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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 186 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 90)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 331)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 288)
ECTI Transactions on Computer and Information Technology (ECTI-CIT)     Open Access  
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access  
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 117)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 97)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 100)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Embedded Systems Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203)
Haptics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 99)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access  
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access  
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access  
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal ELTIKOM : Jurnal Teknik Elektro, Teknologi Informasi dan Komputer     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Magnetics Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Nanotechnology Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Pulse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Revue Méditerranéenne des Télécommunications     Open Access  
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Solid-State Circuits Magazine, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ural Radio Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Wireless Power Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Women in Engineering Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access  

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Journal Cover
Electronics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.548
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 97  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2079-9292
Published by MDPI Homepage  [222 journals]
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 944: A Deep Learning-Based Scatter Correction
           of Simulated X-ray Images

    • Authors: Heesin Lee, Joonwhoan Lee
      First page: 944
      Abstract: X-ray scattering significantly limits image quality. Conventional strategies for scatter reduction based on physical equipment or measurements inevitably increase the dose to improve the image quality. In addition, scatter reduction based on a computational algorithm could take a large amount of time. We propose a deep learning-based scatter correction method, which adopts a convolutional neural network (CNN) for restoration of degraded images. Because it is hard to obtain real data from an X-ray imaging system for training the network, Monte Carlo (MC) simulation was performed to generate the training data. For simulating X-ray images of a human chest, a cone beam CT (CBCT) was designed and modeled as an example. Then, pairs of simulated images, which correspond to scattered and scatter-free images, respectively, were obtained from the model with different doses. The scatter components, calculated by taking the differences of the pairs, were used as targets to train the weight parameters of the CNN. Compared with the MC-based iterative method, the proposed one shows better results in projected images, with as much as 58.5% reduction in root-mean-square error (RMSE), and 18.1% and 3.4% increases in peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity index measure (SSIM), on average, respectively.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090944
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 945: Microwave Imaging by Means of
           Lebesgue-Space Inversion: An Overview

    • Authors: Estatico, Fedeli, Pastorino, Randazzo
      First page: 945
      Abstract: An overview of the recent advancements in the development of microwave imaging procedures based on the exploitation of the regularization theory in Lebesgue spaces is reported in this paper. Such inversion schemes have been found to provide accurate results in several microwave imaging scenarios, thanks to the different geometrical properties that Lebesgue spaces can exhibit with respect to the more classical Hilbert ones. Moreover, the recent extension to the more general case of variable-exponent Lebesgue spaces is also addressed. Experimental results involving reference data are shown for supporting the theoretical description of the approaches.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090945
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 946: Efficiency Analysis and Improvement of an
           Intelligent Transportation System for the Application in Greenhouse

    • Authors: Tianfan Zhang, Weiwen Zhou, Fei Meng, Zhe Li
      First page: 946
      Abstract: In view of the future lack of human resources due to the aging of the population, the automatic, Intelligent Mechatronic Systems (IMSs) and Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) have broad application prospects. However, complex application scenarios and limited open design resources make designing highly efficient ITS systems still a challenging task. In this paper, the optimal load factor solving solution is established. By converting the three user requirements including working distance, time and load into load-related factors, the optimal result can be obtained among system complexity, efficiency and system energy consumption. A specialized visual navigation and motion control system has been proposed to simplify the path planning, navigation and motion control processes and to be accurately calculated in advance, thereby further improving the efficiency of the ITS system. The validity of the efficiency calculation formula and navigation control method proposed in this paper is verified. Under optimal conditions, the actual working mileage is expected to be 99.7%, and the energy consumption is 83.5% of the expected value, which provides sufficient redundancy for the system. In addition, the individual ITS reaches the rated operating efficiency of 95.86%; in other words, one ITS has twice the ability of a single worker. This proves the accuracy and efficiency of the designed ITS system.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090946
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 947: Effect of Annealing Environment on the
           Performance of Sol–Gel-Processed ZrO2 RRAM

    • Authors: Seunghyun Ha, Hyunjae Lee, Won-Yong Lee, Bongho Jang, Hyuk-Jun Kwon, Kwangeun Kim, Jaewon Jang
      First page: 947
      Abstract: We investigate the annealing environment effect on ZrO2-based resistive random-access memory (RRAM) devices. Fabricated devices exhibited conventional bipolar-switching memory properties. In particular, the vacuum-annealed ZrO2 films exhibited larger crystallinity and grain size, denser film, and a relatively small quantity of oxygen vacancies compared with the films annealed in air and N2. These led to a decrease in the leakage current and an increase in the resistance ratio of the high-resistance state (HRS)/low-resistance state (LRS) and successfully improved non-volatile memory properties, such as endurance and retention characteristics. The HRS and LRS values were found to last for 104 s without any significant degradation.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090947
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 948: Design of a 335 GHz Frequency Multiplier
           Source Based on Two Schemes

    • Authors: Jin Meng, Dehai Zhang, Guangyu Ji, Changfei Yao, Changhong Jiang, Siyu Liu
      First page: 948
      Abstract: Based on a W-band high-power source, two schemes are proposed to realize a 335 GHz frequency multiplier source. The first scheme involves producing a 335 GHz signal with a two-stage doubler. The first doubler adopts two-way power-combined technology and the second stage is a 335 GHz doubler using a balanced circuit to suppress the odd harmonics. The measured output power was about 17.9 and 1.5 dBm at 167.5 and 335 GHz, respectively. The other scheme involves producing a 335 GHz signal with a single-stage quadrupler built on 50 µm thick quartz circuit adopting an unbalanced structure. The advantage of the unbalanced structure is that it can provide bias to the diodes without an on-chip capacitor, which is hard to realize with discrete devices. The measured output power was about 5.8 dBm at 337 GHz when driven with 22.9 dBm. Such 335 GHz frequency multiplier sources are widely used in terahertz imaging, radiometers, and so on.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090948
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 949: Machine Learning-Based Relay Selection for
           Secure Transmission in Multi-Hop DF Relay Networks

    • Authors: Tien-Tung Nguyen, Jong-Ho Lee, Minh-Tuan Nguyen, Yong-Hwa Kim
      First page: 949
      Abstract: A relay selection method is proposed for physical-layer security in multi-hop decode-and-forward (DF) relaying systems. In the proposed method, cooperative relays are selected to maximize the achievable secrecy rates under DF-relaying constraints by the classification method. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), which are used for machine learning, are applied to classify the set of cooperative relays based on the channel state information of all nodes. Simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve near-optimal performance for an exhaustive search method for all combinations of relay selection, while computation time are reduced significantly. Furthermore, the proposed method outperforms the best relay selection method, in which the best relay in terms of secrecy performance is selected among active ones.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090949
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 950: Design and Implementation of CPU &
           FPGA Co-Design Tester for SDN Switches

    • Authors: Yue Jiang, Hongyi Chen, Xiangrui Yang, Zhigang Sun, Wei Quan
      First page: 950
      Abstract: The southbound protocol of Software Defined Networking (SDN) enables the direct access into SDN switches which accelerates the innovation and deployment of network functions in the data plane. Correspondingly, SDN switches that support the new southbound protocol and provide high performance are developed continuously. Therefore, there is an increasing need for testing tools to test such equipment in terms of protocol correctness and performance. However, existing tools have deficiencies in flexibility for verifying the novel southbound protocol, time synchronization between the two planes, and supporting more testing functions with less resource consumption. In this paper, we present the concept of CPU & FPGA co-design Tester (CFT) for SDN switches, which provides flexible APIs for test cases of the control plane and high performance for testing functions in the data plane. We put forward an efficient scheduling algorithm to integrate the control plane and the data plane into a single pipeline which fundamentally solves the time asynchronization between these two planes. Due to the reconfigurable feature of our proposed pipeline, it becomes possible to perform different testing functions in one pipeline. Through a prototype implementation and evaluation, we reveal that the proposed CFT can verify the protocol correctness of SDN switches on the control plane while providing no-worse performance for tests on the data plane compared with commercial testers.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090950
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 951: A Single Transformer for Active Cell
           Equalization Method of Lithium-Ion Batteries with Two Times Fewer
           Secondaries than Cells

    • Authors: Ali Farzan Moghaddam, Alex Van den Bossche
      First page: 951
      Abstract: In this paper, the concept of active cell-balancing technique, by using a multiple-outputs double-forward converter for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, is investigated. It controls two times more cells than secondaries, and it equalizes eight cells in a series. In this method, four secondaries can reasonably be wound with the same back electromotive force (EMF). This means a low pin count on the transformer and a low bill of materials (BOM). The bridge uses four N-channel MOSFETs as switches, which means two times fewer transistors than cells, resulting in fewer switching losses. This scheme is applied for controlling the minimum voltage among the cells of the lithium-ion battery. It uses a multi-winding transformer based on a forward double converter structure. Conventional schemes using a multi-winding transformer for electric vehicles (EVs) require an equal number of secondaries per cell. This scheme requires one secondary for two adjacent cells, thus the number of secondaries is reduced by a factor of two. Also, the redistribution of charge from a high cell to a low cell does not require many switching components and little intelligence to determine low cell voltage detection. The basic principle of this method is to use the overall battery pack voltage as a reference to supply individual cells, using a forward converter containing a transformer with a well-chosen winding ratio. The experimental and simulation results are performed to verify the feasibility of the proposed system.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090951
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 952: Design and Performance Analysis of a
           Stand-alone PV System with Hybrid Energy Storage for Rural India

    • Authors: Javed, Ashfaq, Singh, Hussain, Ustun
      First page: 952
      Abstract: The operations of domestic stand-alone Photovoltaic (PV) systems are mostly dependent on storage systems due to changing weather conditions. For electrical energy storage, batteries are widely used in stand-alone PV systems. The performance and life span of batteries depend on charging/discharging cycles. Fluctuation in weather conditions causes batteries to charge/discharge quite often, which decreases the operational life and increases the maintenance cost. This paper proposes a domestic stand-alone PV system with Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) that is a combination of battery and supercapacitor. A new Fuzzy Logic Control Strategy (FHCS) is implemented to control the power flow of the battery and supercapacitor. Simulation studies are performed with real data collected in Sultanpur, India to investigate the proposed system’s performance (Latitude [N] 26.29 and Longitude [E] 82.08). The results show that FHCS successfully controls the power flow of HESS components to increase the system efficiency. The developed system is validated to provide an effective alternative that would enhance the battery life span and reduce the system maintenance cost. While considering the prohibitive upfront costs for rural systems, such an improvement helps to electrify more underserved communities.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090952
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 953: Design of a Solid-State Circuit Breaker
           for a DC Grid-Based Vessel Power System

    • Authors: Lukas Tapia, Igor Baraia-Etxaburu, Juan José Valera, Alain Sanchez-Ruiz, Gonzalo Abad
      First page: 953
      Abstract: Electric propulsion and integrated hybrid power systems can improve the energy efficiency and fuel consumption of different kinds of vessels. If the vessel power system is based on DC grid distribution, some benefits such as higher generator efficiency and lower volume and cost can be achieved. However, some challenges remain in terms of protection devices for this kind of DC grid-based power system. The absence of natural zero crossing in the DC current together with the fast and programmable breaking times required make it challenging. There are several papers related to DC breaker topologies and their role in DC grids; however, it is not easy to find comprehensive information about the design process of the DC breaker itself. In this paper, the basis for the design of a DC solid-state circuit breaker (SSCB) for low voltage vessel DC grids is presented. The proposed SSCB full-scale prototype detects and opens the fault in less than 3 µs. This paper includes theoretical analyses, design guidelines, modeling and simulation, and experimental results.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090953
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 954: Innovative Strategy for Mixer Design
           Optimization Based on gm/ID Methodology

    • Authors: Giovanni Piccinni, Claudio Talarico, Gianfranco Avitabile, Giuseppe Coviello
      First page: 954
      Abstract: This work introduces a process to optimize the design of a down-conversion mixer using an innovative strategy based on the gm/ID methodology. The proposed process relies on a set of technology-oriented lookup tables to optimize the trade-off between gain, power dissipation, noise, and distortion. The design is implemented using a 0.13 μm CMOS technology, and to the best of our knowledge, it possesses the best (post-layout simulation) figure of merit (FOM) among the works presented in literature. The FOM is defined as the product of gain and third-order intercept divided the product between average noise figure and power dissipation. Finally, the core of the mixer takes only 31 µm by 28 µm and it draws a current of 1 mA from the 1.5 V DC supply.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090954
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 955: Effect of Annealing Ambient on SnO2 Thin
           Film Transistors Fabricated via An Ethanol-based Sol-gel Route

    • Authors: Hyunjae Lee, Seunghyun Ha, Jin-Hyuk Bae, In-Man Kang, Kwangeun Kim, Won-Yong Lee, Jaewon Jang
      First page: 955
      Abstract: The effect of annealing ambient on SnO2 thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated via an ethanol-based sol-gel route was investigated. The annealing ambient has a significant effect on the structural characteristics and chemical composition and, in turn, the device performance. Although the crystalline-grain size of the SnO2 films annealed in air was the smallest, this size yielded the highest field-effect mobility. Compared with the minimization of boundary scattering via crystalline-size increase, augmentation of the free carrier concentration played a more critical role in the realization of high-performance devices. The fabricated SnO2 TFTs delivered a field-effect mobility, subthreshold swing, and on/off current ratio of 10.87 cm2/Vs, 0.87 V/decade, and 107, respectively.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090955
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 956: Review of Channel Estimation for Candidate
           Waveforms of Next Generation Networks

    • Authors: Owoicho E. Ijiga, Olayinka O. Ogundile, Ayokunle D. Familua, Daniel J. J. Versfeld
      First page: 956
      Abstract: The advancement in wireless communication applications encourages the use of effective and efficient channel estimation (CE) techniques because of the varying behaviour of the Rayleigh fading channel. In most cases, the emphasis of most proposed CE schemes is to improve the CE performance and complexity for ensuring quality signal reception and improved system throughput. Candidate waveforms whose designs are based on filter bank multi-carrier (FBMC) modulation techniques such as filter bank orthogonal frequency division multiplexing based on offset quadrature amplitude modulation (OFDM-OQAM), universal filtered multicarrier (UFMC) and generalised frequency division multiplexing based on offset quadrature amplitude modulation (GFDM-OQAM) are no exception to the use of these proposed CE techniques in the literature. These schemes are considered as potential waveform candidates for the physical/media access control layer of the emerging fifth generation (5G) networks. Therefore, pinpoint CE techniques represent an important requirement for these waveforms to attain their full potentials. In this regard, this paper reviews the concept of CE as applicable to these waveforms as well as other waveform candidates under consideration in the emerging 5G networks. Since the design of the majority of the waveform candidates is filter based, a review of the general filter design considerations is presented in this paper. Secondly, we review general CE techniques for candidate waveforms of next generation networks and classify some of the studied CE techniques. In particular, we classify the CE schemes used in filter bank OFDM-OQAM and GFDM-OQAM based transceivers and present a performance comparison of some of these CE schemes. Besides, the paper reviews the performances of two linear CE schemes and three adaptive based CE schemes for two FBMC based waveform candidates assuming near perfect reconstruction (NPR) and non-perfect reconstruction (Non-PR) filter designs over slow and fast frequency selective Rayleigh fading channels. The results obtained are documented through computer simulations, where the performances of the studied CE schemes in terms of the normalised mean square error (NMSE) are analysed. Lastly, we summarise the findings of this work and suggest possible research directions in order to improve the potentials of the studied candidate waveforms over Rayleigh fading channels.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090956
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 957: Dynamic Motion Planning for Autonomous
           Assistive Surgical Robots

    • Authors: Alessio Sozzi, Marcello Bonfè, Saverio Farsoni, Giacomo De Rossi, Riccardo Muradore
      First page: 957
      Abstract: The paper addresses the problem of the generation of collision-free trajectories for a robotic manipulator, operating in a scenario in which obstacles may be moving at non-negligible velocities. In particular, the paper aims to present a trajectory generation solution that is fully executable in real-time and that can reactively adapt to both dynamic changes of the environment and fast reconfiguration of the robotic task. The proposed motion planner extends the method based on a dynamical system to cope with the peculiar kinematics of surgical robots for laparoscopic operations, the mechanical constraint being enforced by the fixed point of insertion into the abdomen of the patient the most challenging aspect. The paper includes a validation of the trajectory generator in both simulated and experimental scenarios.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090957
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 958: Programming Protocol-Independent Packet
           Processors High-Level Programming (P4HLP): Towards Unified High-Level
           Programming for a Commodity Programmable Switch

    • Authors: Zijun Hang, Mei Wen, Yang Shi, Chunyuan Zhang
      First page: 958
      Abstract: Network algorithms are building blocks of network applications. They are inspired by emerging commodity programmable switches and the Programming Protocol-Independent Packet Processors (P4) language. P4 aims to provide target-independent programming neglecting the architecture of underlying infrastructure. However, commodity programmable switches have tight programming restrictions due to limited resources and latency. In addition, manufacturers tailor P4 according to their architecture, putting more restrictions on it. These intrinsic and extrinsic restrictions dilute the goal of P4. This paper proposes P4 high-level programming (P4HLP) framework, a suite of toolchains that simplifies P4 programming. The paper highlights three aspects: (i) E-Domino, a high-level programming language that defines both stateless and stateful processing of data plane in C-style codes; (ii) P4HLPc, a compiler that automatically generates P4 programs from E-Domino programs, which removes the barrier between high-level programming and low-level P4 primitives; (iii) modular programming that organizes programs into reusable modules, to enable fast reconfiguration of commodity switches. Results show that P4HLPc is efficient and robust, thus is suitable for data plane high-level programming. Compared with P4, E-Domino saves at least 5.5× codes to express the data plane algorithm. P4HLPc is robust to policy change and topology change. The generated P4 programs achieve line-rate processing.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090958
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 959: Ship Target Detection Algorithm Based on
           Improved Faster R-CNN

    • Authors: Qi, Li, Chen, Wang, Dong, Jia, Huang, Ge, Xue, Wang
      First page: 959
      Abstract: Ship target detection has urgent needs and broad application prospects in military and marine transportation. In order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the ship target detection, an improved Faster R-CNN (Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Network) algorithm of ship target detection is proposed. In the proposed method, the image downscaling method is used to enhance the useful information of the ship image. The scene narrowing technique is used to construct the target regional positioning network and the Faster R-CNN convolutional neural network into a hierarchical narrowing network, aiming at reducing the target detection search scale and improving the computational speed of Faster R-CNN. Furthermore, deep cooperation between main network and subnet is realized to optimize network parameters after researching Faster R-CNN with subject narrowing function and selecting texture features and spatial difference features as narrowed sub-networks. The experimental results show that the proposed method can significantly shorten the detection time of the algorithm while improving the detection accuracy of Faster R-CNN algorithm.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090959
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 960: Microfluidics-Based Four Fundamental
           Electronic Circuit Elements Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor and Memristor

    • Authors: Stojanović, Paroški, Samardžić, Radovanović, Krstić
      First page: 960
      Abstract: The microfluidics domain has been progressing rapidly recently, particularly considering its useful applications in the field of biomedicine. This paper presents a novel, microfluidics-based design for four fundamental circuit elements in electronics, namely resistor, inductor, capacitor, and memristor. These widely used passive components were fabricated using a precise and cost-effective xurography technique, which enables the construction of multi-layered structures on foil, with gold used as a conductive material. To complete their assembly, an appropriate fluid was injected into the microfluidic channel of each component: the resistor, inductor, capacitor, and memristor were charged with transformer oil, ferrofluid, NaCl solution, and TiO2 solution, respectively. The electrical performance of these components was determined using an Impedance Analyzer and Keithley 2410 High-Voltage Source Meter instrument and the observed characteristics are promising for a wide range of applications in the field of microfluidic electronics.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090960
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 961: Design, Analysis, and Modeling of an
           Isolated Constant-Current to Constant-Voltage Converter in Cabled
           Underwater Information Networks

    • Authors: Zhang, Zhou, Wang, Wu
      First page: 961
      Abstract: The underwater electric energy conversion modules are the equipment for distributing electric energy to the electric instruments in the cabled underwater information networks (CUINs), which are also related to the normal and stable operation of the underwater systems, the energy foundation and an important part of the network platform. Based on the classic push-pull high frequency switching circuit of constant voltage conversion, an isolated constant-current to constant-voltage (CC–CV) converter based on pulse width modulation (PWM) feedback was proposed in this paper. Through the theoretical analysis of the working principle of the CC–CV converter and the modeling of the converter circuit based on the state space method, it was verified that the designed converter can achieve the constant current to constant voltage transformation by high-frequency PWM feedback. Based on Saber simulation software, the circuit model of the CC–CV converter was built, and the feasibility of the design was proved by simulation analysis. According to the isolated high-frequency switching CC–CV converter circuit, the physical prototype was made. By adjusting the resistance value of the output load, the constant voltage (CV) characteristic of the output voltage of the converter was analyzed. Furthermore, the results show that the output voltage of the designed CC–CV converter is stable and the ripple of output voltage is less than 5%, when the input current or output load resistance is adjusted under the CC output status, which has the CV output characteristic. The CC–CV converter has good rationality and feasibility, and is suitable for the future development of the constant current remote power supply system of CUINs.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090961
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 962: Three-Dimensional Resource Allocation in
           D2D-Based V2V Communication

    • Authors: Usman Ali Khan, Sang Sun Lee
      First page: 962
      Abstract: Device-to-Device (D2D) communication is the major enabler of Vehicle-to-Everything communication in 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Release 14. The user equipment/device can engage either in direct communication with the infrastructure, use a relay node, or it can communicate directly with another device with or without infrastructure support. The user equipment can be either a hand-held cellular device or a moving vehicle. The coexistence of cellular user equipment with the vehicular user equipment imposes different Quality of Service (QOS) requirements due to the rapid mobility of the vehicles and interference. Resource allocation is an important task by which the user equipment is allocated the required resources based on different QOS parameters. In this paper, we introduced the case of three types of users which share uplink resources: two types of vehicular users, and a third user that acts as a handheld cellular phone, which is nearly static. By keeping in mind, the differential QOS requirements for the three types of users, we have calculated the optimum power and then applied a 3-dimensional graph-based matching and hypergraph coloring based resource block (RB) allocation.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090962
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 963: Impact of Video Compression and Multimodal
           Embedding on Scene Description

    • Authors: Jin Young Lee
      First page: 963
      Abstract: Scene description refers to the automatic generation of natural language descriptions from videos. In general, deep learning-based scene description networks utilize multimodalities, such as image, motion, audio, and label information, to improve the description quality. In particular, image information plays an important role in scene description. However, scene description has a potential issue, because it may handle images with severe compression artifacts. Hence, this paper analyzes the impact of video compression on scene description, and then proposes a simple network that is robust to compression artifacts. In addition, a network cascading more encoding layers for efficient multimodal embedding is also proposed. Experimental results show that the proposed network is more efficient than conventional networks.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090963
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 964: Triple Notches Bandstop Microstrip Filter
           Based on Archimedean Spiral Electromagnetic Bandgap Structure

    • Authors: Xuemei Zheng, Tao Jiang
      First page: 964
      Abstract: With the development of artificial electromagnetic structures, defective grounding structures (DGS), defective microstrip structures (DMS), and electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) have been widely used in the design of microstrip filters. In this paper, a triple notches ultra wideband bandstop microstrip filter based on Archimedean spiral electromagnetic bandgap structure (ASEBG) structure is proposed. Firstly, the equivalent circuit of ASEBG is analyzed, and L and C values are extracted by using Advanced Design System (ADS). Secondly, the correctness of the lumped parameter model is verified by comparing the High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) simulation results with the measured results. Finally, the influence of ASEBG structure parameters on resonant performance is analyzed by HFSS simulation, and the filter parameters are further optimized. By coupling ASEBG structure to existing double notch microstrip filters, a triple notches ultra wideband bandstop microstrip filter is realized. This method can also be used in the design of other microstrip devices with stopband characteristics. The three bandgap center frequencies of the proposed triple notches ultra wideband bandstop microstrip filter are 3.5, 5.2, and 7.4 GHz, respectively. The corresponding maximum attenuation of the three stopbands is 33.6, 24.8, and 21.7 dB, respectively.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090964
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 965: Comparative Analysis of FPGA-Based
           Pair-HMM Accelerator Structures

    • Authors: Pengfei Wang, Yuanwu Lei, Yong Dou
      First page: 965
      Abstract: As one of the most important and computationally-intensive parts in bioinformatics analysis, the Pair Hidden Markov Model (Pair-HMM) forward algorithm is widely recognized and has great potential. Therefore, it is important to accelerate the process of this algorithm. There are various approaches to accelerate Pair-HMM, especially the accelerators stemmed from the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) due to the highly-customizable on-chip resources and deep pipeline potential available to the designer. In this paper, we focus on the FPGA-based accelerators for the Pair-HMM forward algorithm proposed in recent years. The non-cooperation structure, which was proposed in our previous work, is compared with the Systolic Array (SA) structure and PE ring structure in the structure characteristics, calculation mode, computational efficiency, and storage requirement. We build an analysis model to evaluate the performance of the ring structure and our non-cooperative structure. Furthermore, based on this, we provide a detailed analysis of the characteristics of structures of different accelerators and of the selection of a suitable structure for different scenarios. Based on the non-cooperative PE structure, we design a new chain topology for the accelerator. Experimental results show that our non-cooperation structure is superior to the other structures in performance and execution efficiency, and our new topology improves the performance of the accelerator. Finally, we propose some ideas about the improvement of the non-cooperative structure accelerator for future work.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090965
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 966: Privacy-Preserving Consensus over a
           Distributed Network against Eavesdropping Attacks

    • Authors: Dengke Li, Han Zhou, Wen Yang
      First page: 966
      Abstract: Motivated by the increasing risk of data leaks in distributed networks, we consider the privacy-preserving problem in a consensus network in the presence of an eavesdropper who is able to intercept the data transmitted on the network. First, we introduce a consensus protocol with privacy-preserving function, and analyze its convergence and its privacy-preserving effect. Second, we propose a criterion to measure the degree of network privacy leaks in the existence of the eavesdropper. Particularly, we consider the networks with ring topology and small-world topology, where we find a suboptimal eavesdropping strategy that maximizes the probability of privacy leaks. Finally, we verify all the derived results by numerical examples.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090966
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 967: Passive Current Control Design for MMC in
           HVDC Systems through Energy Reshaping

    • Authors: Yiyan Sang, Bo Yang, Hongchun Shu, Na An, Fang Zeng, Tao Yu
      First page: 967
      Abstract: The complexity of the internal dynamics of a modular multi-level converter (MMC) has raised severe issues for designing corresponding controllers. The existing MMC cascaded control strategies, based on classical linear control theory, require a relatively complex structure to achieve control objectives and the parameter tuning processes during the corresponding controller design are normally difficult to solve for the highly non-linear systems with highly coupled states in MMC. On account of this, advanced controllers are required for the regulation tasks of MMC. Passivity is introduced into the MMC control system by the passive control (PC) proposed in this paper. PC can provide an extra damping effect to help save energy through utilizing passivity in the system. A controllable de-coupled form is achieved by passivation of the output calculation. Hence, well-tuned controllers can be designed and employed to effectively regulate the output current and inner differential currents of the MMC under system operating point variation. Simulation results yield numerical data that show significantly improved steady-state and transient-state performances with greatly reduced control costs.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090967
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 968: Dynamic Deep Forest: An Ensemble
           Classification Method for Network Intrusion Detection

    • Authors: Bo Hu, Jinxi Wang, Yifan Zhu, Tan Yang
      First page: 968
      Abstract: Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS) is one of the key technologies to prevent network attacks and data leakage. In combination with machine learning, intrusion detection has achieved great progress in recent years. However, due to the diversity of intrusion types, the representation learning ability of the existing models is still deficient, which limits the further improvement of the detection performance. Meanwhile, with the increasing of model complexity, the training time becomes longer and longer. In this paper, we propose a Dynamic Deep Forest method for network intrusion detection. It uses cascade tree structure to strengthen the representation learning ability. At the same time, the training process is accelerated due to small-scale parameter fitting and dynamic level-growing strategy. The proposed Dynamic Deep Forest is a tree-based ensemble approach and consists of two parts. The first part, Multi-Grained Traversing, uses selectors to pick up features as complete as possible. The selectors are constructed dynamically so that the training process will stop as soon as the optimal feature combination is found. The second part, Cascade Forest, introduces level-by-level tree structures. It has fewer hyper-parameters and follows a dynamic level-growing strategy to reduce model complexity. In experiments, we evaluate our model on network intrusion dataset KDD’99. The results show that the Dynamic Deep Forest method obtains higher recall and precision through a short time of model training. Moreover, the Dynamic Deep Forest method has lower risk of misclassification, which is more stable and reliable in a real network environment.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090968
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 969: Power Efficiency Improvement of
           Three-Phase Split-Output Inverter Using Magnetically Coupled Inductor
           Switching

    • Authors: Yang, Choi
      First page: 969
      Abstract: The conventional three-phase split-output inverter (SOI) has been used for grid-connected applications because it does not require dead time and has no shoot-through problems. Recently, the conventional inverter uses the silicon carbide (SiC) schottky diodes for the freewheeling diodes because of its no reverse-recovery problem. Nevertheless, in a practical design, the SiC schottky diodes suffer from current overshoots and voltage oscillations. These overshoots and oscillations result in switching-power losses, decreasing the power efficiency of the inverter. To alleviate this drawback, we present a three-phase SOI using magnetically coupled inductor switching technique. The magnetically coupled inductor switching technique uses one auxiliary diode and coupled inductor for each switching leg in the three-phase SOI. By the operation of the coupled inductor, the main diode current is shifted to the auxiliary diode without the reverse-recovery process. The proposed inverter reduces switching-power losses by alleviating current overshoots and voltage oscillations of SiC schottky diodes. It achieves higher power efficiency than the conventional inverter. We discuss experimental results for a 1.0 kW prototype inverter to verify the performance of the proposed inverter.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090969
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 970: Research on the System and Control
           Strategy of an AC-DC Hybrid Single-Phase Electric Energy Router

    • Authors: Zhao, Jiang, Liu
      First page: 970
      Abstract: With the extensive development and use of new energy sources, it has become an urgent issue to solve the problem how to effectively use such energy sources. This paper designs a single-phase electric energy router (SPEER) whose main goal is to solve the problem of optimal operation of the home power system under a high penetration rate of new energy. First, a SPEER structure is presented which has an AC-DC hybrid form to meet the power requirements of all household electrical equipment. Compared with the existing structures, its structural design is more suitable for small-capacity systems, such as home power systems. Next, a reasonable, detailed, and feasible control scheme was designed for each part of the SPEER, so that it has the functions of plug and play, power routing, island detection, and synchronous grid connection, and a seamless coordination management scheme between subsystems was designed. Complete functions make it more intelligent in response to various conditions. Finally, the correctness of the designed SPEER and control strategy was verified by experiment.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090970
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 971: An Algorithm for Natural Images Text
           Recognition Using Four Direction Features

    • Authors: Min Zhang, Yujin Yan, Hai Wang, Wei Zhao
      First page: 971
      Abstract: Irregular text has widespread applications in multiple areas. Different from regular text, irregular text is difficult to recognize because of its various shapes and distorted patterns. In this paper, we develop a multidirectional convolutional neural network (MCN) to extract four direction features to fully describe the textual information. Meanwhile, the character placement possibility is extracted as the weight of the four direction features. Based on these works, we propose the encoder to fuse the four direction features for the generation of feature code to predict the character sequence. The whole network is end-to-end trainable due to using images and word-level labels. The experiments on standard benchmarks, including the IIIT-5K, SVT, CUTE80, and ICDAR datasets, demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method on both regular and irregular datasets. The developed method shows an increase of 1.2% in the CUTE80 dataset and 1.5% in the SVT dataset, and has fewer parameters than most existing methods.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090971
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 972: Internet of Things Applications as Energy
           Internet in Smart Grids and Smart Environments

    • Authors: Yasin Kabalci, Ersan Kabalci, Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban, Jens Bo Holm-Nielsen, Frede Blaabjerg
      First page: 972
      Abstract: Energy Internet (EI) has been recently introduced as a new concept, which aims to evolve smart grids by integrating several energy forms into an extremely flexible and effective grid. In this paper, we have comprehensively analyzed Internet of Things (IoT) applications enabled for smart grids and smart environments, such as smart cities, smart homes, smart metering, and energy management infrastructures to investigate the development of the EI based IoT applications. These applications are promising key areas of the EI concept, since the IoT is considered one of the most important driving factors of the EI. Moreover, we discussed the challenges, open issues, and future research opportunities for the EI concept based on IoT applications and addressed some important research areas.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090972
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 973: Parameters Design and Optimization of a
           High Frequency, Interleaved, Dual-Buck, Bidirectional, Grid-Connected
           Converter

    • Authors: Yulu Cui, Yifeng Wang, Xiaoyong Ma
      First page: 973
      Abstract: In this paper, a high frequency, interleaved, dual-buck, bidirectional, grid-connected converter topology is proposed. Free from the straight-through and dead-time distortion issues, both higher switching frequency and power density can be achieved. Due to the interleaved technique, the current ripple and stress for inductors and other power devices can be effectively reduced. Moreover, a novel filter parameter design method is proposed. The method is optimized with smaller inductance, higher filtering performance, and better steady-state performance. For one thing, the performance requirements under the two states of inverter and rectifier are comprehensively considered. For another, the relationship between the performance indexes and the filter parameters is analyzed. However, the results show that the relationship between the performance indexes is contradictory. A set of optimization parameters were obtained by setting the priority of the filter performance index. The specific design process of the filter parameters is given in detail. In order to verify the rationality of the parameter design, a 5 kW prototype was built and tested. The total harmonic distortions (THDs) of the grid currents in the among grid-connected inverter, off-connected inverter, and rectifier states under full load were 2.7%, 1.2%, and 4.5%, respectively, and the power density reached 36 W/in3.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090973
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 974: A Novel 3D Encapsulation Structure Based
           on Subwavelength Structure and Inserted Pyrex Glass for RF MEMS Infrared
           Detectors

    • Authors: Jicong Zhao, Mingmin Ge, Chenguang Song, Ling Sun, Haiyan Sun
      First page: 974
      Abstract: A novel wafer-level three-dimensional (3D) encapsulation structure was designed for radio-frequency microelectromechanical system (RF MEMS) infrared detectors and investigated by using the finite element method (FEM) simulation. A subwavelength structure with a circular array of coaxial apertures was designed to obtain an extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) on top of a silicon substrate. For perpendicular incident light, a maximum transmission of 56% can be achieved in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) region and the transmission bandwidth covered almost the full LWIR region. Moreover, the maximum transmission could be further promoted with an increase in the incident angle. The vertical silicon vias, insulated by inserted Pyrex glass, were used to generate electrical contacts. With the optimized structure parameters, a feed-through level lower than −82 dB, and a transmission coefficient of one single via of more than −0.032 dB were obtained at a frequency from 0 to 2 GHz, which contributed to the low-loss transmission of the RF signals. Due to the matched thermal expansion coefficients (TECs) between silicon and Pyrex glass, the proposed via structure has excellent thermal reliability. Moreover, its thermal stress is much less than that of a conventional through-silicon via (TSV) structure. These calculated results demonstrate that the proposed 3D encapsulation structure shows enormous potential in RF MEMS infrared detector applications.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090974
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 975: A Watermarking Technique for Biomedical
           Images Using SMQT, Otsu, and Fuzzy C-Means

    • Authors: Shaekh Hasan Shoron, Monamy Islam, Jia Uddin, Dongkoo Shon, Kichang Im, Jeong-Ho Park, Dong-Sun Lim, Byungtae Jang, Jong-Myon Kim
      First page: 975
      Abstract: Digital watermarking is a process of giving security from unauthorized use. To protect the data from any kind of misuse while transferring, digital watermarking is the most popular authentication technique. This paper proposes a novel digital watermarking scheme for biomedical images. In the model, initially, the biomedical image is preprocessed using improved successive mean quantization transform (SMQT) which uses the Otsu’s threshold value. In the next phase, the image is segmented using Otsu and Fuzzy c-means. Afterwards, the watermark is embedded in the image using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and inverse DWT (IDWT). Finally, the watermark is extracted from the biomedical image by executing the inverse operation of the embedding process. Experimental results exhibit that the proposed digital watermarking scheme outperforms the typical models in terms of effectiveness and imperceptibility while maintaining robustness against different attacks by demonstrating a lower bit error rate (BER), a cross-correlation value closer to one, and higher values of structural similarity index measures (SSIM) and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR).
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090975
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 976: Low-Profile Frequency Reconfigurable
           Antenna for Heterogeneous Wireless Systems

    • Authors: Amjad Iqbal, Amor Smida, Lway Faisal Abdulrazak, Omar A. Saraereh, Nazih Khaddaj Mallat, Issa Elfergani, Sunghwan Kim
      First page: 976
      Abstract: A low-profile (0.21 λ g × 0.35 λ g × 0.02 λ g ) and a simply-structured frequency-switchable antenna with eight frequency choices is presented in this paper. The radiating structure (monopole) is printed on a 1.6-mm thicker, commercially-available substrate of FR-4 ( ϵ r = 4.4, tan δ = 0.020). Specifically, it uses three PIN diodes in the designated places to shift the resonant bands of the antenna. The antenna operates at four different modes depending on the ON and OFF states of the PIN diodes. While in each mode, the antenna covers two unique frequencies (Mode 1 = 1.8 and 3.29 GHz, Mode 2 = 2.23 and 3.9 GHz, Mode 3 = 2.4 and 4.55 GHz, and Mode 4 = 2.78 and 5.54 GHz). The performance results show that the proposed antenna scheme explores significant gain (>1.5 dBi in all modes) and reasonable efficiency (>82% in all modes) for each mode. Using a high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS), the switchable antenna is designed and optimized. The fabricated model along with the PIN diode and biasing network is tested experimentally to validate the simulation results. The proposed antenna may also be combined in compact and heterogeneous radio frequency (RF) front-ends because of its small geometry and efficient utilization of the frequency spectrum.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090976
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 977: Investigation of Induced Charge Mechanism
           on a Rod Electrode

    • Authors: Li, Li, Cheng, Feng
      First page: 977
      Abstract: Rod electrodes based on an electrostatic induction mechanism are widely used in various industrial applications, but the analytic solution of an induced charge mechanism on a metal rod electrode has not yet been systematically established. In this paper, the theoretical model of the induced charge on a rod electrode is obtained through the method of images. Then, the properties of the rod electrode under the action of the point charge are studied, including the induced charge density distribution on the rod electrode, the amount of the induced charge with different diameters and lengths of the electrode, and the effective space region induced by the electrode. On this basis, a theoretical model of the induced current on a rod electrode is established, which is used to study the induced current properties by a moving point charge. It is found that both the magnitude and bandwidth of the induced current increase with the increased point charge velocity. Finally, three experimental studies are conducted, and the experimental results show good consistency with the analysis of the theoretical model, verifying the correctness, and accuracy of the model. In addition, the induced charge mechanism studied in this paper can act as an effective basis for the rod electrode sensor design in terms of the optimal radius and length.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090977
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 978: Multi-Point Collaborative Authentication
           Method Based on User Image Intelligent Collection in the Internet of
           Things

    • Authors: Yunfa Li, Yifei Tu, Jiawa Lu
      First page: 978
      Abstract: With the increasing demand for intelligent services of the Internet of Things (IoT), its security issues have attracted widespread attention recently. Since most of the existing identity authentication policies are based on a single authentication mode, they are highly likely to cause problems such as illegal operation and stealing of sensor information. In order to meet the needs of increasing IoT users for the security management of intelligent services, a multi-point collaborative authentication method based on user image intelligent collection for the security problems faced by IoT in identity authentication is proposed in the paper. This method firstly collects the identity of the legal user through the intelligent collection technology and then realizes the identity authentication of the unidentified user through the collaborative authentication between the local domain management machine, the back-end image management machine, and the cloud server. Compared with the traditional single identity authentication method, our method uses three-party collaborative authentication to avoid the problem of sensor information stealing easily caused by a single authentication method, which makes the user’s identity authentication more secure and effective. The security analysis shows that the method is able to resist multiple attacks and prevent the sensor information from being illegally operated and stolen, protecting the security of the sensor information.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090978
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 979: A Non-Linear Autoregressive Model for
           Indoor Air-Temperature Predictions in Smart Buildings

    • Authors: Alessandro Aliberti, Lorenzo Bottaccioli, Enrico Macii, Santa Di Cataldo, Andrea Acquaviva, Edoardo Patti
      First page: 979
      Abstract: In recent years, the contrast against energy waste and pollution has become mandatory and widely endorsed. Among the many actors at stake, the building sector energy management is one of the most critical. Indeed, buildings are responsible for 40 % of total energy consumption only in Europe, affecting more than a third of the total pollution produced. Therefore, energy control policies of buildings (for example, forecast-based policies such as Demand Response and Demand Side Management) play a decisive role in reducing energy waste. On these premises, this paper presents an innovative methodology based on Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology for smart building indoor air-temperature forecasting. In detail, our methodology exploits a specialized Non-linear Autoregressive neural network for short- and medium-term predictions, envisioning two different exploitation: (i) on realistic artificial data and (ii) on real data collected by IoT devices deployed in the building. For this purpose, we designed and optimized four neural models, focusing respectively on three characterizing rooms and on the whole building. Experimental results on both a simulated and a real sensors dataset demonstrate the prediction accuracy and robustness of our proposed models.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090979
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 980: A Novel Iterative Discrete Estimation
           Algorithm for Low-Complexity Signal Detection in Uplink Massive MIMO
           Systems

    • Authors: Hui Feng, Xiaoqing Zhao, Zhengquan Li, Song Xing
      First page: 980
      Abstract: In this paper, a novel iterative discrete estimation (IDE) algorithm, which is called the modified IDE (MIDE), is proposed to reduce the computational complexity in MIMO detection in uplink massive MIMO systems. MIDE is a revision of the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM)-based algorithm, in which a self-updating method is designed with the damping factor estimated and updated at each iteration based on the Euclidean distance between the iterative solutions of the IDE-based algorithm in order to accelerate the algorithm’s convergence. Compared to the existing ADMM-based detection algorithm, the overall computational complexity of the proposed MIDE algorithm is reduced from O N t 3 + O N r N t 2 to O N t 2 + O N r N t in terms of the number of complex-valued multiplications, where Ntand Nr are the number of users and the number of receiving antennas at the base station (BS), respectively. Simulation results show that the proposed MIDE algorithm performs better in terms of the bit error rate (BER) than some recently-proposed approximation algorithms in MIMO detection of uplink massive MIMO systems.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090980
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 981: 5G Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency
           Communication Implementation Challenges and Operational Issues with IoT
           Devices

    • Authors: Siddiqi, Yu, Joung
      First page: 981
      Abstract: To meet the diverse industrial and market demands, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has classified the fifth-generation (5G) into ultra-reliable low latency communications (URLLC), enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), and massive machine-type communications (mMTC). Researchers conducted studies to achieve the implementation of the mentioned distributions efficiently, within the available spectrum. This paper aims to highlight the importance of URLLC in accordance with the approaching era of technology and industry requirements. While highlighting a few implementation issues of URLLC, concerns for the Internet of things (IoT) devices that depend on the low latency and reliable communications of URLLC are also addressed. In this paper, the recent progress of 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standardization and the implementation of URLLC are included. Finally, the research areas that are open for further investigation in URLLC implementation are highlighted, and efficient implementation of URLLC is discussed.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090981
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 982: Performance-Aware Scheduling of Parallel
           Applications on Non-Dedicated Clusters

    • Authors: Alberto Cascajo, David E. Singh, Jesus Carretero
      First page: 982
      Abstract: This work presents a HPC framework that provides new strategies for resource management and job scheduling, based on executing different applications in shared compute nodes, maximizing platform utilization. The framework includes a scalable monitoring tool that is able to analyze the platform’s compute node utilization. We also introduce an extension of CLARISSE, a middleware for data-staging coordination and control on large-scale HPC platforms that uses the information provided by the monitor in combination with application-level analysis to detect performance degradation in the running applications. This degradation, caused by the fact that the applications share the compute nodes and may compete for their resources, is avoided by means of dynamic application migration. A description of the architecture, as well as a practical evaluation of the proposal, shows significant performance improvements up to 20% in the makespan and 10% in energy consumption compared to a non-optimized execution.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090982
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 983: Soft-Switching Bidirectional Three-Level
           DC–DC Converter with Simple Auxiliary Circuit

    • Authors: Woo-Young Choi, Min-Kwon Yang
      First page: 983
      Abstract: This paper suggests a soft-switching bidirectional three-level DC–DC converter with a simple auxiliary circuit. The proposed converter uses auxiliary LC resonant circuits so that the power switches operate under a soft-switching condition. The resonant operation of the LC circuits makes power switches turn on at zero voltage, eliminating the turn-on switching power losses. The proposed converter improves the power efficiency, not using complex power switching circuits, but using simple LC resonant circuits. The operation of the proposed converter is described according to its operation modes. Experimental results for a 1.0 kW prototype are discussed to verify its performance. The proposed converter achieved the power efficiencies of 97.7% in the step-up mode and 97.8% in the step-down mode, respectively, for the rated load condition.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-03
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090983
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 984: Correction: Qiao, D. et al. M3C:
           Multimodel-and-Multicue-Based Tracking by Detection of Surrounding Vessels
           in Maritime Environment for USV. Electronics 2019, 8, 723

    • Authors: Dalei Qiao, Guangzhong Liu, Jun Zhang, Qiangyong Zhang, Gongxing Wu, Feng Dong
      First page: 984
      Abstract: The authors wish to make the following corrections to our published paper [...]
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-03
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090984
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 985: Estimation of Displacement for Internet of
           Things Applications with Kalman Filter

    • Authors: Renato Ferrero, Filippo Gandino, Masoud Hemmatpour
      First page: 985
      Abstract: In the vision of the Internet of Things, an object embedded in the physical world is recognizable and becomes smart by communicating data about itself and by accessing aggregate information from other devices. One of the most useful types of information for interactions among objects regards their movement. Mobile devices can infer their position by exploiting an embedded accelerometer. However, the double integration of the acceleration may not guarantee a reliable estimation of the displacement of the device (i.e., the difference in the new location). In fact, noise and measurement errors dramatically affect the assessment. This paper investigates the benefits and drawbacks of the use of the Kalman filter as a correction technique to achieve more precise estimation of displacement. The approach is evaluated with two accelerometers embedded in commercial devices: A smartphone and a sensor platform. The results show that the technique based on the Kalman filter dramatically reduces the percentage error, in comparison to the assessment made by double integration of the acceleration data; in particular, the precision is improved by up to 72%. At the same time, the computational overhead due to the Kalman filter can be assumed to be negligible in almost all application scenarios.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-04
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090985
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 986: A Novel Offset and Finite-Gain Compensated
           Switched-Capacitor Amplifier with Input Correlated Level Shifting

    • Authors: Yan Chen, Yousheng Chen, Yan Guo, Chunxia Li
      First page: 986
      Abstract: A novel offset and finite-gain compensated differential switched-capacitor(SC) amplifier is presented. Incorporating the correlated double sampling (CDS) technique and input correlated level shifting (CLS) technique together, the DC offset and DC gain error of SC amplifier are further reduced by a factor of op-amp DC gain compared with the conventional offset and finite-gain compensated SC amplifier. The effectiveness of the new scheme has been analyzed and verified by extensive simulations. An SC amplifier with the proposed scheme is designed in 130 nm CMOS technology. Simulated results show that with an op-amp having a low DC gain of 30 dB and an input offset of 10 mV, the proposed SC amplifier achieves an output offset and DC-gain error of 154 µV and 0.05%, respectively, which are significantly improved compared with 1.155 mV and 0.42% achieved in the conventional SC amplifier.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-04
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090986
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 987: A Deep Learning Model for Snoring
           Detection and Vibration Notification Using a Smart Wearable Gadget

    • Authors: Tareq Khan
      First page: 987
      Abstract: Snoring, a form of sleep-disordered breathing, interferes with sleep quality and quantity, both for the person who snores and often for the person who sleeps with the snorer. Poor sleep caused by snoring can create significant physical, mental, and economic problems. A simple and natural solution for snoring is to sleep on the side, instead of sleeping on the back. In this project, a deep learning model for snoring detection is developed and the model is transferred to an embedded system—referred to as the listener module—to automatically detect snoring. A novel wearable gadget is developed to apply a vibration notification on the upper arm until the snorer sleeps on the side. The gadget is rechargeable, and it is wirelessly connected to the listener module using low energy Bluetooth. A smartphone app—connected to the listener module using home Wi-Fi—is developed to log the snoring events with timestamps, and the data can be transferred to a physician for treating and monitoring diseases such as sleep apnea. The snoring detection deep learning model has an accuracy of 96%. A prototype system consisting of the listener module, the wearable gadget, and a smartphone app has been developed and tested successfully.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-04
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090987
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 988: Analytical Current-Voltage Model for
           Gate-All-Around Transistor with Poly-Crystalline Silicon Channel

    • Authors: Seon, Kim, Kim, Jeon
      First page: 988
      Abstract: Poly-crystalline silicon channel transistors have been used as a display TFT for a long time and have recently been used in a 3D vertical NAND Flash which is a transistor with 2D plane NAND upright. In addition, multi-gate transistors such as FinFETs and a gate-all-around (GAA) structure has been used to suppress the short-channel effects for logic/analog and memory applications. Compact models for poly-crystalline silicon (poly-silicon) channel planar TFTs and single crystalline silicon channel GAA MOSFETs have been developed separately, however, there are few models consider these two physics at the same time. In this work, we derived new analytical current-voltage model for GAA transistor with poly-silicon channel by considering the cylindrical coordinates and the grain boundary effect. Based on the derived formula, the compact I-V model for various operating regions and threshold voltage was proposed for the first time. The proposed model was compared with the measured data and good agreements were observed.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-04
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090988
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 989: Comparison of CNN Applications for
           RSSI-based Fingerprint Indoor Localization

    • Authors: Sinha, Hwang
      First page: 989
      Abstract: The intelligent use of deep learning (DL) techniques can assist in overcoming noise and uncertainty during fingerprinting-based localization. With the rise in the available computational power on mobile devices, it is now possible to employ DL techniques, such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs), for smartphones. In this paper, we introduce a CNN model based on received signal strength indicator (RSSI) fingerprint datasets and compare it with different CNN application models, such as AlexNet, ResNet, ZFNet, Inception v3, and MobileNet v2, for indoor localization. The experimental results show that the proposed CNN model can achieve a test accuracy of 94.45% and an average location error as low as 1.44 m. Therefore, our CNN model outperforms conventional CNN applications for RSSI-based indoor positioning.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-04
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090989
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 990: ProMo: A Probabilistic Model for Dynamic
           Load-Balanced Scheduling of Data Flows in Cloud Systems

    • Authors: Stavros Souravlas
      First page: 990
      Abstract: An important issue in cloud computing is the balanced flow of big data centers, which usually transfer huge amounts of data. Thus, it is crucial to achieve dynamic, load-balanced data flow distributions that can take into account the possible change of states in the network. A number of scheduling techniques for achieving load balancing have therefore been proposed. To the best of my knowledge, there is no tool that can be used independently for different algorithms, in order to model the proposed system (network topology, linking and scheduling algorithm) and use its own probability-based parameters to test it for good balancing and scheduling performance. In this paper, a new, Probabilistic Model (ProMo) for data flows is proposed, which can be used independently with a number of techniques to test the most important parameters that determine good load balancing and scheduling performance in the network. In this work, ProMo is only used for testing with two well-known dynamic data flow scheduling schemes, and the experimental results verify the fact that it is indeed suitable for testing the performance of load-balanced scheduling algorithms.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090990
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 991: Security Analysis for CBTC Systems under
           Attack–Defense Confrontation

    • Authors: Wenhao Wu, Bing Bu
      First page: 991
      Abstract: Communication-based train controls (CBTC) systems play a major role in urban rail transportation. As CBTC systems are no longer isolated from the outside world but use other networks to increase efficiency and improve productivity, they are exposed to huge cyber threats. This paper proposes a generalized stochastic Petri net (GSPN) model to capture dynamic interaction between the attacker and the defender to evaluate the security of CBTC systems. Depending on the characteristics of the system and attack–defense methods, we divided our model into two phases: penetration and disruption. In each phase, we provided effective means of attack and corresponding defensive measures, and the system state was determined correspondingly. Additionally, a semiphysical simulation platform and game model were proposed to assist the GSPN model parameterization. With the steady-state probability of the system output from the model, we propose several indicators for assessing system security. Finally, we compared the security of the system with single defensive measures and multiple defensive measures. Our evaluations indicated the significance of the defensive measures and the seriousness of the system security situation.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090991
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 992: A Voltage-Based Hierarchical Diagnosis
           Approach for Open-Circuit Fault of Two-Level Traction Converters

    • Authors: Jingrong Zhang, Tao Peng, Chao Yang, Zhiwen Chen, Hongwei Tao, Chunhua Yang
      First page: 992
      Abstract: This paper proposes a voltage-based hierarchical diagnosis approach for insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) open-circuit fault of two-level AC-DC-AC traction converters. The proposed approach can diagnose the open-circuit fault in the single-phase rectifier as well as in the three-phase inverter without extra sensors. Moreover, no mandatory control signal injection is required, which ensures safe operation. In addition, the different levels of diagnostic results are flexibly determined by the presented hierarchical diagnosis architecture, which depends on the market requirements of wide use of IGBT modules. To be specific, firstly, a mixed-logic-dynamic estimation model of DC-link voltage is established. Secondly, the diagnosis characteristic function (DCF) is constructed by way of a residual characteristic analysis under normal and various open-circuit fault cases. Thirdly, the vector angular similarity function (VASF) is calculated for leg-level diagnosis and the control signals switching matching method is used to locate the fault in the device-level. Finally, the experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090992
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 993: Design of Efficient Perspective Affine
           Motion Estimation/Compensation for Versatile Video Coding (VVC) Standard

    • Authors: Young-Ju Choi, Dong-San Jun, Won-Sik Cheong, Byung-Gyu Kim
      First page: 993
      Abstract: The fundamental motion model of the conventional block-based motion compensation in High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) is a translational motion model. However, in the real world, the motion of an object exists in the form of combining many kinds of motions. In Versatile Video Coding (VVC), a block-based 4-parameter and 6-parameter affine motion compensation (AMC) is being applied. In natural videos, in the majority of cases, a rigid object moves without any regularity rather than maintains the shape or transform with a certain rate. For this reason, the AMC still has a limit to compute complex motions. Therefore, more flexible motion model is desired for new video coding tool. In this paper, we design a perspective affine motion compensation (PAMC) method which can cope with more complex motions such as shear and shape distortion. The proposed PAMC utilizes perspective and affine motion model. The perspective motion model-based method uses four control point motion vectors (CPMVs) to give degree of freedom to all four corner vertices. Besides, the proposed algorithm is integrated into the AMC structure so that the existing affine mode and the proposed perspective mode can be executed adaptively. Because the block with the perspective motion model is a rectangle without specific feature, the proposed PAMC shows effective encoding performance for the test sequence containing irregular object distortions or dynamic rapid motions in particular. Our proposed algorithm is implemented on VTM 2.0. The experimental results show that the BD-rate reduction of the proposed technique can be achieved up to 0.45% and 0.30% on Y component for random access (RA) and low delay P (LDP) configurations, respectively.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090993
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 994: Flexibly Extensible Planar Self-Isolated
           Wideband MIMO Antenna for 5G Communications

    • Authors: Li, Wei, Tan, Lei, Wu, Huang, Gong
      First page: 994
      Abstract: A planar flexibly extensible multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) antenna array with a self-isolation property is proposed. The main characteristics of the proposed array are: (i) no extra isolation structure is required to improve isolation between elements; (ii) elements are arranged with each other with a spacing of 0 mm, (iii) the configuration can be flexibly extended to a large antenna array according to actual requirements. For a test example, the practical processing and testing of an eight-element array is conducted. The tested results demonstrate that the proposed design possesses wide impedance bandwidth (IBW) of 65% and very good isolation (>18 dB) across the operating bandwidth, which match well with the simulated ones. Moreover, envelope correlation coefficient (ECC) is calculated to valuate MIMO performance; an acceptable ECC (lower than 0.05) suggests that the proposed configuration has good diversity performance and can be a potential candidate for MIMO communications.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090994
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 995: Non-Cooperative Spectrum Access Strategy
           Based on Impatient Behavior of Secondary Users in Cognitive Radio Networks
           

    • Authors: Zeng, Liu, Wang, Lan
      First page: 995
      Abstract: In the cognitive radio network (CRN), secondary users (SUs) compete for limited spectrum resources, so the spectrum access process of SUs can be regarded as a non-cooperative game. With enough artificial intelligence (AI), SUs can adopt certain spectrum access strategies through their learning ability, so as to improve their own benefit. Taking into account the impatience of the SUs with the waiting time to access the spectrum and the fact that the primary users (PUs) have preemptive priority to use the licensed spectrum in the CRN, this paper proposed the repairable queueing model with balking and reneging to investigate the spectrum access. Based on the utility function from an economic perspective, the relationship between the Nash equilibrium and the socially optimal spectrum access strategy of SUs was studied through the analysis of the system model. Then a reasonable spectrum pricing scheme was proposed to maximize the social benefits. Simulation results show that the proposed access mechanism can realize the consistency of Nash equilibrium strategy and social optimal strategy to maximize the benefits of the whole cognitive system.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090995
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 996: Modeling and Analysis of an
           Electromagnetic Fully Variable Valve Train with a Magnetorheological
           Buffer

    • Authors: Zhu, Liu, Guo, Xu, Hou, Niu
      First page: 996
      Abstract: Electromagnetic fully variable valve train (EMVT) technology promises to improve the fuel economy and optimize the engine performance. A novel EMVT equipped with a magnetorheological buffer (EMVT with MR buffer) is proposed to suppress the valve seating impact in this paper. The magnetorheological buffer can adjust the damping characteristics of the whole system in the seating process. Valve precise motion control and better seating performance can be achieved through the coordinated control of electromagnetic linear actuator (EMLA) and MR buffer. For better analysis of system performance, establishing an accurate system dynamic model is the basis of the coordinated control system. A high-order nonlinear precise model integrating dynamics, electromagnetism, and fluid mechanic was established. Then, the Jacobi linearization model is carried out at the equilibrium seating point to build a control-oriented linearized model. The correctness and accuracy of the linearized model is verified. Experiments and simulations show that the valve precise motion can be well controlled to achieve fully variable actuation. And the valve soft landing can be completed under collaborative control.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090996
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 997: Evolutionary-Fuzzy-Integral-Based
           Convolutional Neural Networks for Facial Image Classification

    • Authors: Lin, Lin, Sun, Wang
      First page: 997
      Abstract: Various optimization methods and network architectures are used by convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Each optimization method and network architecture style have their own advantages and representation abilities. To make the most of these advantages, evolutionary-fuzzy-integral-based convolutional neural networks (EFI-CNNs) are proposed in this paper. The proposed EFI-CNNs were verified by way of face classification of age and gender. The trained CNNs’ outputs were set as inputs of a fuzzy integral. The classification results were operated using either Sugeno or Choquet output rules. The conventional fuzzy density values of the fuzzy integral were decided by heuristic experiments. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO) was used to adaptively find optimal fuzzy density values. To combine the advantages of each CNN type, the evaluation of each CNN type in EFI-CNNs is necessary. Three CNN structures, AlexNet, very deep convolutional neural network (VGG16), and GoogLeNet, and three databases, computational intelligence application laboratory (CIA), Morph, and cross-age celebrity dataset (CACD2000), were used in experiments to classify age and gender. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieved 5.95% and 3.1% higher accuracy, respectively, in classifying age and gender.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090997
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 998: A Fast Hybrid Beamforming Scheme for
           High-Speed Railway Communications

    • Authors: Yu Xiao, Gang Qiu, Yafeng Wang
      First page: 998
      Abstract: With the increasingly demand for reliable mobile communication service in the high-speed railway (HSR) system, the service stability of HSR communication is of great concern in recent research. Focusing on ensuring the quality of services (QoS) and system throughput, massive multi-input multi-output (massive MIMO) and beamforming technologies have been widely applied. In this paper, aiming to minimize the communication outage probability (OP) and not to decrease spectrum efficiency (SE) too much, we propose a fast HBF (F-HBF) scheme for HSR communications. The proposed scheme uses a low-complexity beam-searching algorithm to trace high-speed trains in real time. The simulation results verify that the proposed scheme can significantly reduce OP without too much SE degradation.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090998
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 999: DC-AC Isolated Power Converter Array.
           Focus on Differential Mode Conducted EMI

    • Authors: Jean-Christophe CREBIER, Thanh-Hai PHUNG, Van-Sang NGUYEN, Theo LAMORELLE, Andre ANDRETA, Lyubomir KẺACHEV, Yves LEMBEYE
      First page: 999
      Abstract: This paper introduces the implementation of a DC–AC step up isolated converter from associations of bidirectional Conversion Standard Cells (CSCs). The designed multi-cell converter is an array of standardized converter cells. It is described and then compared to a reference converter with respect to differential mode conducted electro-magnetic interference (EMI). The paper outlines the motivation for developing a generic multi-cell approach before underlining the benefits from the point of view of conducted EMI when implementing power converter arrays (PCAs). In particular, it is shown that in PCAs, the differential mode (DM) EMI filter can advantageously utilize distributed CSCs, making it possible to use very low value AC inductors to filter the AC current ripple. Experimental results are provided to validate the analysis carried out in the paper.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8090999
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1000: Marginal Component Analysis of ECG
           Signals for Beat-to-Beat Detection of Ventricular Late Potentials

    • Authors: Cataldo Guaragnella, Maria Rizzi, Agostino Giorgio
      First page: 1000
      Abstract: Heart condition diagnosis based on electrocardiogram signal analysis is the basic method used in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, which are recognized as the leading cause of death globally. To anticipate the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmia, the detection of Ventricular Late Potentials (VLPs) is clinically worthwhile. VLPs are low-amplitude and high-frequency signals appearing at the end part of QRS complexes in the electrocardiogram, which can be considered as a robust feature for arrhythmia risk stratification in patients with cardiac diseases. This paper proposes a beat-to-beat VLP detection method based on the the marginal component analysis and investigates its performance taking into account different ratios between QRS and VLP power. After a denoising phase, performed adopting the singular vector decomposition technique, heartbeats characterized by VLP onsets are identified and extracted taking into account the vector magnitude of each high resolution ECG (HR-ECG) record. To evaluate the proposed method performance, a 15-lead HR-ECG database consisting of real VLP-negative and simulated VLP-positive patterns was used. The achieved results highlight the method validity for VLP detection.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091000
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1001: Area-Efficient Early-Termination
           Technique for Belief-Propagation Polar Decoders

    • Authors: Choi, Yoo
      First page: 1001
      Abstract: Early-termination techniques for a belief-propagation (BP) decoder of polar codes can improve the decoding throughput by finishing a decoding iteration when an early-termination condition is satisfied. In the BP decoders, the early-termination condition plays an important role, as it affects decoding iteration savings. In this letter, an area-efficient early-termination criterion is proposed, which simplifies the previous threshold-based termination condition by completely eliminating redundant computations. According to the experimental results, the proposed structure for (1024, 512) polar codes can reduce 72.7%, 66.5%, and 59.7% of hardware resources without any degradation in the error-correction performance and decoding throughput compared to the previous threshold-based, information-BER (bit error rate)-based, and frozen-BER-based early-termination techniques, respectively.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091001
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1002: Nonintrusive Load Monitoring Based on
           Complementary Features of Spurious Emissions

    • Authors: Donglin Su, Qian Shi, Hui Xu, Wang Wang
      First page: 1002
      Abstract: In this paper, a novel method that utilizes the fractional correlation-based algorithm and the B-spline curve fitting-based algorithm is proposed to extract the complementary features for detecting the operating states of appliances. The identification of appliance operating states is one of the key parts for nonintrusive load monitoring (NILM). Considering the individual spurious emissions generated because of nonlinear components in each electronic device, the spurious emissions from the power cord can be picked up to solve the problem of data storage. Five types of common household appliances are considered in this study. The fractional correlation-based algorithm and B-spline curve fitting-based algorithm are used to extract two groups of complementary features from the spurious emissions of those five types of appliances. The experimental results show that the feature vectors extracted using the proposed method are obviously distinguishable. In addition, the features extracted show a good long-time stability, which is verified through a five-day experiment. Finally, based on support vector machine (SVM) and Dempster–Shafer (D-S) evidence theory, the identification accuracy reaches 85.5% using a combining classifier incorporated with the features extracted from the proposed methods.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-07
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091002
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1003: Data Processing and Wearable Systems for
           Effective Human Monitoring

    • Authors: Alberto Greco, Antonio Lanata, Nicola Vanello
      First page: 1003
      Abstract: The last few decades have seen an unrestrained diffusion of smart-integrated technologies that are extremely pervasive and customized based on humans’ environments and habits [...]
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091003
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1004: Incorporating a Model-Driven Approach
           into an Embedded Software Course

    • Authors: Dong-Jin Lim
      First page: 1004
      Abstract: The model-driven method has recently attracted considerable attention as a means of improving the reliability and efficiency of embedded software design. This paper describes an embedded software course incorporating a model-driven method. In this course, students learn both a new model-driven approach for embedded software design and a conventional programming method. Even though they initially find it difficult to learn and apply the new concepts, most of the students find the model-driven method attractive due to its visual design. Our teaching experience indicates that the model-driven method can be incorporated into an embedded software course without compromising conventional content.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091004
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1005: Weight-Constrained Neural Networks in
           Forecasting Tourist Volumes: A Case Study

    • Authors: Ioannis E. Livieris, Emmanuel Pintelas, Theodore Kotsilieris, Stavros Stavroyiannis, Panagiotis Pintelas
      First page: 1005
      Abstract: Tourism forecasting is a significant tool/attribute in tourist industry in order to provide for careful planning and management of tourism resources. Although accurate tourist volume prediction is a very challenging task, reliable and precise predictions offer the opportunity of gaining major profits. Thus, the development and implementation of more sophisticated and advanced machine learning algorithms can be beneficial for the tourism forecasting industry. In this work, we explore the prediction performance of Weight Constrained Neural Networks (WCNNs) for forecasting tourist arrivals in Greece. WCNNs constitute a new machine learning prediction model that is characterized by the application of box-constraints on the weights of the network. Our experimental results indicate that WCNNs outperform classical neural networks and the state-of-the-art regression models: support vector regression, k-nearest neighbor regression, radial basis function neural network, M5 decision tree and Gaussian processes.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091005
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1006: A Traffic Flow Prediction Method Based on
           Road Crossing Vector Coding and a Bidirectional Recursive Neural Network

    • Authors: Zhao, Zhao, Bai, Li
      First page: 1006
      Abstract: Aiming at the problems that current predicting models are incapable of extracting the inner rule of the traffic flow sequence in traffic big data, and unable to make full use of the spatio-temporal relationship of the traffic flow to improve the accuracy of prediction, a Bi-directional Regression Neural Network (BRNN) is proposed in this paper, which can fully apply the context information of road intersections both in the past and the future to predict the traffic volume, and further to make up the deficiency that the current models can only predict the next-moment output according to the time series information in the previous moment. Meanwhile, a vectorized code to screen out the intersections related to the predicting point in the road network and to train and predict through inputting the track data of the selected intersections into BRNN, is designed. In addition, the model is testified through the true traffic data in partial area of Shen Zhen. The results indicate that, compared with current traffic predicting models, the model in this paper is capable of providing the necessary evidence for traffic guidance and control due to its excellent performance in extracting the spatio-temporal feature of the traffic flow series, which can enhance the accuracy by 16.298% on average.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091006
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1007: Time Domain Performance of Reconfigurable
           Filter Antenna for IR-UWB, WLAN, and WiMAX Applications

    • Authors: Zhuohang Zhang, Zhongming Pan
      First page: 1007
      Abstract: A novel reconfigurable filter antenna with three ports for three dependent switchable states for impulse radio-ultrawideband (IR-UWB)/wireless local area network (WLAN)/worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) applications is presented in this paper. Three positive-intrinsic-negative diodes, controlled by direct current, are employed to realize frequency reconfiguration of one ultra-wideband state and two narrowband states (2.4 GHz and 3.5 GHz). The time domain characteristic of the proposed antenna in the ultra-wideband state is studied, because of the features of the IR-UWB system. The time domain analysis shows that the reconfigurable filtering antenna in the wideband state performs similarly to the original UWB antenna. The compact size, low cost, and expanded reconfigurable filtering features make it suitable for IR-UWB systems that are integrated with WLAN/WiMAX communications.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-09
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091007
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1008: Balancing Distributed Key-Value Stores
           with Efficient In-Network Redirecting

    • Authors: Yang Shi, Jiawei Fei, Mei Wen, Chunyuan Zhang
      First page: 1008
      Abstract: Today’s cloud-based online services are underpinned by distributed key-value stores (KVSs). Keys and values are distributed across back-end servers in such scale-out systems. One primary real-life performance bottleneck occurs when storage servers suffer from load imbalance under skewed workloads. In this paper, we present KVSwitch, a centralized self-managing load balancer that leverages the power and flexibility of emerging programmable switches. The balance is achieved by dynamically predicting the hot items and by creating replication strategies according to KVS loading. To overcome the challenges in realizing KVSwitch given the limitations of the switch hardware, we decompose KVSwitch’s functions and carefully design them for the heterogeneous processors inside the switch. We prototype KVSwitch in a Tofino switch. Experimental results show that our solution can effectively keep the KVS servers balanced even under highly skewed workloads. Furthermore, KVSwitch only replicates 70 % of hot items and consumes 9.88 % of server memory rather than simply replicating all hot items to each server.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-09
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091008
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1009: An Energy-Efficient and Fault-Tolerant
           Topology Control Game Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network

    • Authors: Yongwen Du, Jinzong Xia, Junhui Gong, Xiaohui Hu
      First page: 1009
      Abstract: Due to resource constraints and severe conditions, wireless sensor networks should be self-adaptive to maintain certain desirable properties, such as energy efficiency and fault tolerance. In this paper, we design a practical utility function that can effectively balance transmit power, residual energy, and network connectivity, and then we investigate a topology control game model based on non-cooperative game theory. The theoretical analysis shows that the topology game model is a potential game and can converge to a state of the Nash equilibrium. Based on this model, an energy-efficient and fault-tolerant topology control game algorithm, EFTCG, is proposed to adaptively constructs a network topology. In turn, we present two subalgorithms: EFTCG-1 and EFTCG-2. The former just guarantees network single connectivity, but the latter can guarantee network biconnectivity. We evaluate the energy-efficient effect of EFTCG-1. Meanwhile, we also analyze the fault-tolerant performance of EFTCG-2. The simulation results verify the validity of the utility function. EFTCG-1 can efficiently prolong the network lifetime compared with other game-based algorithms, and EFTCG-2 performs better in robustness, although does not significantly reduce the network lifetime.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-09
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091009
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1010: Numerical Laplace Inversion Method for
           Through-Silicon Via (TSV) Noise Coupling in 3D-IC Design

    • Authors: Khaoula Ait Belaid, Hassan Belahrach, Hassan Ayad
      First page: 1010
      Abstract: Typical 3D integrated circuit structures based on through-silicon vias (TSVs) are complicated to study and analyze. Therefore, it seems important to find some methods to investigate them. In this paper, a method is proposed to model and compute the time-domain coupling noise in 3D Integrated Circuit (3D-IC) based on TSVs. It is based on the numerical inversion Laplace transform (NILT) method and the chain matrices. The method is validated using some experimental results and the Pspice and Matlab tools. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed technique and the noise is analyzed in several cases. It is found that TSV noise coupling is affected by different factors such as source characteristics, horizontal interconnections, and the type of Inputs and Outputs (I/O) drivers.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091010
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1011: Spectrum Occupancy Measurements and
           Analysis in 2.4 GHz WLAN

    • Authors: Adnan Ahmad Cheema, Sana Salous
      First page: 1011
      Abstract: High time resolution spectrum occupancy measurements and analysis are presented for 2.4 GHz WLAN signals. A custom-designed wideband sensing engine records the received power of signals, and its performance is presented to select the decision threshold required to define the channel state (busy/idle). Two sets of measurements are presented where data were collected using an omni-directional and directional antenna in an indoor environment. Statistics of the idle time windows in the 2.4 GHz WLAN are analyzed using a wider set of distributions, which require fewer parameters to compute and are more practical for implementation compared to the widely-used phase type or Gaussian mixture distributions. For the omni-directional antenna, it was found that the lognormal and gamma distributions can be used to model the behavior of the idle time windows under different network traffic loads. In addition, the measurements show that the low time resolution and angle of arrival affect the statistics of the idle time windows.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091011
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1012: State of Charge Estimation for
           Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Temperature-Dependent Second-Order RC Model
           

    • Authors: Yidan Xu, Minghui Hu, Chunyun Fu, Kaibin Cao, Zhong Su, Zhong Yang
      First page: 1012
      Abstract: Accurate estimation of battery state of charge (SOC) is of great significance for extending battery life, improving battery utilization, and ensuring battery safety. Aiming to improve the accuracy of SOC estimation, in this paper, a temperature-dependent second-order RC equivalent circuit model is established for lithium-ion batteries, based on the battery electrical characteristics at different ambient temperatures. Then, a dual Kalman filter algorithm is proposed to estimate the battery SOC, using the proposed equivalent circuit model. The SOC estimation results are compared with the SOC value obtained from experiments, and the estimation errors under different temperature conditions are found to be within ±0.4%. These results prove that the proposed SOC estimation algorithm, based on a temperature-dependent second-order RC equivalent circuit model, provides accurate SOC estimation performance with high temperature adaptability and robustness.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091012
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1013: Design of a SIW Variable Phase Shifter
           for Beam Steering Antenna Systems

    • Authors: Sara Salem Hesari, Jens Bornemann
      First page: 1013
      Abstract: This paper proposes a new beam steering antenna system consisting of two variable reflection-type phase shifters, a 3 dB coupler, and a 90° phase transition. The entire structure is designed and fabricated on a single layer of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW), which makes it a low loss and low-profile antenna system. Surface mount tuning varactor diodes are chosen as electrical phase control elements. By changing the biasing voltage of the varactor diodes in the phase shifter circuits, the far-field radiation pattern of the antenna steers from −25° to 25°. The system has a reflection coefficient better than −10 dB for a 2 GHz bandwidth centered at 17 GHz, a directive radiation pattern with a maximum of 10.7 dB gain at the mid-band frequency, and cross polarization better than 20 dB. A prototype is fabricated and measured for design verification. The measured far-field radiation patterns, co and cross polarization, and the reflection coefficient of the antenna system agree with simulated results.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-11
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091013
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1014: Energy Optimization for Software-Defined
           Data Center Networks Based on Flow Allocation Strategies

    • Authors: Zebin Lu, Junru Lei, Yihao He, Zhengfa Li, Shuhua Deng, Xieping Gao
      First page: 1014
      Abstract: Nowadays, energy consumption has become an important issue in data center networks. The most promising energy-saving schemes are those that shut down unnecessary network devices and links while meeting the demand of traffic loads. Existing research mainly focuses on the strategies of energy savings in software-defined data center networks (SD-DCN). Few studies have considered both energy savings and the quality of service (QoS) of the traffic load. In this paper, we investigate the energy savings guaranteed by traffic load satisfaction ratio. To ensure the minimum-power consumption in data centers, we formulate the SD-DCN energy consumption optimization problem as an Integer Linear Programming model. To achieve a high success rate for traffic transmission, we propose three flow scheduling strategies. On this foundation, we propose a strategy-based Minimum Energy Consumption (MEC) heuristic algorithm to ensure the QoS satisfaction ratio in the process of energy optimization. The results show that our algorithm can save energy efficiently under the conditions of low traffic load and medium traffic load. Under high traffic load, our algorithm can achieve better network performance than existing solutions in terms of quality of service satisfaction ratio of flow allocation.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-11
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091014
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1015: Analytical Solution of Fractional-Order
           Hyperbolic Telegraph Equation, Using Natural Transform Decomposition
           Method

    • Authors: Hassan Khan, Rasool Shah, Dumitru Baleanu, Poom Kumam, Muhammad Arif
      First page: 1015
      Abstract: In the current paper, fractional-order hyperbolic telegraph equations are considered for analytical solutions, using the decomposition method based on natural transformation. The fractional derivative is defined by the Caputo operator. The present technique is implemented for both fractional- and integer-order equations, showing that the current technique is an accurate analytical instrument for the solution of partial differential equations of fractional-order arising in all branches of applied sciences. For this purpose, several examples related to hyperbolic telegraph models are presented to explain the procedure of the suggested method. It is noted that the procedure of the present technique is simple, straightforward, accurate, and found to be a better mathematical technique to solve non-linear fractional partial differential equations.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-11
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091015
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1016: Detecting Fake Finger-Vein Data Using
           Remote Photoplethysmography

    • Authors: Jin Yeong Bok, Kun Ha Suh, Eui Chul Lee
      First page: 1016
      Abstract: Today, biometrics is being widely used in various fields. Finger-vein is a type of biometric information and is based on finger-vein patterns unique to each individual. Various spoofing attacks have recently become a threat to biometric systems. A spoofing attack is defined as an unauthorized user attempting to deceive a system by presenting fake samples of registered biometric information. Generally, finger-vein recognition, using blood vessel characteristics inside the skin, is known to be more difficult when producing counterfeit samples than other biometrics, but several spoofing attacks have still been reported. To prevent spoofing attacks, conventional finger-vein recognition systems mainly use the difference in texture information between real and fake images, but such information may appear different depending on the camera. Therefore, we propose a method that can detect forged finger-vein independently of a camera by using remote photoplethysmography. Our main idea is to get the vital sign of arterial blood flow, a biometric measure indicating life. In this paper, we selected the frequency spectrum of time domain signal obtained from a video, as the feature, and then classified data as real or fake using the support vector machine classifier. Consequently, the accuracy of the experimental result was about 96.46%.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-11
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091016
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1017: ℓp-STFT: A Robust Parameter Estimator
           of a Frequency Hopping Signal for Impulsive Noise

    • Authors: Yang Su, Lina Wang, Yuan Chen, Xiaolong Yang
      First page: 1017
      Abstract: Impulsive noise is commonly present in many applications of actual communication networks, leading to algorithms based on the Gaussian model no longer being applicable. A robust parameter estimator of frequency-hopping (FH) signals suitable for various impulsive noise environments, referred to as ℓp-STFT, is proposed. The ℓp-STFT estimator replaces the ℓ2-norm by using the generalized version ℓp-norm where 1 < p < 2 for the derivation of the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) as an objective function. It combines impulsive noise processing with any time-frequency analysis algorithm based on STFT. Considering the accuracy of parameter estimation, the double-window spectrogram difference (DWSD) algorithm is used to illustrate the suitability of ℓp-STFT. Computer simulations are mainly conducted in α-stable noise to compare the performance of ℓp-STFT with STFT and fractional low-order STFT (FLOSTFT), Cauchy noise, and Gaussian mixture noise as supplements of different background noises to better demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of ℓp-STFT.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-11
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091017
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1018: The Control Parameter Determination
           Method for Bidirectional DC-DC Power Converters Interfaced Storage Systems
           Based on Large Signal Stability Analysis

    • Authors: Liu, Bian, Cao, Zhang, Meng
      First page: 1018
      Abstract: In DC microgrid (DC-MG), the loads connected with converters under strict control areconsidered as CPLs (constant power loads). When the voltage of CPLs decreases, the currentincreases and the negative impedance characteristic of CPLs cause instability easily. Fortunately,appropriate control for energy storage units could improve the system stability. However, mosttraditional control methods for bidirectional DC-DC power converters (BDC) connected withbattery storage units do not quantitatively consider the stability influences of control parameters.This paper quantitatively analyzes the stability influence of the BDC current-mode controlparameters and the negative impact of CPLs and derives the control parameter determinationmethod for BDC interfaced storage systems. Large signal stability constraints are obtained in termsof mixed potential function. According to the constraints, the large signal stability is improved whenthe BDC control parameter kp increases, while the stability is degraded when the power of CPLsincreases. The control parameter determination method is very effective and convenient to apply,and the appropriate parameter kp for BDC is determined. The regions of asymptotic stability (RAS)identify that the proposed control parameter determination method could improve the systemstability effectively. The determination method is fully verified by the simulation and experimental results.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-11
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1019: Wideband Noise Interference Suppression
           for Sparsity-Based SAR Imaging Based on Dechirping and Double Subspace
           Extraction

    • Authors: Li, Lu, Lao, Ye
      First page: 1019
      Abstract: Sparsity-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging has attracted much attention since it has potential advantages in improving the image quality and reducing the sampling rate. However, it is vulnerable to deliberate blanket disturbance, especially wideband noise interference (WBNI), which severely damages the imaging quality. This paper mainly focuses on WBNI suppression for SAR imaging from a new perspective—sparse recovery. We first analyze the impact of WBNI on signal reconstruction by deducing the interference energy projected on the real support set of the signal under different observation parameters. Based on the derived results, we propose a novel WBNI suppression algorithm based on dechirping and double subspace extraction (DDSE), where the signal of interest (SOI) is reconstructed by exploiting the known geometric prior and waveform prior, respectively. The experimental results illustrate that the DDSE-based WBNI suppression algorithm for sparsity-based SAR imaging is effective and outperforms the other algorithms.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-11
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091019
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1020: Experimental and Numerical Analysis of
           the Effect of a New Lightning Protection System on Lightning Protection
           and Aerodynamic Noise Performance of Wind Turbine Blades

    • Authors: Xin-kai Li, Jin-xue Guo, Xiao-ming Chen, Ke Yang, Tian-yu He, Xiao-dong Wang
      First page: 1020
      Abstract: In order to tackle the problem of the high failure rate of blades of large wind turbine units due to lightning damage, a new lightning protection system (NLPS) for wind turbine blades is proposed based on the lightning damage mechanism of blades. Firstly, 10 high-voltage discharge tests are performed for blades with and without the NLPS to study the effect of lightning protection. The results show that when the surface of the blade without the NLPS is struck by lightning 10 times, the damage rate of the blade is 100%; for the blade with the NLPS and the lightning attachment position is always on the NLPS in 10 discharge tests, the damage rate of blades is 0% and the lightning protection rate of blades is 100%, indicating that the lightning protection effect for blades with the NLPS is greatly improved. Moreover, the static electric fields of the blades with and without the NLPS are calculated. The results show that the NLPS can shield the electric field around the lower lead wire of the blade, thus effectively reducing the electric field intensity. The NLPS initiates the upward leader more easily than the lower lead wire; therefore, the lightning attachment point is located on the NLPS, thus protecting the blade. Secondly, the aerodynamic and aero-noise characteristics of the blade with and without the NLPS are calculated. The results indicate that the NLPS has little influence on the aerodynamic performance of the blade but has some influence on the aero-noise of the blade. The aero-noise of the airfoil can be reduced at angles of attack of 4°, 8°, 11°, and 15°, but the influence of different phase angles of the airfoil on the amplitude of the sound pressure level (SPL) varies. The aero-noise of the airfoil with the NLPS decreases by 16% and 8% at angles of attack of 4° and 8°, respectively. In general, the design of the NLPS reaches the desired requirements, but it still needs to be further optimized in combination with the blade manufacturing process.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1021: DALI LED Driver Control System for
           Lighting Operations Based on Raspberry Pi and Kernel Modules

    • Authors: Adam
      First page: 1021
      Abstract: Light emitting diodes (LEDs) as an efficient low-consumption lighting technology are being used increasingly in many applications. The move to LED lighting is also changing the way the lighting control systems are designed. Currently, most electronic ballasts and other digital lighting devices implement the Digital Addressable Lighting Interface (DALI) standard. This paper presents a low-cost, low-power effective DALI LED driver controller, based on open-source Raspberry Pi3 microcontroller prototyping platform. The control software is developed as a Linux kernel module under UBUNTU 18.04.2 LTS patched with PREEMPT_RT (Preemptive Real-time) for real-time processing. This dynamically loaded kernel module performs all the processing, communication and control operations of the Raspberry Pi3-based DALI controller with the DALI LED driver and LED luminaire. Software applications written in C and Python were developed for performance testing purposes. The experimental results showed that the proposed system could efficiently and effectively manage DALI LED drivers and perform lighting operations (e.g. dimming). The system can be used for a variety of purposes from personal lighting control needs and experimental research in control of electronic ballasts and other control gears, devices and sensors, to advanced requirements in professional buildings, including energy management, lighting maintenance and usage.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091021
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1022: A Review of Impedance Matching Techniques
           in Power Line Communications

    • Authors: Wang, Cao
      First page: 1022
      Abstract: Impedance mismatch that degrades signal power transfer and affects communication reliability is a major obstacle for power line communications (PLC). Impedance matching techniques can be designed to effectively compensate for the impedance mismatch between PLC modems and power line networks at a specific frequency or for a given frequency band. In this paper, we discuss the tradeoffs that need to be made when designing an effective impedance matching network. We also make a comprehensive review of previous state-of-the-art PLC impedance matching techniques and provide a useful classification of each technique. Finally, we discuss important issues (concerns) and provide suggestions for research directions deserving more attention. This review provides a useful guideline for researchers and manufacturers to quickly understand impedance matching principles and facilitate the design of an effective impedance matching coupler for PLC applications.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091022
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1023: A Resource Oriented Route Selection
           Framework Using Contextual Information Based on Fuzzy Logic

    • Authors: Bhandari, Cho
      First page: 1023
      Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to have a significant impact on city’s service provisioning and make a smart city more accessible and pragmatic since the deployment of heterogeneous smart devices in each infrastructure of cities is increasing. So far, the IPv6 routing protocol for low power and lossy networks (RPL) is considered to fit on IoT infrastructure for achieving the expected network requirements. While RPL meets the IoT network requirements quite well, there are some issues that need to be addressed, such as adaptability to network dynamics. This issue significantly limits the use of RPL in many smart city application scenarios, such as emergency alerts with high traffic flows. As part of a smart city vision, IoT applications are becoming more diverse, which requires context-awareness in routing protocols to support the behavior of the network. To address this issue, we design an objective function that performs the route selection based on fuzzy logic techniques while using contextual information from the application. For this, we present a new context-oriented objective function (COOF) that comprises both nodes as well as link metrics. Further, we suggest two new routing metrics, known as queue fluctuation index (QFI) and residual energy index (REI), which consider the status of queue utilization and remaining energy, respectively. The metrics used are designed to respond to the dynamic needs of the network. The proposed approach has been examined and evaluated in different scenarios when compared to other similar approach and default RPL objective functions. Simulation experiments are conducted in Cooja network simulator for Contiki OS. The evaluation results show that COOF can cope with network dynamics and IoT-based smart city application requirements.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091023
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1024: Preceding Vehicle Detection Using Faster
           R-CNN Based on Speed Classification Random Anchor and Q-Square Penalty
           Coefficient

    • Authors: Cui, Wang, Wang, Liu, Yuan, Wang
      First page: 1024
      Abstract: At present, preceding vehicle detection remains a challenging problem for autonomous vehicle technologies. In recent years, deep learning has been shown to be successful for vehicle detection, such as the faster region with a convolutional neural network (Faster R-CNN). However, when the host vehicle speed increases or there is an occlusion in front, the performance of the Faster R-CNN algorithm usually degrades. To obtain better performance on preceding vehicle detection when the speed of the host vehicle changes, a speed classification random anchor (SCRA) method is proposed. The reasons for degraded detection accuracy when the host vehicle speed increases are analyzed, and the factor of vehicle speed is introduced to redesign the anchors. Redesigned anchors can adapt to changes of the preceding vehicle size rule when the host vehicle speed increases. Furthermore, to achieve better performance on occluded vehicles, a Q-square penalty coefficient (Q-SPC) method is proposed to optimize the Faster R-CNN algorithm. The experimental validation results show that compared with the Faster R-CNN algorithm, the SCRA and Q-SPC methods have certain significance for improving preceding vehicle detection accuracy.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091024
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1025: Design and Implementation Procedure for
           an Advanced Driver Assistance System Based on an Open Source AUTOSAR

    • Authors: Park, Choi
      First page: 1025
      Abstract: In this paper, we present the detailed design and implementation procedures for an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) based on an open source automotive open system architecture (AUTOSAR). Due to the increasing software complexity of ADAS, portability, component interoperability, and maintenance are becoming essential development factors. AUTOSAR satisfies these demands by defining system architecture standards. Although commercial distributions of AUTOSAR are well established, accessibility is a huge concern as they come with very expensive licensing fees. Open source AUTOSAR addresses this issue and can also minimize the overall cost of development. However, the development procedure has not been well established and could be difficult for engineers. The contribution of this paper is divided into two main parts: First, we provide the complete details on developing a collision warning system using an open source AUTOSAR. This includes the simplified basic concepts of AUTOSAR, which we have organized for easier understanding. Also, we present an improvement of the existing AUTOSAR development methodology focusing on defining the underlying tools at each development stage with clarity. Second, as the performance of open source software has not been proven and requires benchmarking to ensure the stability of the system, we propose various evaluation methods measuring the real-time performance of tasks and the overall latency of the communication stack. These performance metrics are relevant to confirm whether the entire system has deterministic behavior and responsiveness. The evaluation results can help developers to improve the overall safety of the vehicular system. Experiments are conducted on an AUTOSAR evaluation kit integrated with our self-developed collision warning system. The procedures and evaluation methods are applicable not only on detecting obstacles but other variants of ADAS and are very useful in integrating open source AUTOSAR to various vehicular applications.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091025
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1026: Research on In-Vehicle Key Management
           System under Upcoming Vehicle Network Architecture

    • Authors: Wu, Zhao, Zhu, Lu, Shi
      First page: 1026
      Abstract: The intelligentization and connectedness of vehicles make vehicle cybersecurity an important research topic. In-vehicle key management is a critical function in vehicle cybersecurity countermeasures. After describing previous research on vehicle key management and the development trend of vehicle network architecture, a key management scheme for in-vehicle multi-layer electronic control units (ECUs) is proposed. The scheme is based on authenticated key exchange protocol 2 (AKEP2) and on-the-air (OTA) technology. Then, the key storage and trusted key usage based on secure hardware are analyzed and studied. Moreover, the AES Counter with CBC-MAC (AES-CCM) algorithm, which uses fewer keys, is introduced to in-vehicle secure communication. The simulation analysis for the proposed OTA-based key update protocol verifies the protocol’s security. The validity of the hardware-based trusted key usage environment and the feasibility of the AES-CCM algorithm for the CAN FD bus are proven with corresponding experiments.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091026
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1027: Bidirectional Information Transmission in
           SWIPT System with Single Controlled Chopper Receiver

    • Authors: Wu, Zhao, Jin, He, Ma
      First page: 1027
      Abstract: The wireless power transfer (WPT) technology has the advantages of convenience, safety and reliability due to its non-metal contact power supply and has a broad application prospect in many occasions. In practical applications, the information communication between the primary and secondary side is necessary for output voltage control, load detection, condition monitoring and other functions, which makes the WPT system more intelligent and convenient. A simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) system with controlled chopper circuit receiver is proposed in this paper. The load voltage remains constant by adjusting the pulse width of the secondary controlled device through feedback control. The information bidirectional transmission methods and two modes are proposed, considering different application scenarios. Simulation and experiment results validate the proposed topology and the method of information bidirectional transmission.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091027
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1028: Micro-Motion Feature Extraction of a
           Rotating Target Based on Interrupted Transmitting and Receiving Pulse
           Signal in an Anechoic Chamber

    • Authors: Feng Zhao, Xiaobin Liu, Zhiming Xu, Yuan Liu, Xiaofeng Ai
      First page: 1028
      Abstract: The pulse signal is widely used in micro-motion feature extraction of rapidly rotating targets as its pulse repetition frequency (PRF) can be high. However, when the pulse signal is implemented in a range-limited anechoic chamber for micro-motion feature extraction, the transmitted and reflected pulse signals may be coupled at the receiver. To solve this problem, the interrupted transmitting and receiving (ITR) method is applied to transmit the pulse signal with hundreds of sub-pulses. The target echo can be received when the sub-pulse is not transmitted. Hence, it avoids the coupling effect of transmitted signals and echoes. Then, the whole process of micro-motion feature extraction for rotating target is proposed based on the ITR method. At last, the simulations and experiments verify that the rotating target micro-Doppler can be extracted by the ITR pulse signal.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091028
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1029: A Fractional-Order Element (FOE)-Based
           Approach to Wireless Power Transmission for Frequency Reduction and Output
           Power Quality Improvement

    • Authors: Guidong Zhang, Zuhong Ou, Lili Qu
      First page: 1029
      Abstract: A wireless power transmission (WPT) requires high switching frequency to achieve energy transmission; however, existing switching devices cannot satisfy the requirements of high-frequency switching, and the efficiency of current WPT is too low. Compared with the traditional power inductors and capacitors, fractional-order elements (FOEs) in WPT can realize necessary functions though requiring a lower switching frequency, which leads to a more favorable high-frequency switching performance with a higher efficiency. In this study, a generalized fractional-order WPT (FO-WPT) is established, followed by a comprehensive analysis on its WPT performance and power efficiency. Through extensive simulations of typical FO wireless power domino-resonators (FO-WPDRS), the functionality of the proposed FO-WPT for medium and long-range WPT is demonstrated. The numerical results show that the proposed FOE-based WPT solution has a higher power efficiency and lower switching frequency than conventional methods.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091029
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1030: Design and Characterization of a
           Microwave Planar Sensor for Dielectric Assessment of Vegetable Oils

    • Authors: Aleksandr Ivanov, Timur Agliullin, Dario Laneve, Vincenza Portosi, Artem Vorobev, Raoul R. Nigmatullin, Aydar Nasybullin, Oleg Morozov, Francesco Prudenzano, Antonella D’Orazio, Marco Grande
      First page: 1030
      Abstract: We report on the numerical simulations and experimental validation of a microwave planar sensor based on two coupled rings operating in the 4–6 GHz range. The fabricated sensor is used to characterize the dielectric permittivity of vegetable oils. We optimized the geometrical parameters in order to improve the overlap between the oil samples under study and the electric field. The experimental results showed an excellent match with the simulation results. The fabricated sensor allowed to retrieve the oil permittivity with a sensitivity of about 35 MHz per permittivity unit in the frequency range of interest. This paves the way to the realization of compact and sensitive sensors for a wide plethora of fields ranging from industry and food to chemistry and biology.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091030
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1031: High-Density EEG Signal Processing Based
           on Active-Source Reconstruction for Brain Network Analysis in
           Alzheimer’s Disease

    • Authors: Fabio La Foresta, Francesco Carlo Morabito, Silvia Marino, Serena Dattola
      First page: 1031
      Abstract: Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurological disorder characterized by a progressive deterioration of brain functions that affects, above all, older adults. It can be difficult to make an early diagnosis because its first symptoms are often associated with normal aging. Electroencephalography (EEG) can be used for evaluating the loss of brain functional connectivity in AD patients. The purpose of this paper is to study the brain network parameters through the estimation of Lagged Linear Connectivity (LLC), computed by eLORETA software, applied to High-Density EEG (HD-EEG) for 84 regions of interest (ROIs). The analysis involved three groups of subjects: 10 controls (CNT), 21 Mild Cognitive Impairment patients (MCI) and 9 AD patients. In particular, the purpose is to compare the results obtained using a 256-channel EEG, the corresponding 10–10 system 64-channel EEG and the corresponding 10–20 system 18-channel EEG, both of which are extracted from the 256-electrode configuration. The computation of the Characteristic Path Length, the Clustering Coefficient, and the Connection Density from HD-EEG configuration reveals a weakening of small-world properties of MCI and AD patients in comparison to healthy subjects. On the contrary, the variation of the network parameters was not detected correctly when we employed the standard 10–20 configuration. Only the results from HD-EEG are consistent with the expected behavior of the AD brain network.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091031
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1032: Layer Selection in Progressive
           Transmission of Motion-Compensated JPEG2000 Video

    • Authors: José Carmelo Maturana-Espinosa, Juan Pablo García-Ortiz, Daniel Müller, Vicente González-Ruiz
      First page: 1032
      Abstract: MCJ2K (Motion-Compensated JPEG2000) is a video codec based on MCTF (Motion- Compensated Temporal Filtering) and J2K (JPEG2000). MCTF analyzes a sequence of images, generating a collection of temporal sub-bands, which are compressed with J2K. The R/D (Rate-Distortion) performance in MCJ2K is better than the MJ2K (Motion JPEG2000) extension, especially if there is a high level of temporal redundancy. MCJ2K codestreams can be served by standard JPIP (J2K Interactive Protocol) servers, thanks to the use of only J2K standard file formats. In bandwidth-constrained scenarios, an important issue in MCJ2K is determining the amount of data of each temporal sub-band that must be transmitted to maximize the quality of the reconstructions at the client side. To solve this problem, we have proposed two rate-allocation algorithms which provide reconstructions that are progressive in quality. The first, OSLA (Optimized Sub-band Layers Allocation), determines the best progression of quality layers, but is computationally expensive. The second, ESLA (Estimated-Slope sub-band Layers Allocation), is sub-optimal in most cases, but much faster and more convenient for real-time streaming scenarios. An experimental comparison shows that even when a straightforward motion compensation scheme is used, the R/D performance of MCJ2K competitive is compared not only to MJ2K, but also with respect to other standard scalable video codecs.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091032
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1033: An Efficient and Low-Power Design of the
           SM3 Hash Algorithm for IoT

    • Authors: Xin Zheng, Xianghong Hu, Jinglong Zhang, Jian Yang, Shuting Cai, Xiaoming Xiong
      First page: 1033
      Abstract: The Internet-of-Things (IoT) has a security problem that has become increasingly significant. New architecture of SM3 which can be implemented in loT devices is proposed in this paper. The software/hardware co-design approach is put forward to implement the new architecture to achieve high performance and low costs. To facilitate software/hardware co-design, an AHB-SM3 interface controller (AHB-SIC) is designed as an AHB slave interface IP to exchange data with the embedded CPU. Task scheduling and hardware resource optimization techniques are adopted in the design of expansion modules. The task scheduling and critical path optimization techniques are utilized in the compression module design. The proposed architecture is implemented with ASIC using SMIC 130 nm technology. For the purpose of comparison, the proposed architecture is also implemented on Virtex 7 FPGA with a 36 MHz system clock. Compared with the standard implementation of SM3, the proposed architecture saves the number of registers for approximately 3.11 times, and 263 Mbps throughput is achieved under the 36 MHz clock. This design signifies an excellent trade-off between performance and the hardware area. Thus, the design accommodates the resource-limited IoT security devices very well. The proposed architecture is applied to an intelligent security gateway device.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091033
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1034: Robust Current Predictive Control-Based
           Equivalent Input Disturbance Approach for PMSM Drive

    • Authors: Xudong Liu, Qi Zhang
      First page: 1034
      Abstract: The implementation and experimental validation of current control strategy based on predictive control and equivalent input disturbance approach is discussed for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) control system in the paper. First, to realize the current decoupling control, the deadbeat predictive current control technique is adopted in the current loop of PMSM. Indeed, it is well known that the traditional deadbeat current control cannot completely reject the disturbance and realize the zero error current tracking control. Then, according to the model uncertainties and the parameter variations in the motor, an equivalent input disturbance approach is introduced to estimate the lump disturbance in the system, which will be used in the feed-forward compensation. Thus, a compound current controller is designed, and the proposed algorithm reduces the tracking error caused by the disturbance; the robustness of the drive system is improved effectively. Finally, simulation and experiment are accomplished on the control prototype, and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed current control algorithm.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091034
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1035: Design and Implementation of an
           Arduino-Based Plug-and-Play Acquisition System for Seismic Noise
           Measurements

    • Authors: Juan Luis Soler-Llorens, Juan Jose Galiana-Merino, Boualem Youcef Nassim-Benabdeloued, Sergio Rosa-Cintas, Javier Ortiz Zamora, Jose Juan Giner-Caturla
      First page: 1035
      Abstract: The analysis of seismic noise provides a reliable estimation of the soil properties, which supposes the starting point for the assessment of the seismic hazard. The horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio technique calculates the resonant frequency of the soil just by using a single three-component sensor. Array measurements require at least several vertical sensors registering simultaneously and their analysis provides an estimation of the surface waves dispersion curve. Although these methods are relatively cheaper than other geotechnical techniques, the cost of the sensors and the multi-channel data acquisition system means that small research groups cannot afford this kind of equipment. In this work, two prototypes for registering seismic noise have been developed and implemented: a three-channel acquisition system, optimized for working with three-component sensors; and a twelve-channel acquisition system, prepared for working simultaneously with twelve vertical geophones. Both prototypes are characterized by being open-hardware, open-software, easy to implement, and low-cost. The main aim is to provide a data acquisition system that can be reproduced and applied by any research group. Both developed prototypes have been tested and compared with other commercial equipment, showing their suitability to register seismic noise and to estimate the soil characteristics.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091035
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1036: A Low-Cost and Compact Three-Dimensional
           Microwave Holographic Imaging System

    • Authors: Hailun Wu, Reza K. Amineh
      First page: 1036
      Abstract: With the significant growth in the use of non-metallic composite materials, the demands for new and robust non-destructive testing methodologies is high. Microwave imaging has attracted a lot of attention recently for such applications. This is in addition to the biomedical imaging applications of microwave that are also being pursued actively. Among these efforts, in this paper, we propose a compact and cost-effective three-dimensional microwave imaging system based on a fast and robust holographic technique. For this purpose, we employ narrow-band microwave data, instead of wideband data used in previous three-dimensional cylindrical holographic imaging systems. Three-dimensional imaging is accomplished by using an array of receiver antennas surrounding the object and scanning that along with a transmitter antenna over a cylindrical aperture. To achieve low cost and compact size, we employ off-the-shelf components to build a data acquisition system replacing the costly and bulky vector network analyzers. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the satisfactory performance of the proposed imaging system. We also show the effect of number of frequencies and size of the objects on the quality of reconstructed images.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091036
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1037: The Emerging Energy Internet:
           Architecture, Benefits, Challenges, and Future Prospects

    • Authors: S. M. Suhail Hussain, Furquan Nadeem, Mohd Asim Aftab, Ikbal Ali, Taha Selim Ustun
      First page: 1037
      Abstract: Energy Internet is a concept proposed to harness, control, and manage energy resources effectively, with the help of information and communication technology. It improves a reliability of the system, and provides an increased utilization of energy resources by integrating the smart grid with the Internet. A scalable and reliable information and communication architecture is a crucial factor for both the operation and management of the energy Internet. The routing or managing of electrical energy is performed through an energy router (ER), synonymous with a communication router, which routes data packets instead of energy packets. In this paper, a holistic review of the energy Internet evolution in terms of the architecture, types of ERs, and the benefits and challenges of its implementation is presented. An exhaustive summary of the designs and architectures of the different types of ERs is also presented in this paper. The benefits of the energy Internet, along with the challenges of its implementation on a large-scale distributed architecture with the inclusion of renewable energy resources, is discussed. Finally, future prospects for the energy Internet for achieving guaranteed reliability and security is presented.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091037
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1038: Performance Improvement of a
           Grid-Connected Inverter under Distorted Grid Voltage Using a Harmonic
           Extractor

    • Authors: Sungjoon Cho, Ho-Sung Kang, Kyo-Beum Lee, Ji-Yoon Yoo
      First page: 1038
      Abstract: This paper introduces an improved current control strategy for a grid-connected inverter system operating under distorted grid voltage conditions. Although existing current controllers for grid-connected inverters have proportional integral gains with suitable bandwidth, low-order harmonic components can be generated by distorted grid voltages. The proposed improved current controller is established in a synchronous reference frame that rotates at harmonic frequency. The input signals for the harmonic current controller should contain only the specific harmonic components requiring suppression. Therefore, the proposed current controller uses a harmonic extractor to distinguish current signals from fundamental and specific harmonic components. The harmonic extractor retains only the relevant harmonic components for individual current controllers with high harmonic signal ratios. This paper introduces two different strategies to extract specific harmonic components for the current controller. The proposed control strategy does not require any additional hardware filter circuits and can be implemented easily by designing a suitable digital filter. When using the proposed method, grid current quality is significantly improved compared to conventional methods that do not include harmonic extractors. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through simulations and practical experiments.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091038
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1039: Anxiety Level Recognition for Virtual
           Reality Therapy System Using Physiological Signals

    • Authors: Justas Šalkevicius, Robertas Damaševičius, Rytis Maskeliunas, Ilona Laukienė
      First page: 1039
      Abstract: Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) can have a significant impact towards assessing and potentially treating various anxiety disorders. One of the main strengths of VRET systems is that they provide an opportunity for a psychologist to interact with virtual 3D environments and change therapy scenarios according to the individual patient’s needs. However, to do this efficiently the patient’s anxiety level should be tracked throughout the VRET session. Therefore, in order to fully use all advantages provided by the VRET system, a mental stress detection system is needed. The patient’s physiological signals can be collected with wearable biofeedback sensors. Signals like blood volume pressure (BVP), galvanic skin response (GSR), and skin temperature can be processed and used to train the anxiety level classification models. In this paper, we combine VRET with mental stress detection and highlight potential uses of this kind of VRET system. We discuss and present a framework for anxiety level recognition, which is a part of our developed cloud-based VRET system. Physiological signals of 30 participants were collected during VRET-based public speaking anxiety treatment sessions. The acquired data were used to train a four-level anxiety recognition model (where each level of ‘low’, ‘mild’, ‘moderate’, and ‘high’ refer to the levels of anxiety rather than to separate classes of the anxiety disorder). We achieved an 80.1% cross-subject accuracy (using leave-one-subject-out cross-validation) and 86.3% accuracy (using 10 × 10 fold cross-validation) with the signal fusion-based support vector machine (SVM) classifier.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091039
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1040: Monitoring of the Efficiency and
           Conditions of Induction Motor Operations by Smart Meter Prototype Based on
           a LoRa Wireless Network

    • Authors: A. Cano-Ortega, F. Sánchez-Sutil
      First page: 1040
      Abstract: The installation of smart meters in the industry to monitor induction motors (IMs) provides easy access to the measurements of the electrical and mechanical variables, which improves the installation process. Using smart meters in industry requires temporary high-resolution data to improve the energy efficiency (EE) and power factor (PF) of IMs. For these purposes, Long Range (LoRa) is an ideal wireless protocol for the usage in industries due to its low energy consumption. In addition, it provides secure communications and long range indoors and outdoors. LoRa avoids the need to install antennas or routers to extend coverage, as each gateway can service 300 LoRa devices with distances of up to 10 km. For this purpose, this research successfully developed a new prototype for a low-cost IM Efficiency Monitoring System using LoRa (IMEMSL). IMEMSL is based on the Arduino open-source electronic platform. It sends the acquired data through the LoRa low-power wide-area-network (LPWAN) and cloud access gateway. This document describes the hardware and software design and implementation. The experimental results are presented and discussed. Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and time on air measured endorse the use of LoRa for this type of meters. The approximate cost of the prototype was €72 and €93 for the versions without and with Global Positioning System (GPS), respectively.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091040
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1041: A Novel Meander Split Power/Ground Plane
           Reducing Crosstalk of Traces Crossing Over

    • Authors: Jung-Han Lee
      First page: 1041
      Abstract: In this paper, a novel meander split power/ground plane is proposed for reducing crosstalk between parallel lines crossing over it. The working mechanism of the meander split scheme is investigated by simulations and measurements. The LC equivalent circuit and transmission line model are developed for modeling interactions between the meander split and the signal lines. The proposed meander structure enhances electromagnetic coupling between split planes. The capacitive coupling across the split ensures signal integrity and magnetic coupling between adjacent finger shaped structures suppresses lateral wave propagation along the split gap, which in turn helps suppress the crosstalk. The effectiveness of the meander split remains valid over very wide frequency ranges (up to 9 GHz). Experimental results show that the proposed structure improves the signal quality and reduces the near/far end crosstalk over 30 dB and 50% in the frequency domain and time domain, respectively.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091041
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1042: A Novel Address Scheme for
           Continuous-Flow Parallel Memory-Based Real-Valued FFT Processor

    • Authors: Min Yuan, Zhenguo Ma, Feng Yu, Qianjian Xing
      First page: 1042
      Abstract: In this article, we present a modified constant-geometry based signal flow graph for memory-based real-valued fast Fourier transform architecture. Without an extra permutation, the corresponding address scheme solves the memory conflict and achieves continuous-flow operation with the minimal memory and computation cycles requirement when compared to the state-of-the-art designs. Besides, the address scheme meets the constraint of in-place operation, concurrent I/O, normal-order I/O, variable size, and parallel processing. The experimental results demonstrate the resource and frequency efficiency of the proposed address scheme.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091042
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 1043: A Compact 5 GHz Power Amplifier Using a
           Spiral Transformer for Enhanced Power Supply Rejection in 180-nm CMOS
           Technology

    • Authors: Young-Joe Choe, Hyohyun Nam, Jung-Dong Park
      First page: 1043
      Abstract: We present a compact 5 GHz, class A power amplifier (PA) applicable for a wireless combo-chip that supports multiple radio systems in 180 nm CMOS technology. The proposed two-stage linear PA consists of a cascode input stage with a transformer-based balun, combined with a balancing capacitor as the load, where the single-ended signal is converted into the balanced output and a second-stage, class A push–pull amplifier with another transformer-based balun, which efficiently combines the output power differentially to drive a single-ended 50 Ω load. The proposed single-ended PA with an internal balanced configuration can achieve a power supply rejection ratio of 9.5 to 65.9 dB at 0.1 to 3.5 GHz, which is around a 12 to 37 dB improvement compared to a conventional single-ended PA with the same power gain. The results show that the proposed PA has a gain of 15.5 dB, an output-referred 1 dB gain compression point of 13 dBm, an output intercept point of 22 dBm with a 5 MHz frequency offset, an output saturated power of 15.4 dBm, and a peak power-added efficiency of 15%. The implemented PA consumes a DC current of 72 mA under 1.8 V supply. The core chip size is 0.65 mm2 without pads.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8091043
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2019)
       
 
 
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