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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 207 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advanced Materials Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Australian Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 309)
ECTI Transactions on Computer and Information Technology (ECTI-CIT)     Open Access  
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 124)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 109)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 103)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elektronika ir Elektortechnika     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Emitor : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
EPE Journal : European Power Electronics and Drives     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 102)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Letters on Electromagnetic Compatibility Practice and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Magnetics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Open Journal of Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Open Journal of Industry Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 77)
IEEE Pulse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 370)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 228)
IEEE Transactions on Haptics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
IEEE Women in Engineering Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access  
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Jurnal ELTIKOM : Jurnal Teknik Elektro, Teknologi Informasi dan Komputer     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Revue Méditerranéenne des Télécommunications     Open Access  
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.548
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 109  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2079-9292
Published by MDPI Homepage  [230 journals]
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1057: Exact Design Space Exploration Based on
           Consistent Approximations

    • Authors: Kai Neubauer, Benjamin Beichler, Christian Haubelt
      First page: 1057
      Abstract: The aim of design space exploration (DSE) is to identify implementations with optimal quality characteristics which simultaneously satisfy all imposed design constraints. Hence, besides searching for new solutions, a quality evaluation has to be performed for each design point. This process is typically very expensive and takes a majority of the exploration time. As nearly all the explored design points are sub-optimal, most of them get discarded after evaluation. However, evaluating a solution takes virtually the same amount of time for both good and bad ones. That way, a huge amount of computing power is literally wasted. In this paper, we propose a solution to the aforementioned problem by integrating efficient approximations in the background of a DSE engine in order to allow an initial evaluation of each solution. Only if the approximated quality indicates a promising candidate, the time-consuming exact evaluation is executed. The novelty of our approach is that (1) although the evaluation process is accelerated by using approximations, we do not forfeit the quality of the acquired solutions and (2) the integration in a background theory allows sophisticated reasoning techniques to prune the search space with the help of the approximation results. We have conducted an experimental evaluation of our approach by investigating the dependency of the accuracy of used approximations on the performance gain. Based on 120 electronic system level problem instances, we show that our approach is able to increase the overall exploration coverage by up to six times compared to a conservative DSE whenever accurate approximation functions are available.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071057
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1058: Design of Differential Variable-Gain
           Transimpedance Amplifier in 0.18 µm SiGe BiCMOS

    • Authors: Lee, Liu, Yeo, Chen, Yu
      First page: 1058
      Abstract: This paper presents two new inductorless differential variable-gain transimpedance amplifiers (DVGTIA) with voltage bias controlled variable gain designed in TowerJazz’s 0.18 µm SiGe BiCMOS technology (using CMOS transistors only). Both consist of a modified differential cross-coupled regulated cascode preamplifier stage and a cascaded amplifier stage with bias-controlled gain-variation and third-order interleaving feedback. The designs have wide measured transimpedance gain ranges of 24.5–60.6 dBΩ and 27.8–62.8 dBΩ with bandwidth above 6.42 GHz and 5.22 GHz for DVGTIA designs 1 and 2 respectively. The core power consumptions are 30.7 mW and 27.5 mW from a 1.8 V supply and the input referred noise currents are 10.3 pA/√Hz and 21.7 pA/√Hz. The DVGTIA designs 1 and 2 have a dynamic range of 40.4 µA to 3 mA and 76.8 µA to 2.7 mA making both suitable for real photodetectors with an on-chip photodetector capacitive load of 250 fF. Both designs are compact with a core area of 100 µm × 85 µm.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071058
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1059: Towards Efficient Neuromorphic Hardware:
           Unsupervised Adaptive Neuron Pruning

    • Authors: Wenzhe Guo, Hasan Erdem Yantır, Mohammed E. Fouda, Ahmed M. Eltawil, Khaled Nabil Salama
      First page: 1059
      Abstract: To solve real-time challenges, neuromorphic systems generally require deep and complex network structures. Thus, it is crucial to search for effective solutions that can reduce network complexity, improve energy efficiency, and maintain high accuracy. To this end, we propose unsupervised pruning strategies that are focused on pruning neurons while training in spiking neural networks (SNNs) by utilizing network dynamics. The importance of neurons is determined by the fact that neurons that fire more spikes contribute more to network performance. Based on these criteria, we demonstrate that pruning with an adaptive spike count threshold provides a simple and effective approach that can reduce network size significantly and maintain high classification accuracy. The online adaptive pruning shows potential for developing energy-efficient training techniques due to less memory access and less weight-update computation. Furthermore, a parallel digital implementation scheme is proposed to implement spiking neural networks (SNNs) on field programmable gate array (FPGA). Notably, our proposed pruning strategies preserve the dense format of weight matrices, so the implementation architecture remains the same after network compression. The adaptive pruning strategy enables 2.3× reduction in memory size and 2.8× improvement on energy efficiency when 400 neurons are pruned from an 800-neuron network, while the loss of classification accuracy is 1.69%. And the best choice of pruning percentage depends on the trade-off among accuracy, memory, and energy. Therefore, this work offers a promising solution for effective network compression and energy-efficient hardware implementation of neuromorphic systems in real-time applications.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071059
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1060: Verification Method of Safety Properties
           of Embedded Assembly Program by Combining SMT-Based Bounded Model Checking
           and Reduction of Interrupt Handler Executions

    • Authors: Satoshi Yamane, Junpei Kobashi, Kosuke Uemura
      First page: 1060
      Abstract: Embedded software has properties dependent on hardware (direct operation of address spaces, memory mapped I/O, interruption, etc.). Therefore, demands about the established method of formal verifications corresponding to those properties are increasing from the point of view of shorter development and high reliability. Our study aims at enabling a formal verification with Satisfiability Modulo Theories-Based Bounded Model Checking (SMT-Based BMC) of safety for embedded assembly codes. Our proposed method generates models of assembly codes in detail with the fixed-sized bit-vectors theory. The models generated by our method include interrupts, and the size of the models is reduced using Interrupt Handler Execution Reduction (IHER) technique. In this paper, we have developed the verification method of safety properties of embedded assembly program by combining SMT-Based Bounded Model Checking and Reduction of Interrupt Handler Executions. Moreover, we show the evaluation of our method by experiments using prototype model checker.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071060
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1061: Energy Harvesting Backpacks for Human
           Load Carriage: Modelling and Performance Evaluation

    • Authors: Ledeng Huang, Ruishi Wang, Zhenhua Yang, Longhan Xie
      First page: 1061
      Abstract: In recent years, there has been an increasing demand for portable power sources as people are required to carry more equipment for occupational, military, or recreational purposes. The energy harvesting backpack that moves relative to the human body, could capture kinetic energy from human walking and convert vertical oscillation into the rotational motion of the generators to generate electricity. In our previous work, a light-weight tube-like energy harvester (TL harvester) and a traditional frequency-tuneable backpack-based energy harvester (FT harvester) were proposed. In this paper, we discuss the power generation performance of the two types of energy harvesters and the energy performance of human loaded walking, while carrying energy harvesting backpacks, based on two different spring-mass-damper models. Testing revealed that the electrical power in the experiments showed similar trends to the simulation results, but the calculated electrical power and the net metabolic power were higher than that of the experiments. Moreover, the total cost of harvesting (TCOH), defined as additional metabolic power in watt required to generate 1 W of electrical power, could be negative, which indicated that there is a chance to generate 6.11 W of electricity without increasing the metabolic cost while carrying energy harvesting backpacks.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071061
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1062: LC Impedance Source Bi-Directional
           Converter with Reduced Capacitor Voltages

    • Authors: Dogga Raveendhra, Rached Dhaouadi, Habibur Rehman, Shayok Mukhopadhyay
      First page: 1062
      Abstract: This paper proposes an LC (Inductor and Capacitor) impedance source bi-directional DC–DC converter by redesigning after rearranging the reduced number of components of a switched boost bi-directional DC–DC converter. This new converter with a conventional modulation scheme offers several unique features, such as a) a lower number of components and b) reduced voltage stress on the capacitor compared to existing topologies. The reduction of capacitor voltage stress has the potential of improving the reliability and enhancing converter lifespan. An analysis of the proposed converter was completed with the help of a mathematical model and state-space averaging models. The converter performance under different test conditions is compared with the conventional bi-directional DC–DC converter, Z-source converter, discontinuous current quasi Z-source converter, continuous current quasi Z-source converter, improved Z-source converter, switched boost converter, current-fed switched boost converter, and quasi switched boost converter in the Matlab Simulink environment. MATLAB/Simulink results demonstrate that the proposed converter has lesser components count and reduced capacitors’ voltage stresses when compared to the topologies mentioned above. A 24 V to 18 V LC-impedance source bi-directional converter and a conventional bidirectional converter are built to investigate the feasibility and benefits of the proposed topology. Experimental results reveal that capacitor voltage stresses, in the case of proposed topology are reduced by 75.00% and 35.80% in both boost and buck modes, respectively, compared to the conventional converter circuit.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071062
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1063: Benchmark of Rotor Position Sensor
           Technologies for Application in Automotive Electric Drive Trains

    • Authors: Christoph Datlinger, Mario Hirz
      First page: 1063
      Abstract: Rotor shaft position sensors are required to ensure the efficient and reliable control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM), which are often applied as traction motors in electrified automotive powertrains. In general, various sensor principles are available, e.g., resolvers and inductive- or magnetoresistive sensors. Each technology is characterized by strengths and weaknesses in terms of measurement accuracy, space demands, disturbing factors and costs, etc. Since the most frequently applied technology, the resolver, shows some weaknesses and is relatively costly, alternative technologies have been introduced during the past years. This paper investigates state-of-the-art position sensor technologies and compares their potentials for use in PMSM in automotive powertrain systems. The corresponding evaluation criteria are defined according to the typical requirements of automotive electric powertrains, and include the provided sensor accuracy under the influence of mechanical tolerances and deviations, integration size, and different electrical- and signal processing-related parameters. The study presents a mapping of the potentials of different rotor position sensor technologies with the target to support the selection of suitable sensor technologies for specified powertrain control applications, addressing both system design and components development.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071063
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1064: Applications of Virtual Reality in
           Engineering and Product Design: Why, What, How, When and Where

    • Authors: Berni, Borgianni
      First page: 1064
      Abstract: The research on the use of virtual reality (VR) in the design domain has been conducted in a fragmentary way so far, and some misalignments have emerged among scholars. In particular, the actual support of VR in early design phases and the diffusion of practices involving VR in creative design stages are argued. In the present paper, we reviewed VR applications in design and categorized each of the collected 86 sources into multiple classes. These range from supported design functions to employed VR technologies and the use of systems complementing VR. The identified design functions include not only design activities traditionally supported by VR, such as 3D modelling, virtual prototyping, and product evaluation, but also co-design and design education beyond the early design phases. The possibility to support early design phases by means of VR is mirrored by the attention on products that involve an emotional dimension beyond functional aspects, which are particularly focused on in virtual assemblies and prototypes. Relevant matches between VR technologies and specific design functions have been individuated, although a clear separation between VR devices and supported design tasks cannot be claimed.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071064
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1065: Three-Dimensional Time-Harmonic
           Electromagnetic Scattering Problems from Bianisotropic Materials and
           Metamaterials: Reference Solutions Provided by Converging Finite Element

    • Authors: Praveen Kalarickel Ramakrishnan, Mirco Raffetto
      First page: 1065
      Abstract: A recently developed theory is applied to deduce the well posedness and the finite element approximability of time-harmonic electromagnetic scattering problems involving bianisotropic media in free-space or inside waveguides. In particular, three example problems are considered of which one deals with scattering from plasmonic gratings that exhibit bianisotropy while the other two deal with bianisotropic obstacles inside waveguides. The hypotheses that guarantee the reliability of the numerical results are verified, and the ranges of the constitutive parameters of the media involved for which the finite element solutions are guaranteed to be reliable are deduced. It is shown that, within these ranges, there can be significant bianisotropic effects for the practical media considered as examples. The ensured reliability of the obtained results can make them useful as benchmarks for other numerical approaches. To the best of our knowledge, no other tool can guarantee reliable solutions.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071065
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1066: Lung Nodule Classification Using
           Taguchi-Based Convolutional Neural Networks for Computer Tomography Images

    • Authors: Cheng-Jian Lin, Yu-Chi Li
      First page: 1066
      Abstract: Lung cancer occurs in the lungs, trachea, or bronchi. This cancer is often caused by malignant nodules. These cancer cells spread uncontrollably to other organs of the body and pose a threat to life. An accurate assessment of disease severity is critical to determining the optimal treatment approach. In this study, a Taguchi-based convolutional neural network (CNN) was proposed for classifying nodules into malignant or benign. For setting parameters in a CNN, most users adopt trial and error to determine structural parameters. This study used the Taguchi method for selecting preliminary factors. The orthogonal table design is used in the Taguchi method. The final optimal parameter combination was determined, as were the most significant parameters. To verify the proposed method, the lung image database consortium data set from the National Cancer Institute was used for analysis. The database contains a total of 16,471 images, including 11,139 malignant nodule images. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method with the optimal parameter combination obtained an accuracy of 99.6%.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071066
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1067: A Survey of the Selenium Ecosystem

    • Authors: Boni García, Micael Gallego, Francisco Gortázar, Mario Munoz-Organero
      First page: 1067
      Abstract: Selenium is often considered the de-facto standard framework for end-to-end web testing nowadays. It allows practitioners to drive web browsers (such as Chrome, Firefox, Edge, or Opera) in an automated fashion using different language bindings (such as Java, Python, or JavaScript, among others). The term ecosystem, referring to the open-source software domain, includes various components, tools, and other interrelated elements sharing the same technological background. This article presents a descriptive survey aimed to understand how the community uses Selenium and its ecosystem. This survey is structured in seven categories: Selenium foundations, test development, system under test, test infrastructure, other frameworks, community, and personal experience. In light of the current state of Selenium, we analyze future challenges and opportunities around it.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071067
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1068: Polarization-Charge Inversion at
           Al2O3/GaN Interfaces through Post-Deposition Annealing

    • Authors: Kwangeun Kim, Jaewon Jang
      First page: 1068
      Abstract: The effects of post-deposition annealing (PDA) on the formation of polarization-charge inversion at ultrathin Al2O3/Ga-polar GaN interfaces are assessed by the analysis of energy band bending and measurement of electrical conduction. The PDA-induced positive interface charges form downward energy band bending at the Al2O3/GaN interfaces with polarization-charge inversion, which is analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Net charge and interface charge densities at the Al2O3/GaN interfaces are estimated after PDA at 500 °C, 700 °C, and 900 °C. The PDA temperatures affect the formation of charge densities. That is, the charge density increases up to 700 °C and then decreases at 900 °C. Electrical characteristics of GaN Schottky diodes with ultrathin Al2O3 layers exhibit the passivation ability of the Al2O3 surface layer and the effects of polarization-charge inversion through PDA. This result can be applied to improvement in GaN-based electronic devices where surface states and process temperature work important role in device performance.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071068
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1069: Energy Efficiency of Machine Learning in
           Embedded Systems Using Neuromorphic Hardware

    • Authors: Kang, Lee, Park
      First page: 1069
      Abstract: Recently, the application of machine learning on embedded systems has drawn interest in both the research community and industry because embedded systems located at the edge can produce a faster response and reduce network load. However, software implementation of neural networks on Central Processing Units (CPUs) is considered infeasible in embedded systems due to limited power supply. To accelerate AI processing, the many-core Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has been a preferred device to the CPU. However, its energy efficiency is not still considered to be good enough for embedded systems. Among other approaches for machine learning on embedded systems, neuromorphic processing chips are expected to be less power-consuming and overcome the memory bottleneck. In this work, we implemented a pedestrian image detection system on an embedded device using a commercially available neuromorphic chip, NM500, which is based on NeuroMem technology. The NM500 processing time and the power consumption were measured as the number of chips was increased from one to seven, and they were compared to those of a multicore CPU system and a GPU-accelerated embedded system. The results show that NM500 is more efficient in terms of energy required to process data for both learning and classification than the GPU-accelerated system or the multicore CPU system. Additionally, limits and possible improvement of the current NM500 are identified based on the experimental results.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071069
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1070: Effective DGA-Domain Detection and
           Classification with TextCNN and Additional Features

    • Authors: Hwang, Kim, Lee, Lee
      First page: 1070
      Abstract: Malicious codes, such as advanced persistent threat (APT) attacks, do not operate immediately after infecting the system, but after receiving commands from the attacker’s command and control (C&C) server. The system infected by the malicious code tries to communicate with the C&C server through the IP address or domain address of the C&C server. If the IP address or domain address is hard-coded inside the malicious code, it can analyze the malicious code to obtain the address and block access to the C&C server through security policy. In order to circumvent this address blocking technique, domain generation algorithms are included in the malware to dynamically generate domain addresses. The domain generation algorithm (DGA) generates domains randomly, so it is very difficult to identify and block malicious domains. Therefore, this paper effectively detects and classifies unknown DGA domains. We extract features that are effective for TextCNN-based label prediction, and add additional domain knowledge-based features to improve our model for detecting and classifying DGA-generated malicious domains. The proposed model achieved 99.19% accuracy for DGA classification and 88.77% accuracy for DGA class classification. We expect that the proposed model can be applied to effectively detect and block DGA-generated domains.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071070
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1071: An Intelligent Fuzzy Logic-Based Content
           and Channel Aware Downlink Scheduler for Scalable Video over OFDMA
           Wireless Systems

    • Authors: Peter E. Omiyi, Moustafa M. Nasralla, Ikram Ur Rehman, Nabeel Khan, Maria G. Martini
      First page: 1071
      Abstract: The recent advancements of wireless technology and applications make downlink scheduling and resource allocations an important research topic. In this paper, we consider the problem of downlink scheduling for multi-user scalable video streaming over OFDMA channels. The video streams are precoded using a scalable video coding (SVC) scheme. We propose a fuzzy logic-based scheduling algorithm, which prioritises the transmission to different users by considering video content, and channel conditions. Furthermore, a novel analytical model and a new performance metric have been developed for the performance analysis of the proposed scheduling algorithm. The obtained results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the content-blind/channel aware scheduling algorithms with a gain of as much as 19% in terms of the number of supported users. The proposed algorithm allows for a fairer allocation of resources among users across the entire sector coverage, allowing for the enhancement of video quality at edges of the cell while minimising the degradation of users closer to the base station.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071071
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1072: Research on Stability Design of
           Differential Drive Fork-Type AGV Based on PID Control

    • Authors: Wang, Dong, Zhang, Qin
      First page: 1072
      Abstract: As one of the important components of intelligent warehousing logistics, Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) have greatly improved the efficiency of warehousing operations. AGVs are responsible for the delivery of goods in warehousing and logistics, and it is extremely important to maintain a stable running state. In this paper, an AGV in-situ steering dynamic model is established according to the actual size, and the center deviation phenomenon during AGV steering is theoretically analyzed to obtain the parameters that affect the AGV’s in-situ steering stability. Secondly, the dynamic simulation method is used to analyze the law of the stability of the AGV in-situ steering parameters to verify the correctness of the theoretical derivation equation. According to the analysis results, the motion parameters related to AGV in-situ steering are analyzed, and a reasonable design scheme is given. Based on the optimized fork-type AGV, the AGV in-situ steering control strategy is studied, and the adaptive fuzzy PID control algorithm is used to construct the fork-type AGV steering control system. Then the software and hardware design of the AGV steering control system is carried out. The optimized fork-type AGV has been turned to work stably after commissioning, meeting the actual work requirements.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071072
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1073: Modeling of Clos Switching Structures
           with Dynamically Variable Number of Active Switches in the Spine Stage

    • Authors: Mariusz Głąbowski, Maciej Sobieraj, Maciej Stasiak, Michał Dominik Dominik Stasiak
      First page: 1073
      Abstract: This article proposes a new analytical model of a switching structure using a Clos network topology. The assumption is that, in the structure under consideration, it is possible to switch off temporarily a certain number of spine switches (those in the middle stage of the switching fabric) depending on the current intensity of the offered traffic to reduce power consumption. The solution presented in the article can be used in present-day multiservice switching fabrics and in networks connecting servers in data centers. The developed analytical model allows the value of blocking probabilities for different stream classes of multiservice traffic to be evaluated in switching structures (switching fabrics) with a variable number of switches in the middle stage. The results obtained on the basis of the analytical model are compared with the results obtained as a result of relevant simulation experiments for a selected structure of the switching fabric. The study confirms high accuracy of the proposed model. This model can be used in further works to evaluate the effectiveness of energy-saving switching fabrics and the networks of data centers, as well as to construct energy-saving control algorithms that would control these switching structures, that is, algorithms that would change the topology of the switching fabric depending on changes in the offered traffic.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071073
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1074: Multi-objective Fuzzy Logic-based Energy
           Management System for Microgrids with Battery and Hydrogen Energy Storage

    • Authors: Vivas, Segura, Andújar, Palacio, Saenz, Isorna, López
      First page: 1074
      Abstract: This paper proposes a fuzzy logic-based energy management system (EMS) for microgrids with a combined battery and hydrogen energy storage system (ESS), which ensures the power balance according to the load demand at the time that it takes into account the improvement of the microgrid performance from a technical and economic point of view. As is known, renewable energy-based microgrids are receiving increasing interest in the research community, since they play a key role in the challenge of designing the next energy transition model. The integration of ESSs allows the absorption of the energy surplus in the microgrid to ensure power supply if the renewable resource is insufficient and the microgrid is isolated. If the microgrid can be connected to the main power grid, the freedom degrees increase and this allows, among other things, diminishment of the ESS size. Planning the operation of renewable sources-based microgrids requires both an efficient dispatching management between the available and the demanded energy and a reliable forecasting tool. The developed EMS is based on a fuzzy logic controller (FLC), which presents different advantages regarding other controllers: It is not necessary to know the model of the plant, and the linguistic rules that make up its inference engine are easily interpretable. These rules can incorporate expert knowledge, which simplifies the microgrid management, generally complex. The developed EMS has been subjected to a stress test that has demonstrated its excellent behavior. For that, a residential-type profile in an actual microgrid has been used. The developed fuzzy logic-based EMS, in addition to responding to the required load demand, can meet both technical (to prolong the devices’ lifespan) and economic (seeking the highest profitability and efficiency) established criteria, which can be introduced by the expert depending on the microgrid characteristic and profile demand to accomplish.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071074
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1075: High Efficiency Ring-LWE Cryptoprocessor
           Using Shared Arithmetic Components

    • Authors: Tuy Nguyen Nguyen Tan, Tram Thi Bao Thi Bao Nguyen, Hanho Lee
      First page: 1075
      Abstract: A high efficiency architecture for ring learning with errors (ring-LWE) cryptoprocessor using shared arithmetic components is presented in this paper. By applying a novel approach for sharing number theoretic transform (NTT) polynomial multiplier and polynomial adder in encryption and decryption operations, the total number of polynomial multipliers and polynomial adders used in the proposed ring-LWE cryptoprocessor are reduced. In addition, the processing time of NTT polynomial multiplier is speeded up by employing multiple-path delay feedback (MDF) architecture and deploying pipelined technique between all stages of NTT processes. As a result, the proposed architecture offers a great reduction in terms of the hardware complexity and computation latency compared with existing works. The implementation result for the proposed ring-LWE cryptoprocessor on Virtex-7 FPGA board using Xilinx VIVADO shows a significant decrease in the number of slices and LUTs compared with previous works. Moreover, the proposed ring-LWE cryptoprocessor offers higher throughput and efficiency than its predecessors.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071075
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1076: A Network Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Routing
           Algorithm for Demanding Latency and Throughput Applications of
           Network-on-a-Chip Designs

    • Authors: Nain, Ali, Anjum, Afzal, Kim
      First page: 1076
      Abstract: Scalability is a significant issue in system-on-a-chip architectures because of the rapid increase in numerous on-chip resources. Moreover, hybrid processing elements demand diverse communication requirements, which system-on-a-chip architectures are unable to handle gracefully. Network-on-a-chip architectures have been proposed to address the scalability, contention, reusability, and congestion-related problems of current system-on-a-chip architectures. The reliability appears to be a challenging aspect of network-on-a-chip architectures because of the physical faults introduced in post-manufacturing processes. Therefore, to overcome such failures in network-on-a-chip architectures, fault-tolerant routing is critical. In this article, a network adaptive fault-tolerant routing algorithm is proposed, where the proposed algorithm enhances an efficient dynamic and adaptive routing algorithm. The proposed algorithm avoids livelocks because of its ability to select an alternate outport. It also manages to bypass congested regions of the network and balances the traffic load between outports that have an equal number of hop counts to its destination. Simulation results verified that in a fault-free scenario, the proposed solution outperformed a fault-tolerant XY by achieving a lower latency. At the same time, it attained a higher flit delivery ratio compared to the efficient dynamic and adaptive routing algorithm. Meanwhile, in the situation of a faulty network, the proposed algorithm could reach a higher flit delivery ratio of up to 18% while still consuming less power compared to the efficient dynamic and adaptive routing algorithm.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071076
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1077: Bitcoin’s APIs in Open-Source Projects:
           Security Usability Evaluation

    • Authors: Philipp Tschannen, Ali Ahmed
      First page: 1077
      Abstract: Given the current state of software development, it does not seem that we are nowhere near vulnerability-free software applications, due to many reasons, and software developers are one of them. Insecure coding practices, the complexity of the task in hand, and usability issues, amongst other reasons, make it hard on software developers to maintain secure code. When it comes to cryptographic currencies, the need for assuring security is inevitable. For example, Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer software system that is primarily used as digital money. There exist many software libraries supporting various programming languages that allow access to the Bitcoin system via an Application Programming Interface (API). APIs that are inappropriately used would lead to security vulnerabilities, which are hard to discover, resulting in many zero-day exploits. Making APIs usable is, therefore, an essential aspect related to the quality and robustness of the software. This paper surveys the general academic literature concerning API usability and usable security. Furthermore, it evaluates the API usability of Libbitcoin, a well-known C++ implementation of the Bitcoin system, and assesses how the findings of this evaluation could affect the applications that use Libbitcoin. For that purpose, the paper proposes two static analysis tools to further investigate the use of Libbitcoin APIs in open-source projects from a security usability perspective. The findings of this research have improved Libbitcoin in many places, as will be shown in this paper.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071077
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1078: Measurement of Results of Functional
           Reach Test with Sensors: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Ivan Miguel Pires, Nuno M. Garcia, Eftim Zdravevski
      First page: 1078
      Abstract: The test of physical conditions is important to treat and presents several diseases related to the movement. These diseases are mainly related to the physiotherapy and orthopedy, but it can be applied in a wide range of medical specialties. The Functional Reach Test is one of the most common physical tests used to measure the limit of stability that is highly important for older adults because their stability is reduced with aging. Thus, older adults are part of the population more exposed to stroke. This test may help in the measurement of the conditions related to post-stroke and stroke treatment. The movements related to this test may be recorded and recognized with the inertial sensors available in off-the-shelf mobile devices. This systematic review aims to determine how to determine the conditions related to this test, which can be detected, and which of the sensors are used for this purpose. The main contribution of this paper is to present the research on the state-of-the-art use of sensors available on off-the-shelf mobile devices to measure Functional Reach Test results. This research shows that the sensors that are used in the literature studies are inertial sensors and force sensors. The features extracted from the different studies are categorized as dynamic balance, quantitative, and raw statistics. These features are mainly used to recognize the different parameters of the test, and several accidents, including falling. The execution of this test may allow the early detection of different diseases.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071078
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1079: A Low-Cost Method of Improving the
           GNSS/SINS Integrated Navigation System using Multiple Receivers

    • Authors: Di Liu, Hengjun Wang, Qingyuan Xia, Changhui Jiang
      First page: 1079
      Abstract: GNSS (global navigation satellite system) and SINS (strap-down inertial navigation system) integrated navigation systems have been the apparatus for providing reliable and stable position and velocity information (PV). Commonly, there are two solutions to improve the GNSS/SINS integration navigation system accuracy, i.e., employing GNSS with higher position accuracy in the integration system or utilizing the high-grade inertial measurement unit (IMU) to construct the integration system. However, technologies such as RTK (real-time kinematic) and PPP (precise point positioning) that improve GNSS positioning accuracy have higher costs and they cannot work under high dynamic environments. Also, an IMU with high accuracy will lead to a higher cost and larger volume, therefore, a low-cost method to enhance the GNSS/SINS integration accuracy is of great significance. In this paper, multiple receivers based on the GNSS/SINS integrated navigation system are proposed with the aim of providing more precise PV information. Since the chip-scale receivers are cheap, the deployment of multiple receivers in the GNSS/SINS integration will not significantly increase the cost. In addition, two different filtering methods with central and cascaded structure are employed to process the multiple receivers and SINS integration. In the centralized integration filter method, measurements from multiple receivers are directly processed to estimate the SINS errors state vectors. However, the computation load increases heavily due to the rising dimension of the measurement vector. Therefore, a cascaded integration filter structure is also employed to distribute the processing of the multiple receiver and SINS integration. In the cascaded processing method, each receiver is regarded as an individual “sensor”, and a standard federated Kalman filter (FKF) is implemented to obtain an optimal estimation of the navigation solutions. In this paper, a simulation and a field tests are carried out to assess the influence of the number of receivers on the PV accuracy. A detailed analysis of these position and velocity results is presented and the improvements in the PV accuracy demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071079
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1080: Resonant Cavity Antennas for 5G
           Communication Systems: A Review

    • Authors: Azita Goudarzi, Mohammad Mahdi Honari, Rashid Mirzavand
      First page: 1080
      Abstract: Resonant cavity antennas (RCAs) are suitable candidates to achieve high-directivity with a low-cost and easy fabrication process. The stable functionality of the RCAs over different frequency bands, as well as, their pattern reconfigurability make them an attractive antenna structure for the next generation wireless communication systems, i.e., fifth generation (5G). The variety of designs and analytical techniques regarding the main radiator and partially reflective surface (PRS) configurations allow dramatic progress and advances in the area of RCAs. Adding different functionalities in a single structure by using additional layers is another appealing feature of the RCA structures, which has opened the various fields of studies toward 5G applications. This paper reviews the recent advances on the RCAs along with the analytical methods, and various capabilities that make them suitable to be used in 5G communication systems. To discuss different capabilities of RCA structures, some applicable fields of studies are followed in different sections of this paper. To indicate different techniques in achieving various capabilities, some recent state-of-the-art designs are demonstrated and investigated. Since wideband high-gain antennas with different functionalities are highly required for the next generation of wireless communication, the main focus of this paper is to discuss primarily the antenna gain and bandwidth. Finally, a brief conclusion is drawn to have a quick overview of the content of this paper.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071080
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1081: Passive Optical Networks Progress: A

    • Authors: Tomas Horvath, Petr Munster, Vaclav Oujezsky, Ning-Hai Bao
      First page: 1081
      Abstract: For many years, passive optical networks (PONs) have received a considerable amount of attraction regarding their potential for providing broadband connectivity to almost every citizen, especially in remote areas where fiber optics can attract people to populate regions that have been abandoned. Error-free connectivity without dropouts can offer new opportunities to communicate, earn money and enjoy cultural events. Transmission speeds are multigigabit with distances of a few tens of kilometers; these specifications were previously reserved for high-speed and long-haul backbone networks. PONs can also support a new class of applications, such as accurate time transfer or distributed fiber sensing and follow new trends in open networking. An outline of past and current standards and standards that have been proposed for the latest generation of multigigabit PONs is provided.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071081
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1082: Transmission Strategy for Simultaneous

    • Authors: Ning Pan, Mohammad Rajabi, Steven Claessens, Dominique Schreurs, Sofie Pollin
      First page: 1082
      Abstract: Most studies determining data rate or power conversion efficiency (PCE) of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) focus on ideal models for the non-linear energy harvester, or focus on simplified waveforms that carry no information. In this paper, we study SWIPT using realistic waveforms and a measurement-based energy harvesting model. For a special class of multisine waveforms carrying only information in the phase, we analyze PCE as a function of waveform design, including the impact of pre-equalization to mitigate wireless channel distortion. A balanced pre-equalizer that trades off between the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) and signal to noise ratio, maximizing the total PCE is proposed. The impact on the information rate of the analyzed waveforms is also presented. The results show that balanced pre-equalizers can improve the total PCE more than three times within 5% rate loss compared to the pre-equalizer that solely maximizes the signal PAPR or the capacity using the same transmit power. We also show that the maximum normalized PCE is increased by a factor of two by only allowing phase modulation to ensure the PAPR of one symbol, compared to traditional modulation schemes that carry information in both phase and amplitude to maximize spectral efficiency.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071082
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1083: Visual Features with
           Spatio-Temporal-Based Fusion Model for Cross-Dataset Vehicle

    • Authors: Zakria, Deng, Cai, Aftab, Khokhar, Kumar
      First page: 1083
      Abstract: Vehicle re-identification (Re-Id) is the key module in an intelligent transportation system (ITS). Due to its versatile applicability in metropolitan cities, this task has received increasing attention these days. It aims to identify whether the specific vehicle has already appeared over the surveillance network or not. Mostly, the vehicle Re-Id method are evaluated on a single dataset, in which training and testing of the model is performed on the same dataset. However in practice, this negatively effects model generalization ability due to biased datasets along with the significant difference between training and testing data; hence, the model becomes weak in a practical environment. To demonstrate this issue, we have empirically shown that the current vehicle Re-Id datasets are usually strongly biased. In this regard, we also conduct an extensive study on the cross and the same dataset to examine the impact on the performance of the vehicle Re-Id system, considering existing methods. To address the problem, in this paper, we have proposed an approach with augmentation of the training dataset to reduce the influence of pose, angle, camera color response, and background information in vehicle images; whereas, spatio-temporal patterns of unlabelled target datasets are learned by transferring siamese neural network classifiers trained on a source-labelled dataset. We finally calculate the composite similarity score of spatio-temporal patterns with siamese neural-network-based classifier visual features. Extensive experiments on multiple datasets are examined and results suggest that the proposed approach has the ability to generalize adequately.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071083
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1084: A New and Compact Wide-Band Microstrip
           Filter-Antenna Design for 2.4 GHz ISM Band and 4G Applications

    • Authors: Yasir I. A. Al-Yasir, Mohammed K. Alkhafaji, Hana’a A. Alhamadani, Naser Ojaroudi Parchin, Issa Elfergani, Ameer L. Saleh, Jonathan Rodriguez, Raed A. Abd-Alhameed
      First page: 1084
      Abstract: A new and compact four-pole wide-band planar filter-antenna design is proposed in this article. The effect of the dielectric material type on the characteristics of the design is also investigated and presented. The filter-antenna structure is formed by a fourth-order planar band-pass filter (BPF) cascaded with a monopole microstrip antenna. The designed filter-antenna operates at a centre frequency of 2.4 GHz and has a relatively wide-band impedance bandwidth of about 1.22 GHz and a fractional bandwidth (FBW) of about 50%. The effects of three different types of substrate material, which are Rogers RT5880, Rogers RO3003, and FR-4, are investigated and presented using the same configuration. The filter-antenna design is simulated and optimised using computer simulation technology (CST) software and is fabricated and measured using a Rogers RT5880 substrate with a height (h) of 0.81 mm, a dielectric constant of 2.2, and a loss tangent of 0.0009. The structure is printed on a compact size of 0.32 λ0 × 0.30 λ0, where λ0 is the free-space wavelength at the centre frequency. A good agreement is obtained between the simulation and measurement performance. The designed filter-antenna with the achieved performance can find different applications for 2.4 GHz ISM band and 4G wireless communications.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071084
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1085: Iterative Spatial Crowdsourcing in
           Peer-to-Peer Opportunistic Networks

    • Authors: Jurairat Phuttharak, Seng W. Loke
      First page: 1085
      Abstract: Spatial crowdsourcing is a potentially powerful method for incorporating human wisdom into mobile computations to solve problems while exploiting the advantages of mobility and context-awareness. This paper proposes and investigates task assignments and recruitment in iterative spatial crowdsourcing processes to find regions of particular interest among a collection of regions. We consider cases where associations between regions can be exploited to reduce costs and increase efficiency in crowdsourcing. We describe five approaches, incorporated into crowdsourcing algorithms, for reducing the cost (the number of queries required) and increasing the efficiency (reducing the number of rounds of querying required) in using such spatial crowdsourcing. We demonstrate the performance improvements gained using these approaches based on simulation scenarios. The findings show the interplay and relationships among our proposed approaches using a range of metrics including responses, energy consumption, costs, and time usage. These metrics are demonstrated via a range of scenarios, showing that our proposed approaches can lead to improved performance over randomly choosing regions for inquiry.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071085
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1086: Non Invasive Skin Hydration Level
           Detection Using Machine Learning

    • Authors: Sidrah Liaqat, Kia Dashtipour, Kamran Arshad, Naeem Ramzan
      First page: 1086
      Abstract: Dehydration and overhydration can help to improve medical implications on health. Therefore, it is vital to track the hydration level (HL) specifically in children, the elderly and patients with underlying medical conditions such as diabetes. Most of the current approaches to estimate the hydration level are not sufficient and require more in-depth research. Therefore, in this paper, we used the non-invasive wearable sensor for collecting the skin conductance data and employed different machine learning algorithms based on feature engineering to predict the hydration level of the human body in different body postures. The comparative experimental results demonstrated that the random forest with an accuracy of 91.3% achieved better performance as compared to other machine learning algorithms to predict the hydration state of human body. This study paves a way for further investigation in non-invasive proactive skin hydration detection which can help in the diagnosis of serious health conditions.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071086
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1087: Tree Search Fuzzy NARX Neural Network
           Fault Detection Technique for PV Systems with IoT Support

    • Authors: Emad Natsheh, Sufyan Samara
      First page: 1087
      Abstract: The photovoltaic (PV) panel’s output energy depends on many factors. As they are becoming the leading alternative energy source, it is essential to get the best out of them. Although the main factor for maximizing energy production is proportional to the amount of solar radiation reaching the photovoltaic panel surface, other factors, such as temperature and shading, influence them negatively. Moreover, being installed in a dynamic and frequently harsh environment causes a set of reasons for faults, defects, and irregular operations. Any irregular operation should be recognized and classified into faults that need attention and, therefore, maintenance or as being a regular operation due to changes in some surrounding factors, such as temperature or solar radiation. Besides, in case of faults, it would be helpful to identify the source and the cause of the problem. Hence, this study presented a novel methodology that modeled a PV system in a tree-like hierarchy, which allowed the use of a fuzzy nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX) to detect and classify faults in a PV system with customizable granularity. Moreover, the used methodology enabled the identification of the exact source of fault(s) in a fully automated way. The study was done on a string of eight PV panels; however, the paper discussed using the algorithm on a more extensive PV system. The used fuzzy NARX algorithm in this study was able to classify the faults that appeared in up to five out of the eight PV panels and to identify the faulty PV panels with high accuracy. The used hardware could be controlled and monitored through a Wi-Fi connection, which added support for Internet of Things applications.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071087
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1088: A Compact C-Band Bandpass Filter with an
           Adjustable Dual-Band Suitable for Satellite Communication Systems

    • Authors: Ali Lalbakhsh, Amirhossein Ghaderi, Wahab Mohyuddin, Roy B. V. B. Simorangkir, Nima Bayat-Makou, Muhammad Sajjad Ahmad, Gwan Hui Lee, Kang Wook Kim
      First page: 1088
      Abstract: A narrowband dual-band bandpass filter (BPF) with independently tunable passbands is presented through a systematic design approach. A size-efficient coupling system is proposed with the capability of being integrated with additional resonators without increasing the size of the circuit. Two flag-shaped resonators along with two stepped-impedance resonators are integrated with the coupling system to firstly enhance the quality response of the filter, and secondly to add an independent adjustability feature to the filter. The dual passband of the filter is centered at 4.42 GHz and 7.2 GHz, respectively, with narrow passbands of 2.12% and 1.15%. The lower and upper passbands can be swept independently over 600 MHz and 1000 MHz by changing only one parameter of the filter without any destructive effects on the frequency response. According to United States frequency allocations, the first passband is convenient for mobile communications and the second passband can be used for satellite communications. The filter has very good in- and out-of-band performance with very small passband insertion losses of 0.5 dB and 0.86 dB as well as a relatively strong stopband attenuation of 30 dB and 25 dB, respectively, for the case of lower and upper bands. To verify the proposed approach, a prototype of the filter is fabricated and measured showing a good agreement between numerically calculated and measured results.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071088
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1089: New Insight on Terahertz Rectification in
           a Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Structure

    • Authors: Fabrizio Palma
      First page: 1089
      Abstract: The use of a metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOS-FET) permits the rectification of electromagnetic radiation by employing integrated circuit technology. However, obtaining a high-efficiency rectification device requires the assessment of a physical model capable of providing a qualitative and quantitative explanation of the processes involved. For a long time, high-frequency detection based on MOS technology was explained using plasma wave detection theory. In this paper, we review the rectification mechanism in light of high-frequency numerical simulations, showing features never examined until now. The results achieved substantially change our understanding of terahertz (THz) rectification in semiconductors, and can be interpreted by the model based on the self-mixing process in the device substrate, providing a new and essential tool for designing this type of detector.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071089
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1090: A Performance Analysis Framework of
           Time-Triggered Ethernet Using Real-Time Calculus

    • Authors: Xiuli Yang, Yanhong Huang, Jianqi Shi, Zongyu Cao
      First page: 1090
      Abstract: With increasing demands of deterministic and real-time communication, network performance analysis is becoming an increasingly important research topic in safety-critical areas, such as aerospace, automotive electronics and so on. Time-triggered Ethernet (TTEthernet) is a novel hybrid network protocol based on the Ethernet standard; it is deterministic, synchronized and congestion-free. TTEthernet with a time-triggered mechanism meets the real-time and reliability requirements of safety-critical applications. Time-triggered (TT) messages perform strict periodic scheduling following the offline schedule tables. Different scheduling strategies have an effect on the performance of TTEthernet. In this paper, a performance analysis framework is designed to analyze the end-to-end delay, backlog bounds and resource utilization of network by real-time calculus. This method can be used as a base for the performance evaluation of TTEthernet scheduling. In addition, this study discusses the impacts of clock synchronization and traffic integration strategies on TT traffic in the network. Finally, a case study is presented to prove the feasibility of the performance analysis framework.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071090
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1091: Intelligent Load Balancing Techniques in
           Software Defined Networks: A Survey

    • Authors: Thabo Semong, Thabiso Maupong, Stephen Anokye, Kefalotse Kehulakae, Setso Dimakatso, Gabanthone Boipelo, Seth Sarefo
      First page: 1091
      Abstract: In the current technology driven era, the use of devices that connect to the internet has increased significantly. Consequently, there has been a significant increase in internet traffic. Some of the challenges that arise from the increased traffic include, but are not limited to, multiple clients on a single server (which can result in denial of service (DoS)), difficulty in network scalability, and poor service availability. One of the solutions proposed in literature, to mitigate these, is the use of multiple servers with a load balancer. Despite their common use, load balancers, have shown to have some disadvantages, like being vendor specific and non-programmable. To address these disadvantages and improve internet traffic, there has been a paradigm shift which resulted in the introduction of software defined networking (SDN). SDN allows for load balancers that are programmable and provides the flexibility for one to design and implement own load balancing strategies. In this survey, we highlight the key elements of SDN and OpenFlow technology and their effect on load balancing. We provide an overview of the various load balancing schemes in SDN. The overview is based on research challenges, existing solutions, and we give possible future research directions. A summary of emulators/mathematical tools commonly used in the design of intelligent load balancing SDN algorithms is provided. Finally, we outline the performance metrics used to evaluate the algorithms.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071091
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1092: Detection and Tracking Method of Maritime
           Moving Targets Based on Geosynchronous Orbit Satellite Optical Images

    • Authors: Fengqi Xiao, Fei Yuan, En Cheng
      First page: 1092
      Abstract: The GF-4 geosynchronous orbit satellite can observe a large area for a long time, but the unique characteristics of its optical remote sensing image restrict the detection of maritime targets. This paper proposes a maritime target detection and tracking method for the GF-4 satellite image sequence based on the differences in information between frames in the image sequence. First, a preprocessing method is proposed for the unique characteristics of the image. Then, the ViBe (Visual Background Extractor) algorithm is used to extract the targets in the image sequence. After detection, the DCF-CSR (discriminative correlation filters with channel and spatial reliability) is used as a tracker to track and correlate the detected target to complete the task of predicting and monitoring the targets’ movements. Finally, through the comparative analysis of experiments with several classic methods, the feasibility and effectiveness of this method are verified.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071092
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1093: Fingerprinting of Relational Databases
           for Stopping the Data Theft

    • Authors: Eesa Al Solami, Muhammad Kamran, Mohammed Saeed Alkatheiri, Fouzia Rafiq , Ahmed Alghamdi
      First page: 1093
      Abstract: The currently-emerging technology demands sharing of data using various channels via the Internet, disks, etc. Some recipients of this data can also become traitors by leaking the important data. As a result, the data breaches due to data leakage are also increasing. These breaches include unauthorized distribution, duplication, and sale. The identification of a guilty agent responsible for such breaches is important for: (i) punishing the culprit; and (ii) preventing the innocent user from accusation and punishment. Fingerprinting techniques provide a mechanism for classifying the guilty agent from multiple recipients and also help to prevent the innocent user from being accused of the data breach. To those ends, in this paper, a novel fingerprinting framework has been proposed using a biometric feature as a digital mark (signature). The use of machine learning has also been introduced to make this framework intelligent, particularly for preserving the data usability. An attack channel has also been used to evaluate the robustness of the proposed scheme. The experimental study was also conducted to demonstrate that the proposed technique is robust against several malicious attacks, such as subset selection attacks, mix and match attacks, collusion attacks, deletion attacks, insertion attacks, and alteration attacks.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071093
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1094: Performance Analysis of LDS Multi Access
           Technique and New 5G Waveforms for V2X Communication

    • Authors: Imane Khelouani, Fouzia Elbahhar, Raja Elassali, Noureddine Idboufker
      First page: 1094
      Abstract: Low Density Signature (LDS) is an emerging non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) technique that has never been evaluated under a vehicular channel in order to simulate the environment of a vehicle to everything (V2X) communication. Moreover, the LDS structure has been combined with only Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and Filter-Bank Multi-Carrier (FBMC) waveforms to improve its performances. In this paper, we propose new schemes where the LDS structure is combined with Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier (UFMC) and Filtered-OFDM waveforms and the Bit Error Rate (BER) is analysed over a frequency selective channel as a reference and over a vehicular channel to analyse the effect of the Doppler shift on the overall performance.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071094
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1095: A SVM-3D Based Encoderless Control of a
           Fault-Tolerant PMSM Drive

    • Authors: Kamel Saleh, Mark Sumner
      First page: 1095
      Abstract: This paper exhibits a novel technique to obtain an encoderless speed control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) in the case of a loss of one phase. The importance of this work is that it presents solutions in order to maintain the operation of the system in various conditions. This will increase the reliability of the whole drive system to meet the safety issues required in some applications. To achieve that, a fault-tolerant inverter modulated through a 3-dimension space vector pulse width modulation technique (3D-SVPWM) is used. Besides that, an algorithm to obtain the exact position of the saturation saliency in the case of a loss of one phase is introduced to achieve a closed-loop field-oriented encoderless speed control and to further enhance the reliability of the whole drive system. This algorithm is based on measuring the transient stator current responses of the motor due to the insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) switching actions. Then according to the operating condition (normal or a loss of one phase), the saliency position signals are constructed from the dynamic current responses. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the saliency tracking technique under normal and under a loss of one phase conditions. Moreover, the results verify the maximum reliability for the whole drive system that is achieved in this work through a continuous operation of the drive system under a loss of one phase condition and under encoderless speed control.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071095
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1096: Efficient Estimator of Rotor Temperature
           Designing for Electric and Hybrid Powertrain Platform

    • Authors: Tuan-Vu Tran, Edouard Nègre
      First page: 1096
      Abstract: This paper presents an efficient method of estimation of rotor cage temperature for induction machine design, applied for electric and hybrid vehicles. This factor influences the torque produced by the induction machine with a field-oriented control algorithm. Equipping sensors to measure the temperature of a rotation component is expensive and is not representative of mass production. The approach of estimation of rotor cage temperature is based on the good knowledge of motor parameters and the estimation of the flux of the machine. For an accuracy inductance taking account of the saturation, the no-load test can be performed. The machine flux will be estimated taking account of the voltage drop of the system on the test-bench. The rapid prototyping in a real-time motor control platform will be presented that integrates this estimator of rotor temperature. We finally show the experimental testing results compared to the measurement of the rotor cage on a prototype asynchronous low-cost motor designing for battery electric city cars.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071096
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1097: TagML—An Implementation Specific Model
           to Generate Tag-Based Documents

    • Authors: Ricardo Tesoriero, Gabriel Sebastian, Jose A. Gallud
      First page: 1097
      Abstract: This article describes TagML, a method to generate collections of XML documents using model-to-model (M2M) transformations. To accomplish this goal, we define the TagML meta-model and the TagML-to-XML model-to-text transformation. While TagML models represent the essential characteristics of collections of XML documents, the TagML-to-XML transformation generates the textual representation of collections of XML documents from TagML models. This approach enables developers to define model-to-model transformations to generate TagML models. These models are turned into text applying the TagML-to-XML transformation. Consequently, developers are able to use declarative languages to define model-to-text transformations that generate XML documents, instead of traditional archetype-based languages to define model-to-text transformations that generate collections of XML documents. The TagML model editor as well as the TagML-to-XML transformation were developed as Eclipse plugins using the Eclipse Modeling Framework. The plugin has been developed following the Object Modeling Group standards to ensure the compatibility with legacy tools. Using TagML, unlike other previous proposals, implies the use of model-to-model transformations to generate XML documents, instead of model-to-text transformations, which results on an improvement of the transformation readability and reliability, as well as a reduction of the transformation maintenance costs. The proposed approach helps developers to define transformations less prone to errors than using the traditional approach. The novelty of this approach is based on the way XML documents are generated using model-to-model transformations instead of traditional model-to-text transformations. Moreover, the simplicity of the proposed approach enables the generation of XML documents without the need for any transformation configuration, which does not penalize the model reuse. To illustrate the features of the proposal, we present the generation of XHTML documents using UML class diagrams as input models. The evaluation section demonstrates that the proposed method is less prone to errors than the traditional one.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071097
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1098: Source Apportionment and Integrated
           Assessment Modelling for Air Quality Planning

    • Authors: Elena De Angelis, Claudio Carnevale, Enrico Turrini, Marialuisa Volta
      First page: 1098
      Abstract: In Northern Italy a large fraction of the population is exposed to PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations that exceed the European limit values and the stricter WHO air quality guidelines. For this reason, in 2017 four Regions (Piemonte, Lombardia, Veneto, and Emilia Romagna) and the national Ministry of the Environment adopted a set of joint measures, namely the “Po Basin air quality plan”. The plan mainly tackles emission from road transport, residential heating, and agriculture. Air quality plans at regional and local scale are usually implemented defining a set of emission abatement measures, starting from experts’ knowledge. The aim of this work is to define a methodology that helps decision makers in air quality planning, combining two different approaches: Source-Apportionment techniques (SA) and Integrated Assessment Modelling (IAM). These techniques have been applied over a domain in Northern Italy to analyze the contribution of emission sources on PM10 concentration and to compute an optimal policy, obtained through a multi-objective optimization approach that minimizes both the PM10 yearly average concentration and the policy implementation costs. The results are compared to the Po Basin air quality plan impacts. The source-apportionment technique and the IAM optimization approach show intervention priorities in three main sectors: residential heating, agriculture, and road transport. The Po Basin air quality plan is effective in reducing PM10 concentrations, but not efficient, as a matter of fact the cost-effective policy at the same cost has a higher impact on air quality and on greenhouse gases emissions reduction.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071098
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1099: Effect of A Superstrate on On-Head
           Matched Antennas for Biomedical Applications

    • Authors: Md Rokunuzzaman Robel, Asif Ahmed, Akram Alomainy, Wayne S. T. Rowe
      First page: 1099
      Abstract: The effect of using a superstrate dielectric layer on an on-head matched antenna for biomedical diagnosis applications is investigated. Two on-head matched antennas are considered with different length meandered lines ensuring operation around 0.9 GHz frequency. The first antenna’s conductive radiating structure is in direct contact with the head phantom, whereas the second one utilises a 0.5 mm thick superstrate layer on top of the conducting layer as a buffer. The lateral dimensions of both antennas are held constant at 30 × 30 mm2. The electric and magnetic field distribution is analysed and the power penetration, 50 mm inside the head phantom, is derived from the electromagnetic field surrounding the antennas. Both homogeneous and inhomogeneous head phantoms are considered while evaluating the antennas in terms of their reflection coefficient, current distribution, electric field, magnetic field, specific absorption rate (SAR) and power penetration inside the head. The antennas are fabricated and measured utilizing an inhomogeneous phantom to validate the proposed performance improvement using a superstrate. It is shown that the superstrate antenna achieves a ~8 dB increase in power penetration inside the head phantom along with a 0.0731 W/kg decrease in SAR compared to the antenna without a superstrate.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071099
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1100: A Design of Low-Power 10-bit 1-MS/s
           Asynchronous SAR ADC for DSRC Application

    • Authors: Deeksha Verma, Khuram Shehzad, Danial Khan, Sung Jin Kim, Young Gun Pu, Sang-Sun Yoo, Keum Cheol Hwang, Youngoo Yang, Kang-Yoon Lee
      First page: 1100
      Abstract: A design of low-power 10-bit 1 MS/s asynchronous successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC) is presented in this paper. To improve the linearity of the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and energy efficiency, a common mode-based monotonic charge recovery (CMMC) switching technique is proposed. The proposed switching technique consumes only 63.75 CVREF2 switching energy, which is far less as compared to the conventional switching technique without dividing or adding additional switches. In addition, bootstrap switching is implemented to ensure enhanced linearity. To reduce the power consumption from the comparator, a dynamic latch comparator with a self-comparator clock generation circuit is implemented. The proposed prototype of the SAR ADC is implemented in a 55 nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) process. The proposed architecture achieves a figure of merit (FOM) of 17.4 fJ/conversion, signal-to-noise distortion ratio (SNDR) of 60.39 dB, and an effective number of bits (ENOB) of 9.74 bits with a sampling rate of 1 MS/s at measurement levels. The implemented SAR ADC consumes 14.8 µW power at 1 V power supply.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071100
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1101: Real-Time Analysis of Online Sources for
           Supporting Business Intelligence Illustrated with Bitcoin Investments and
           IoT Smart-Meter Sensors in Smart Cities

    • Authors: Iván García-Magariño, Moustafa M. Nasralla, Shah Nazir
      First page: 1101
      Abstract: Real-time data management analytics involve capturing data in real-time and, at the same time, processing data in a light way to provide an effective real-time support. Real-time data management analytics are key for supporting decisions of business intelligence. The proposed approach covers all these phases by (a) monitoring online information from websites with Selenium-based software and incrementally conforming a database, and (b) incrementally updating summarized information to support real-time decisions. We have illustrated this approach for the investor–company field with the particular fields of Bitcoin cryptocurrency and Internet-of-Things (IoT) smart-meter sensors in smart cities. The results of 40 simulations on historic data showed that one of the proposed investor strategies achieved 7.96% of profits on average in less than two weeks. However, these simulations and other simulations of up to 69 days showed that the benefits were highly variable in these two sets of simulations (respective standard deviations were 24.6% and 19.2%).
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071101
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1102: The Design of Compact SM4 Encryption and
           Decryption Circuits That are Resistant to Bypass Attack

    • Authors: Fang Zhou, Benjun Zhang, Ning Wu, Xiangli Bu
      First page: 1102
      Abstract: In order to achieve the purpose of defending against side channel attacks, a compact SM4 circuit was designed based on the mask and random delay technique, and the linear transformation module was designed with random insertion of the pseudo operation method. By analyzing the glitch data generated by the S-box of SM4 with different inputs, the security against glitch attacks was confirmed. Then, the DPA (Differential Power Analysis) was performed on the designed circuit. The key could not be successfully obtained even in the case of 100,000 power curves, so that the safety of SM4 against DPA is verified. Finally, using Synopsys DC (Design Compiler, Mountain View, CA94043DC, USA) to synthesize the designed circuit, the results show that the area of the designed circuit in the SMIC 0.18 process is 82,734 μm2, which is 48% smaller than results reported in other papers.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071102
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1103: Adaptive Weighted High Frequency
           Iterative Algorithm for Fractional-Order Total Variation with Nonlocal
           Regularization for Image Reconstruction

    • Authors: Hui Chen, Yali Qin, Hongliang Ren, Liping Chang, Yingtian Hu, Huan Zheng
      First page: 1103
      Abstract: We propose an adaptive weighted high frequency iterative algorithm for a fractional-order total variation (FrTV) approach with nonlocal regularization to alleviate image deterioration and to eliminate staircase artifacts, which result from the total variation (TV) method. The high frequency gradients are reweighted in iterations adaptively when we decompose the image into high and low frequency components using the pre-processing technique. The nonlocal regularization is introduced into our method based on nonlocal means (NLM) filtering, which contains prior image structural information to suppress staircase artifacts. An alternating direction multiplier method (ADMM) is used to solve the problem combining reweighted FrTV and nonlocal regularization. Experimental results show that both the peak signal-to-noise ratios (PSNR) and structural similarity index (SSIM) of reconstructed images are higher than those achieved by the other four methods at various sampling ratios less than 25%. At 5% sampling ratios, the gains of PSNR and SSIM are up to 1.63 dB and 0.0114 from ten images compared with reweighted total variation with nuclear norm regularization (RTV-NNR). The improved approach preserves more texture details and has better visual effects, especially at low sampling ratios, at the cost of taking more time.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071103
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1104: A Modified Model Reference Adaptive
           Controller (M-MRAC) Using an Updated MIT-Rule for the Altitude of a UAV

    • Authors: Julian Rothe, Jasper Zevering, Michael Strohmeier, Sergio Montenegro
      First page: 1104
      Abstract: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are playing an increasingly important role in a wide variety of areas and the range of applications increases daily, which can also be seen in the research of the topic. At the University of Wuerzburg drones are to be used in a project, where the aim is to catch possibly dangerous UAVs in mid air using a net, carried by two drones. This very special scenario poses new problems to the control of the drones, so that traditionally used Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) controllers are no longer sufficient. Therefore a model-based adaption mechanism was chosen to be used to control the altitude of the drones. Though adaption based controllers have been used in the field of drone research before, the existing algorithms had to be modified to work with the special conditions of the altitude control of UAVs. The design and implementation of the modified Model Reference Adaptive Controllers (MRACs) with an updated Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)-rule will be presented in this work. The behavior of the drones with and without the adaption as well as the changes to the original MRAC are then compared in simulation as well as on a real system and show very promising results in further improving the stability of the altitude control of the drones.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071104
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1105: Intercellular Bioimaging and
           Biodistribution of Gold Nanoparticle-Loaded Macrophages for Targeted Drug

    • Authors: Sehwan Kim, Sung Hun Kang, Soo Hwan Byun, Hye-Jin Kim, In-Kyu Park, Henry Hirschberg, Seok Jin Hong
      First page: 1105
      Abstract: In order to effectively apply nanoparticles to clinical use, macrophages have been used as vehicles to deliver genes, drugs or nanomaterials into tumors. In this study, the effectiveness of macrophage as a drug delivery system was validated by biodistribution imaging modalities at intercellular and ex vivo levels. We focused on biodistribution imaging, namely, the characterization of the gold nanoparticle-loaded macrophages using intracellular holotomography and target delivery efficiency analysis using ex vivo fluorescence imaging techniques. In more detail, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared with trisodium citrate method and loaded into macrophage cells (RAW 264.7). First, AuNPs loading into macrophages was confirmed using the conventional ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Then, the holotomographic imaging was employed to characterize the intracellular biodistribution of the AuNPs-loaded macrophages. The efficacy of target delivery of the well AuNPs uptake macrophages was studied in a mouse model, established via lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. The fluorescent images and the ex vivo ICP-MS evaluated the delivery efficiency of the AuNPs-loaded macrophages. Results revealed that the holotomographic imaging techniques can be promising modalities to understand intracellular biodistribution and ex vivo fluorescence imaging can be useful to validate the target delivery efficacy of the AuNPs-loaded macrophages.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071105
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1106: Oxide-Electrolyte Thickness Dependence
           Diode-Like Threshold Switching and High on/off Ratio Characteristics by
           Using Al2O3 Based CBRAM

    • Authors: Asim Senapati, Sourav Roy, Yu-Feng Lin, Mrinmoy Dutta, Siddheswar Maikap
      First page: 1106
      Abstract: Diode-like threshold switching and high on/off ratio characteristics by using an Al/Ag/Al2O3/TiN conductive bridge resistive random access memories (CBRAM) have been obtained. The 5 nm-thick Al2O3 device shows superior memory parameters such as low forming voltage and higher switching uniformity as compared to the 20 nm-thick switching layer, owing to higher electric field across the material. Capacitance-voltage (CV) characteristics are observed for the Ag/Al2O3/TiN devices, suggesting the unipolar/bipolar resistive switching phenomena. Negative capacitance (NC) at low frequency proves inductive behavior of the CBRAM devices due to Ag ion migration into the Al2O3 oxide-electrolyte. Thicker Al2O3 film shows diode-like threshold switching behavior with long consecutive 10,000 cycles. It has been found that a thinner Al2O3 device has a larger on/off ratio of >108 as compared to a thicker one. Program/erase (P/E) cycles, read endurance, and data retention of the thinner Al2O3 oxide-electrolyte shows superior phenomena than the thicker electrolyte. The switching mechanism is also explored.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071106
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1107: A 2.45 GHz High Efficiency CMOS RF Energy
           Harvester with Adaptive Path Control

    • Authors: Danial Khan, Muhammad Basim, Khuram Shehzad, Qurat Ul Ain, Deeksha Verma, Muhammad Asif, Seong Jin Oh, Young Gun Pu, Sang-Sun Yoo, Keum Cheol Hwang, Youngoo Yang, Kang-Yoon Lee
      First page: 1107
      Abstract: In this research work, a reconfigurable 2.45-GHz RF-DC converter realized in a 180-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology is proposed to efficiently harvest electromagnetic energy. The proposed circuit is composed of a low-power path rectifier, a high-power path rectifier, and an adaptive path control (APC) circuit. The APC circuit is made-up of a comparator, two switches, and an inverter. The APC circuit senses the output voltages of the low-power path and the high-power path rectifiers and generates a control signal to automatically switch the proposed circuit between the lower-power path and the high-power path operation depending upon RF input power level. The proposed circuit obtains more than 20% measured power conversion efficiency (PCE) from −6 dBm to 11 dBm input power range with maximum efficiencies of 41% and 45% at 1 and 6 dBm input powers, respectively, for 5 kΩ load resistance. In addition, the proposed circuit shows excellent performance at 900 MHz and 5.8 GHz frequencies.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071107
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1108: Constructing of Digital Watermark Based
           on Generalized Fourier Transform

    • Authors: Ivanna Dronyuk, Olga Fedevych, Natalia Kryvinska
      First page: 1108
      Abstract: We develop in this paper a method for constructing a digital watermark to protect one-dimensional and two-dimensional signals. The creation of a digital watermark is based on the one-dimensional and two-dimensional generalized Fourier and Hartley transformations and the Ateb-functions as a generalization of trigonometric functions. The embedding of the digital watermark is realized in the frequency domain. The simulation of attacks on protected files is carried out to confirm the stability of the proposed method. Experiments proved the high stability of the developed method conformably to the main types of attacks. An additional built-in digital watermark can be used to identify protected files. The proposed method can be used to support the security of a variety of signals—audio, images, electronic files etc.—to protect them from unauthorized access and as well for identification.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071108
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1109: Experimental Performance Analysis of an
           Optical Communication Channel over Maritime Environment

    • Authors: Antonios Lionis, Konstantinos Peppas, Hector E. Nistazakis, Andreas D. Tsigopoulos, Keith Cohn
      First page: 1109
      Abstract: Free space optical communications (FSO), which make use of the visible and infrared spectrum for data transmission, offer significant advantages such as a very high data rate, security and immunity, low cost of installation and ease of use without any license restrictions. However, a significant challenge for FSO systems is their inherent constraints due to environmental conditions and especially atmospheric turbulence. This paper focuses on the experimental performance analysis of a real FSO system in a maritime environment. We propose a new model which allows an FSO link performance estimation over sea and depends upon point measurements of environmental parameters. The Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) has been measured and a second-order polynomial has been constructed using regression modeling to quantify its relation with macroscopic environmental parameters collected by a weather station. This model has then been validated against real meteorological data over different period of times and exhibited a reasonably strong correlation. Atmospheric turbulence has been determined using bulk estimates of the structure index parameter extracted from the same meteorological data, and thus allowed for a statistical correlation between turbulence and RSSI. In the second part of the paper, the probability distribution of the RSSI data has been investigated and the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence has been used to investigate the difference between probability distributions over the same variable. As an illustrative example of the process, the Weibull, Lognormal and Gamma distributions have been evaluated against the RSSI data probability distribution and the latter has proved to exhibit the best fit.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071109
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1110: Area-Efficient Differential Fault
           Tolerance Encoding for Finite State Machines

    • Authors: Jiwoon Park, Hoyoung Yoo
      First page: 1110
      Abstract: A differential fault tolerance encoding is presented for finite state machines (FSMs) to improve their area efficiency. As the manufacturing technology for semiconductors continues to scale down, the probability of the occurrence of unexpected faults in integrated circuits has been increasing. Because an FSM controls an entire digital circuit, the faults in FSMs should be carefully addressed. Whereas the previous encoding applies a fault tolerance scheme to all the states in an FSM, the proposed encoding applies a fault tolerance scheme to only specific states depending on their importance. Compared with the previous complete fault tolerance encoding, the proposed encoding provides a comparable failure probability with a small hardware by applying the fault tolerance scheme differently to each state. The proposed method improves the area efficiency by 36.1%, 43.8%, 49.2%, and 74.6% compared with that by the non-fault tolerance, previous hardware redundancy, information redundancy, and time redundancy methods, respectively. Consequently, the proposed method can provide a flexible solution by applying the fault tolerance differently depending on the importance of the states.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071110
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1111: Grant-Free Resource Allocation for NOMA
           V2X Uplink Systems Using a Genetic Algorithm Approach

    • Authors: Sol Lee, Jeehyeong Kim, Joohan Park, Sunghyun Cho
      First page: 1111
      Abstract: While NOMA-V2V (non-orthogonal multiple accesscan-vehicle-to-vehicle) effectively achieve massive connectivity requirements in 5G network systems, minimizing communication latency is a very crucial challenge. To address the latency problem, we propose a channel allocation method called hyper-fraction, which divides the road into many zones and allocates a channel to each zone. Then, a vehicle located within the corresponding zone uses the channel allocated to the zone. Hyper-fraction will allow the system to minimize communication latency between a user equipment (UE) and a base station (BS) caused by scheduling processes and consequentially reduce the overall latency of the system. In the simulation, a novel concept of genetic algorithm (GA) is utilized, called GA with continuous pool. It is an approach to enable conventional GA to solve optimization problems for continuous situations within much less computation, especially in situations where the elements in the system keep moving such as vehicular networks. As a result, GA with continuous pool is proven to be an effective heuristic method to improve throughput rate, as well as hyper-fraction improving the latency of NOMA V2V and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) systems.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071111
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1112: A Novel Cross-Layer V2V Architecture for
           Direction-Aware Cooperative Collision Avoidance

    • Authors: Shahab Haider, Ziaul Haq Abbas, Ghulam Abbas, Muhammad Waqas, Shanshan Tu, Wei Zhao
      First page: 1112
      Abstract: The death toll due to highway crashes is increasing at an alarming rate across the globe. Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) have emerged as a promising solution to prevent crashes by enabling collision avoidance applications. However, a robust and stable collision avoidance application is a cross-layer problem that must address a number of key challenges across all layers of a VANET communication architecture. This paper presents and evaluates a novel VANET protocol suite, named Direction-Aware Vehicular Collision Avoidance (DVCA), which covers application, security services, network, and link layers. DVCA is a vehicle-to-vehicle communication architecture that provides enhanced collision probability computation and adaptive preventive measures for cooperative collision avoidance on bi-directional highways. Moreover, DVCA enables secure, in-time, and reliable dissemination of warning messages, which provides adequate time for vehicles to prevent collisions. Simulation and analytical results demonstrate reasonable reduction in collisions by DVCA, as compared with eminent VANET communication architectures.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071112
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1113: A 100 Gb/s Quad-Lane SerDes Receiver with
           a PI-Based Quarter-Rate All-Digital CDR

    • Authors: Heejae Hwang, Jongsun Kim
      First page: 1113
      Abstract: A 100 Gb/s quad-lane SerDes receiver with a phase-interpolator (PI)-based quarter-rate all-digital clock and data recovery (CDR) is presented. The proposed CDR utilizes a multi-phase multiplying delay-locked loop (MDLL) to generate the eight-phase reference clocks, which achieves multi-phase frequency multiplication with a small area and less power consumption. The shared MDLL generates and distributes eight-phase clocks to each CDR. The proposed CDR uses a new initial phase tracker that uses a preamble to achieve a fast lock time of about 12 ns and to provide a constant output data sequence. The CDR utilizes quarter-rate 2x-oversampling architecture, and the PI controller is designed full custom to minimize the loop latency. To improve the dithering jitter performance of the recovered clock, the decimation factor of the CDR can be adjustable. Also, a new continuous-time linear equalizer (CTLE) receiver was adopted to reduce power consumption and achieved a data rate of 25 Gb/s/lane. The proposed SerDes receiver with a digital CDR is implemented in 40 nm CMOS technology. The 100 Gb/s four-channel SerDes receiver (4 CTLEs + 4 CDRs + MDLL) occupies an active area of only 0.351 mm2 and consumes 241.8 mW, which achieves a high energy efficiency of 2.418 pJ/bit.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071113
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1114: Lasers in Passive Optical Networks and
           the Activation Process of an End Unit: A Tutorial

    • Authors: Tomas Horvath, Petr Munster, Ning-Hai Bao
      First page: 1114
      Abstract: It is 21 years since the first passive optical network (PON) was standardized as an asynchronous transfer mode passive optical network (APON) with same optical distribution network scheme as we know in current networks. A lot of PON networks were standardized in the following years and became an important part of telecommunication. The general principles of these PON networks are described in many papers and books, but only a little information about used lasers is available. The aim of this tutorial is to describe lasers used in PON networks and principles of their operation. The paper describes the principles of single longitudinal mode (SLM), multi longitudinal mode (MLM), distributed-feedback (DFB), and Fabry–Pérot (FP) lasers. Furthermore, the lasers are compared by their usage in optical line termination (OLT) for passive optical networks. The second part of this tutorial deals with activation process of optical network unit. The described principle is the same for connection of a new customer or blackout scenario. The end unit is not able to communicate until reach the operational state; each state is defined with physical layer operation and administration and maintenance (PLOAM) messages sequence and their processing.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071114
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1115: Impact of Meteorological Attenuation on
           Channel Characterization at 300 GHz

    • Authors: Zhengrong Lai, Haofan Yi, Ke Guan, Bo Ai, Wuning Zhong, Jianwu Dou, Yi Zeng, Zhangdui Zhong
      First page: 1115
      Abstract: Terahertz (THz) communication is a key candidate for the upcoming age of beyond-fifth-generation mobile networks (B5G) or sixth-generation mobile networks (6G) in the next decade and can achieve ultra-high data rates of dozens of gigabits or even terabits per second. As the carrier frequency increases from radio frequency (RF) to the THz band, the impact of meteorological factors on the wireless link is expected to become more pronounced. In this work, we first provide an overview of the attenuation caused by atmospheric gases, fog, and rain on terrestrial THz wireless communications using the recommendations of the International Telecommunication Union-Radiocommunication (ITU-R). Measured data from the literature are used to predict the attenuation caused by snow. Because unfavorable weather conditions may harm sensitive measurement equipment, ray-tracing (RT) simulations are sometimes used as an alternative to extend sparse empirical data. In this study, the terrestrial channel in an urban scenario at 300 GHz, with a bandwidth of 8 GHz, is characterized using RT simulations under different meteorological factors. The key performance parameters are explored, including path loss (PL), Rician K-factor (KF), root-mean-square (RMS) delay spread (DS), and four angular spreads. The channel characteristics under different meteorological conditions studied in this work are expected to aid the design of future outdoor terrestrial THz communications.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071115
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1116: Ka-Band Marchand Balun with Edge- and
           Broadside-Coupled Hybrid Configuration

    • Authors: Jinna Yan, Hang Liu, Xi Zhu, Kai Men, Kiat Seng Yeo
      First page: 1116
      Abstract: This article presents a novel Ka-band Marchand balun implemented in 0.13-μm SiGe bipolar complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (BiCMOS) process. By combining both edge- and broadside-coupled structures, the new hybrid balun is able to increase the coupling and minimize the balun insertion loss. As compared with conventional edge-coupled or broadside-coupled structures, the proposed balun achieves the lowest insertion loss of 1.02 dB across a wide 1-dB bandwidth from 29.0 GHz to 46.0 GHz, with a core size of 270 μm × 280 μm.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071116
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1117: Day-Ahead Forecasting for Small-Scale
           Photovoltaic Power Based on Similar Day Detection with Selective Weather

    • Authors: Acharya, Wi, Lee
      First page: 1117
      Abstract: As photovoltaic (PV) power plants are an essential component of modern smart grids, the PV generation forecasting of such plants has recently been gaining interest. The forecasting results of PV power often suffer from large errors because of unusual weather conditions. In a learning-based forecasting model, the forecasting accuracy can be enhanced by using carefully selected data for training rather than all the data without any screening. That is, using a training set that only contains information obtained from similar days can help enhance the accuracy of learning-based PV forecasting. This paper proposes a forecasting method for small-scale PV generation. This method is based on long short-term memory; further, it detects similar days considering the different impacts of weather variables on PV power according to the day. This method can address issues caused by unnecessary learning from non-similar historical days. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits better performance than do existing similar day detection methods.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071117
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1118: A Synchronized Multi-Unit Wireless
           Platform for Long-Term Activity Monitoring

    • Authors: Giuseppe Coviello, Gianfranco Avitabile, Antonello Florio
      First page: 1118
      Abstract: One of the objectives of the medicine is to modify patients’ ways of living. In this context, a key role is played by the diagnosis. When dealing with acquisition systems consisting of multiple wireless devices located in different parts of the body, it becomes fundamental to ensure synchronization between the individual units. This task is truly a challenge, so one aims to limit the complexity of the calculation and ensure long periods of operation. In fact, in the absence of synchronization, it is impossible to relate all the measurements coming from the different subsystems on a single time scale for the extraction of complex characteristics. In this paper, we first analyze in detail all the possible causes that lead to have a system that is not synchronous and therefore not usable. Then, we propose a firmware implementation strategy and a simple but effective protocol that guarantees perfect synchrony between the devices while keeping computational complexity low. The employed network has a star topology with a master/slave architecture. In this paper a new approach to the synchronization problem is introduced to guarantee a precise but not necessarily accurate synchronization between the units. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed solution, a platform consisting of two different types of units has been designed and built. In particular, a nine Degrees of Freedom (DoF) Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is used in one unit while a nine-DoF IMU and all circuits for the analysis of the superficial Electromyography (sEMG) are present on the other unit. The system is completed by an Android app that acts as a user interface for starting and stopping the logging operations. The paper experimentally demonstrates that the proposed solution overcomes all the limits set out and it guarantees perfect synchronization of the single measurement, even during long-duration acquisitions. In fact, a less than 30 μ s time mismatch has been registered for a 24 h test, and the possibility to perform complex post-processing on the acquired data with a simple and effective system has been proven.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071118
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1119: Localization of Small Anomalies via the
           Orthogonality Sampling Method from Scattering Parameters

    • Authors: Seongje Chae, Chi Young Ahn, Won-Kwang Park
      First page: 1119
      Abstract: We investigate the application of the orthogonality sampling method (OSM) in microwave imaging for a fast localization of small anomalies from measured scattering parameters. For this purpose, we design an indicator function of OSM defined on a Lebesgue space to test the orthogonality relation between the Hankel function and the scattering parameters. This is based on an application of the Born approximation and the integral equation formula for scattering parameters in the presence of a small anomaly. We then prove that the indicator function consists of a combination of an infinite series of Bessel functions of integer order, an antenna configuration, and material properties. Simulation results with synthetic data are presented to show the feasibility and limitations of designed OSM.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071119
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1120: Intrusion Detection System for the
           Internet of Things Based on Blockchain and Multi-Agent Systems

    • Authors: Chao Liang, Bharanidharan Shanmugam, Sami Azam, Asif Karim, Ashraful Islam, Mazdak Zamani, Sanaz Kavianpour, Norbik Bashah Idris
      First page: 1120
      Abstract: With the popularity of Internet of Things (IoT) technology, the security of the IoT network has become an important issue. Traditional intrusion detection systems have their limitations when applied to the IoT network due to resource constraints and the complexity. This research focusses on the design, implementation and testing of an intrusion detection system which uses a hybrid placement strategy based on a multi-agent system, blockchain and deep learning algorithms. The system consists of the following modules: data collection, data management, analysis, and response. The National security lab–knowledge discovery and data mining NSL-KDD dataset is used to test the system. The results demonstrate the efficiency of deep learning algorithms when detecting attacks from the transport layer. The experiment indicates that deep learning algorithms are suitable for intrusion detection in IoT network environment.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071120
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1121: UAV Autonomous Aerial Combat Maneuver
           Strategy Generation with Observation Error Based on State-Adversarial Deep
           Deterministic Policy Gradient and Inverse Reinforcement Learning

    • Authors: Weiren Kong, Deyun Zhou, Zhen Yang, Yiyang Zhao, Kai Zhang
      First page: 1121
      Abstract: With the development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and artificial intelligence (AI) technology, Intelligent UAV will be widely used in future autonomous aerial combat. Previous researches on autonomous aerial combat within visual range (WVR) have limitations due to simplifying assumptions, limited robustness, and ignoring sensor errors. In this paper, in order to consider the error of the aircraft sensors, we model the aerial combat WVR as a state-adversarial Markov decision process (SA-MDP), which introduce the small adversarial perturbations on state observations and these perturbations do not alter the environment directly, but can mislead the agent into making suboptimal decisions. Meanwhile, we propose a novel autonomous aerial combat maneuver strategy generation algorithm with high-performance and high-robustness based on state-adversarial deep deterministic policy gradient algorithm (SA-DDPG), which add a robustness regularizers related to an upper bound on performance loss at the actor-network. At the same time, a reward shaping method based on maximum entropy (MaxEnt) inverse reinforcement learning algorithm (IRL) is proposed to improve the aerial combat strategy generation algorithm’s efficiency. Finally, the efficiency of the aerial combat strategy generation algorithm and the performance and robustness of the resulting aerial combat strategy is verified by simulation experiments. Our main contributions are three-fold. First, to introduce the observation errors of UAV, we are modeling air combat as SA-MDP. Second, to make the strategy network of air combat maneuver more robust in the presence of observation errors, we introduce regularizers into the policy gradient. Third, to solve the problem that air combat’s reward function is too sparse, we use MaxEnt IRL to design a shaping reward to accelerate the convergence of SA-DDPG.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071121
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1122: Channel-Based Network for Fast Object
           Detection of 3D LiDAR

    • Authors: SoonSub Kwon, TaeHyoung Park
      First page: 1122
      Abstract: Currently, there are various methods of LiDAR-based object detection networks. In this paper, we propose a channel-based object detection network using LiDAR channel information. The proposed method is a 2D convolution network with data alignment processing stages including a single-step detection stage. The network consists of a channel internal convolution network, channel external convolution network and detection network. First, the convolutional network within the channel divides the LiDAR data for each channel to find features within the channel. Second, the convolutional network outside the channel combines the LiDAR data divided for each channel to find features between the channels. Finally, the detection network finds objects with the features obtained. We evaluate our proposed network using our 16-channel lidar and popular KITTI dataset. We can confirm that the proposed method detects objects quickly while maintaining performance when compared with the existing network.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071122
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1123: An Ultra-Low-Power Area-Efficient
           Non-Coherent Binary Phase-Shift Keying Demodulator for Implantable
           Biomedical Microsystems

    • Authors: Milad Ghazi, Mohammad Hossein Maghami, Parviz Amiri, Sotoudeh Hamedi-Hagh
      First page: 1123
      Abstract: A novel non-coherent, low-power, area-efficient binary phase-shift keying demodulator for wireless implantable biomedical microsystems is proposed. The received data and synchronized clock signal are detected using a delayed digitized format of the input signal. The proposed technique does not require any kind of oscillator circuit, and due to the synchronization of all circuit signals, the proposed demodulator can work in a wide range of biomedical data telemetry common frequencies in different process/temperature corners. The presented circuit has been designed and post-layout-simulated in a standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology and occupies 17 × 27 μm2 of active area. Post-layout simulation results indicate that with a 1.8 V power supply, power consumption of the designed circuit is 8.5 μW at a data rate of 20 Mbps. The presented demodulation scheme was also implemented on a proof-of-concept circuit board for verifying its functionality.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071123
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1124: Unlimited Power Division Ratio of
           Microstrip Balanced-to-Unbalanced Gysel-Type Arbitrary Power Divider

    • Authors: Zhu, Wang, Fu, Fang, Liu, Chen
      First page: 1124
      Abstract: A microstrip balanced-to-unbalanced (BTU) Gysel-type arbitrary power divider without the high-impedance transmission-line (TL) section is proposed to eliminate the power division ratio (PDR) limit of the conventional microstrip BTU power dividers. The proposed circuit includes five moderate-impedance TLs having the same characteristic impedance in addition to a grounded resistor. The arbitrary PDR is easily obtained by varying the electrical length of the TLs without changing the characteristic impedances, especially the large PDR, which is difficult to achieve by means of conventional BTU power dividers. When the PDR is ∞, the proposed circuit becomes a balun. The closed-form design equations are derived and discussed. To verify the proposed circuit, three prototypes I, II, and III are designed and fabricated for PDRs of 10 dB, 20 dB, and ∞ dB, respectively. The measured PDRs are in good agreement with the simulations. The measured isolation between the output ports is higher than 31 dB for prototypes I and II. The measured insertion loss of the balun prototype is 0.194 dB. Furthermore, the common-mode suppression of greater than 32 dB and the return loss of higher than 22 dB are obtained for various PDRs.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071124
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1125: Speech Enhancement Based on Fusion of
           Both Magnitude/Phase-Aware Features and Targets

    • Authors: Haitao Lang, Jie Yang
      First page: 1125
      Abstract: Recently, supervised learning methods have shown promising performance, especially deep neural network-based (DNN) methods, in the application of single-channel speech enhancement. Generally, those approaches extract the acoustic features directly from the noisy speech to train a magnitude-aware target. In this paper, we propose to extract the acoustic features not only from the noisy speech but also from the pre-estimated speech, noise and phase separately, then fuse them into a new complementary feature for the purpose of obtaining more discriminative acoustic representation. In addition, on the basis of learning a magnitude-aware target, we also utilize the fusion feature to learn a phase-aware target, thereby further improving the accuracy of the recovered speech. We conduct extensive experiments, including performance comparison with some typical existing methods, generalization ability evaluation on unseen noise, ablation study, and subjective test by human listener, to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results prove that the proposed method has the ability to improve the quality and intelligibility of the reconstructed speech.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071125
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1126: Reduction of Spurious Signal Upconversion
           in Frequency Multipliers

    • Authors: Zenon Szczepaniak, Tomasz Rogala
      First page: 1126
      Abstract: Usually many applications of radar transceivers and heterodyne frequency synthesizers assume a spurious signal power level below −60 dBc. In the case of modern synthesizers using direct digital synthesis (DDS) systems, the number of emerging spurious signal frequencies is very large, and spectral purity within −60 dBc can only be obtained in the relatively narrow tuning band of the DDS unit. For the purposes of widening this useful frequency range, the frequency multiplying operation is applied commonly. Then, during the process of frequency multiplication of the baseband signal containing inband spurious signals, the effect of the upconversion of spurious signals occurs. The paper contains an analysis of the undesirable effects of the conversion of spurious signal frequencies accompanying the process of frequency multiplication. A method of reducing the level of upconverted spurious signals is proposed. The numerical calculations and measurement results are provided. For the case of a frequency multiplier with a multiplying factor equal to N, the power ratio between the desired output signal and upconverted spurious signal drops by an additional 1/N2. It has been found that the application of the presented method during the design process of the frequency multiplier allows this ratio to be improved by 6 dB.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071126
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1127: Augmented-Reality-Based 3D Emotional
           Messenger for Dynamic User Communication with Smart Devices

    • Authors: Jongin Choe, Taemin Lee, Sanghyun Seo
      First page: 1127
      Abstract: With the development of Internet technologies, chat environments have migrated from PCs to mobile devices. Conversations have moved from phone calls and text messages to mobile messaging services or “messengers,” which has led to a significant surge in the use of mobile messengers such as Line and WhatsApp. However, because these messengers mainly use text as the communication medium, they have the inherent disadvantage of not effectively representing the user’s nonverbal expressions. In this context, we propose a new emotional communication messenger that improves upon the limitations of existing static expressions in current messenger applications. We develop a chat messenger based on augmented reality (AR) technology using smartglasses, which are a type of a wearable device. To this end, we select a server model that is suitable for AR, and we apply an effective emotional expression method based on 16 different basic emotions classified as per Russell’s model. In our app, these emotions can be expressed via emojis, animations, particle effects, and sound clips. Finally, we verify the efficacy of our messenger by conducting a user study to compare it with current 2D-based messenger services. Our messenger service can serve as a prototype for future AR-based messenger apps.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071127
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1128: A Hybrid Cryptography Scheme for NILM
           Data Security

    • Authors: Ruijue Feng, Zhidong Wang, Zhifeng Li, Haixia Ma, Ruiyuan Chen, Zhengbin Pu, Ziqiu Chen, Xianyu Zeng
      First page: 1128
      Abstract: Using fine-grained data analysis, non-invasive load monitoring (NILM) can reveal the detail of electricity customers’ habits, which is helpful in the improvement of refined management and better user experience. However, the possibility of electricity customers’ privacy leak is also gradually increasing, and the security of NILM data has become a priority problem to be solved. To protect the privacy disclosure of NILM data, this paper analyzes the NILM privacy leak problems and ways in which information leak occurs faced by NILM data. On the basis of the comprehensive survey of cryptographic algorithms to choose the most appropriate data security method for NILM, a hybrid cryptography scheme was proposed to protect the data security. In the scheme, symmetric algorithm AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) was used to encrypt data for high efficiency, and asymmetric algorithm RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) was used to encrypt AES key for identity authentication. The classical algorithm HMAC-SHA1 (Hash Message Authentication Codes-Secure Hash Algorithm 1) was further developed to guarantee the integrity of data. By transplanting the algorithm into STM32 MCU (STMicroelectronics 32 bit Micro Controller Unit) for performance test and using Visual studio 2017 + QT tools to develop the test interface, one optimal operation mode was selected for the scheme. At the same time, the effectiveness of the scheme was verified, and the scheme computing cost depended on the efficiency of encryption and decryption, or signature and verification of the RSA algorithm.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9071128
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1029: Challenges and Applications of Emerging
           Nonvolatile Memory Devices

    • Authors: Writam Banerjee
      First page: 1029
      Abstract: Emerging nonvolatile memory (eNVM) devices are pushing the limits of emerging applications beyond the scope of silicon-based complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS). Among several alternatives, phase change memory, spin-transfer torque random access memory, and resistive random-access memory (RRAM) are major emerging technologies. This review explains all varieties of prototype and eNVM devices, their challenges, and their applications. A performance comparison shows that it is difficult to achieve a “universal memory” which can fulfill all requirements. Compared to other emerging alternative devices, RRAM technology is showing promise with its highly scalable, cost-effective, simple two-terminal structure, low-voltage and ultra-low-power operation capabilities, high-speed switching with high-endurance, long retention, and the possibility of three-dimensional integration for high-density applications. More precisely, this review explains the journey and device engineering of RRAM with various architectures. The challenges in different prototype and eNVM devices is disused with the conventional and novel application areas. Compare to other technologies, RRAM is the most promising approach which can be applicable as high-density memory, storage class memory, neuromorphic computing, and also in hardware security. In the post-CMOS era, a more efficient, intelligent, and secure computing system is possible to design with the help of eNVM devices.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061029
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1030: State-of-the-Art Artificial Intelligence
           Techniques for Distributed Smart Grids: A Review

    • Authors: Syed Saqib Ali, Bong Jun Choi
      First page: 1030
      Abstract: The power system worldwide is going through a revolutionary transformation due to the integration with various distributed components, including advanced metering infrastructure, communication infrastructure, distributed energy resources, and electric vehicles, to improve the reliability, energy efficiency, management, and security of the future power system. These components are becoming more tightly integrated with IoT. They are expected to generate a vast amount of data to support various applications in the smart grid, such as distributed energy management, generation forecasting, grid health monitoring, fault detection, home energy management, etc. With these new components and information, artificial intelligence techniques can be applied to automate and further improve the performance of the smart grid. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art artificial intelligence techniques to support various applications in a distributed smart grid. In particular, we discuss how artificial techniques are applied to support the integration of renewable energy resources, the integration of energy storage systems, demand response, management of the grid and home energy, and security. As the smart grid involves various actors, such as energy produces, markets, and consumers, we also discuss how artificial intelligence and market liberalization can potentially help to increase the overall social welfare of the grid. Finally, we provide further research challenges for large-scale integration and orchestration of automated distributed devices to realize a truly smart grid.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061030
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1031: A Novel High Gain Wideband MIMO Antenna
           for 5G Millimeter Wave Applications

    • Authors: Daniyal Ali Sehrai, Mujeeb Abdullah, Ahsan Altaf, Saad Hassan Kiani, Fazal Muhammad, Muhammad Tufail, Muhammad Irfan, Adam Glowacz, Saifur Rahman
      First page: 1031
      Abstract: A compact tree shape planar quad element Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna bearing a wide bandwidth for 5G communication operating in the millimeter-wave spectrum is proposed. The radiating element of the proposed design contains four different arcs to achieve the wide bandwidth response. Each radiating element is backed by a 1.57 mm thicker Rogers-5880 substrate material, having a loss tangent and relative dielectric constant of 0.0009 and 2.2, respectively. The measured impedance bandwidth of the proposed quad element MIMO antenna system based on 10 dB criterion is from 23 GHz to 40 GHz with a port isolation of greater than 20 dB. The measured radiation patterns are presented at 28 GHz, 33 GHz and 38 GHz with a maximum total gain of 10.58, 8.87 and 11.45 dB, respectively. The high gain of the proposed antenna further helps to overcome the atmospheric attenuations faced by the higher frequencies. In addition, the measured total efficiency of the proposed MIMO antenna is observed above 70% for the millimeter wave frequencies. Furthermore, the MIMO key performance metrics such as Mean Effective Gain (MEG) and Envelope Correlation Coefficient (ECC) are analyzed and found to conform to the required standard of MEG < 3 dB and ECC < 0.5. A prototype of the proposed quad element MIMO antenna system is fabricated and measured. The experimental results validate the simulation design process conducted with Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061031
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1032: An Area-Efficient and Programmable 4 ×
           25-to-28.9 Gb/s Optical Receiver with DCOC in 0.13 µm SiGe BiCMOS

    • Authors: Haojie Xu, Jiarui Liu, Zhiyu Wang, Min Zhou, Jiongjiong Mo, Faxin Yu
      First page: 1032
      Abstract: In this paper, we present an area-efficient noise-optimized programmable 4 × 25-to-28.9 Gb/s optical receiver. Both high- and low-power modes are available for the receiver to meet different requirements. Emitter degeneration provides the input transimpedance amplifier (TIA) stage with improved stability. The noise of the TIA with emitter degeneration is analyzed, and an improved noise optimization method for the TIA is proposed. A sink current source with emitter degeneration in a DC offset cancellation (DCOC) loop reduces the noise introduced by the DCOC circuit. Moreover, with parasitic capacitor utilization in the DCOC loop and capacitive emitter degeneration in the variable-gain amplifier (VGA) stage, the chip area is minimized. Fabricated in a 0.13 µm SiGe BiCMOS technology, the receiver achieved a small area of 0.54 mm2 per lane. The measured bit error rate (BER) is 10−12 with input signal varying from 110 μApp to 1150 μApp. The one-lane power dissipation values in the low-power and high-power modes are 84.97 mW and 123.75 mW, respectively.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061032
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1033: Exploring Malware Behavior of Webpages
           Using Machine Learning Technique: An Empirical Study

    • Authors: Alhanoof Faiz Alwaghid, Nurul I. Sarkar
      First page: 1033
      Abstract: Malware is one of the most common security threats experienced by a user when browsing webpages. A good understanding of the features of webpages (e.g., internet protocol, port, URL, Google index, and page rank) is required to analyze and mitigate the behavior of malware in webpages. This main objective of this paper is to analyze the key features of webpages and to mitigate the behavior of malware in webpages. To this end, we conducted an empirical study to identify the features that are most vulnerable to malware attacks and its results are reported. To improve the feature selection accuracy, a machine learning technique called bagging is employed using the Weka program. To analyze these behaviors, phishing and botnet data were obtained from the University of California Irvine machine learning repository. We validate our research findings by applying honeypot infrastructure using the Modern Honeypot Network (MHN) setup in a Linode Server. As the data suffer from high variance in terms of the type of data in each row, bagging is chosen because it can classify binary classes, date classes, missing values, nominal classes, numeric classes, unary classes and empty classes. As a base classifier of bagging, random tree was applied because it can handle similar types of data such as bagging, but better than other classifiers because it is faster and more accurate. Random tree had 88.22% test accuracy with the lowest run time (0.2 sec) and a receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.946. Results show that all features in the botnet dataset are equally important to identify the malicious behavior, as all scored more than 97%, with the exception of TCP and UDP. The accuracy of phishing and botnet datasets is more than 89% on average in both cross validation and test analysis. Recommendations are made for the best practice that can assist in future malware identification.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061033
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1034: Distance Special Education Delivery by
           Social Robots

    • Authors: Chris Lytridis, Christos Bazinas, George Sidiropoulos, George A. Papakostas, Vassilis G. Kaburlasos, Vasiliki-Aliki Nikopoulou, Vasiliki Holeva, Athanasios Evangeliou
      First page: 1034
      Abstract: The outbreak of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) has resulted in a significant disruption of almost all aspects of everyday life. Several governments around the world have adopted emergency actions to reduce spreading of the virus, which included suspension of non-essential activities and the implementation of social distancing practices. In our case, governmental measures have resulted in the suspension of our experimental protocol for testing the effectiveness of robot-based treatment of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) compared to conventional human (therapist)-based treatment. These circumstances led to an investigation of the potential of tele-consulting. This paper describes alternatives to implement synchronous and asynchronous therapeutic sessions for children already participating in the protocol, in order to reduce the negative effects of the strict cessation of the in-person sessions. The usefulness of our approach was assessed by recording the children’s and the parent’s satisfaction via questionnaires. In addition, we compare satisfaction between the synchronous and asynchronous sessions. The results show that the approach has been very satisfactory and useful for both children and parents, and that this was especially the case for the robot-based material.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061034
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1035: Comparative Performance Evaluation of
           Modern Heterogeneous High-Performance Computing Systems CPUs

    • Authors: Aleksei Sorokin, Sergey Malkovsky, Georgiy Tsoy, Alexander Zatsarinnyy, Konstantin Volovich
      First page: 1035
      Abstract: The study presents a comparison of computing systems based on IBM POWER8, IBM POWER9, and Intel Xeon Platinum 8160 processors running parallel applications. Memory subsystem bandwidth was studied, parallel programming technologies were compared, and the operating modes and capabilities of simultaneous multithreading technology were analyzed. Performance analysis for the studied computing systems running parallel applications based on the OpenMP and MPI technologies was carried out by using the NAS Parallel Benchmarks. An assessment of the results obtained during experimental calculations led to the conclusion that IBM POWER8 and Intel Xeon Platinum 8160 systems have almost the same maximum memory bandwidth, but require a different number of threads for efficient utilization. The IBM POWER9 system has the highest maximum bandwidth, which can be attributed to the large number of memory channels per socket. Based on the results of numerical experiments, recommendations are given on how the hardware of a similar grade can be utilized to solve various scientific problems, including recommendations on optimal processor architecture choice for leveraging the operation of high-performance hybrid computing platforms.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061035
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1036: Design and Evaluation of Cell Interaction
           Based Vedic Multiplier Using Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata

    • Authors: Nuriddin Safoev, Jun-Cheol Jeon
      First page: 1036
      Abstract: A multiplier is one of the main units for digital signal processing and communication systems. In this paper, a high speed and low complexity multiplier is designed on the basis of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA), which is considered promising nanotechnology. We focus on Vedic multiplier architectures according to Vedic mathematics from ancient Indian sculptures. In fact, an adder is an important block in the design of almost all types of multipliers and a ripple carry adder is used to design simple multiplier implementations. However, a high-speed multi-bit multiplier requires high-speed adder owing to carry propagation. Cell-interaction-based QCA adders have better improvements over conventional majority-gate-based adders. Therefore, a two-bit Vedic multiplier is proposed in QCA and it is used to implement a four-bit form of the multiplier. The proposed architecture has a lower cell count and area compared to other existing structures. Moreover, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed design is sustainable and can be used to realize complex circuit designs for QCA communication networks.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061036
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1037: Study of NVIS Channel for USN Protocol
           Definition in Antarctica

    • Authors: Josep M. Maso, Joaquim Porte, Joan L. Pijoan, David Badia
      First page: 1037
      Abstract: Every year, the number of ubiquitous sensor networks (USN) is increasing and the need for remote USN communications is emerging in some scenarios. As an alternative to satellite communications, more interests are focused on high frequencies (HF) communications as a low-cost option to reach links of more than 250 km without a line of sight. The HF standards are designed for generic communication channels being not robust for near vertical incidence skywave (NVIS) USN. In this article, we propose a new protocol for USN in remote places based on NVIS communications. For that purpose, we study the main characteristics of the NVIS channel with the presence of groundwaves, particularly in Antarctica. We analyze the availability of the channel, the height of the layers, the delay spread, and the Doppler spread. On the basis of the results obtained, we propose two protocols based on an OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) modulation depending on the presence of the groundwave at the receiver. Finally, we make a simulation of the two OFDM configurations and we compare it with real tested standard modulations. The results show a better performance of the new protocol compared to the current HF standards.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061037
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1038: Boosted Trees Algorithm as Reliable
           Spectrum Sensing Scheme in the Presence of Malicious Users

    • Authors: Noor Gul, Muhammad Sajjad Khan, Su Min Kim, Junsu Kim, Atif Elahi, Zafar Khalil
      First page: 1038
      Abstract: Cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) has the ability to accurately identify the activities of the primary users (PUs). As the secondary users’ (SUs) sensing performance is disturbed in the fading and shadowing environment, therefore the CSS is a suitable choice to achieve better sensing results compared to individual sensing. One of the problems in the CSS occurs due to the participation of malicious users (MUs) that report false sensing data to the fusion center (FC) to misguide the FC’s decision about the PUs’ activity. Out of the different categories of MUs, Always Yes (AY), Always No (AN), Always Opposite (AO) and Random Opposite (RO) are of high interest these days in the literature. Recently, high sensing performance for the CSS can be achieved using machine learning techniques. In this paper, boosted trees algorithm (BTA) has been proposed for obtaining reliable identification of the PU channel, where the SUs can access the PU channel opportunistically with minimum disturbances to the licensee. The proposed BTA mitigates the spectrum sensing data falsification (SSDF) effects of the AY, AN, AO and RO categories of the MUs. BTA is an ensemble method for solving spectrum sensing problems using different classifiers. It boosts the performance of some weak classifiers in the combination by giving higher weights to the weak classifiers’ sensing decisions. Simulation results verify the performance improvement by the proposed algorithm compared to the existing techniques such as genetic algorithm soft decision fusion (GASDF), particle swarm optimization soft decision fusion (PSOSDF), maximum gain combination soft decision fusion (MGCSDF) and count hard decision fusion (CHDF). The experimental setup is conducted at different levels of the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), total number of cooperative users and sensing samples that show minimum error probability results for the proposed scheme.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061038
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1039: A Context-Aware IoT and
           Deep-Learning-Based Smart Classroom for Controlling Demand and Supply of
           Power Load

    • Authors: Prabesh Paudel, Sangkyoon Kim, Soonyoung Park, Kyoung-Ho Choi
      First page: 1039
      Abstract: With the demand for clean energy increasing, novel research is presented in this paper on providing sustainable, clean energy for a university campus. The Internet of Things (IoT) is now a leading factor in saving energy. With added deep learning for action recognition, IoT sensors implemented in real-time appliances monitor and control the extra usage of energy in buildings. This gives an extra edge on digitizing energy usage and, ultimately, reducing the power load in the electric grid. Here, we present a novel proposal through context-aware architecture for energy saving in classrooms, combining Internet of Things (IoT) sensors and video action recognition. Using this method, we can save a significant amount of energy usage in buildings.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061039
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1040: FlexAlign: An Accurate and Fast Algorithm
           for Movie Alignment in Cryo-Electron Microscopy

    • Authors: David Střelák, Jiří Filipovič, Amaya Jiménez-Moreno, Jose María Carazo, Carlos Óscar S. Sorzano
      First page: 1040
      Abstract: Cryogenic Electron Microscopy (Cryo-EM) has been established as one of the key players in Structural Biology. It can reconstruct a 3D model of the sample at the near-atomic resolution, which led to a Method of the year award by Nature, and the Nobel Prize in 2017. With the growing number of facilities, faster microscopes, and new imaging techniques, new algorithms are needed to process the so-called movies data produced by the microscopes in real-time, while preserving a high resolution and maximum of additional information. In this article, we present a new algorithm used for movie alignment, called FlexAlign. FlexAlign is able to correctly compensate for the shift produced during the movie acquisition on-the-fly, using the current generation of hardware. The algorithm performs a global and elastic local registration of the movie frames using Cross-Correlation and B-spline interpolation for high precision. We show that our execution time is compatible with real-time correction and that we preserve the high-resolution information up to high frequency.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061040
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1041: Nested High Order Sliding Mode Controller
           with Back-EMF Sliding Mode Observer for a Brushless Direct Current Motor

    • Authors: Alma Y. Alanis, Gustavo Munoz-Gomez, Jorge Rivera
      First page: 1041
      Abstract: This work presents a nested super-twisting second-order sliding mode speed controller for a brushless direct current motor with a high order sliding mode observer used for back electromotive force (back-EMF) estimation. Due to the trapezoidal nature of the back-EMF, a modified Park transformation is used in order to achieve proper field orientation. Such transformation requires information from the back-EMF that is not accessible. A second-order sliding mode observer is used to estimate the back electromotive forces needed in the modified transformation. Sliding mode control is known to be robust to matched uncertain disturbances and parametric variations but it is prone to unmatched perturbations that affect the performance of the system. A nested scheme is used to improve the response of the controller in presence of unmatched disturbances. Simulations performed under similar conditions to real-time experimentation show a good regulation of the rotor speed in terms of transient and steady-state responses along with a reduced torque ripple.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061041
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1042: A 920-MHz Dual-Mode Receiver with Energy
           Harvesting for UHF RFID Tag and IoT

    • Authors: Peiqing Han, Zhaofeng Zhang, Yajun Xia, Niansong Mei
      First page: 1042
      Abstract: A low-power dual-mode receiver is presented for ultra-high-frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. The reconfigurable architecture of the tag is proposed to be compatible with low-power and high-sensitivity operating modes. The read range of RFID system and the lifetime of the tag are increased by photovoltaic, thermoelectric and RF energy-harvesting topology. The receiver is implemented in a 0.18-μm standard CMOS process and occupies an active area of 0.65 mm × 0.7 mm. For low-power mode, the tag is powered by the rectifier and the sensitivity is −18 dBm. For high-sensitivity mode, the maximum PCE of the fully on-chip energy harvester is 46.5% with over 1-μW output power and the sensitivity is −40 dBm with 880 nW power consumption under the supply voltage of 0.8 V.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061042
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1043: Optimal Power Flow Incorporating FACTS
           Devices and Stochastic Wind Power Generation using Krill Herd Algorithm

    • Authors: Abdollahi, Ghadimi, Miveh, Mohammadi, Jurado
      First page: 1043
      Abstract: This paper deals with investigating the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) solution of power systems considering Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices and wind power generation under uncertainty. The Krill Herd Algorithm (KHA), as a new meta-heuristic approach, is employed to cope with the OPF problem of power systems, incorporating FACTS devices and stochastic wind power generation. The wind power uncertainty is included in the optimization problem using Weibull probability density function modeling to determine the optimal values of decision variables. Various objective functions, including minimization of fuel cost, active power losses across transmission lines, emission, and Combined Economic and Environmental Costs (CEEC), are separately formulated to solve the OPF considering FACTS devices and stochastic wind power generation. The effectiveness of the KHA approach is investigated on modified IEEE-30 bus and IEEE-57 bus test systems and compared with other conventional methods available in the literature.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061043
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1044: A Wireless Body Sensor Network for
           Clinical Assessment of the Flexion-Relaxation Phenomenon

    • Authors: Michele Paoletti, Alberto Belli, Lorenzo Palma, Massimo Vallasciani, Paola Pierleoni
      First page: 1044
      Abstract: An accurate clinical assessment of the flexion-relaxation phenomenon on back muscles requires objective tools for the analysis of surface electromyography signals correlated with the real movement performed by the subject during the flexion-relaxation test. This paper deepens the evaluation of the flexion-relaxation phenomenon using a wireless body sensor network consisting of sEMG sensors in association with a wearable device that integrates accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer. The raw data collected from the sensors during the flexion relaxation test are processed by an algorithm able to identify the phases of which the test is composed, provide an evaluation of the myoelectric activity and automatically detect the phenomenon presence/absence. The developed algorithm was used to process the data collected in an acquisition campaign conducted to evaluate the flexion-relaxation phenomenon on back muscles of subjects with and without Low Back Pain. The results have shown that the proposed method is significant for myoelectric silence detection and for clinical assessment of electromyography activity patterns.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061044
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1045: Comprehensive Development of Dynamic
           Wireless Power Transfer System for Electric Vehicle

    • Authors: Manuele Bertoluzzo, Mauro Di Monaco, Giuseppe Buja, Giuseppe Tomasso, Antonino Genovese
      First page: 1045
      Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive development of a dynamic wireless power transfer (WPT) system for the charge of the battery onboard an electric vehicle (EV). The development starts from the assessment of the electrical specifications of the dynamic WPT system, goes through the design of its power stages, and concludes with its validation. In the design step, the structure of the coupling set, layout of the coils, configuration of the conversion stages and topology of the compensation networks are illustrated, as well as electrical sizing of the power stage components. In the validation step, the setup of a dynamic WPT system is described, and the results of experimental tests carried out with the pickup moving along the track are given.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061045
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1046: Efficient Implementation of Homomorphic
           and Fuzzy Transforms in Random-Projection Encryption Frameworks for
           Cancellable Face Recognition

    • Authors: Abeer D. Algarni, Ghada M. El Banby, Naglaa F. Soliman, Fathi E. Abd El-Samie, Abdullah M. Iliyasu
      First page: 1046
      Abstract: To circumvent problems associated with dependence on traditional security systems on passwords, Personal Identification Numbers (PINs) and tokens, modern security systems adopt biometric traits that are inimitable to each individual for identification and verification. This study presents two different frameworks for secure person identification using cancellable face recognition (CFR) schemes. Exploiting its ability to guarantee irrevocability and rich diversity, both frameworks utilise Random Projection (RP) to encrypt the biometric traits. In the first framework, a hybrid structure combining Intuitionistic Fuzzy Logic (IFL) with RP is used to accomplish full distortion and encryption of the original biometric traits to be saved in the database, which helps to prevent unauthorised access of the biometric data. The framework involves transformation of spatial-domain greyscale pixel information to a fuzzy domain where the original biometric images are disfigured and further distorted via random projections that generate the final cancellable traits. In the second framework, cancellable biometric traits are similarly generated via homomorphic transforms that use random projections to encrypt the reflectance components of the biometric traits. Here, the use of reflectance properties is motivated by its ability to retain most image details, while the guarantee of the non-invertibility of the cancellable biometric traits supports the rationale behind our utilisation of another RP stage in both frameworks, since independent outcomes of both the IFL stage and the reflectance component of the homomorphic transform are not enough to recover the original biometric trait. Our CFR schemes are validated on different datasets that exhibit properties expected in actual application settings such as varying backgrounds, lightings, and motion. Outcomes in terms standard metrics, including structural similarity index metric (SSIM) and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC), suggest the efficacy of our proposed schemes across many applications that require person identification and verification.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061046
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1047: Near-Field Warping Sampling Scheme for
           Broad-Side Antenna Characterization

    • Authors: Maria Antonia Maisto, Rocco Pierri, Raffaele Solimene
      First page: 1047
      Abstract: In this paper the problem of sampling the field radiated by a planar source observed over a finite planar aperture located in the near-field is addressed. The problem is cast as the determination of the spatial measurement positions which allow us to discretize the radiation problem so that the singular values of the radiation operator are well-approximated. More in detail, thanks to a suitably warping transformation of the observation variables, the kernel function of the relevant operator is approximated by a band-limited function and hence the sampling theorem applied to achieved discretization. It results in the sampling points having to be non-linearity arranged across the measurement aperture and their number can be considerably lowered as compared to more standard sampling approach. It is shown that the proposed sampling scheme works well for measurement apertures that are not too large as compared to the source’s size. As a consequence, the method appears better suited for broad-side large antenna whose radiated field is mainly concentrated in front of the antenna. A numerical analysis is included to check the theoretical findings and to study the trade-off between the field accuracy representation (over the measurement aperture) and the truncation error in the estimated far-field radiation pattern.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061047
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1048: Woven Fabric Pattern Recognition and
           Classification Based on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

    • Authors: Muhammad Ather Iqbal Hussain, Babar Khan, Zhijie Wang, Shenyi Ding
      First page: 1048
      Abstract: The weave pattern (texture) of woven fabric is considered to be an important factor of the design and production of high-quality fabric. Traditionally, the recognition of woven fabric has a lot of challenges due to its manual visual inspection. Moreover, the approaches based on early machine learning algorithms directly depend on handcrafted features, which are time-consuming and error-prone processes. Hence, an automated system is needed for classification of woven fabric to improve productivity. In this paper, we propose a deep learning model based on data augmentation and transfer learning approach for the classification and recognition of woven fabrics. The model uses the residual network (ResNet), where the fabric texture features are extracted and classified automatically in an end-to-end fashion. We evaluated the results of our model using evaluation metrics such as accuracy, balanced accuracy, and F1-score. The experimental results show that the proposed model is robust and achieves state-of-the-art accuracy even when the physical properties of the fabric are changed. We compared our results with other baseline approaches and a pretrained VGGNet deep learning model which showed that the proposed method achieved higher accuracy when rotational orientations in fabric and proper lighting effects were considered.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061048
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1049: On-Chip Terahertz Detector Designed with
           Inset-Feed Rectangular Patch Antenna and Catadioptric Lens

    • Authors: Zhao, Mao, Guo, Xie, T. H. Tee
      First page: 1049
      Abstract: This study proposes an on-chip terahertz (THz) detector designed with on-chip inset-feed rectangular patch antenna and catadioptric lens. The detector incorporates a dual antenna and dual NMOSFET structure. Radiation efficiency of the antenna reached 89.4% with 6.89 dB gain by optimizing the antenna inset-feed and micro-strip line sizes. Simulated impedance was 85.55 − j19.81 Ω, and the impedance of the antenna with the ZEONEX horn-like catadioptric lens was 117.03 − j20.28 Ω. Maximum analyzed gain of two on-chip antennas with catadioptric lens was 17.14 dB resonating at 267 GHz. Maximum experimental gain of two on-chip patch antennas was 4.5 dB at 260 GHz, increasing to 10.67 dB at 250 GHz with the catadioptric lens. The proposed on-chip rectangular inset-feed patch antenna has a simple structure, compatible with CMOS processing and easily implemented. The horn-like catadioptric lens was integrated into the front end of the detector chip and hence is easily molded and manufactured, and it effectively reduced terahertz power absorption by the chip substrate. This greatly improved the detector responsivity and provided very high gain. Corresponding detector voltage responsivity with and without the lens was 95.67 kV/W with NEP = 12.8 pW/Hz0.5 at 250 GHz, and 19.2 kV/W with NEP = 67.2 pW/Hz0.5 at 260 GHz, respectively.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061049
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1050: Hierarchical Multi-Blockchain
           Architecture for Scalable Internet of Things Environment

    • Authors: Yustus Eko Oktian, Sang-Gon Lee, Hoon Jae Lee
      First page: 1050
      Abstract: Many researchers challenge the possibility of using blockchain and smart contracts to disrupt the Internet of Things (IoT) architecture because of their security and decentralization guarantees. However, the state-of-the-art blockchain architecture is not scalable enough to satisfy the requirements of massive data traffics in the IoT environment. The main reason for this issue is one needs to choose the consensus trade-off between either coping with a high throughput or a high number of nodes. Consequently, this issue prevents the applicability of blockchain for IoT use cases. In this paper, we propose a scalable two-tiered hierarchical blockchain architecture for IoT. The first tier is a Core Engine, which is based on a Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT) consensus to cope with a high throughput, that supervises the underlying subordinate engines (sub-engines) as its second tier. This second tier comprises of the Payment, Compute, and Storage Engine, respectively. We can deploy multiple instances of these sub-engines as many as we need and as local as possible near to the IoT domains, where IoT devices reside, to cope with a high number of nodes. Furthermore, to further extend the scalability of the proposed architecture, we also provide additional scalability features on the Core Engine such as request aggregation, request prioritization, as well as sub-engine parallelism. We implement all of our engines and expose them to IoT applications through the Engine APIs. With these APIs, developers can build and run IoT applications in our architecture. Our evaluation results show that our proposed features on the Core Engine can indeed enhance the overall performance of our architecture. Moreover, based on our proof-of-concept IoT car rental application, we also show that the interoperability between sub-engines through the Core Engine is possible, even when the particular sub-engine is under sub-engine parallelism.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061050
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1051: Optimization Considerations for Short
           Channel Poly-Si 1T-DRAM

    • Authors: Songyi Yoo, Woo-Kyung Sun, Hyungsoon Shin
      First page: 1051
      Abstract: Capacitorless one-transistor dynamic random-access memory cells that use a polysilicon body (poly-Si 1T-DRAM) have been studied to overcome the scaling issues of conventional one-transistor one-capacitor dynamic random-access memory (1T-1C DRAM). Generally, when the gate length of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structure metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is reduced, its body thickness is reduced in order to suppress the short-channel effects (SCEs). TCAD device simulations were used to investigate the transient performance differences between thin and thick-body poly-Si DRAMs to determine whether reduced body thickness is also appropriate for those devices. Analysis of the simulation results revealed that operating bias conditions are as important as body thickness in 1T-DRAM operation. Since a thick-body device has more trapped hole charge in its grain boundary (GB) than a thin-body device in both the “0” and “1” states, the transient performance of a thick-body device is better than a thin-body device regardless of the Write”1” drain voltage. We also determined that the SCEs in the memory cells can be improved by lowering the Write”1” drain voltage. We conclude that an optimization method for the body thickness and voltage conditions that considers both the cell’s SCEs and its transient performance is necessary for its development and application.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061051
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1052: Verification Plan Using Neural Algorithm
           Blockchain Smart Contract for Secure P2P Real Estate Transactions

    • Authors: Huh, Kim
      First page: 1052
      Abstract: Blockchain and artificial intelligence are the most important keywords in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. This study sought to apply these core technologies to future validated algorithms that make real estate transactions secure to come up with an encryption algorithm. In addition, the real estate transaction is being paid a large fee by the middlemen, the real estate agent. Furthermore and recently, P2P (peer-to-peer) real estate exchange is used a lot. However, these P2P real estate exchanges also have problems that have not been identified by each other between landlords and tenants. In particular, a research model was established to compare and verify the PBFT (practical Byzantine fault tolerance) algorithm of Hyperledger through the blockchain agreement process. Subsequently, a process for verifying the real estate contract was established. Through VM (virtual machine) research methodology for the verification of blockchain real estate contracts, ElGamal communication was provided to prove quantum cryptography. We also automated lightweight encryption test verification tools and blockchain smart contract VM (virtual machine) models using artificial intelligence. Verification was performed through a reservation server and a monitoring server using a test verification tool for network-based lightweight security IoT (Internet of things) GW (gateway). It presents important ECP (elastic curve program) and elastic curve Qu-Vanstone (ECQV) models among the main functions of the blockchain smart contract, and it is equipped with quantum-based encryption algorithm. In addition, the necessary UML (unified modeling language) source code and performance data were calculated according to the actual experimental environment, and the average value for blockchain for administrative or government authorized assets—4000 TPS (transaction per second) were tested. In the future, we want to use this technology for real estate transactions.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061052
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1053: Design of a High Voltage Pulse Generator
           with Large Width Adjusting Range for Tumor Treatment

    • Authors: Xin Rao, Xiaodong Chen, Jun Zhou, Bo Zhang, Yasir Alfadhl
      First page: 1053
      Abstract: The unique biological effects stimulated by short pulsed electric field have many applications in tumor treatment, such as irreversible electroporation, electrochemotherapy, gene transfection and immune therapy. These biological effects require high voltage pulses with different pulse width in the range from nanoseconds to hundreds of microseconds. To fulfill this requirement, a compact high voltage pulse generator has been designed based on a switchable capacitor array and a SiC MOSFET switching array. The proposed pulse generator has one output channel with an adjustable pulse width from 100 ns to 100 µs, an amplitude range from 0 kV to 2 kV, a repetition rate less than 1.2 kHz and a voltage drop less than 5%. The mechanism of the stacked switches circuit was investigated, in connection with a switchable capacitor array. The introduction of a switchable capacitor array extends the pulse width from nanosecond scale and microsecond scale compared with other similar design methods. The pulse generator has been designed in simulation and implemented in experiment. The developed pulse generator provides a convenient and economical tool for the further studies of the unique biological effects stimulated by different pulsed electric fields for tumor treatment.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061053
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1054: Outage Performance of Power Beacon-Aided
           Multi-Hop Cooperative Cognitive Radio Protocol Under Constraint of
           Interference and Hardware Noises

    • Authors: Pham Minh Nam, Tran Trung Duy, Phan Van Ca, Pham Ngoc Son, Ngo Hoang An
      First page: 1054
      Abstract: In this paper, we evaluate end-to-end outage probability of a multi-hop decode-and-forward relaying protocol in underlay cognitive radio network. In the proposed protocol, named COOP, secondary nodes including source and relays have to harvest radio-frequency energy from multiple secondary power beacons, and adjust their transmit power, follows a pre-determined interference threshold given by multiple primary users. To enhance the outage performance for the secondary network under an joint constraint of the interference threshold, Rayleigh fading channel and hardware noises caused by imperfect transceiver hardware, the secondary relays on the source-destination path cooperate to forward the source data to the destination. Particularly, they attempt to receive the source data from their previous nodes, and forward it to the secondary destination if requested. Moreover, whenever the destination cannot receive the source data successfully, a successful relay that has the shortest distance to the destination is selected for retransmission. Due to usage of the cooperative transmission, the proposed COOP protocol obtains better performance, as compared with the corresponding multi-hop relaying one (denoted DIRECT) which only uses direct transmission at each hop. We evaluate the outage performance of COOP and DIRECT via both simulation and theory. The obtained results present a significant performance enhancement, as comparing COOP with DIRECT.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061054
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1055: Indoor Localization System Based on
           Bluetooth Low Energy for Museum Applications

    • Authors: Romeo Giuliano, Gian Carlo Cardarilli, Carlo Cesarini, Luca Di Nunzio, Francesca Fallucchi, Rocco Fazzolari, Franco Mazzenga, Marco Re, Alessandro Vizzarri
      First page: 1055
      Abstract: In the last few years, indoor localization has attracted researchers and commercial developers. Indeed, the availability of systems, techniques and algorithms for localization allows the improvement of existing communication applications and services by adding position information. Some examples can be found in the managing of people and/or robots for internal logistics in very large warehouses (e.g., Amazon warehouses, etc.). In this paper, we study and develop a system allowing the accurate indoor localization of people visiting a museum or any other cultural institution. We assume visitors are equipped with a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) device (commonly found in modern smartphones or in a small chipset), periodically transmitting packets, which are received by geolocalized BLE receivers inside the museum area. Collected packets are provided to the locator server to estimate the positions of the visitors inside the museum. The position estimation is based on a feed-forward neural network trained by a measurement campaign in the considered environment and on a non-linear least square algorithm. We also provide a strategy for deploying the BLE receivers in a given area. The performance results obtained from measurements show an achievable position estimate accuracy below 1 m.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061055
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
  • Electronics, Vol. 9, Pages 1056: Photostimulation of Extravasation of
           Beta-Amyloid through the Model of Blood-Brain Barrier

    • Authors: Ekaterina Zinchenko, Maria Klimova, Aysel Mamedova, Ilana Agranovich, Inna Blokhina, Tatiana Antonova, Andrey Terskov, Alexander Shirokov, Nikita Navolokin, Andrey Morgun, Elena Osipova, Elizaveta Boytsova, Tingting Yu, Dan Zhu, Juergen Kurths, Oxana Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya
      First page: 1056
      Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an incurable pathology associated with progressive decline in memory and cognition. Phototherapy might be a new promising and alternative strategy for the effective treatment of AD, and has been actively discussed over two decades. However, the mechanisms of therapeutic photostimulation (PS) effects on subjects with AD remain poorly understood. The goal of this study was to determine the mechanisms of therapeutic PS effects in beta-amyloid (Aβ)-injected mice. The neurological severity score and the new object recognition tests demonstrate that PS 9 J/cm2 attenuates the memory and neurological deficit in mice with AD. The immunohistochemical assay revealed a decrease in the level of Aβ in the brain and an increase of Aβ in the deep cervical lymph nodes obtained from mice with AD after PS. Using the in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), we show a PS-mediated decrease in transendothelial resistance and in the expression of tight junction proteins as well an increase in the BBB permeability to Aβ. These findings suggest that a PS-mediated BBB opening and the activation of the lymphatic clearance of Aβ from the brain might be a crucial mechanism underlying therapeutic effects of PS in mice with AD. These pioneering data open new strategies in the development of non-pharmacological methods for therapy of AD and contribute to a better understanding of the PS effects on the central nervous system.
      Citation: Electronics
      PubDate: 2020-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics9061056
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2020)
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