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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 175 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 76)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 305)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 253)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 104)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 85)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 91)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Embedded Systems Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access  
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 185)
Haptics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access  
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Nano Devices, Sensors and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Magnetics Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Nanotechnology Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Pulse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Solid-State Circuits Magazine, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Wireless Power Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Women in Engineering Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access  

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Journal Cover
Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.192
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 57  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0278-0046
Published by IEEE Homepage  [191 journals]
  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics publication information
    • Abstract: "Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication."
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Information
    • Abstract: "Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication."
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics Information for Authors
    • Abstract: These instructions give guidelines for preparing papers for this publication. Presents information for authors publishing in this journal.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Bidirectional Three-Phase DC–AC Converter With Embedded DC–DC
           Converter and Carrier-Based PWM Strategy for Wide Voltage Range
           Applications
    • Authors: Jiangfeng Wang;Hongfei Wu;Tianyu Yang;Li Zhang;Yan Xing;
      Pages: 4144 - 4155
      Abstract: A bidirectional three-phase dc–ac converter with embedded dc–dc converter for bidirectional storage interface is proposed in this paper. With the help of the embedded dc–dc converter, the voltage of the storage battery can vary in a wide range. To minimize the power rating and power losses of the embedded dc–dc converter, a simple carrier-based pulsewidth modulation (PWM) strategy with zero-sequence injection is proposed. By adopting the proposed PWM strategy, only a small ratio of total power needs to be processed by the embedded dc–dc converter, while most of the power is only processed by the three-phase dc–ac stage within a single conversion stage. As a result, quasi single-stage power conversion is achieved to improve the conversion efficiency of the overall dc–ac power system. Principles, characteristics, and implementations of the proposed three-phase dc–ac converter and its PWM strategy are analyzed in detail. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed solutions are verified with experimental results.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Model-Based Current Control Strategy With Virtual Time Constant for
           Improved Dynamic Response of Three-Phase Grid-Connected VSI
    • Authors: Osman Kukrer;Sertac Bayhan;Hasan Komurcugil;
      Pages: 4156 - 4165
      Abstract: In this paper, a model-based current control strategy with virtual time constant is proposed for three-phase grid-connected LCL-filtered voltage source inverters. The proposed control strategy is based on controlling the inverter currents in the rotating dq frame by using current-oriented proportional-integral (PI) controllers rather than voltage-oriented PI. The PI controllers determine the inverter current references in the d- and q-axes by regulating the grid current. It is shown that the proposed strategy decouples the inverter current from other variables provided that the inverter-side inductance and its resistance values used in the control variable match the actual values in the system. In addition, the virtual time constant is introduced in the control variables to offer flexibility for adjusting the inverter current dynamics as desired. Moreover, the integral gain of PI controller has the ability to keep the LCL-resonance peak below 0 dB. Unlike the existing methods, the proposed strategy does not require a dedicated active damping. Computer simulations and experimental studies show that the proposed control strategy exhibits a good performance in achieving fast dynamic response and sinusoidal grid current with low THD under balanced, unbalanced, and distorted grid conditions.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • PWM A-CHB Converter Based on Trinary Multilevel Converter: Topology,
           Switching Algorithm, and Stability Analysis
    • Authors: Saleh Ziaeinejad;Ali Mehrizi-Sani;
      Pages: 4166 - 4176
      Abstract: A trinary multilevel converter uses a few heterogeneous H-bridge submodules (SMs) to synthesize an output voltage with multiple levels. Two major limitations of this converter are that it needs multiple dc sources and it cannot operate under pulsewidth modulation (PWM). This paper addresses these limitations by adding a low-voltage H-bridge SM to this converter and proposing a new switching algorithm. The resulting PWM-based asymmetric cascaded H-bridge converter uses only one dc source and synthesizes a high-quality output voltage. This improved converter can be a potential choice for real and reactive power support in power system applications. This paper also proposes methods for stability analysis and design of this converter. Experimental case studies evaluate the performance of the proposed converter for both standalone and grid-connected modes of operation.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • A Generalized Method to Generate Carrier-Based 3L PWM Techniques Using Two
           Parallel Interleaved 2L VSIs
    • Authors: Kapil Shukla;Ramkrishan Maheshwari;
      Pages: 4177 - 4188
      Abstract: Two parallel interleaved two-level (2L) three-phase voltage source inverters (VSIs) can be analyzed as a single three-level (3L) VSI. A generalized carrier-based method is proposed in this paper for implementing different 3L pulsewidth modulation (PWM) techniques using two parallel interleaved 2L VSIs. The proposed method modifies the given three-phase reference signals of 3L VSI for implementation of the PWM technique using two parallel interleaved 2L VSIs. The influence of nonidealities on the equivalent 3L PWM switching sequences is also discussed. To overcome the effect of nonidealities, a new modified discontinuous PWM technique (MDPWM1) is proposed. The analysis of different performance indices is carried out for different 3L PWM techniques, and the key advantages of different PWM techniques are identified. Simulation and experimental results are also presented.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Development and Analysis of a New Hybrid Excitation Brushless DC Generator
           With Flux Modulation Effect
    • Authors: Linnan Sun;Zhuoran Zhang;Li Yu;Xiangpei Gu;
      Pages: 4189 - 4198
      Abstract: A new hybrid excitation brushless dc generator (HEBLDCG) consisting of structure-parallel permanent magnet machine part and flux modulation machine part is proposed in this paper. Based on the flux modulation effect, the permanent magnet machine and flux modulation machine parts, which have different operating principles, can be combined. In addition, the proposed HEBLDCG features a lower short-circuit current by regulating field current, which increases reliability. The operating modes of flux modulation machine part are fully analyzed under different conditions. Changes in the phase shift factor of the permanent magnet machine part caused by the operating modes of the flux modulation machine part are investigated. Further, the proposed HEBLDCG features constant voltage output at a wide range of speeds. Finally, a prototype HEBLDCG is designed and manufactured. The experimental data agree with the simulated data. Loss breakdown is analyzed and efficiency is measured. An HEBLDCG with a reliable diode rectifier is promising for application in on-board dc power generation systems.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Pseudo-Full-Bridge Inverter With Soft-Switching Capability for a
           Quarter-Phase Ultrasonic Motor
    • Authors: Weijia Shi;Bo Zhao;Xue Qi;Yiran Wang;Hui Zhao;Weishan Chen;Jiubin Tan;
      Pages: 4199 - 4208
      Abstract: This paper presents a high-efficiency inverter with the aid of the soft-switching technology, which is accomplished by the resonance of the in-series inductance with the snubber capacitance. The equivalent circuit of the quarter-phase ultrasonic motor is initially deduced, based on which the topology along with the operations of the novel inverter is subsequently presented. The configuration of the new quarter-phase inverter shows its uniqueness in terms of the shared arms and the especially designed snubber capacitance in comparison with the existing inverters. The circuit analysis infers that the dead time of the inverter is the key factor to arrive at the zero-voltage-switching or the zero-current-switching operations. Experimental measurements have demonstrated that the efficiency of the whole drive increases by a factor of 1.25 after replacing the traditional inverter with the proposed one. It should also be noted that the proposed inverter in association with the design method of the dead time not only can work for the quarter-phase ultrasonic motor, but also can be applicable for other kinds of quarter-phase devices. The soft-switching operations are achieved in the quarter-phase inverter for the first time, whose amplitudes of the output voltage and switching frequency are not required to be constant any more.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Design of a Novel Parallel-Hybrid-Excited Dual-PM Machine Based on
           Armature Harmonics Diversity for Electric Vehicle Propulsion
    • Authors: Xing Zhao;Shuangxia Niu;Weinong Fu;
      Pages: 4209 - 4219
      Abstract: A novel parallel-hybrid dual permanent magnet (PM) machine topology with both enhanced torque density and improved flux weakening capability is proposed for electric vehicle propulsion in this paper. The key is to artificially construct the harmonics diversity with a single-layer concentrated armature winding in the stator and thus simultaneously couple the armature field with the excitation field produced by slot PM, rotor PM, and stator dc source, respectively. Enhanced torque density is obtained in this new topology due to the symmetrical flux-modulation effect between dual PM sources. Moreover, benefiting from a parallel excitation characteristic of hybrid magnetic circuit, the demagnetization risk is significantly mitigated for slot PM source and thus an extended flux weakening range is obtained. In this paper, the proposed new topology and its design mechanism are investigated, along with its electromagnetic performance evaluated based on finite-element analysis. Further, some leading design parameters are analyzed and determined to provide a design guideline for the proposed new topology. Finally, a prototype is built and fully tested. Relevant experimental results agree well with the finite-element predication.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Stator Turn Fault Modeling for a Triple Redundant 3 × 3-Phase PMA
           SynRM
    • Authors: Bo Wang;Jiabin Wang;Antonio Griffo;
      Pages: 4220 - 4230
      Abstract: Accurate stator turn fault (STF) modeling technique is of paramount importance to assess the machine fault behavior and develop fault detection and mitigation strategies for a fault-tolerant machine drive system. In this paper, an STF model is proposed for a triple redundant 3 × 3-phase permanent-magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance machine. The effect of turn fault current is represented by equivalent inputs to a general flux linkage model for each three-phase set. Subsequently, the flux linkage of the fault turns is derived according to the coil location and slot position of the fault. The complete model is obtained by combining the flux linkage model with the governing voltage equations. The effectiveness and flexibility of the proposed model have been validated by extensive finite element simulations and experimental tests in various operation conditions. It is demonstrated that the model can predict the machine behavior with and without the mitigation action in the form of terminal short circuit.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Influence of Secondary Constructions on Transverse Forces of Linear
           Induction Motors in Curve Rails for Urban Rail Transit
    • Authors: Gang Lv;Tong Zhou;Dihui Zeng;Zhiming Liu;
      Pages: 4231 - 4239
      Abstract: In this paper, the influence of the flat and cap secondary, which are usually applied in the linear metro system on transverse forces of linear induction motors, is calculated and analyzed. First, the cap-aluminum plate and lamination back iron of the cap secondary caused relative difficulty in the analytical calculation. Then, the equivalent of the cap-aluminum plate and lamination back iron is presented, and two equivalent coefficients are obtained. The two types of the asymmetry are discussed and the different magnetic motive forces are presented. Second, the analytical model and the method of the linear induction motor are presented. Third, for a cap secondary in practice, the two equivalent coefficients are calculated and discussed. Then, the flat and cap secondary are applied, and the different transverse forces are calculated and analyzed. For two types of the secondaries, the different eddy currents and air-gap flux densities are compared. Finally, the test workbench is built and the analytical result of the transverse force is experimentally validated. It shows that cap secondary has less influence on the railcar when the transverse displacement occurs.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Pulsewidth Modulation Control Algorithm for a Six-Phase PMSM: Reducing the
           Current in the Inverter Capacitor and Current Sensing With Resistors
    • Authors: Takashi Suzuki;Yoshitaka Hayashi;Hideki Kabune;Norihisa Ito;
      Pages: 4240 - 4249
      Abstract: Motors and inverters are increasingly being used in vehicles. As more vehicle components are being adopted, requirement for safety and installation space are increasing. Growing attention is being paid to the use of six-phase permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) and their parallel control by two inverters, because of their reduced size and enhanced safety. This paper proposes a pulsewidth modulation (PWM) control algorithm for a six-phase PMSM. In low-voltage vehicle components such as electric power steering, the current is usually acquired with resistors placed under the low-side switching devices. In the proposed control algorithm, the neutral voltage of the two inverters is shifted to either a lower or higher voltage within a certain range to allow for the signal conditioning time delay after the switching device turns on or off, and the time taken for the phase current to rise or settle. The paper proposes a novel PWM control algorithm that ensures that the on-time of the low-side switching devices satisfies the restriction on current sensing with resistors and reduces the current in the capacitor at the same time. The work contributes to reducing the current in a practical configuration involving low-voltage vehicle components.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Torque Ripple Reduction in Double-Inverter Fed Wound Rotor Induction
           Machine Drives Using PWM Techniques
    • Authors: Nikhil Krishna Bajjuri;Amit Kumar Jain;
      Pages: 4250 - 4261
      Abstract: This paper deals with torque ripple estimation and reduction in a vector controlled double-inverter-fed wound rotor induction machine (DI-WRIM) drive by employing different pulsewidth modulation (PWM) techniques applied to stator and rotor side voltage source inverters (VSIs). The influence of PWM switching sequences on torque ripple is studied in terms of stator and rotor flux ripples. A novel rotor speed independent transformation has been proposed to visualize the nature of stator and rotor flux ripples from a common frame of reference. The expression for instantaneous torque ripple is formulated and a PWM combination is proposed resulting in lower root mean square (rms) and peak–peak torque ripple. The estimated instantaneous, rms, and peak–peak torque ripple is verified through simulation and experimental results from a 3-kW vector controlled DI-WRIM drive.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Low Switching Frequency Model Predictive Control of Three-Level
           Inverter-Fed IM Drives With Speed-Sensorless and Field-Weakening
           Operations
    • Authors: Yongchang Zhang;Yuning Bai;Haitao Yang;Boyue Zhang;
      Pages: 4262 - 4272
      Abstract: This paper proposes a single-vector-based model predictive control (MPC) for an induction motor drive supplied by a three-level neutral-point-clamped inverter operating at a low switching frequency. Unlike the torque and flux control in the conventional MPC, the proposed MPC tries to minimize the error between the applied voltage vector and a reference voltage vector obtained based on the principle of deadbeat control, thereby reducing the number of weighting factors in the cost function. To reduce the computational burden and restrict the high jumps in both phase and line voltages, two switching tables are proposed and compared for the preselection of candidate voltage vectors. The neutral point potential fluctuation and switching frequency are also included in the cost function to achieve the balance between the upper and lower dc voltages and a relatively low switching frequency. Furthermore, a speed adaptive stator flux observer with a novel gain matrix is proposed to achieve speed-sensorless operation, which has a higher speed and flux estimation accuracy than conventional fixed gains. Finally, the proposed MPC is extended to the field-weakening operation by adjusting the torque and stator flux references online, which significantly widens the speed range and improves the practical value of the MPC. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by the experimental results obtained at an average switching frequency of less than 600 Hz.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Stepwise Magnetization Control Strategy for DC-Magnetized Memory Machine
    • Authors: Hui Yang;Shukang Lyu;Heyun Lin;Z. Q. Zhu;Fei Peng;Erxing Zhuang;Shuhua Fang;Yunkai Huang;
      Pages: 4273 - 4285
      Abstract: A memory machine (MM) equipped with hybrid permanent magnets (PMs), i.e., NdFeB and low coercive force PMs, exhibits acceptable torque capability at low speeds and high efficiency at high speeds. Previous literatures have addressed that the constant power speed range (CPSR) of MMs can be further extended by online PM flux control and the requirement of the flux-weakening (FW) inverter current can be reduced as well. Nevertheless, how to coordinate the d-axis vector FW and PM magnetization control over a whole operating range in a reasonable manner remains unreported. Therefore, this paper proposes and implements a stepwise magnetization control strategy on a dc-magnetized MM based on the operating characteristics under various PM magnetization states and speed ranges. The configuration, principle, and mathematical model of the investigated machine are introduced first. Then, the proposed control strategy is established by dividing the operating envelop into several FW regions and an appropriate FW control scheme is utilized at each stage. It demonstrates that the CPSR can be effectively extended by simply applying the demagnetizing current pulses in several steps. This simplifies the control efforts considerably without resorting to continuous PM flux control and frequent actions of the switching devices. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is verified by experimental results.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • MRAS-Based Speed Estimation of Induction Motor Drive Utilizing
           Machines' d- and q-Circuit Impedances
    • Authors: Sukanta Das;Rakesh Kumar;Abhisek Pal;
      Pages: 4286 - 4295
      Abstract: This paper proposes a new model reference adaptive system (MRAS) for the sensorless speed estimation of field-oriented induction motor (IM) drive utilizing d- and q-circuits effective impedances. The functional quantity of the MRAS, in this context, is the difference between the stator d- and q-circuits' effective working impedances. This unique structure does not require any flux computation while estimating speed. Moreover, the formulation is free from any resistance terms. The proposed estimator performs satisfactorily at all the operating points and exhibits stability in all the four quadrants of the drive's operation. The relevant stability and sensitivity studies, in this regard, are done in MATLAB/Simulink. Furthermore, the controller performance is validated experimentally by dSPACE-1103-based IM drive setup.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • A Methodology to Remove Stator Skew in Small–Medium Size Synchronous
           Generators via Innovative Damper Cage Designs
    • Authors: Stefano Nuzzo;Michael Galea;Paolo Bolognesi;Gaurang Vakil;Daniel Fallows;Chris Gerada;Neil Brown;
      Pages: 4296 - 4307
      Abstract: This paper proposes and investigates an innovative methodology that can have a significant impact on the market potential of wound field, small–medium size synchronous generators (SGs). The technique proposed here is aimed at removing the need for the traditional stator skewing that is so commonly used in SGs to achieve acceptable values of voltage total harmonic distortion. To do this, a nonstandard damper cage configuration is proposed that comprises modulation of the damper bars’ positioning. An off-the-shelf, 400-kVA generator is used as a benchmark machine. Its rotor is optimized and modified according to the proposed technique. The results of the final machine are then compared to the benchmark machine highlighting the excellent advantages that can be achieved through this technique. A full-scale prototype of the modified generator is then built to experimentally validate the concept. Finally, a detailed analysis on all the performance aspects of the prototype is carried out, to guarantee that the proposed technique has no negative impact whatsoever on the generator's performance.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • A New Nonisolated Single-Input Three-Output High Voltage Gain Converter
           With Low Voltage Stresses on Switches and Diodes
    • Authors: Zahra Saadatizadeh;Pedram Chavoshipour Heris;Ebrahim Babaei;Mehran Sabahi;
      Pages: 4308 - 4318
      Abstract: In this paper, an expandable single-input three-output high step-up dc–dc boost converter is proposed. The voltage conversion ratio of the output ports of the converter can be increased by inductor-diode-capacitor and diode-capacitor cells. The proposed converter can be applied in renewable energy conversion systems, such as in photovoltaic and fuel cells. Also, due to the three output ports of the converter, it can be utilized in portable devices which require high voltage conversions. The main advantage of the proposed converter is supplying loads with different voltages and current ranges due to the expandable structure of the converter. Besides, the proposed converter has the merit of achieving high voltage gains at high frequencies without preselecting wide duty cycles. Furthermore, the proposed converter is able to achieve higher voltage ranges without having any transformer or coupled inductors in its structure; consequently, the related drawbacks are avoided. The switching pattern of the converter is simple and both switches are on and off simultaneously. In this study, a single switching period of the proposed converter, the voltage conversion ratios of the output ports and the expanded form of the structure are analyzed theoretically. Finally, to verify the theoretical results, the experimental results for 40-V input/200-V, 100-V and 360-V outputs with total 600-W output power are extracted and compared with each other.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Power Frequency Harmonic Reduction and its Redistribution for Improved
           Filter Design in Current-Fed Switched Inverter
    • Authors: Anil Gambhir;Santanu K. Mishra;Avinash Joshi;
      Pages: 4319 - 4333
      Abstract: Due to the pulsating power at the inverter output terminals, the passive storage elements of the boost stage of the current-fed switched inverter (CFSI) contain a power frequency harmonic component (100 Hz), apart from dc and switching frequency components. In prior designs, the second harmonic component is suppressed by increasing the size of the input filter inductor and capacitor or by using additional circuits. This paper presents a complete characterization of a control-based approach to suppress the power frequency harmonic component in the input inductor current of a CFSI. It also presents a comprehensive characterization of the harmonic power redistribution. Using the proposed approach, it is demonstrated that the inductor value of a CFSI is reduced by 61% for the same peak-to-peak ripple. This leads to an improvement in the conversion ratio, efficiency, and power density of the overall converter. A SiC MOSFET-based CFSI with 75-kHz switching frequency is used to verify the proposed design philosophy.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Solid-State Pulsed Power Modulator With Fast Rising/Falling Time and High
           Repetition Rate for Pockels Cell Drivers
    • Authors: Hyoung-Suk Kim;Chan-Hun Yu;Sung-Roc Jang;Guang-Hoon Kim;
      Pages: 4334 - 4343
      Abstract: This paper proposes a solid-state pulsed power modulator (PPM) with fast rising/falling time and high repetition rates to drive pockels cells. Since the proposed circuit is based on the modular structure using silicon carbide (SiC) metal–oxide silicon field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) for bypass devices as well as for main switches, it can achieve fast switching speed and high reliability. In addition, by a control scheme employing the voltage difference, the proposed circuit can accomplish a high repetition rate and short pulsewidth. Design and implementation of 1.8-kV PPMs with repetition rate of 1 MHz and rising/falling time below 6 ns are presented. Also, important issues for the practical use of the SiC-based PPM are discussed. Experimental results from the developed PPMs are shown to verify the proposed works.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • An Input-Series Flyback Converter With the Coupled-Inductor-Based Passive
           Snubber for High-Input Voltage Multiple-Output Applications
    • Authors: Tao Meng;Hongqi Ben;Chunyan Li;
      Pages: 4344 - 4355
      Abstract: In this paper, an input-series flyback converter with the coupled-inductor-based passive snubber is proposed, where the input-series converter is based on transformer integration, and the passive snubber is composed of inductors, capacitors, and diodes. The inductors of the snubber in various series modules are made on a common magnetic core, and the coupled-inductor scheme is adopted. With the help of the coupled inductor, active input voltage sharing of the input-series converter can also be achieved after the switches are turned off, and voltage sharing of the switch in each series module can be ensured, which overcome the shortcomings of the existing input-series flyback converter. Active voltage sharing processes caused by the coupled inductor are analyzed in detail. Furthermore, the design guideline of the passive snubber is discussed. Finally, the experimental study has been done on a 1500 Vdc/60 W laboratory-made prototype composed of three flyback series modules, and the feasibility of the proposed method and the theoretical analysis is verified by the experimental results.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Low Leakage Electromagnetic Field Level and High Efficiency Using a Novel
           Hybrid Loop-Array Design for Wireless High Power Transfer System
    • Authors: Seongsoo Lee;Dong-Hyun Kim;Yeonje Cho;Hongseok Kim;Chiuk Song;Seungtaek Jeong;Jinwook Song;Gyeyoung Park;Seokwoo Hong;Junyong Park;Kyungjun Cho;Hyunsuk Lee;Chulhun Seo;Seungyoung Ahn;Joungho Kim;
      Pages: 4356 - 4367
      Abstract: In this paper, we first proposed a novel hybrid loop array (HLA) for low leakage electromagnetic field (EMF) level and high efficiency in a wireless high power transfer system. The proposed HLA effectively enhances the system efficiency and shields leakage EMF in a wireless power transfer (WPT) system using kHz range resonant frequency. The key originality of the proposed HLA is the combination of two types of loop coil; shielding loop coil (SLC) and amplifying loop coil (ALC). SLCs reduce leakage EMF, and ALCs significantly enhance the magnetic field from a Tx coil. The simulation and experiment results show that the proposed solution successfully overcomes the limitations of the existing solutions. Analytical modeling and design procedure are introduced and discussed. In addition, the experimental verification of the simulation result is included. We first designed and modeled an HLA considering the coupling effect of neighboring loop coils to evaluate its efficiency and leakage EMF. With the proposed HLA, we demonstrated a 9.36% improvement in the efficiency and 3 dBm reduction in the leakage EMF near the WPT system.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Model-Predictive Current Control of Modular Multilevel Converters With
           Phase-Shifted Pulsewidth Modulation
    • Authors: Dehong Zhou;Shunfeng Yang;Yi Tang;
      Pages: 4368 - 4378
      Abstract: Model-predictive current control (MPCC) is a promising candidate for modular multilevel converter (MMC) control due to its advantages of direct modeling and fast dynamic response. The conventional MPCC, which obtains the optimal control input by evaluating a cost function for all the possible switching states, may make the MPCC impractical due to the exponentially increasing computation burden with the increasing number of submodules (SMs). On the other hand, the MPCC experiences high load current and circulating current tracking errors, since only one switching state is selected and applied during one control period. To address these issues, this paper proposes an MPCC with phase-shifted pulsewidth modulation (PS-PWM) for improving the steady-state control performance. The arm voltages are considered as a whole to implement the proposed MPCC. The optimal duty cycle is obtained based on the load and circulating current tracking error minimization and applied using the PS-PWM. As a result, the computation burden is unrelated to the number of SMs by avoiding the exhaustive evaluation process for all the possible switching states. A better steady-state performance with smaller tracking errors is achieved with the similar switching frequency, and the tedious tuning process of the weighting factor is eliminated. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MPCC.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Soft-Switching High Step-Up/Down Bidirectional DC–DC
           Converter
    • Authors: Zahra Hosseinzadeh;Navid Molavi;Hosein Farzanehfard;
      Pages: 4379 - 4386
      Abstract: A nonisolated bidirectional dc–dc converter with high voltage gain, low voltage stress, low component count, and soft-switching features is presented in this paper. In this topology, coupled inductors and voltage multiplier cells are merged to achieve high step-up/down voltage gain. Also, due to using active clamp circuits, the voltage stress of power switches is relatively low. Thus, the low voltage switches with low on-resistance can be employed to reduce the conduction losses. Furthermore, zero-voltage switching is accomplished in both high step-up and high step-down modes for all power switches, and due to zero-current switching operation of all antiparallel diodes, the reverse recovery losses are reduced. In order to verify the theoretical analysis and the converter performance, a 200 W prototype circuit of the proposed converter is implemented in the laboratory.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • A Single Switch Quadratic Boost High Step Up DC–DC Converter
    • Authors: Yijie Wang;Yuping Qiu;Qing Bian;Yueshi Guan;Dianguo Xu;
      Pages: 4387 - 4397
      Abstract: In this paper, a high step up converter consisting of an integrated quadratic-boost converter and a voltage doubler is proposed. The integration of the quadratic-boost converter makes the system easier to lift up its voltage gain through slightly increasing the duty ratio of the single switch. The voltage doubler further increases the voltage gain of the system as the turn ratio rises. The voltage stresses on the switch and the diodes are decreased for such cascaded topology. Different operation modes are analyzed and mathematical analysis of the converter is presented in detail. The leakage inductance contributes to realizing zero current switching of the diodes in the second boost stage and the doubler and the energy can be recycled to the load. A 38-W prototype is built to work as a vehicle LED driver. Experiments are conducted to verify the advantages of the proposed converter and the efficiency is 90% at the nominal operating point.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • An Integrated Heater Equalizer for Lithium-Ion Batteries of Electric
           Vehicles
    • Authors: Yunlong Shang;Chong Zhu;Yuhong Fu;Chunting Chris Mi;
      Pages: 4398 - 4405
      Abstract: In this paper, an automotive onboard heater equalizer is proposed to heat low-temperature batteries and balance cell voltages without the requirement of external power supplies. The proposed integrated topology only needs one MOSFET for one cell, resulting in a compact size and low cost, which can be easily applied to electric vehicles. In particular, all MOSFETs are driven by one high-frequency pulsewidth modulation signal and the batteries can be heated internally by the ohmic and electrochemical losses and warmed externally by the switching and conduction losses of MOSFETs, leading to a high heating speed and efficiency. Further, a thermoelectric model for the internal and external combined heating is developed to provide guidance for the optimized design of the proposed heater. In addition, the proposed topology can realize passive balancing of series-connected battery strings at a higher switching frequency and a smaller duty cycle. Experimental results show that the proposed heater, by generating a periodic ramped discharge current with an rms value of 1.8 C at a switching frequency of 150 kHz, can heat the lithium-ion batteries from −20 to 0 °C within 1.9 min, consuming about 5% of the cell energy.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Modeling and Analysis of Inductive Power Transfer System With Passive
           Matrix Power Repeater
    • Authors: Rong Hua;Aiguo Patrick Hu;
      Pages: 4406 - 4413
      Abstract: This paper presents a detailed modeling and analysis of an inductive power transfer (IPT) system with a passive matrix power repeater. A high-order mathematical model is established to characterize the output power by taking all the mutual inductances among the primary, secondary, and the unit cells of matrix power repeaters into considerations. The model is used to analyze the relationship between the output power and the operating frequency of an IPT system with a 3 × 3 matrix power repeater. The study shows the optimal operating frequencies corresponding to maximum and minimum power transfer exist owing to the interactions among the magnetic fields generated by the primary current and induced currents of the unit cells of the matrix power repeater. The theoretical optimal frequencies for obtaining the maximum and minimum output power are determined by numerical analysis based on the proposed model, and they are verified by circuit simulation and experimental study within an error of 2%. The results are useful for power flow controller design with enhanced and reduced power regulation range.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • A Multiple-Input Cascaded DC–DC Converter for Very Small Wind
           Turbines
    • Authors: Yamaan E. Majeed;Iftekhar Ahmad;Daryoush Habibi;
      Pages: 4414 - 4423
      Abstract: Concerns over environmental impact and high infrastructure cost heavily influence the uptake of wind turbine technology. Recently, researchers have started to look into small wind turbines, which are much smaller in size and capacity. Small wind turbines have less environmental impact and low infrastructure cost. These small turbines have limited power generation capacity, requiring multiple turbines to be connected together to produce useful power. In order to capture power from multiple wind turbines, researchers have proposed numerous topologies in the literature. However, these traditional topologies were designed for high-power wind turbines and cannot be used to connect very small wind turbines since a significant amount of the generated power would be lost in driving the complex electronic circuits used in traditional topologies. In this paper, we present a multiple-input nonisolated dc–dc converter design that collects the output power from series-connected very small wind turbines. The proposed system was implemented in our smart energy laboratory and experimental results were gathered, showing a significant improvement over existing converters.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Alternative Approach to Analysis and Design of Series Resonant Converter
           at Steady State
    • Authors: Mohammad Daryaei;Mohammad Ebrahimi;Sayed Ali Khajehoddin;
      Pages: 4424 - 4435
      Abstract: In this paper, new steady-state analysis is proposed for a series resonant converter (SRC) that provides closed-form expressions for converter waveforms. Using the proposed analysis, explicit equations are obtained to design the converter components. It is shown that an SRC can be modeled through a nonlinear differential equation with discontinuous inputs. A Laplace-based theorem (LBT) is provided to obtain the steady-state analytic solution of the resonant converter differential equations. Using the LBT, a flowchart is proposed to analyze the converter where the nonlinearity of differential equation is removed by defining intermediate variables. The variable duty ratio SRC is analyzed using the proposed flowchart. Accurate, closed-form, and explicit equations for converter waveforms, voltage gain, current phase lag, zero voltage switching, and discontinuous conduction mode boundaries are derived. The proposed analysis is compared with conventional methods and its accuracy is validated through simulations and experimental results. Moreover, using the proposed method, a novel procedure is provided for the optimal design of the converter and is compared with conventional design approaches.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • SPWM-Based Direct Digital Control With Average-Voltage Model and D–Σ
           Process for Paralleled 3φ3W Grid-Connected Converters to Reduce
           Circulating Currents
    • Authors: Tsai-Fu Wu;Ling-Chia Yu;Yen-Hsiang Huang;Ying-Yi Jhang;Bo-Tang Zeng;
      Pages: 4436 - 4446
      Abstract: This paper presents a sinusoidal pulsewidth modulation (SPWM) based direct digital control with average-voltage model (AVM) and division–summation process for paralleled three-phase three-wire (3φ3W) grid-connected converters to reduce circulating currents. With the direct digital control, plant of each single-phase converter can be derived directly, and a controller is then designed to cover the variation effects of filter inductance and grid voltage. Based on SPWM and AVM over a switching cycle, each 3φ3W converter can be decomposed into three single-phase converters and each converter is controlled individually to track its sinusoidal reference current tightly, reducing circulating currents significantly. Equal current sharing is therefore also achieved. The control laws for achieving grid connection are derived in detail. In the design and implementation, the inductances corresponding to various inductor currents are measured offline and stored in the controller for scheduling loop gain cycle by cycle. Experimental and simulated results from a three-converter system confirm the analysis and discussion of the proposed control approaches.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Vacuum-Packaged Piezoelectric Energy Harvester for Powering Smart Grid
           Monitoring Devices
    • Authors: Alireza Abasian;Ahmadreza Tabesh;Nasrin Rezaei-Hosseinabadi;Abolghasem Zeidaabadi Nezhad;Massimo Bongiorno;Sayed Ali Khajehoddin;
      Pages: 4447 - 4456
      Abstract: This paper presents an analytical method for the design and power optimization of vacuum-packaged piezoelectric energy harvesters. It is shown that the maximum power point of a vacuum-packaged energy harvester is different from the conventional one which occurs when the electrical damping ratio equals to its mechanical counterpart. Also, it is shown that the captured power by a vacuum-packaged energy harvester is highly sensitive to the vibration frequency due to very low-mechanical damping ratio, e.g., up to 50% power drops corresponding to 2% deviations in the frequency. The analysis and design are performed in the context of an ac-line magnetic field energy harvester in which the line frequency is also fixed and this energy harvester is useful for developing the self-powered wireless monitoring devices. Furthermore, the vacuum-packaged devices are inherently robust against dust storm and icing phenomenon, which occur for overhead power lines. The proposed analytical method is established based on simplified assumptions and then an accurate method is developed for the analysis of vacuum-packaged devices. Obtained theoretical results are verified in the laboratory through a prototype of the vacuum-packaged piezoelectric device, which captures up to 90 $mu$W from a 10-A line current.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Simultaneous Common-Mode Resonance Circulating Current and Leakage Current
           Suppression for Transformerless Three-Level T-Type PV Inverter System
    • Authors: Xiaoyan Li;Xiangyang Xing;Chenghui Zhang;Alian Chen;Changwei Qin;Guangxian Zhang;
      Pages: 4457 - 4467
      Abstract: The improved LCL filter is used in transformerless three-level photovoltaic inverter system for leakage current suppression. However, the common-mode (CM) resonance circulating current (CMRCC) is generated, which causes inverter-side current oscillation, leakage current increment, and system instability. To overcome these issues, an improved CM circulating current model with detailed analyses of CMRCC is proposed in this paper. Based on above theories, the CMRCC is influenced by filter parameters, zero-sequence duty ratio, and number of switching transitions. To suppress CMRCC, a hybrid control strategy composed of proportional integral (PI) and feedforward control is presented. It is realized by real-time adjusting zero-sequence duty ratio in space vector modulation technique. Compared with the conventional damping resistor techniques, the CMRCC and leakage current are effectively suppressed with the proposed method. Thus, the performance of inverter-side currents and leakage current suppression is greatly improved. Besides, the capacitor-voltage-feedforward control is adopted to eliminate resonance peak in the differential-mode circuit. Simulation and experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of theoretical analyses and the proposed method.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Generic Closed-Loop Controller for Power Regulation in Dual Active Bridge
           DC–DC Converter With Current Stress Minimization
    • Authors: Osama M. Hebala;Ahmed A. Aboushady;Khaled H. Ahmed;Ibrahim Abdelsalam;
      Pages: 4468 - 4478
      Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive and generalized analysis of the bidirectional dual active bridge (DAB) dc–dc converter using triple phase shift (TPS) control to enable closed-loop power regulation while minimizing current stress. The key new achievements are a generic analysis in terms of possible conversion ratios/converter voltage gains (i.e., Buck/Boost/Unity), per unit based equations regardless of DAB ratings, and a new simple closed-loop controller implementable in real time to meet desired power transfer regulation at minimum current stress. Per unit based analytical expressions are derived for converter ac rms current as well as power transferred. An offline particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is used to obtain an extensive set of TPS ratios for minimizing the rms current in the entire bidirectional power range of –1 to 1 per unit. The extensive set of results achieved from PSO presents a generic data pool, which is carefully analyzed to derive simple useful relations. Such relations enable a generic closed-loop controller design that can be implemented in real time avoiding the extensive computational capacity that iterative optimization techniques require. A detailed Simulink DAB switching model is used to validate the precision of the proposed closed-loop controller under various operating conditions. An experimental prototype also substantiates the results achieved.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • A Potential Game Approach to Distributed Operational Optimization for
           Microgrid Energy Management With Renewable Energy and Demand Response
    • Authors: Jun Zeng;Qiaoqiao Wang;Junfeng Liu;Jianlong Chen;Haoyong Chen;
      Pages: 4479 - 4489
      Abstract: In view of Internet of Energy, advanced operational optimization in microgrid energy management system (MEMS) is expected to be scalable to accommodate various participants, support plug-and-play, and optimize energy utilization. Based on potential game, this paper presents a fully distributed operational optimization for MEMS with high penetration of renewable energy and demand response. After analyzing the microgrid and potential game, the establishment and proof of an exact potential game model is presented in detail. Then the best-strategy-response iterative algorithm is proposed to find the game Nash equilibrium in a distributed way. Finally, the proposed approach is simulated in an islanded microgrid to verify its efficiency and feasibility. The significances of this paper are as follows. First, the scheme and algorithm are fully distributed. All heterogeneous individuals are treated as independent decision-making entities without a central coordinator/processor. Second, the optimization process is open and dynamic. The convergence is achieved with no limits to type or number of players, even if the process of execution is corrupted with delay or losses in communication information. Third, the consistency between individual rationality and overall importance is guaranteed, and individual best-strategy-response behaviors necessarily improve overall optimality.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Design and Development of a Novel High Voltage Gain, High-Efficiency
           Bidirectional DC–DC Converter for Storage Interface
    • Authors: Shreelakshmi M P;Moumita Das;Vivek Agarwal;
      Pages: 4490 - 4501
      Abstract: A novel bidirectional dc–dc converter having high voltage gain capability with high efficiency is proposed in this paper for interfacing storage in a range of applications. The proposed converter steps up (boost) the voltage in one direction while stepping it down (buck) in the other direction of operation. An attractive feature of the proposed converter is the symmetry of its operating modes. It also has inherent soft-switching capability during turn on of the switches, enabling high switching frequency operation. This, coupled with the fact that the proposed converter uses only one coupled inductor for both boost and buck modes, leads to a compact system. A clamped capacitor network is used to recover the leakage energy. Circuit description, design, and loss calculations for both buck and boost modes are explained. The bidirectional converter is designed for a voltage gain of 10 and (1/10) in the boost and buck modes, respectively. A 500 W laboratory prototype of the proposed converter has been developed and tested under rated conditions. Even for a large voltage gain of 10, a peak efficiency in excess of 94% is achieved, which is not possible with conventional converters. All the results of this work are included.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Incremental Updating Multirobot Formation Using Nonlinear Model Predictive
           Control Method With General Projection Neural Network
    • Authors: Hanzhen Xiao;C. L. Philip Chen;
      Pages: 4502 - 4512
      Abstract: In this paper, an incremental centralized formation system is developed for controlling the multirobot formation with joining robots, and a nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) method is implemented as the controller. The incremental updating method is used to update the system's state in real time, when there is a new robot joining during the formation process. Then, an NMPC approach is developed to reformulate the formation system into a convex nonlinear minimization problem, which can be further transformed into a quadratic programming (QP) with constraints. Then, a general projection neural network (GPNN) is implemented for solving this QP problem online to get the optimal inputs. In the end, two examples of incremental multirobot formation are demonstrated to verify the effectiveness of this method.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Finite-Time Convergent Control of Electrohydraulic Velocity Servo System
           Under Uncertain Parameter and External Load
    • Authors: Qing Guo;Qiang Wang;Xiaochai Li;
      Pages: 4513 - 4523
      Abstract: The disturbances suppression is one common control problem in electrohydraulic systems (EHSs) since both unknown external load and hydraulic parametric uncertainty often obviously degrade the tracking performance and bias the load pressure of EHS. In this paper, a finite-time convergent controller (FTCC) is tried to use in EHS to address this problem. Different from the asymptotic convergent controller, this FTCC not only improve the dynamic and steady tracking performance of the velocity servo system but also guarantee the system state error convergent to zero in a finite time. According to the finite-time stable principle, the FTCC is derived by backstepping and fractional-type Lyapunov techniques. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is verified by comparative simulation and experimental results with the other traditional and advanced controllers.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Electromechanical Coupling Mechanism and Control Strategy for
           In-Wheel-Motor-Driven Electric Vehicles
    • Authors: Zhe Li;Ling Zheng;Wenyun Gao;Zhenfei Zhan;
      Pages: 4524 - 4533
      Abstract: This paper presents a control methodology for solving the vibration issues emerged in in-wheel motor electric vehicles (IWM-EVs). Unlike existing techniques and methods, the proposed investigation focuses on the electromechanical coupling effects between the subsystems in IWM-EV, which were considered as another negative effects bought by power integration. To this aim, an integrated model which describes the dynamic coupling process between electromagnetic excitation in motor and transient dynamics in vehicle is established and developed. The characteristics of the electromechanically motivated harassment are discussed and its coupling mechanism is analyzed. The key factors are extracted and adopted as the feedback signals in the design of control methods. The effectiveness verification is conducted within numerous practical scenario of vehicle dynamics. Theoretical analysis and simulation results reveal that the proposed approaches can prevent further enlargement of air-gap deformation and unbalanced electromagnetic excitation by cutting off the electromagnetic force outputting periodically, which are benefitted to attenuate the negative issues arisen by electromechanical coupling in IWM-EV. In addition, a more balanced outcome in vehicle dynamics is achieved by the independent-phase chopping method with a less side effect on output torque and speed tracking ability.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • A Fast Algebraic Estimator for System Parameter Estimation and Online
           Controller Tuning—A Nanopositioning Application
    • Authors: Andres San-Millan;Sumeet S. Aphale;Vicente Feliu;
      Pages: 4534 - 4543
      Abstract: Parameter uncertainty is a key challenge in the real-time control of nanopositioners employed in scanning probe microscopy. Changes in the sample to be scanned introduces changes in system resonances, requiring instantaneous online tuning of controller parameters to ensure stable, optimal scanning performance. This paper presents a method based on the frequency-domain algebraic derivative approach for the accurate online identification of the nanopositioner's parameters. The parameter estimates are produced within a fraction of one period of the resonant mode frequency, allowing almost instantaneous tuning of controller parameters. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be utilized to automatically tune an integral resonant control scheme that combines both damping and tracking actions, and consequently deliver positioning performance far superior to that achieved solely due to the scheme's inherent robustness properties. It is further shown that the achieved performance compares favorably with an optimally designed control scheme of the same type.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Synchronization Control in the Cable Space for Cable-Driven Parallel
           Robots
    • Authors: Weiwei Shang;Bingyuan Zhang;Bin Zhang;Fei Zhang;Shuang Cong;
      Pages: 4544 - 4554
      Abstract: Cable-driven parallel robots (CDPRs) have low moving inertia and provide high-speed motion over a large workspace. The main challenges of CDPRs stem from the fact that cables should be in tension during motion control. Cable tension is closely related to the synchronization motion relation between cables which is often omitted in the existing controllers for CDPRs. To solve it, this paper proposes two synchronization controllers in the cable space to realize the synchronization motion between cables, and finally increase the tracking accuracy of the moving platform. The two synchronization controllers are proven to guarantee asymptotic convergence to zero of both tracking error and synchronization error. The trajectory tracking experiments are implemented on a self-built three-DOF CDPR, and the experiments are compared with the traditional augmented proportional-derivative controllers neglecting synchronization. The experimental results indicate that the tracking error and the synchronization error of the moving platform decrease greatly by using the synchronization controllers.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Online Bidirectional Trajectory Planning for Mobile Robots in State-Time
           Space
    • Authors: Hongseok Cheon;Byung Kook Kim;
      Pages: 4555 - 4565
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient online local motion planning algorithm for mobile robots in unknown cluttered dynamic environments. The algorithm plans a trajectory incrementally up to the finite horizon in state-time space. Incremental planning method is capable of fast computation but has poor obstacle avoidance performance. To compensate for the drawbacks of incremental planning, a partial trajectory modification scheme is used that sets an interim goal and then plans a trajectory to pass through the interim goal. The interim goal is a temporary desired goal to prevent the robot from falling into the inevitable collision state. By using incremental planning and partial trajectory modification, it is possible to plan collision-free trajectory with small computation even in cluttered dynamic environment. To generate smooth trajectories around given waypoints and goal, we systematize bidirectional trajectory planning with three kinds of trajectories: 1) a forward trajectory from the current robot state; 2) a backward trajectory from the state of current target waypoint; 3) and a connecting trajectory between the forward and backward trajectories. A smooth trajectory is generated around the way point and goal by setting the state of the current target waypoint (or goal), while taking into account the positional relationship among the planned forward trajectory, the target waypoint and the next waypoint. Performances of the proposed algorithm are validated through extensive simulations and experiment with two types of mobile robots: 1) a holonomic mobile robot and 2) a differential drive mobile robot.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Angle Tracking Adaptive Backstepping Control for a Mechanism of Pneumatic
           Muscle Actuators via an AESO
    • Authors: Ling Zhao;Haiyan Cheng;Yuanqing Xia;Bo Liu;
      Pages: 4566 - 4576
      Abstract: This paper presents an adaptive backstepping controller for a mechanism of pneumatic muscle actuators via an adaptive extended state observer. A dynamic model of the mechanism is established with two unknown parameters estimated by using adaptive laws. An adaptive extended state observer is established to estimate total disturbances and states of the mechanism. Moreover, adaptive extended state observer gains are obtained by adaptive laws and parallel D-eigenvalues, whose time-varying multiplier $n$th-order derivatives are derived by tracking differentiators. Finally, a nonlinear adaptive backstepping controller is designed and the effectiveness of the proposed method is expressed by experimental results.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Two-Time-Scale Redesign for Antilock Braking Systems of Ground Vehicles
    • Authors: Weichao Sun;Jinhua Zhang;Zhiyuan Liu;
      Pages: 4577 - 4586
      Abstract: An antilock braking system (ABS) is one of the most effective active safety control systems for ground vehicles, since it can keep the rotational wheel from locking and, consequently, guarantee the braking safety and handling stability. There have been a variety of ABS control schemes proposed by many researchers. However, most of the results employ sundry tire–road friction models, the alleged $mu, text{--},lambda$ curves ($mu$ is the tire–road friction coefficient, while $lambda$ is the tire slip ratio, which is mathematically defined as $lambda =({v-omega r})/{v}$), making the ABS controller extremely complicated for the highly nonlinear characteristics of the $mu, text{--},lambda$ relationship. Furthermore, the a priori knowledge of road conditions for these ABS controllers restricts their practicability. To circumvent these problems, a two-time-scale ABS control scheme is proposed in this paper, without considering the intricate $mu, text{--},lambda$ relationship, making the a priori knowledge of the road condition no longer a prerequisite; thus, the designed ABS controller is rather simple. In addition, a modified fast-time-scale estimator is involved to estimate the road condition, which is significant in vehicle active dynamics control. The effectiveness of the proposed ABS controller is verified via numerical simulations and CarSim–MATLAB cosimulations.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Dual-Rate Operational Optimal Control for Flotation Industrial Process
           With Unknown Operational Model
    • Authors: Yi Jiang;Jialu Fan;Tianyou Chai;Frank L. Lewis;
      Pages: 4587 - 4599
      Abstract: This paper studies the two-timescales operational optimal control problem for the flotation industrial process with unknown operational model in the presence of setpoint constraints on the device layer. A novel dual-rate data-driven algorithm based on lifting technology and reinforcement learning (RL) is proposed. First, a dual-rate flotation process model including the device layer and the operational models is formulated. Then, a proportional integral (PI) controller for device layer is designed, by using lifting technology, a unified timescale controlled plant model with partially unknown dynamics is established. Based on such a model, an online learning algorithm using neural network is presented so that the operational indices, namely concentrate and tail grades, can be kept in the target range while maintaining the setpoints of the device layer within the specified bounds. At last, emulation experiments in a hardware-in-the-loop system are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Nonlinear Signal-Correction Observer and Application to UAV Navigation
    • Authors: Xinhua Wang;Weicheng Wang;
      Pages: 4600 - 4607
      Abstract: In this paper, a nonlinear signal-correction observer (NSCO) is presented for signals correction and estimation, which not only can reject the position measurement error, but also the unknown velocity can be estimated, in spite of the existence of large position measurement error and intense stochastic non-Gaussian noise. For this method, the position signal is not required to be bounded. The NSCO is developed for position/acceleration integration, and it is applied to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) navigation: Based on the NSCO, the position and flying velocity of quadrotor UAV are estimated. An experiment is conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • A Sampled-Data Approach to Nonlinear ESO-Based Active Disturbance
           Rejection Control for Pneumatic Muscle Actuator Systems with Actuator
           Saturations
    • Authors: Yuan Yuan;Yang Yu;Zidong Wang;Lei Guo;
      Pages: 4608 - 4617
      Abstract: In this paper, an active disturbance rejection control scheme with a nonlinear sampled-data extended state observer (NSESO) is proposed for a pneumatic muscle actuator (PMA) system. The phenomenon of the actuator saturation is taken into account in the design procedure. The NSESO is utilized to estimate the so-called total disturbance that reflects the aggregated impacts of unmodeled nonlinearities and disturbances. Then, an NSESO-based composite control strategy is designed, where the estimates provided by the designed NSESO serve as the compensation to eliminate the total disturbance. Finally, a number of practical experiments on the PMA systems are conducted to verify the validity and applicability of the proposed design method.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Integral-Sliding-Mode Braking Control for a Connected Vehicle Platoon:
           Theory and Application
    • Authors: Yongfu Li;Chuancong Tang;Srinivas Peeta;Yibing Wang;
      Pages: 4618 - 4628
      Abstract: This paper proposes a distributed integral-sliding-mode (ISM) control strategy for cooperative braking control of a connected vehicle platoon with a focus on the car-following interactions between vehicles. In particular, a linear controller considering the position and velocity of the lead vehicle as well as the braking force is proposed for the leader, while a constant-time-headway-policy-based ISM controller incorporating the car-following interactions, the spacing error, velocity difference, and external disturbances is developed for the followers. In addition, the convergence for the ISM controller is rigorously analyzed using the Lyapunov technique. Furthermore, the string stability of the platoon is analyzed using the transfer function method. Finally, extensive analyses are conducted using numerical and field experiments. Results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy with respect to the position, velocity, deceleration, and spacing error profiles.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Discrete-Time Sliding-Mode Control With Enhanced Power Reaching Law
    • Authors: Haifeng Ma;Yangmin Li;Zhenhua Xiong;
      Pages: 4629 - 4638
      Abstract: This paper presents the design, analysis, and verification of a novel reaching law for discrete-time sliding-mode control. The control gains of the reaching law are automatically regulated by the power function and the exponential term that dynamically adapts to the variation of the switching function. The reaching law also employs the perturbation estimation and the difference function to redefine the change rate as the second-order difference of the uncertainty. Compared with previous methods, the proposed reaching law has the capability to amend the control gains in a wise manner, further mitigate chattering, and guarantee a smaller width of the quasi-sliding-mode domain (QSMD). In order to describe the system dynamics in the reaching phase and the sliding phase with respect to control gain values, both the decrement band and the QSMD (ultimate band) of the proposed reaching law are theoretically analyzed. The reaching steps for the switching function to converge toward the sliding surface are also obtained. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through numerical simulations and experimental investigations on a piezoelectric actuator.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • An Adaptive Linear-Neuron-Based Third-Order PLL to Improve the Accuracy of
           Absolute Magnetic Encoders
    • Authors: Ha Xuan Nguyen;Thuong Ngoc-Cong Tran;Jae Wan Park;Jae Wook Jeon;
      Pages: 4639 - 4649
      Abstract: Absolute magnetic encoders (AMEs) use two magnets: a ring multipolar magnet (MPM) generating high-resolution and improving the accuracy for the encoder, and a bipolar magnet in the center calculating the number cycle of MPM signals. The phase outputs of these AMEs are tracked from the sinusoidal signals of the MPM. However, these sine/cosine signals are disturbed by amplitude differences, offsets, phase-shift, harmonic components, and random noise. In order to solve this problem, this paper presents an adaptive linear neuron based on a third-order phase-locked loop (ALN-PLL) to improve the accuracy of AMEs. The proposed approach consists of two main parts: The first part is an ALN algorithm that uses the phase feedback of the third-order PLL in order to build the mathematical model of input signals, and then reject the disturbances. The second part is a third-order PLL that is designed based on a dominant pole approximation algorithm. The proposed PLL can reduce noise and eliminate dc-error during the phase step, frequency step, and frequency ramp. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Discrete-Time Complex Bandpass Filters for Three-Phase Converter Systems
    • Authors: Emerson Guest;Nenad Mijatovic;
      Pages: 4650 - 4660
      Abstract: In this paper, a first-order complex bandpass filter (CBF) derived in the discrete frequency domain is proposed as a building block for the complex signal processing unit in three-phase converter systems. The first-order discrete CBF can be directly implemented in a digital system, is stable at all center frequencies, and has a low computational burden. The first-order CBF is extended to a $p$th-order discrete CBF. A normalized frequency-locked loop (FLL) is then developed that allows the frequency adaption to satisfy a desired settling time regardless of the input signal magnitude or discrete CBF form. The $p$th-order discrete CBF-FLL was tested on an FPGA in the form of two industrial applications: voltage synchronization under grid fault and extraction of an unknown frequency component. The second-order discrete CBF-FLL offered significantly improved stopband attenuation and frequency estimation relative to the first-order discrete CBF-FLL, for a small increase in computational burden.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • MUSIC-Like Algorithm for Source Localization in Electrical Impedance
           Tomography
    • Authors: Narong Borijindargoon;Boon Poh Ng;Susanto Rahardja;
      Pages: 4661 - 4671
      Abstract: In electrical impedance tomography (EIT), the noise amplified solution caused during matrix inversion can be avoided with nonparametric spectral-based estimation when the conductivity variation is bounded and spatially sparse. Among many spectral-based algorithms used in direction-of-arrival estimation, an algorithm called multiple signal classification (MUSIC) is one of the most well-known algorithms that has super resolution performance. However, its dependence on the model-order estimation can lead to performance degradation, especially for quasi-static environment, such as EIT application, and this is due to source location changes and conductivity variation. In this paper, the relationship between source position, conductivity variation, ill-conditioned array manifold, and eigenvalues of the covariance matrix are explored. An algorithm called MUSIC-like, which has high resolution performance comparable to MUSIC, is then proposed for EIT application. It is formulated under the beamforming framework and, therefore, does not require an estimation of model order from the covariance matrix. Simulation results show that the proposed method is capable of obtaining high resolution performance under various noise levels. An 8-electrode EIT system prototype was built using the proposed method, and experimental results confirm the high resolution performance capability of the proposed method.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • An Intelligent Outlier Detection Method With One Class Support Tucker
           Machine and Genetic Algorithm Toward Big Sensor Data in Internet of Things
           
    • Authors: Xiaowu Deng;Peng Jiang;Xiaoning Peng;Chunqiao Mi;
      Pages: 4672 - 4683
      Abstract: Various types of sensor data can be collected by the Internet of Things (IoT). Each sensor node has spatial attributes and may also be associated with a large number of measurement data that evolve over time; therefore, these high-dimensional sensor data are inherently large scale. Detecting outliers in large-scale IoT sensor data is a challenging task. Most existing anomaly detection methods are based on a vector representation. However, large-scale IoT sensor data have characteristics that make tensor methods more efficient for extracting information. The vector-based methods can destroy original structural information and correlation within large-scale sensor data, resulting in the problem of the “curse of dimensionality,” and some outliers hence cannot be detected. In this paper, we propose a one-class support Tucker machine (OCSTuM) and an OCSTuM based on tensor Tucker factorization and a genetic algorithm called GA-OCSTuM. These methods extend one-class support vector machines to tensor space. OCSTuM and GA-OCSTuM are unsupervised anomaly detection approaches for big sensor data. They retain the structural information of data while improving the accuracy and efficiency of anomaly detection. The experimental evaluations on real data sets demonstrate that our proposed method improves the accuracy and efficiency of anomaly detection while retaining the intrinsic structure of big sensor data.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Switch Fault Diagnosis Method for Series–Parallel Forward
           DC–DC Converter System
    • Authors: Hanyu Wang;Xuejun Pei;Yuhuan Wu;Yangxiao Xiang;Yong Kang;
      Pages: 4684 - 4695
      Abstract: Series–parallel forward dc–dc converter system is a good option in high-voltage high-power applications. A switch fault, in this converter, should be detected as soon as possible, to avoid further damage and save maintenance cost. In this paper, a new switch fault diagnosis method, which treats output inductor voltages as diagnostic criteria, is proposed for this system. With the proposed method, expensive sensors are needless, since diagnostic signal can be easily acquired by adding a small auxiliary winding into inductor magnetic core. Based on the feature of diagnostic signals in such a system, a low-cost diagnostic circuit is designed. The failed module caused by open-circuit fault or short-circuit fault could be detected within one switching period, allowing for an immediate fault-tolerant action. This method also shows generality for different connections and buck-type isolated topologies. Besides, it works reliably under input-voltage variation and load step, and no misdiagnosis will occur during normal dynamic process. Finally, experimental result verifies the effectiveness of this method. The proposed scheme has a good potential to be applied in real applications for its simplicity and robustness.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Multiple Wavelet Coefficients Fusion in Deep Residual Networks for Fault
           Diagnosis
    • Authors: Minghang Zhao;Myeongsu Kang;Baoping Tang;Michael Pecht;
      Pages: 4696 - 4706
      Abstract: Wavelet transform, an effective tool to decompose signals into a series of frequency bands, has been widely used for vibration-based fault diagnosis in machinery. Likewise, the use of deep learning algorithms is becoming popular to automatically learn discriminative features from input data for the sake of improving diagnostic performance. However, the fact that no general consensus has been reached as to which wavelet basis functions are useful for diagnosis motivated this investigation of methods to fuse multiple wavelet transforms into deep learning algorithms. In this paper, two methods—i.e., multiple wavelet coefficients fusion in deep residual networks by concatenation and multiple wavelet coefficients fusion in deep residual networks by maximization—were developed to capture discriminative information from diverse sets of wavelet coefficients for fault diagnosis. The efficacy of the developed methods was verified by applying them to planetary gearbox fault diagnosis.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Data-Driven Robust Fault Detection and Isolation of Three-Phase Induction
           Motor
    • Authors: Muhammad Faraz Tariq;Abdul Qayyum Khan;Muhammad Abid;Ghulam Mustafa;
      Pages: 4707 - 4715
      Abstract: This paper deals with data-driven fault diagnosis of three-phase induction motor. The tools from subspace identification based data-driven scheme are utilized to design a framework of fault detection and isolation. The fault detection scheme is so designed that it caters for even small magnitude faults. In order to discriminate different faults, a fault isolation algorithm is proposed. Isolation thresholds are designed. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Data-driven Detection and Diagnosis of Incipient Faults in Electrical
           Drives of High-Speed Trains
    • Authors: Hongtian Chen;Bin Jiang;Wen Chen;Hui Yi;
      Pages: 4716 - 4725
      Abstract: Incipient faults in electrical drives can corrupt overall performance of high-speed trains; however, they are difficult to discover because of their slight fault symptoms. By sufficiently exploiting the distribution information of incipient faults, this paper presents the reason why incipient faults cannot be detected by the existing fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) methods. Under principal component analysis (PCA) framework, we propose a new data-driven FDD method, which is named probability-relevant PCA (PRPCA), for electrical drives in high-speed trains. The salient strengths of the PRPCA-based FDD method are: 1) it can greatly improve the fault detectability; it is suitable for non-Gaussian electrical drives; 2) based on the improved fault detectability, it can achieve accurate fault diagnosis via support vector machine; and 3) it can be easily applied to electrical drives even if neither physical models or parameters nor expert knowledge of drive systems is given; and it is of highly computational efficiency that can meet requirements on the real-time FDD. A set of experiments on a dSPACE platform-based traction system of the CRH2A-type high-speed train are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Adaptive Power Transformer Lifetime Predictions Through Machine Learning
           and Uncertainty Modeling in Nuclear Power Plants
    • Authors: Jose Ignacio Aizpurua;Stephen D. J. McArthur;Brian G. Stewart;Brandon Lambert;James G. Cross;Victoria M. Catterson;
      Pages: 4726 - 4737
      Abstract: The remaining useful life (RUL) of transformer insulation paper is largely determined by the winding hot-spot temperature (HST). Frequently the HST is not directly monitored and it is inferred from other measurements. However, measurement errors affect prediction models and if uncertain variables are not taken into account this can lead to incorrect maintenance decisions. Additionally, existing analytic models for HST calculation are not always accurate because they cannot generalize the properties of transformers operating in different contexts. In this context, this paper presents a novel transformer condition assessment approach integrating uncertainty modeling, data-driven forecasting models, and model-based experimental models to increase the prediction accuracy and handle uncertainty. The proposed approach quantifies the effect of measurement errors on transformer RUL predictions and confirms that temperature and load measurement errors affect the RUL estimation. Forecasting results show that the extreme gradient boosting (XGB) algorithm best captures the nonlinearities of the thermal model and improves the prediction accuracy among a number of forecasting approaches. Accordingly, the XGB model is integrated with experimental models in a particle filtering framework to improve thermal modeling and RUL prediction tasks. Models are tested and validated using a real dataset from a power transformer operating in a nuclear power plant.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Enhanced Particle Filtering for Bearing Remaining Useful Life Prediction
           of Wind Turbine Drivetrain Gearboxes
    • Authors: Fangzhou Cheng;Liyan Qu;Wei Qiao;Liwei Hao;
      Pages: 4738 - 4748
      Abstract: Bearing is the major contributor to wind turbine gearbox failures. Accurate remaining useful life prediction for drivetrain gearboxes of wind turbines is of great importance to achieve condition-based maintenance to improve the wind turbine reliability and reduce the cost of wind power. However, remaining useful life prediction is a challenging work due to the limited monitoring data and the lack of an accurate physical fault degradation model. The particle filtering method has been used for the remaining useful life prediction of wind turbine drivetrain gearboxes, but suffers from the particle impoverishment problem due to a low particle diversity, which may lead to unsatisfactory prediction results. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an enhanced particle filtering algorithm in which an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is designed to learn the state transition function in the fault degradation model using the fault indicator extracted from the monitoring data; a particle modification method and an improved multinomial resampling method are proposed to improve the particle diversity in the resampling process to solve the particle impoverishment problem. The enhanced particle filtering algorithm is applied successfully to predict the remaining useful life of a bearing in the drivetrain gearbox of a 2.5 MW wind turbine equipped with a doubly-fed induction generator.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Dynamic Distributed Monitoring Strategy for Large-Scale Nonstationary
           Processes Subject to Frequently Varying Conditions Under Closed-Loop
           Control
    • Authors: Chunhui Zhao;He Sun;
      Pages: 4749 - 4758
      Abstract: Large-scale processes under closed-loop control are commonly subjected to frequently varying conditions due to load changes or other causes, resulting in typical nonstationary characteristics. For closed-loop control processes, the normal changes in operation conditions may distort the static and dynamic variations in a different way from real faults. In this paper, a dynamic distributed monitoring strategy is proposed to separate the dynamic variations from the steady states, and concurrently, monitor them to distinguish changes in the normal operating condition and real faults for large-scale nonstationary processes under closed-loop control. First, large-scale nonstationary process variables are decomposed into different blocks to mine the local information. Second, the static and dynamic equilibrium relations are separated by probing into the cointegration analysis solution in each block. Third, the concurrent monitoring models are constructed to supervise both the steady variations and their dynamic counterparts for each block. Finally, the local monitoring results are combined by Bayesian inference to obtain global results, which enable description and monitoring of both static and dynamic equilibrium relations from the global and local viewpoints. The feasibility and performance of the proposed method are illustrated with a real industrial process, which is a 1000-MW ultra-supercritical thermal power unit.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • A Novel Cross-Capacitive Sensor for Noncontact Microdroplet Detection
    • Authors: Zubair Hassan Zargar;Tarikul Islam;
      Pages: 4759 - 4766
      Abstract: In this paper, a novel capacitive sensor for noncontact microdroplet detection has been developed and tested successfully. For an accurate and highly repeatable droplet detection, the sensor makes use of a cross-capacitive structure, which is an extension of the Thompson and Lampard theorem. The sensor consists of four identical copper electrodes with infinitesimally small gaps etched out of double-sided copper-cladded polyimide substrate by screen printing and chemical etching process. The sensor prototype has been tested for different sizes of the droplets as well as the droplets from liquids having different dielectric constants and conductivities. The response characteristics of the presented sensor are very accurate, significant, fast, highly repeatable (±0.13%), and drift free. The achieved characteristics of the presented sensor are suitable for employing it for the noncontact microdroplet detection.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • A Compact 16-Way High-Power Combiner Implemented Via 3-D Metal Printing
           Technique for Advanced Radio-Frequency Electronics System Applications
    • Authors: Guan-Long Huang;Chong-Zhi Han;Wei Xu;Tao Yuan;Xiao Zhang;
      Pages: 4767 - 4776
      Abstract: In this paper, a size-compact and monolithically integrated millimeter-wave 16-way high-power combiner for advanced radio-frequency (RF) electronics applications is developed featuring a wide operational bandwidth and high isolations between the combiner's adjacent ports. The proposed combiner is operating at the X band and is composed of fifteen 3-dB directional coupler units that are properly configured to achieve the overall structural compactness. The combiner is fast-prototyped as a single part by employing a metallic three-dimensional (3-D) printing technique, which successfully overcomes the difficulty in its monolithic implementation by using conventional subtractive manufacturing techniques. The experimental results demonstrate that the 16-way power combiner achieves an approximately 21% operational bandwidth (8.5–10.5 GHz) at the X band with port isolations of more than 20 dB, an amplitude imbalance of about ±1 dB, a phase deviation of around ±1°, and good return and insertion losses. The excellent RF performance of the combiner makes it a good candidate for applications in multiport high-power electronics systems where highly efficient power transmission and conversion among different ports are required.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Learning-Based Texture Synthesis and Automatic Inpainting Using Support
           Vector Machines
    • Authors: Xinghui Dong;Junyu Dong;Guimei Sun;Yuanxu Duan;Lin Qi;Hui Yu;
      Pages: 4777 - 4787
      Abstract: Texture synthesis methods based on patch sampling and pasting can generate realistic textures with a similar appearance to a small sample. However, the sample usually has to be used throughout the synthesis stage. In contrast, the learned representation of the textures is more compact and discriminative, and can also yield good synthesis results. In this paper, we introduce a learned approach for texture synthesis based on support vector machines (SVM). This approach benefits from the merit of SVM that the sample texture pattern is learned using a model, and the sample itself can be discarded during the synthesis stage; the approach is also used to synthesize three-dimensional surface textures. Experimental results show that our approach is particularly effective in modeling and synthesizing near-regular or regular textures, which are difficult to achieve using traditional parametric texture synthesis methods. We further apply the proposed approach to constrained texture synthesis, image extrapolation, and texture inpainting. For texture inpainting, we develop a new method for automatically detecting holes in textures without the requirement of human intervention. Our approach yields promising results for the three tasks.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Time Series Classification With Multivariate Convolutional Neural Network
    • Authors: Chien-Liang Liu;Wen-Hoar Hsaio;Yao-Chung Tu;
      Pages: 4788 - 4797
      Abstract: Time series classification is an important research topic in machine learning and data mining communities, since time series data exist in many application domains. Recent studies have shown that machine learning algorithms could benefit from good feature representation, explaining why deep learning has achieved breakthrough performance in many tasks. In deep learning, the convolutional neural network (CNN) is one of the most well-known approaches, since it incorporates feature learning and classification task in a unified network architecture. Although CNN has been successfully applied to image and text domains, it is still a challenge to apply CNN to time series data. This paper proposes a tensor scheme along with a novel deep learning architecture called multivariate convolutional neural network (MVCNN) for multivariate time series classification, in which the proposed architecture considers multivariate and lag-feature characteristics. We evaluate our proposed method with the prognostics and health management (PHM) 2015 challenge data, and compare with several algorithms. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method outperforms the other alternatives using the prediction score, which is the evaluation metric used by the PHM Society 2015 data challenge. Besides performance evaluation, we provide detailed analysis about the proposed method.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Modified Secondary-Control-Based Fault Current Limiter for Inverters
    • Authors: Siavash Beheshtaein;Mehdi Savaghebi;Robert M. Cuzner;Saeed Golestan;Josep M. Guerrero;
      Pages: 4798 - 4804
      Abstract: Fault current limiters (FCLs) are one of the main solutions to upcoming challenges in the microgrid protection. Regarding the high penetration of distributed generations (DGs) in the future power system, designing cheap and effective FCLs is a necessity. This letter addresses this issue by proposing an embedded FCL operating based on modifying the secondary control of the inverter. As this method is presented for a four-wire system, besides very low implementing cost, it has independency and flexibility to only limit the current of the DG faulted phase. This letter also provides real-time simulation results by real time simulator (OPAL-RT) to compare the proposed method with a virtual-impedance-based FCL to validate its effectiveness. Finally, experimental results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed FCL.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Design of Quadratic D-Stable Fuzzy Controller for DC Microgrids With
           Multiple CPLs
    • Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Mardani;Navid Vafamand;Mohammad Hassan Khooban;Tomislav Dragičević;Frede Blaabjerg;
      Pages: 4805 - 4812
      Abstract: The dc microgrid (MG) system has several advantages over the ac one. Therefore, it recently became a preferred architecture in numerous industrial applications. Many loads in dc MGs are electronically regulated and they challenge the stability of the system due to their constant power load (CPL) behavior. This letter proposes a systematic and simple approach to design an improved state feedback controller for the power buffer that can stabilize the dc MGs with multiple CPLs. Based on the so-called sector nonlinearity approach, the nonlinear dc MG with several CPLs is exactly represented in a Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy model. Then, by employing the quadratic D-stability theory, the sufficient conditions to guarantee the stability and transient performance of the closed-loop system are obtained in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), such that the decay rate and oscillatory behavior of the closed-loop dc MG system are guaranteed to lie inside a predefined region. The LMI conditions can be numerically solved by utilizing the YALMIP toolbox in the MATLAB. Finally, to illustrate the merits and implementation validity of the proposed approach, some hardware-in-the-loop real-time simulation (RTS) results on a dc MG, which feeds two CPLs, are presented. In comparison with the state-of-the-art techniques, the RTS results indicate the simplicity, validity, and better performance of the proposed approach. According to the results, one can conclude that the proposed approach not only theoretically assures the stability but also guarantees the fast convergence and less oscillatory response of the dc MGs with multiple CPLs.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Design and Control for Linear Machines, Drives, and MAGLEVs—Part
           III
    • Authors: Ion Boldea;Marcello Pucci;Wei Xu;
      Pages: 4813 - 4815
      Abstract: The 14 papers in this special section focus on the design and control of linear machines, drives, and magnetic levitation (MAGLEVs). The subjects of these papers embrace the main subjects of interest of the scientific community related to linear ele (LEMs), ranging from innovative procedures for the optimal design of such machines, to their analysis with finite elements, to advanced control techniques, suitably devised for specific applications
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Design and Experimental Analysis of a New Magnetically Levitated Tubular
           Linear Actuator
    • Authors: Spasoje Mirić;Pascal Küttel;Arda Tüysüz;Johann W. Kolar;
      Pages: 4816 - 4825
      Abstract: The usage of tubular linear actuators (TLAs) in direct-drive systems, where linear reciprocal motion is needed, is beneficial compared to systems where a rotational actuator is used together with a mechanical transmission. Systems with TLAs are more compact, more dynamic, and more reliable. Today's TLAs commonly employ mechanical or air bearings, which either result in friction and wear due to contact, or a costly and bulky system due to the external pressurized air supply. These issues can be avoided with magnetic bearings (MBs). In the literature, it has been proposed to use two separate MBs on each axial side of the TLA, but this approach leads to a longer shaft and a more complex overall system due to additional power and control electronics for the MBs. Therefore, this paper proposes an integration of MBs into the TLA, resulting in a new, self-bearing (bearingsless) TLA. The proposed system is derived from the standard TLA, by changing its stator geometry. The principle of operation is explained and key design aspects are studied using finite element method (FEM). A prototype integrated into a test bench is built, and used for experimentally verifying the design of the novel actuator.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Electromagnetic and Thrust Characteristics of Double-sided Permanent
           Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor Adopting Staggering Primaries Structure
    • Authors: Xu Zhen Huang;Jing Li;Chengming Zhang;Zhen Yu Qian;Liyi Li;David Gerada;
      Pages: 4826 - 4836
      Abstract: Traditionally, straggering the primaries of the double-sided permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (DS-PMLSM) is beneficial in helping to reduce the detent force caused by the longitudinal end effect, but leading to a reduction of the average thrust. To overcome this disadvantage, this paper provides a novel DS-PMLSM, which adopts the structure of staggering two primaries and rearranging windings. First, the characteristics of the voltage and detent force are analyzed theoretically and verified by finite element (FEM) simulations. The inductance, thrust, and normal forces are then compared with the traditional DS-PMLSM. Furthermore, the geometrical parameters are optimized to improve the thrust. Finally, one DS-PMLSM prototype is tested. The detent force and back electromotive force tested results verify the effectiveness of the topology proposed in this research.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • A Tubular Staggered-Teeth Transverse-Flux PMLM With Circumferentially
           Distributed Three-Phase Windings
    • Authors: Yi Sui;Zuosheng Yin;Mingqiao Wang;Bin Yu;Ping Zheng;
      Pages: 4837 - 4848
      Abstract: This paper investigates a special tubular staggered-teeth transverse-flux permanent-magnet linear machine (TST-TFPMLM) for a free-piston Stirling power generating system. With the complicated flux leakage characteristic of the TST-TFPMLM considered, the general forms and evaluation method of the flux leakage are investigated by finite-element analysis, and the distribution law and reduction method of the flux leakage are obtained. To help the initial design of the TST-TFPMLM, both back electromotive force (EMF) and thrust are taken as the main concerned aims, and the influence of some primary structural parameters on both back EMF and thrust is studied. To improve the key performances of the TST-TFPMLM, the power factor is investigated with respect to the dimensions of permanent magnets (PMs), winding turns, armature current, internal power factor angle, and tooth tip dimensions. Furthermore, the methods of improving both efficiency and thrust density are explored. A prototype machine is manufactured and tested, and satisfactory experimental results are obtained, showing the feasibility of the TST-TFPMLM for the free-piston Stirling power generating system. This investigation provides a new idea to solve the drawbacks of conventional transverse-flux PM linear machines, which include complicated structure, poor manufacturability, high flux leakage, and low power factor.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Modeling and Control of Magnetic Actuation Systems Based on Sensorless
           Displacement Information
    • Authors: Alon Cervera;Ofer Ezra;Alon Kuperman;Mor Mordechai Peretz;
      Pages: 4849 - 4859
      Abstract: This paper reveals the design and implementation of a magnetic actuation system (MAS) with noninvasive displacement measurement by current sensing only. A platform-independent MAS modeling methodology is utilized, describing the cross-coupled system behavior by the physical representation of mechanical and electromagnetic counterparts. An extended nonlinear inductor model is developed, demonstrating the challenging control task of displacement regulation. The inductor model facilitates the development of a combined current sensing methodology employing noninvasive displacement measurement. The combined sensor, based on adding a “shunt inductor” in series to the main actuator, performs both high-resolution displacement and dc current measurement with fast response and minimum losses. The MAS model and the combined sensor-based operation have been experimentally verified on a single-axis levitator prototype.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • A Novel Design and Control to Improve Positioning Precision and Robustness
           for a Planar Maglev System
    • Authors: Mei-Yung Chen;Chia-Feng Tsai;Li-Chen Fu;
      Pages: 4860 - 4869
      Abstract: In this paper, we have proposed a novel 6-DOF magnetic levitation (maglev) system to improve the robustness and upgrade positioning precision. The design concept attempts to keep the good performance in the whole journey of moving rather than the point-to-point positioning precision. Furthermore, we endeavor to develop this system with an expectable large moving range. Based on these concepts, we built the force model that considers the variation from the displacement to the magnetic forces first, and avoids the constraint of the attractive levitation in replacing the repulsive levitation. Finally, we adopt the concept of relative place to build the measuring system. All of the performance of the improved framework is demonstrated in the experimental results.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Consideration on Eddy Current Reduction Techniques for Solid Materials
           Used in Unconventional Magnetic Circuits
    • Authors: Ahmed M. Mohammed;Michael Galea;Tom Cox;Chris Gerada;
      Pages: 4870 - 4879
      Abstract: The use of solid materials in tubular, linear machines has significant manufacturing benefits, as this removes the need for an axially laminated stator. However, this comes at the cost of extra eddy current losses. In this paper, a detailed analysis of the behavior of eddy currents in a tubular permanent magnet machine that comprises unconventional magnetic circuit is given, highlighting the importance of the field distribution and current directions, when compared with conventional magnetic circuits. This analysis is then used to identify and investigate the appropriate eddy current reduction methods for tubular machines, when a solid material stator is being used. Accurate three-dimensional models have been built and then validated on previously built testing setups. Different winding configurations have been accounted. Finally, considerations of these techniques are given when being implemented into an actual, tubular machine design, highlighting the improved performance and losses.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Energy Harvesting With Single-Sided Linear Induction Machines Featuring
           Secondary Conductive Coating
    • Authors: Michael Flankl;Lucas de Oliveira Baumann;Arda Tüysüz;Johann W. Kolar;
      Pages: 4880 - 4890
      Abstract: With the continuously broadening application area of Internet of Things (IoT), robust energy harvesters and power conditioning units for supplying remote sensors and actuators are gaining importance. A single-sided linear induction machine (SLIM) with solid secondary operating in generator mode could meet these requirements as it can harvest electric energy from the kinetic energy of a moving conductive body (secondary). Therefore, the energy harvesting performance of SLIMs is studied in this paper, using analytical models, which are derived with special attention to the case where a conductive coating is applied on the mover—a simple and practical modification that is shown to increase the harvester performance significantly. Measurements are given for three different secondary materials and stator geometries. It is shown that 15 W of electrical power can be harvested with $text{14}%$ efficiency over an air gap of 0.5 mm from a copper-coated steel mover with a surface speed of 29 m/s, covering only $text{17 cm}^{text{2}}$ of the surface area.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Thrust Control of a Double-Sided Linear Induction Motor With Segmented
           Power Supply
    • Authors: Xiao Sun;Liming Shi;Zhihua Zhang;Haibin Zhu;
      Pages: 4891 - 4900
      Abstract: Due to the dynamic longitudinal end effect, the motor flux is lagging and the thrust is fluctuated in a long-primary double-sided linear induction motor (DSLIM). In this paper, a thrust fluctuation reduction method is proposed for the DSLIM with segmented power supply. The mathematical model of the DSLIM module considering the dynamic longitudinal end effect is established first, and a new field orientation is presented by solving variation of the motor flux when the secondary enters or leaves a motor module. Then, the thrust expression is deduced based on the new field orientation, and a coefficient is proposed to present the thrust bias in a single module. The restraint of the thrust bias is implemented by increasing or changing the slip frequency according to the orientation in the movement. The proposed coefficient and the thrust control method are validated by simulation and experiment results.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Reliability Assessment of Double-Sided Linear Switched Reluctance
           Generator System Based on Hierarchical Markov Model
    • Authors: Hao Chen;Shuai Xu;Wenkai Wei;Jian Yang;Rui Nie;
      Pages: 4901 - 4911
      Abstract: This paper presents a hierarchical Markov model to assess the reliability of a double-sided linear switched reluctance generator (DLSRG) system. The proposed reliability model can be applied to find the balance point of reliability assessment accuracy and model complexity. First, the dominant fault modes of the DLSRG system are highlighted to quantitatively obtain the operation states, survival or failure, with a novel failure criterion. Second, a hierarchical Markov model is adopted to build a systematic reliability model of the DLSRG system, wherein a state transition diagram can be built in the detailed description to constitute the graphical Markov reliability model. And then the solving process to get state probability matrix P(t) is intensively investigated. Notably, a reliability block diagram model is also built to compare with the hierarchical Markov model, whose results verify that the Markov model can capture the effect of fault-tolerance capability on system reliability. Moreover, it is expected that the one-level Markov model is the most suitable model for the DLSRG system for its ability of decreasing the model complexity and improving the assessment accuracy. Analytic investigation in conjunction with simulation and experimental measurements demonstrates the feasibility and validity of the proposed model.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Design and Adaptive Terminal Sliding Mode Control of a Fast Tool Servo
           System for Diamond Machining of Freeform Surfaces
    • Authors: Wu-Le Zhu;Xu Yang;Fang Duan;Zhiwei Zhu;Bing-Feng Ju;
      Pages: 4912 - 4922
      Abstract: This paper presents the methodology for the design and control of a high-stiffness fast tool servo (FTS) system for practical application in diamond machining of freeform surfaces. The electromechanical model of the FTS system is established by combining the piezoelectric actuator and the flexure hinge mechanism for the formulation of the control methodology. In order to accommodate the system nonlinearity, cutting force disturbances as well as to realize fast and accurate tracking of designated tool path required for diamond machining of freeform surfaces, a novel adaptive terminal sliding mode (NATS) control strategy capable of online self-tuning of the system gain and reach time related parameters are developed. Stability analysis of the proposed NATS controller is performed. The convergence behavior of tracking error in the presence of model parameter variations and cutting force disturbance is analyzed. Experimental verification was conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the NATS control. By comparing with other related control methods, it shows significantly improved performance. The percentage of tracking error was only 0.1% for the varying trajectories on machining water-drop surface. Taking advantage of the excellent tracking performances of the FTS prototype on a diamond turning machine, various freeform surfaces were successfully produced with high quality.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Development and Analysis of Novel Flux-Switching Transverse-Flux Permanent
           Magnet Linear Machine
    • Authors: Mei Zhao;Yao Wei;Hongyong Yang;Mingming Xu;Fujun Han;Guanlong Deng;Dianli Hou;Ping Zhang;
      Pages: 4923 - 4933
      Abstract: The flux-switching transverse-flux permanent magnet linear machine (FSTFPMLM) is proposed in this paper, combining the advantages of the transverse-flux linear machine and the flux-switching linear machine. First, the structure and operating principle of the FSTFPMLM is presented. Second, the magnetic field of a simplified FSTFPMLM is numerically computed by the three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element method (FEM). Third, the thrust characteristics of the machine, including the thrust force, cogging force, and force ripple, are numerically analyzed. The influence of structure parameters on the thrust characteristics has been analyzed by the 3-D FEM. The law of thrust, cogging force, and force ripple as the pole pitch ratio between primary and secondary, and the ratio between the tooth width and pole pitch of the secondary variable provides the guidance to design FSTFPMLM, which aims to achieve a larger thrust, smaller cogging and force ripple using less permanent magnet materials. The thrust force capabilities of FSTFPMLM are compared with other topologies of linear machines. Finally, the prototype and experimental setup have been developed, and the calculated results and the measured results are in good agreement.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • A Permanent Magnet Linear Generator for the Enhancement of the Reliability
           of a Wave Energy Conversion System
    • Authors: Marco Trapanese;Valeria Boscaino;Giovanni Cipriani;Domenico Curto;Vincenzo Di Dio;Vincenzo Franzitta;
      Pages: 4934 - 4944
      Abstract: In this paper, a linear generator for a highly reliable wave energy conversion system is designed and tested. In order to store energy, the system is able to produce hydrogen. The wave energy conversion system consists of an electrical linear generator, a power conversion system, and a sea-water electrolyzer. A small-scale prototype of the system is designed and built. The design is oriented to the enhancement of the system robustness and reliability and a failure mode and effects and criticality analysis are used. In order to guarantee an easy extension of the power capability of the marine plant, a modular architecture of the system is adopted. The design strategy is described. The robustness and reliability of the proposed solution are discussed. Simulation and experimental results on the prototype are shown.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Development of a Novel Transverse Flux Tubular Linear Machine With
           Parallel and Complementary PM Magnetic Circuit for Precision Industrial
           Processing
    • Authors: Xing Zhao;Shuangxia Niu;
      Pages: 4945 - 4955
      Abstract: The transverse flux permanent-magnet (PM) linear machine has attracted much attention in high-performance direct-drive applications because of its high torque density and efficiency. However, due to its inherent large open-circuit flux leakage, the prominent cogging force makes it difficult to obtain a high accuracy in position and speed control, which restricts its potential for precision industrial processing applications. To overcome this problem, a novel transverse flux linear machine is proposed in this paper. The key is by creatively combining a consequent-pole mover design and a stator-segment-interlacing configuration in such a way that a parallel and complementary transverse magnetic circuit is realized for the moving PMs, which can effectively minimize the open-circuit leakage flux and cogging effect. In this paper, the machine structure, operation principle, and theoretical modeling are introduced, with its electromagnetic performance evaluated by using the finite-element method. A prototype is also built for the experimental verification, and relevant test results agree well with the finite-element predications.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Model Predictive Thrust Force Control of a Linear Flux-Switching Permanent
           Magnet Machine With Voltage Vectors Selection and Synthesis
    • Authors: Wentao Huang;Wei Hua;Fangbo Yin;Feng Yu;Ji Qi;
      Pages: 4956 - 4967
      Abstract: To reduce the thrust force ripple of a complementary and modular linear flux-switching permanent magnet machine, a model predictive thrust force control (MPTFC) is developed and implemented in this paper based on the active voltage vectors selection (AVVS) and two-voltage-vector synthesis (TVVS). First, the active voltage vectors are screened and assigned to the specific sector, instead of traversing all the possible vectors, and consequently, significantly decrease prediction workload. Second, for the elimination of the weighting factor in the conventional MPTFC, the control object is transformed from the thrust force and stator flux to the stator flux only by using the load angle. Third, to achieve the steady-state performance improvement, the TVVS approach is applied in each control period, where the optimal TVVS and its dwell time are simultaneously obtained by only one cost function. Both simulated and experimental results verify that the steady-state performance improvement can be realized by the developed MPTFC through comparing with normal hysteresis current control and conventional MPTFC strategies.
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • IEEE Xplore Digital Library
    • Pages: 4968 - 4968
      Abstract: "Advertisement, IEEE."
      PubDate: June 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2019)
       
 
 
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