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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 187 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 90)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 337)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 295)
ECTI Transactions on Computer and Information Technology (ECTI-CIT)     Open Access  
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access  
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 117)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 97)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 100)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Embedded Systems Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Haptics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 99)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access  
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access  
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access  
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal ELTIKOM : Jurnal Teknik Elektro, Teknologi Informasi dan Komputer     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Magnetics Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Nanotechnology Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Pulse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Revue Méditerranéenne des Télécommunications     Open Access  
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Solid-State Circuits Magazine, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ural Radio Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Wireless Power Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Women in Engineering Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.192
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 70  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0278-0046
Published by IEEE Homepage  [191 journals]
  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics publication information
    • PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Information
    • PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics Information for Authors
    • PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • A High-Frequency Link Matrix Rectifier With a Pure Capacitive Output
           Filter in a Discontinuous Conduction Mode
    • Authors: Dongdong Lan;Pritam Das;Sanjib Kumar Sahoo;
      Pages: 4 - 15
      Abstract: High-frequency link matrix rectifier (HFLMR) is an isolated single-stage three-phase ac–dc converter, which originates from the three-phase matrix converter and inherits the advantages of matrix rectifier such as no dc-link components. In this paper, an HFLMR for more electric aircraft system is proposed. The proposed HFLMR consists of a three-phase input LC filter, a matrix rectifier, a high-frequency transformer, a diode bridge rectifier, and a purely capacitive output filter. The elimination of output filter inductor clamps the output rectifier device off-state voltage to the output voltage and eliminates any RC snubber across the rectifier. A novel symmetric modulation scheme based on space vector modulation is implemented to regulate the switching sequences and provide selective natural zero voltage switching and zero current switching of the devices of the matrix bridge. The proposed converter is more power-dense since it eliminates the dc-link components, output filter inductor, and lossy snubber across the output rectifier devices. A TI digital signal processor TMS320F28379D is used to process the converter signals and generate the gating logic. The proposed converter is validated on a laboratory prototype powered by 115 $V_{{rms}}$ ac with frequency of 400 Hz. The isolated dc output voltage is regulated at 270 V dc and the maximum output power is 600 W.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Multibattery-Fed Neutral-Point-Clamped DC–AC Converter With SoC
           Balancing Control to Maximize Capacity Utilization
    • Authors: Sergio Busquets-Monge;Alber Filba-Martinez;Salvador Alepuz;Joan Nicolas-Apruzzese;Adria Luque;Alfonso Conesa-Roca;Josep Bordonau;
      Pages: 16 - 27
      Abstract: This paper studies a multilevel multiphase dc–ac conversion system configured by a neutral-point-clamped converter fed by multiple battery packs connected in series. A virtual-vector modulation is selected and a state-of-charge (SoC) balancing control is designed to be able to employ the full battery bank capacity, even under different battery initial SoC values or different battery nominal capacities. The SoC balancing among battery packs is accomplished through the multilevel converter operation in a lossless manner, by simply distributing the dc-to-ac power flow among the batteries according to their SoC. A simple average system model is also presented, which allows performing very fast system simulations over long periods of time and serves as a convenient tool to tune the compensator parameters. The satisfactory performance of the proposed system configuration and control, which can be applied with any number of levels and phases, has been verified through simulations and experiments in a four-level three-phase dc–ac converter fed by three lithium-ion battery packs. The results prove the feasibility and advantages of the proposed system configuration, which can be used to implement conversion systems with different specifications combining several instances of a standard battery pack and a standard power semiconductor device.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Improved Direct Torque Control for a DFIG under Symmetrical Voltage Dip
           With Transient Flux Damping
    • Authors: M. R. Agha Kashkooli;Seyed M. Madani;Thomas A. Lipo;
      Pages: 28 - 37
      Abstract: This paper proposes a new reference-generation-strategy for direct torque control (DTC) of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), under symmetrical voltage-dips. Since DTC has no current-control loop, it cannot prevent overcurrent during voltage-dips. The proposed method prevents overcurrent in the rotor side converter, by damping the transient-flux and modifying the references of rotor-flux and torque, during voltage dip and recovery. The analysis of DTC for DFIG is presented by a λ-i equivalent circuit, which is decomposed into forced and natural circuits. Based on the natural λ-i circuit, the method adds a transient compensation term to the rotor-flux reference, which is obtained by multiplying the stator-natural-flux with a proposed decaying-ramp function. Moreover, this method reduces the forced component of rotor-flux proportional to the grid voltage. As a result, this method adjusts the transient-flux damping time and ensures overcurrent prevention in the rotor and stator windings. The torque reference is modified to maintain the torque-angle (between rotor and stator flux vectors) constant, which results in stable control of the DFIG during grid faults. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by experimental results of a 3-kW test set-up and simulation results of a 2-MW DFIG.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • A Hybrid Control Strategy of Hybrid-Excitation Switched Reluctance Motor
           for Torque Ripple Reduction and Constant Power Extension
    • Authors: Wen Ding;Guoji Liu;Pengyu Li;
      Pages: 38 - 48
      Abstract: A novel hybrid control strategy combining vector control and current continuous conduction is proposed in this paper to improve the performance of a hybrid-excitation switched reluctance motor (HESRM). Vector control, widely used in ac machines, is redefined in HESRM based on static torque characteristic to simplify an HESRM controller and reduce torque ripple. However, at a high-speed and heavy-load operation, current tracking accuracy deteriorates and torque ripple reduction effect gets worse. Current continuous conduction is combined with vector control to improve current tracking accuracy and maintain smooth torque ripple. In the HESRM, the power generally falls nearly in proportion to the square of speed over based speed, and a traditional control technique can maintain only a narrow constant power range. This novel vector control is easy to achieve phase advance and current continuous conduction simultaneously. By combining these two together, the HESRM can extend the constant power in a wider speed range and efficiency is also improved. Simulations and experiments in different conditions are carried out to verify the effectiveness of a hybrid control strategy.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Phase Voltage Measurement for Permanent Magnet Machine Sensorless Drive
           Using Controller Capture Modulator
    • Authors: Guan-Ren Chen;Shih-Chin Yang;
      Pages: 49 - 58
      Abstract: This paper improves the position sensorless drive by sensing actual machine phase voltages. A high-bandwidth phase voltage measurement is developed for pulsewidth modulation (PWM) voltage inverters. On the basis, the actual phase voltage is obtained based on the digital integration of PWM voltage using the capture modulator in existing drive microcontrollers (MCU's). Comparing to existing phase voltage measurement, no separated A/D converter and communication hardware are required because PWM pulses are directly measured using MCUs. However, for standard machines without neutral points, only line-to-line ac PWM voltages can be measured for the phase voltage reconstruction. Since the capture based on transistor-transistor logic (TTL) logics receives only digital signals, a preprocess circuit to convert ac PWM line voltages to equivalent digital signals is proposed. This paper clearly explains the voltage sensing hardware using MCU capture modulator. According to experimental results, a 150-MHz sampling rate for phase voltage measurement is achieved based on the proposed capture-based voltage measurement. Although the physical limitation of back electromotive force estimation still appears, the proposed phase voltage measurement substantially enhances the sensorless drive performance at low speed.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Core-Loss Analysis of High-Speed Doubly Salient Electromagnetic Machine
           for Aeronautic Starter/Generator Application
    • Authors: Wanying Jia;Lan Xiao;Deming Zhu;
      Pages: 59 - 68
      Abstract: Core-loss calculation is an important issue in the design and analysis of electric machines, especially in high-speed applications. However, because of the severe uneven distribution and local supersaturation of the flux density, in combination with the evident dc magnetic bias and the skin effect of the eddy current at a high frequency, it is difficult to estimate the core loss in a high-speed doubly salient electromagnetic machine. In this paper, two improved core-loss calculation methods are proposed. Additionally, an approach is established to determine the core-loss coefficients, which considers the influence of the frequency and amplitude of the flux density by adopting the function-fitting method. The change pattern of the core-loss coefficients is also investigated, together with the influence of the dc magnetic bias on the eddy-current loss. Finally, rotor-lock experiments and high-speed rotating experiments are both conducted. Additionally, two improved methods are used and compared for core-loss calculation.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Mutual Calibration of Multiple Current Sensors With Accuracy Uncertainties
           in IPMSM Drives for Electric Vehicles
    • Authors: Jiadong Lu;Yihua Hu;Guipeng Chen;Zheng Wang;Jinglin Liu;
      Pages: 69 - 79
      Abstract: This paper proposes a mutual calibration strategy for multiple current sensors in an electric vehicle motor drive. The motor drive usually consists of three current sensors, i.e., a dc-bus current sensor and two phase current sensors. Due to the aging effect and harsh operating environment, the accuracy uncertainty issue is inevitable in these crucial sensors, which results in poor driving performance. In this paper, the detection voltage injection (DV-Injection) method is proposed for mutual calibration of the aforementioned current sensors. Two opposite basic vectors are set together to detect and eliminate the offset error of the dc-bus current sensor. Then, both the directly measured phase-current values by the phase-current sensors and the indirectly measured values by the dc-bus current sensor are sampled. These values are utilized for mutual calibration of the phase-current sensor offset errors and scaling error differences among all the current sensors. Meanwhile, the DV-Injection process is only applied in the period of calibration process, whereas in the remaining intervals the space vector pulsewidth modulation technology is utilized. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed scheme is verified by simulation study in MATLAB/Simulink and experimental results on a 5-kW interior permanent magnet synchronous motor motor prototype.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Multiobjective Optimization of a Double-Side Linear Vernier PM Motor Using
           Response Surface Method and Differential Evolution
    • Authors: Wenxiang Zhao;Anqi Ma;Jinghua Ji;Xu Chen;Tian Yao;
      Pages: 80 - 90
      Abstract: This paper designs a double-side linear vernier permanent-magnet motor, which incorporates the merits of high thrust force capability, high power factor, and high efficiency. Since the parameters of the motor are very sensitive and the high thrust force capability comes along with the high force ripple, a framework of multiobjective optimization is proposed to improve the overall motor performances. The sensitivity analysis is used to select significant variables and the multiobjective differential evolution with ranking-based mutation operator is conducted with the response surface models to generate the Pareto solution set. The electromagnetic performances of the optimal motor are compared with the initial motor by simulating step by step based on finite-element analysis. Finally, a prototype motor is manufactured and the experimental results validate the improved motor performances.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Assessment of an Improved Finite Control Set Model Predictive Current
           Controller for Automotive Propulsion Applications
    • Authors: Andreas Andersson;Torbjörn Thiringer;
      Pages: 91 - 100
      Abstract: This paper presents an investigation on finite control set model predictive current control, validated experimentally with a rear axle electrical drive unit used in automotive applications. An improved problem formulation is suggested which lowers the computational turnaround time of the solver with approximately $text{40}%$ for an horizon length of $N=4$. Apart from the computational requirement aspects, the assessment focuses on inverter efficiency, phase current total demand distortion, and acoustic performance. The proposed solution is evaluated against a standard double proportional and integrator (PI) field-oriented current controller with pulsewidth modulation. It is shown that the proposed solution is feasible, the associated optimization problem at hand can be solved in real time, while exploiting the attractiveness of the proposed improvements. In summary, it is concluded that the inverter efficiency can be improved without deteriorating neither the phase current harmonics nor the acoustic performance.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Design and Analysis of Novel Asymmetric-Stator-Pole Flux Reversal PM
           Machine
    • Authors: Hui Yang;Heyun Lin;Z. Q. Zhu;Shukang Lyu;Yangyang Liu;
      Pages: 101 - 114
      Abstract: This paper proposes a novel flux reversal permanent magnet (FRPM) machine with asymmetric-stator-pole (ASP) configuration. Different from the conventional FRPM machine with uniform “NS-NS-NS” PM sequence, the proposed ASP-FRPM machine is characterized by a “NSN-S-NSN” magnet arrangement. Hence, the interpolar flux leakage is significantly reduced with the developed design, which can improve the torque capability. The machine topologies, features, and operating principle are introduced, respectively. A simplified magnetic circuit model is established to reveal the underlying flux leakage reduction mechanism of the ASP design, and the rotor pole number is analytically optimized as well. The design parameters are then globally optimized so as to improve the torque quality. In addition, the electromagnetic characteristics of the ASP- and conventional FRPM machines are compared. Finally, experiments have been carried out to validate the theoretical results.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Electromagnetic Force and Vibration Study on Axial Flux Permanent Magnet
           Synchronous Machines With Dual Three-Phase Windings
    • Authors: Yang Lu;Jian Li;Ronghai Qu;Donglin Ye;Hanxiao Lu;
      Pages: 115 - 125
      Abstract: This paper presents a detailed analysis of the electromagnetic force and vibration behavior of an axial flux permanent magnet synchronous machine (AFPMSM). First, the AFPMSM configuration and two types of dual three-phase winding are introduced. Subsequently, the electromagnetic force of the double-stator inner-rotor AFPMSM is investigated. Its spatial and temporal characteristics are derived analytically and validated through two-dimensional Fourier decomposition. A multiphysics model is established to calculate the vibration of the AFPMSM, which includes control, electromagnetic, structural, and vibration model. The accuracy of this multiphysics model is verified by the modal and vibration test. Furthermore, the vibration of the AFPMSM with three winding types considering current harmonics are calculated based on the multiphysics model. The vibration performance of the AFPMSM with three different winding types are compared and the mechanism of vibration is discussed. It was concluded that the novel detached winding could mitigate the vibration of dual three-phase AFPMSMs. Finally, the vibration test is carried out to validate the theoretical analysis and the experimental results agree well-with the simulation results. This paper provides an effective method for double-stator permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSMs) to reduce vibration.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Minimization of Switched Capacitor Voltage Ripple in a Multilevel
           Dodecagonal Voltage Space Vector Structure for Drives
    • Authors: Mohammed Imthias;Krishna Raj R;Apurv Kumar Yadav;K. Gopakumar;L. Umanand;Carlo Cecati;
      Pages: 126 - 135
      Abstract: A multilevel dodecagonal voltage space vector generation scheme for variable-speed drive applications with single-dc-link operation requires a large value of capacitance for cascaded H-bridge (CHB) filters, when operated at lower speeds. In existing schemes, the multilevel dodecagonal structure is obtained by cascading a flying capacitor inverter with a CHB. In this paper, a new scheme has been proposed to minimize the capacitance requirement for full speed operation by creating vector redundancies using modular and equal voltage CHBs. Also, an algorithm has been developed to optimize the selection of vector redundancies among the CHBs in order to minimize the voltage ripple of the floating capacitors. The proposed algorithm considers instantaneous capacitor voltages and phase currents for optimal selection of vector redundancies. A mathematical model for capacitor voltage deviation is presented, and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified in both the simulation and the experiment.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • IPMSMs Sensorless MTPA Control Based on Virtual q-Axis Inductance by Using
           Virtual High-Frequency Signal Injection
    • Authors: Qipeng Tang;Anwen Shen;Pan Luo;Hanlin Shen;Wuhua Li;Xiangning He;
      Pages: 136 - 146
      Abstract: A novel control scheme is proposed in this paper for the sensorless control of interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSMs) with the automatic tracking of the maximum-torque-per-ampere (MTPA) trajectory. Differing from the conventional method that the estimation of the rotor position and the tracking of MTPA trajectory are two separate processes, the proposed control scheme can achieve sensorless MTPA control of IPMSMs in one step by defining and constructing a proper virtual q-axis inductance to directly calculate the current space vector angle along the MTPA trajectory rather than the rotor position, which greatly simplifies the whole implementation process. Meanwhile, considering that the virtual q-axis inductance is changing with the machine parameters and the applied load, a simple signal processing technique based on the virtual high-frequency signal injection is developed for the real time and accurate acquisition of the virtual q-axis inductance. Furthermore, in order to ensure the reliability and stability of the proposed control scheme, the effective range of the virtual q-axis inductance is analyzed in detail. Finally, the experimental results on an IPMSM demonstrate the proposed control scheme can achieve the high-performance sensorless control with accurate MTPA self-tracking operation.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Coupled Inductor Based Regenerative Cascaded Multicell Converter for
           Drives With Multilevel Voltage Operation at Both Input and Output Sides
    • Authors: Shambhu Sau;Saurabh P. Nikam;Baylon G. Fernandes;
      Pages: 147 - 158
      Abstract: Cascaded multicell converter (CMC) is one of the effective solutions for medium-voltage high-power drives. The inability to regenerate power back to the source is one of the limitations of this converter. The regeneration capability is obtained by using a pulsewidth-modulated active rectifier instead of a conventional three-phase passive rectifier in each cell. However, due to their two-level voltage operation at the input side, an inductor is required for each cell to filter out the switching frequency components from the input current. This paper proposes a new configuration of regenerative CMC based on coupled inductor to achieve multilevel voltage at the transformer secondary terminals. This allows us to operate the rectifier devices at reduced switching frequency. The coupled inductor reduces the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the transformer secondary current and thus the transformer size. The size of the filter inductor and the transformer ratings are compared. The operating principle and the detailed analysis are presented. A technique to bypass a faulty module is proposed. The working of the converter is verified through simulation and experimental studies.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Symmetrical Three-Vector-Based Model Predictive Control With Deadbeat
           Solution for IPMSM in Rotating Reference Frame
    • Authors: Shin-Won Kang;Jae-Hwan Soh;Rae-Young Kim;
      Pages: 159 - 168
      Abstract: This paper proposes a model predictive control based on three voltage vectors for an interior permanent-magnet synchronous motor in a rotating reference frame. The proposed method can obtain the reference voltage vector quickly by predicting only one voltage vector during one sampling period using the characteristics of the deadbeat control. In addition, to obtain better steady-state performance, the optimal vector duration ratios can be obtained from the cost function to minimize the error between the predicted reference voltage vector and the synthesis vector by using the switching sequence relationship of a symmetrical three vector, which is different from applying a single voltage vector in the conventional finite-control-set model predictive control (FCS-MPC). To verify the proposed method, the experimental results are compared with the conventional FCS-MPC and two-vector-based MPC.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Permanent-Magnet Machine Flux and Torque Response Under the Influence of
           Turn Fault
    • Authors: Cheng-Chung Hsu;Shih-Chin Yang;
      Pages: 169 - 179
      Abstract: This paper analyzes different stator windings configurations for permanent-magnet synchronous machines during the presence of a stator turn fault. Due to the inverter pulsewidth modulation, the fault commonly occurs in variable-frequency permanent-magnet machine drives. In this paper, two types of windings are compared to identify key machine topologies that can achieve the reduced influence of the turn fault. When the machine is operated in real time, the windings with separated neutral points reduce the torque ripple caused by fault-reflected flux harmonics. Analytical models based on equivalent circuits are developed to predict the machine flux and torque waveform during the presence of the turn fault. All developed analytical models are verified by the finite-element analysis and experimental results on a 750-W surface permanent-magnet machine prototype.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Detent-Force Minimization of Double-Sided Permanent Magnet Linear
           Synchronous Motor by Shifting One of the Primary Components
    • Authors: Xu Zhen Huang;Han Chuan Yu;Bo Zhou;Li Yi Li;David Gerada;Chris Gerada;Zhenyu Yu Qian;
      Pages: 180 - 191
      Abstract: The longitudinal end effect of the double-sided permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (DS-PMLSM) causes a large end force. To overcome this drawback, this paper proposes a novel DS-PMLSM structure, in which the upper or lower primary component is shifted by a certain distance. First, the end-force model of the DS-PMLSM is established, based on which, the influences of the staggered structure on the fundamental and higher order end-force components are analyzed. Following this, the DS-PMLSMs with different slot–pole combinations are divided into four categories, and the design principles of possible winding arrangements are discussed. Furthermore, the staggered structures are applied to four slot–pole combinations, namely 21-, 15-, 20-, and 16-pole/18-slot. The back electromotive forces, detent forces, thrusts, and normal forces of the four combinations are analyzed and compared through the finite-element method. The electromagnetic and output characteristics of the novel DS-PMLSM are also compared with the traditional DS-PMLSM prototype to verify the effect of the proposed structure on suppressing the end force.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Single-Stage High-Efficiency 48/1 V Sigma Converter With Integrated
           Magnetics
    • Authors: Mohamed H. Ahmed;Chao Fei;Fred C. Lee;Qiang Li;
      Pages: 192 - 202
      Abstract: A high-efficiency, high-power-density Sigma converter for a 48 V rack architecture in data centers is proposed in this paper. The Sigma converter is a quasi-parallel converter that uses a high-efficiency unregulated converter to deliver the bulk power to the load. A small buck converter is responsible for regulating the output voltage with prescribed dynamic responses. A design guideline for Sigma converter with integrated magnetics is provided in this paper. The unregulated converter is an LLC converter designed with a printed circuit board (PCB) winding matrix transformer, a structure which integrates four elemental transformers into one core. The buck converter is designed with discrete gallium nitride (GaN) devices and a PCB winding inductor. The proposed Sigma converter operates at 48 V input and 1 V-80 A output and can achieve a power density of 420 W/in3 as well as a peak efficiency of 94%.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Analysis, Design, and Experimental Verification of a Mixed High-Order
           Compensations-Based WPT System with Constant Current Outputs for Driving
           Multistring LEDs
    • Authors: Yong Li;Jiefeng Hu;Xiaofei Li;Feibin Chen;Qiaodi Xu;Ruikun Mai;Zhengyou He;
      Pages: 203 - 213
      Abstract: Current imbalance in multistring light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is a critical issue. It may cause overcurrent in one or more LED strings, leading to rapid degradation. In this paper, a mixed high-order compensation networks-based wireless power transfer system is proposed to generate multiple constant current outputs. It is composed of an LCC resonant network in the transmitting side, a series resonant network, and multiple CLC resonant rectifiers in the receiving side. The CLC resonant rectifiers are connected in parallel to form multiple independent output channels, and each channel is then connected to an LED string. Based on the analysis of the T resonant circuit and the modeling of coupling coils, multiple constant output currents can be derived. As a result, current balance can be achieved, which is very suitable for driving multistring LEDs. The proposed system also offers a modular, scalable, and maintenance-free design, which can significantly reduce the construction cost and the control complexity. In addition, the inverter in the transmitting side can achieve zero phase angle. A laboratory prototype with dual independent output currents is built to verify the proposed method. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical analysis.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Control Scheme to Achieve Multiple Objectives and Superior Reliability for
           Input-Series-Output-Parallel LCL-Type Grid-Connected Inverter System
    • Authors: Tianzhi Fang;Xianyun Zhang;Chun Huang;Wei He;Le Shen;Xinbo Ruan;
      Pages: 214 - 224
      Abstract: Input-series-output-parallel (ISOP) inverter system is very suitable for high dc input voltage and large ac output current power conversion applications. If this topology is applied to the grid-connected occasion, a bulky-capacity grid-connected inverter can be built with multiple small-capacity standardized inverter modules, which can significantly improve the reliability of the system operation and facilitate system design. In this paper, we investigate an ISOP LCL-type grid-connected inverter system, and put forward an optimized way for the topology of combined LCL filters first. Then, the inverter-side inductor current is carefully chosen as the controlled variable and thus a concise distributed control method is proposed to achieve multiple control objectives. On the basis of the presented distributed control, the redundant control technique is also provided to heighten the reliability of the grid-tied ISOP inverter indeed. Finally, a three-module prototype is built and the experimental results validate the effectiveness of the raised strategy.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Unified Second-Stage LC Filter Applied in the Three-State Switching Cell
           Buck–Boost Converter: Static and Dynamic Analysis and Experimentation
    • Authors: Hugo Rolando Estofanero Larico;Valdir Pedrinho de Tomin;Edwin Red Estofanero Larico;
      Pages: 225 - 234
      Abstract: This paper presents a unified second-stage LC filter applied in the three-state switching cell buck–boost converter, which provides current and voltage with low ripple and low noise. The unified second-stage filter promotes a reduction in the number of devices while maintaining the filtering performance of the converter, with second-stage LC filters at the input and at the output. Moreover, the unified filter, when associated with a three-state switching cell buck–boost converter, allows a size reduction of filter devices, especially for designs with duty cycle range around 1/2. Furthermore, the unified filter arrangement provides nondissipative clamping of switching devices and reduce the system order when compared to the converter with second-stage LC filters. In this paper, the static and dynamic characteristics of the proposed converter in continuous conduction mode (CCM) are reported. Experimental data were obtained from a laboratory prototype with an input range of 32$sim$72 V, constant output of 48 V, a load of 150 W, and switching frequency of 45 kHz. The measured efficiency for the rated load was 97% for maximum input voltage. A comparison of the size and performance of the proposed filter with the topology that uses second-stage LC filters at the input and at the output is also presented.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Integrated Buck and Modified Push−Pull DC−DC Converter With
           High Step-Down Ratio
    • Authors: Kuo-Ching Tseng;I-Chien Li;Chun-An Cheng;
      Pages: 235 - 243
      Abstract: This paper proposes a novel isolated high step-down conversion circuit, called an integrated buck and modified push−pull (IBMPP) converter, which is able to lower the voltage level on the primary side of the ideal transformer, resulting in a lower turns-ratio and decreased leakage inductance. The IBMPP converter is able to prevent the duty cycle from operating in extremely low conditions. Furthermore, the proposed converter adopts active-clamp techniques to recycle leakage energy and to suppress voltage spikes, so that the conversion efficiency can be effectively improved. The advantages of the IBMPP converter are its simple topology, easy control mechanism (which requires only two signals with a 180-degree phase shift), high conversion ratio, low component counts for power switches, and less voltage stress on some of the switches on the high-voltage side. The operation principle, steady-state analysis, design considerations, and experimental results of the proposed IBMPP converter are presented in detail. The feasibility of the IBMPP is verified by hardware implementation. The full-load efficiency at 250 W is 81.44%, and the input and output voltages are 380 and 5 V, respectively.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • A Novel Controlled Frequency Band Impedance Measurement Approach for
           Single-Phase Railway Traction Power System
    • Authors: Haitao Hu;Pengyu Pan;Yitong Song;Zhengyou He;
      Pages: 244 - 253
      Abstract: The accurate information of the wide-bandwidth impedance versus the frequency is urgently needed for evaluating the system resonances, instabilities, and operations of the railway traction power system (TPS), and to avoid/control the harmonic resonance and oscillation issues. As the system topology and detailed parameters of the TPS are not fully known even timely varying, we have to obtain the detailed wide-bandwidth impedance information through exciting the harmonic disturbance into the system, and then, calculating the response information. Therefore, a controlled wide-bandwidth impedance measurement approach is presented in this paper, in which, a butterfly-type disturbance circuit and chirp pulsewidth modulation signal model are incorporated to generate the desired controlled-bandwidth harmonics with a high aggregation as well as the average amplitude. Impedance measurement results of the proposed approach have been validated through both simulation and experiment. Considering the measured errors, the proposed method is efficient in testing the wide-bandwidth impedance of the single-phase railway traction system.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • An Optimized Modulation Strategy for the Three-Level DAB Converter With
           Five Control Degrees of Freedom
    • Authors: Peng Liu;Changsong Chen;Shanxu Duan;
      Pages: 254 - 264
      Abstract: Compared with the conventional two-level dual-active-bridge (DAB) dc–dc converter, the three-level DAB converter could operate with lower voltage rated switching devices and provide more control degrees of freedom, which enhances the control flexibility. This paper proposes a modulation strategy with five control degrees of freedom. In the previous work with multiple control degrees, the optimization strategies for efficiency or inductor current minimization are investigated; however, these strategies all need detailed mode analysis and complex mathematical optimization tools to obtain the optimal duty cycles. In this paper, an optimization strategy for the root-mean-square value of the inductor current is proposed. This method extracts the fundamental and third-harmonic components from the high-frequency voltages on both sides and adjusts the amplitude of the bridge voltages by the vector diagram to obtain the optimal duty cycles. The inductor current can be reduced significantly at light loads with the proposed strategy, so the efficiency of the converter can be improved. Moreover, the optimization process does not need the detailed operation analysis of the converter, nor does it require the complex mathematical optimization tools. Finally, the performance of the three-level DAB and the optimization strategy are verified by the experimental results.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • S-Hybrid Step-Down DC–DC Converter—Analysis of Operation and
           Design Considerations
    • Authors: Gab-Su Seo;Hanh-Phuc Le;
      Pages: 265 - 275
      Abstract: This paper presents a new highly integrable hybrid step-down converter that merges switched-inductor and switched-capacitor operations and significantly reduces onboard loss by using the input cable's parasitic inductance as its main inductor. This converter has the inductor placed at the input with a smaller voltage swing, leading to possible use of a smaller inductor and low-voltage rating switches that generally translate to reduced conduction losses. Analyses of converter operation and losses to reveal its original characteristics and design guidelines are presented to facilitate the components optimization. The converter architecture is verified by a proof-of-concept 15-W inductor-less lithium-ion battery charger prototype that uses a 1-m USB 3.0 cable as inductor. The converter, switched at 2 MHz from a 5-V input, experimentally achieves 89.7% peak efficiency and 6% higher efficiency at full load than a Buck converter counterpart. This high efficiency and zero onboard inductor yield a relative 45.7% onboard loss reduction at full load, promising excellent integration feasibility and superior system thermal management.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Impact of Rebar and Concrete on Power Dissipation of Wireless Power
           Transfer Systems
    • Authors: Seung-Hwan Lee;Myung-Yong Kim;Byung-Song Lee;Jaehong Lee;
      Pages: 276 - 287
      Abstract: Steel-reinforced concrete has been widely used in the construction of railways because of its robustness and low maintenance cost. This paper focuses on the analysis of unwanted losses in a reinforced concrete track when a high-power online wireless power transfer system is installed on it. Induced dielectric loss in the concrete, and eddy current and hysteresis losses in the reinforcing steel bar are calculated using analytic equations and finite-element analysis. Among the three sources of loss, a dominant one is identified in the first three sections of this paper. It is shown that the dielectric loss in the concrete and the hysteresis loss in the reinforcing bar do not have a critical impact on the efficiency. However, it is found that the eddy current loss of the reinforcing bar is dominant over the other two losses. Furthermore, the eddy current loss of the reinforcing bar overwhelmed the ohmic loss of a transmitter coil if the transmitter coil is not located in a proper position on the concrete track. The theoretical results are evaluated experimentally using a 7-m-long test bed. When the transmitter coil is located 0.14 m above the reinforcing bar, the measured eddy current loss of the steel bar is 3 kW while the Ohmic loss of the transmitter coil is 1.5 kW. As the distance between the transmitter coil and the steel bar increases, the eddy current loss of the bar decreases rapidly. From the simulation and the experimental evaluation of the loss, guidelines for installing a transmitter coil on a reinforcing bar for an in-motion wireless power transfer system are suggested in this paper.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • A New and Modular Active Snubber Cell for Inverters
    • Authors: Hacı Bodur;Erdem Akboy;Hüseyin Yeşilyurt;
      Pages: 288 - 296
      Abstract: In this paper, a new modular and active snubber cell, easily applicable, and attractive for converters, especially have many switches proposed. This snubber cell is implemented on the single phase of a grid-connected three-phase T-type three-level inverter (T-3LI). In this new converter, the main switches turn-on under zero-voltage transition and turn-off under zero-voltage switching (ZVS). Also, auxiliary switches turn-on under zero-current switching and turn-off under ZVS. All snubber diodes operate under soft switching (SS). There are no additional current and voltage stresses on the main switches. During an SS operation, the switching energies are transferred to a dc voltage source. Then, these energies are processed to input with an independent dc–dc converter. Thus, all switching energies are recycled. In this paper, the principle operation and steady-state analysis of the modular and active snubber cell for a single-phase T-3LI are presented and experimental results, rated 1 kW and 100 kHz, are provided to verify theoretical analysis.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • LQR Control of Single-Phase Grid-Tied PUC5 Inverter With
           LCL Filter
    • Authors: Naima Arab;Hani Vahedi;Kamal Al-Haddad;
      Pages: 297 - 307
      Abstract: This paper presents the current control design procedure of a single-phase grid-tied five-level packed U-cell inverter (PUC5) with an LCL output filter. The PUC5 inverter is used as an interface of renewable energy sources, such as solar applications. The LCL filter is calculated according to the grid-tied operation and converter ratings. An optimal controller, based on a linear quadratic regulator with integral action, is designed to inject a sinusoidal current with low harmonic distortion at unity power factor. For that design, the PUC5 inverter is modelled in the D–Q frame. The sensorless voltage control is incorporated into the switching technique to balance the PUC5 capacitor voltage and generate a five-level waveform at the output. Experimental tests are performed on a laboratory benchmark to confirm the theoretical design. The results prove the efficiency and accuracy of the adopted control strategy in a steady state and under transients of grid current, grid inductance, ac and dc voltage amplitudes.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • A Hybrid Boost–Flyback/Flyback Microinverter for
           Photovoltaic Applications
    • Authors: Feng Zhang;Yunxiang Xie;Yanshen Hu;Gang Chen;Xuemei Wang;
      Pages: 308 - 318
      Abstract: For photovoltaic applications, the flyback microinverter with pseudo-dc-link is popular as a simple topology but brings large transformer turns ratio and thus large leakage inductance, which would deteriorate the converter efficiency. To solve this issue, based on the nonisolated pseudo-dc-link structure, this paper proposed a hybrid boost–flyback/flyback (BF/F) microinverter. This new topology is operated at the BF mode for the most segment of a half grid cycle and the F mode for the rest. During the BF mode, high voltage gain with low voltage stress is easily available in minimized transformer turns ratio. Besides, the leakage energy is recycled and the turn-off voltage spike of the main switch is clamped, as a result of a passive snubber inherently contained in this mode. Given that the BF mode is lack of step-down function, the F mode is developed to regulate the output voltage even for values lower than the input voltage. The operation and characteristic of the hybrid BF/F microinverter in boundary conduction mode are analyzed in detail, and the mathematical expression of reference current is derived theoretically to guarantee high power quality. Finally, a 240 W prototype was implemented to validate the theoretical analysis and the benefits of the proposed topology.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Seamless Transition of Synchronous Inverters Using Synchronizing Virtual
           Torque and Flux Linkage
    • Authors: Malek Ramezani;Shuhui Li;Fariborz Musavi;Saeed Golestan;
      Pages: 319 - 328
      Abstract: The introduction of virtual-synchronous machine and generator as well as synchronous inverter (synchronverter), in recent years, has facilitated the integration of inverter-interfaced distributed energy resources (IIDERs) into the synchronous generator (SG) dominant microgrids and power grid. In this concept, the voltage source inverter (VSI) is controlled in such a way that it mimics the behavior of SG. To provide a reliable utilization of the IIDERs, a seamless transition of the VSIs between islanded and grid-connected operation modes is required. This paper integrates a novel virtual torque and virtual flux linkage-based synchronizing technique into the synchronverter controller to provide a plug ‘n’ play capability of the VSIs and their smooth transition between these two operating modes. Comprehensive mathematical modeling, design, and dynamic stability analysis as well as dSPACE-based real-time simulation are provided to validate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Composite Hierarchical Pitch Angle Control for a Tidal Turbine Based on
           the Uncertainty and Disturbance Estimator
    • Authors: Xiuxing Yin;Xiaowei Zhao;
      Pages: 329 - 339
      Abstract: With the fast development of tidal turbines for sustainable energy generations, reliable and efficient tidal pitch systems are highly demanded. This paper presents a systematic design for a novel tidal pitch system based on hydraulic servo and bevel geared transmission. This system holds the characteristics of compact and triangular structure, making it easy to be installed in a narrow turbine hub. The pitch system dynamics are modeled by taking account of model uncertainties and external disturbances. An uncertainty and disturbance estimator (UDE)-based robust pitch control algorithm is developed to achieve effective pitch angle regulation, disturbance rejection, and generator power smoothing. The UDE controller is designed in a composite hierarchical manner that includes an upper level power smoothing controller and a low-level pitch angle tracking controller. The performance of the proposed pitch system and the UDE control is demonstrated through extensive simulation studies based on a 600-kW tidal turbine under varying tidal speeds. Compared with the conventional controller, the UDE-based pitch controller can achieve more reliable power smoothing and pitch angle tracking with higher accuracy.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • An Enhanced Strategy to Inhibit Commutation Failure in Line-Commutated
           Converters
    • Authors: Sohrab Mirsaeidi;Xinzhou Dong;
      Pages: 340 - 349
      Abstract: Failure of the commutation process is a serious malfunction in line-commutated high-voltage direct current (HVdc) converters, which mainly occurs due to inverter ac faults and may lead to outage of the HVdc system. In this paper, an improved strategy is developed that functions based on the SIEMENS HVdc control system under normal conditions and switches to a designed commutation failure inhibition module (CFIM) during an inverter ac fault. From the response speed point of view, since the designed CFIM does not require any proportional-integral controller, the inverter control system has a quick performance in prevention of the commutation failure. This is achieved by direct measurement of the overlap area using the waveforms of the valves anode–cathode and commuting voltages. In addition, from the accuracy aspect, the proposed method has a superior performance in comparison with the existing strategies. It is because of the fact that by direct measurement of the overlap area, variations of both direct current and the commutation inductance are considered, and hence, the unnecessary increase of the inverter reactive power consumption during the fault and the repetitive commutation failures are prevented. The practical performance and feasibility of the proposed strategy is validated through the laboratory testing, using the real-time Opal-RT hardware prototyping platform. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed strategy can effectively inhibit the commutation failure or repetitive commutation failures under different fault types by considering the lowest possible reactive power consumption.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Modeling and State-of-Charge Estimation of Supercapacitor Considering
           Leakage Effect
    • Authors: Pankaj Saha;Satadru Dey;Munmun Khanra;
      Pages: 350 - 357
      Abstract: Supercapacitors are receiving significant interest in wireless sensor network applications due to their high power density and longer lifespan. In such applications, consideration of the leakage effect is crucial for online control and management of supercapacitors. Motivated by this fact, in this paper we propose an online scheme to estimate the state-of-charge (SOC) of supercapacitors, taking the leakage effect into account. First, we propose a completely observable equivalent circuit model (ECM) of a supercapacitor, which captures the leakage effect. Then, we design an unscented-Kalman-filter-based SOC estimator on the proposed ECM. To illustrate the proposed scheme, we consider a commercially available 5 F supercapacitor (Maxwell BCAP0005) and conduct experimental studies to identify the ECM parameters. We also perform simulation and experimental studies to test the effectiveness of the proposed estimation scheme, in this paper. Finally, we evaluate the robustness of the proposed scheme under parametric and measurement uncertainties.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Suppression of Second-Order Harmonic Current for Droop-Controlled
           Distributed Energy Resource Converters in DC Microgrids
    • Authors: Guangyuan Liu;Tommaso Caldognetto;Paolo Mattavelli;Paolo Magnone;
      Pages: 358 - 368
      Abstract: Droop-controlled distributed energy resource converters in dc microgrids usually show low output impedances. When coupled with ac systems, second-order harmonics typically appear on the dc-bus voltage, causing significant harmonic currents at the converters resource side. In this paper, we show how to reduce such undesired currents by means of notch filters and resonant regulators included in the converters control loops. The main characteristics of these techniques in terms of harmonic attenuation and stability are systematically investigated. In particular, it is shown that the voltage control-loop bandwidth is limited to be below twice the line frequency to avoid instability. Then, a modified notch filter and a modified resonant regulator are proposed, allowing to remove the constraint on the voltage loop bandwidth. The resulting methods (i.e., the notch filter, the resonant regulator, and their corresponding modified versions) are evaluated in terms of output impedance and stability. Experimental results from a dc microgrid prototype composed of three dc–dc converters and one dc–ac converter, all with a rated power of $text{5 kW}$, are reported.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Improved Accuracy, Modeling, and Stability Analysis of
           Power-Hardware-in-Loop Simulation With Open-Loop Inverter as Power
           Amplifier
    • Authors: Kapil Upamanyu;G. Narayanan;
      Pages: 369 - 378
      Abstract: The accuracy of a power-hardware-in-loop (PHIL) simulation is influenced by factors such as dynamics of the power amplifier (PA) and discretization of the real-time simulated part of the system. An open-loop voltage-source inverter (VSI) without an output filter is demonstrated to be a good choice for power amplification in terms of cost, size, design effort, bandwidth, and accuracy when the load on the PA is significantly inductive. An open-loop-VSI-based PA is shown to be accurate in emulating a synchronous generator, including the fast transients in the excitation control system. The discretization effects of the real-time simulator are captured effectively by the discrete-time (DT) modeling approach proposed in this paper. The DT model is shown to replicate fast transients in the PHIL simulation better than the existing continuous-time-based model. Stability of the PHIL simulation of a benchmark circuit is analyzed using the proposed DT modeling approach. The stability analysis is validated through simulations and experiments. The stability limits derived based on the proposed analysis are capable of suggesting maximum and minimum values of certain circuit parameters, as required for stability.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Adaptive Prognostic of Fuel Cells by Implementing Ensemble Echo State
           Networks in Time-Varying Model Space
    • Authors: Zhongliang Li;Zhixue Zheng;Rachid Outbib;
      Pages: 379 - 389
      Abstract: Prognostic plays an important role in improving the reliability and durability performance of fuel cells (FCs); although it is hard to realize an adaptive prognostic because of complex degradation mechanisms and the influence of operating conditions. In this paper, an adaptive data-driven prognostic strategy is proposed for FCs operated in different conditions. To extract a feasible health indicator (HI), a series of linear parameter-varying models are identified in sliding data segments. Then, virtual steady-state stack voltage is formulated in the identified model space and considered as the HI. To enhance the adaptability of prognostic, an ensemble echo state network is then implemented, given the extracted HI data. Long-term tests on a type of low-powerscale proton-exchange membrane FC stack in different operating modes are carried out. The performance of the proposed strategy is evaluated using the experimental data.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Sparse Template-Based 6-D Pose Estimation of Metal Parts Using a Monocular
           Camera
    • Authors: Zaixing He;Zhiwei Jiang;Xinyue Zhao;Shuyou Zhang;Chenrui Wu;
      Pages: 390 - 401
      Abstract: The six-dimensional (6-D) pose estimation of smooth metal parts is a common and important task in intelligent manufacturing. Computer-aided design (CAD)-based monocular vision methods offer more advantages than those offered by other methods. However, they are subject to several drawbacks such as high complexity, low robustness, and unsatisfactory accuracy, which hinder their application in industry. In this paper, a new approach with corresponding practical algorithms is proposed to solve these problems. The proposed approach uses high-level geometric features and the correlation of straight contours, to represent the part. Moreover, it exploits the matched special location points on the geometric features, which are the endpoints of the straight contours, to accurately estimate the 6-D pose. Practical algorithms based on the modification of the existing line-feature descriptors are proposed to implement the approach. The experimental results revealed that the proposed approach and algorithms can achieve higher accuracy and robustness with fewer templates.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Motion Control for Piezoelectric-Actuator-Based Surgical Device Using
           Neural Network and Extended State Observer
    • Authors: Jun Yik Lau;Wenyu Liang;Kok Kiong Tan;
      Pages: 402 - 412
      Abstract: This paper presents a robust neural network with an extended state observer control methodology for a piezoelectric-actuator-based surgical device. This control methodology is proposed for tracking of desired motion trajectories in the presence of unknown or uncertain system parameters, nonlinearities including friction, hysteresis, and disturbances in the motion system. In particular, the radial basis function neural network, which serves as a function approximator, aims to create a model for an unknown function to find a relationship between input and output data. An extended state observer is utilized to assist in canceling disturbances and uncertainties of the system dynamically. The stability of the control approach is analyzed. The convergence of position and velocity tracking errors is proven theoretically. Experiments are conducted to demonstrate that the performance with an improved accuracy can be attained by the proposed control scheme. With the motion tracking capability, the control methodology helps the novel surgical device achieve higher success rate in operation, which is also suitable for similar piezoelectric ultrasonic actuator applications.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Robust PMDC Motor Control for Accurate Wire Feeding in GMAW Using Back EMF
    • Authors: Arun Kumar Paul;
      Pages: 413 - 420
      Abstract: Metallic joints are created in multivariable gas metal arc welding process by maintaining a balance between the quantum of heat generated and the feeding rate of electrode metal to the weld gap. The wire feeding control is often independently handled. The wire feeder unit should be simple, low cost, and capable of producing accurate speed. Arc welding controllers are often kept in clumsy conditions and the wire feeder unit is located close to the welder, could be much away from the controller. To reduce interconnections, separate sensing element for speed feedback should be avoided. Due to their negligible electrical and mechanical time constant, the pancake-type permanent magnet dc motor is suitable for wire feeding, where sensing of back electromotive force (EMF) for feedback is easy. When high frequency pulsewidth modulation (PWM) controller is used, the sensing of back EMF gets complicated. This paper explores the constraints on the choice of PWM frequency along with its maximum pulsewidth for different types of dc motors. It further elaborates comparatively on the choice of suitable control function for generating accurate speed control of wire feeding using back EMF as feedback. Finally, this paper also details the experimental results using the proposed control function.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Tilting Torque Calculation of a Novel Tiered Type Permanent Magnet
           Spherical Motor
    • Authors: Lei Gan;Yulong Pei;Feng Chai;
      Pages: 421 - 431
      Abstract: This paper proposes a novel tiered type permanent magnet spherical motor (T-PMSPM) of which the output torque is relatively higher than that of the most existing spherical motors. The proposed T-PMSPM has three stators along axial direction; each of the stator is consisted of an iron core and a three-phase winding. An analytical method is developed in order to calculate the tilting torque based on the air gap magnetic field distribution generated with the specific pole–slot combinations. For performance verification and accurate calculation, three-dimensional finite-element analysis (FEA) is adopted. Two typical rotor configurations are compared and analyzed, focusing on the ability of large torque production, especially for the tilting torque. Finally, a prototype motor as well as the auxiliary apparatus used for experimental measurements has been manufactured. Considering that the friction torque is nonnegligible, a test procedure of torque measurement and separation is designed and performed. The tilting torque obtained from the experiments is compared with the FEA results after friction compensation.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Design and Trajectory Tracking of a Nanometric Ultra-Fast Tool Servo
    • Authors: Zhiwei Zhu;Hanheng Du;Rongjing Zhou;Peng Huang;Wu-Le Zhu;Ping Guo;
      Pages: 432 - 441
      Abstract: This paper reports on the development of a piezo-actuated nanometric ultra-fast tool servo (NU-FTS) for nanocutting. For motion guidance, a flexure mechanism is especially designed using a novel kind of generalized flexure hinges with the notch profiles described by a rational Bezier curve. Both kinematics and dynamics properties of the mechanism are comprehensively modeled through a novel finite beam modeling method. With this model, the hinge is divided into a set of serially connected beams with constant cross sections. The equivalent stiffness and lumped moving mass of the mechanism are derived based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. Taking advantage of the structure and performance model, the notch shape as well as the dimensions are optimized to achieve the specified criteria for the NU-FTS. Performance of the designed mechanism is verified through both finite-element analysis and practical testing on a prototype. Overall, the NU-FTS is demonstrated to have a stroke of 6 and 1.2 $ mu $m for the quasi-static and 10 kHz driving condition, respectively. Through dynamics inversion-based trajectory preshaping, a maximum following error around 25 and 50 nm is obtained for tracking a simple harmonic and a complicated trajectory, respectively.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Hydrothermal Aging Factor Estimation for Two-Cell Diesel-Engine SCR
           Systems via a Dual Time-Scale Unscented Kalman Filter
    • Authors: Kai Jiang;Fengjun Yan;Hui Zhang;
      Pages: 442 - 450
      Abstract: Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems have been widely used to meet the emission regulations and two-cell SCR systems have shown the advantages of high NO$_{x}$ conversion efficiency and low NH$_{3}$ slip simultaneously. However, it is noteworthy that the catalyst performance of SCR device would degrade over the service time gradually. If the performance degrading is not well-compensated, the NO$_{x}$ conversion efficiency would reduce significantly. Different from detecting the aging issue in the laboratory, a practical method is to design an observer to estimate the aging factor online such that the urea injection can be modified accordingly. In this paper, we aim to construct an aging-factor observer for two-cell SCR systems. In order to reduce the algorithm computational load and guarantee the implementation performance, we propose a dual time-scale algorithm based on two-cell SCR model and unscented Kalman filter. There is a fast time scale and a slow time scale in the algorithm. Two simulation studies of constant aging factor and time-varying aging factor are investigated in the simulation environment of MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results indicate that the proposed dual time-scale observer works well under different conditions and the calculational load is reduced significantly.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • A Pedagogical Study of Aerodynamic Feedback Control by Dielectric Barrier
           Discharge Plasma
    • Authors: Pok Wang Kwan;Xun Huang;
      Pages: 451 - 460
      Abstract: Active flow control by means of plasma actuators has potential advantages over conventional strategies, e.g., mechanical or hydraulic components may be replaced by lightweight, compact, fast response plasma actuators. In this paper, several designs of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators are presented for aerospace applications and the focus is on the associated feedback control implementation. The interdisciplinary nature of aerodynamic feedback control with plasma, however, makes direct experimental demonstrating an outstanding challenge. Here, we propose a realistic experimental control implementation afforded by commercial off-the-shelf electric products and the major achievement is the detailed instruction (in both electricity and aerodynamics) and the successful demonstration of the closed-loop design in controlling the dominant modes from a cylinder flow setup. The essence of our approach is to drive DBD plasma actuations by a downstream sensor and excite aerodynamic velocity perturbations, which are further amplified on the shear flow from the cylinder, leading to airflow structures, such as vortex roll-up and randomization, which are measured by the downstream sensor to complete the whole loop. We benchmark our control approach by comparing to the predicted dominant frequencies of the controlled flow system, which can be achieved by the Barkhausen stability criterion after establishing the corresponding transfer function of the whole flow control system. Overall, this paper shall assist a host of new applications in aerospace applications in the near future.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • A Model-Based Approach for the Estimation of Bearing Forces and Moments
           Using Outer Ring Deformation
    • Authors: Stijn Kerst;Barys Shyrokau;Edward Holweg;
      Pages: 461 - 470
      Abstract: Bearing load estimation would form a valuable addition to the fields of condition monitoring and system control. Despite effort spend on its development by all major bearing manufacturers, no product solution has come to market yet. This can be attributed to both the complexity in conditioning of the strain measurement as well as its nonlinearity with respect to the bearing loading. To address these issues, this paper proposes a novel approach based on modeling of the physical behavior of the bearing. An extended Kalman filter including a novel strain model is applied for signal conditioning, whereas an unscented Kalman filter including a semianalytical bearing model is proposed for reconstruction of the bearing load. An experimental study in both laboratory and field conditions shows that the proposed cascaded Kalman filtering approach leads to accurate estimates for all four considered bearings loads in various loading conditions. Besides an improvement on accuracy, the novel approach leads to a reduction in calibration effort.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Lowpass–Bandpass Triplexer Integrated Switch Design Using Common
           Lumped-Element Triple-Resonance Resonator Technique
    • Authors: Jin Xu;Zhi-Yu Chen;Hao Wan;
      Pages: 471 - 479
      Abstract: This paper presents a lowpass–bandpass triplexer integrated switch using common lumped-element triple-resonance resonator (LE-TRR) technique. First, a lowpass–bandpass triplexer that has one lowpass channel (LPC) and two bandpass channels (BPCs) is designed. The proposed lowpass–bandpass triplexer design method is different from the conventional lowpass–bandpass multiplexer in which the feeding line is designed with lowpass response to combine bandpass structures to form lowpass–bandpass response. In this design, one branch of LE-TRR together with inductors and capacitors and another two branches of LE-TRR together with classical LC resonators are proposed to constitute one LPC and two BPCs, respectively. The LPC design combines the lowpass transformation method and parameters optimization, and two BPCs can be synthesized by classical coupled-resonator filter design theory. The designed lowpass–bandpass triplexer exhibits extremely compact size of ${text{0.125}}lambda _{{rm{g}}} times {text{0.086}}lambda _{{rm{g}}}$, and also has merits of low insertion loss, good return loss, wide bandwidth, and high port-to-port isolation. And then, p-i-n diodes are loaded on the lowpass–bandpass triplexer to realize a lowpass–bandpass triplexer integrated switch that combines both the triplexer and microwave switch function. One LPC and two BPCs are able to be switched on/off separately, and the lowpass–bandpass triplexer integrated switch has eight independent states in total. The off-state suppression of LPC is better than 36 dB, and the off-state suppression of two BPCs are better than 46 and 45 dB, respectively.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • A Two-Stage Synchronous Vibration Control for Magnetically Suspended Rotor
           System in the Full Speed Range
    • Authors: Cong Peng;Mengting Zhu;Kun Wang;Yuan Ren;Zhiquan Deng;
      Pages: 480 - 489
      Abstract: The vibration suppression in the presence of gyroscopic effects is an important issue for safe operations in magnetic bearing levitated varying speed rotor system. This paper proposes a synchronous vibration control method with a two-stage notch filter for the magnetically suspended rotor system with strong gyroscopic effects. First, the dynamics of the magnetically suspended rotor system with synchronous vibrations in the rotational motion is modeled. Then the proposed two-stage notch filter is designed and the solution of the two-stage switching point is derived to distinguish low speed and high speed. Stability analysis is also presented in the low-speed region and the high-speed region, respectively. Finally, simulation results demonstrate that the stability can be guaranteed by adjusting the phase shift angle of the notch filter over the entire speed range. Further experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed suppression method.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Output Feedback Control of Uncertain Hydraulic Servo Systems
    • Authors: Jing Na;Yunpeng Li;Yingbo Huang;Guanbin Gao;Qiang Chen;
      Pages: 490 - 500
      Abstract: Most of the existing control methods for servo systems driven by hydraulic actuators have been developed by using a backstepping scheme and assuming that all system states (including internal hydraulic signals) are measurable. In this paper, we propose a new control design method for high-order servo systems with hydraulic actuator dynamics, where the backstepping scheme is avoided and only the system output (e.g., motion displacement) is required for the control implementation. For this purpose, the system model is first transformed into a canonical form, where the unknown dynamics in the system are lumped as one term. Then, we introduce a simple robust unknown dynamics estimator (UDE) that has only one tuning parameter but achieves exponential error convergence to accommodate the lumped uncertainties. Therefore, the function approximators (e.g., neural network and fuzzy systems) can be avoided, leading to reduced computational costs, simpler parameter tuning, and improved convergence as compared to backstepping methods. Extensive simulations and experiments based on a realistic test rig are conducted to show the efficacy of the proposed control.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • $mathcal+{H}_{infty+}$ +Filters+and+Their+Application+to+Estimation+of+Ship+Oscillation+With+Time-Varying+Frequencies&rft.title=Industrial+Electronics,+IEEE+Transactions+on&rft.issn=0278-0046&rft.date=2020&rft.volume=67&rft.spage=501&rft.epage=511&rft.aulast=Toda;&rft.aufirst=Masahiro&rft.au=Masahiro+Sato;Masayoshi+Toda;">Adaptive Algorithms of Tuning and Switching Kalman and $mathcal {H}_{infty
           }$ Filters and Their Application to Estimation of Ship Oscillation With
           Time-Varying Frequencies
    • Authors: Masahiro Sato;Masayoshi Toda;
      Pages: 501 - 511
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose adaptive algorithms of gain tuning for Kalman filters and switching Kalman and $mathcal {H}_{infty }$ filters for discrete systems. Both of the gain tuning and switching rely on square means of innovations. This paper also provides stability analyses on time-varying Kalman filters and derives a sufficient condition for their asymptotic stability, on which our gain-tuning algorithm is based. It should be noted that the stability condition is available for even nonstabilizable systems having their uncontrollable poles on the unit circle. To illustrate those algorithms, we perform simulations using a harmonic oscillator model that is nonstabilizable and has its poles on the unit circle. Furthermore, we apply the algorithms to estimation of a ship's oscillation, particularly, with time-varying frequencies by simulations and model experiments. Consequently, all the results of stability analyses, simulations, and experiments have convinced that the algorithms are solid and effective.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Self-Triggered DMPC Design for Cooperative Multiagent Systems
    • Authors: Xiaoxiao Mi;Yuanyuan Zou;Shaoyuan Li;Hamid Reza Karimi;
      Pages: 512 - 520
      Abstract: This paper considers the cooperation control problem for a team of dynamically decoupled agents with resource constraints. A codesign of self-triggered mechanism and distributed model predictive control (DMPC) is proposed to achieve the cooperative objectives while efficiently exploiting communication network. The proposed self-triggered DMPC (ST-DMPC) possesses three important features. First, the communication cost is explicitly incorporated in the cost function. In this way, the triggering instant and control inputs are simultaneously optimized, and a desired tradeoff between control performance and communication cost is achieved. Second, at triggering instants, the first element of the optimal control input sequence along with the current state instead of the whole trajectory is broadcast to neighbors for cooperation, which further reduces communication load. Third, sufficient conditions on design parameters related to predictive states of neighbor agents are constructed to ensure stability of the overall system. The application of the proposed ST-DMPC to four robot manipulators validates the effectiveness of this method.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • A Data-Driven Realization of the Control-Performance-Oriented Process
           Monitoring System
    • Authors: Hao Luo;Shen Yin;Tianyu Liu;Abdul Qayyum Khan;
      Pages: 521 - 530
      Abstract: The stability margin is an important attribute for the robustness analysis of the closed loop in a control system design, which indicates the tolerant-ability of the closed-loop stability to system uncertainty (or fault). Seeking to develop an advanced data-driven monitoring and management framework for control performance (especially for robust stability) of the closed-loop system, this paper presents a study on the data-driven realization of the closed-loop stability margin, and its application to control-performance-oriented process monitoring. Specifically, without identifying the system parameters, a data-driven realization of the stability margin is first determined based on the identified multiplication operator of the closed-loop transfer function matrices using time-domain closed-loop measurements. Second, a control-performance-oriented process monitoring approach is proposed based on the determined data-driven realization of the stability margin. The contributions of this paper will bridge the gap between the model-based robustness analysis/design and the data-driven techniques for the future research. The main results of this paper are verified and demonstrated through the case studies on a dc motor benchmark system.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • A Novel Statistical Time-Frequency Analysis for Rotating Machine Condition
           Monitoring
    • Authors: Teng Wang;Guoliang Lu;Peng Yan;
      Pages: 531 - 541
      Abstract: The key function of rotating machine condition monitoring (CM) is to detect structural changes during machine operations. This paper presents a novel statistical time-frequency analysis method for this purpose. In particular, frequency spectrum is extracted from the machine condition signals based on periodogram estimation. Undirected weighted graph is then constructed from the resulting periodograms, where the so-called median graph is introduced and adopted to describe the normal machine status. Statistical analysis is performed to investigate newly observed data with respect to the median graph for change decision making. The proposed method has been applied to three different engineering applications to evaluate its effectiveness: load CM; early bearing failure detection; and speed CM. The results were compared with some benchmark methods reported in the literature, where significant improvements of the proposed method were demonstrated, indicating its good potentials in engineering applications.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • A Constant-Current Transmission Converter for Semi-airborne Transient
           Electromagnetic Surveying
    • Authors: Zhi Geng;Lihua Liu;Jutao Li;Fubo Liu;Qimao Zhang;Xiaojun Liu;Guangyou Fang;
      Pages: 542 - 550
      Abstract: In complex terrain, semi-airborne transient electromagnetic surveying can effectively solve the detailed exploration problems to replace ground manual operation. This method has the advantages of high efficiency, deep exploration depth, and high signal-to-noise ratio. As the core component of the system, the constant-current transmission converter determines the primary field source of the surveying system. High-accurate and stable-output electromagnetic transmission technology is the key issues of the surveying equipment development. In this paper, the converter circuit topology is designed in detail and a novel model reference adaptive proportional-integral control algorithm is put forward. The rising overshoot of current is eliminated and falling edge is linear. Finally, the 20-kW high-power transmitting instrument has been completed and used for field experiments. A large number of experimental results show that the transmitting instrument can achieve high-power constant-current emission, stable output, and good dynamic performance. And the steady-state accuracy is better than the traditional transmitter. The converter successfully improved the semi-airborne transient electromagnetic system detection capability and achieved satisfactory results in field experiments.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Piezoelectric–Piezoresistive Coupling MEMS Sensors for Measurement of
           Electric Fields of Broad Bandwidth and Large Dynamic Range
    • Authors: Fen Xue;Jun Hu;Yue Guo;Guowei Han;Yong Ouyang;Shan X. Wang;Jinliang He;
      Pages: 551 - 559
      Abstract: Electric-field microelectro-mechanical systems sensors with broad bandwidth and large dynamic range are an enabling technology for real-time monitoring of fast transient overvoltage in the power grid. They significantly alter lightning damage and operation faults and therefore help establish a more secure grid. In this paper, we propose a new method and architecture for electric-field sensing, which overcomes the incompatibilities between electric-field measurements of broad spectrum and large dynamic range. Scientifically, this compound structure with coupled piezoelectric effect and piezoresistive effect transduces electric field changes into resistance alterations via internal pressure. This structure has an hour-glass-shaped cavity, which contains a piezoelectric crystal and leaves the piezoresistive membrane vibrating freely. The newly proposed sensors have a broadened frequency bandwidth of up to 100 kHz and a 15-fold improved sensing magnitude. In addition, this sensor decreases the cost by two orders and reduces energy consumption to 0.018%, which makes them readily implantable into electrical appliances in the power grid.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • A Self-Powered Vibration Sensor With Wide Bandwidth
    • Authors: Yunjia Li;Yuzhu Wang;Qi Cao;Jian'an Cao;Dayong Qiao;
      Pages: 560 - 568
      Abstract: A self-powered vibration sensor based on electromagnetic induction is presented in this paper. The vibration sensor is implemented with stacked flexible coils and polymeric springs. The stacked flexible coil enables large output signal, while long and flexible springs enable high sensitivity and wide linear range of the sensor. At resonance, the sensor has a sensitivity of 1.83 V/g and a maximum resolution of 0.002 g. In the high-frequency range, where the sensor output is frequency-independent (100–3000 Hz), the sensor has a sensitivity of 66.5 mV/g, a maximum resolution of 0.05 g, and a measurement range up to 8.5 g.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Dual-Mode RFID Tag IC Supporting Gen-2 and Visible RFID Modes Using a
           Process-Compensating Self-Calibrating Clock Generator
    • Authors: Amad Ud Din;Jae-Hun Lee;Nguyen Xuan Hieu;Jong-Wook Lee;
      Pages: 569 - 580
      Abstract: An ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) band passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag integrated circuit (IC) supporting both generation-2 (Gen-2) and visible RFID modes is proposed in this paper. Two sources can be used to provide modulated data for the dual-mode tag IC: a radio frequency (RF) or visible light (VL) source. When a modulated RF signal is used, the tag IC operates in electronic product code Gen-2 mode. In the visible RFID mode, modulated VL delivers data and continuous-wave RF provides power for the tag IC. In both modes, power is provided by RF. For the tag IC, a self-calibrating clock generator (CLKG) robust to process variation is proposed. Without a battery, the CLKG has an accuracy of ±4% by continuously calibrating its frequency using downlink pulse-interval encoding (PIE) symbols from a reader. In the core of the CLKG, there is a new PIE decoder that reliably distinguishes between data-0 and data-1 under process, voltage, and temperature variations. The tag IC has been fabricated using a 0.18 μm CMOS process with a chip area of 1.4 × 1.7 mm2. The power consumption of the tag IC is 64 μW. Experiments are conducted using a photodiode in the visible RFID mode. With 0.34 mW power from a VL source, the tag IC shows successful detection of VL signal at distances up to 15 m.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • A Double-Step Unscented Kalman Filter and HMM-Based Zero-Velocity Update
           for Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Using MEMS Sensors
    • Authors: Xin Tong;Yan Su;Zhaofeng Li;Chaowei Si;Guowei Han;Jin Ning;Fuhua Yang;
      Pages: 581 - 591
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel method for pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) using microelectromechanical system magnetic, angular rate, and gravity sensors, which includes a double-step unscented Kalman filter (DUKF) and hidden Markov model (HMM)-based zero-velocity-update (ZVU) algorithm. The DUKF divides the measurement updates of the gravity vector and the magnetic field vector into two steps in order to avoid the unwanted correction for the Euler angle error. The HMM-based ZVU algorithm is developed to recognize the ZVU efficiently. Thus, the proposed PDR method can reduce the position drift caused by the heading error and fault zero-velocity measurement. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves better yaw estimate, as well as zero-velocity measurement, and obtains more accurate dead-reckoning position than other methods in the literature.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • WAVE-Based Short-Range Vehicular Localization Through Vector Match
    • Authors: Jinyu Zhang;Yifan Zhang;
      Pages: 592 - 600
      Abstract: Precise and real-time position information are critical for an enforcement, autopilot, or navigation system at a toll station. However, global positioning system (GPS) has insufficient accuracy and low sampling rate. In this paper, a short-range vehicle localization algorithm is proposed to supplement the distance gap of the GPS. A normalized received signal strength indication (RSSI) sequence takes the place of RSSI at position evaluation in which problems of low signal noise ratio are alleviated. A position similarity degree algorithm is proposed to mitigate the low variability of a fingerprint, a seamless localization is achieved. A filter is designed to cut off the dataset of remote calibration points; the multipath effect is mitigated. Finally, the experiments verify the suitability of accuracy and execution time for enforcement and autopilot, and the insignificant effect of speed, traffic, and grid size.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • An Effective Subsuperpixel-Based Approach for Background Subtraction
    • Authors: Yu-Qiu Chen;Zhan-Li Sun;Kin-Man Lam;
      Pages: 601 - 609
      Abstract: How to achieve competitive accuracy and less computation time simultaneously for background estimation is still an intractable task. In this paper, an effective background subtraction approach for video sequences is proposed based on a subsuperpixel model. In our algorithm, the superpixels of the first frame are constructed using a simple linear iterative clustering method. After transforming the frame from a color format to gray level, the initial superpixels are divided into K smaller units, i.e., subsuperpixels, via the k-means clustering algorithm. The background model is then initialized by representing each subsuperpixel as a multidimensional feature vector. For the subsequent frames, moving objects are detected by the subsuperpixel representation and a weighting measure. In order to deal with ghost artifacts, a background model updating strategy is devised, based on the number of pixels represented by each cluster center. As each superpixel is refined via the subsuperpixel representation, the proposed method is more efficient and achieves a competitive accuracy for background subtraction. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Multimodal Haptic Display for Virtual Reality: A Survey
    • Authors: Dangxiao Wang;Kouhei Ohnishi;Weiliang Xu;
      Pages: 610 - 623
      Abstract: Human haptic perception system is complex, involving both cutaneous and kinesthetic receptors. These receptors work together and enable human to perceive the external world. To simulate immersive interaction with virtual objects in virtual reality scenarios haptic devices are desired to reproduce multiproperties of virtual objects, support multigestures of human hands to perform fine manipulation, produce haptic stimuli for simultaneously stimulating multireceptors (including cutaneous and kinesthetic receptors) of human haptic channel, and thus invoke realistic compound haptic sensations. In recent years, such multimodal haptic devices have emerged. In this paper, we survey the latest progress on multimodal haptic devices, identify the gaps, and put forward future research directions on the topic.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Novel Emerging Sensing, Actuation, and Control Techniques for Haptic
           Interaction and Teleoperation
    • Authors: D. Wang;K. Ohnishi;W. Xu;
      Pages: 624 - 626
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Tomographic Approach for Universal Tactile Imaging With
           Electromechanically Coupled Conductors
    • Authors: Shunsuke Yoshimoto;Yoshihiro Kuroda;Osamu Oshiro;
      Pages: 627 - 636
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel, low-cost, and universal tactile sensing technology for imaging pressure distribution using a tomographic approach with conductors. In particular, we focus on the fact that pressure is related to the contact resistance between two conductive objects. The sensor comprises driving and probing conductors, which are electromechanically coupled. The system solves an inverse problem for estimating electrical boundary conditions using the voltage sets from electrodes on the border of the probing conductor. The sensing system successfully estimates the pressure distribution, contact location (error rate: 5.68 $pm$ 2.78%), and local pressure (error in the range 0.0269 $ -$0.0509 N/mm$^2$ for a maximum pressure of 0.50 N/mm$^2$). Finally, tactile imaging by sheet- and finger-type sensors are demonstrated as practical applications of the developed sensor.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Artificial Tactile Sensor With Pin-type Module for Depth Profile and
           Surface Topography Detection
    • Authors: Kwonsik Shin;Dongsu Kim;Hyunchul Park;Minkyung Sim;Hyunwoo Jang;Jung Inn Sohn;Seung Nam Cha;Jae Eun Jang;
      Pages: 637 - 646
      Abstract: Haptic sensors based on piezoelectric sensor arrays with pin-type modules which have high responses and dynamic sensing capabilities are designed and studied for surface topography measurements. Unlike the human finger, most flexible tactile sensor designs do not detect the depth information of surfaces well, which change at the mm level despite the fact that they have a good sensitivity for pressure or force. To enhance the ability to detect depth information of the surfaces of objects, a piezoelectric sensor combining a pin-type module with excellent monitoring in the depth direction by spring is developed in this paper. Because spike types of piezoelectric signals do not match a specific surface topography directly, a signal processing method that reconstructs the surface topography is studied considering the piezoelectric working principle and spring dynamics. According to the sensor design, it can detect 3 mm depth changes with a two-dimensional plane structure at mm-level resolutions. The results show that the proposed sensor could measure various shapes and depth profiles precisely via a sliding motion, and the surface topography is reconstructed through highly accurate measurement results, similar to a human.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Stretchable e-Skin Patch for Gesture Recognition on the Back of the Hand
    • Authors: Shuo Jiang;Ling Li;Haipeng Xu;Junkai Xu;Guoying Gu;Peter B. Shull;
      Pages: 647 - 657
      Abstract: Gesture recognition is important for human–computer interaction and a variety of emerging research and commercial areas including virtual and augmented reality. Current approaches typically require sensors to be placed on the forearm, wrist, or directly across finger joints; however, they can be cumbersome or hinder human movement and sensation. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to recognize hand gestures by estimating skin strain with multiple soft sensors optimally placed across the back of the hand. A pilot study was first conducted by covering the back of the hand with 40 small 2.5 mm reflective markers and using a high-precision camera system to measure skin strain patterns for individual finger movements. Optimal strain locations are then determined and used for sensor placement in a stretchable e-skin patch prototype. Experimental testing is performed to evaluate the stretchable e-skin patch performance in classifying individual finger gestures and American Sign Language 0–9 number gestures. Results showed classification accuracies of 95.3% and 94.4% for finger gestures and American Sign Language 0–9 gestures, respectively. These results demonstrate the feasibility of a stretchable e-skin patch on the back of the hand for hand gesture recognition and their potential to significantly enhance human–computer interaction.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Sensor Glove Based on Novel Inertial Sensor Fusion Control Algorithm for
           3-D Real-Time Hand Gestures Measurements
    • Authors: Hsien-Ting Chang;Jen-Yuan Chang;
      Pages: 658 - 666
      Abstract: In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in hand movements in various application fields. However, the human hand is too dexterous and only has limited space. Developing a proper method to monitor and capture hand motion is meaningful. Conventionally, an optical measurement method is widely used to capture hand gestures. Nevertheless, this method is costly and has the problem of line-of-sight shielding. In this paper, a sensor fusion algorithm is proposed to calculate a more accurate result by calculating acceleration, magnetic field strength, and angular speed from the inertial measurement unit (IMU). The core concept of this algorithm is based on the idea of feedback control. To validate the performance, the active rotary platform is set up to compare the measured results to the references directly. Most of the error results are less than 3°, and the standard deviations are less than 1°. The measurement results ensure the feasibility of the inertial measurement method with the sensor fusion algorithm proposed in this paper.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Authoring New Haptic Textures Based on Interpolation of Real Textures in
           Affective Space
    • Authors: Waseem Hassan;Arsen Abdulali;Seokhee Jeon;
      Pages: 667 - 676
      Abstract: This paper presents a novel haptic texture authoring algorithm. The main goal of this algorithm is to synthesize new virtual textures by manipulating the affective properties of already existing real-life textures. To this end, two different spaces are established: two-dimensional (2-D) “affective space” built from a series of psychophysical experiments where real textures are arranged according to affective properties (hard-soft, rough-smooth) and 2-D “haptic model space” where real textures are placed based on features from tool-surface contact acceleration patterns (movement-velocity, normal-force). Another space, called “authoring space” is formed to merge the two spaces; correlating changes in affective properties of real-life textures to changes in actual haptic signals in haptic space. The authoring space is constructed such that features of the haptic model space that were highly correlated with affective space become axes of the space. As a result, new texture signals corresponding to any point in authoring space can be synthesized based on weighted interpolation of three nearest real surfaces in perceptually correct manner. The whole procedure including the selection of nearest surfaces, finding weights, and weighted interpolation of multiple texture signals are evaluated through a psychophysical experiment, demonstrating the competence of the approach. The results of evaluation experiment show an average normalized realism score of 94$%$ for all authored textures.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Soft Haptic Actuator Based on Knitted PVC Gel Fabric
    • Authors: Won-Hyeong Park;Eun-Jae Shin;Yongjae Yoo;Seungmoon Choi;Sang-Youn Kim;
      Pages: 677 - 685
      Abstract: An electroactive and actuator made of knitted polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gel fabric is proposed herein. This haptic actuator consists of an upper layer, a lower layer, and fabric made by twisting long and slender PVC gel strings. The PVC gel fabric changes its shape according to the input voltage waveform, and exerts an electrostatic force between the upper and lower layers. When the applied voltage is removed, the PVC gel fabric rapidly restores to its initial configuration. Consequently, these effects generate vibrations that are sufficiently strong for human perception. In this paper, we conducted quantitative experiments to investigate the performance of our soft haptic actuator using an accelerometer and a laser scanning vibrometer. Furthermore, we performed a perceptual evaluation and the results indicate that our proposed actuator can stimulate the human skin with sufficient perceptual strength.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Decoupling Finger Joint Motion in an Exoskeletal Hand: A Design for
           Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation
    • Authors: Shu-Wei Pu;Yu-Cheng Pei;Jen-Yuan Chang;
      Pages: 686 - 697
      Abstract: In this paper, a cable-driven exoskeleton device is developed for stroke patients to enable them to perform passive range of motion exercises and teleoperation rehabilitation of their impaired hands. Each exoskeleton finger is controlled by an actuator via two cables. The motions between the metacarpophalangeal and distal/proximal interphalangeal joints are decoupled, through which the movement pattern is analogous to that observed in the human hand. A dynamic model based on the Lagrange method is derived to estimate how cable tension varies with the angular position of the finger joints. Two discernable phases are observed, each of which reflects the motion of the metacarpophalangeal and distal/proximal interphalangeal joints. The tension profiles of exoskeleton fingers predicted by the Lagrange model are verified through a mechatronic integrated platform. The model can precisely estimate the tensions at different movement velocities, and it shows that the characteristics of two independent phases remain the same even for a variety of movement velocities. The feasibility for measuring resistance when manipulating a patient's finger is demonstrated in human experiments. Specifically, the net force required to move a subject's finger joints can be accounted for by the Lagrange model.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Haptic Performance Using Voltage-Mode Motor Control
    • Authors: Jorge Juan Gil;Iñaki Díaz;
      Pages: 698 - 705
      Abstract: Haptic devices driven by dc motors are usually controlled in current mode due to the direct relationship between current and torque. This paper analyzes the performance of voltage-mode controllers whose main drawback is that the torque of the actuator depends on its electrical dynamics. However, the electrical dynamics of the motor add the viscosity generated by the back electromotive force. Since the motor damping seen from the handle of the interface is increased by the square of the transmission ratio, the physical damping of the mechanism can be very high, maintaining low inertia. As a result, very high performance in terms of critical stiffness can be achieved, even using cost-effective electronics. There is a tradeoff between the achievable virtual stiffness during the haptic interaction and the backdrivability in free movement, if the damping is set too high. To investigate the benefits of this motor control strategy, CEIT's haptic gearshift is used as a testbed. The experimental results confirm that a very high critical stiffness can be achieved using this strategy.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • A Modular Wearable Finger Interface for Cutaneous and Kinesthetic
           Interaction: Control and Evaluation
    • Authors: Francesco Chinello;Monica Malvezzi;Domenico Prattichizzo;Claudio Pacchierotti;
      Pages: 706 - 716
      Abstract: In this paper, we present a novel modular wearable interface for haptic interaction and robotic teleoperation. It is composed of a 3-degree-of-freedom (3-DoF) fingertip cutaneous device and a 1-DoF finger kinesthetic exoskeleton, which can be either used together as a single device or separately as two different devices. The 3-DoF fingertip device is composed of a static body and a mobile platform. The mobile platform is capable of making and breaking contact with the finger pulp and reangle to replicate contacts with arbitrarily oriented surfaces. The 1-DoF finger exoskeleton provides kinesthetic force to the proximal and distal interphalangeal finger articulations using one servo motor grounded on the proximal phalanx. This paper presents the wearable device as well as three different position, force, and compliance control schemes, together with their evaluations. We also present three human subjects experiments, enrolling a total of 40 different participants: the first experiment considered a curvature discrimination task, the second one a robot-assisted palpation task, and the third one an immersive experience in virtual reality. Results show that providing cutaneous and kinesthetic feedback through our device significantly improve the performance of all the considered tasks. Moreover, although cutaneous-only feedback shows promising performance, adding kinesthetic feedback improves most metrics. Finally, subjects rank our device as highly wearable, comfortable, and effective.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • A Soft and Transparent Visuo-Haptic Interface Pursuing Wearable Devices
    • Authors: Sungryul Yun;Suntak Park;Bongje Park;Semin Ryu;Seung Mo Jeong;Ki-Uk Kyung;
      Pages: 717 - 724
      Abstract: In this paper, we report an integrated soft and transparent visuo-haptic interface, which is compatible with flexible devices and wearable gadgets. The visuo-haptic interface is composed of a touch-sensitive visual display based on polymer waveguides and a dielectric elastomer microactuators (DEMA) array. The touch-sensitive visual display, formed via continuative multistep photolithography, is a multilayered structure with a tactile-sensing layer stacked onto a visual-imaging layer. The dual-functional layer is thin (total thickness:
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Second-Order Information Recovery in Oriented-Plane Curvature Reproduction
    • Authors: Tao Zeng;Shizhen Huang;Wenjing Chen;
      Pages: 725 - 735
      Abstract: Oriented-plane curvature reproduction, the control of fingertip deformation by orientating a flat plate on contact points to generate a sensation of curvature, is one of the curvature reproduction methods with favorable effects. However, among the three geometric cues of curvature, only the zeroth- and first-order information is recovered with this method, whereas the second-order information (i.e., local curvature) is neglected due to the oriented plate's inherent characteristic of having a planar surface. The second-order information will change the contact length between the finger and the surface and thus affects the feeling. As a solution for this problem, this paper proposes to control the indentation depth of the finger pulp on the oriented plate such that the correct contact length is reproduced during the rendering. A finger wearable device is developed to control that indentation depth. Three psychophysical experiments are carried out and the results indicate that the second-order information plays a positive role in curvature rendering.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Perceptually Correct Haptic Rendering in Mid-Air Using Ultrasound Phased
           Array
    • Authors: Ahsan Raza;Waseem Hassan;Tatyana Ogay;Inwook Hwang;Seokhee Jeon;
      Pages: 736 - 745
      Abstract: This paper provides a perceptually transparent rendering algorithm for an ultrasound-based mid-air haptic device. In a series of experiments, we derive a systematic mapping function relating from the device command value to final user's perceived magnitude of a mid-air vibration feedback. The algorithm is designed for the ultrasonic mid-air haptic interface that is capable of displaying vibro-tactile feedback at a certain focal point in mid-air through ultrasound phased array technique. The perceived magnitude at the focal point is dependent on input parameters, such as input command intensity, modulation frequency, and position of the focal point in the work-space. This algorithm automatically tunes these parameters to ensure that the desired perceived output at the user's hand is precisely controlled. Through a series of experiments, the effect of the aforementioned parameters on the physical output pressure are mapped, and the effect of this output pressure to the final perceived magnitude is formulated, resulting in the mapping from the different parameters to the perceived magnitude. Finally, the overall transparent rendering algorithm was evaluated, showing better perceptual quality than rendering with simple intensity command.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Adaptive Fuzzy Backstepping Control for Stable Nonlinear Bilateral
           Teleoperation Manipulators With Enhanced Transparency Performance
    • Authors: Zheng Chen;Fanghao Huang;Chunning Yang;Bin Yao;
      Pages: 746 - 756
      Abstract: Bilateral teleoperation technology has been widely concerned by its unique advantages in human–machine interaction-based cooperative operation systems. Communication delay, various nonlinearities, and uncertainties in teleoperation system are the main challenging issues to achieve system stability and good transparency performance. In this paper, a globally stable adaptive fuzzy backstepping control design is proposed for nonlinear bilateral teleoperation manipulators to handle the aforementioned issues. For the communication channel, instead of direct transmission of environmental torque signals, the fuzzy-based nonpower approximate environmental parameters are transmitted to the master side for environmental torque prediction, which effectively avoids the transmission of power signals in the delayed communication channel and solves the passivity problem in the traditional teleoperation system. A trajectory generator is implemented in the master side and a trajectory smoothing is applied in the slave side. Subsequently, nonlinear adaptive fuzzy backstepping controllers for master and slave are separately designed to handle the nonlinearities and uncertainties. Theoretically, the great transparency performance of both position tracking and force feedback can be achieved, and the global stability is still guaranteed under communication delay. Comparative experiments are conducted on the real platform, which verify the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed control design in some typical working scenarios.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Fine Sensorless Force Control Realization Based on Dither Periodic
           Component Elimination Kalman Filter and Wide Band Disturbance Observer
    • Authors: Thao Tran Phuong;Kiyoshi Ohishi;Yuki Yokokura;
      Pages: 757 - 767
      Abstract: This paper proposes a new force estimation approach based on the dither periodic component elimination (DPCE) Kalman filter and the disturbance observer (DOB) for realization of a fine sensorless force control system under the existence of static friction. A dither signal is inserted to the desired reference signal to eliminate the effect of static friction of a ball-screw system. The DOB estimates the periodical torque caused by dither signal. The DPCE Kalman filter uses the periodical torque for the estimation of the high-order torque responses to achieve the torque estimation with the elimination of periodic component. The problem of noise in the force sensation and the effect of static friction are reduced effectively by using the DPCE Kalman filter. Therefore, the bandwidth of the force sensing is increased and the wide band DOB is achieved. As a result, this paper has accomplished the fine sensorless force control realization. The force control experiments of a ball-screw system are carried out to verify the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Fine Load-Side Acceleration Control Based on Torsion Torque Sensing of
           Two-Inertia System
    • Authors: Yuki Yokokura;Kiyoshi Ohishi;
      Pages: 768 - 777
      Abstract: Torsion-torque-sensing-based load-side acceleration control is proposed for a two-inertia resonance system in this paper. This control uses a torsion torque sensor installed in a reduction gear, and consists of a torsion torque controller and load-side disturbance observer (DOb). In the load side of the gear, the proposed control structure is equivalent to a conventional DOb-based acceleration controller on the motor side. Therefore, because the proposed controller suppresses resonance vibration in an acceleration dimension, torsion-torque-sensing-based load-side acceleration control has the capability of controlling the load-side acceleration. The problem of the conventional acceleration controller and the effectiveness of the proposed acceleration controller are verified by theoretical analysis, numerical simulations, and experiments. Robust stability for parameter variation and stable regions of control bandwidth are also analyzed.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Relative Impedance-Based Internal Force Control for Bimanual Robot
           Teleoperation With Varying Time Delay
    • Authors: Zhenyu Lu;Panfeng Huang;Zhengxiong Liu;
      Pages: 778 - 789
      Abstract: For a bimanual robot teleoperation system, the internal forces affecting the common deformable manipulation object are determined by both robot arms’ actions. F/T sensorless, uncertain dynamics, and varying time delays increase dramatically the control difficulty for system stability and transparency. To address these problems, an internal force control method based on relative impedance is proposed in this paper. First, we deduce the desired positions to decrease internal force tracking errors and abstract the internal force from the product of the relative distance and impedance. Second, two strategies are adopted for reducing internal force tracking errors and motion synchronization. One is designing an adaptive factor to switch authorities for position control and internal force control. The other is proposing a force estimating method to the coupled item of uncertain dynamics, disturbance, and internal forces. Different parts of the coupled item are divided and solved separately by nonlinear characters. An integral sliding surface based on the relative impedance item is designed to minimize the force tracking errors. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is verified by linear matrix inequalities based on Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional synthesis, and an experiment based on a physical robot system is implemented to validate the proposed method.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Input-to-State Stable Bilateral Teleoperation by Dynamic Interconnection
           and Damping Injection: Theory and Experiments
    • Authors: Yuan Yang;Daniela Constantinescu;Yang Shi;
      Pages: 790 - 799
      Abstract: In bilateral teleoperation, the human operating the master and the environment interacting with the slave are part of the force feedback loop. Yet, both have time-varying and unpredictable dynamics and are challenging to model. Conventional sidestepping of the demand for their models in the stability analysis assumes passive user and environment, and controls the master-communications-slave system to be passive too. This paper circumvents the need for user and environment models in a novel way: it regards their forces as external excitations for a semiautonomous feedback loop, which it outfits with a dynamic interconnection and damping injection controller that renders time-delay teleoperation exponentially input-to-state stable. The controller uses the position and velocity of the local robot and the delayed position transmitted from the other side to robustly synchronize the master and slave under the user and environment perturbations. Lyapunov–Krasovskii stability analysis shows that the strategy, first, can confine the position error between the master and the slave to an invariant set, and, second, can drive it exponentially to a globally attractive set. The approach has practical relevance for telemanipulation tasks with given precision requirements. Experiments with a pair of Geomagic Touch robots validate the strategy compared to state-of-the-art robust position tracking designs.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • A Proportional Pattern Recognition Control Scheme for Wearable A-mode
           Ultrasound Sensing
    • Authors: Xingchen Yang;Jipeng Yan;Zhenfeng Chen;Han Ding;Honghai Liu;
      Pages: 800 - 808
      Abstract: It is evident that the prevailing solution, myoelectric pattern recognition for prosthetic manipulation, constrains gesture-based interaction because of the lack of proportional control information such as exerted force. This paper reports an attempt, named simultaneous gesture recognition and muscle contraction force estimation, to realize proportional pattern recognition (PPR) control taking advantage of arm muscle deformation via wearable ultrasound sensing. We experiment with eight types of predefined hand motions, with a range of 0–60% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) using a wearable multichannel A-mode ultrasound system. The experiment result demonstrates that above 93.7% of gestures are correctly recognized during dynamic muscle contraction forces (0–60% MVC), albeit only training at a slight force level (
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Enhancing the Rate-Hardness of Haptic Interaction: Successive Force
           Augmentation Approach
    • Authors: Harsimran Singh;Dominik Janetzko;Aghil Jafari;Bernhard Weber;Chan-Il Lee;Jee-Hwan Ryu;
      Pages: 809 - 819
      Abstract: There have been numerous approaches that have been proposed to enlarge the impedance range of haptic interaction while maintaining stability. However, enhancing the rate-hardness of haptic interaction while maintaining stability is still a challenging issue. The actual perceived rate-hardness has been much lower than what the users expect to feel. In this paper, we propose the successive force augmentation (SFA) approach, which increases the impedance range by adding a feed-forward force offset to the state-dependent feedback force rendered using a low stiffness value. This allows the proposed approach to display stiffness of up to 10 N/mm with Phantom Premium 1.5. It was possible to further enhance the rate-hardness by using the original value of virtual environment stiffness for feedback force calculation during the transient response followed by normal SFA. Experimental evaluation for multi-DoF virtual environment exhibited a much higher displayed stiffness and rate-hardness compared to conventional approaches. Two user studies revealed that the increase of rate-hardness due to SFA allowed the participants to have a faster reaction time to an unexpected collision with a virtual wall and accurately discriminate between four virtual walls of different stiffness.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Multirate Haptic Rendering Using Local Stiffness Matrix for Stable and
           Transparent Simulation Involving Interaction With Deformable Objects
    • Authors: Myeongjin Kim;Doo Yong Lee;
      Pages: 820 - 828
      Abstract: Simulation involving interaction with deformable objects often causes stability problems because a slowly updated force generates additional energy to the human user. This paper proposes a stable and transparent haptic rendering for simulation involving interaction between a rigid tool and deformable objects. This method computes visual and haptic feedback in the simulation and haptic feedback loops, respectively. A local stiffness matrix consisting of points around contact points is constructed based on collision detection between a virtual tool and a deformable object in the simulation loop. The haptic feedback is then computed at a higher update rate in the haptic feedback loop using the local stiffness matrix. Equivalent springs computed by using the equivalent stiffness energy are added to the boundary of the local stiffness matrix to minimize errors in the rendered force. The proposed method is compared with the virtual coupling widely used in simulation involving interaction with deformable objects. The proposed method reduces the x-, y-, and z-axis maximum force errors by up to 52%, 80%, and 70%, respectively, compared to the virtual coupling in the simulation involving interaction with the Stanford bunny object consisting of 2087 points and 9997 tetrahedrons.
      PubDate: Jan. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2020)
       
 
 
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