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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 187 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 90)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 337)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 295)
ECTI Transactions on Computer and Information Technology (ECTI-CIT)     Open Access  
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access  
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 117)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 97)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 100)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Embedded Systems Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Haptics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 99)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access  
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access  
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access  
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal ELTIKOM : Jurnal Teknik Elektro, Teknologi Informasi dan Komputer     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Magnetics Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Nanotechnology Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Pulse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Revue Méditerranéenne des Télécommunications     Open Access  
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Solid-State Circuits Magazine, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ural Radio Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Wireless Power Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Women in Engineering Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Magnetics Letters, IEEE
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.532
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 7  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1949-307X
Published by IEEE Homepage  [191 journals]
  • Flexible Control of Magnetic Fields by Shaped-Optimized Three-Dimensional
           Coil Arrays
    • Authors: Ali Abdolali;Ali Mohtadi Jafari;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: The synthesis of desired low-frequency magnetic fields is of high importance in electromagnetic design. The use of coil arrays (CAs) is among the most effective methods for realizing a desired field. However, in designing CAs, researchers are faced with a lack of design parameters. At low frequencies, the design parameters are usually limited to the size and phase of the source and the size and position of the coils. In this letter, with the help of three-dimensional (3-D) coils, the spatial current distribution, i.e., the shape of coils, is added to the design parameters of the CA problem. This novel 3-D coil array creates a high degree of freedom for the synthesis of the desired magnetic field which cannot be achieved by ordinary coil arrays or a single 3-D coil. The technological advances in the field of 3-D printing helps in the fabrication of these 3-D structures with high precision, low cost, and fast prototyping. In the design process, dyadic Green's functions are used to analytically calculate the magnetic field. Then, in order to define the shape of the 3-D coils, these shapes are extended based on the proper basis functions. By determining the coefficients of these basis functions by means of optimization methods, the shape of each 3-D coil in the array is obtained. This method is used to realize an arbitrary magnetic field along a line by means of a single-source array that includes three 3-D coils. The designed array is implemented with the use of fused-deposition-modeling 3-D printing. The design results, numerical simulations, and experimental tests demonstrate a high degree of accuracy in the fabrication process and the ability of 3-D arrays to synthesize magnetic fields.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Precise Model-Free Spline-Based Approach for Magnetic Field Mapping
    • Authors: Federico Ongaro;Christoff Marthinus Heunis;Sarthak Misra;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Untethered magnetic manipulation has found applications in a rapidly increasing number of fields, ranging from minimally invasive surgery to assembly of industrial microelectromechanical systems. Despite this relevance, present-day literature on precise magnetic mapping is sparse, especially for magnetic fields affected by external disturbances. In this letter, we address this deficiency by introducing a model-free mapping technique. Remarkably, the presented spline-based approach is capable of addressing the presence of inhomogeneous static disturbances and the mapping of nonazimuthally symmetric electromagnets. This work is validated with the mapping of nine metal-core electromagnets in the presence of inhomogeneous static disturbances. A grid of 5120 measurements is collected by a custom-programed robotic arm and used for mapping. The values predicted by the approach are compared against 3430 independent field measurements with an R2 value of 0.9884 and maximum relative errors of 7%. Overall, this spline-based approach provides a flexible technique for the precise mapping of electromagnetic fields and gradients even when, for reasons regarding coil shape or disturbances, the electromagnetic field does not present any axial symmetry.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Electromagnetic Position Sensing and Force Feedback for a Magnetic Stylus
           With an Interactive Display
    • Authors: Peter Berkelman;Bernadette Tix;Hamza Abdul-Ghani;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: This letter describes the design, implementation, validation, and demonstration of an electromagnetic system that can be incorporated into a graphical display to provide computer-controlled planar feedback forces on the tip of a stylus or fingertip-mounted magnet held near the display surface, according to the magnet position and virtual fixtures implemented in software. An array of magnetometer sensors is used to detect the position of the magnet, while a pair of box-shaped coils behind the display produces feedback forces on the stylus parallel to the plane of the display. Electromagnetic analysis for the system design is presented and system implementation is described. Validation results are given for force generation within a 100 mm × 100 mm area and force interaction with a virtual obstacle is demonstrated.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Experimental Validation of a Frequency-Selective Surface-Loaded Hybrid
           Metamaterial Absorber With Wide Bandwidth
    • Authors: Atipriya Sharma;Ravi Panwar;Rajesh Khanna;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: The achievement of wide absorption bandwidth for a single-layer metamaterial absorber remains a challenge. In this letter, a frequency-selective surface (FSS), single-substrate layer, broadband metamaterial absorber is investigated theoretically, experimentally, and by simulation in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz. Simulations of the reflection coefficient of the absorber with different substrate dielectric thicknesses, FSS thicknesses, and FSS dimensions indicate that there exist optimal values for the absorber design. The measured results from a fabricated prototype are in close agreement with the simulations, suggesting the effectiveness of the structure for actual electromagnetic applications. The fabricated absorber with thickness 2.0 mm has a minimum reflection coefficient of -29.0 dB at 12.2 GHz. The -10 dB absorption bandwidth is 7.5 GHz in the range of 8.5-16 GHz. Effective complex electromagnetic parameters are extracted to quantitatively understand the absorption. A miniaturized structure, single-substrate layer, simple geometry, and wide bandwidth are some of the key features of the proposed metamaterial absorber.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Frequency Response of a Moving Two-Dimensional Defect in Magnetic Flux
           Leakage Inspection
    • Authors: Mustafa Makki Aziz;Reyah Abdulla;Mohamad Al-Dujaili;
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: The detection of magnetic flux leakage (MFL) enables nondestructive detection and characterization of defects in magnetic structures. In this letter, Fourier transforms of the leakage fields from a two-dimensional surface defect are evaluated to produce analytical expressions for the frequency response of MFL signals detected by a flux-sensitive sensor. The expressions show the correlation between the spectral response of the leakage fields, defect dimensions, and sensing element lift-off spacing as a product of frequency-dependent defect-width loss function, spacing loss function, and thickness enhancement function. The lower and upper band edges of the band-limited leakage magnetic fields are theoretically identified. A spectral method for sizing of defects is proposed based on the frequency response.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Magnetic Localization for an Electromagnetic-Based Haptic Interface
    • Authors: Alaa Adel;Mohanad Mansour;Mina M. Micheal;Ahmed Abdelmawla;Islam S. M. Khalil;Sarthak Misra;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: In this letter, we develop a magnetic localization system for an electromagnetic-based haptic interface (EHI). Haptic interaction is achieved using a controlled magnetic force applied via an EHI on a magnetic dipole attached to a wearable finger splint. The position of the magnetic dipole is estimated using two identical arrays of three-dimensional magnetic field sensors in order to eliminate the magnetic field generated by the EHI. The measurements of these arrays are used to estimate the position of the magnetic dipole by an artificial neural network. This network maps the field readings to the position of the magnetic dipole. The proposed system is experimentally validated under four cases of the magnetic field generated by the EHI. These cases are likely to be encountered during the haptic rendering of virtual shapes. In the absence of the magnetic field, the mean absolute position error (MAE) is 0.80 ± 0.30 mm (n = 125). Static and sinusoidal magnetic fields are applied, and the MAEs are 1.26 ± 0.43 mm (n = 125) and 0.91 ± 0.33 mm (n = 125), respectively. A random time-varying magnetic field is applied, and the MAE is 0.86 ± 0.33 mm (n = 125). Our statistical analysis shows that the repeatability of the magnetic localization is acceptable regardless of the field generated by the EHI, at α = 0.05 and 95% confidence level.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Magneto-Electric Hybrid Generator for Simultaneously Harvesting Vibration
           and Stray Magnetic Field Energy
    • Authors: Wei He;Aichao Yang;Jitao Zhang;Chiwen Qu;
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: An array-based magneto-electric hybrid generator is presented which can respond to vibration and stray magnetic fields. Using the magnetic levitation mechanism, the generator can extract vibration energy in three axes, and the use of a magneto-electric array improves the output power. The nonlinear magnetic force on the suspending magnets is analyzed during vibration, and a nonlinear dynamical equation is established. A law for the time-varying displacement of the suspending magnets is obtained after solving the dynamical equation. The magnetic field on the magneto-electric transducer array under dual excitations is analyzed, and a theoretical model is developed. A prototype is fabricated to conduct the energy-harvesting experiments. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the generator under dual excitations.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • $text{Bi}_{0.90}text{Nd}_{0.10}text{Fe}_{0.98}TM_{0.02}text{O}_{3}$ +( $TM=+text{Mn}$ ,+Co,+Ni,+and+Cu)+Materials&rft.title=Magnetics+Letters,+IEEE&rft.issn=1949-307X&;&rft.aufirst=Dao&;Nguyen+Manh+Hung;Du+Thi+Xuan+Thao;Le+Thi+Mai+Oanh;Do+Danh+Bich;Nguyen+Cao+Khang;Van+Quang+Nguyen;Nguyen+Van+Minh;">Structural, Electrical, and Magnetic Properties of
           $text{Bi}_{0.90}text{Nd}_{0.10}text{Fe}_{0.98}TM_{0.02}text{O}_{3}$ ( $TM=
           text{Mn}$ , Co, Ni, and Cu) Materials
    • Authors: Dao Viet Thang;Nguyen Manh Hung;Du Thi Xuan Thao;Le Thi Mai Oanh;Do Danh Bich;Nguyen Cao Khang;Van Quang Nguyen;Nguyen Van Minh;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Pure BiFeO3 (BFO) and Bi0.90Nd0.10Fe0.98TM0.02O3 (TM = Mn, Co, Ni, and Cu) materials have been synthesized by the sol-gel method. Effects of codoping Nd and transition metal (TM) on the structural, electrical, and magnetic properties of BFO were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometry, polarization vs. electric field hysteresis loops (P-E), and complex impedance spectra measurements. A distortion of crystal structure, in which lattice parameters a and c decreased in all codoped samples, was measured by XRD. SEM images showed a significant reduction of average grain size and an obvious change in surface morphology with Nd and TM codoping in BFO. Codoped samples demonstrated various improvements in ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties, most notably for codoped (Nd and TM) samples. Saturation magnetization (Ms) and saturation dielectric polarization (Ps) increased from Ms = 0.060 emu/g, Ps = 1.03 μC/cm2 for pure BFO to Ms = 0.411 emu/g, Ps = 11.08 μC/cm2 for a codoped (Nd and Mn) sample. Our results show that Mn is the best TM for codoping with Nd in BFO to improve its multiferroic properties.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Magnetic Separation of Volatile Solid Particles Based on Field-Induced
           Translational Motion Under Short-Duration Microgravity Conditions
    • Authors: Wakana Yamaguchi;Keiji Hisayoshi;Chiaki Uyeda;Kentaro Terada;
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: We designed an improved apparatus to separate and identify volatile solid particles at temperatures around 200 K using short-duration microgravity. Separation is based on the difference in diamagnetism of the mixed particles released in a region of monotonically decreasing magnetic field. The velocity of the translating particles in the microgravity region is considerably enhanced, which yields improved accuracy in measurement of the terminal velocity of the particles outside the magnetic field region. We achieved separation of a mixture of heterogeneous particles, including solid CO2, with high resolution. A particle's composition can be estimated from the value of magnetic susceptibility obtained from the terminal velocity because the particle's acceleration induced by the magnetic volume force is independent of particle mass. It is expected that material abundances of heterogeneous, volatile, solid particles, such as hexagonal ice, dry ice, ethane, methane, and CO, can be determined in this simple manner in cold regions on Earth and in the outer regions of the solar system.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Enhanced Magnetic Softness of Double-Layered Perovskite Manganite
    • Authors: Subrata Das;Irin Sultana;M. D. I. Bhuyan;M. A. Basith;
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Bulk polycrystalline samples of Gd-doped La2-xGdxLa2-xGdxSrMn2O7SrMn2O7 (x = 0.3, 0.6) double-layered perovskite manganites were synthesized in air by conventional solid-state reaction and then annealed at 600 °C in inert (N2) atmosphere. Rietveld refined powder X-ray diffraction patterns show impurity peaks for samples synthesized in air, whereas annealing completely removes the undesired peaks in the lightly doped (15% Gd) sample and partially removes them in the heavily doped (30% Gd) sample. The morphology was improved in both samples due to annealing. Magnetic hysteresis loops demonstrate enhanced magnetic softness for the lightly doped manganite. Its saturation magnetization at room temperature at 10 kOe is 50 emu/g, and is increased to 53 emu/g after heat treatment. Heat treatment also decreases its coercive field and remanent magnetization. These properties indicate that 15% Gd-doped La1.7Gd0.3SrMn2O7 manganite may be used in applications where magnetic softness is desired.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Activation of Microwave Signals in Nanoscale Magnetic Tunnel Junctions by
           Neuronal Action Potentials
    • Authors: Jose Miguel Algarin;Bharath Ramaswamy;Lucy Venuti;Matthews E. Swierzbinski;James Baker-McKee;Irving N. Weinberg;Yu-Jin Chen;Ilya N. Krivorotov;Jordan A. Katine;Jens Herberholz;Ricardo C. Araneda;Benjamin Shapiro;Edo Waks;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Action potentials are the basic unit of information in the nervous system, and their reliable detection and decoding holds the key to understanding how the brain generates complex thought and behavior. Transduction of these signals into microwave signal oscillations can enable wireless sensors that report on brain activity through magnetic induction. In this letter, we demonstrate that action potentials from the lateral giant neurons of crayfish can induce microwave oscillations in nanoscale magnetic tunnel junctions (NMTJs). We show that action potentials activate microwave oscillations in NMTJs with an amplitude that follows the action potential signal, demonstrating that the device has both the sensitivity and temporal resolution to respond to action potentials from a single neuron. The activation of magnetic oscillations by action potentials, together with the small surface area and the high-frequency tunability, makes these devices potential candidates for high-resolution sensing of bioelectric signals from neural tissues. These device attributes may be useful for the design of high-throughput bidirectional brain–machine interfaces.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: Development of a Novel Deep-Brain
           Triple-Halo Coil
    • Authors: Priyam Rastogi;Erik Gordan Lee;Ravi L. Hadimani;David C. Jiles;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive treatment for major depressive disorder. TMS coil design plays an important role in maximizing the magnetic field strength at the required location in the brain. Development of deep-brain TMS coils to stimulate subcortical structures will expand the uses of TMS beyond the simulation of superficial cortical targets. The simulation of deep-brain regions may have beneficial effects on neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, posttraumatic stress disorder, and mild traumatic brain injury. In this letter, a multicoil configuration, the triple-halo coil (THC), which can stimulate deep brain structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala, is designed and tested. A finite element tool is used to determine the induced electric field and magnetic field in these regions due to the THC alone and in combination with a figure-of-8 coil. Analysis of the results is done with the help of an anatomically accurate heterogeneous head model of a 34-year-old man derived from magnetic resonance imaging. The magnetic field of the THC is measured and compared with the simulated field.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Stress Effects in the Brain During Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
    • Authors: Abas Sabouni;Mahsa Khamechi;Marc Honrath;
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: We used a three-dimensional magnetic resonance image to model the Lorentz force in scalp, skull, cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter, and white matter of the human brain during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The simulations show that during TMS procedures, measurable intracranial forces develop within different tissue layers of the brain. This force strongly depends on the strength of the magnetic field generated by the TMS coil. The effect of this force will cause stress in the brain tissues and creates around 5%-10% deformation in both gray and white matter.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Novel Production of Magnetite Particles via Thermochemical Processing of
           Digestate From Manure and Food Waste
    • Authors: Diana Rodriguez Alberto;Kristen Stojak Repa;Swati Hegde;Casey W. Miller;Thomas A. Trabold;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Sustainable management of food waste has become a global priority because of the significant environmental impacts associated with conventional disposal methods, including landfilling. Thermochemical processing is a food-waste-to-energy conversion technology in which food waste materials are converted to biofuel in a reduced O2 environment at elevated temperatures. Another conversion technology is anaerobic digestion, in which microorganisms digest biodegradable material, producing biofuel and solid byproducts “digestate.” We measured the physical properties of “biochar” produced by combining these approaches: digestate was used as feedstock for a commercial-scale thermochemical processing system. Magnetite (Fe3O4) particles were produced during the food-waste-to-energy conversion process. This was particularly unexpected because none of the input materials were ferromagnetic, and no specific Fe precursors were introduced in the process. The Fe3O4 was identified through a combination of X-ray fluorescence and dc magnetometry. Zero-field cooled magnetization-temperature curves reveal a Verwey transition at ∼125 K across samples prepared under various conditions. Room temperature magnetization-field loops show a Langevin-like curve, technical saturation, and coercive fields of $H_{C}$ = 98–130 Oe across various samples. Clear Verwey transition, room temperature hysteresis, and an irreversibility temperature well above room temperature indicate that particles are multidomain. We attribute the presence of Fe3O4 to the relatively high concentration of Fe naturally present in the solid digestate and the operating parameters of the thermochemical conversion p-ocess. High surface area magnetic biochar has a variety of potential applications, including the adsorption of heavy metals, wastewater treatment, supercapacitors, and conductive polymer composites.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Magnonic Band Structure Established by Chiral Spin-Density Waves in
           Thin-Film Ferromagnets
    • Authors: Patrick Sprenger;Mark A. Hoefer;Ezio Iacocca;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Recent theoretical studies have demonstrated the possibility to excite and sustain noncollinear magnetization states in ferromagnetic nanowires. The resulting state is referred to as a spin-density wave (SDW). SDWs can be interpreted as hydrodynamic states with a constant fluid density and fluid velocity in systems with easy-plane anisotropy. Here, we consider the effect of the nonlocal dipole field arising from the finite thickness of magnetic thin films on the spatial profile of the SDW and on the associated magnon dispersion. Utilizing a hydrodynamic formulation of the Larmor torque equation, it is found that the nonlocal dipole field modulates the fluid velocity. Such a modulation induces a magnonic band structure unlike the typical dispersion relation for magnons on uniform magnetization. The analytical results are validated by micromagnetic simulations. Band gaps on the order of gigahertz are numerically observed to depend on the SDW fluid velocity and film thickness for realistic material parameters. The presented results suggest that SDWs can find applications as reconfigurable magnonic crystals.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • The Longitudinal Spin Seebeck Coefficient of Fe
    • Authors: Zhihao Duan;Bingfeng Miao;Liang Sun;Di Wu;Jun Du;Haifeng Ding;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: We report an experimental study of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) of a Fe thin film with a Pt detection layer. By varying the Fe thickness, we find that the anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) of Fe changes sign and vanishes at about 4.8 nm. This provides a unique opportunity to study the LSSE where the influence of ANE is absent. The addition of a 3 nm Pt layer produces a considerable thermal voltage, which comes from the LSSE of Fe solely. The opposite signs of thermal voltages in Pt/Fe and W/Fe bilayer structures confirm that the signal is dominated by LSSE because Pt and W have opposite signs of spin Hall angle. In conjunction with the Pt-thickness-dependent measurement of effective spin-mixing conductance of Fe/Pt films, we estimate the spin Seebeck coefficient of Fe.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Low-Barrier Magnet Design for Efficient Hardware Binary Stochastic Neurons
    • Authors: Orchi Hassan;Rafatul Faria;Kerem Yunus Camsari;Jonathan Z. Sun;Supriyo Datta;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Binary stochastic neurons (BSNs) form an integral part of many machine learning algorithms, motivating the development of hardware accelerators for this complex function. It has been recognized that hardware BSNs can be implemented using low-barrier magnets (LBMs) by minimally modifying present-day magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) devices. A crucial parameter that determines the response of these LBM-based BSN designs is the correlation time of magnetization τc. In this letter, we show that, for magnets with low-energy barriers (Δ ≈ kBT and below), circular disk magnets with in-plane magnetic anisotropy (IMA) lead to τc values that are two orders of magnitude smaller than τc of magnets with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). Analytical descriptions demonstrate that this striking difference in τc is due to a precession like fluctuation mechanism that is enabled by the large demagnetization field in IMA magnets. We provide a detailed energy-delay performance evaluation of previously proposed BSN designs based on spin-orbit torque MRAM and spin-transfer torque MRAM employing low-barrier circular IMA magnets by SPICE simulations. The designs exhibit subnanosecond response times leading to energy requirements of approximately a few femtojoules to evaluate the BSN function, orders of magnitude lower than digital CMOS implementations with a much larger surface area. While modern MRAM technology is based on PMA magnets, results in this letter suggest that low-barrier circular IMA magnets may be more suitable for this application.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Spin–Orbit Torque-Controlled Magnetic Tunnel Junction With Low Thermal
           Stability for Tunable Random Number Generation
    • Authors: Vaibhav Ostwal;Joerg Appenzeller;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Spin-orbit torque has emerged as an alternative to spin-transfer torque switching of thermally stable magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). For MTJs with low thermal stability, i.e., low energy barrier MTJs, spin-orbit torque devices have been proposed, which allow for tunable random number generation and decoupled WRITE and READ paths. Such stochastic devices can then be interconnected to realize computational systems, such as Ising networks, neural networks, invertible logic, etc. In this letter, we experimentally demonstrate such a stochastic spin device called a “p-bit” that is characterized by a spin-orbit torque-controlled MTJ with low thermal stability as the WRITE unit, and where the tunneling magnetoresistance is employed as the READ unit. We first demonstrate deterministic switching of stable in-plane MTJs using the spin-orbit torques generated by tantalum. Next, we employ spin-orbit torques to tune the stochasticity of the MTJ with low thermal stability to generate tunable random numbers. National Institute of Standards and Technology randomness tests are performed to evaluate the quality of our random number generator. The results are then quantitatively analyzed using the standard model for thermally activated switching and the theory of thermal fluctuation in superparamagnetic particles. The devices presented in this letter consisting of a WRITE path (spin-orbit torque) and a READ path (MTJ) are the key building blocks for probabilistic spin logic applications.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Effects of Growth Order on Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy of
           Heavy-Metal/Ferromagnet/MgO Trilayered Structures
    • Authors: Yuejie Zhang;Xiaofei Yang;Peng Li;Jun Ouyang;Mingzhong Wu;
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Previous experiments have shown that perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in trilayers consisting of a CoFeB layer, an MgO layer, and a nonmagnetic metal (NM) layer depends strongly on whether the CoFeB layer was grown on the top of an NM layer or was capped by an NM layer. In this letter, we study the physical origin of this phenomenon through first-principles calculations. We took MgO/CoFe/Ta and Ta/CoFe/MgO as model structures and analyzed the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) therein. The “substrate/Ta/CoFe/MgO” structure had a notably higher MAE than the “substrate/MgO/CoFe/Ta” structure. This difference results mainly from different stresses in the Ta layers, and the latter gives rise to a difference in the hybridization strength of in-plane orbits (dxy, dx2-y2, px, and py). The p-orbital hybridization in the Ta layers contributes significantly to the PMA in both structures.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Magnetic Radial Vortex Core and Coupled Edge-Soliton Pair Gyration
    • Authors: Danna Dong;Cheng Li;Li Cai;Baojun Liu;Chuang Li;Jiahao Liu;Yabo Chen;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: We studied the gyration dynamics of a magnetic radial vortex core by injecting spin-polarized current into a nanodisk through a nanocontact. The simulation results indicate that the radial vortex core can rotate in an approximately circular orbit with a stable frequency. As the current density increases, the radius and frequency of rotation increase, while the rotation stabilization time decreases. Simultaneously, the intensity of the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction has a great influence on the frequency and the maximum drive current density of the gyration. The Oersted field generated by the current can reduce the stabilization time. The radial vortex core transforms into an edge soliton pair and rotates stably along the boundary of the disk for a certain range of current densities. This work provides deeper insight into the gyration dynamics of magnetic radial vortices and the potential for the development of nano-oscillators based on radial vortices.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Reliable Five-Nanosecond Writing of Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic
           Random-Access Memory
    • Authors: Guohan Hu;Janusz J. Nowak;Matthias G. Gottwald;Jonathan Z. Sun;Dimitri Houssameddine;Junghoon Bak;Stephen L. Brown;Pouya Hashemi;Qing He;Juhyun Kim;Chandrasekharan Kothandaraman;Gen Lauer;Hyun Koo Lee;Thitima Suwannasiri;Philip L. Trouilloud;Daniel C. Worledge;
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: We report reliable 5 ns switching of spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory devices of nominal size 43 nm and a resistance area product of 11 Ω·μm2. We measured 256 devices with a 100% write-error-rate (WER) yield at a WER floor of 10-6 and a steep WER slope as a function of voltage. A single device had a WER less than 10-10 for 5 ns write pulses. We show promising 3 ns switching performance, with a 94% WER yield at a 10-6 WER floor, for 64 devices of nominal size 50 nm.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Low Energy Barrier Nanomagnet Design for Binary Stochastic Neurons: Design
           Challenges for Real Nanomagnets With Fabrication Defects
    • Authors: Md. Ahsanul Abeed;Supriyo Bandyopadhyay;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Much attention has been focused on the design of low energy barrier nanomagnets (LBMs), whose magnetizations vary randomly in time owing to thermal noise, for use in binary stochastic neurons (BSNs) that serve as hardware accelerators for machine learning. The performance of BSNs depends on two important parameters: the correlation time τc associated with the random magnetization dynamics in an LBM, and the spin-polarized pinning current Ip, which stabilizes the magnetization of an LBM in a chosen direction within a chosen time. We show that common fabrication defects in LBMs make these two parameters unpredictable because they are strongly sensitive to the defects. That makes the design of BSNs with real LBMs very challenging. Unless the LBMs are fabricated with extremely tight control, the BSNs that use them could be unreliable or suffer from poor yield.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Soft Magnetism, Magnetostriction, and Microwave Properties of Fe-Ga-C
           Alloy Films
    • Authors: Xianfeng Liang;Cunzheng Dong;Sue J. Celestin;Xinjun Wang;Huaihao Chen;Katherine S. Ziemer;Michael Page;Michael E. McConney;John G. Jones;Brandon M. Howe;Nian X. Sun;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: A systematic investigation of the soft magnetism, the change of modulus of elasticity with magnetization (ΔE effect), magnetostriction, and microwave properties has been carried out on iron-gallium-carbon thin films over a wide carbon content range. The phase transformation of the Fe-Ga-C films from bcc polycrystalline to amorphous leads to excellent magnetic softness with a low coercivity of less than 1 Oe, high saturation magnetization, narrow ferromagnetic resonance linewidth at 10 GHz of 20 to 30 Oe, and an ultra-low Gilbert damping constant of 0.0027. A record high piezomagnetic coefficient of 9.71 ppm/Oe, high saturation magnetostriction constant of 81.2 ppm, and large ΔE effect of -120 GPa at 500 nm were achieved.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Strong Coupling of Magnons to Microwave Photons in Three-Dimensional
           Printed Resonators
    • Authors: Vincent Castel;Sami Ben Ammar;Alexandre Manchec;Gwendal Cochet;Jamal Ben Youssef;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: We report on ferromagnetic resonant mode hybridization in reentrant cavities made with a commercial three-dimensional (3-D) printer, followed by conventional 3-D metallization with copper and tin. The cavity volume was only 7% that of a standard cavity resonating at the same frequency while maintaining a high quality factor. Simulations were in very good agreement. We obtained an effective coupling of about 40 MHz in two cavities at room temperature. These experimental results demonstrate the utility of tunable filters based on complex 3-D printed cavities.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Effect of Dilute Rare-Earth Doping on Magnetodynamic Properties of
           Permalloy Films
    • Authors: Qian Chen;Yuli Yin;Honglei Yuan;Xiaochao Zhou;Zhaocong Huang;Jun Du;Ya Zhai;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Tunable magnetodynamic properties of magnetic materials will allow significant design freedom in spintronic devices. One of the most efficient methods to tailor magnetic properties is by element doping. Here, we study the effect of rare-earth (RE) doping on Permalloy (Py) films to modify the magnetic damping and exchange stiffness by both the ferromagnetic resonance uniform precession mode and the first perpendicular standing spin-wave mode. Results show that both static and dynamic magnetic properties of Py films are adjusted by doping with Gd, Tb, and Nd. The saturation magnetization is decreased by 59.4% with Tb, Gd, and Nd at concentrations of 10 at.%. The magnetic damping coefficient (α) is enhanced mostly by Tb dopant, followed by Nd and Gd, indicating that spin-orbit coupling may be one of the main mechanisms in determining α of RE-doped films. A 44.2% reduction of the exchange stiffness was achieved by doping with 3.3 at.% Nd. The results demonstrate that RE doping may be a viable technique for the control of magnetodynamic properties for spintronics applications.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • $_{25}$ Fe $_{75}$ +Films+Determined+by+Microfocused+Frequency-Resolved+Magneto-Optic+Kerr+Effect&rft.title=Magnetics+Letters,+IEEE&rft.issn=1949-307X&;&rft.aufirst=Lukas&;Luis+Flacke;David+Rogerson;Matthias+Althammer;Rudolf+Gross;Mathias+Weiler;">Spin-Wave Propagation in Metallic Co $_{25}$ Fe $_{75}$ Films Determined
           by Microfocused Frequency-Resolved Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect
    • Authors: Lukas Liensberger;Luis Flacke;David Rogerson;Matthias Althammer;Rudolf Gross;Mathias Weiler;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: We investigated the magnetization dynamics of a patterned Co$_{25}$Fe$_{75}$-based heterostructure with a novel optical measurement technique that we call microfocused frequency-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect. We measured the magnetic field dependence of the dynamical spin-wave susceptibility and recorded a spatial map of the spin waves excited by a microwave antenna. We compare these results to those obtained on the same sample with the established microfocused Brillouin light scattering technique. With both techniques, we find a spin-wave propagation length of 5.6 µm at 10 GHz. We also measured the dispersion of the wave vector and the spin-wave propagation length as a function of the external magnetic field. These results are in good agreement with the existing literature and with the Kalinikos–Slavin model.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Simultaneous Control of Interlayer Exchange Coupling and the Interfacial
           Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya Interaction in Ru-Based Synthetic Antiferromagnets
    • Authors: Aleksandr Prudnikov;Maxwell Li;Marc De Graef;Vincent Sokalski;
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: We present a Ru-based synthetic antiferromagnet (SAF) made with asymmetric ferromagnetic building blocks (Pt/Co/Ir or Ir/Co/Pt) to couple their interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) with strong interlayer exchange coupling (IEC). This combination may lead to new types of antiferromagnetic domain walls (DWs), which are conceptually presented in this letter. These include an energetically frustrated configuration and an “isolated” spin chain where a net magnetization exists only at the DW. While most SAF designs incorporate a Co/Ru/Co IEC layer, chiral SAFs require Pt and/or Ir at the Ru/Co interface. In all cases except Pt/Ru/Pt, a significant IEC field is preserved over a range of Ru thicknesses, with the largest occurring for Ir/Ru/Ir. These results demonstrate that ferromagnetic film stacks with purportedly strong DMI can be incorporated into SAFs without compromising IEC.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Laser-Reduced Zeolite Imidazole Framework-67 as Magnetic Absorbents for
           Oil Separation in Water
    • Authors: Junfeng Huang;Kam Chuen Yung;Guijun Li;Zhuoxun Wei;Zhengong Meng;
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: We reduced zeolite imidazole framework-67 by laser so as to prepare porous carbon materials embedded with cobalt nanoparticles. The composites exhibited ferromagnetic behavior. The parameters of laser reduction were optimized for oil absorption with high capacity and good reusability. This approach can open a new class of ferromagnetic porous absorbents and represent advancement toward overcoming the limitations of oil absorption.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Multistate Nanomagnetic Logic Using Equilateral Permalloy Triangles
    • Authors: Meshal Alawein;Selma Amara;Hossein Fariborzi;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: We examine a multistate logic computation scheme based on nanomagnets with configurational anisotropy (CA). We present a case study of a structure comprising a thin equilateral triangle-exhibiting sixfold CA-and three surrounding bistable inputs/outputs, where all nanomagnets generally can be interconnected by nanomagnetic chains and adiabatically clocked by external magnetic fields. We analyze the design and operation of the triangle with three-dimensional micromagnetic simulations of the magnetization configurations and dynamics, the effect of thermal fluctuations, and the propagation of information to an output nanomagnet. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate reconfigurable NAND/NOR and OR/AND gates as potential logic applications. We highlight further applications and suggest directions for future research.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Peak in Angular Dependence of Coercivity in a Hexagonal Array of Permalloy
           Spherical Nanocaps
    • Authors: Yuset Guerra Davila;Frederico Alves Revoredo Júnior;Ramon Peña-Garcia;Eduardo Padrón-Hernández;
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Micromagnetic simulations of coercivity as a function of external magnetic field direction were performed for a hexagonal array of hemispherical Permalloy nanocaps. The analysis was based on hysteresis loops for arrangements of nanocaps of variable thickness (5 nm and 10 nm). The angular dependence of coercivity had a maximum at about 80° with respect to the arrangement plane. An increase in coercivity with nanocap thickness is related to the magnetization reversal mechanism, where the dipole energy of individual caps generates an effective intermediate axis, locking the magnetic moments. The coercivity has maximum values of 109 Oe for 5 nm and 156 Oe for 10 nm thickness. The remanence decreases monotonically with angle. This is associated with the influence of shape anisotropy, where the demagnetizing field in the plane of the array is much smaller than the demagnetizing field perpendicular to the plane.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Double-Vortex-Assisted Asymmetric Magnetoreactance in H-Shaped Nanomagnets
    • Authors: Andrzej Janutka;Kacper Brzuszek;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: We model the dynamical response of H-shaped layered nanostructures to the alternating current carried in a nonmagnetic substrate, which induces an alternating Oersted field inside the magnetic layer, in the presence of a static field transverse to the current-flow direction. The current is directed horizontally, whereas the field is vertical with respect to the H-letter shape of the structure. Reversal of the field induces a highly asymmetric transverse magnetoreactance in the magnetically soft nanomagnet due to the structure's double magnetic vortex. Micromagnetic simulations, for a specific resonant frequency of the alternating current, show the reactance change by over 100% in the vicinity of zero field, with a relatively large sensitivity to the magnetic field. The mechanism for the dynamical response of the nanomagnet is related to oscillations in the separation of the vortex cores.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Nonlinear Ferromagnetic Resonance in the Presence of Three-Magnon
           Scattering in Magnetic Nanostructures
    • Authors: Denys V. Slobodianiuk;Gennadiy A. Melkov;Katrin Schultheiss;Helmut Schultheiss;Roman V. Verba;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Bulk and patterned ferromagnets can exhibit various nonlinear phenomena at moderate excitation power, making them a nice test bed for study of nonlinear dynamics. We investigate nonlinear ferromagnetic resonance in magnetic nanostructures with discrete spectra of spin-wave modes in the case of allowed three-magnon scattering processes. These processes result in the splitting of a directly driven spin-wave mode into two secondary modes, if a certain excitation threshold is overcome. The three-magnon splitting manifests itself as a characteristic distortion of the resonance curve, which can be detected in a simple ferromagnetic resonance experiment. Theoretical results are also compared to the experimental study of nonlinear spin-wave dynamics in a vortex-state magnetic disk, in which three-magnon splitting is confirmed by direct measurements using Brillouin light-scattering microscopy.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Alignment Optimization of the Dielectrophoresis of Ni Nanowires Through
           External Magnetic Field
    • Authors: Bruno Luís Segat Frare;Marcos Vinícius Puydinger dos Santos;Fanny Béron;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Nanowires are increasingly being used in sensor devices because they are highly sensitive to the environment. Industrial applications take advantage of their shape anisotropy, high aspect ratio, and electronic transport characteristics. The fabrication and characterization of nanowire-based devices require proper control during their deposition, which currently represents a major challenge. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is a useful technique for nanowire deposition, although it does not guarantee their precise alignment, which must be treated stochastically. In this letter, we combined DEP with an external magnetic field up to 80 kA/m to improve alignment control over Ni nanowires (4 μm length and 35 nm diameter) during deposition on Pt electrodes. Statistical analysis suggests that the nanowires tend to align along the magnetic field axis. In addition, DEP showed a considerable influence in trapping nanowires at the electrodes because the DEP torque is the greatest in this region, whereas the torque due to the magnetic field is predominant at distances above 10 μm from the electrodes. Our results can be employed to further investigate the electrical transport properties of nanowires of different materials, as well as for fabricating nanowire-based devices, such as field-effect transistors and nanoelectromechanical system platforms.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Unexpected Development of Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in Ni/NiO
           Multilayers After Mild Thermal Annealing
    • Authors: Dimitrios I. Anyfantis;Eirini Sarigiannidou;Laetitia Rapenne;Alkeos Stamatelatos;Dimitrios Ntemogiannis;Vassilios Kapaklis;Panagiotis Poulopoulos;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: We report on the significant enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Ni/NiO multilayers after mild annealing up to 90 min at 250 °C. Transmission electron microscopy shows that after annealing, a partial crystallization of the initially amorphous NiO layers occurs. This turns out to be the source of the anisotropy enhancement. Magnetic measurements reveal that even multilayers with Ni layers as thick as 7 nm, which in the as-deposited state showed inplane anisotropy with square hysteresis loops, show reduced in-plane remanence after thermal treatment. Hysteresis loops recorded with the field in the normal-to-film-plane direction provide evidence for perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with up and down magnetic domains at remanence. A plot of effective uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant times individual Ni layer thickness as a function of individual Ni layer thickness shows a large change in the slope of the data attributed to a drastic change of volume anisotropy. Surface anisotropy showed a small decrease because of some layer roughening introduced by annealing.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Anisotropy of Assemblies of Densely Packed Co-Alloy Nanoparticles Embedded
           in Carbon Nanotubes
    • Authors: Serghej L. Prischepa;Alexander L. Danilyuk;Andrei V. Kukharev;Costel S. Cojocaru;Nikolai I. Kargin;Francois Le Normand;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: We report on the magnetic properties of an array of binary metal CoFe, CoNi, and CoPt nanoparticles (NPs) embedded inside vertically oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Samples were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition activated by current discharge plasma and hot filaments. Assemblies of Co-based catalytic NPs were prepared on SiO2/Si substrates by sputtering ultrathin films followed by reduction in an H2/NH3 mixture. As a result of the CNT growth, each CNT contained only one ferromagnetic NP located at the top. For all samples, the easy axis of magnetization was along the CNT axis. The magnetic parameters, including effective anisotropy constant and the contributions of dipole interactions and shape, magnetocrystalline, and magnetoelastic anisotropies, were estimated based on the experimental data and a random-anisotropy model. The magnetoelastic contribution was decisive. From the magnetoelasticity, the stresses in the NPs embedded in the CNTs were determined. Finally, the magnetization distribution in CoFe, CoNi, and CoPt NPs was simulated considering the magnetoelastic contribution.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Synthesis and Characterization of Fe–Co–V High-Magnetization
           Nanoparticles Obtained by Physical Routes
    • Authors: Virginia Vadillo;Jon Gutiérrez;Maite Insausti;Joseba S. Garitaonandia;Izaskun Gil de Muro;Iban Quintana;Jose Manuel Barandiarán;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: We present results of the synthesis and characterization of Fe–Co–V high-magnetization ferromagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) fabricated by two physical routes: laser ablation in liquid flow and mechanical ball milling. As characterizing techniques, we used dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and magnetic measurements. The starting material was Fe49Co49V2 (bulk Vacoflux 50 from Vacuumschmelze), a soft magnetic alloy with a high saturation magnetization of about 2.3 T or 220 emu/g. Using a picosecond pulsed laser at λ = 355 and 532 nm with flowing liquid acetone, we obtained NPs about 10–50 nm in size, with saturation magnetization of 3 memu/ml. By employing high-energy ball milling (24 h total milling time), we obtained NPs that are about 0.5–1 µm in size, with bcc structure and about 195 emu/g saturation magnetization. All these results indicate that the main differences between the two fabrication methods are the final quantity and morphology of the NPs.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Signal Detection Under Multipath Intersymbol Interference in Staggered
           Bit-Patterned Media Recording Systems
    • Authors: Seongkwon Jeong;Jaejin Lee;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Bit-patterned media recording was invented with the aim of achieving high areal density. However, bit-patterned media recording suffers from two-dimensional (2-D) interference problems, including intersymbol interference in the down-track direction and intertrack interference in the cross-track direction. The 2-D interference corrupts the readback signal and degrades the performance of bit-patterned media recording. Unlike the layout of regular-array bit-patterned media, in the layout of staggered-array bit-patterned media, islands along neighboring tracks are displaced by a half-period from islands on the main data track; hence, in terms of intertrack interference, the islands on the main data track are predominantly affected by the closest four islands on neighboring tracks. To address this problem, a proper signal detection scheme for staggered bit-patterned media recording should be developed. In this letter, we introduce a multipath soft-output Viterbi algorithm for reducing the 2-D interference in staggered bit-patterned media recording. We investigate different partial response targets and compare the performances of the one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and proposed three-path soft-output Viterbi algorithm.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Impact of Magnetic Medium Grain Height in Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording
    • Authors: Yuwei Qin;Jian-Gang Zhu;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Compared to conventional perpendicular magnetic recording, heat-assisted magnetic recording occurs at temperatures more than twice as high in degrees Kelvin. The ability of head field to align the medium magnetization over the short duration in recording a bit is limited by the ratio of magnetic potential energy to the thermal energy. In this letter, we present a systematic micromagnetic modeling study of the transition jitter resulting from thermal agitation during the recording process. As we continue to decrease grain size in order to increase recording areal density, the height of grains in the recording medium needs to increase accordingly to keep the number of magnetization-misaligned grains to a minimum.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Magnetic Thin-Film Inductors With Induced Radial Anisotropy for Improved
           Inductance Density
    • Authors: Michael S. Lekas;Ryan Davies;Noah Sturcken;
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: This letter presents the design and electrical performance of integrated power inductors based on thin-film magnetic cores with radial anisotropy induced by in situ magnetic annealing. The magnetic anneal uses an additional coil, as part of the CMOS interconnect below the core, to simultaneously apply a biasing magnetic field and act as a resistive heater. Following annealing, devices demonstrated inductance enhancements as high as 8.8 times the original as-fabricated value, a peak inductance-to-dc resistance $(L/R_{{rm{dc}}})$ of 348 nH/Ω, a peak volumetric inductance density of 935 nH/mm3, and a peak areal inductance density of 33.4 nH/mm2. Additional improvements in inductor and bias coil design should further improve device $L/ R_{{rm{dc}}}$ ratios to greater than 450 nH/Ω.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Magnetic Loss Decomposition in Co-Doped Mn-Zn Ferrites
    • Authors: Samuel Dobák;Cinzia Beatrice;Fausto Fiorillo;Vasiliki Tsakaloudi;Carlo Ragusa;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: The magnetic properties of sintered Mn-Zn ferrites, Co2+ enriched by addition of CoO up to 6000 ppm, were measured in ring samples for a broad range of peak polarization values (2-200 mT) and frequencies (dc - 1 GHz). The results were analyzed by separating the contributions to the magnetization process of domain wall motion and magnetization rotation, and applying the concept of loss decomposition. By determining the value and behavior of the rotational permeability μrot as a function of the CoO content, we obtain the average effective magnetic anisotropy and its effect on the loss. We thus identify the hysteresis (quasi-static) Wh, rotational Wrot, and excess Wexc loss components and their dependence on CoO. The quasi-static loss Wh, the domain wall permeability μdw, and have minima, and μrot has a maximum, for CoO in the range 3000-4000 ppm. The rotational loss by spin damping Wrot,sd is calculated by use of the Landau-Lifshitz equation by assuming distributed anisotropy field amplitudes. Wrot,sd covers the experimental loss behavior beyond about 1 MHz. Wexc and Wh, both directly generated by the moving domain walls, share the dissipative response of the material at lower frequencies and show similar trends versus CoO content. It is concluded that the modulation of the magnetic anisotropy of Mn-Zn ferrites through Co2+ enrichment, leading to maximum magnetic softening for CoO in the range 3000-4000 ppm, can be assessed in terms of separate effects of domain wall motion and moment rotations and their related dissipative properties.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • $_{x}$ N+Metallic+Glass+Composites+Fabricated+by+Spark+Plasma+Sintering&rft.title=Magnetics+Letters,+IEEE&rft.issn=1949-307X&;&rft.aufirst=Todd&;Baolong+Zheng;Robert+E.+Delany;Charles+J.+Pearce;Eric+D.+Langlois;Stefan+M.+Lepkowski;Tyler+E.+Stevens;Yizhang+Zhou;Stanley+Atcitty;Enrique+J.+Lavernia;">Soft Magnetic Multilayered FeSiCrB–Fe $_{x}$ N Metallic Glass Composites
           Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering
    • Authors: Todd C. Monson;Baolong Zheng;Robert E. Delany;Charles J. Pearce;Eric D. Langlois;Stefan M. Lepkowski;Tyler E. Stevens;Yizhang Zhou;Stanley Atcitty;Enrique J. Lavernia;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Novel multilayered FeSiCrB-FexN (1 = 2-4) metallic glass composites were fabricated using spark plasma sintering of FeSiCrB amorphous ribbons (Metglas 2605SA3 alloy) and FexN (1 = 2-4) powder. Crystalline FexN can serve as a high magnetic moment, high electrical resistance binder, and lamination material in the consolidation of amorphous and nanocrystalline ribbons, mitigating eddy currents while boosting magnetic performance and stacking factor in both wound and stacked soft magnetic cores. Stacking factors of nearly 100% can be achieved in an amorphous ribbon/iron nitride composite. FeSiCrB-FexN multilayered metallic glass composites prepared by spark plasma sintering have the potential to serve as a next-generation soft magnetic material in power electronics and electrical machines.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Dy Electrodeposition on Sintered Nd-Fe-B
    • Authors: Runmiao Wang;Aizhi Sun;Huizhen Lang;Xiaotian Tang;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: A low-cost, high-efficiency electrodeposition technique was used to enhance the coercivity of Nd-Fe-B. Dy was electrodeposited on the surface of a sintered Nd-Fe-B magnet in a nonaqueous solution. The use of the organic solvent dimethylformamide results in improved electrodeposition and adhesion compared to ethanol. A dense deposition layer was achieved when current density was
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • High-Sensitivity Three-Axis Vector Magnetometry Using Electron Spin
           Ensembles in Single-Crystal Diamond
    • Authors: Binbin Zhao;Hao Guo;Rui Zhao;Fangfang Du;Zhonghao Li;Lei Wang;Dajin Wu;Yulei Chen;Jun Tang;Jun Liu;
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: We demonstrate a three-axis vector magnetometer based on ensembles of negatively charged nitrogen vacancy centers in single-crystal diamond. A diamond with C3v symmetry was used to establish the coordinate system for vector magnetic field sensing. We control the external static magnetic field with three-axis Helmholtz coils. Four pairs of magnetic resonance peaks were obtained, which were used to calculate the three Cartesian components of the magnetic field with sensitivity of ~ 5 nT √Hz for each Cartesian component, free of interaxis error. The magnetometer is suitable for single-chip manufacturing.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Ferromagnetic Object Localization Based on Improved Triangulating and
    • Authors: Zhicheng Yang;Shenggang Yan;Lianping Chen;Bin Li;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: The performance of scalar triangulation and ranging (STAR) for the localization of ferromagnetic objects is limited by asphericity error. Alternatively, iterative strategies may be used to reduce error and improve performance. However, iterative methods have problems, such as multiple required iterations, singularities, and limited accuracy. Eigenvalue methods are primarily based on the property of gradient tensor eigenvalues. A rotationally invariant scalar related to eigenvalues can eliminate the asphericity error. Additionally, a new strategy for estimating the length of the bearing vector is simpler and can be used to avoid singularities. With these two improvements, the formula for estimating the bearing vector is more concise and direct. The results show that the eigenvalue method performs better than the STAR and iterative methods.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Demagnetizing Field Caused by Specimen End Gaps in Electromagnet
           Measurements of Permanent Magnet Materials
    • Authors: Du-Xing Chen;
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: The midplane and volume-averaged demagnetizing factors, Nmid and Nvol, for a uniformly magnetized cylinder of length ls and radius rs clamped in the pole gap of an electromagnet with end gaps of total length ds are calculated as functions of ds/ls and ls/(2rs) and used for converting the measured magnetization-field curves of an Alnico specimen for different values of ds. The maximum ds/ls allowed for permanent magnet measurements stated in IEC and ASTM standards are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Compact Magnetic Field Sensor Based on a Magnetic-Fluid-Integrated Fiber
    • Authors: Wenwen Wu;Ye Cao;Hao Zhang;Bo Liu;Xu Zhang;Shaoxiang Duan;Yange Liu;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: A compact, low-cost, fiber-compatible magnetic field sensor based on multimodal interference in an S-taper and up-fusion-taper fiber modal interferometer is designed and experimentally demonstrated. The spectral characteristics in response to applied magnetic field and environmental temperature have been analyzed in detail. Experimental results indicate that the magnetic sensitivity reaches -0.03464 nm/Oe for a magnetic field ranging from 40 to 160 Oe. The proposed sensor has a maximum temperature sensitivity of 0.04889 nm/°C when the temperature increases from 27 to 45 °C. The effect of temperature on wavelength shift could be resolved by using a matrix containing the magnetic field and temperature sensitivities for two selected interferometric dips.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Calibration of Magnetometer Arrays in Magnetic Field Gradients
    • Authors: Yaxin Mu;Xiaojuan Zhang;Wupeng Xie;
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: The calibration of vector magnetometer arrays plays an important role in the detection of ferromagnetic targets. Traditional calibration methods assume that the magnetic environment is uniform and stable, which often is not the case. We describe a calibration method for nonuniform environments based on the redundancy of magnetic flux density tensor elements Bxy and Byx and the fact that the tensor rotational invariant remains constant at one point, independent of posture. The compensation model focuses on the gradient field, which largely eliminates geomagnetic fluctuations over time. The calibration procedure is completed at one point, which avoids problems with spatial nonuniformity of the magnetic field. Simulations confirm that the proposed calibration method provides an effective and more accurate compensation performance in inhomogeneous magnetic environments.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
  • Correction to “Electrochemical Synthesis of Co-Rich Nanowires for
    • Authors: Sri Ramulu Torati;Xinghao Hu;Seok Soo Yoon;CheolGi Kim;
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: This erratum corrects scanning electron microscopy images and a magnetization curve that appeared in an article by the authors.
      PubDate: 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2019)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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