowed us to achieve a measurement resolution of 5.5 ustrain. The node is managed by an Atmeg8A microcontroller. The use of energy saving modes allows for a battery life of 6 months.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040609
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 610: A New 4 × 4 Rectangular Waveguide
           Short-Slot Coupler in 3D Printed Technology at Ku-Band

    • Authors: Raúl V. Haro-Baez, Jorge A. Ruiz-Cruz, Juan Córcoles, José R. Montejo-Garai, Jesús M. Rebollar
      First page: 610
      Abstract: This paper presents a novel design of an eight-port directional coupler with a very compact structure and simple manufacturing, working in the Ku frequency band. One of the main goals of the design was to ease the manufacturing with a simple structure: the coupler consisted of four rectangular waveguide input ports, four rectangular waveguide output ports, and a central coupling region with only H-plane variation. A prototype was fabricated using additive manufacturing, with a combination of 3D printing and silver coating metallization. The obtained performance showed a theoretical bandwidth of 6.6% with 20 dB return loss for the input/output ports. Good agreement between simulations and measurements was obtained, validating the proposed coupler as a good trade-off for low cost 3D printing, compactness, and high performance for systems requiring a high number of ports as in phase arrays or Butler matrices.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040610
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 611: Ergonomic Guidelines of Head-Up Display
           User Interface during Semi-Automated Driving

    • Authors: Park, Im
      First page: 611
      Abstract: Self-driving vehicles are emerging as a result of technological advances, and the range of human behavior is expanding. The collateral information on driving is increasing, and head-up displays (HUDs) can be coupled with augmented reality displays to convey additional information to drivers in innovative ways. Interference between the actual driving environment and the displayed information can cause distractions. Research is required to find out what information should be displayed and how to properly display it considering the number of information, as well as the location and arrangement of the HUD. This study aims to examine the types of HUD information presentation that enhance the driver’s intuitive understanding. The first experiment identified which information affects drivers more in self-driving conditions in terms of error rate and importance. As a result, information that the drivers consider to be of greater importance or more relevant to their safety was selected. The level of HUD information complexity was assessed in the second experiment. The independent variables were the number of symbols, location of the HUD, and arrangement of the HUD. The results showed that the number of symbols was most affected and that fewer than six should be displayed. Besides, the arrangement of contents was more intuitive when a vertical alignment was used, and the main content should be placed in the center of the windshield area. Finally, ergonomic design guidelines of the information presentation type are proposed in this study.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040611
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 612: New SOGI-FLL Grid Frequency Monitoring
           with a Finite State Machine Approach for Better Response in the Face of
           Voltage Sag and Swell Faults

    • Authors: Abdali Nejad, Matas, Martín, de la Hoz, Al-Turki
      First page: 612
      Abstract: The SOGI-FLL (Second-Order Generalized Integrator–Frequency-Locked Loop) is a well-known and simple adaptive filter that allows for estimating the parameters of grid voltage with a small computational burden. However, the SOGI-FLL has been shown to be especially sensitive to voltage sags and voltage swells, which deeply distort the estimated parameters, especially the frequency. This problem can be alleviated by simply using a saturation block at the Frequency-Locked Loop (FLL) output to limit the impact of distortion on the estimated frequency. Improving upon this straightforward approach, in this paper we propose the use of a finite state machine (FSM) for the definition of the different states of the SOGI-FLL frequency response during a voltage sag or swell fault. The FSM approach allows for applying different gains during the fault, enhancing the SOGI-FLL transient response. The performance of the FSM-based SOGI-FLL is evaluated by using simulation results, which show a better and faster response to these kinds of faults.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040612
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 613: The Research on DC Loop of Regional Power
           Grid Caused by the Operation of the Subway

    • Authors: Lin Du, Sha Chang, Shiying Wang
      First page: 613
      Abstract: The operation of the subway would change the distribution of the ground potential along the rail, forming a DC loop through the grounding points in a nearby regional power grid and threatening the operational safety of the power system. In this paper, a new DC potential distribution calculation method along the subway is firstly proposed. Secondly, a grid grounding DC loop model is built on the foundation of the stray current principle. Thirdly, factors affecting the current in the grid are also presented and discussed based on the grounding loop model. Finally, a subway operation simulation platform is set up in a laboratory to simulate the operation of subway in situation, and the rationality of the model presented in this paper has been effectively verified.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040613
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 614: Onboard Visual Horizon Detection for
           Unmanned Aerial Systems with Programmable Logic

    • Authors: Antal Hiba, Levente Márk Sántha, Tamás Zsedrovits, Levente Hajder, Akos Zarandy
      First page: 614
      Abstract: We introduce and analyze a fast horizon detection algorithm with native radial distortion handling and its implementation on a low power field programmable gate array (FPGA) development board in this paper. The algorithm is suited for visual applications in an airborne environment, that is on board a small unmanned aircraft. The algorithm was designed to have low complexity because of the power consumption requirements. To keep the computational cost low, an initial guess for the horizon is used, which is provided by the attitude heading reference system of the aircraft. The camera model takes radial distortions into account, which is necessary for a wide-angle lens used in most applications. This paper presents formulae for distorted horizon lines and a gradient sampling-based resolution-independent single shot algorithm for finding a horizon with radial distortion without undistortion of the complete image. The implemented algorithm is part of our visual sense-and-avoid system, where it is used for the sky-ground separation, and the performance of the algorithm is tested on real flight data. The FPGA implementation of the horizon detection method makes it possible to add this efficient module to any FPGA-based vision system.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040614
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 615: PFW: Polygonal Fuzzy Weighted—An SVM
           Kernel for the Classification of Overlapping Data Groups

    • Authors: Chaeikar, Manaf, Alarood, Zamani
      First page: 615
      Abstract: Support vector machines are supervised learning models which are capable of classifying data and measuring regression by means of a learning algorithm. If data are linearly separable, a conventional linear kernel is used to classify them. Otherwise, the data are normally first transformed from input space to feature space, and then they are classified. However, carrying out this transformation is not always practical, and the process itself increases the cost of training and prediction. To address these problems, this paper puts forward an SVM kernel, called polygonal fuzzy weighted or PFW, which effectively classifies data without space transformation, even if the groups in question are not linearly separable and have overlapping areas. This kernel is based on Gaussian data distribution, standard deviation, the three-sigma rule and a polygonal fuzzy membership function. A comparison of our PFW, radial basis function (RBF) and conventional linear kernels in identical experimental conditions shows that PFW produces a minimum of 26% higher classification accuracy compared with the linear kernel, and it outperforms the RBF kernel in two-thirds of class labels, by a minimum of 3%. Moreover, Since PFW runs within the original feature space, it involves no additional computational cost.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-04-05
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9040615
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 516: A Machine Learning and Integration Based
           Architecture for Cognitive Disorder Detection Used for Early Autism
           Screening

    • Authors: Jesús Peral, David Gil, Sayna Rotbei, Sandra Amador, Marga Guerrero, Hadi Moradi
      First page: 516
      Abstract: About 15% of the world’s population suffers from some form of disability. In developed countries, about 1.5% of children are diagnosed with autism. Autism is a developmental disorder distinguished mainly by impairments in social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior. Since the cause of autism is still unknown, there have been many studies focused on screening for autism based on behavioral features. Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to present an architecture focused on data integration and analytics, allowing the distributed processing of input data. Furthermore, the proposed architecture allows the identification of relevant features as well as of hidden correlations among parameters. To this end, we propose a methodology able to integrate diverse data sources, even data that are collected separately. This methodology increases the data variety which can lead to the identification of more correlations between diverse parameters. We conclude the paper with a case study that used autism data in order to validate our proposed architecture, which showed very promising results.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030516
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 517: Access Control Role Evolution Mechanism
           for Open Computing Environment

    • Authors: Aodi Liu, Xuehui Du, Na Wang
      First page: 517
      Abstract: Data resources in open computing environments (including big data, internet of things and cloud computing) are characterized by large scale, wide source, and strong dynamics. Therefore, the user-permission relationship of open computing environments has a huge scale and will be dynamically adjusted over time, which enables effective permission management in the role based access control (RBAC) model to become a challenging problem. In this paper, we design an evolution mechanism of access control roles for open computing environments. The mechanism utilizes the existing user-permission relationship in the current system to mine the access control role and generate the user-role and role-permission relationship. When the user-permission relationship changes, the roles are constantly tuned and evolved to provide role support for access control of open computing environments. We propose a novel genetic-based role evolution algorithm that can effectively mine and optimize roles while preserving the core permissions of the system. In addition, a role relationship aggregation algorithm is proposed to realize the clustering of roles, which provides a supplementary reference for the security administrator to give the role real semantic information. Experimental evaluations in real-world data sets show that the proposed mechanism is effective and reliable.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030517
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 518: Automatic Emotion Recognition for the
           Calibration of Autonomous Driving Functions

    • Authors: Jacopo Sini, Antonio Costantino Marceddu, Massimo Violante
      First page: 518
      Abstract: The development of autonomous driving cars is a complex activity, which poses challenges about ethics, safety, cybersecurity, and social acceptance. The latter, in particular, poses new problems since passengers are used to manually driven vehicles; hence, they need to move their trust from a person to a computer. To smooth the transition towards autonomous vehicles, a delicate calibration of the driving functions should be performed, making the automation decision closest to the passengers’ expectations. The complexity of this calibration lies in the presence of a person in the loop: different settings of a given algorithm should be evaluated by assessing the human reaction to the vehicle decisions. With this work, we for an objective method to classify the people’s reaction to vehicle decisions. By adopting machine learning techniques, it is possible to analyze the passengers’ emotions while driving with alternative vehicle calibrations. Through the analysis of these emotions, it is possible to obtain an objective metric about the comfort feeling of the passengers. As a result, we developed a proof-of-concept implementation of a simple, yet effective, emotions recognition system. It can be deployed either into real vehicles or simulators, during the driving functions calibration.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030518
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 519: External Breaking Vibration Identification
           Method of Transmission Line Tower Based on Solar-Powered RFID Sensor and
           CNN

    • Authors: Deng, Wen, Xie, Liu, Tong
      First page: 519
      Abstract: This paper proposes an external breaking vibration identification method of transmission line tower based on a radio frequency identification (RFID) sensor and deep learning. The RFID sensor is designed to obtain the vibration signal of the transmission line tower. In order to achieve long-time monitoring and longer working distance, the proposed RFID sensor tag employs a photovoltaic cell combined with a super capacitor as the power management module. convolution neural network (CNN) is adopted to extract the characteristics of vibration signals and relevance vector machine (RVM) is then employed to achieve vibration pattern identification. Furthermore, the Softmax classifier and gradient descent method are used to adjust the weights and thresholds of CNN, so as to obtain a high-precision identification structure. The experiment results show that the minimum sensitivity of the proposed solar-powered RFID sensor tag is −29 dBm and the discharge duration of the super capacitor is 63.35 h when the query frequencies are 5/min. The optimum batch size of CNN is 5, and the optimum number of convolution cores in the first layer and the second layer are 2 and 4, respectively. The maximum number of iterations is 10 times. The vibration identification accuracy of the proposed method is over 99% under three different conditions.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030519
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 520: An Anonymous Device to Device
           Authentication Protocol Using ECC and Self Certified Public Keys Usable in
           Internet of Things Based Autonomous Devices

    • Authors: Bander A. Alzahrani, Shehzad Ashraf Chaudhry, Ahmed Barnawi, Abdullah Al-Barakati, Taeshik Shon
      First page: 520
      Abstract: Two party authentication schemes can be good candidates for deployment in Internet of Things (IoT)-based systems, especially in systems involving fast moving vehicles. Internet of Vehicles (IoV) requires fast and secure device-to-device communication without interference of any third party during communication, and this task can be carried out after registration of vehicles with a trusted certificate issuing party. Recently, several authentication protocols were proposed to enable key agreement in two party settings. In this study, we analyze two recent protocols and show that both protocols are insecure against key compromise impersonation attack (KCIA) as well as both lack of user anonymity. Therefore, this paper proposes an improved protocol that does not only resist KCIA and related attacks, but also offers comparable computation and communication. The security of proposed protocol is tested under formal model as well as using well known Burrows–Abadi–Needham (BAN) logic along with a discussion on security features. While resisting the KCIA and related attacks, proposed protocol also provides comparable trade-of between security features and efficiency and completes a round of key agreement in just 13.42 ms, which makes it a promising candidate to be deployed in IoT environments.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030520
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 521: BLOCIS: Blockchain-Based Cyber Threat
           Intelligence Sharing Framework for Sybil-Resistance

    • Authors: Seonghyeon Gong, Changhoon Lee
      First page: 521
      Abstract: The convergence of fifth-generation (5G) communication and the Internet-of-Things (IoT) has dramatically increased the diversity and complexity of the network. This change diversifies the attacker’s attack vectors, increasing the impact and damage of cyber threats. Cyber threat intelligence (CTI) technology is a proof-based security system which responds to these advanced cyber threats proactively by analyzing and sharing security-related data. However, the performance of CTI systems can be significantly compromised by creating and disseminating improper security policies if an attacker intentionally injects malicious data into the system. In this paper, we propose a blockchain-based CTI framework that improves confidence in the source and content of the data and can quickly detect and eliminate inaccurate data for resistance to a Sybil attack. The proposed framework collects CTI by a procedure validated through smart contracts and stores information about the metainformation of data in a blockchain network. The proposed system ensures the validity and reliability of CTI data by ensuring traceability to the data source and proposes a system model that can efficiently operate and manage CTI data in compliance with the de facto standard. We present the simulation results to prove the effectiveness and Sybil-resistance of the proposed framework in terms of reliability and cost to attackers.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030521
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 522: Steganalysis of Adaptive Multi-Rate Speech
           Based on Extreme Gradient Boosting

    • Authors: Sun, Tian, Chang, Chen, Cai, Du, Chen, Chen
      First page: 522
      Abstract: Steganalysis of adaptive multi-rate (AMR) speech is a hot topic for controlling cybercrimes grounded in steganography in related speech streams. In this paper, we first present a novel AMR steganalysis model, which utilizes extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) as the classifier, instead of support vector machines (SVM) adopted in the previous schemes. Compared with the SVM-based model, this new model can facilitate the excavation of potential information from the high-dimensional features and can avoid overfitting. Moreover, to further strengthen the preceding features based on the statistical characteristics of pulse pairs, we present the convergence feature based on the Markov chain to reflect the global characterization of pulse pairs, which is essentially the final state of the Markov transition matrix. Combining the convergence feature with the preceding features, we propose an XGBoost-based steganalysis scheme for AMR speech streams. Finally, we conducted a series of experiments to assess our presented scheme and compared it with previous schemes. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is feasible, and can provide better performance in terms of detecting the existing steganography methods based on AMR speech streams.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030522
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 523: Effect of Mg Doping on the Electrical
           Performance of a Sol-Gel-Processed SnO2 Thin-Film Transistor

    • Authors: Won-Yong Lee, Hyunjae Lee, Seunghyun Ha, Changmin Lee, Jin-Hyuk Bae, In-Man Kang, Kwangeun Kim, Jaewon Jang
      First page: 523
      Abstract: Sol-gel-processed Mg-doped SnO2 thin-film transistors (TFTs) were successfully fabricated. The effect of Mg concentration on the structural, chemical, and optical properties of thin films and the corresponding TFT devices was investigated. The results indicated that an optimal Mg concentration yielded an improved negative bias stability and increased optical band gap, resulting in transparent devices. Furthermore, the optimal device performance was obtained with 0.5 wt% Mg. The fabricated 0.5 wt% Mg-doped SnO2 TFT was characterized by a field effect mobility, a subthreshold swing, and Ion/Ioff ratio of 4.23 cm2/Vs, 1.37 V/decade, and ~1 × 107, respectively. The added Mg suppressed oxygen-vacancy formation, thereby improving the bias stability. This work may pave the way for the development of alkaline-earth-metal-doped SnO2-based thin-film devices.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030523
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 524: Smart Handoff Technique for Internet of
           Vehicles Communication using Dynamic Edge-Backup Node

    • Authors: Khalid Mahmood Awan, Malik Nadeem, Ali Safaa Sadiq, Abdullah Alghushami, Imran Khan, Khaled Rabie
      First page: 524
      Abstract: A vehicular adhoc network (VANET) recently emerged in the the Internet of Vehicles (IoV); it involves the computational processing of moving vehicles. Nowadays, IoV has turned into an interesting field of research as vehicles can be equipped with processors, sensors, and communication devices. IoV gives rise to handoff, which involves changing the connection points during the online communication session. This presents a major challenge for which many standardized solutions are recommended. Although there are various proposed techniques and methods to support seamless handover procedure in IoV, there are still some open research issues, such as unavoidable packet loss rate and latency. On the other hand, the emerged concept of edge mobile computing has gained crucial attention by researchers that could help in reducing computational complexities and decreasing communication delay. Hence, this paper specifically studies the handoff challenges in cluster based handoff using new concept of dynamic edge-backup node. The outcomes are evaluated and contrasted with the network mobility method, our proposed technique, and other cluster-based technologies. The results show that coherence in communication during the handoff method can be upgraded, enhanced, and improved utilizing the proposed technique.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030524
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 525: Circuit Topologies for MOS-Type Gas Sensor

    • Authors: Javier Cervera Gómez, Jose Pelegri-Sebastia, Rafael Lajara
      First page: 525
      Abstract: Metal Oxide Semiconductor or MOS-type gas sensors are resistive sensors which can detect different reducible or volatile gases in atmospheres with oxygen. These gas sensors have been used in different areas such as food and drink industries or healthcare, among others. In this type of sensor, the resistance value changes when it detects certain types of gases. Due to the electrical characteristics, the sensors need a conditioning circuit to transform and acquire the data. Four different electronic topologies, two different MOS-type gas sensors, and different concentrations of a gas substance are presented and compared in this paper. The study and experimental analysis of the properties of each of the designed topology allows designers to make a choice of the best circuit for a specific application depending on the situation, considering the required power, noise, linearity, and number of sensors to be used. This study will give more freedom of choice, the more adequate electronic conditioning topology for different applications where MOS-type sensors are used, obtaining the best accuracy.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030525
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 526: Design of a Cylindrical Winding Structure
           for Wireless Power Transfer Used in Rotatory Applications

    • Authors: Mohamad Abou Houran, Xu Yang, Wenjie Chen
      First page: 526
      Abstract: A cylindrical joint structure for wireless power transfer (WPT) systems is proposed. The transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) coils were wound on hemicylindrical and cylindrical structures, respectively. The Rx coil rotates freely around the axial direction of the Tx coil. Different methods of winding the Tx and Rx coils are given and discussed. Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) around the WPT windings should be lower than the limits set by WPT standards. Therefore, the WPT windings were designed to reduce EMF level and maintain constant power-transfer efficiency (PTE). The design procedures of the windings are discussed in detail. EMF analysis was done under different rotation angles (α). The selected design reduced the variation of the mutual inductance (M). As a result, it maintained a constant PTE while rotating the Rx coil between 0° and 85°. Moreover, leakage magnetic fields (LMFs) near the WPT coils of the chosen design were reduced by 63.6% compared with other winding methods that have the same efficiency. Finally, a prototype was built to validate the proposed idea. Experiment results were in good agreement with the simulation results. The WPT system maintained constant efficiency in spite of the rotation of Rx coil, where efficiency dropped by only 2.15% when the Rx coil rotated between 0° and 85°.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030526
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 527: Frequency Tuning in Inductive Power
           Transfer Systems

    • Authors: Manuele Bertoluzzo, Giuseppe Buja
      First page: 527
      Abstract: Inductive power transfer systems (IPTSs) systems are equipped with compensation networks that resonate at the supply frequency with the inductance of the transmitting and receiving coils to both maximize the power transfer efficiency and reduce the IPTS power sizing. If the network and coil parameters differ from the designed values, the resonance frequencies deviate from the supply frequency, thus reducing the IPTS efficiency. To cope with this issue, two methods of tuning the IPTS supply frequency are presented and discussed. One method is aimed at making resonant the impedance seen by the IPTS power supply, the other one at making resonant the impedance of the receiving stage. The paper closes by implementing the first method in an experimental setup and by testing its tuning capabilities on a prototypal IPTS used for charging the battery of an electric vehicle.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030527
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 528: Is The Timed-Up and Go Test Feasible in
           Mobile Devices' A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Ponciano, Pires, Ribeiro, Marques, Garcia, Pombo, Spinsante, Zdravevski
      First page: 528
      Abstract: The number of older adults is increasing worldwide, and it is expected that by 2050 over 2 billion individuals will be more than 60 years old. Older adults are exposed to numerous pathological problems such as Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, post-stroke, and orthopedic disturbances. Several physiotherapy methods that involve measurement of movements, such as the Timed-Up and Go test, can be done to support efficient and effective evaluation of pathological symptoms and promotion of health and well-being. In this systematic review, the authors aim to determine how the inertial sensors embedded in mobile devices are employed for the measurement of the different parameters involved in the Timed-Up and Go test. The main contribution of this paper consists of the identification of the different studies that utilize the sensors available in mobile devices for the measurement of the results of the Timed-Up and Go test. The results show that mobile devices embedded motion sensors can be used for these types of studies and the most commonly used sensors are the magnetometer, accelerometer, and gyroscope available in off-the-shelf smartphones. The features analyzed in this paper are categorized as quantitative, quantitative + statistic, dynamic balance, gait properties, state transitions, and raw statistics. These features utilize the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors and facilitate recognition of daily activities, accidents such as falling, some diseases, as well as the measurement of the subject's performance during the test execution.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030528
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 529: High Voltage, Low Current High-Power
           Multichannel LEDs LLC Driver by Stacking Single-Ended Rectifiers with
           Balancing Capacitors

    • Authors: Kang Hyun Yi
      First page: 529
      Abstract: In this paper, a new LLC converter for series-connected, high-voltage LEDs is proposed. The proposed LLC converter consists of two stacked, single-ended rectifiers and one balancing capacitor, to compensate for the current deviation of two individual LED strings. The proposed LLC LED driver can use a diode with low voltage stress, even if the secondary LED is connected in series to have a high driving voltage. In addition, even if several series-connected LEDs are changed into two-stacked structures, the balancing capacitor can compensate for the current deviation of the two separated LEDs, as well as the difference in leakage inductance of the two stacked single-ended rectifiers. The balancing capacitor can be made equal to the voltage tolerance of the stacked, single-ended rectifier diodes. The proposed circuit can be easily extended to a series channel LED driver circuit, without increasing the voltage stress. To verify the characteristics and operation of the proposed LLC LED driver, a 260W high-power LED driver is implemented.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030529
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 530: A Two-Level Flow-Based Anomalous Activity
           Detection System for IoT Networks

    • Authors: Imtiaz Ullah, Qusay H. Mahmoud
      First page: 530
      Abstract: The significant increase of the Internet of Things (IoT) devices in smart homes and other smart infrastructure, and the recent attacks on these IoT devices, are motivating factors to secure and protect IoT networks. The primary security challenge to develop a methodology to identify a malicious activity correctly and mitigate the impact of such activity promptly. In this paper, we propose a two-level anomalous activity detection model for intrusion detection system in IoT networks. The level-1 model categorizes the network flow as normal flow or abnormal flow, while the level-2 model classifies the category or subcategory of detected malicious activity. When the network flow classified as an anomaly by the level-1 model, then the level-1 model forwards the stream to the level-2 model for further investigation to find the category or subcategory of the detected anomaly. Our proposed model constructed on flow-based features of the IoT network. Flow-based detection methodologies only inspect packet headers to classify the network traffic. Flow-based features extracted from the IoT Botnet dataset and various machine learning algorithms were investigated and tested via different cross-fold validation tests to select the best algorithm. The decision tree classifier yielded the highest predictive results for level-1, and the random forest classifier produced the highest predictive results for level-2. Our proposed model Accuracy, Precision, Recall, and F score for level-1 were measured as 99.99% and 99.90% for level-2. A two-level anomalous activity detection system for IoT networks we proposed will provide a robust framework for the development of malicious activity detection system for IoT networks. It would be of interest to researchers in academia and industry.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030530
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 531: LoRaWAN Network for Fire Monitoring in
           Rural Environments

    • Authors: Sandra Sendra, Laura García, Jaime Lloret, Ignacio Bosch, Roberto Vega-Rodríguez
      First page: 531
      Abstract: The number of forest fires that occurred in recent years in different parts of the world is causing increased concern in the population, as the consequences of these fires expand beyond the destruction of the ecosystem. However, with the proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) industry, solutions for early fire detection should be developed. The assessment of the fire risk of an area and the communication of this fact to the population could reduce the number of fires originated by accident or due to the carelessness of the users. This paper presents a low-cost network based on Long Range (LoRa) technology to autonomously evaluate the level of fire risk and the presence of a forest fire in rural areas. The system is comprised of several LoRa nodes with sensors to measure the temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and CO2 of the environment. The data from the nodes is stored and processed in a The Things Network (TTN) server that sends the data to a website for the graphic visualization of the collected data. The system is tested in a real environment and, the results show that it is possible to cover a circular area of a radius of 4 km with a single gateway.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030531
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 532: Thermoelectric Performance Enhancement of
           Naturally Occurring Bi and Chitosan Composite Films Using Energy Efficient
           Method

    • Authors: Jang, Banerjee, Huang, Holley, Gaskins, Hoque, Hopkins, Madan
      First page: 532
      Abstract: This work presents an energy efficient technique for fabricating flexible thermoelectric generators while using printable ink. We have fabricated thermoelectric composite thick films using two different mesh sizes of n-type bismuth particles, various binder to thermoelectric material weight ratios, and two different pressures, 200 MPa and 300 MPa, in order to optimize the thermoelectric properties of the composite films. The use of chitosan dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide with less than 0.2 wt. % of chitosan, the first time chitosan has been used in this process, was sufficient for fabricating TE inks and composite films. Low temperature curing processes, along with uniaxial pressure, were used to evaporate the solvent from the drop-casted inks. This combination reduced the temperature needed compared to traditional curing processes while simultaneously increasing the packing density of the film by removing the pores and voids in the chitosan-bismuth composite film. Microstructural analysis of the composite films reveals low amounts of voids and pores when pressed at sufficiently high pressures. The highest performing composite film was obtained with the weight ratio of 1:2000 binder to bismuth, 100-mesh particle size, and 300 MPa of pressure. The best performing bismuth chitosan composite film that was pressed at 300 MPa had a power factor of 4009 ± 391 μW/m K2 with high electrical conductivity of 7337 ± 522 S/cm. The measured thermal conductivity of this same sample was 4.4 ± 0.8 W/m K and the corresponding figure of merit was 0.27 at room temperature.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030532
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 533: Analytical Performance Evaluation of
           Massive MIMO Techniques for SC-FDE Modulations

    • Authors: Daniel Fernandes, Francisco Cercas, Rui Dinis
      First page: 533
      Abstract: In the Fifth Generation of telecommunications networks (5G), it is possible to use massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems, which require efficient receivers capable of reaching good performance values. MIMO systems can also be extended to massive MIMO (mMIMO) systems, while maintaining their, sometimes exceptional, performance. However, we must be aware that this implies an increase in the receiver complexity. Therefore, the use of mMIMO in 5G and future generations of mobile receivers will only be feasible if they use very efficient algorithms, so as to maintain their excellent performance, while coping with increasing and critical user demands. Having this in mind, this paper presents and compares three types of receivers used in MIMO systems, for further use with mMIMO systems, which use Single-Carrier with Frequency-Domain Equalization (SC-FDE), Iterative Block Decision Feedback Equalization (IB-DFE) and Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) techniques. This paper presents and compares the theoretical and simulated performance values for these receivers in terms of their Bit Error Rate (BER) and correlation factor. While one of the receivers studied in this paper achieves a BER performance nearly matching the Matched Filter Bound (MFB), the other receivers (IB-DFE and MRC) are more than 1 dB away from MFB. The results obtained in this paper can help the development of ongoing research involving hybrid analog/digital receivers for 5G and future generations of mobile communications.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030533
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 534: A Hybrid Tabu Search and 2-opt Path
           Programming for Mission Route Planning of Multiple Robots under Range
           Limitations

    • Authors: Meng-Tse Lee, Bo-Yu Chen, Ying-Chih Lai
      First page: 534
      Abstract: The application of an unmanned vehicle system allows for accelerating the performance of various tasks. Due to limited capacities, such as battery power, it is almost impossible for a single unmanned vehicle to complete a large-scale mission area. An unmanned vehicle swarm has the potential to distribute tasks and coordinate the operations of many robots/drones with very little operator intervention. Therefore, multiple unmanned vehicles are required to execute a set of well-planned mission routes, in order to minimize time and energy consumption. A two-phase heuristic algorithm was used to pursue this goal. In the first phase, a tabu search and the 2-opt node exchange method were used to generate a single optimal path for all target nodes; the solution was then split into multiple clusters according to vehicle numbers as an initial solution for each. In the second phase, a tabu algorithm combined with a 2-opt path exchange was used to further improve the in-route and cross-route solutions for each route. This diversification strategy allowed for approaching the global optimal solution, rather than a regional one with less CPU time. After these algorithms were coded, a group of three robot cars was used to validate this hybrid path programming algorithm.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030534
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 535: Heat Transfer Study in Breast Tumor
           Phantom during Microwave Ablation: Modeling and Experimental Results for
           Three Different Antennas

    • Authors: Rocío Ortega-Palacios, Citlalli Jessica Trujillo-Romero, Mario Francisco Jesús Cepeda-Rubio, Lorenzo Leija, Arturo Vera Hernández
      First page: 535
      Abstract: It is worldwide known that the most common type of cancer among women is breast cancer. Traditional procedures involve surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy; however, these treatments are invasive and have serious side effects. For this reason, minimally invasive thermal treatments like microwave ablation are being considered. In this study, thermal behavior of three types of slot-coaxial antennas for breast cancer microwave ablation is presented. By using finite element method (FEM), all antennas were modeled to estimate the heat transfer in breast tumor tissue surrounded by healthy breast tissue. Experimentation was carried out by using the antennas inserted inside sphere-shaped-tumor phantoms with two different diameters, 1.0 and 1.5 cm. A microwave radiation system was used to apply microwave energy to each designed antenna, which were located into the phantom. A non-interfering thermometry system was used to measure the temperature increase during the experimentation. Temperature increases, recorded by the thermal sensors placed inside the tumor phantom surrounded by healthy breast phantom, were used to validate the FEM models. The results conclude that, in all the cases, after 240 s, the three types of coaxial slot antenna reached the temperature needed produce hyperthermia of the tumor volume considered in this paper.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030535
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 536: Optimization Design and Experimental
           Testing of a Laser Receiver for Use in a Laser Levelling Control System

    • Authors: Ying Zang, Shibo Meng, Lian Hu, Xiwen Luo, Runmao Zhao, Pan Du, Jinkang Jiao, Hao Huang, Gaolong Chen
      First page: 536
      Abstract: The elevation detection accuracy of the laser receiver in the laser levelling control system directly affects land-levelling operations. To effectively improve the effect of levelling operations and meet the requirements for the accuracy of elevation detection in different industries, this study optimization designed a multilevel adjustable laser receiver. First, we examined the laser signal detection technology and processing circuit, designed the photoelectric conversion array for the detection of the rotating laser, and converted it into a photocurrent signal. We also designed the filter, amplifier, and shaping and stretching circuits for analogue-to-digital conversion of the photocurrent signal. The digital signal was calculated based on the deviation of the elevation by using a microprocessor and was output by a controller area network (CAN) bus. The laser beam spot diameter transmission and diffusion were then studied, and with the detectable spot diameters were compared and analyzed. Accordingly, an algorithm was proposed to calculate the deviation of laser receiver elevation. The resolution of the elevation deviation was set to ±3 mm; however, this value could be adjusted to ±6 mm, ±9 mm, ±12 mm, and ±15 mm, according to the requirements. Finally, the laser receiver was tested and analyzed, and the test results of the elevation detection accuracy showed that when the laser receiver was within a radius of 90 m, the elevation detection accuracy was within the ±3 mm range. The outcomes of the farmland-levelling test showed that the standard deviation S d of the field surface decreased from 9.54 cm before levelling to 2.42 cm after levelling, and the percentage of sampling points associated with absolute errors of ≤3 cm was 84.06%. These outcomes meet the requirements of high-standard farmland construction. The test results of concrete levelling showed that within a radius of 30 m, the standard deviation S d of the elevation adjustment of the left laser receiver was 1.389 mm, and the standard deviation S d of the elevation adjustment of the right laser receiver was 1.316 mm. Furthermore, the percentage of the sampling points associated with absolute elevation adjustment errors of ≤3 mm in the cases of the two laser receivers was 100% after levelling, whereas the standard deviation S d of the sand bed surface was 0.881 mm. Additionally, the percentage of the sampling points associated with absolute errors of ≤3 mm was 100%. This met the construction standards of the concrete industry.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030536
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 537: Object Detection Algorithm Based on
           Improved YOLOv3

    • Authors: Liquan Zhao, Shuaiyang Li
      First page: 537
      Abstract: The ‘You Only Look Once’ v3 (YOLOv3) method is among the most widely used deep learning-based object detection methods. It uses the k-means cluster method to estimate the initial width and height of the predicted bounding boxes. With this method, the estimated width and height are sensitive to the initial cluster centers, and the processing of large-scale datasets is time-consuming. In order to address these problems, a new cluster method for estimating the initial width and height of the predicted bounding boxes has been developed. Firstly, it randomly selects a couple of width and height values as one initial cluster center separate from the width and height of the ground truth boxes. Secondly, it constructs Markov chains based on the selected initial cluster and uses the final points of every Markov chain as the other initial centers. In the construction of Markov chains, the intersection-over-union method is used to compute the distance between the selected initial clusters and each candidate point, instead of the square root method. Finally, this method can be used to continually update the cluster center with each new set of width and height values, which are only a part of the data selected from the datasets. Our simulation results show that the new method has faster convergence speed for initializing the width and height of the predicted bounding boxes and that it can select more representative initial widths and heights of the predicted bounding boxes. Our proposed method achieves better performance than the YOLOv3 method in terms of recall, mean average precision, and F1-score.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030537
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 538: A Modular IoT Hardware Platform for
           Distributed and Secured Extreme Edge Computing

    • Authors: Pablo Merino, Gabriel Mujica, Jaime Señor, Jorge Portilla
      First page: 538
      Abstract: The hardware of networked embedded sensor nodes is in continuous evolution, from those 8-bit MCUs-based platforms such as Mica, up to powerful Edge nodes that even include custom hardware devices, such as FPGAs in the Cookies platform. This evolution process comes up with issues related to the deployment of the Internet of Things, particularly in terms of performance and communication bottlenecks. Moreover, the associated integration process from the Edge up to the Cloud layer opens new security concerns that are key to assure the end-to-end trustability and interoperability. This work tackles these questions by proposing a novel embedded Edge platform based on an EFR32 SoC from Silicon Labs with Contiki-NG OS that includes an ARM Cortex M4 MCU and an IEEE 802.15.4 transceiver, used for resource-constrained low-power communication capabilities. This IoT Edge node integrates security by hardware, adding support for confidentiality, integrity and availability, making this Edge node ultra-secure for most of the common attacks in wireless sensor networks. Part of this security relies on an energy-efficient hardware accelerator that handles identity authentication, session key creation and management. Furthermore, the modular hardware platform aims at providing reliability and robustness in low-power distributed sensing application contexts on what is called the Extreme Edge, and for that purpose a lightweight multi-hop routing strategy for supporting dynamic discovery and interaction among participant devices is fully presented. This embedded algorithm has served as the baseline end-to-end communication capability to validate the IoT hardware platform through intensive experimental tests in a real deployment scenario.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030538
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 539: A Ku-Band RF Front-End Employing Broadband
           Impedance Matching with 3.5 dB NF and 21 dB Conversion Gain in 45-nm CMOS
           Technology

    • Authors: Hafiz Usman Mahmood, Dzuhri Radityo Utomo, Seok-Kyun Han, Jusung Kim, Sang-Gug Lee
      First page: 539
      Abstract: This paper presents a K u -band RF receiver front-end with broadband impedance matching and amplification. The major building blocks of the proposed receiver front-end include a wideband low-noise amplifier (LNA) employing a cascade of resistive feedback inverter (RFI) and transformer-loaded common source amplifier, a down-conversion mixer with push–pull transconductor and complementary LO switching stage, and an output buffer. Push–pull architecture is employed extensively to maximize the power efficiency, bandwidth, and linearity. The proposed two-stage LNA employs the stagger-tuned frequency response in order to extend the RF bandwidth coverage. The input impedance of RFI is carefully analyzed, and a wideband input matching circuit incorporating only a single inductor is presented along with useful equivalent impedance matching models and detailed design analysis. The prototype chip was fabricated in 45-nm CMOS technology and dissipates 78 mW from a 1.2-V supply while occupying chip area of 0.29 mm 2 . The proposed receiver front-end provides 21 dB conversion gain with 7 GHz IF bandwidth, 3.5 dB NF, −15.7 dBm IIP 3 while satisfying <−10 dB input matching over the whole input band.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030539
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 540: Cyber-Physical Co-Simulation of Shipboard
           Integrated Power System Based on Optimized Event-Driven Synchronization

    • Authors: Wu, Fu, Ma, Hao
      First page: 540
      Abstract: As the energy management system (EMS) participates in the closed-loop control of shipboard integrated power system (IPS), the information network of EMS is closely coupled with the power system and its characteristics affect power system performance significantly. To study the close-coupling relationship between the two systems, a cyber–physical co-simulation platform based on the high level architecture (HLA) framework is constructed in this paper. The proposed platform uses PSCAD and OPNET to simulate shipboard power system and information network respectively, and utilizes OPNET HLA nodes and PSCAD user-defined modules to implement co-simulation interfaces. In order to achieve a higher co-simulation precision without impairing efficiency, an optimized event-driven co-simulation synchronization method is also proposed. By pre-defining power system synchronization points and detecting information network synchronization points in the co-simulation process, both systems can be synchronized in time and the synchronization error is eliminated. Furthermore, the co-simulation efficiency is also improved by optimizing the data transmission in the synchronization process. A co-simulation model of shipboard power distribution network protection based on CAN bus communication is built and analyzed. Simulation results show that the proposed co-simulation platform and synchronization method are feasible and effective.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030540
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 541: On the Introduction of Canny Operator in
           an Advanced Imaging Algorithm for Real-Time Detection of Hyperbolas in
           Ground-Penetrating Radar Data

    • Authors: Željko Bugarinović, Lara Pajewski, Aleksandar Ristić, Milan Vrtunski, Miro Govedarica, Mirko Borisov
      First page: 541
      Abstract: This paper focuses on the use of the Canny edge detector as the first step of an advanced imaging algorithm for automated detection of hyperbolic reflections in ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. Since the imaging algorithm aims to work in real time; particular attention is paid to its computational efficiency. Various alternative criteria are designed and examined, to fasten the procedure by eliminating unnecessary edge pixels from Canny-processed data, before such data go through the subsequent steps of the detection algorithm. The effectiveness and reliability of the proposed methodology are tested on a wide set of synthetic and experimental radargrams with promising results. The finite-difference time-domain simulator gprMax is used to generate synthetic radargrams for the tests, while the real radargrams come from GPR surveys carried out by the authors in urban areas. The imaging algorithm is implemented in MATLAB.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9030541
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2020)
       
 
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