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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 184 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 79)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 318)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 267)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 106)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 86)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 93)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Embedded Systems Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access  
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195)
Haptics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access  
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Nano Devices, Sensors and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access  
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal ELTIKOM : Jurnal Teknik Elektro, Teknologi Informasi dan Komputer     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Magnetics Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Nanotechnology Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Pulse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Revue Méditerranéenne des Télécommunications     Open Access  
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Solid-State Circuits Magazine, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Wireless Power Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Women in Engineering Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access  

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Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.548
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 86  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2079-9292
Published by MDPI Homepage  [215 journals]
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 595: Online Learned Siamese Network with
           Auto-Encoding Constraints for Robust Multi-Object Tracking

    • Authors: Peixin Liu, Xiaofeng Li, Han Liu, Zhizhong Fu
      First page: 595
      Abstract: Multi-object tracking aims to estimate the complete trajectories of objects in a scene. Distinguishing among objects efficiently and correctly in complex environments is a challenging problem. In this paper, a Siamese network with an auto-encoding constraint is proposed to extract discriminative features from detection responses in a tracking-by-detection framework. Different from recent deep learning methods, the simple two layers stacked auto-encoder structure enables the Siamese network to operate efficiently only with small-scale online sample data. The auto-encoding constraint reduces the possibility of overfitting during small-scale sample training. Then, the proposed Siamese network is improved to extract the previous-appearance-next vector from tracklet for better association. The new feature integrates the appearance, previous, and next stage motions of an element in a tracklet. With the new features, an online incremental learned tracking framework is established. It contains reliable tracklet generation, data association to generate complete object trajectories, and tracklet growth to deal with missing detections and to enhance the new feature for tracklet. Benefiting from discriminative features, the final trajectories of objects can be achieved by an efficient iterative greedy algorithm. Feature experiments show that the proposed Siamese network has advantages in terms of both discrimination and correctness. The system experiments show the improved tracking performance of the proposed method.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060595
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 596: Overview of Binary Locally Repairable
           Codes for Distributed Storage Systems

    • Authors: Young-Sik Kim, Chanki Kim, Jong-Seon No
      First page: 596
      Abstract: This paper summarizes the details of recently proposed binary locally repairable codes (BLRCs) and their features. The construction of codes over a small alphabet size of symbols is of particular interest for efficient hardware implementation. Therefore, BLRCs are highly noteworthy because no multiplication is required during the encoding, decoding, and repair processes. We explain the various construction approaches of BLRCs such as cyclic code based, bipartite graph based, anticode based, partial spread based, and generalized Hamming code based techniques. We also describe code generation methods based on modifications for linear codes such as extending, shorting, expurgating, and augmenting. Finally, we summarize and compare the parameters of the discussed constructions.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060596
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 597: A Denoising Method of Ship Radiated Noise
           Signal Based on Modified CEEMDAN, Dispersion Entropy, and Interval

    • Authors: Li, Yang, Yang
      First page: 597
      Abstract: Due to the non-linear and non-stationary characteristics of ship radiated noise (SR-N) signal, the traditional linear and frequency-domain denoising methods cannot be used for such signals. In this paper, an SR-N signal denoising method based on modified complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EMD) with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN), dispersion entropy (DE), and interval thresholding is proposed. The proposed denoising method has the following advantages: 1) as an improved version of CEEMDAN, modified CEEMDAN (MCEEMDAN) combines the advantages of EMD and CEEMDAN, and it is more reliable than CEEMDAN and has less consuming time; 2) as a fast complexity measurement technology, DE can effectively identify the type of IMF; and 3) interval thresholding is used for SR-N signal denoising, which avoids loss of amplitude information compared with traditional denoising methods. Firstly, the original signal is decomposed into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using MCEEMDAN. According to the DE value of IMF, the modes are divided into three types: noise IMF, noise-dominated IMF and pure IMF. After noise IMFs are removed, the noise-dominated IMFs are denoised using interval thresholding. Finally, the pure IMF and the processed noise-dominated IMFs are reconstructed to obtain the final denoised signal. The denoising experiments with the Chen’s chaotic system show that the proposed method has a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than the other three methods. Applying the proposed method to denoise the real SR-N signal, the topological structure of chaotic attractor can be recovered clearly. It is proved that the proposed method can effectively suppress the high-frequency noise of SR-N signal.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060597
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 598: Optimization of the Cell Structure for
           Radiation-Hardened Power MOSFETs

    • Authors: Wang, Wan, Jin, Li, Sun, liang, Xu, Zheng
      First page: 598
      Abstract: Power MOSFETs specially designed for space power systems are expected to simultaneously meet the requirements of electrical performance and radiation hardness. Radiation-hardened (rad-hard) power MOSFET design can be achieved via cell structure optimization. This paper conducts an investigation of the cell geometrical parameters with major impacts on radiation hardness, and a rad-hard power MOSFET is designed and fabricated. The experimental results validate the devices’ total ionizing dose (TID) and single event effects (SEE) hardness to suitably satisfy most space power system requirements while maintaining acceptable electrical performance.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060598
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 599: A Building Information Modelling (BIM)
           based Water Efficiency (BWe) Framework for Sustainable Building Design and
           Construction Management

    • Authors: Zhen Liu, Chao Zhang, Yuanxiang Guo, Mohamed Osmani, Peter Demian
      First page: 599
      Abstract: There is a lack of decision-making tools for water efficiency design and construction to maximize project benefits and water conservation. An increasing number of research studies indicate that building information modelling (BIM) can enhance the cooperation, improve work efficiency, and conduct simulation and analysis of sustainability performance in building projects. However, BIM’s potential to enhance water efficiency is yet to be established, such as water gird design optimization, clash detection, combination of BIM with smart appliances and sensors. The research adopted a mixed method approach to investigate the potential impact of BIM on water efficiency in building projects. It involved 50 practitioners from the Architectural, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry through a questionnaire survey and the follow-up interviews. The quantitative results of questionnaire data and qualitative results of interviews were used to develop a “BIM-based Water Efficiency (BWe) Framework” which was subsequently validated by five experienced practitioners and researchers in the form of semi-structured interviews. The framework applies BIM to optimize traditional water efficiency measures based on an information database. The geometry, attributes, status information of building components or non-component objects stored in the database greatly improve information integration degree of construction engineering. This study provided a reference for the use of BIM for water conservation in building design and construction.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060599
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 600: Automatic Configuration of OPC UA for
           Industrial Internet of Things Environments

    • Authors: Jose Miguel Gutierrez-Guerrero, Juan Antonio Holgado-Terriza
      First page: 600
      Abstract: Software technologies play an increasingly significant role in industrial environments, especially for the adoption of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). In this context, the application of mechanisms for the auto-configuration of industrial systems may be relevant for reducing human errors and costs in terms of time and money, improving the maintenance and the quality control. OPC UA (OLE for Process Control Unified Architecture) systems are usually integrated into an industrial system to provide a standard way for setting a secure and reliable data exchange between industrial devices of multiple vendors and software systems. In this paper, a novel mechanism for the auto-configuration of OPC UA systems is proposed from an initial setup of industrial devices interconnected to a basic Ethernet network. The auto-configuration of the OPC UA is self-managed over the TCP/IP protocol. This mechanism allows automating the configuration process of the OPC UA server automatically from the programmable logic controller (PLC) devices connected to a basic Ethernet network. Once the PLC devices are identified, they exchange information directly with OPC using a Modbus protocol over the same Ethernet network. To test the feasibility of this approach, a case study is prepared and evaluated.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060600
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 601: Analysis of DC Link Energy Storage for
           Single-Phase Grid-Connected PV Inverters

    • Authors: Gurhan Ertasgin, David M. Whaley, Nesimi Ertugrul, Wen L. Soong
      First page: 601
      Abstract: Single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverters (GCI) are commonly used to feed power back to the utility. However, the inverter output power fluctuates at 100 Hz, which can be seen by the PV panel, and this reduces the PV output power. It is important to determine and analyze the correlation between the array voltage and current ripple and the average output power reduction of PV array. Therefore, this paper investigates the relationships between the oscillations due to single-phase switching and the DC link energy storage for PV GCIs. The balanced ripple definition is introduced and compared with the more common centered ripple definition. Some examples are provided that demonstrate the importance of these results, in the inverter design industry. The analysis presented here incorporates inductor trade-offs, which are verified with experimental results.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060601
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 602: HealthyBroker: A Trustworthy

    • Authors: Heba Kurdi, Shada Alsalamah, Asma Alatawi, Sara Alfaraj, Lina Altoaimy, Syed Hassan Ahmed
      First page: 602
      Abstract: Delivering electronic health care (eHealth) services across multi-cloud providers to implement patient-centric care demands a trustworthy brokering architecture. Specifically, such an architecture should aggregate relevant medical information to allow informed decision-making. It should also ensure that this information is complete and authentic and that no one has tampered with it. Brokers deployed in eHealth services may fall short of meeting such criteria due to two key behaviors. The first involves violating international health-data protection laws by allowing user anonymity and limiting user access rights. Second, brokers claiming to provide trustworthy transactions between interested parties usually rely on user feedback, an approach vulnerable to manipulation by malicious users. This paper addresses these data security and trust challenges by proposing HealthyBroker, a novel, trust-building brokering architecture for multiple cloud environments. This architecture is designed specifically for patient-centric cloud eHealth services. It enables care-team members to complete eHealth transactions securely and access relevant patient data on a “need-to-know” basis in compliance with data-protection laws. HealthyBroker also protects against potential malicious behavior by assessing the trust relationship and tracking it using a neutral, tamper-proof, distributed blockchain ledger. Trust is assessed based on two strategies. First, all transactions and user feedback are tracked and audited in a distributed ledger for transparency. Second, only feedback coming from trustworthy parties is taken into consideration. HealthyBroker was tested in a simulated eHealth multi-cloud environment. The test produced better results than a benchmark algorithm in terms of data accuracy, service time, and the reliability of feedback received as measured by three malicious behavior models (naïve, feedback isolated, and feedback collective). These results demonstrate that HealthyBroker can provide care teams with a trustworthy, transparent ecosystem that can facilitate information sharing and well-informed decisions for patient-centric care.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060602
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 603: Photovoltaic Module Array Global Maximum
           Power Tracking Combined with Artificial Bee Colony and Particle Swarm
           Optimization Algorithm

    • Authors: Chao, Hsieh
      First page: 603
      Abstract: In this study, the output characteristics of partial modules in a photovoltaic module array when subject to shading were first explored. Then, an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was applied to track the global maximum power point (MPP), with a multi-peak characteristic curve. The improved particle swarm optimization algorithm proposed, combined with the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, was used to adjust the weighting, cognition learning factor, and social learning factor, and change the number of iterations to enhance the tracking performance of the MPP tracker. Finally, MATLAB software was used to carry out a simulation and prove the improved that the PSO algorithm successfully tracked the MPP in the photovoltaic array output curve with multiple peaks. Its tracking performance is far superior to the existing PSO algorithm.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060603
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 604: Enforcing Optimal ACL Policies Using
           K-Partite Graph in Hybrid SDN

    • Authors: Rashid Amin, Nadir Shah, Waqar Mehmood
      First page: 604
      Abstract: Software Defined Networking (SDN) as an innovative network paradigm that separates the management and control planes from the data plane of forwarding devices by implementing both the management and control planes at a logically centralized entity, called controller. Therefore, it ensures simple network management and control. However, due to several reasons (e.g., deployment cost, fear of downtime) organizations are very reluctant to adopt SDN in practice. Therefore, a viable solution is to replace the legacy devices by SDN devices incrementally. This results in a new network architecture called hybrid SDN. In hybrid SDN, both SDN and legacy devices operate in such a way to achieve the maximum benefit of SDN. The legacy devices are running a traditional protocol and SDN devices are operating using Open-flow protocols. Network policies play an essential role to secure the entire network from several types of attacks like unauthorized access and port/protocol control. In a hybrid SDN, policy implementation is a tedious task that requires extreme care and attention due to the hybrid nature of network traffic. Network policies may be implemented at various positions in hybrid SDN, e.g., near the destination or source node, and at the egress or ingress ports of a router. Each of these schemes has some trade-offs. For example, if policies are implemented near the source nodes then each packet generated from the source must pass through the filter and, thus, requires more processing power, time, resources, etc. Similarly, if policies are installed near the destination nodes, then a lot of unwanted traffic generated causing network congestion. This is an NP-hard problem. To address these challenges, we propose a systematic design approach to implement network policies optimally by using decision tree and K-partite graph. By traversing all the policies, we built up the decision tree that identifies which source nodes can communicate with which destination. Then, we traverse the decision tree and constructs K-partite graph to find possible places (interfaces of the routers) where ACL policies are to be implemented based on the different criteria (i.e., the minimum number of ACL rules and the minimum number of transmissions for unwanted traffic). The edge weight represents the cost per criteria. Then, we traverse the K-partite graph to find the optimal place for ACL rules implementation according to the given criteria. The simulation results indicate that the proposed technique outperforms existing approaches in terms of computation time, traffic optimization and successful packet delivery, etc. The results also indicate that the proposed method improves network performance and efficiency by decreasing network congestion and providing ease of policy implementation.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060604
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 605: Picking Robot Visual Servo Control Based
           on Modified Fuzzy Neural Network Sliding Mode Algorithms

    • Authors: Chen, Xu, Liu, Wang, Zhao
      First page: 605
      Abstract: Through an analysis of the kinematics and dynamics relations between the target positioning of manipulator joint angles of an apple-picking robot, the sliding-mode control (SMC) method is introduced into robot servo control according to the characteristics of servo control. However, the biggest problem of the sliding-mode variable structure control is chattering, and the speed, inertia, acceleration, switching surface, and other factors are also considered when approaching the sliding die surface. Meanwhile, neural network has the characteristics of approaching non-linear function and not depending on the mechanism model of the system. Therefore, the fuzzy neural network control algorithm can effectively solve the chattering problem caused by the variable structure of the sliding mode and improve the dynamic and static performances of the control system. The comparison experiment is carried out through the application of the PID algorithm, the sliding mode control algorithm, and the improved fuzzy neural network sliding mode control algorithm on the picking robot system in the laboratory environment. The result verified that the intelligent algorithm can reduce the complexity of parameter adjustments and improve the control accuracy to a certain extent.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060605
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 606: An Artificial Sweating System for Sweat
           Sensor Testing Applications

    • Authors: Andrew Brueck, Kyle Bates, Trent Wood, William House, Zackary Martinez, Shannon Peters, Blain Root, Kumar Yelamarthi, Tolga Kaya
      First page: 606
      Abstract: This research proposes a completely automated, computer-controlled fluid mixing and dispensing system, which is suitable for testing sweat sensing devices, as an alternative to requiring human trials during the development phase of a sweat sensor device. An arm mold was designed and implemented with dragon skin and pores to simulate sweating action. The relay controlled mixing tanks allow for the different concentration of fluid solutions at various rates of fluid dispensing through pores. The onboard single board computer controls a dozen electronic relays and it switches and presents an easy to use graphical user interface to allow end users to conduct the experiments with ease and not require further programming. With the recent advances in sweat sensors, this platform offers a unique way of testing sensing devices during development, allowing for researchers to focus on their design parameters one at a time before actual validation through human trials are conducted. The current device can provide sweat rates from 1 µL/min to 500 µL/min. Furthermore, concentrations of 10 mM up to 200 mM of salt concentrations were able to be repeatedly produced. In an ANOVA test with salt concentrations varying from 40–60 mM, a p-value of 0.365 shows that the concentration does not have any effect on the flow rate. Similarly, a p-value of 0.329 and 0.167 for different relative humidity and temperature shows that the system does not present a statistical difference. Lastly, when the interactions among all the factors were considered, a p-value of 0.416 clearly presents that the system performance is insensitive to different factors, thus validating the system reliability.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060606
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 607: Machine Learning Prediction Approach to
           Enhance Congestion Control in 5G IoT Environment

    • Authors: Ihab Ahmed Najm, Alaa Khalaf Hamoud, Jaime Lloret, Ignacio Bosch
      First page: 607
      Abstract: The 5G network is a next-generation wireless form of communication and the latest mobile technology. In practice, 5G utilizes the Internet of Things (IoT) to work in high-traffic networks with multiple nodes/sensors in an attempt to transmit their packets to a destination simultaneously, which is a characteristic of IoT applications. Due to this, 5G offers vast bandwidth, low delay, and extremely high data transfer speed. Thus, 5G presents opportunities and motivations for utilizing next-generation protocols, especially the stream control transmission protocol (SCTP). However, the congestion control mechanisms of the conventional SCTP negatively influence overall performance. Moreover, existing mechanisms contribute to reduce 5G and IoT performance. Thus, a new machine learning model based on a decision tree (DT) algorithm is proposed in this study to predict optimal enhancement of congestion control in the wireless sensors of 5G IoT networks. The model was implemented on a training dataset to determine the optimal parametric setting in a 5G environment. The dataset was used to train the machine learning model and enable the prediction of optimal alternatives that can enhance the performance of the congestion control approach. The DT approach can be used for other functions, especially prediction and classification. DT algorithms provide graphs that can be used by any user to understand the prediction approach. The DT C4.5 provided promising results, with more than 92% precision and recall.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060607
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 608: Fuzzy Optimized MFAC Based on ADRC in AUV
           Heading Control

    • Authors: Hongjia Li, Bo He, Qingqing Yin, Xiaokai Mu, Jiaming Zhang, Junhe Wan, Dianrui Wang, Yue Shen
      First page: 608
      Abstract: The control issue of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) is very challenging since the precise mathematical model of AUV is hard to establish due to its strong coupling and time-varying features. Meanwhile, AUV movement is easily interfered with by ocean currents and waves, causing anti-interference performance of traditional Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control to be unsatisfactory. Aiming to solve those problems, an algorithm of fuzzy optimized model-free adaptive control (MFAC) based on auto-disturbance rejection control (ADRC) was proposed and used in AUV heading control. The MFAC is used to overcome the difficulty with establishing a precise mathematical model, and the ADRC is introduced to handle the interference of currents and waves. In this paper, MFAC and ADRC are combined. First, the MFAC is performed based only on the I/O data of the controlled object, which is simple to implement with low calculation complexity and strong robustness. Then, a tracking differentiator (TD) is employed to track the input signal to overcome the antinomy of rapidity and hypertonicity in MFAC. After that, an extended-state observer (ESO) is added to control the variables of MFAC to estimate all the disturbances, which can greatly improve the anti-interference ability of the system. Due to the complexity and diversity of the marine environment, a fuzzy optimized MFAC based on ADRC is proposed to improve the adaptability of AUV to the marine environment. Simulations and experiments were carried out to verify the control effect of this algorithm in complex sea conditions.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060608
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 609: A Fast Algorithm for Multi-Class Learning
           from Label Proportions

    • Authors: Fan Zhang, Jiabin Liu, Bo Wang, Zhiquan Qi, Yong Shi
      First page: 609
      Abstract: Learning from label proportions (LLP) is a new kind of learning problem which has attracted wide interest in machine learning. Different from the well-known supervised learning, the training data of LLP is in the form of bags and only the proportion of each class in each bag is available. Actually, many modern applications can be successfully abstracted to this problem such as modeling voting behaviors and spam filtering. However, time-consuming training is still a challenge for LLP, which becomes a bottleneck especially when addressing large bags and bag sizes. In this paper, we propose a fast algorithm called multi-class learning from label proportions by extreme learning machine (LLP-ELM), which takes advantage of an extreme learning machine with fast learning speed to solve multi-class learning from label proportions. Firstly, we reshape the hidden layer output matrix and the training data target matrix of an extreme learning machine to adapt to the proportion information instead of the real labels. Secondly, a robust loss function with a regularization term is formulated and two efficient solutions are provided to different cases. Finally, various experiments demonstrate the significant speed-up of the proposed model with better accuracies on different datasets compared with several state-of-the-art methods.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060609
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 610: iLife: Safely Extending Lifetime for
           Memory-Oriented SSD

    • Authors: Erci Xu, Shanshan Li
      First page: 610
      Abstract: Currently, the roles of SSDs have been diversified significantly. Apart for storage purposes, users can also utilize flash drives to cache hot data or buffering incoming writes to achieve high throughput. In this case, the endurance study of Solid State Drives (SSDs) has become an increasingly important topic as users rely on such research to reliably avoid early retirement of their old drives in laptops or machines in data centers. However, current manufacturers adopt Program/Erase (P/E) cycle-based life indicators to estimate the remaining lifetime of an SSD, which is often too conservative due to longtime data retention concerns. In this paper, we begin by analyzing the inaccuracy and other potential issues of existing P/E cycle-based life indicators for SSDs under memory-oriented workloads. To construct an accurate life indicator, we conduct a more extensive and sophisticated experiment to wear out eight SSDs from four different vendors. By monitoring the device status extracted from the standard S.M.A.R.T.attributes in the experiment, we make eleven interesting findings on the relationship between the device lifetime and different types of errors observed. Based on our unique findings, we propose iLife, a pattern-based life indicator for SSDs under memory-oriented workloads. Our evaluation of iLife on a different set of six SSDs shows that iLife is a more accurate life indicator, with an average of 14.2% higher accuracy on lifetime estimation and up to 21.2% safe lifetime extension compared to existing P/E cycle-based indicators.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060610
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 611: Channel Length Biasing for Improving Read
           Margin of the 8T SRAM at Near Threshold Operation

    • Authors: Ik Joon Chang, Yesung Kang, Youngmin Kim
      First page: 611
      Abstract: Reducing a supply voltage in order to minimize power consumption in memory is a major design consideration in this field of study. In static random access memory (SRAM), optimum energy can be achieved by reducing the voltage near the threshold voltage level for near threshold voltage computing (NTC). However, lowering the operational voltage drastically degrades the stability of SRAM . Thus, in conventional 6T SRAM, it is almost impossible to read exact data, even when a small process variation occurs. To address this problem, an 8T SRAM structure is proposed which can be widely used for improving the read stability at lower voltage operation. In this paper, we investigate the channel length biasing effect on the read access transistor of the 8T SRAM in NTC and compare this with 6T SRAM. Read stability can be improved by suppressing the leakage current due to the longer channel length. Simulation results show that, in NTC, up to a 12× read-error reduction can be achieved by the 20 nm channel length biasing in the 8T SRAM compared to 6T SRAM.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060611
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 612: A Wearable Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery
           System Based on Low-Power SoCs

    • Authors: Jesús Berián, Ignacio Bravo, Alfredo Gardel, José Luis Lázaro, Sergio Hernández
      First page: 612
      Abstract: The number of patients living with diabetes has increased significantly in recent years due to several factors. Many of these patients are choosing to use insulin pumps for their treatment, artificial systems that administer their insulin and consist of a glucometer and an automatic insulin supply working in an open loop. Currently, only a few closed-loop insulin delivery devices are commercially available. The most widespread systems among patients are what have been called the “Do-It-Yourself Hybrid Closed-Loop systems.” These systems require the use of platforms with high computing power. In this paper, we will present a novel wearable system for insulin delivery that reduces the energy and computing consumption of the platform without affecting the computation requirements. Patients’ information is obtained from a commercial continuous glucose sensor and a commercial insulin pump operating in a conventional manner. An ad-hoc embedded system will connect with the pump and the sensor to collect the glucose data and process it. That connection is accomplished through a radiofrequency channel that provides a suitable system for the patient. Thus, this system does not require to be connected to any other processor, which increases the overall stability. Using parameters configured by the patient, the control system will make automatic adjustments in the basal insulin infusion thereby bringing the patient’s glycaemia to the target set by a doctor’s prescription. The results obtained will be satisfactory as long as the configured parameters faithfully match the specific characteristics of the patient. Results from the simulation of 30 virtual patients (10 adolescents, 10 adults, and 10 children), using a python implementation of the FDA-approved (Food and Drug Administration) UVa (University of Virginia)/Padova Simulator and a python implementation of the proposed algorithm, are presented.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060612
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 613: Large-Scale Outdoor SLAM Based on 2D Lidar

    • Authors: Ruike Ren, Hao Fu, Meiping Wu
      First page: 613
      Abstract: For autonomous driving, it is important to navigate in an unknown environment. In this paper, we propose a fully automated 2D simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) system based on lidar working in large-scale outdoor environments. To improve the accuracy and robustness of the scan matching module, an improved Correlative Scan Matching (CSM) algorithm is proposed. For efficient place recognition, we design an AdaBoost based loop closure detection algorithm which can efficiently reject false loop closures. For the SLAM back-end, we propose a light-weight graph optimization algorithm based on incremental smoothing and mapping (iSAM). The performance of our system is verified on various large-scale datasets including our real-world datasets and the KITTI odometry benchmark. Further comparisons to the state-of-the-art approaches indicate that our system is competitive with established techniques.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060613
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 614: Rollover-Free Path Planning for Off-Road
           Autonomous Driving

    • Authors: Xingyu Li, Bo Tang, John Ball, Matthew Doude, Daniel W. Carruth
      First page: 614
      Abstract: Perception, planning, and control are three enabling technologies to achieve autonomy in autonomous driving. In particular, planning provides vehicles with a safe and collision-free path towards their destinations, accounting for vehicle dynamics, maneuvering capabilities in the presence of obstacles, traffic rules, and road boundaries. Existing path planning algorithms can be divided into two stages: global planning and local planning. In the global planning stage, global routes and the vehicle states are determined from a digital map and the localization system. In the local planning stage, a local path can be achieved based on a global route and surrounding information obtained from sensors such as cameras and LiDARs. In this paper, we present a new local path planning method, which incorporates a vehicle’s time-to-rollover model for off-road autonomous driving on different road profiles for a given predefined global route. The proposed local path planning algorithm uses a 3D occupancy grid and generates a series of 3D path candidates in the s-p coordinate system. The optimal path is then selected considering the total cost of safety, including obstacle avoidance, vehicle rollover prevention, and comfortability in terms of path smoothness and continuity with road unevenness. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed path planning method for various types of roads, indicating its wide practical applications to off-road autonomous driving.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060614
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 615: Q-Learning of Straightforward Gait Pattern
           for Humanoid Robot Based on Automatic Training Platform

    • Authors: Ching-Chang Wong, Chih-Cheng Liu, Sheng-Ru Xiao, Hao-Yu Yang, Meng-Cheng Lau
      First page: 615
      Abstract: In this paper, an oscillator-based gait pattern with sinusoidal functions is designed and implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) chip to generate a trajectory plan and achieve bipedal locomotion for a small-sized humanoid robot. In order to let the robot can walk straight, the turning direction is viewed as a parameter of the gait pattern and Q-learning is used to obtain a straightforward gait pattern. Moreover, an automatic training platform is designed so that the learning process is automated. In this way, the turning direction can be adjusted flexibly and efficiently under the supervision of the automatic training platform. The experimental results show that the proposed learning framework allows the humanoid robot to gradually walk straight in the automated learning process.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060615
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 616: An Overview of Cooperative Driving in the
           European Union: Policies and Practices

    • Authors: Marilisa Botte, Luigi Pariota, Luca D’Acierno, Gennaro Nicola Bifulco
      First page: 616
      Abstract: Cooperative-Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITSs) aim to connect vehicles, both with one another and with road infrastructures, so as to increase traffic safety and efficiency. This paper focuses on the European framework for supporting the development of Cooperative, Connected, and Automated Mobility, and aims to shed light on the current state of testing and deployment activities in the field at the start of 2019. This may be considered particularly timely given that the year 2019 was identified as the starting date for the deployment of mature services, and the Community legislation is currently paying great attention to the matter. In order to present a concise (but comprehensive) picture, we consulted and analysed the most diverse sources comprising more than 2000 pages.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060616
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 617: Performance Enhancement Methods for the
           Distributed Acoustic Sensors Based on Frequency Division Multiplexing

    • Authors: Yanzhu Hu, Zhen Meng, Mohammadmasoud Zabihi, Yuanyuan Shan, Siyi Fu, Feng Wang, Xuping Zhang, Yixin Zhang, Bin Zeng
      First page: 617
      Abstract: The last years have witnessed the wide application of Distributed Acoustic Sensor (DAS) systems in several fields, such as submarine cable monitoring, seismic wave detection, structural health monitoring, etc. Due to their distributed measurement ability and high sensitivity, DAS systems can be employed as a promising tool for the phase sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR). However, it is also well-known that the traditional Φ-OTDR system suffers from Rayleigh backscattering (RBS) fading effects, which induce dead zones in the measurement results. Worse still, in practice it is difficult to achieve the optimum matching between spatial resolution (SR) and signal to noise ratio (SNR). Further, the overall frequency response range (FRR) of the traditional Φ-OTDR is commonly limited by the length of the fiber in order to prevent RBS signals from overlapping with each other. Additionally, it is usually difficult to reconstruct high frequency vibration signals accurately for long range monitoring. Aiming at solving these problems, we introduce frequency division multiplexing (FDM) that makes it easier to improve the system performance with less system structure changes. We propose several novel Φ-OTDR schemes based on Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) technology to solve the above problems. Experimental results showed that the distortion induced by fading effects could be suppressed to 1.26%; when the SR of Φ-OTDR is consistent with the length of the vibration region, the SNR of the sensing system is improved by 3 dB compared to the average SNR with different SRs; vibration frequencies up to 440 kHz have been detected along 330 m artificial microstructures. Thus, the proposed sensing system offers a promising solution for the performance enhancement of DAS systems that could achieve high SNR, broadband FRR and dead zone-free measurements at the same time.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060617
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 618: Single Event Transients in CMOS Ring

    • Authors: Jeffrey Prinzie, Valentijn De Smedt
      First page: 618
      Abstract: In this paper, a time-variant analysis is made on Single-Event Transients (SETs) in integrated CMOS ring oscillators. The Impulse Sensitive Function (ISF) of the oscillator is used to analyze the impact of the relative moment when a particle hits the circuit. The analysis is based on simulations and verified experimentally with a Two-Photon Absorption (TPA) laser setup. The experiments are done using a 65 nm CMOS test chip.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060618
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 619: Implementation of a Portable
           Electromyographic Prototype for the Detection of Muscle Fatigue

    • Authors: Sandra De la Peña, Aura Polo, Carlos Robles-Algarín
      First page: 619
      Abstract: Surface electromyography (sEMG) applied to the sports training area makes possible the observation of fatigue as well as the generation of muscular strength, through the study of changes in signal characteristics, such as peak-to-peak amplitude, mean frequency and median, among others. In this sense, this work presents the design of a portable prototype for the acquisition and processing of electromyographic (EMG) signals aimed at the detection of muscle fatigue in athletes. Using two Bluetooth Bee modules, a wireless communication was performed in order to send the muscular electrical activity of the skin surface to a user interface developed in LabVIEW. A group of players from the Volleyball team of the Universidad del Magdalena, performed a series of exercise routines with dynamic contractions and as they experienced fatigue, samples were taken of the contractions made. The tests were performed on the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris muscles. The analysis of fatigue under dynamic conditions of the two parameters studied, in frequency and time, showed that it is more pertinent to estimate fatigue indices in the frequency domain.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060619
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 620: Nonlinear Distortion Cancellation using
           Predistorter in MIMO-GFDM Systems

    • Authors: Jayati, Wirawan, Suryani, Endroyono
      First page: 620
      Abstract: Generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) with offset quadrature amplitude modulation (OQAM) is an alternative non-orthogonal modulation scheme for future generation wireless broadband systems. The nonlinearity of high power amplifiers (HPAs) has a very significant effect on the performance of GFDM systems. In this paper, we investigate the effects of nonlinear distortion on the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)-GFDM system when the signal is passed the HPA, which is modeled with amplitude and phase distortion. The effects of nonlinear distortion due to the HPA include amplitude distortion, phase distortion, and the spread of signal constellations. These effects also produce harmonic signals and intermodulation outside the frequency band which results in spectral spread. This will then reduce the performance of the MIMO-GFDM system. The contributions of this paper concern three key areas. Firstly, we investigate the effects of nonlinear distortion on the MIMO-GFDM system. We also derive the new closed-form expression bit error rate (BER) in MIMO-GFDM systems that use a memoryless HPA, which is modeled using the Saleh model when passed through the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. This model was chosen because it is simple and has AM/AM and AM/PM curves. Secondly, we propose the application of techniques for the linearization of each HPA predistorter on the transmitter side of the MIMO-GFDM system separately. This predistorter is able to compensate for nonlinear distortion caused by the HPA without memory operating in the saturation region. The main contribution of this paper is to investigate the predistorter, which can linearize nonlinear distortion in MIMO-GFDM transmitters. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated in terms of spectrum analysis, PAPR analysis, a constellation diagram, and bit error rate (BER) analysis. The simulation results show that the proposed predistorter design succeeds in compensating for nonlinear distortions caused by the HPA for large input back-off (IBO) values.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060620
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 621: Analytical Design Solution for Optimal
           Matching of Hybrid Continuous Mode Power Amplifiers Suitable for a
           High-Efficiency Envelope Tracking Operation

    • Authors: Cao, Liu, Chen, Yang, Zhou
      First page: 621
      Abstract: An analytical method to design a power amplifier (PA) with an optimized power added efficiency (PAE) trajectory for envelope tracking (ET) architecture is proposed. To obtain feasible matching solutions for high-efficiency performance of the PA in the dynamic supply operation, hybrid continuous modes (HCM) architecture is introduced. The design space for load impedances of the HCM PAs with nonlinear capacitance is deduced mathematically using the device’s embedding transfer network, without the necessity of using load-pull. The proposed design strategy is verified with the implementation of a GaN PA operating over the frequency range of 1.9 GHz to 2.2 GHz with PAE between 67.8% and 72.4% in the 6.7 dB back-off power region of the ET mode. The ET experimental system was set up to evaluate the application of the PA circuit. Measurement results show that the ET PA at 2.1 GHz reaches the efficiency of 61%, 54%, 44% and an error vector magnitude (EVM) of 0.32%, 0.60%, 0.67% at an average output power of 34.4 dBm, 34.2 dBm, 34.1 dBm for 6.7 dB peak-to-average power ratios (PAPR) signals with 5 MHz, 10 MHz, and 20 MHz bandwidths, respectively. Additionally, tested by a 20 MHz bandwidth 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal, 41.8% to 49.2% efficiency of ET PA is achieved at an average output power of 33.5 dBm to 35.1 dBm from 1.9 GHz to 2.2 GHz.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060621
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 622: Accurate Rigid Body Localization Using DoA
           Measurements from a Single Base Station

    • Authors: Zhou, Yao, Yang, Yang, Wu, Kim, Ai
      First page: 622
      Abstract: Rigid body localization (RBL) is to simultaneously estimate the position and attitude of a rigid target. In this paper, we focus on the RBL problem using a single base station (BS) and direction of arrival (DoA) measurements. Several wireless sensors are mounted on the rigid body of interest, and their topology information is known a priori. The single BS measures the DoAs of wireless sensor signals and fuses them with the sensor topology information to estimate the position and orientation of the rigid body and achieve RBL. We propose two RBL methods, namely, the observation matching (OM) algorithm and topology matching (TM) algorithm with refinement. The emerging participatory searching algorithm (PSA) is adopted in both methods to solve the nonlinear matching problems. Simulations show that, compared with the existing approach, the OM method can achieve better RBL accuracy under high DoA noise levels, while the performance of the TM algorithm with refinement is closer to the constrained Cramér–Rao bound (CCRB) under low DoA noise levels.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060622
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 623: A 1 Gbps Chaos-Based Stream Cipher
           Implemented in 0.18 μm CMOS Technology

    • Authors: Miguel Garcia-Bosque, Guillermo Díez-Señorans, Adrián Pérez-Resa, Carlos Sánchez-Azqueta, Concepción Aldea, Santiago Celma
      First page: 623
      Abstract: In this work, a novel chaos-based stream cipher based on a skew tent map is proposed and implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) technology. The proposed ciphering algorithm uses a linear feedback shift register that perturbs the orbits generated by the skew tent map after each iteration. This way, the randomness of the generated sequences is considerably improved. The implemented stream cipher was capable of achieving encryption speeds of 1 Gbps by using an approximate area of ~ 20 , 000 2-NAND equivalent gates, with a power consumption of 24.1 mW. To test the security of the proposed cipher, the generated keystreams were subjected to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) randomness tests, proving that they were undistinguishable from truly random sequences. Finally, other security aspects such as the key sensitivity, key space size, and security against reconstruction attacks were studied, proving that the stream cipher is secure.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060623
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 624: Secondary Freeform Lens Device Design with
           Stearic Acid for A Low-Glare Mosquito-Trapping System with Ultraviolet
           Light-Emitting Diodes

    • Authors: Tseng, Hsiao, Juan, Chan, Hsiao, Ma, Lee
      First page: 624
      Abstract: Dengue fever is a public health issue of global concern. Taiwan is located in the subtropical region featuring humid and warm weather, which is conducive to the breeding of mosquitoes and flies. Together with global warming and the increasing frequency of international exchanges, in addition to the outbreak of pandemics and dengue fever, the number of people infected has increased rapidly. This study is dedicated to the development of a new mosquito-trapping system. Research has shown that specific wavelengths, colors, and temperatures are highly attractive to both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In this study, we create equipment which effectively improves the trapping capabilities of mosquitoes in a wider field. The design of the special Secondary Freeform Lens Device (SFLD) is used to expand the range for trapping mosquitoes and create illumination uniformity; it also directs light downward for the protection of users’ eyes. In addition, we use the correct amount of stearic acid as a mosquito attractant to allow a better control effect against mosquitoes during the day. In summary, when the UV LED mosquito trapping system is combined with a quadratic free-form lens, the experimental results show that the system can extend the capture range to 100 π m2 in which the number of captured mosquitoes is increased by about 350%.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060624
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 625: Model Predictive Current Control Method
           with Improved Performances for Three-Phase Voltage Source Inverters

    • Authors: Jun, Park, Kwak
      First page: 625
      Abstract: In this paper, the model predictive current control (MPCC) method using two vectors has been proposed to control output currents of three-phase voltage source inverters (VSIs) with small current errors and current ripples. Also, the proposed method can reduce switching losses by applying the vector pre-selection technique to the MPCC for the VSI. The VSI generates seven voltage vectors to control the output currents, but the proposed method uses four available voltage vectors with one switch, which are classified by the vector pre-selection method clamping one leg and conducting the largest output current among the three legs to reduce the switching losses. In the proposed method, selecting two future voltage vectors among the four voltage vectors and dividing them in a future sampling period are determined by an optimization process. The proposed method results in the lower total loss, better total harmonic distortion (THD), and smaller current errors than the conventional method with half the sampling period of the proposed method due to the optimal process. Simulation and experimental results of the three-phase VSIs are presented in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060625
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 626: Multipath Ghost Suppression Based on
           Generative Adversarial Nets in Through-Wall Radar Imaging

    • Authors: Jia, Song, Chen, Wang, Guo, Zhong, Cui
      First page: 626
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose an approach that uses generative adversarial nets (GAN) toeliminate multipath ghosts with respect to through-wall radar imaging (TWRI). The applied GANis composed of two adversarial networks, namely generator G and discriminator D. Generator Glearns the spatial characteristics of an input radar image to construct a mapping from an input tooutput image with suppressed ghosts. Discriminator D evaluates the difference (namely, the residualmultipath ghosts) between the output image and the ground-truth image without multipath ghosts.On the one hand, by training G, the image difference is gradually diminished. In other words,multipath ghosts are increasingly suppressed in the output image of G. On the other hand, D istrained to improve in evaluating the diminishing difference accompanied with multipath ghostsas much as possible. These two networks, G and D, fight with each other until G eliminates themultipath ghosts. The simulation results demonstrate that GAN can effectively eliminate multipathghosts in TWRI. A comparison of different methods demonstrates the superiority of the proposedmethod, such as the exemption of prior wall information, no target images with degradation, androbustness for different scenes.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060626
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 627: Risk-Based Decision Methods for Vehicular

    • Authors: Riaz Ahmed Shaikh, Vijey Thayananthan
      First page: 627
      Abstract: Vehicular networks play a key role in building intelligent transport systems for smart cities. For the purpose of achieving traffic efficiency, road safety, and traveler comfort, vehicles communicate and collaborate with each other as well as with the fixed infrastructure. In practice, not all vehicles are trustworthy. A faulty or malicious vehicle may forward or share inaccurate or bogus information, which may cause adverse things, such as, road accidents and traffic congestion. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate risk before a vehicle takes any decision. Various risk-based decision systems have already been proposed in the literature. The fuzzy risk-based decision model of vehicular networks is one of them. In this paper, we have proposed various extensions in the fuzzy risk-based decision model to achieve higher robustness, reliability, and completeness. We have presented the theoretical and simulation-based analysis and evaluation of the proposed scheme in a comprehensive manner. In addition, we have analytically cross verified the theoretical and simulation-based results. Qualitative comparison of the proposed scheme has also been presented in this work.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060627
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 628: Focusing of Ultrahigh Resolution
           Spaceborne Spotlight SAR on Curved Orbit

    • Authors: Qian, Zhu
      First page: 628
      Abstract: Aiming to acquire ultrahigh resolution images, algorithms for spaceborne spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging typically confront challenges of curved orbit and azimuth spectral aliasing. In order to conquer these difficulties, a method is proposed in this paper to obtain ultrahigh resolution spaceborne SAR images on a curved orbit, which is composed of the modified RMA (Range Migration Algorithm) and the modified deramping-based approach. The modified RMA is developed to deal with the effect introduced by a curved orbit and the modified deramping-based approach is utilized to handle the problem of azimuth spectral aliasing. In the modified RMA, the polynomial expression of SAR two-dimensional spectrum on a curved orbit is derived with fourth-order azimuth phase history model and series reversion. Then, the singular value decomposition (SVD) is applied to decompose the expression of SAR two-dimensional spectrum numerically in order to acquire coordinates for Stolt interpolation in the scenario of curved orbit. In addition, the modified deramping-based approach is derived by introducing orbital state vectors in order to accommodate the situation of curved orbit in the proposed method. Experiments are implemented on point target simulation in order to verify the effectiveness of the presented method. In experiments, the range and azimuth resolution can achieve 0.15 m and 0.14 m, with focused scene size of 3 km by 3 km.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060628
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 629: Sub-Aperture Partitioning Method for
           Three-Dimensional Wide-Angle Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging with
           Non-Uniform Sampling

    • Authors: Sun, Xing, Li, Pang, Wang
      First page: 629
      Abstract: For a three-dimensional wide-angle synthetic aperture radar (SAR) with non-uniform sampling, it is necessary to divide its large aperture into several small sub-apertures before imaging due to the anisotropic characteristics of the target. The existing sub-aperture partitioning methods divide the aperture with equal intervals. However, for the non-uniformly sampled SAR, those equal-interval partitioning methods may have a bad effect on the resolution of the SAR imaging result. In view of this, a sub-aperture partitioning method for three-dimensional wide-angle SAR imaging with non-uniform sampling was proposed in this paper. First, we analyzed the relationship between the three-dimensional resolution and the sampling distribution in K-space based on the Cramer–Rao lower bound. Subsequently, according to the distribution of K-space sampling, the optimum size of each sub-aperture was found and the aperture was divided non-uniformly. Furthermore, the proposed method was validated by electromagnetic simulation data. The proposed sub-aperture partitioning method ensured that the resolution of each sub-aperture was high and consistent. By comparing with the equal-interval partitioning method, the experimental results showed that our proposed method had a higher resolution imaging result.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060629
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 630: Evaluation of a Straight-Ray Forward Model
           for Bayesian Inversion of Crosshole Ground Penetrating Radar Data

    • Authors: Hui Qin, Xiongyao Xie, Yu Tang
      First page: 630
      Abstract: Bayesian inversion of crosshole ground penetrating radar (GPR) data is capable of characterizing the subsurface dielectric properties and qualifying the associated uncertainties. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations within the Bayesian inversion usually require thousands to millions of forward model evaluations for the parameters to hit their posterior distributions. Therefore, the CPU cost of the forward model is a key issue that influences the efficiency of the Bayesian inversion method. In this paper we implement a widely used straight-ray forward model within our Bayesian inversion framework. Based on a synthetic unit square relative permittivity model, we simulate the crosshole GPR first-arrival traveltime data using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and straight-ray solver, respectively, and find that the straight-ray simulator runs 450 times faster than its FDTD counterpart, yet suffers from a modeling error that is more than 7 times larger. We also perform a series of numerical experiments to evaluate the performance of the straight-ray model within the Bayesian inversion framework. With modeling error disregarded, the inverted posterior models fit the measurement data nicely, yet converge to the wrong set of parameters at the expense of unreasonably large number of iterations. When the modeling error is accounted for, with a quarter of the computational burden, the main features of the true model can be identified from the posterior realizations although there still exist some unwanted artifacts. Finally, a smooth constraint on the model structure improves the inversion results considerably, to the extent that it enhances the inversion accuracy approximating to those of the FDTD model, and further reduces the CPU demand. Our results demonstrate that the use of the straight-ray forward model in the Bayesian inversion saves computational cost tremendously, and the modeling error correction together with the model structure constraint are the necessary amendments that ensure that the model parameters converge correctly.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060630
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 631: Parallel Implementation on FPGA of Support
           Vector Machines Using Stochastic Gradient Descent

    • Authors: Felipe F. Lopes, João Canas Ferreira, Marcelo A. C. Fernandes
      First page: 631
      Abstract: Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO) is the traditional training algorithm for Support Vector Machines (SVMs). However, SMO does not scale well with the size of the training set. For that reason, Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) algorithms, which have better scalability, are a better option for massive data mining applications. Furthermore, even with the use of SGD, training times can become extremely large depending on the data set. For this reason, accelerators such as Field-programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are used. This work describes an implementation in hardware, using FPGA, of a fully parallel SVM using Stochastic Gradient Descent. The proposed FPGA implementation of an SVM with SGD presents speedups of more than 10,000× relative to software implementations running on a quad-core processor and up to 319× compared to state-of-the-art FPGA implementations while requiring fewer hardware resources. The results show that the proposed architecture is a viable solution for highly demanding problems such as those present in big data analysis.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060631
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 632: Multi-Model Reliable Control for Variable
           Fault Systems under LQG Framework

    • Authors: Lei Liu, Fucai Qian, Guo Xie, Min Wang
      First page: 632
      Abstract: The problem of reliable control for variable fault systems under linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) framework is studied in this paper. Firstly, a cluster of models is used to cover the dynamic behaviors of different fault modes of a system and, for each model, LQG control is implemented. By using the a posteriori probability of model innovation as the weight information, a multi-model reliable control (MMRC) is proposed. Secondly, it is proved that MMRC can enable the controller to learn the real operating mode of the system. When the controller is in a deadlock state, a deadlock avoidance strategy is given and its convergence of the a posteriori probability is proved. Finally, the validity of MMRC is verified by an example simulation of the lateral-directional control system of an aircraft. Simulation results show that MMRC guarantees an acceptable performance of the closed-loop system. In addition, since the controller fuses the control law of each model according to the weight information, when the system model is switched, the controller implements a soft switching, which avoids the jitter caused by frequent hard switching to the system.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060632
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 633: Open-Circuit Fault Analysis and Modeling
           for Power Converter Based on Single Arm Model

    • Authors: Hongwei Tao, Tao Peng, Chao Yang, Zhiwen Chen, Chunhua Yang, Weihua Gui
      First page: 633
      Abstract: This paper proposes a new modeling method for power converter based on single arm model. The objective of this paper is twofold: (1) One is to present the single arm model with good portability. The single arm model can be used to build the models of power converters which have several arms with the same structure; (2) the other is that the converter model built by the single arm model can represent the power converter when open-circuit faults happened in power devices and clamping diodes. First of all, the inputs and outputs of single arm are redefined. Then, the open-circuit faults occurring in different power devices and clamping diodes are analyzed. Furthermore the single arm model is built. Finally, the model of power converter is established based on the single arm model, which can express the power converter with open-circuit fault. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed model have been verified by simulation and experiment results.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060633
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 634: Entropy-based Low-rank Approximation for
           Contrast Dielectric Target Detection with Through Wall Imaging System

    • Authors: Bivalkar, Singh, Kobayashi
      First page: 634
      Abstract: In through wall imaging, clutter plays an important role in the detection of objects behind the wall. In the literature, extensive studies have been carried out to eliminate clutter in the case of targets with the same dielectric. Existing clutter reduction techniques, such as the sub-space approach, differential approach, entropy-based time gating, etc., are able to detect a single target or two targets with the same dielectric behind the wall. In a real-time scenario, it is not necessary that targets with the same dielectric will be present behind the wall. Very few studies are available for the detection of targets with different dielectrics; here we termed it “contrast target detection” in the same scene. Recently, low-rank approximation (LRA) was proposed to reduce random noise in the data. In this paper, a novel method based on entropy thresholding for low-rank approximation is introduced for contrast target detection. It was observed that our proposed method gives satisfactory results.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060634
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 635: A Comprehensive Medical Decision–Support
           Framework Based on a Heterogeneous Ensemble Classifier for Diabetes

    • Authors: El-Sappagh, Elmogy, Ali, Abuhmed, Islam, Kwak
      First page: 635
      Abstract: Early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) is critical to prevent its serious complications. An ensemble of classifiers is an effective way to enhance classification performance, which can be used to diagnose complex diseases, such as DM. This paper proposes an ensemble framework to diagnose DM by optimally employing multiple classifiers based on bagging and random subspace techniques. The proposed framework combines seven of the most suitable and heterogeneous data mining techniques, each with a separate set of suitable features. These techniques are k-nearest neighbors, naïve Bayes, decision tree, support vector machine, fuzzy decision tree, artificial neural network, and logistic regression. The framework is designed accurately by selecting, for every sub-dataset, the most suitable feature set and the most accurate classifier. It was evaluated using a real dataset collected from electronic health records of Mansura University Hospitals (Mansura, Egypt). The resulting framework achieved 90% of accuracy, 90.2% of recall = 90.2%, and 94.9% of precision. We evaluated and compared the proposed framework with many other classification algorithms. An analysis of the results indicated that the proposed ensemble framework significantly outperforms all other classifiers. It is a successful step towards constructing a personalized decision support system, which could help physicians in daily clinical practice.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060635
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 636: Reliability Improvement of Power
           Distribution System for UAV

    • Authors: Udris, Bručas, Pomarnacki
      First page: 636
      Abstract: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), like other complex mechatronics systems, use servomechanisms for the accurate positioning of construction elements. Servomechanisms are stable, reliable and easy to control. However, occasionally they fail and cause issues for the electrical system. In this paper, the authors present a full analysis of the system operations after a specific fault and the consequences of it. The authors propose a test bench and show the experimentation results that contain servo motor electrical parameters at loaded and idle states, the relations to the manufacturer technical specifications, and possible fault detection and elimination solutions. The obtained results could be implemented into existing popular UAV control systems to improve reliability and fault tolerance of commercial products.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060636
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 637: A Compact Crossed Inverted-V Antenna with
           a Common Reflector for Polarization Diversity in the IoT

    • Authors: Kibeom Park, Jingon Joung, Sungjoon Lim, Han Lim Lee
      First page: 637
      Abstract: This article presented a compact and high gain antenna with reconfigurable polarization based on two inverted-V dipoles fabricated in a crossed configuration, and with a common planar reflector. The proposed antenna could generate four different types of polarizations, such as vertical polarization (VP), horizontal polarization (HP), right-hand circular polarization (RHCP), and left-hand circular polarization (LHCP). A pair of inverted-V dipoles drove the polarization diversity, where each dipole had an integrated matching circuit and a microstrip balun. Using a crossed inverted-V configuration with a ground plane as the common reflector, we could achieve compactness in size, high directivity, and a wider beamwidth than a normal dipole antenna. To verify the performance of the proposed antenna, we fabricated a sub-6GHz antenna with a Taconic TLX-9 substrate, which had a relative permittivity of 2.5. The proposed antenna showed a measured 10-dB impedance bandwidth of 752 MHz (5.376 GHz to 6.128 GHz). The peak gains for the VP, HP, RHCP and LHCP operations at 5.8 GHz were about 5.2 dBi, 4.61 dBi, 5.25 dBic, and 5.51 dBic, respectively. In addition, the half-power beamwidth (HPBW) for all the polarizations were greater than 78° in the operation band.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060637
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 638: Recent Developments of Dual-Band Doherty
           Power Amplifiers for Upcoming Mobile Communications Systems

    • Authors: Ahmed M. Abdulkhaleq, Maan A. Yahya, Neil McEwan, Ashwain Rayit, Raed A. Abd-Alhameed, Naser Ojaroudi Parchin, Yasir I. A. Al-Yasir, James Noras
      First page: 638
      Abstract: Power amplifiers in modern and future communications should be able to handle different modulation standards at different frequency bands, and in addition, to be compatible with the previous generations. This paper reviews the recent design techniques that have been used to operate dual-band amplifiers and in particular the Doherty amplifiers. Special attention is focused on the design methodologies used for power splitters, phase compensation networks, impedance inverter networks and impedance transformer networks of such power amplifier. The most important materials of the dual-band Doherty amplifier are highlighted and surveyed. The main problems and challenges covering dual-band design concepts are presented and discussed. In addition, improvement techniques to enhance such operations are also exploited. The study shows that the transistor parasitic has a great impact in the design of a dual-band amplifier, and reduction of the transforming ratio of the inverter simplifies the dual-band design. The offset line can be functionally replaced by a Π-network in dual-band design rather than T-network.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060638
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 639: A Cache Fill and Migration Policy for
           STT-RAM-Based Multi-Level Hybrid Cache in 3D CMPs

    • Authors: Fen Ge, Lei Wang, Ning Wu, Fang Zhou
      First page: 639
      Abstract: Recently, in 3D Chip-Multiprocessors (CMPs), a hybrid cache architecture of SRAM and Non-Volatile Memory (NVM) is generally used to exploit high density and low leakage power of NVM and a low write overhead of SRAM. The conventional access policy does not consider the hybrid cache and cannot make good use of the characteristics of both NVM and SRAM technology. This paper proposes a Cache Fill and Migration policy (CFM) for multi-level hybrid cache. In CFM, data access was optimized in three aspects: Cache fill, cache eviction, and dirty data migration. The CFM reduces unnecessary cache fill, write operations to NVM, and optimizes the victim cache line selection in cache eviction. The results of experiments show that the CFM can improve performance by 24.1% and reduce power consumption by 18% when compared to conventional writeback access policy.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060639
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 640: A Wide-Frequency Constant-Amplitude
           Transmitting Circuit for Frequency Domain Electromagnetic Detection

    • Authors: Xiujuan Wang, Zhihong Fu, Yao Wang, Wendong Wang, Wei Liu, Junli Zhao
      First page: 640
      Abstract: In this paper, a novel AC magnetic transmitter current source circuit is proposed for application of frequency domain electromagnetic method (FEM) prospecting. The proposed current source circuit is capable of generating high frequency and high constant amplitude currents, which are key technical problems for FEM. It is suitable for very wide frequencies. The main circuit of the proposed current source consists of a rising-edge enhancing unit, a constant current control unit, and a high voltage clamping unit. Large constant clamping voltage is applied during the rising edge and the falling edge of the alternating square current to obtain a high frequency and high linearity current source. On the current flat stage, the constant current unit provides the energy to the load to ensure the constant amplitude of the output current. Detailed operations of the proposed magnetic current source are given. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed circuit achieves short reversal time, the linearity of the rising/falling edge, constant amplitude and low power loss. These are the desired characteristics of the ac square current source probing transmitter for the magnetic FEM applications.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060640
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 641: Automatic Tool for Fast Generation of
           Custom Convolutional Neural Networks Accelerators for FPGA

    • Authors: Miguel Rivera-Acosta, Susana Ortega-Cisneros, Jorge Rivera
      First page: 641
      Abstract: This paper presents a platform that automatically generates custom hardware accelerators for convolutional neural networks (CNNs) implemented in field-programmable gate array (FPGA) devices. It includes a user interface for configuring and managing these accelerators. The herein-presented platform can perform all the processes necessary to design and test CNN accelerators from the CNN architecture description at both layer and internal parameter levels, training the desired architecture with any dataset and generating the configuration files required by the platform. With these files, it can synthesize the register-transfer level (RTL) and program the customized CNN accelerator into the FPGA device for testing, making it possible to generate custom CNN accelerators quickly and easily. All processes save the CNN architecture description are fully automatized and carried out by the platform, which manages third-party software to train the CNN and synthesize and program the generated RTL. The platform has been tested with the implementation of some of the CNN architectures found in the state-of-the-art for freely available datasets such as MNIST, CIFAR-10, and STL-10.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060641
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 642: High-Isolation Leaky-Wave Array Antenna
           Based on CRLH-Metamaterial Implemented on SIW with ±30o Frequency
           Beam-Scanning Capability at Millimetre-Waves

    • Authors: Alibakhshikenari, Virdee, See, Abd-Alhameed, Falcone, Limiti
      First page: 642
      Abstract: The paper presents a feasibility study on the design of a new metamaterial leaky-wave antenna (MTM-LWA) used in the construction of a 1 × 2 array which is implemented using substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) technology for millimetre-wave beamforming applications. The proposed 1 × 2 array antenna consists of two LWAs with metamaterial unit-cells etched on the top surface of the SIW. The metamaterial unit-cell, which is an E-shaped transverse slot, causes leakage loss and interrupts current flow over SIW to enhance the array’s performance. The dimensions of the LWA are 40 × 10 × 0.75 mm3. Mutual-coupling between the array elements is suppressed by incorporating a metamaterial shield (MTM-shield) between the two antennas in the array. The LWA operates over a frequency range of 55–65 GHz, which is corresponding to 16.66% fractional bandwidth. The array is shown to exhibit beam-scanning of ±30° over its operating frequency range. Radiation gain in the backward (−30°), broadside (0°), and forward (+30°) directions are 8.5 dBi, 10.1 dBi, and 9.5 dBi, respectively. The decoupling slab is shown to have minimal effect on the array’s performance in terms of impedance bandwidth and radiation specifications. The MTM-shield is shown to suppress the mutual coupling by ~25 dB and to improve the radiation gain and efficiency by ~1 dBi and ~13% on average, respectively.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060642
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 643: Development of a Compatible, Low Cost and
           High Accurate Conservation Remote Sensing Technology for the Hygrothermal
           Assessment of Historic Walls

    • Authors: Lucchi, Dias Pereira, Andreotti, Malaguti, Cennamo, Calzolari, Frighi
      First page: 643
      Abstract: This article aims to properly assess the hygrothermal properties of walls located in historic buildings, this study discloses the development of a remote sensing technology compatible with an in-situ measurement implemented in Palazzo Tassoni (Italy). As required by the international recommendations adapted to cultural heritage (CH), this monitoring system balances CH conservation, performance aspects and economic costs using an integrated multidisciplinary approach. Electronics for measurement of environmental parameters is composed of sensor measurements, data acquisition system and data storage and communication system. Data acquisition system, equipped with standard modbus-rtu interface, is designed to run standalone and it is based on two cloned single board PCs to reduce the possibility of data loss. In order to reduce the costs, RaspberryPI single board PCs were chosen. These run a C/C++ software based on standard modbus library and designed to implement multi-client server TCP/IP to allow communication with other devices. Storage and communication systems are based on an industrial PC; it communicates with sensor measurements’ system through a modbus-TCPIP bridge. PC runs a Labview software to provide data storage on a local database and graphical user interface to properly see all acquired data. Herein, some sensing options and approaches of measurement are described, unveiling different possible ways of enhancing the retrofit of CH with adapted technology.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060643
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 644: A Terminal-Oriented Distributed Traffic
           Flow Splitting Strategy for Multi-Service of V2X Networks

    • Authors: Ding, Ma, Li, Su, Zhang, Zhu
      First page: 644
      Abstract: With the development and the characteristics of terminal services of the 5G (5th-Generation network) Internet of vehicles (IoVs), this paper proposes a distributed splitting strategy for multi-type services of 5G V2X (Vehicle to X) networks. Based on a service-oriented adaptive splitting strategy in heterogeneous networks, combined with various service types such as communications between the networks, terminal, and base stations, and the value-added services of 5G IoVs, the proposed strategy jointly considers delay and cost as optimization goals. By analyzing the characteristics of the different services, the proposed traffic flow splitting strategy is modeled as an optimization problem to efficiently split services in 5G V2X networks. The simulation results show that by setting the traffic distribution policy for each service, the distributed traffic flow splitting strategy can significantly improve network transmission efficiency and reduce the service costs in a vehicle V2X network.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060644
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 645: Electric Double Layer Field-Effect
           Transistors Using Two-Dimensional (2D) Layers of Copper Indium Selenide

    • Authors: Prasanna D. Patil, Sujoy Ghosh, Milinda Wasala, Sidong Lei, Robert Vajtai, Pulickel M. Ajayan, Saikat Talapatra
      First page: 645
      Abstract: Innovations in the design of field-effect transistor (FET) devices will be the key to future application development related to ultrathin and low-power device technologies. In order to boost the current semiconductor device industry, new device architectures based on novel materials and system need to be envisioned. Here we report the fabrication of electric double layer field-effect transistors (EDL-FET) with two-dimensional (2D) layers of copper indium selenide (CuIn7Se11) as the channel material and an ionic liquid electrolyte (1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6)) as the gate terminal. We found one order of magnitude improvement in the on-off ratio, a five- to six-times increase in the field-effect mobility, and two orders of magnitude in the improvement in the subthreshold swing for ionic liquid gated devices as compared to silicon dioxide (SiO2) back gates. We also show that the performance of EDL-FETs can be enhanced by operating them under dual (top and back) gate conditions. Our investigations suggest that the performance of CuIn7Se11 FETs can be significantly improved when BMIM-PF6 is used as a top gate material (in both single and dual gate geometry) instead of the conventional dielectric layer of the SiO2 gate. These investigations show the potential of 2D material-based EDL-FETs in developing active components of future electronics needed for low-power applications.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060645
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 646: Improving the Dipping Step in Czochraski
           Process Using Haar-Cascade Algorithm

    • Authors: Le Tran Huu Phuc, HyeJun Jeon, Nguyen Tam Nguyen Truong, Jung Jae Hak
      First page: 646
      Abstract: Czochralski crystal growth has become a popular technique to produce pure single crystals. Many methods have also been developed to optimize this process. In this study, a charge-coupled device camera was used to record the crystal growth progress from beginning to end. The device outputs images which were then used to create a classifier using the Haar-cascade and AdaBoost algorithms. After the classifier was generated, artificial intelligence (AI) was used to recognize the images obtained from good dipping and calculate the duration of this operating. This optimization approach improved a Czochralski which can detect a good dipping step automatically and measure the duration with high accuracy. Using this development, the labor cost of the Czochralski system can be reduced by changing the contribution of human specialists’ mission.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060646
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 647: Simulation Research on Auxiliary Power
           Supply System of China Standard EMU

    • Authors: Zhang, Yun, Sun, Peng
      First page: 647
      Abstract: The auxiliary power supply system is an important part of the China standard EMU (Electric Multiple Units). It is mainly composed of auxiliary converters, chargers, battery packs and several loads. According to the topology of the EMU real auxiliary power supply system, the whole simulation system including the auxiliary converter, charger, single-phase inverter and other single models is built, and the internal working principle and working process of the system are studied. The auxiliary converter adopts the droop control method introducing virtual impedance to reduce the circulation effect of the parallel system. Combined with the battery pack charging characteristic curve, the constant current and constant voltage step-by-step charging management strategy is studied. The actual operating conditions of the system are simulated according to the auxiliary power supply system control logic. The system-level simulation on the MATLAB/Simulink platform shows that the output performance of each component is good, working in the rated parameters and meeting the working requirements of the auxiliary power supply system. Finally, the rationality, stability and robustness of the auxiliary power supply system model are proved by simulation and experimental comparison. This research provides a certain theoretical basis for the research of China standard EMU auxiliary power supply system, which has a certain significance.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060647
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 648: Recent Advancements in Inertial

    • Authors: Yingchun Peng, Yanling Sun, Guoxi Luo, Guoguo Wu, Tao Zhang
      First page: 648
      Abstract: Inertial micro-switches have great potential in the applications of acceleration sensing, due to the integrated advantages of a small size, high integration level, and low or even no power consumption. This paper presents an overview of the recent advancements made in research on the sensitive direction, threshold acceleration, contact effect, and threshold accuracy of inertial micro-switches. The reviewed switches were categorized according to the performance parameters, including multi-directional switches, multi-threshold switches, persistent closed switches, flexible-electrode switches, and low-g high-threshold-accuracy switches. The current challenges and prospects are also discussed.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060648
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 649: An Effective Method to Calculate Frequency
           Response of Distribution Networks for PLC Applications

    • Authors: Hongshan Zhao, Weitao Zhang, Yan Wang
      First page: 649
      Abstract: Modelling and estimating power-line communication (PLC) channels are complicated issues due to the complex network topologies, various junctions, and changeable loads. This paper focuses on the frequency response characteristics (FRCs) of medium-voltage (MV) PLC networks with special consideration of two scenarios that are often neglected but generally exist. In the first scenario, the MV distribution network is of the ring topology. In the second scenario, the MV overhead lines and underground cables join at junctions, and the shields of underground cables are grounded with nonzero grounding impedances at the junctions. These conditions lead to the failure of currently popular methods to different degrees. For this reason, we developed an effective method to calculate the FRCs of distribution networks for PLC applications. With this method, the frequency responses of nodes are simply expressed as the binary function of the overall tube propagation matrix and overall node scattering matrix, which is convenient for calculations and analyses. The proposed method was validated by the agreement between the calculated and measured FRCs. The results of two test examples showed that the proposed method performed better in comparison with the traditional approximate method when nonideal grounding conditions were taken into account. The proposed method is also independent of the network topology, so it can adapt to the dynamic changes of the network structure.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060649
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 650: Fractional Differential Generalization of
           the Single Particle Model of a Lithium-Ion Cell

    • Authors: Renat T. Sibatov, Vyacheslav V. Svetukhin, Evgeny P. Kitsyuk, Alexander A. Pavlov
      First page: 650
      Abstract: The effect of anomalous diffusion of lithium on the discharge curves and impedance spectra of lithium-ion batteries (LIB) is studied within the fractional differential generalization of the single-particle model. The distribution of lithium ions in electrolyte and electrode particles is expressed through the Mittag–Leffler function and the Lévy stable density. Using the new model, we generalize the equivalent circuit of LIB. The slope of the low-frequency rectilinear part of the Nyquist diagram does not always unambiguously determine the subdiffusion index and can be either larger or smaller than the slope corresponding to normal diffusion. The new aspect of capacity degradation related to a change in the type of ion diffusion in LIB components is discussed.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060650
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 651: Novel L-Slot Matching Circuit Integrated
           with Circularly Polarized Rectenna for Wireless Energy Harvesting

    • Authors: Mohamed M. Mansour, Haruichi Kanaya
      First page: 651
      Abstract: Radio frequency (RF) power harvesting allows wireless power delivery concurrently to several remote RF devices. This manuscript presents the implementation of a compact, reliable, effective, and flexible energy harvesting (EH) rectenna design. It integrates a simple rectifier circuit with a circularly polarized one-sided slot dipole antenna at 2.45 GHz Industrial, Scientific, Medical (ISM) frequency band for wireless charging operation at low incident power densities, from 1 to 95 μ W/cm 2 . The rectenna structure is printed on a single layer, low cost, commercial FR4 substrate. The integration of the rectifier and antenna produces a low-profile and high performance circularly polarized rectenna. In order to maximize the system efficiency, the matching circuit introduced between the rectifier and antenna is optimized for a minimum number of discrete components and it is constructed using multiple of L-slot defects in the ground plane. For a given input power of − 6 dBm intercepted by the circularly polarized antenna with 3 dBi gain, the peak RF-DC (radio frequency-direct current) conversion efficiency is 59.5 % . The rectenna dimensions are 41 × 35.5 mm 2 . It is demonstrated that the output power from the proposed rectenna is higher than the other published designs with a similar antenna size under the same ambient condition. Thanks to its compact size, the proposed rectenna finds a range of potential applications for wireless energy charging.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060651
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 652: A New Seven-Segment Profile Algorithm for
           an Open Source Architecture in a Hybrid Electronic Platform

    • Authors: José R. García-Martínez, Juvenal Rodríguez-Reséndiz, Edson E. Cruz-Miguel
      First page: 652
      Abstract: The velocity profiles are used in the design of trajectories in motion control systems. It is necessary to design smoother movements to avoid high stress in the motor. In this paper, the rate of change in acceleration value is used to develop an S-curve velocity profile which presents an acceleration and deceleration stage smoother than the trapezoidal velocity profile reducing the error at the end of the duty-cycle pre-established in one degree of freedom (DoF) application. Furthermore, a new methodology is developed to generate a seven-segment profile that works with negative velocity and displacement constraints applying an open source architecture in a hybrid electronic platform compounded by a system on a chip (SoC) Raspberry Pi 3 and a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The performance of the motion controller is measured through the comparison of the error obtained in real-time application with a trapezoidal velocity profile. As a result, a low-cost platform and an open architecture system are achieved.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060652
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 653: A Compact Model to Evaluate the Effects of
           High Level C++ Code Hardening in Radiation Environments

    • Authors: Leonardo Maria Reyneri, Alejandro Serrano-Cases, Yolanda Morilla, Sergio Cuenca-Asensi, Antonio Martínez-Álvarez
      First page: 653
      Abstract: A high-level C++ hardening library is designed for the protection of critical software against the harmful effects of radiation environments that can damage systems. A mathematical and empirical model to predict system behavior in the presence of radiation induced faults is also presented. This model generates a quick evaluation and adjustment of several reliability vs. performance trade-offs, to optimize radiation hardening based on the proposed C++ hardening library. Several simulations and irradiation campaigns with protons and neutrons are used to build the model and to tune it. Finally, the effects of our hardening approach are compared with other hardened and non-hardened approaches.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060653
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 654: A Ka-Band Cylindrical Paneled Reflectarray

    • Authors: Greco, Boccia, Arnieri, Amendola
      First page: 654
      Abstract: Cylindrical parabolic reflectors have been widely used in those applications requiring high gain antennas. Their design is dictated by the geometric relation of the parabola, which relate the feed location, f, to the radiating aperture, D. In this work, the use of reflectarrays is proposed to increase D without changing the feed location. In the proposed approach, the reflecting surface is loaded with dielectric panels where the phase of the reflected field is controlled using continuous metal strips of variable widths. This solution is enabled by the cylindrical symmetry and, with respect to rectangular patches or to other discrete antennas, it provides increased gain. The proposed concept has been evaluated by designing a Ka-band antenna operating in the Rx SatCom band (19–21 GHz). A prototype has been designed and the results compared with the ones of a parabolic cylindrical reflector using the same feed architecture. Simulated results have shown how this type of antenna can provide higher gain in comparison to the parabolic counterpart, reaching a radiation efficiency of 65%.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060654
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 655: Automated Network Topology Extraction
           Based on Graph Theory for Distributed Microgrid Protection in Dynamic
           Power Systems

    • Authors: Ustun, Ayyubi
      First page: 655
      Abstract: Unlike conventional grids, microgrids may utilize different connections and the overall topology can be variable. Considering this, it is required to develop a new protection concept/scheme for safe operation. Maintaining proper selective operation of the relays in these dynamic microgrid structures is a challenge itself. This requires monitoring the connections and updating time delays of the relays which will ensure the desired hierarchy in the system. In this paper, a novel approach has been taken where electrical networks are modeled according to graph theory. Smart algorithms, such as network graph discovery, local manager selection, and protection coordination strategy, are run to automatically detect topology changes and ensure proper protection operation. Furthermore, distributed nature of this method mitigates the risks associated with central controller-based schemes. The developed method is applicable to all power system operations, and it poses a unique implementation in postdisaster recovery. After a disaster or terror attack, this self-diagnosis, self-healing system can identify healthy sections and run them as a standalone system until the relief arrives. The ability of the protection system to be run as a distributed control makes sure that any healthy part of the system can be restructured and utilized, without the dependency, on any central controller or connection.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060655
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 656: 3D Multi-Beam and Null Synthesis by
           Phase-Only Control for 5G Antenna Arrays

    • Authors: Massimiliano Comisso, Gabriele Palese, Fulvio Babich, Francesca Vatta, Giulia Buttazzoni
      First page: 656
      Abstract: This paper presents an iterative algorithm for the synthesis of the three-dimensional (3D) radiation pattern generated by an antenna array of arbitrary geometry. The algorithm is conceived to operate in fifth-generation (5G) millimeter-wave scenarios, thus enabling the support of multi-user mobile streaming and massive peer-to-peer communications, which require the possibility to synthesize 3D patterns with wide null regions and multiple main beams. Moreover, the proposed solution adopts a phase-only control approach to reduce the complexity of the feeding network and is characterized by a low computational cost, thanks to the closed-form expressions derived to estimate the phase of each element at the generic iteration. These expressions are obtained from the minimization of a weighted cost function that includes all the necessary constraints. To finally check its versatility in a 5G environment, the developed method is validated by numerical examples involving planar and conformal arrays, considering desired patterns with different numbers of main beams and nulls.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060656
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 657: Mechanism of Degradation Rate on the
           Irradiated Double-Polysilicon Self-Aligned Bipolar Transistor

    • Authors: Mohan Liu, Wu Lu, Xin Yu, Xin Wang, Xiaolong Li, Shuai Yao, Qi Guo
      First page: 657
      Abstract: The latent enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS) effect is observed in the double-polysilicon self-aligned (DPSA) technology PNP bipolar junction transistor (BJT) irradiated with a high and low dose rate gamma ray, which is discussed from the perspective of the three-stage degradation rate of the excess base current. The great degradation rate as a result of the high dose irradiation of the first stage is dominantly ascribed to the positive oxide trap charges accumulated during a short irradiation, and then due to the competition between the recombination of electrons and capture of the hole by the traps. It declined sharply into a degradation rate saturated region of the second stage. However, for the low dose rate, the small increase in the degradation rate in the first stage is caused by the holes escaping from the initial recombination and being transported to the interface to form the interface states. Then, the competition between the steadily increasing interfacial trap charge and the continuously annealed shallow level oxide trap charge leads to the stable increase of degradation under low dose irradiation. Finally, in stage three, the increases of the degradation rates for high and low dose irradiation result from the different amounts of the hydrogen molecules generated by the hole reactive with depassiviated Si suspended bonds, which can interact with the deep level defects and release protons, causing an increase of interfacial trap charges with prolonged irradiation.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060657
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 658: Dual-Hop Cooperative Relaying with
           Beamforming Under Adaptive Transmission in κ–μ Shadowed Fading

    • Authors: Zuhaibuddin Bhutto, Wonyong Yoon
      First page: 658
      Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the performance of a dual-hop cooperative decode-and-forward (DF) relaying system with beamforming under different adaptive transmission techniques over κ − μ shadowed fading channels. We consider multiple antennas at the source and destination, and communication takes place via a single antenna relay. The published work in the literature emphasized the performance analysis of dual-hop DF relaying systems, in conjunction with different adaptive transmission techniques for classical fading channels. However, in a real scenario, shadowing of the line-of-sight (LoS) signal is caused by complete or partially blockage of the LoS by environmental factors such as trees, buildings, mountains, etc., therefore, transmission links may suffer from fading as well as shadowing, either concurrently or separately. Hence, the κ − μ shadowed fading model was introduced to emulate such general channel conditions. The κ − μ shadowed fading model is a general fading model that can perfectly model the fading and shadowing effects of the wireless channel in a LoS propagation environment, and it includes some classical fading models as special cases, such as κ − μ , Rician, Rician-shadowed, Nakagami- m ^ , One-sided Gaussian, and Rayleigh fading. In this work, we derive the outage probability and average capacity expressions in an analytical form for different adaptive transmission techniques: (1) optimal power and rate adaptation (OPRA); (2) optimal rate adaptation and constant transmit power (ORA); (3) channel inversion with a fixed rate (CIFR); and (4) truncated channel inversion with a fixed rate (TIFR). We evaluate the system performance for different arrangements of antennas and for different fading and shadowing parameters. The obtained analytical expressions are verified through extensive Monte Carlo simulations.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060658
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 659: A Novel Data Forwarding Strategy for a
           Drone Delay Tolerant Network with Range Extension

    • Authors: Saeid Iranmanesh, Raad Raad
      First page: 659
      Abstract: Amazon, Uber Eats, and United Parcel Service (UPS) are planning to launch drone delivery services in the near future. Indeed, recently, Google has received Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approval for its Wings delivery platform. Amazon claims that a drone logistics network is more cost-efficient and quicker than a motor vehicle delivery network. In this paper, we propose a data delivery service by the drone network in addition to parcel delivery. We propose Heuristic Flight Path Planning (HFPP) that plans a drone’s flight path based on parcel delivery destination as well as data delivery destinations (waypoints). We further extend the solution to include drone charging stations for range extension. Our simulation studies show that our proposed method has delivered the data and consignments such that HFPP delivers up to 33% more data packets compared with Encounter-Based Routing (EBR), Epidemic, and a similar path planning method. Also, HFPP reduces the data delivery delays by up to 72% while the overhead ratio is low.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060659
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 660: An Adaptable Train-to-Ground Communication
           Architecture Based on the 5G Technological Enabler SDN

    • Authors: David Franco, Marina Aguado, Nerea Toledo
      First page: 660
      Abstract: Railway communications are closely impacted by the evolution and availability of new wireless communication technologies. Traditionally, the critical nature of railway services, the long lifecycle of rolling stock, and their certification processes challenge the adoption of the latest communication technologies. A current railway telecom trend to solve this problem is to design a flexible and adaptable communication architecture that enables the detachment of the railway services—at the application layer—and the access technologies underneath, such as 5G and beyond. One of the enablers of this detachment approach is software-defined networking (SDN)—included in 5G architecture—due to its ability to programmatically and dynamically control the network behavior via open interfaces and abstract lower-level functionalities. In this paper, we design a novel railway train-to-ground (T2G) communication architecture based on the 5G technological enabler SDN and on the transport-level redundancy technique multipath TCP (MPTCP). The goal is to provide an adaptable and multitechnology communication service while enhancing the network performance of current systems. MPTCP offers end-to-end (E2E) redundancy by the aggregation of multiple access technologies, and SDN introduces path diversity to offer a resilient and reliable communication. We carry out simulation studies to compare the performance of the legacy communication architecture with our novel approach. The results demonstrate a clear improvement in the failover response time while maintaining and even improving the uplink and downlink overall data rates.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060660
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 661: A Review of Binarized Neural Networks

    • Authors: Taylor Simons, Dah-Jye Lee
      First page: 661
      Abstract: In this work, we review Binarized Neural Networks (BNNs). BNNs are deep neural networks that use binary values for activations and weights, instead of full precision values. With binary values, BNNs can execute computations using bitwise operations, which reduces execution time. Model sizes of BNNs are much smaller than their full precision counterparts. While the accuracy of a BNN model is generally less than full precision models, BNNs have been closing accuracy gap and are becoming more accurate on larger datasets like ImageNet. BNNs are also good candidates for deep learning implementations on FPGAs and ASICs due to their bitwise efficiency. We give a tutorial of the general BNN methodology and review various contributions, implementations and applications of BNNs.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060661
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 662: Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring
           Using a Curved Goubau Line

    • Authors: Louis WY Liu, Abhishek Kandwal, Qingsha Cheng, Hongjian Shi, Igbe Tobore, Zedong Nie
      First page: 662
      Abstract: Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring at microwave frequencies is generally thought to be unreliable in terms of reproducibility of measurements. The failure to reproduce a blood glucose measurement from one experiment to another is in major part due to the unwanted interaction of leaky waves between the ambient environment and the blood glucose measuring device. In this work, we have overcome this problem by simply eliminating the leaky modes through the use of surface electromagnetic waves from a curved Goubau line. In the proposed methodology, a fixed volume of blood-filled skin tissue was first formed by vacuum suction and partially wound with a curved Goubau line which was coated with a 3 mm thick layer of gelatin/glycerin composite. Blood glucose levels were non-invasively determined using a network analyzer. At 4.5 GHz, a near-linear correlation exists between the measured S12 parameters and the blood glucose levels. The measured correlation was highly reproducible and consistent with the measurements obtained using the conventional invasive lancing approach. The findings of this work suggest the feasibility of non-invasive detection of left and right imbalances in the body.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060662
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 663: Improved Heart-Rate Measurement from
           Mobile Face Videos

    • Authors: Jean-Pierre Lomaliza, Hanhoon Park
      First page: 663
      Abstract: Newtonian reaction to blood influx into the head at each heartbeat causes subtle head motion at the same frequency as the heartbeats. Thus, this head motion can be used to estimate the heart rate. Several studies have shown that heart rates can be measured accurately by tracking head motion using a desktop computer with a static camera. However, implementation of vision-based head motion tracking on smartphones demonstrated limited accuracy due to the hand-shaking problem caused by the non-static camera. The hand-shaking problem could not be handled effectively with only the frontal camera images. It also required a more accurate method to measure the periodicity of noisy signals. Therefore, this study proposes an improved head-motion-based heart-rate monitoring system using smartphones. To address the hand-shaking problem, the proposed system leverages the front and rear cameras available in most smartphones and dedicates each camera to tracking facial features that correspond to head motion and background features that correspond to hand-shaking. Then, the locations of facial features are adjusted using the average point of the background features. In addition, a correlation-based signal periodicity computation method is proposed to accurately separate the true heart-rate-related component from the head motion signal. The proposed system demonstrates improved accuracy (i.e., lower mean errors in heart-rate measurement) compared to conventional head-motion-based systems, and the accuracy is sufficient for daily heart-rate monitoring.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060663
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 664: Optimization of a Series Converter for
           Low-Frequency Ripple Cancellation of an LED Driver

    • Authors: Jorge Garcia, Sarah Saeed, Pablo Quintana, Jesus Cardesin, Ramy Georgious, Marco A. Dalla Costa, Douglas Camponogara
      First page: 664
      Abstract: In this paper, the optimization of the power and control stages of a previously proposed topology for an off-line LED electronic driver is presented. The full system avoids the use of electrolytic capacitors at the D C link, therefore increasing the lifespan and reliability of the driver. As a consequence of having a relatively small capacitance, the D C link operates with a large Low-Frequency ( L F ) voltage ripple. This work presents a design optimization for the power and control stages of a current-fed bidirectional buck converter, operating as the LED current control stage. As this block processes only the A C power arising from the L F voltage ripple, it can increase the system efficiency against the typical two-stage solution. In the original proposal, the main drawback was the high inductor losses due to the resulting large inductor currents and large inductance value. The proposed optimization ensures an enhanced design of the inductor while keeping a constant current through the LEDs. A new optimization methodology is proposed and the theoretical results have been validated in a built prototype for a 40 W LED lamp.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060664
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 665: Wearable Triband E-Shaped Dipole Antenna
           with Low SAR for IoT Applications

    • Authors: Azeez, Yang, Chen
      First page: 665
      Abstract: This paper presents a novel design of a flexible and wearable E-shaped, multiband dipole antenna. The antenna has a low profile and is printed on a common 2 mm thick denim fabric (εr=1.7). By installing a passively coupled rectangular patch with L-shaped cuts, the lower frequency band is supported and the bandwidth at higher frequencies is also enhanced. The antenna’s performance was observed under different deformations in free space as well as when it was placed on different parts of the human body. No significant changes in the characteristics of the frequency bands of interest were observed for the flexible antenna compared with the initial nondeformable antenna. Simulations for 10 g average specific absorption rate (SAR) at different input powers up to 250 mW were carried out considering that the antenna adheres well to the human body and there is no spacing or shielding. The obtained results show that the amount of energy absorbed by the body tissue increases by increasing the incident power.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060665
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 666: The Room Temperature Multi-Channel
           Heterodyne Receiver Section of the PHAROS2 Phased Array Feed

    • Authors: Navarrini, Scalambra, Rusticelli, Maccaferri, Cattani, Perini, Ortu, Roda, Marongiu, Saba, Poloni, Ladu, Schirru
      First page: 666
      Abstract: This paper describes the design, fabrication, and test results of a room temperature multi-channel heterodyne receiver operating across the 2.3–8.2 GHz radio frequency (RF) band. Such a “Warm Section” (WS) receiver is part of phased arrays for reflector observing systems 2 (PHAROS2), a C-band phased array feed (PAF) demonstrator with digital beamformer for radio astronomy application. The WS receiver is cascaded to the PHAROS2 cryostat, which includes an array of Vivaldi antennas with low noise pre-amplification stages. The WS can handle up to 32 RF signals and, for each of them, realizes the operations of filtering, RF amplification and down-conversion from the RF to the 375–650 MHz intermediate frequency (IF). Also, the WS incorporates an IF-to-optical signal conversion through analogue wavelength division multiplexing IF over fiber (IFoF) and fiber-optic transmitters (OTXs). The 32-channel WS receiver consists of four eight-channel WS RF/IF modules, one local oscillator (LO) splitter module and one monitoring and control module, all hosted in a standard 6U × 19-inch rack.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060666
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 667: A Novel Electrocardiogram Biometric
           Identification Method Based on Temporal-Frequency Autoencoding

    • Authors: Wang, Si, Yang, Zhang, Li
      First page: 667
      Abstract: For good performance, most existing electrocardiogram (ECG) identification methods still need to adopt a denoising process to remove noise interference beforehand. This specific signal preprocessing technique requires great efforts for algorithm engineering and is usually complicated and time-consuming. To more conveniently remove the influence of noise interference and realize accurate identification, a novel temporal-frequency autoencoding based method is proposed. In particular, the raw data is firstly transformed into the wavelet domain, where multi-level time-frequency representation is achieved. Then, a prior knowledge-based feature selection is proposed and applied to the transformed data to discard noise components and retain identity-related information simultaneously. Afterward, the stacked sparse autoencoder is introduced to learn intrinsic discriminative features from the selected data, and Softmax classifier is used to perform the identification task. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated on two public databases, namely, ECG-ID and Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Biotechnology arrhythmia (MIT-BIH-AHA) databases. Experimental results show that our method can achieve high multiple-heartbeat identification accuracies of 98.87%, 92.3%, and 96.82% on raw ECG signals which are from the ECG-ID (Two-recording), ECG-ID (All-recording), and MIT-BIH-AHA database, respectively, indicating that our method can provide an efficient way for ECG biometric identification.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060667
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 668: Efficient QC-LDPC Encoder for 5G New Radio

    • Authors: Tram Thi Bao Nguyen, Tuy Nguyen Tan, Hanho Lee
      First page: 668
      Abstract: This paper presents a novel efficient encoding method and a high-throughput low-complexity encoder architecture for quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes for the 5th-generation (5G) New Radio (NR) standard. By storing the quantized value of the permutation information for each submatrix instead of the whole parity check matrix, the required memory storage size is considerably reduced. In addition, sharing techniques are employed to reduce the hardware complexity. The encoding complexity of the proposed method was analyzed, and indicated a substantial reduction in the required area as well as memory storage when compared with existing state-of-the-art encoding approaches. The proposed method requires only 61% gate area, and 11% ROM storage when compared with a similar LDPC encoder using the Richardson–Urbanke method. Synthesis results on TSMC 65-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology with different submatrix sizes were carried out, which confirmed that the design methodology is flexible and can be adapted for multiple submatrix sizes. For all the considered submatrix sizes, the throughput ranged from 22.1–202.4 Gbps, which sufficiently meets the throughput requirement for the 5G NR standard.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060668
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 669: Utilizing HRV-Derived Respiration Measures
           for Driver Drowsiness Detection

    • Authors: Jinwoo Kim, Miyoung Shin
      First page: 669
      Abstract: This study aims to utilize heart rate variability (HRV) signals obtained with a wearable sensor for driver drowsiness detection. To this end, we investigated respiration characteristics derived from HRV signals based on the known fact that respiratory activity can be estimated from the high frequency (HF) band of HRV signals. For drowsiness detection, many earlier works commonly used dominant respiration (DR) characteristics. However, in some situations where emphasized power in a power spectrum of HRV occurs at multi sub-frequency, the DR measures may possibly fail to capture overall respiration characteristics. To handle this problem, we propose two spectral indices, the weighted mean (WM) and the weighted standard deviation (WSD) of the HF band in the power spectrum. These indices are used to properly capture the overall shape of the respiratory activity shown through the HF band of the HRV power spectrum as an alternative to the DR measures. For experiments, we collected HRV data with an electrocardiogram device worn on the body under a virtual driving environment. The proposed indices somewhat clearly showed the tendency that respiratory frequency decreases and respiration regularity increases in drowsy states of all subjects, while existing DR measures hardly showed this. In addition, when the proposed indices are used alone or together with conventional HRV-related measures as input features for classification models, they showed the best performance in distinguishing drowsiness from wakefulness.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060669
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 670: Social-Aware Peer Selection for
           Device-to-Device Communications in Dense Small-Cell Networks

    • Authors: Aamir Nadeem, Ho-Shin Cho
      First page: 670
      Abstract: Device-to-device communications refer to the emerging paradigm that permits direct communication between cellular users that are in close physical and social proximity. It is expected to become an essential aspect of the future 5G cellular communications system. As a prerequisite for device-to-device communications, a user has to select another user in its proximity that has the desired information/service and is willing to share it. In this paper, we propose a method for peer selection in dense small-cell device-to-device networks that uses multi-attribute decision modeling. The method exploits both the physical and social characteristics of the user equipment to find the most suitable peer for device-to-device communications. We assume hexagonal small-cell and macro-cell architectures with a small-cell/macro-cell base station with multiple user equipments in its coverage area to evaluate the proposed scheme’s performance. The small-/macro-cell base station exploits various social and physical attributes to rank peers and selects the best one for device-to-device communication with the requesting user. The numerical results demonstrate the proposed algorithm’s efficiency in terms of computational time, selection of the best peer, throughput, and energy efficiency of device-to-device communications.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060670
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 671: Predicting Image Aesthetics for
           Intelligent Tourism Information Systems

    • Authors: Ricardo Kleinlein, Álvaro García-Faura, Cristina Luna Jiménez, Juan Manuel Montero, Fernando Díaz-de-María, Fernando Fernández-Martínez
      First page: 671
      Abstract: Image perception can vary considerably between subjects, yet some sights are regarded as aesthetically pleasant more often than others due to their specific visual content, this being particularly true in tourism-related applications. We introduce the ESITUR project, oriented towards the development of ’smart tourism’ solutions aimed at improving the touristic experience. The idea is to convert conventional tourist showcases into fully interactive information points accessible from any smartphone, enriched with automatically-extracted contents from the analysis of public photos uploaded to social networks by other visitors. Our baseline, knowledge-driven system reaches a classification accuracy of 64.84 ± 4.22% telling suitable images from unsuitable ones for a tourism guide application. As an alternative we adopt a data-driven Mixture of Experts (MEX) approach, in which multiple learners specialize in partitions of the problem space. In our case, a location tag is attached to every picture providing a criterion to segment the data by, and the MEX model accordingly defined achieves an accuracy of 85.08 ± 2.23%. We conclude ours is a successful approach in environments in which some kind of data segmentation can be applied, such as touristic photographs.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060671
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 672: Performance Analysis of Low-Level and
           High-Level Intuitive Features for Melanoma Detection

    • Authors: Muniba Ashfaq, Nasru Minallah, Zahid Ullah, Arbab Masood Ahmad, Aamir Saeed, Abdul Hafeez
      First page: 672
      Abstract: This paper presents an intelligent approach for the detection of Melanoma—a deadly skin cancer. The first step in this direction includes the extraction of the textural features of the skin lesion along with the color features. The extracted features are used to train the Multilayer Feed-Forward Artificial Neural Networks. We evaluate the trained networks for the classification of test samples. This work entails three sets of experiments including 50 % , 70 % and 90 % of the data used for training, while the remaining 50 % , 30 % , and 10 % constitute the test sets. Haralick’s statistical parameters are computed for the extraction of textural features from the lesion. Such parameters are based on the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCM) with an offset of 2 , 4 , 8 , 12 , 16 , 20 , 24 and 28, each with an angle of 0 , 45 , 90 and 135 degrees, respectively. In order to distill color features, we have calculated the mean, median and standard deviation of the three color planes of the region of interest. These features are fed to an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for the detection of skin cancer. The combination of Haralick’s parameters and color features have proven better than considering the features alone. Experimentation based on another set of features such as Asymmetry, Border irregularity, Color and Diameter (ABCD) features usually observed by dermatologists has also been demonstrated. The ‘D’ feature is however modified and named Oblongness. This feature captures the ratio between the length and the width. Furthermore, the use of modified standard deviation coupled with ABCD features improves the detection of Melanoma by an accuracy of 93.7 %
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060672
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 673: Influence of Parasitic Effects in Negative
           Differential Resistance Characteristics of Resonant Tunneling

    • Authors: Yang
      First page: 673
      Abstract: A resonant tunneling electronic circuit (RTEC) with high and multiple peak-to-valley current density ratios (PVCDRs) exhibited in the negative differential resistance (NDR) curve has been proposed in this research. The PVCDR values in simulating research and experimental research of double PVCDR RTEC were respectively reached as high as 1.79 and 22 in average, which were obtained using the designed single PVCDR RTECs structure. Also, the peak current density (PCD) values of the last NDR in the double PVCDR RTEC structure in the simulation and experiment were respectively 1.85 A and 42 µA. Triple NDR characteristics also had been obtained with the PCD values reaching as high as 2.9 A and 46 µA, respectively, in simulating and experimental researches. The PVCDR values of triple NDR characteristic were respectively 1.5 and 4.6 in the simulation and experiment.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8060673
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 574: A Doping-Less Tunnel Field-Effect
           Transistor with Si0.6Ge0.4 Heterojunction for the Improvement of the
           On–Off Current Ratio and Analog/RF Performance

    • Authors: Tao Han, Hongxia Liu, Shupeng Chen, Shulong Wang, Wei Li
      First page: 574
      Abstract: In this paper, a novel doping-less tunneling field-effect transistor with Si0.6Ge0.4 heterojunction (H-DLTFET) is proposed using TCAD simulation. Unlike conventional doping-less tunneling field-effect transistors (DLTFETs), in H-DLTFETs, germanium and Si0.6Ge0.4 are used as source and channel materials, respectively, to provide higher carrier mobility and smaller tunneling barrier width. The energy band and charge carrier tunneling efficiency of the tunneling junction become steeper and higher as a result of the Si0.6Ge0.4 heterojunction. In addition, the effects of the source work function, gate oxide dielectric thickness, and germanium content on the performance of the H-DLTFET are analyzed systematically, and the below optimal device parameters are obtained. The simulation results show that the performance parameters of the H-DLTFET, such as the on-state current, on/off current ratio, output current, subthreshold swing, total gate capacitance, cutoff frequency, and gain bandwidth (GBW) product when Vd = 1 V and Vg = 2 V, are better than those of conventional silicon-based DLTFETs. Therefore, the H-DLTFET has better potential for use in ultra-low power devices.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8050574
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 575: Review of the Recent Progress on GaN-Based
           Vertical Power Schottky Barrier Diodes (SBDs)

    • Authors: Sun, Kang, Zheng, Lu, Tian, Wei, Wu, Wang, Liu, Zhang
      First page: 575
      Abstract: Gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical power Schottky barrier diode (SBD) has demonstrated outstanding features in high-frequency and high-power applications. This paper reviews recent progress on GaN-based vertical power SBDs, including the following sections. First, the benchmark for GaN vertical SBDs with different substrates (Si, sapphire, and GaN) are presented. Then, the latest progress in the edge terminal techniques are discussed. Finally, a typical fabrication flow of vertical GaN SBDs is also illustrated briefly.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8050575
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 576: Completing Explorer Games with a Deep
           Reinforcement Learning Framework Based on Behavior Angle Navigation

    • Authors: Shixun You, Ming Diao, Lipeng Gao
      First page: 576
      Abstract: In cognitive electronic warfare, when a typical combat vehicle, such as an unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV), uses radar sensors to explore an unknown space, the target-searching fails due to an inefficient servoing/tracking system. Thus, to solve this problem, we developed an autonomous reasoning search method that can generate efficient decision-making actions and guide the UCAV as early as possible to the target area. For high-dimensional continuous action space, the UCAV’s maneuvering strategies are subject to certain physical constraints. We first record the path histories of the UCAV as a sample set of supervised experiments and then construct a grid cell network using long short-term memory (LSTM) to generate a new displacement prediction to replace the target location estimation. Finally, we enable a variety of continuous-control-based deep reinforcement learning algorithms to output optimal/sub-optimal decision-making actions. All these tasks are performed in a three-dimensional target-searching simulator, i.e., the Explorer game. Please note that we use the behavior angle (BHA) for the first time as the main factor of the reward-shaping of the deep reinforcement learning framework and successfully make the trained UCAV achieve a 99.96% target destruction rate, i.e., the game win rate, in a 0.1 s operating cycle.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8050576
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 577: Risk-Constrained Stochastic Scheduling of
           a Grid-Connected Hybrid Microgrid with Variable Wind Power Generation

    • Authors: Vahedipour-Dahraie, Rashidizadeh-Kermani, Anvari-Moghaddam
      First page: 577
      Abstract: This paper presents a risk-constrained scheduling optimization model for a grid-connected hybrid microgrid including demand response (DR), electric vehicles (EVs), variable wind power generation and dispatchable generation units. The proposed model determines optimal scheduling of dispatchable units, interactions with the main grid as well as adjustable responsive loads and EVs demand to maximize the expected microgrid operator’s profit under different scenarios. The uncertainties of day-ahead (DA) market prices, wind power production and demands of customers and EVs are considered in this study. To address these uncertainties, conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) as a risk measurement tool is added to the optimization model to evaluate the risk of profit loss and to indicate decision attitudes in different conditions. The proposed method is finally applied to a typical hybrid microgrid with flexible demand-side resources and its applicability and effectives are verified over different working conditions with uncertainties.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8050577
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 578: Time Series Analysis to Predict End-to-End
           Quality of Wireless Community Networks

    • Authors: Pere Millan, Carles Aliagas, Carlos Molina, Emmanouil Dimogerontakis, Roc Meseguer
      First page: 578
      Abstract: Community Networks have been around us for decades being initially deployed in the USA and Europe. They were designed by individuals to provide open and free “do it yourself” Internet access to other individuals in the same community and geographic area. In recent years, they have evolved as a viable solution to provide Internet access in developing countries and rural areas. Their social impact is measurable, as the community is provided with the right and opportunity of communication. Community networks combine wired and wireless links, and the nature of the wireless medium is unreliable. This poses several challenges to the routing protocol. For instance, Link-State routing protocols deal with End-to-End Quality tracking to select paths that maximize the delivery rate and minimize traffic congestion. In this work, we focused on End-to-End Quality prediction by means of time-series analysis to foresee which paths are more likely to change their quality. We show that it is possible to accurately predict End-to-End Quality with a small Mean Absolute Error in the routing layer of large-scale, distributed, and decentralized networks. In particular, we analyzed the path ETX behavior and properties to better identify the best prediction algorithm. We also analyzed the End-to-End Quality prediction accuracy some steps ahead in the future, as well as its dependency on the hour of the day. Besides, we quantified the computational cost of the prediction. Finally, we evaluated the impact of the usage for routing of our approach versus a simplified OLSR (ETX + Dijkstra) on an overloaded network.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8050578
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 579: The Tabu_Genetic Algorithm: A Novel Method
           for Hyper-Parameter Optimization of Learning Algorithms

    • Authors: Guo, Hu, Wu, Peng, Wu
      First page: 579
      Abstract: Machine learning algorithms have been widely used to deal with a variety of practical problems such as computer vision and speech processing. But the performance of machine learning algorithms is primarily affected by their hyper-parameters, as without good hyper-parameter values the performance of these algorithms will be very poor. Unfortunately, for complex machine learning models like deep neural networks, it is very difficult to determine their hyper-parameters. Therefore, it is of great significance to develop an efficient algorithm for hyper-parameter automatic optimization. In this paper, a novel hyper-parameter optimization methodology is presented to combine the advantages of a Genetic Algorithm and Tabu Search to achieve the efficient search for hyper-parameters of learning algorithms. This method is defined as the Tabu_Genetic Algorithm. In order to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm, two sets of contrast experiments are conducted. The Tabu_Genetic Algorithm and other four methods are simultaneously used to search for good values of hyper-parameters of deep convolutional neural networks. Experimental results show that, compared to Random Search and Bayesian optimization methods, the proposed Tabu_Genetic Algorithm finds a better model in less time. Whether in a low-dimensional or high-dimensional space, the Tabu_Genetic Algorithm has better search capabilities as an effective method for finding the hyper-parameters of learning algorithms. The presented method in this paper provides a new solution for solving the hyper-parameters optimization problem of complex machine learning models, which will provide machine learning algorithms with better performance when solving practical problems.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8050579
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 580: Compact Printable Inverted-M Shaped
           Chipless RFID Tag Using Dual-Polarized Excitation

    • Authors: Wazie M. Abdulkawi, Abdel-Fattah A. Sheta, Khaled Issa, Saleh A. Alshebeili
      First page: 580
      Abstract: A novel and compact dual-polarized (DP) chipless radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag is presented in this paper. This tag can read both vertical and horizontal orientations within its frequency band, which improves the robustness and detection capability of the RFID system. The proposed tag makes use of the slot length variation encoding technique to improve the encoding capacity. This technique can duplicate the encoding capacity, thereby reducing the overall tag size by almost 50%. In particular, the proposed tag has an encoding capacity of 20 bits in the 3–8 GHz frequency band and achieves data density of around 15.15 bits/cm2. Three prototypes are fabricated and tested outside an anechoic chamber. Furthermore, one tag is tested at different distances (10 cm, 30 cm, and 60 cm) from the reader and the measured results are compared. The simulated and measured results are in reasonable agreement, with acceptable shifts at some frequencies due to fabrication and experimental errors.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8050580
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 581: Four-State Coupled-Line Resonator for
           Chipless RFID Tags Application

    • Authors: Wazie M. Abdulkawi, Abdel-Fattah A. Sheta
      First page: 581
      Abstract: A novel quad-state coupled-line microstrip resonator is proposed for compact chipless radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The proposed resonator can be reconfigured to present one of four possible states: 00, 01, 10, and 11, representing, no resonance, resonance at f2, resonance at f1, and resonance at both f1 and f2, respectively. The frequency span between f2 and f1 can be easily controlled, thereby reducing the required spectrum. Moreover, the proposed technique allows the storage of a large amount of data in a compact size to reduce the cost per bit. A multi-resonator prototype consisting of six resonators is designed, analyzed, and experimentally characterized. This prototype is implemented on the RT Duroid 5880 substrate with a dielectric constant of 2.2, loss tangent of 0.0009, and thickness of 0.79 mm. The designed configuration can be reconfigured for 46 codes. Two complete the RFID tags, including the six resonators and two orthogonally polarized transmitting and receiving antennas, are implemented and tested. The first tag code is designed for all ones, 111111111111, and the second tag is designed as 101010101010 code. Experimental results show good agreement with the simulation.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8050581
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 582: Improvement of Energy Efficiency and
           Control Performance of Cooling System Fan Applied to Industry 4.0 Data

    • Authors: Jae-Sub Ko, Jun-Ho Huh, Jong-Chan Kim
      First page: 582
      Abstract: This paper proposes a control method to improve the energy efficiency and performance of cooling fans used for cooling. In Industry 4.0, a large number of digital data are used, and a large number of data centers are created to handle these data. These data centers consist of information technology (IT) equipment, power systems, and cooling systems. The cooling system is essential to prevent failure and malfunction of the IT equipment, which consumes a considerable amount of energy. This paper proposes a method to reduce the energy used in such cooling systems and to improve the temperature control performance. This paper proposes an fuzzy proportional integral(FPI) controller that controls the input value of the proportional integral(PI) controller by the fuzzy controller according to the operation state, a VFPI (Variable Fuzzy Proportional Integral) controller that adjusts the gain value of the fuzzy controller, and a variable fuzzy proportion integration-variable limit (VFPI-VL) controller that adjusts the limit value of the fuzzy controller’s output value. These controllers control the fan applied to the cooling system and compare the energy consumed and temperature control performance. When the PI controller consumes 100% of the power consumed, the FPI is 50.5%, the VFPI controller is 44.3%, and the VFPI-VL is 32.6%. The power consumption is greatly reduced. In addition, the VFPI-VL controller is the lowest in temperature variation, which improves the energy efficiency and performance of the cooling system using a fan. The methods presented in this paper can not only be applied to fans for cooling, but also to variable speed systems for various purposes and improvement of performance and efficiency can be expected.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8050582
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 583: Analysis and Design of Functional Device
           for Vehicular Cloud Computing

    • Authors: Guilu Wu, Sha Li, Shujun Wang, Yutong Jiang, Zhengquan Li
      First page: 583
      Abstract: Relay technology application becomes prevalent nowadays, as it can effectively extend the communication distance, especially for vehicular networks with a limited communication range. Combined with vehicular cloud (VC), transmission efficiency can be improved by offloading partial data. Hence, designing a vehicle relay algorithm and implementation embedded vehicle device is critical. In this paper, VC is considered to deal with the complexity computation in our proposed system model. Without a loss of generality, an end-to-end vehicle communication with one assisted vehicle is analyzed firstly on a transmission link based on VC. Here, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the receiving end and link outage probability is obtained to enhance the link reliability. The VC computing helps us further simplify computational complexity. Subsequently, an embedded vehicle-enabled device is designed to achieve the optimal path relay selection in realistic vehicular environments. In the functional device framework, we display an optimal path relay selection algorithm according to the link quality. Finally, the performance of the transmission link on the outage probability related with SNR is verified in the simulation results. Meanwhile, the effect of the relay gain is also analyzed. The application of a vehicle-enabled embedded device could improve the performance of vehicular networks.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8050583
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 584: Zi-CAM: A Power and Resource Efficient
           Binary Content-Addressable Memory on FPGAs

    • Authors: Muhammad Irfan, Zahid Ullah, Ray C. C. Cheung
      First page: 584
      Abstract: Content-addressable memory (CAM) is a type of associative memory, which returns the address of a given search input in one clock cycle. Many designs are available to emulate the CAM functionality inside the re-configurable hardware, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), using static random-access memory (SRAM) and flip-flops. FPGA-based CAMs are becoming popular due to the rapid growth in software defined networks (SDNs), which uses CAM for packet classification. Emulated designs of CAM consume much dynamic power owing to a high amount of switching activity and computation involved in finding the address of the search key. In this paper, we present a power and resource efficient binary CAM architecture, Zi-CAM, which consumes less power and uses fewer resources than the available architectures of SRAM-based CAM on FPGAs. Zi-CAM consists of two main blocks. RAM block (RB) is activated when there is a sequence of repeating zeros in the input search word; otherwise, lookup tables (LUT) block (LB) is activated. Zi-CAM is implemented on Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA for the size 64 × 36 which improved power consumption and hardware cost by 30 and 32%, respectively, compared to the available FPGA-based CAMs.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8050584
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 585: A Hybrid QoS-QoE Estimation System for
           IPTV Service

    • Authors: Jaroslav Frnda, Jan Nedoma, Jan Vanus, Radek Martinek
      First page: 585
      Abstract: The internet protocol television service (IPTV) has become a key product for internet service providers (ISP), offering several benefits to both ISP and end-users. Because packet networks based on internet protocol have not been prepared for time-sensitive services, such as voice or video, packet networks have had to adopt several mechanisms to secure minimal transmission standards in the form of data stream prioritization. There are two commonly used approaches for video quality assessment. The first approach needs an original source for comparison (full-reference objective metrics), and the second one requires observers for subjective evaluation of video quality. Both approaches are impractical in real-time transmission because it is difficult to transform an objective score into a subjective quality perception, and on the other hand, subjective tests are not able to be performed immediately. Since many countries worldwide put IPTV on the same level as other broadcasting systems (e.g., terrestrial, cable, or satellite), IPTV services are subject to regulation by the national regulation authority. This results in the need to prepare service qualitative criteria and monitoring tools capable of measuring end-user satisfaction levels. Our proposed model combines the principles of both assessment approaches, which results in an effective monitoring solution. Therefore, the main contribution of the created system is to offer a monitoring tool able to analyze the features extracted from the video sequence and transmission system and promptly translate their impact into a subjective point of view.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8050585
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 586: A Low-Cost, High-Precision Method for
           Ripple Voltage Measurement Using a DAC and Comparators

    • Authors: Jincheng Liu, Jiguang Yue, Li Wang, Chenhao Wu, Feng Lyu
      First page: 586
      Abstract: As the core of electronic system, the switched-mode power supply (SMPS) will lead to serious accidents and catastrophes if it suddenly fails. According to the related research, the monitoring of ripple can acquire the health degree of SMPS indirectly. To realize low-cost, high-precision, and automatic ripple measurement, this paper proposes a new ripple voltage (peak-to-peak value) measuring scheme, utilizing a DAC and two high-speed comparators. Within this scheme, the DC component of SMPS output is blocked by a high-pass filter (HPF). Then, the filtered signal and the reference voltage from a DAC together compose the input of a high-speed comparator. Finally, output pulses of the comparator are captured by a microcontroller unit (MCU), which readjusts the output of the DAC by calculation, and this process is repeated until the DAC output is exactly equal to the peak (or valley) value of ripple. Moreover, in order to accelerate the measurement process, a peak estimation method is specially designed to calculate the output ripple peak (or valley) value of buck topology through merely two measurements. Then the binary search method is utilized to obtain a more exact value on the basis of estimative results. Additionally, an analysis of the measurement error of this ripple measurement system is executed, which shows that the theoretical error is less than 0.5% where the ripple value is larger than 500 mV. Furthermore, appropriate components are selected, and a prototype is manufactured to verify the validity of the proposed theory.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8050586
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 587: Tree Sampling for Detection of Information
           Source in Densely Connected Networks

    • Authors: Taewon Min, Changhee Joo
      First page: 587
      Abstract: We investigate the problem of source detection in information spreading throughout a densely-connected network. Previous works have been developed mostly for tree networks or applied the tree-network results to non-tree networks assuming that the infection occurs in the breadth first manner. However, these approaches result in low detection performance in densely-connected networks, since there is a substantial number of nodes that are infected through the non-shortest path. In this work, we take a two-step approach to the source detection problem in densely-connected networks. By introducing the concept of detour nodes, we first sample trees that the infection process likely follows and effectively compare the probability of the sampled trees. Our solution has low complexity of O ( n 2 log n ) , where n denotes the number of infected nodes, and thus can be applied to large-scale networks. Through extensive simulations including practical networks of the Internet autonomous system and power grid, we evaluate our solution in comparison with two well-known previous schemes and show that it achieves the best performance in densely-connected networks.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8050587
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 588: Jet Features: Hardware-Friendly, Learned
           Convolutional Kernels for High-Speed Image Classification

    • Authors: Taylor Simons, Dah-Jye Lee
      First page: 588
      Abstract: This paper explores a set of learned convolutional kernels which we call Jet Features. Jet Features are efficient to compute in software, easy to implement in hardware and perform well on visual inspection tasks. Because Jet Features can be learned, they can be used in machine learning algorithms. Using Jet Features, we make significant improvements on our previous work, the Evolution Constructed Features (ECO Features) algorithm. Not only do we gain a 3.7× speedup in software without loosing any accuracy on the CIFAR-10 and MNIST datasets, but Jet Features also allow us to implement the algorithm in an FPGA using only a fraction of its resources. We hope to apply the benefits of Jet Features to Convolutional Neural Networks in the future.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8050588
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 589: A High-Speed Low-Power Divide-by-3/4
           Prescaler using E-TSPC Logic DFFs

    • Authors: Tianchen Shen, Jiabing Liu, Chunyi Song, Zhiwei Xu
      First page: 589
      Abstract: A high-speed, low-power divide-by-3/4 prescaler based on an extended true single-phase clock D-flip flop (E-TSPC DFF) is presented. We added two more transistors and a mode control signal to the conventional E-TSPC based divide-by-4 divider to achieve the function of the divide-by-3/4 dual modulus frequency divider. The designed divide-by-3/4 achieved higher speed and lower power operation with mode control compared with the conventional ones. The prescaler was comprised of sixteen transistors and integrates an inverter in the second DFF to provide output directly. The power consumption was minimized due to the reduced number of stages and transistors. In addition, the prescaler operating speed was also improved due to a reduced critical path. We compared the simulation results with conventional E-TSPC based divide-by-3/4 dividers in the same process, where the figure-of-merit (FoM) of the proposed divider was 17.4–75.5% better than conventional ones. We have also fabricated the prescaler in a 40 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The measured highest operating frequency was 9 GHz with 0.303 mW power consumption under 1.35 V power supply, which agrees with the simulation well. The measurement results demonstrate that the proposed divider achieves high-speed and low-power operation.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8050589
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 590: Secure and Efficient Data Sharing Scheme
           Based on Certificateless Hybrid Signcryption for Cloud Storage

    • Authors: Wei Luo, Wenping Ma
      First page: 590
      Abstract: As cloud service providers are not completely trusted, people are increasingly concerned about security issues such as data confidentiality and user privacy. In many existing schemes, the private key generator (PKG) generates a full private key for each user, which means that the PKG can forge a valid signature or decrypt the ciphertext. To address the issue, we first present a novel certificateless hybrid signcryption (CL-HSC) scheme without pairing, in which the PKG only generates the partial private keys for users. It is provably secure under the Elliptic Curve Computational Diffie-Hellman (EC-CDH) assumption in the random oracle model. Then, we propose a key derivation method by which the data owner only needs to maintain the master key to get rid of the complex key management. By combining our proposed CL-HSC scheme and the key derivation method, we present a secure and efficient data-sharing scheme for cloud storage, which can resist collusion attacks, spoofing attacks, and replay attacks and makes user revocation easier. In addition, compared with some existing schemes, our scheme has a lower computational complexity.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8050590
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 591: Active Disturbance Rejection Control of
           Multi-Joint Industrial Robots Based on Dynamic Feedforward

    • Authors: Xin Cheng, Xiao Tu, Yunfei Zhou, Rougang Zhou
      First page: 591
      Abstract: In this paper, the dynamics-based high-performance robot motion control technology has been mainly studied, and the overall structure is controlled via dynamics forward, given the nonlinearity, strong coupling and time-variability of robots. Considering the unavailability of precise robot model parameters and the uncertain disturbance in real operation, we put forward an active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) strategy based on dynamic feedforward, aiming to improve the control robustness and combining the simple structure, strong anti- disturbance ability, and no restriction from the control model of ADRC. Given the multi-joint coupling of robots, controlled decoupling is conducted by using dynamic characteristics. The ADRC cascade control structure and algorithm based on dynamic feedforward have been studied and the closed-loop stability of the system is investigated by analyzing the system dynamic linearization compensation and the anti-disturbance ability of the extended state observer. Experiments have shown the new strategy is more robust over uncertain disturbance than the conventional proportional-integral-derivative control strategy.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8050591
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 592: EEkNN: k-Nearest Neighbor Classifier with
           an Evidential Editing Procedure for Training Samples

    • Authors: Lianmeng Jiao, Xiaojiao Geng, Quan Pan
      First page: 592
      Abstract: The k-nearest neighbor (kNN) rule is one of the most popular classification algorithms applied in many fields because it is very simple to understand and easy to design. However, one of the major problems encountered in using the kNN rule is that all of the training samples are considered equally important in the assignment of the class label to the query pattern. In this paper, an evidential editing version of the kNN rule is developed within the framework of belief function theory. The proposal is composed of two procedures. An evidential editing procedure is first proposed to reassign the original training samples with new labels represented by an evidential membership structure, which provides a general representation model regarding the class membership of the training samples. After editing, a classification procedure specifically designed for evidently edited training samples is developed in the belief function framework to handle the more general situation in which the edited training samples are assigned dependent evidential labels. Three synthetic datasets and six real datasets collected from various fields were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The reported results show that the proposal achieves better performance than other considered kNN-based methods, especially for datasets with high imprecision ratios.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8050592
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 593: A 30–40 GHz CMOS Receiver Front-End with
           5.9 dB NF and 16.5 dB Conversion Gain for Broadband Spectrum Sensing

    • Authors: Hyunki Jung, Dzuhri Radityo Utomo, Saebyeok Shin, Seok-Kyun Han, Sang-Gug Lee, Junsung Kim
      First page: 593
      Abstract: A broadband receiver front-end with low noise figure and flat conversion gain response is presented in this paper. The receiver front-end is a part of the broadband spectrum sensing receiver and processes 30–40 GHz of broad input spectrum followed by down-conversion to DC-10 GHz of IF signal. The proposed work is comprised of a low noise amplifier (LNA), on-chip passive Balun, down conversion mixer, and output buffer. To achieve front-end target specification over 10 GHz input bandwidth, the stagger-tuned LNA is employed and the down conversion mixer is loaded with a 3rd-order LC ladder low pass filter. The prototype chip was implemented in 45 nm CMOS technology. The chip achieves 10.3–16.5 dB conversion gain, 5.9 dB integrated NF, and −11 dBm IIP3 from 30 to 40 GHz. The chip is realized within 0.42 mm 2 and consumes 96 mW from a 1.2 V supply.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8050593
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2019)
  • Electronics, Vol. 8, Pages 594: Accelerometer-Based Gyroscope Drift
           Compensation Approach in a Dual-Axial Stabilization Platform

    • Authors: Shutong Li, Yanbin Gao, Gong Meng, Gang Wang, Lianwu Guan
      First page: 594
      Abstract: An accelerometer-based gyro drift compensation approach in a dual-axial stabilization platform is introduced in this paper. The stabilization platform consists of platform framework, drive motor, gyro and accelerometer module and contorl board. Gyro is an angular rate detecting element to achieve angular rate and rotation angle of the dynamic platform system. However, the platform system has an unstable factor because of the drift of gyro. The main contribution of this paper is to implement a convenient gyro drift compensation approach by using the accelerometer. In contrast to a kalman filtering method, this approach is simpler and practical due to the high-precision characteristic of the accelerometer. Data filtering algorithm and limit of threshold setting of total acceleration values are applied in this approach. The validity and feasibility of the proposed approach are evaluated by four tests under various conditions.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2019-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics8050594
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2019)
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