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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 207 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advanced Materials Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Australian Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 309)
ECTI Transactions on Computer and Information Technology (ECTI-CIT)     Open Access  
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 124)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 109)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 103)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elektronika ir Elektortechnika     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Emitor : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
EPE Journal : European Power Electronics and Drives     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 102)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Letters on Electromagnetic Compatibility Practice and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Magnetics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Open Journal of Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Open Journal of Industry Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 77)
IEEE Pulse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 367)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 227)
IEEE Transactions on Haptics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
IEEE Women in Engineering Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access  
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Jurnal ELTIKOM : Jurnal Teknik Elektro, Teknologi Informasi dan Komputer     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Revue Méditerranéenne des Télécommunications     Open Access  
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.192
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 75  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0278-0046
Published by IEEE Homepage  [229 journals]
  • IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    • Abstract: Provides a listing of current staff, committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    • Abstract: Provides a listing of current committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Information for authors
    • Abstract: Provides instructions and guidelines to prospective authors who wish to submit manuscripts.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • An Approach Towards Extreme Fast Charging Station Power Delivery for
           Electric Vehicles with Partial Power Processing
    • Authors: Vishnu Mahadeva Iyer;Srinivas Gulur;Ghanshyamsinh Gohil;Subhashish Bhattacharya;
      Pages: 8076 - 8087
      Abstract: This article proposes an approach for realizing the power delivery scheme for an extreme fast charging (XFC) station that is meant to simultaneously charge multiple electric vehicles (EVs). A cascaded H-bridge converter is utilized to directly interface with the medium voltage grid while dual-active-bridge based soft-switched solid-state transformers are used to achieve galvanic isolation. The proposed approach eliminates redundant power conversion by making use of partial power rated dc–dc converters to charge the individual EVs. Partial power processing enables independent charging control over each EV, while processing only a fraction of the total battery charging power. Practical implementation schemes for the partial power charger unit are analyzed. A phase-shifted full-bridge converter-based charger is proposed. Design and control considerations for enabling multiple charging points are elucidated. Experimental results from a down-scaled laboratory test-bed are provided to validate the control aspects, functionality, and effectiveness of the proposed XFC station power delivery scheme. With a down-scaled partial power converter that is rated to handle only 27% of the battery power, an efficiency improvement of 0.6% at full-load and 1.6% at 50% load is demonstrated.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • A Hybrid Space-Vector Modulation Method for Harmonics and Current Ripple
           Reduction of Interleaved Vienna Rectifier
    • Authors: Tao Wang;Changsong Chen;Peng Liu;Tianchang Liu;Zeyun Chao;Shanxu Duan;
      Pages: 8088 - 8099
      Abstract: Input current around zero-crossing point is distorted and the reduction of current ripple is limited when applying space-vector modulation (SVM) to the interleaved Vienna rectifier. In this article, a hybrid SVM method for two- channel interleaved Vienna rectifier is developed to reduce the harmonics distortion and current ripple. The topology of two-channel interleaved Vienna rectifier is introduced. The current distortion around the zero-crossing point and the ripple characteristics around the peak of the current with SVM are analyzed. Then, a zero-crossing clamped method is used to eliminate the current distortion in the sectors around the zero-crossing point. To reduce the current ripple, the phase-shifted angle of the carriers between two channels is modified in the sectors around the peak of the current. Furthermore, the realization of the proposed hybrid SVM method is presented in details. With the proposed hybrid SVM method, the current distortion is attenuated and the current ripple amplitude is reduced obviously without increasing the switching frequency. Finally, the performance of the proposed method is compared with the classical SVM methods in a two-channel interleaved Vienna rectifier prototype.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • A CM Filter Configuration for Grid-Tied Voltage Source Converters
    • Authors: Srinivas Gulur;Vishnu Mahadeva Iyer;Subhashish Bhattacharya;
      Pages: 8100 - 8111
      Abstract: Common mode (CM) filters play a crucial role in determining adherence to conducted emissions (CE) standards for grid-tied voltage source converters. Design and implementation of such filters can be challenging since they depend on several factors like identification of CM noise paths, fidelity of passive components and discerning the frequency and amplitude of CM noise sources. In this article, a CM filter has been proposed, which uses passive components along with the converter's heat sink as a circulating return path for the CM currents. Based on the presented CM circuit models with the proposed filter, a detailed design process has been delineated for selecting the passive components required to realize the CM filter. Additionally, the heat-sink potential has been shown to be touch safe during both ideal and nonideal grid conditions with the proposed CM filter. CE spectral results measured using a commercially procured line impedance stabilization network and captured time domain converter operational wave forms for a 2-level, 3$phi$ grid-tied voltage source converter validate the functionality and effectiveness of the presented design.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Parallel Nine-Phase Generator Control in a Medium-Voltage DC Wind System
    • Authors: Omid Beik;Ahmad S. Al-Adsani;
      Pages: 8112 - 8122
      Abstract: In this article, we propose a variable voltage control strategy for parallel connected hybrid generators (HGs) in a medium-voltage dc (MVdc) array grid. In the presented scheme, the outputs of HGs are rectified and interfaced to an offshore MVdc array grid. The MVdc grid, whose voltage is varied but controlled, connects the wind turbines in the farm to an offshore substation. Using dc–dc converters, the voltage is stepped up at the offshore substation and sent to a terrestrial grid via undersea high-voltage dc (HVdc) export cables. The MVdc voltage is varied in a prescribed control strategy, whereas the HVdc voltage is maintained fixed at all times. The HG in the scheme presented in this article utilizes two rotor elements, a permanent-magnet rotor with fixed excitation and a wound field (WF) rotor with controllable excitation. The proposed control strategy includes a WF control scheme local to the HGs coordinated with a wind farm supervisory control system (SCS). A simulation platform is developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the control strategy in a large wind farm. Simulation results are validated on a laboratory prototype HG system showing a good agreement.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Electromagnetic Shielding Analysis of a Canned Permanent Magnet Motor
    • Authors: Qiang Yu;Sai Chu;Wentao Li;Lisi Tian;Xuesong Wang;Yuhu Cheng;
      Pages: 8123 - 8130
      Abstract: The use of metallic cans in airgap forms an electromagnetic shielding phenomenon that characterizes a canned electrical motor. Imposed in alternating airgap flux field, cans induct strong and distributive eddy current, the fundamental feature that interacts original flux and determines output features. In particular that induction leads to additional can-shielding loss that is considerably much higher than traditional copper or iron losses. In this article, the can effect in terms of eddy current and loss is studied, based on a state-of-the-art permanent magnet motor. First, distribution characteristics of eddy induction and loss are analyzed via a combination method that each magnetic excitation is separately and then integrally taken. Then, the can loss by magnetic excitation, rotor speed, flux harmonics, as well as the change of traditional losses due to the use of cans, is analyzed. Measurement is taken as verification.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Reliable Winding-Based DC-Bus Capacitor Discharge Technique Over
           Full-Speed Range for IPMSM Drive in Electric Vehicles Without Position
    • Authors: Chao Gong;Yihua Hu;Huiqing Wen;Guipeng Chen;Wenzhen Li;Jinqiu Gao;
      Pages: 8131 - 8142
      Abstract: When electric vehicles encounter emergency, the dc-bus capacitor voltage in the motor drive system needs to be reduced as quickly as possible to prevent the passengers from secondary electrical injury. For the purpose of compactness and low cost, a novel discharge scheme by using the machine windings has come forth. Yet, the relevant research works are incomprehensive without considering the standstill cases and sensor fault issues. This article proposes a position sensor fault-tolerant winding-based dc-bus capacitor discharge method over the full-speed range. To achieve voltage discharge at high speed without using position sensor, an improved second-order sliding-mode observer based on continuous sigmoid function is presented. Moreover, an adaptive sine-wave-based position observer with high immunity to voltage change is proposed for discharge in the low and zero speed cases. In terms of the discharge procedures, deceleration-based and acceleration-based algorithms are designed and optimized aiming at the spinning and standstill situations, respectively. More specifically, they include voltage, current, and speed regulation methods. The proposed fault-tolerant discharge technique is verified by both simulation and experiments, which are conducted on a three-phase interior permanent magnet synchronous machines drive system.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Error-Bounded Reference Tracking MPC for Machines With Structural
    • Authors: Meng Yuan;Chris Manzie;Malcolm Good;Iman Shames;Lu Gan;Farzad Keynejad;Troy Robinette;
      Pages: 8143 - 8154
      Abstract: For industrial contouring and machining applications such as laser cutting, it is desirable to be able to bound errors without unduly compromising machine throughput. Traditional control architectures in machining are unable to explicitly bound tracking errors, and therefore, conservative operation is required to ensure satisfactory performance of the overall system. This is particularly relevant in contouring applications when the end effector is connected to the drive via a flexible link, and no direct feedback measurement about the end-effector position is available. In this article, a model predictive approach is proposed, which guarantees that a desired level of tracking error is met for the case where the structure is flexible and the end-effector position is estimated. To achieve this, a robust control invariant set is estimated using a computationally tractable algorithm and incorporated into the problem formulation. The applicability of the proposed approach is successfully demonstrated via simulation and experiments conducted on a commercial single axis system.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • A TDF Model in Induction Machines for Loose Bearing Diagnosis by Neutral
    • Authors: Mohammad J. Jafarian;Jalal Nazarzadeh;
      Pages: 8155 - 8163
      Abstract: The bearing wear and looseness are significant failures in induction machines. For accurate recognition of the bearing faults, a new comprehensive modeling and analysis of induction machines with three degrees of freedom along with an effective method for loose bearing signature are presented in this article. For these purposes, the electromagnetic radial force and rotating torques are determined and applied to Euler–Lagrange equations of an induction machine. Besides, to better identify the defective loose bearings, the spectral analysis of neutral voltage is utilized. Comparing the experimental results with the outcome of the numerical analysis validates the proposed model. The results show that the spectral analysis of the neutral voltage detects mechanical looseness with higher precision than the conventional techniques such as mechanical vibrations and stator currents.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Discrete Space Vector Modulation-Based Model Predictive Torque Control
           With No Suboptimization
    • Authors: Ilham Osman;Dan Xiao;Kazi S. Alam;Sayed Mohammad Showybul Islam Shakib;Md. Parvez Akter;Muhammed F. Rahman;
      Pages: 8164 - 8174
      Abstract: This article presents a simplified discrete space vector modulation (DSVM)-based predictive torque control (PTC) scheme in order to improve the performance of a two-level inverter-fed induction motor drive. DSVM technique creates a number of virtual vectors which are evaluated in the conventional all vector-based discrete space vector modulation-based model predictive torque control (DSVM-MPTC) method. The high number of admissible vectors increases the computational burden of DSVM-MPTC, significantly. In this article, an efficient optimal voltage vector selection method is proposed to reduce the computational load of DSVM-MPTC from 37 to 13 enumerations. The vector selected from the reduced set of admissible voltage vectors produces the same cost function value as that of all vector-based DSVM-MPTC in the entire range of operation of induction motor (IM) drives. The proposed method reduces the computational burden effectively without causing any suboptimization issues in both transients and steady states. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and its superior performance compared to the switching-table-based DSVM-MPTC and the classic finite-control-set model-predictive-control which only utilizes the real voltage vectors.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Minimum-Loss Control Strategy for a Dual-VSI DFIG DC System
    • Authors: Gil D. Marques;Sérgio M. A. Cruz;Matteo F. Iacchetti;
      Pages: 8175 - 8185
      Abstract: This article addresses the minimum-loss control of the dual voltage-source inverter (VSI) and doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) system connected to a dc link. The minimum-loss operating conditions for field-oriented control based on the airgap flux are obtained analytically using Lagrange multipliers and validated with numerical optimization. As the main contribution of this article, the analysis accounts for core and VSI losses, providing the optimal stator frequency law and rotor/stator d-axis current split ratio, and an implicit expression for the optimal flux trajectory formulated as equality between suitable d-axis and q-axis loss functions. In the proposed implementation, this implicit condition is enforced by using a proportional-integral controller and avoiding look-up tables. Furthermore, the stator and rotor VSI controls are implemented in two independent digital signal processors with no communication, which may ease the use of off-the-shelf VSI units. The optimal conditions and control strategy are fully validated by simulations and experiments on a prototype. The main scope of application is wind-energy dc-grid technology.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Nonregenerative Braking of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
    • Authors: Darko P. Marčetić;Petar R. Matić;
      Pages: 8186 - 8196
      Abstract: This article proposes nonregenerative braking algorithm for the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), suitable for low-cost drive equipped with the front-end diode rectifier. The algorithm is based on the selection of braking trajectories with maximum iron and copper losses, while keeping dc-bus voltage at the acceptable level and with operational limits satisfied. The braking scheme is not calculation intensive and is not prone to PMSM parameter variations; thus, it is suitable for inexpensive microcontroller and PMSM, both native for low-cost drives. The algorithm is tested and validated under a variety of operating conditions, using a typical high-speed PMSM used in home appliances.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • PSO-Based Optimization of DC-Link Current Harmonics in Traction VSI for an
           Electric Vehicle
    • Authors: Marcin Steczek;Piotr Chudzik;Mirosław Lewandowski;Adam Szeląg;
      Pages: 8197 - 8208
      Abstract: A large number of modern electric traction vehicles are equipped with drive systems based on induction motors fed by voltage source inverters (VSIs). This solution is known to be a significant source of interfering disturbances for a railway signaling system. Therefore, the amplitudes of current harmonics generated by railway vehicles should meet the required limits. This article presents an optimization technique developed to control dc-link current harmonics generated by a VSI traction drive. The purpose of this article is to develop an optimization procedure to determine a switching strategy for VSI to keep the dc-link current harmonics below limits established for railway applications. The procedure presented in this article combines a particle swarm optimization algorithm and an analytical frequency-domain approach for the calculation of dc-link current harmonics. Moreover, the minimization of low-order torque harmonics is added to the optimization process as well. For calculations of dc-link current harmonics, the convolution of VSI output current and voltage harmonics is utilized and described. The modulation technique computed by the proposed optimization procedure is applied to a laboratory-scale VSI drive. Finally, the validity of theoretical consideration is confirmed by comparing the analytical results with laboratory measurements. The proposed optimization technique is suitable to determine a switching strategy for application in railway vehicles supplied with dc traction systems.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Dynamic Performance Improvement of Doubly Salient Brushless DC Generator
           System With Controlled Rectifier
    • Authors: Yanwu Xu;Zhuoran Zhang;Zhangming Bian;Li Yu;
      Pages: 8209 - 8218
      Abstract: The doubly salient electromagnetic generator (DSEG) is gaining increasing attention in aircraft high voltage dc generator application due to its simplicity and de-excitation ability. However, the field winding inductance and the dc-link capacitor result in a larger electrical time constant. The dynamic response is decelerated, leading to difficulties in meeting aircraft electrical power standards. Minimum transient point tracking (MTPT) strategy based on the trajectory with minimum field current variation is proposed for the DSEG system with an angular position control (APC) controlled rectifier. Since the dc load current depends on both field current and the turn-off angle, the change in the field current is minimized and the dc load current is varied by controlling the turn-off angle. The trajectory of the optimized turn-off angle is studied to partly or fully fill the gap between the field currents at different loads. By tracking the MTPT trajectory, the change of the field current is decreased during the sudden load changes. The transient process is accelerated and the voltage variation is suppressed. In most operations, the voltage variation can be even neglected under both loaded and unloaded conditions. A 9-kW DSEG system based on controlled rectifier is implemented. The MTPT strategy is verified by experiments. The performances of the diode rectifier, controlled rectifier with fixed turn-off angle, and controlled rectifier with MTPT are compared. The dynamic performance is improved by the proposed method, making the DSEG more competitive in aircraft applications.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Modulation and Voltage Balancing of a Five-Level Series-Connected
           Multilevel Inverter With Reduced Isolated Direct Current Sources
    • Authors: Apparao Dekka;Omid Beik;Mehdi Narimani;
      Pages: 8219 - 8230
      Abstract: The series connection of low-power modules is an alternative solution to realize a multilevel inverter. Unlike a cascade connection, the series connection approach significantly reduces the number of isolated dc sources, thereby the design complexity, cabling of the transformer, and overall system cost become low. In this article, the operation of the series-connected multilevel inverter is presented for a five-level operation, and it is realized by using two three-level half-bridge diode clamp converter modules per phase. Hence, each phase of the series-connected multilevel inverter requires a single isolated dc source. In the series-connected multilevel inverter, the net dc-bus voltage will be equally distributed between four dc-bus capacitors. Therefore, the converter generates a multilevel voltage waveform with uniform steps and ensures equal voltage stress on the semiconductor devices. To achieve these objectives, a space vector pulsewidth modulation scheme with an additional voltage balancing approach is employed. The feasibility of series-connected multilevel inverter is validated through simulations and a scaled-down laboratory prototype under steady-state and transient conditions.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • An Integrated Electrified Powertrain Topology With SRG and SRM for Plug-In
           Hybrid Electrical Vehicle
    • Authors: He Cheng;Lunjun Wang;Lei Xu;Xudong Ge;Shiyang Yang;
      Pages: 8231 - 8241
      Abstract: With the advantages of less carbon dioxide emissions and high fuel efficiency, plug-in hybrid electrical vehicle (PHEV) is an attractive means of transportation. This article presents an electrified powertrain for PHEV containing switched reluctance generator (SRG), switched reluctance motor (SRM), and integrated power converters, which could achieve various driving and flexible on-board charging functions. The operation states of SRG and SRM with the integrated topology is analyzed. Five driving modes for PHEV are implemented and can be smoothly switched by controlling the front-end converter according to the load conditions. For the PHEV charging mode, a single-phase ac–dc rectifier is constituted by the windings and power converter of SRG with the capability of input power factor correction. The traction and auxiliary batteries chargers are formed by the windings and power converter of SRM. Three charging modes also are achieved and no complex control strategies are required to avoid the rotation of rotors. The three-phase 12/8 poles SRG and SRM experimental platform are built. The experiments are carried out to verify the effectiveness of proposed integrated powertrain and the corresponding control schemes.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Voltage-Source Converter Energy Efficiency Classification in Accordance
           With IEC 61800-9-2
    • Authors: Lassi Aarniovuori;Hannu Kärkkäinen;Alecksey Anuchin;Juha J. Pyrhönen;Pia Lindh;Wenping Cao;
      Pages: 8242 - 8251
      Abstract: New global energy efficiency classification standard IEC 61800-9-2 for frequency converters and motor systems has been recently launched. It classifies the energy efficiency of the converters and motor-drive systems and introduces three different methods to determine voltage-source converter (VSC) losses for the classification. In here, experimental tests are carried out using the input–output method and the calorimetric method to determine the losses and efficiency of a 160-kW commercial VSC. The measurement results with these two independent methods are compared and the uncertainty of the methods is analyzed. The converter electric input and output power distributions are analyzed in the frequency domain and are used further to estimate the electric power measurement uncertainty. The measurement uncertainty related to losses obtained with the input–output method is compared with the loss difference between the two methods. This is the first research work to accurately evaluate the experimental methods for the determination of the power losses and examine the validity of the energy efficiency classes of the frequency converters according to new IEC61800-9-2. An urgent need to update the loss boundaries of the IE-classes has been found and the measurement uncertainty effect on the IE-classification is discussed.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • An Iterative Estimation Algorithm of Prepositioning Focusing on the Detent
           Force in the Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor System
    • Authors: Xuzhen Huang;Jin Liang;Zhenyu Qian;Jing Li;
      Pages: 8252 - 8261
      Abstract: In the process of prepositioning, the detent force of linear motor produces large difference between the given position and the actual position. It may also result in multipossible equilibrium points with indistinguishable distance. This article conducts research on an iterative estimation algorithm, which is verified on a surface permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM). The iteration estimation algorithm focuses on the influence of the detent force on the initial position estimation of a linear motor. It also scales the effects of the detent force quantitatively. As for the balance between the detent force and electromagnetic force, the initial position of the PMLSM is estimated by the numerical iterative algorithm through a graphic method. In order to verify the algorithm, this article establishes a relatively accurate model, which takes the inductance asymmetry and detent force into account. Simulations are carried out to obtain the difference between the actual and estimated positions. Experiments are carried out for further verification. Finally, system simulations and experiments are carried out. The results of experiments show that the initial position estimation based on this algorithm can significantly improve positioning and control accuracy.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Direct Torque Control Techniques of Three-Level H-Bridge Inverter Fed
           Induction Motor for Torque Ripple Reduction at Low Speed Operations
    • Authors: Pratibha Naganathan;Srirama Srinivas;
      Pages: 8262 - 8270
      Abstract: In this article, two constant switching frequency direct torque control (CSF-DTC) techniques are proposed for H-bridge three-level inverter (HB-TLI) fed induction motor (IM) for reducing torque ripple at low-speed operation. Both the methods use modulators and characteristics of the pulsewidth modulation (PWM) mainly determine the motor drive performance. The first method uses two level-shifted carriers signals, whereas the second method uses carrier signals with appropriate offset voltages. Detailed analytical expressions describing complete harmonic characteristics of HB-TLI are also presented using double Fourier integral approach. Superior harmonic performance is obtained with the proposed PWM methods compared to the existing ones. Drawback of one of the envisaged CSF-DTC techniques entering into overmodulation is rectified at higher motor speeds and a smooth slide-over using zero offset voltage to carrier signals is recommended to overcome the issue. The proposed CSF-DTC techniques are simulated and experimentally validated. The dynamic and steady-state torque performance obtained with the proposed CSF-DTC techniques for IM are compared with the existing DTC methods, which show a significant reduction in the steady-state torque and current ripple, whereas the torque dynamic performance is almost preserved thus, demonstrating its usefulness especially at lower motor speeds.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Correction of Rotor Position Estimation Error for High-Speed Permanent
           Magnet Synchronous Motor Sensorless Drive System Based on
           Minimum-Current-Tracking Method
    • Authors: Cong Gu;Xiaolin Wang;Feilong Zhang;Zhiquan Deng;
      Pages: 8271 - 8280
      Abstract: This article focuses on the issue of the rotor position estimation error correction for high-speed permanent magnet synchronous motor sensorless drive system. First, a rotor position estimator is designed. Then the estimation error caused by different kinds of nonideal factors is analyzed in detail. Estimation error results in larger amplitude of the stator current, the larger loss, and the degradation of the output torque. To eliminate the estimation error, a novel correction method based on the “minimu-current-tracking (MCT)” method is proposed in this article. The main idea of the proposed method is to obtain the minimum amplitude of the stator current adaptively through the MCT algorithm. The estimation error can be reduced to zero by correcting the compensation factor of the designed position estimator and observing the amplitude of stator current until the amplitude converges to the minimum value. The proposed method has two advantages: 1) the estimation error caused by no matter which kind of nonideal factor can be completely corrected; 2) no sensitive parameters are required in the proposed method. Finally, sufficient simulated results and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed MCT-based method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Analysis and Design of a High-Efficiency 6.78-MHz Wireless Power Transfer
           System With Scalable Number of Receivers
    • Authors: Jibin Song;Ming Liu;Chengbin Ma;
      Pages: 8281 - 8291
      Abstract: For multiple-receiver wireless power transfer (WPT), a scalable solution is desired that functions with changing number of receivers. Meanwhile, challenges lie in differences in load characteristics, power level, and cross coupling between the receivers. This article employs Class E$bf ^2$ dc–dc converter topology for the multiple-receiver WPT systems working at megahertz (MHz). The shunt capacitor capacitances of the Class E rectifiers and magnitude of constant output current of the current-mode Class E power amplifier are chosen as design parameters aiming at decoupling the received power of each receiver. Design procedures are developed to simultaneously achieve high efficiency and desired individual load powers over a target variation range of the cross coupling. An experimental 6.78-MHz three-receiver WPT system is optimally designed. The system is shown to be capable of providing different target load powers (10, 8, and 6 W) and maintaining a high system efficiency (above 70%) with different combinations and positions of the receivers.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Stacked Class-E Amplifier
    • Authors: Rosendo Peña-Eguiluz;Allan A. Flores-Fuentes;Antonio Mercado-Cabrera;Régulo López-Callejas;Benjamín G. Rodríguez-Mendez;Raúl Valencia-Alvarado;Bethsabet Jaramillo-Sierra;Alma N. Hernández-Arias;
      Pages: 8292 - 8301
      Abstract: In this article, a novel class-E amplifier topology, based on the functioning principle of the stacked converters, is presented. In this amplifier the available output electric power is determined by the addition of the electric power generated by each of the associated devices. Herein, two MOSFETs connected in series are linked, on the one hand, to a dc voltage source and, on the other hand, to a resonant $LC$ circuit and a resistance charge connected in parallel to the capacitor. Both MOSFETs are driven by a gate-to-source square signal allowing a synchronized commutation, promoting a quasi-resonant amplifier behavior similar to that of the classical class-E amplifier; with the characteristic of being able to manage the double of applied dc voltage amplitude and to supply twice electric power to the same load in comparison with the class-E amplifier. This device is able to distribute the same electric power between both MOSFETs, reducing at almost half the magnitude of applied drain-to-source voltage. As a result, voltage stress of each power switch is reduced in comparison with the typical class-E amplifier. Drain efficiency (DE), power added efficiency, and gain of the proposed device were obtained in function of the applied dc voltage.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • An Initial States Recognition (ISR) Method for Start-Up of 1Ф BLDC Motor
           in Hall-Sensor-Less Fan Applications
    • Authors: Zong-Hong Tang;Yie-Tone Chen;Hsueh-Hung Hsu;Ruey-Hsun Liang;Chung-Wen Hung;
      Pages: 8302 - 8311
      Abstract: The initial state is very important for a single-phase brushless DC (BLDC) fan motor when starting, especially in fan application with a nonstatic motor. The direction of self-rotation caused by the external thrust needs to be considered to avoid the starting fail or wrong running direction. This article proposes an initial states recognition (ISR) method to smartize the starting procedure. However, the self-rotation direction identification of single-phase BLDC motors is a challenge, which is even more difficult in some applications without rotor position sensors. The unequal air gap, which is designed by the geometric variation on the pole shoe to form the asymmetric stator, is generally the necessary design for the single-phase BLDC motor to dodge the null torque position (dead point) and determine the operation direction; and it will further form the asymmetrical waveform of the back electromotive force (EMF) voltage. The asymmetric distribution of back EMF waveform will be opposite in half cycle (positive or negative half cycle) with the rotation direction. The proposed ISR method utilizes this trait to achieve the self-rotation direction recognition before starting a dynamic single-phase BLDC fan motor. Finally, under the architecture of Hall-sensor-less control, the experimental results prove that the proposed method is reliable and feasible.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Analysis and Optimal Design of High-Frequency and High-Efficiency
           Asymmetrical Half-Bridge Flyback Converters
    • Authors: Mingxiao Li;Ziwei Ouyang;Michael A. E. Andersen;
      Pages: 8312 - 8321
      Abstract: The asymmetrical half-bridge (AHB) flyback converter is capable to achieve zero voltage switching and has lower voltage stress compared to the active clamp flyback converter. This topology gives much margin for components selection and transformer turns ratio design. It is well adapted to voltage step-down applications. However, the optimal design for AHB flyback converter taking current dip effect causing by components parasitic capacitances, and each component effect to power loss into consideration has never been explored. This article gives detailed operation and mathematical analyses of this effect. The optimal design procedure with the consideration of each circuit parameter is presented in this article. The transformer benefits low power loss from interleaving winding layout. A 56 W/inch3 1 MHz 65 W prototype with 100–250 V input is built to verify the feasibility of the converter. Experimental results show the peak efficiency 96.5% is achieved with 127 V input and the whole system efficiency under the entire input voltage range is above 93%.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Multisampling Method for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Cascaded H-Bridge
    • Authors: Junpeng Ma;Xiongfei Wang;Frede Blaabjerg;Wensheng Song;Shunliang Wang;Tianqi Liu;
      Pages: 8322 - 8334
      Abstract: This article proposes a multisampling method for single-phase grid-connected cascaded H-bridge (CHB) multilevel inverters with the phase-shifted carrier pulsewidth modulation in order to reduce the time delay involved in the control loop and increase the control bandwidth. In this method, the controlled variables are sampled not only at the peak and the valley of all triangular carriers, but also at the intersection points of all phase-shifted carriers and inverted ones, which enables a minimum unity sampling interval without detecting the current ripple caused by the switching action and breaking the voltage-second balance in the modulation process. The bandwidth of the current control loop based on the proposed sampling method is illustrated and compared to other traditional sampling methods. The analysis shows that the system effectively reduces the time delay involved in the control loop and improves the bandwidth of the control loop. Finally, a downscale test platform of the single-phase grid-connected CHB multilevel inverter with an inductance (L)-filter is built to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Tunable High-Power Multilayer Piezoelectric Transformer
    • Authors: Xiaotian Li;Deepam Maurya;Alfredo V. Carazo;Mohan Sanghadasa;Shashank Priya;
      Pages: 8335 - 8343
      Abstract: Piezoelectric transformers (PTs) have been conventionally used in step-up high-voltage low-power applications such as liquid crystal display (LCD) backlighting for portable electronic devices. PTs have also been considered for step-down applications such as battery chargers for portable devices. In these applications, adapting the output impedance of the PT to meet the requirements of lower output voltages and higher output currents implies the design of PTs with larger number of output layers. Furthermore, these step-down applications require efficient operation of PT under a variety of output load conditions to meet the conditions of battery charging. Thus, strategies to adapt the PT to the variation of the output load are being pursued. In this article, a novel tunable piezoelectric transformer (TPT) for ac–dc and dc–dc high-power converters is presented. This TPT is designed to operate in the radial mode and is fabricated using cofired multilayer process. By introducing control layers into the design, the TPT is shown to provide desired features that include adjustable frequency response and flexible transfer ratio. Fabricated TPT exhibits high efficiency over 96% with an output power capability of 40 W when operating under its nominal load conditions.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • A Self-Starting Class-E Power Oscillator With an Inverting Gate Driver
    • Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Ahmadi;Shirin Pezeshkpour;
      Pages: 8344 - 8354
      Abstract: This article presents a simple Class-E power oscillator (PO) which autonomously starts oscillating without requiring an additional start-up circuit. This has been achieved through the use of an inverting gate driver that drives the switching transistor. A resistor, connecting the input to the output of the gate driver, biases the driver at its switching threshold voltage, at which it has high ac gain. In addition, the inverting driver introduces a minimum of −180° phase shift. As a result, the Barkhausen oscillation criteria are readily satisfied and the PO starts oscillating autonomously. In order to allow the use of an inverting gate driver, a new and simple feedback network, consisting of only two resistors and a capacitor, is proposed. Due to the feedback network being a low-Q nonresonant circuit, the efficiency and the output power of the proposed circuit have negligible sensitivities to the variations in the components. A semianalytical design procedure is also presented for the proposed circuit. A prototype circuit was built and tested to prove the proposed concepts. At VDD = 4.5 V, the measured output power, efficiency, and oscillation frequency of the prototype PO are 1.02 W, 92%, and 800 kHz, respectively.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Soft Switching Bidirectional Converter for Reflex Charger With Minimum
    • Authors: Fereshteh Ahmadi;Ehsan Adib;Mohammad Azari;
      Pages: 8355 - 8362
      Abstract: In this article, a new soft switching bidirectional dc–dc converter for battery charger application based on reflex charge technique is proposed. The proposed bidirectional dc–dc converter applies flyback converter to provide negative current pulses for reflex charge method while providing zero-voltage switching (ZVS) for the buck converter switch which is used to control charging current. The flyback converter switch is also soft switched. Flyback converter switch operates under zero-current switching (ZCS) turn-on and ZVS turn-off conditions. The proposed bidirectional converter applies only two switches to implement a fully soft switched pulsewidth modulation (PWM) bidirectional converter. Hence, the proposed topology provides a fully soft switched bidirectional converter with minimum number of switches using PWM control method. The proposed converter is implemented, analyzed, and experimental results are presented. The experimental results verify the theoretical analysis presented in the article. Efficiency comparison performed shows proper efficiency of proposed converter while applying minimum number of switches.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Soft-Switching Bidirectional Buck/Boost Converter With a Lossless
           Passive Snubber
    • Authors: Mohammad Reza Mohammadi;Hosein Farzanehfard;Ehsan Adib;
      Pages: 8363 - 8370
      Abstract: This article introduces a new lossless passive snubber for the bidirectional buck/boost converter. The proposed snubber comprises a low number of passive components which jointly contribute to achieve soft switching condition at both the buck and boost operations of the converter. Without using the auxiliary switch, soft switching condition is ensured over a wide load range with a relatively low circulating current. Also, there is no need for any complex control method to diminish circulating current at light loads. Consequently, by using a simple auxiliary circuit and the conventional control methods, excellent efficiency is acquired over a wide load range. The proposed topology is analyzed in detail and to confirm the theoretical analysis, the experimental results of a 500 W–100 kHz prototype for both the boost and buck modes in full-load and 20% of full-load are presented.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Fully Soft-Switched High Step-Up Nonisolated Three-Port DC–DC
           Converter Using GaN HEMTs
    • Authors: Rasoul Faraji;Hosein Farzanehfard;Georgios Kampitsis;Marco Mattavelli;Elison Matioli;Morteza Esteki;
      Pages: 8371 - 8380
      Abstract: In this article, a soft-switched nonisolated high step-up multi-input dc–dc converter is proposed. The proposed converter has overcome the hard switching problem of the conventional boost three port converter (boost-TPC) by providing zero-voltage-switching condition for all switches at various operating modes. The proposed converter uses coupled inductors technique to enhance the voltage gain and utilizes the leakage inductance energy and the energy storage device power path to provide soft switching condition. In addition, the voltage stress of the main switch is reduced which has led to utilizing low Rds(ON) switches. Various converter operating modes are presented and design considerations are discussed. To evaluate the proposed converter performance, two prototypes of the proposed converter are implemented utilizing the latest generation gallium nitride high electron mobility transistors and the mature Si MOSFETs technology. The results show that the proposed converter efficiency is enhanced in comparison with the conventional boost-TPC converter.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Peak Current Control and Feed-Forward Compensation of a DAB Converter
    • Authors: Nimrod Vazquez;Marco Liserre;
      Pages: 8381 - 8391
      Abstract: The double active bridge (DAB) converter has been proposed in different applications due to its advantage of wide soft-switching range and power flow regulation capability. Applications like hybrid or electric vehicles and avionics systems require a fast dynamic response since the demanded power depends on the driving, which becomes an important factor for safety. Additionally, due to unbalance in the components, a dc offset may be applied to the transformer; therefore, the risk of saturation is possible. This article presents a double band current control for the DAB converter that permits to avoid the risk of transformer saturation. Additionally, feed-forward compensation is employed to achieve a very fast transient response under load and input voltage variations. The proposal is described, analyzed, designed, simulated, and experimentally tested.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • A Wireless Dimmable Lighting System Using Variable-Power
           Variable-Frequency Control
    • Authors: Wei Liu;K. T. Chau;Christopher H. T. Lee;Chaoqiang Jiang;Wei Han;W. H. Lam;
      Pages: 8392 - 8404
      Abstract: This article proposes and implements a wireless dimmable lighting system using variable-power variable-frequency (VPVF) control, which can eliminate the use of secondary converters via wireless power transfer (WPT). The proposed scheme integrates the secondary T-LCL circuit into a sealed antiparallel light-emitting diode (LED) lamp, which takes the key merits of safety, flexibility, maintenance free, and convenience for manufacturing. Moreover, it can effectively widen the LED dimming range and reduce the starting voltage requirements, which inherently improve the output fluctuation insensitivity and voltage deviation tolerance. In contrast to phase shift control, a WPT-inherent VPVF control is proposed to realize effective reductions in both the switching frequency and switching losses, while maintaining the regulation accuracy and output fluctuation suppression by up to 48.45% as compared with burst firing control. The system electrical efficiency can reach 88.08% with 20-cm transfer distance and it is improved by 3.35% during power control. Both theoretical analysis and practical experimentation are given to verify the feasibility of proposed VPVF-modulated wireless dimmable lighting system.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Optimal Voltage-Support Control for Distributed Generation Inverters in RL
           Grid-Faulty Networks
    • Authors: Miguel Garnica;Luis García de Vicuña;Jaume Miret;Miguel Castilla;Ramón Guzmán;
      Pages: 8405 - 8415
      Abstract: During grid faults, the stability and reliability of the network are compromised, and the risk of a widespread disconnection of distributed generation power facilities is increased. Distributed generation inverters must support the power system to prevent this issue. Voltage support depends substantially on the currents injected into the grid and the equivalent grid impedance. This article considers these two aspects and proposes an optimal voltage-support strategy in RL grids. The control algorithm guarantees safe operation of the inverter during voltage sags by calculating the appropriate reference currents according to the equivalent impedance and the voltage sag characteristics, avoiding active power oscillations, and limiting the injected current to the maximum allowed by the inverter. Consequently, the grid can be better supported since the voltage at the point of common coupling is improved and the voltage support objectives are achieved. The proposed control strategy is validated through experimental tests in different grid scenarios. Throughout this article, it is assumed that the grid impedance is known, but the proposed solution requires calculating the grid impedance angle.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Protection of Single-Phase Fault at the Transformer Valve Side of
           FB-MMC-Based Bipolar HVdc Systems
    • Authors: Wei Liu;Gen Li;Jun Liang;Carlos Ernesto Ugalde-Loo;Chuanyue Li;Xavier Guillaud;
      Pages: 8416 - 8427
      Abstract: Although the probability of occurrence of ac grounding faults at the valve side of the interface transformer of a high-voltage dc (HVdc) link is low, they may cause high risks to the converter when compared to grid-side ac faults. This article analyzes the characteristics of valve-side ac single-phase-to-ground faults in full-bridge modular multilevel converters (FB-MMCs)-based bipolar HVdc systems. Overcurrents in the converter arms are analyzed and it is shown that overvoltages in FB submodules occur without an appropriate protection in place. Two strategies are investigated to protect the FB-MMC during the fault and corresponding controllers are designed. The effectiveness of the presented strategies for the prevention of overcurrents and overvoltages, upon nonpermanent and permanent faults, and system postfault restoration is investigated. For completeness, the strategies are also verified by conducting simulations in PSCAD/EMTDC.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • ADRC-Based Current Control for Grid-Tied Inverters: Design, Analysis, and
    • Authors: Yongfeng Cao;Qiangsong Zhao;Yongqiang Ye;Yongkang Xiong;
      Pages: 8428 - 8437
      Abstract: The conversion and utilization of renewable energy generations often require grid-tied inverters. When an LCL filter is applied to attenuate the high switching frequency harmonics, it is complex to design a controller with proper parameters due to the characteristics of the LCL filter and system uncertainties. In this article, with LCCL filter, the order of the inverter system is degraded from third order to first order, and an active disturbance rejection control-based current control strategy for LCCL-type grid-tied inverters is proposed. The proposed strategy is able to treat the unknown dynamics and the external disturbance of the inverter system as overall disturbance through a single structure, and the closed-loop system is regulated by an improved control law with reference differential feedforward. Moreover, with parameter uncertainties considered, the robustness of the proposed strategy is studied through an internal model control structure. A 2-kW experimental prototype has been tested to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Distribution System Restoration With Renewable Resources for Reliability
           Improvement Under System Uncertainties
    • Authors: Kai Zou;Ghulam Mohy-ud-din;Ashish P. Agalgaonkar;Kashem M. Muttaqi;Sarath Perera;
      Pages: 8438 - 8449
      Abstract: Integration of renewable distributed generation (DG) units into distribution networks is gaining widespread popularity. However, uncertainties in generation availability associated with renewable DG units pose a major challenge. These uncertainties should be properly addressed to ensure acceptable system performance and improve customer-side reliability. In this article, the reliability assessment of distribution systems embedded with renewable DG sources has been carried out giving emphasis to system uncertainties and optimal restoration strategies. The uncertainties associated with the power output from renewable resources, time-varying load demand, stochastic prediction errors, and random fault events have been accounted for in the restoration optimization formulation for reliability evaluation. In this article, a parameter-free particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique is applied to address the complexity involved in the formulation. Moreover, a problem-specific encoding scheme is also proposed in conjunction with PSO to ensure optimality.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • A Soft-PWM Approach to Power/Signal Synchronous Transmission for
           SRG-Based DC Microgrids
    • Authors: Dongsheng Yu;Xin Wang;Shenglong Yu;Zongbin Ye;Tyrone Fernando;Herbert H. C. Iu;
      Pages: 8450 - 8460
      Abstract: Switched reluctance generator (SRG) has gained substantial research attention in recent years due to its mechanical robustness, high reliability, and low manufacturing cost when integrating renewable energy sources. To achieve reliable and timely information exchange in such microgrids, in this article, we propose a soft pulsewidth modulation approach, which injects an extra ripple at a particular frequency into the output voltage waveform of SRG, so as to realize synchronized transmission of signal and electric power. The signal transmission is achieved through a newly designed modulation/demodulation strategy. The efficacy of the overall dc microgrid in synchronized data transmission and energy conversion is verified through a set of dedicated experiments.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Online Kron Reduction for Economical Frequency Control of Microgrids
    • Authors: Babak Abdolmaleki;Qobad Shafiee;
      Pages: 8461 - 8471
      Abstract: In this article, a distributed switched control system is proposed, which aims at frequency regulation and total generation cost minimization within a droop-based microgrid considering generator and line power constraints. The minimization is solved with the Lagrange method and is achieved by realizing the equal incremental cost criterion via a consensus algorithm. An online network reconfiguration is also proposed, which bypasses a distributed generator when it violates the generation limits or gets disconnected, or when its corresponding line power flow exceeds its upper limit. It is mathematically probed that the proposed reconfiguration is a distributed online Kron reduction, which leads to a new reduced data network; it preserves the existing spanning trees from cutting when a distributed generator is bypassed. Equilibrium analyses are conducted to show that the proposed switched system converges to the desired steady state. The stability of the system based on common quadratic Lyapunov function is discussed. The effectiveness of the proposed controller for different case studies is verified by adapting it to a test microgrid system.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Cost-Effective Islanded Electrical System With Decentralized Interleaving
           PWM for Converter Harmonic Reduction
    • Authors: Jinwei He;Zhe Dong;Yizhen Wang;Chengshan Wang;
      Pages: 8472 - 8483
      Abstract: For a conventional islanded microgrid, each distributed generation (DG) unit usually equips with an LC filter and a closed-loop filter capacitor voltage control is applied to ensure an accurate tracking of DG voltage. In this article, a cost reduction microgrid and DG units configuration is developed via the following two steps. First, an L-type filter is adopted by each DG unit and a centralized shunt capacitor is placed at point of common coupling (PCC). Then, the inherent synchronization feature of droop control is further exploited as an inherent synchronizer to identify the carrier angle relationships between parallel inverters, but without any communications between them. With the carrier information obtained, a decentralized interleaving pulsewidth modulation (PWM) among parallel inverter can be easily achieved via a slow proportional integral (PI) regulation of each DG unit relative carrier. Accordingly, the high-frequency switching harmonics of PCC voltage are suppressed even with simplified and size reduced DG output chokes. Second, a virtual impedance control is applied to DG units to cancel the voltage drops on the DG feeder in a direct PWM manner. Accordingly, mitigating the low-order harmonic PCC voltages is obtained without using any closed-loop voltage tracking at DG unit local processor. Comparative experimental results have been provided to validate the correctness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Joint SoC and SoH Estimation for Zinc–Nickel Single-Flow Batteries
    • Authors: Shawn Li;Kang Li;Evan Xiao;Chi-Kong Wong;
      Pages: 8484 - 8494
      Abstract: The zinc–nickel single-flow battery is a new and special type of flow battery with a number of promising features, such as membrane free and high scalability, and thus has attracted substantial interests in recent years. However, the cyclability of alkaline zinc cells is rather poor, with sharpened capacity degradation resulted from undesirable zinc deposition formation. Yet, little has been done so far to investigate how to effectively and reliably manage this new type of battery. In this article, an open-circuit-voltage estimator based online joint estimation of both the state of charge (SoC) and the state of health (SoH) is proposed. A second-order equivalent circuit model is applied to improve the accuracy. Meanwhile, an extended Kalman filter with reduced state dimension is formulated to estimate the SoC assisted with the proposed estimator, which solves the increased complexity issue in a higher order model. An SoH indicator is then derived from capacity estimate and employed to determine the time for reconditioning maintenance, which is a key stage to update capacity and prolong service life. The method is finally applied to a bench-scale cell demonstrator, and the experimental results confirm the efficacy of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Simultaneous DC Current Balance and CMV Reduction for Parallel CSC System
           With Interleaved Carrier-Based SPWM
    • Authors: Li Ding;Yun Wei Li;
      Pages: 8495 - 8505
      Abstract: Parallel current source converter (CSC) has attracted increasing attention due to the potential advantages to increase the system power capacity, reliability, and output quality. Compared with multilevel space vector modulation (SVM) and selective harmonic elimination, carrier-based sinusoidal pulsewidth modulation (SPWM) enjoys inherent scalability and modularity, which is very easy to be implemented in N-CSC parallel system by interleaving the carriers. The dc current balance and common-mode voltage (CMV) are the main concerns in parallel CSC system and most of the research was focused on SVM. However, dc current balance and CMV reduction methods with interleaved SPWM were not well addressed. In this article, we mainly investigate three different interleaved SPWM methods, namely, bi-tri logic SPWM, six-step direct PWM, and direct duty-ratio PWM (DDPWM). The comparison results show that the proposed interleaved DDPWM can balance the dc current and suppress CMV simultaneously, which can improve the output quality and reduce load-side CMV stress effectively. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed methods are verified on a parallel CSC system with shared dc-link by simulation and experimental results.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Nonisolated High-Step-Up DC–DC Converter Derived from Switched-Inductors
           and Switched-Capacitors
    • Authors: Marcos Antonio Salvador;Jessika Melo de Andrade;Telles Brunelli Lazzarin;Roberto F. Coelho;
      Pages: 8506 - 8516
      Abstract: A new nonisolated high-step-up dc–dc converter based on active switched-inductors and passive switched-capacitors is proposed in this article. The main advantages of the converter are the high voltage gain (higher than 20), high efficiency, reduced voltage stresses, and reduced component count. This article approaches the principle of operation, theoretical analysis, design methodology, and a comparison of the proposed topology regarding other converters from the literature that use similar principles. Finally, the theoretical study is verified from a 200-W prototype designed to accomplish an input voltage of 20 V and an output voltage of 300 V, in which a peak efficiency of 96.2% is reached.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Improved Classification Scheme Using Fused Wavelet Packet Transform Based
           Features for Intelligent Myoelectric Prostheses
    • Authors: Sidharth Pancholi;Amit M. Joshi;
      Pages: 8517 - 8525
      Abstract: Electromyography (EMG) signal is gaining popularity to developn intelligent bionics and prosthetic devices using machine learning techniques. Feature extraction is essential step for the EMG pattern recognition based application. In this article, a fused wavelet packet transform based feature extraction approach is proposed for EMG pattern classification. Total nine subjects (six intact and three amputees) are recruited for the data acquisition. Data acquisition is performed by an ADS1298-based system with eight bipolar electrodes. Further 11 activities are performed by each subject at the time of EMG signal recording including lateral grasp, cylindrical grasp, spherical grasp, and grasp with force. The visual feedback system is utilized for EMG signal acquisition of amputees. The comparison of commonly used wavelet transform based features and proposed fused wavelet transform based features is also presented with respect to classification accuracy and time complexity. The proposed method exhibits highest classification accuracy up to 98.32% for the amputees using discriminant analysis classification with marginal variation in time complexity. Similar trends in results are observed when standard dataset (NinaPro) has been utilized. The results validate the enhanced performance of the proposed technique over conventional counterparts.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Dynamic Mass Isolation for Improving the Moving Efficiency of an Impact
           Drive Mechanism
    • Authors: Xinxin Liao;Xide Pang;Liangguo He;Zhihua Feng;
      Pages: 8526 - 8534
      Abstract: When an impact drive mechanism (IDM) is subjected to a heavy load, the large inertia of that load will seriously decrease the moving efficiency of the IDM. To solve this problem, a method of dynamic mass isolation is introduced in this article. The influence of load inertia is decreased to a minute value by adopting a light slider and using a spring between the load and the IDM. Thus, the moving efficiency can be increased. Kinematic models have been established and calculated by MATLAB/Simulink. Two prototypes have been fabricated and used to conduct a series of experiments. With a load of 1.8 g, the prototype with dynamic mass isolation presents a moving efficiency of 50.6%, whereas the other prototype without isolation presents a moving efficiency of only 11.9%. As a result, the average step size of the former is approximately four times larger than that of the latter. Moreover, the prototype with dynamic mass isolation can hold almost the same average step size with a wide range of load mass. The proposed method is low cost and may have practical significance for application in any known IDM-based actuating system to improve the performance.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Wheel Slip Control for the Electric Vehicle With In-Wheel Motors: Variable
           Structure and Sliding Mode Methods
    • Authors: Dzmitry Savitski;Valentin Ivanov;Klaus Augsburg;Tomoki Emmei;Hiroyuki Fuse;Hiroshi Fujimoto;Leonid M. Fridman;
      Pages: 8535 - 8544
      Abstract: The article introduces four variants of the controller design for a continuous wheel slip control (WSC) system developed for the full electric vehicle equipped with individual in-wheel motors for each wheel. The study includes explanation of the WSC architecture, design of controllers, and their validation on road tests. The investigated WSC design variants use variable-structure proportional-integral, first-order sliding mode, integral sliding mode controllers as well as continuous twisting algorithm. To compare their functionality, a benchmark procedure is proposed based on several performance factors responsible for driving safety, driving comfort, and control quality. The controllers are compared by the results of validation tests done on low-friction road surface.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Motion Control of a Magnetic Levitation Actuator Based on a Wrench Model
           Considering Yaw Angle
    • Authors: Fengqiu Xu;Xing Lu;Tong Zheng;Xianze Xu;
      Pages: 8545 - 8554
      Abstract: Magnetic levitation positioning systems have attracted an increasing amount of attentions for many modern industrial applications because they can work in a large range of motion in multiple degrees of freedoms (DoFs) with resolutions as small as nanometer and microradian levels. In this article, a 6-DoF positioning system based on four linear magnetic levitation actuators (MLAs) is designed and tested. In contrast to the existing modeling method, this article takes the yaw angle into account in the magnetic force and torque solutions of the linear MLA, and the revised model is employed in motion control. The raw data from the sensing system are processed by the Newton–Raphson method for the position and rotation motions of the translator. The PID compensator controls the equivalent second-order system as the motions in different axes are decoupled by the proposed wrench model. Experimental results related to the motion resolution, range of motion, step response, trajectory tracking, and payload capacity are given to evaluate the performance of the prototype. The results show that the stroke of the maglev system is a volume of $text{20}, times text{20}, times text{4},text{mm}$ with a rotational range of $text{0.05},times text{0.05}, times text{0.2},text{rad}$, and that the positioning precision depends on the resolution of the sensing system. Additionally, the advantages of the proposed modeling method considering the yaw angle are validated via a comparison with the decoupling results based on the traditional modeling method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Finite-Time Adaptive Quantized Control of Stochastic Nonlinear Systems
           With Input Quantization: A Broad Learning System Based Identification
    • Authors: Shuai Sui;C. L. Philip Chen;Shaocheng Tong;Shuang Feng;
      Pages: 8555 - 8565
      Abstract: In this article, the problem of the stochastically finite time stabilization for an uncertain single-input and single-output stochastic system in presence of input quantization is studied. The broad learning system (BLS) is first applied to identify the uncertain system with unknown dynamics. The problem of unmeasured states can be solved by establishing a novel BLS-based state observer. Combining the stochastically finite time theorem with ${rm {Ithat{o}}}$ formula, a new finite time design method is proposed, which can reduce the difficulty in designing controllers by traditional methods. A stochastically finite time quantized control method is presented by utilizing a new finite time design Lemma 3 and quantized input decomposition technique. The developed control approach can guarantee that the closed-loop system is semi-global finite-time stable in probability, and the convergence performances are well in presence of actuator quantization. The simulation on a chemical reactor is utilized to verify the proposed scheme, which demonstrates the advantage of BLS, as well as the validity of our control method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Hyperbolic-Tangent LOS Guidance-Based Finite-Time Path Following of
           Underactuated Marine Vehicles
    • Authors: Ning Wang;Choon Ki Ahn;
      Pages: 8566 - 8575
      Abstract: In this article, a novel hyperbolic-tangent line-of-sight (LOS) guidance-based finite-time path following (HLOS-FPF) framework is created to render an underactuated marine vehicle (UMV) rapidly and accurately follow the desired path, in the presence of complex unknowns including internal dynamics, external disturbances, and arbitrary sideslip. By defining a virtually desired sideslip angle of which the tangent-nonlinearity is exactly identified by a finite-time sideslip observer, the hyperbolic-tangent LOS (HLOS) guidance laws collaboratively governing heading, surge, and virtual ship velocity are devised in a finite-time manner such that cross-track error sensitively excites heading guidance. With the aid of nonsmooth auxiliary dynamics, guidance errors are finely dominated with finite-time convergence. Finite-time heading and surge controllers are further synthesized by integral and nonsingular terminal sliding-mode techniques, and ensure that HLOS guidance signals can be exactly tracked, whereby complex unknowns are exactly compensated by finite-time unknown observer. Eventually, nonsmooth analysis together with Lyapunov approach guarantees that the entire HLOS-FPF scheme is globally finite-time stable and contributes to exact path-following under heading-surge collaborative guidance. Simulation results and comprehensive comparisons with typical methods demonstrate remarkable superiority of the innovative HLOS-FPF scheme.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Multidimensional Fractional-Order Newton-Based Extremum Seeking for Online
           Light-Energy Saving Technique of Lighting System
    • Authors: Chun Yin;Sara Dadras;Yu-Hua Cheng;Xuegang Huang;Jiuwen Cao;Hadi Malek;
      Pages: 8576 - 8586
      Abstract: This article proposes a real-time light-energy saving control technique to reduce unnecessary light-energy consumption (LEC) for varying lighting environment, through regulating brightness of illuminative lamps while providing the expect illumination level. Considering the influence of environmental conditions, a fractional-order Newton-based extremum seeking control (ESC) method in the proposed technique is developed to enhance the tracking accuracy and convergence speed. It can result in the high efficient lighting system and the rapid track of minimum LEC. Moreover, it significantly reduces the impact of selecting an arbitrary Hessian matrix on tracking speed of the algorithm, which is the main drawback in the most conventional ESC algorithms. Experimental results reveal that the proposed method has the ability to track the available minimum LEC under changing environmental conditions.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Transient DC Bias Elimination of Dual-Active-Bridge DC–DC Converter With
           Improved Triple-Phase-Shift Control
    • Authors: Qinglei Bu;Huiqing Wen;Jiacheng Wen;Yihua Hu;Yang Du;
      Pages: 8587 - 8598
      Abstract: A transient dc-bias current due to the voltage-second imbalance of isolated bidirectional dual-active-bridge (DAB) converters for the disturbance in line or load may result in the transformer saturation and oscillations in both sides dc currents. This article focuses on the transient dc-bias current elimination by using an improved triple-phase-shift (ITPS) control for DAB converters. The inductor peak current stress optimization is adopted in the proposed ITPS to determine the steady-state phase-shift variables. Originated from the dc-bias current model of DAB converters with the TPS control, the transient phase-shift adjustment strategy can be determined, which has the ability to improve the inductor current changing slope and shorten the settling time. Both simulation and experiments for different conditions are provided to evaluate main dynamic indexes such as the transient period, dc-bias current, and inductor current stress for three different transition cases. The proposed ITPS is proved as a promising solution in eliminating the dc-bias current, minimizing the transient current stress.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Suppression of Synchronous Current Using Double Input Improved Adaptive
           Notch Filter Algorithm
    • Authors: Gang Liu;Jinlei Li;Shiqiang Zheng;Qi Chen;Hu Liu;
      Pages: 8599 - 8607
      Abstract: In order to suppress the influence of the synchronous vibration generated by the unbalance of magnetically suspended control moment gyro on the attitude control accuracy and stability of the satellite platform, this article first introduces the working principle of the magnetically suspended high-speed rotor system, and also establishes the dynamic model of the magnetically suspended rotor with unbalance mass. At the same time, the main sources of unbalance vibration are also analyzed. Finally, an improved adaptive notch filter based on double input is designed. The filter takes the rotor radial X, Y two-channel displacement sensor signals as inputs, and uses the characteristics orthogonal to each other to simultaneously enter the system. The rotor can be automatically balanced by adjusting the convergence factor and the compensation angle to adaptively suppress the synchronous current in a widely operating speed range. Simulation and experimental results show that the method can effectively eliminate the synchronous current in a widely operating speed range and improve the stability of the system. This research on the microvibration of the rotor is of great significance and application value.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Motor Learning and Generalization Using Broad Learning Adaptive Neural
    • Authors: Haohui Huang;Tong Zhang;Chenguang Yang;C. L. Philip Chen;
      Pages: 8608 - 8617
      Abstract: Human neural motor system has the intelligence to learn new skills, and then to generalize these skills naturally. But it is not easy for a robot to demonstrate such intelligent behaviors. Inspired by the neural motor behaviors, a framework of broad learning based novel adaptive neural control is proposed in this article, such that in the presence of dynamic disturbance, robots can learn a set of basic skills and then generalize these skills to the neighboring movements naturally as our human motor system. This is achieved by incorporating the deterministic learning with the broad learning system that can accumulate and reuse the learned knowledge. The broad learning enabled adaptive neural control has been rigorously established in theory and tested in both simulation and experimental studies. Simulation results and performance of the Baxter robot in the experiments have shown the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method in comparison to the conventional adaptive neural control.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Acoustic Source Localization From Multirotor UAVs
    • Authors: Daniele Salvati;Carlo Drioli;Giovanni Ferrin;Gian Luca Foresti;
      Pages: 8618 - 8628
      Abstract: In this article, we address the problem of acoustic source localization using a microphone array mounted on multirotor unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Conventional localization beamforming techniques are especially challenging in these specific conditions, due to the nature and intensity of the disturbances affecting the recorded acoustic signals. The principal disturbances are related to the high-frequency, narrowband noise originated by the electrical engines, and to the broadband aerodynamic noise induced by the propellers. A solution to this problem is proposed, which adopts an efficient beamforming technique for the direction of arrival estimation of an acoustic source and a circular array detached from the multirotor vehicle body in order to reduce the effects of noise generated by the propellers. The approach used to localize the source relies on a diagonal unloading beamforming with a novel norm transform frequency fusion. The proposed algorithm is tested on a multirotor UAV equipped with a compact uniform circular array of eight microphones, placed on the bottom of the drone to localize the target acoustic source placed on the ground while the quadcopter is hovering at different altitudes. The experimental results conducted in outdoor hovering conditions are illustrated, and the localization performances are reported under various recording conditions and source characteristics.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Iterative Learning Control for Time-Varying Systems Subject to Variable
           Pass Lengths: Application to Robot Manipulators
    • Authors: Jiantao Shi;Jianxin Xu;Jun Sun;Yuhao Yang;
      Pages: 8629 - 8637
      Abstract: In this article, the iterative learning control (ILC) problem is investigated for a class of stochastic time-varying systems with variable pass lengths. The randomness of the pass lengths is described by the recursive interval Gaussian distribution, and a modified iteration-average operator is developed to construct the novel ILC scheme for overcoming the limitation of conventional ILC algorithms that every pass must end in a fixed time of duration throughout the repetition. The proposed ILC approach works effectively to guarantee the boundedness of the tracking errors, which is demonstrated by a practical case study on a type of robot manipulator with two joints.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Precision Motion Control of a Servomotor-Pump Direct-Drive
           Electrohydraulic System With a Nonlinear Pump Flow Mapping
    • Authors: Bobo Helian;Zheng Chen;Bin Yao;
      Pages: 8638 - 8648
      Abstract: Pump control hydraulic systems can achieve high efficiency by the advantages of no throttling loss and high power-to-volume ratio. However, low tracking accuracy and slow frequency response are main drawbacks for the applications of pump control hydraulic systems, because of the existing high-order dynamics, uncertainties, and highly nonlinear dynamics. Recently, the advent of servomotor-pump direct-drive electrohydraulic systems shows a good prospect for this issue, and the design of the control algorithm is the key to achieve high motion accuracy. In this article, to achieve precision motion control, an adaptive robust control with a backstepping design is proposed for an electrohydraulic system, where the cylinder actuator is direct-driven by a servomotor pump. Considering the high-order dynamics and nonlinearities of hydraulic systems, the controller is processed in two steps: position tracking step and pressure step. Besides, the pump flow deviation under low speed is another important limitation for good control performance. Thus, a nonlinear pump flow rate mapping is proposed by practical fitting and used into the controller design by the proper nonlinearity compensation of the desired pump flow. Comparative experiment results show that the proposed control strategy achieves high motion control performances in spite of the nonlinearities and uncertainties.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • SCSCN: A Separated Channel-Spatial Convolution Net With Attention for
           Single-View Reconstruction
    • Authors: Jiayi Ma;Hao Zhang;Peng Yi;Zhongyuan Wang;
      Pages: 8649 - 8658
      Abstract: Three-dimensional (3-D) object reconstruction is a challenging problem in computer vision, especially the single-view reconstruction. In this article, we propose a new 3-D reconstruction network, termed as separated channel-spatial convolution net with attention (SCSCN), which can reconstruct the 3-D shape of objects by given a two-dimensional (2-D) image from any viewpoint. Our method is a simple encoder–decoder structure, where the encoder uses separated channel-spatial convolution and separated channel-spatial attention to extract features from the input image, and the decoder recovers 3-D shapes from the features. The separated channel-spatial convolution can obtain channel information and spatial information through the channel path and spatial path separately. At the same time, in order to select a more reasonable combination of features according to the degree of contribution to the reconstruction task, channel attention and spatial attention are relevantly inserted into these two paths. As a result, the encoder can extract a strong representation of object. Quantitative experiments show that our SCSCN has a weak dependence on 3-D supervision and achieves high-quality reconstruction just under 2-D supervision, which proves the effectiveness of the encoder. In addition, we conduct the qualitative visualization experiment to confirm the rationality of the attention blocks in the feature extraction process.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • A Novel Adaptive Kalman Filtering Approach to Human Motion Tracking With
           Magnetic-Inertial Sensors
    • Authors: Jun-Hao Zhang;Peng Li;Cong-Cong Jin;Wen-An Zhang;Steven Liu;
      Pages: 8659 - 8669
      Abstract: This article presents an adaptive Kalman filtering approach to estimate the orientation of human body segments by using magnetic-inertial measurement units (MIMUs) with three-axis gyroscope, accelerometer, and magnetometer. In order to mitigate the negative impact of the external accelerations and ferromagnetic disturbances, the disturbances are modeled by first-order Gauss–Markov processes, and two parallel adaptive Kalman filters containing disturbance models are implemented to eliminate the disturbances. An adaptive factor is introduced to adjust the process noise covariance matrix to compensate for modeling errors induced by unmodeled gyroscope biases and the erroneous process noise covariance matrices. Furthermore, the outliers are checked and discarded by hypothesis tests on the innovation, and the measurement is rejected when the innovation exceeds a given confidence interval. Then, the estimated gravity acceleration and geomagnetic field are used to calculate the orientation quaternion using triaxial attitude determination algorithm. Finally, experiments under different motion scenarios are carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the performance of the proposed method is discussed in comparison with existing ones. A forward kinematics three-dimensional (3-D) human motion reconstruction method is proposed to drive the human skeleton model to reproduce human motion with a visual interface based on ROS platform.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • $H_infty$ +Control&rft.title=IEEE+Transactions+on+Industrial+Electronics&rft.issn=0278-0046&rft.date=2020&rft.volume=67&rft.spage=8670&rft.epage=8679&rft.aulast=She;&rft.aufirst=Pan&rft.au=Pan+Yu;Kang-Zhi+Liu;Min+Wu;Jinhua+She;">Improved Equivalent-Input-Disturbance Approach Based on $H_infty$ Control
    • Authors: Pan Yu;Kang-Zhi Liu;Min Wu;Jinhua She;
      Pages: 8670 - 8679
      Abstract: This article presents an improved disturbance estimation and rejection method based on equivalent input disturbance (EID) with $H_infty$ robust performance for a time-varying uncertain system. The analysis and synthesis are conducted in the frequency domain. Different from conventional two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) $H_infty$ control, some related weighting functions are introduced into a new devised structure to separate the rejection of the parameter uncertainty and disturbance from reference tracking. Compared with the existent EID-based approaches designed in the time domain of which the robust performance is not addressed, $H_infty$ robust performance of the closed-loop system is guaranteed in this design. Treating the difference between the real plant and an ideal plant, namely, the overall effect of the parameter uncertainty and disturbance, as an EID, an EID estimation and compensation strategy is then established to cancel out the effect of the EID in system output. Furthermore, a constant scaling matrix is introduced into system design to reduce the conservativeness of a quadratic stabilization condition. Finally, a comparison with conventional 2-DOF robust $H_infty$ control illustrates the advantages of the developed method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Current-Cycle Iterative Learning Control for High-Precision Position
           Tracking of Piezoelectric Actuator System via Active Disturbance Rejection
           Control for Hysteresis Compensation
    • Authors: Deqing Huang;Da Min;Yupei Jian;Yanan Li;
      Pages: 8680 - 8690
      Abstract: As a typical smart structure, the piezoelectric actuator (PEA) is an essential constituent component in piezoelectric-driven positioning stages. Nevertheless, the positioning precision is severely degraded by its innate rate-dependent hysteretic nonlinearity. In this article, an innovative control method which combines active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) and current-cycle iterative learning control (CILC) is proposed by constructing PEA as a second-order disturbance-based structure to handle both the hysteretic nonlinearities and dynamic uncertainties of PEA. The proposed method differs from the prevalent model-inverse solution in hysteresis compensation, where the control performance of the latter relies extremely on the accurateness of the hysteretic model while the former does not require a mathematical model of hysteresis since it is considered as a general disturbance and eliminated. Compared with the existing hysteresis compensation via pure ADRC method, the proposed method has improved robustness by incorporating an additional Iterative learning control (ILC) loop to ADRC. Comparative experimentations are executed on a PEA system and results imply that the proposed approach has better control performance than pure proportional-integral control and ADRC.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Discrete-Time Extended State Observer-Based Model-Free Adaptive Control
           Via Local Dynamic Linearization
    • Authors: Ronghu Chi;Yu Hui;Shuhua Zhang;Biao Huang;Zhongsheng Hou;
      Pages: 8691 - 8701
      Abstract: Linearization is often used for control design of nonlinear systems but what degree of a linearization is sufficient for the controller design is always a question. Furthermore, most of the existing linearization methods aim to develop a completely linear model without retaining any nonlinearity and thus the unmodeled dynamics unavoidably exists due to omitted higher order terms. In this article, a local compact form dynamic linearization (local-CFDL) is developed at first to transform the original nonlinear nonaffine system into an affine structure consisting of both an unknown residual nonlinear time-varying term and a linearly parametric term affine to the control input. A discrete-time extended state observer (DESO) is introduced to estimate the unknown residual nonlinear time-varying term as a new extended state. Then, a local-CFDL-based DESO-model-free adaptive control (MFAC) is proposed where the estimation of DESO is incorporated to compensate for the disturbances and uncertainties. Furthermore, a local partial-form dynamic linearization (local-PFDL) is also presented using multi-lag inputs and partial derivatives. And, a corresponding local-PFDL-based DESO-MFAC is proposed utilizing additional control information to improve control performance. The two proposed methods are both data-driven and do not require any explicit model information. Theoretical analysis shows the robust convergence of the proposed methods in the presence of disturbances. Simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed method and show that the local-PFDL-based DESO-MFAC outperforms the local-CFDL-based one owing to the use of additional control information.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Early Classification of Alarm Floods via Exponentially Attenuated
           Component Analysis
    • Authors: Jun Shang;Tongwen Chen;
      Pages: 8702 - 8712
      Abstract: For industrial monitoring systems, early classification of alarm floods can provide valuable information for efficient alarm management. With the observation that the majority of earlier triggered alarms usually play more important roles in a single alarm flood, a classification method called exponentially attenuated component analysis (EACA) is proposed in this article. Each alarm flood can be extracted as a binary vector, while the information of relative triggering times is embedded in the form of exponential attenuation. With higher weights assigned to earlier alarms, EACA is predisposed to generate satisfactory classification even in the early stage of an alarm flood. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated using the benchmark Tennessee Eastman process.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Naturally Damaged Wind Turbine Blade Bearing Fault Detection Using Novel
           Iterative Nonlinear Filter and Morphological Analysis
    • Authors: Zepeng Liu;Long Zhang;
      Pages: 8713 - 8722
      Abstract: Wind turbine blade bearings are pivotal components to pitch blades, which optimize electrical energy output and stop wind turbines for protection. Blade bearing failure can cause the turbine to lose control or even break down. However, due to the very slow rotation speeds (often less than 5 r/min) and limited rotation angles (less than 100$rm ^{o}$), blade bearings can only produce weak and limited operating condition data, which makes condition monitoring and fault diagnosis very challenging, in particular for naturally damaged conditions. In this article, a naturally damaged large-scale blade bearing, which was in operation on a real wind farm for over 15 years, is investigated. An iterative nonlinear filter is proposed to remove heavy noise and extract weak fault vibration features. Then, the morphological transform-based envelope method is applied to diagnose the bearing fault in the frequency domain. The diagnostic results show that the proposed method can be an effective tool for diagnosing very slow speed blade bearings and is superior to some conventional bearing fault diagnosis methods.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Transfer Learning With Long Short-Term Memory Network for State-of-Health
           Prediction of Lithium-Ion Batteries
    • Authors: Yandan Tan;Guangcai Zhao;
      Pages: 8723 - 8731
      Abstract: Existing state-of-health (SOH) data-driven prediction techniques for lithium-ion batteries are subject to mass training data, which leads to limited application. To face the challenge, in this article, we propose a novel SOH prediction method based on transfer learning. The long short-term memory (LSTM) combined with fully connected (FC) layers is designed as the base model. The LSTM can learn the long-term dependencies of battery aging to reduce the noise sensitivity of the prediction model, and the FC layers serve as the “firewall” during the transferring process. A feature expression scoring (FES) rule is developed to assess the relevance of multiple prediction tasks. Different from traditional transfer learning, we select the task with the highest FES score to obtain the base model with superior generalization performance. During transfer learning, the fine-tuning strategy is executed for the tasks with high scores, but rebuilding strategy for the low score one. Only using the first 25% of a dataset for transfer training, our technique can predict more phases compared to traditional data-driven methods, which will avoid more unreasonable operations from users. The experimental results verify that the proposed method can achieve accurate, fast, and steady SOH prediction. Compared to some existing data-driven methods, our method obtains optimal performance.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Signal Compensation Based Adaptive Cascade Control for Regrinding
    • Authors: Lanhao Wang;Tianyou Chai;
      Pages: 8732 - 8742
      Abstract: The hematite regrinding process is a multivariable nonlinear industrial process with variant dynamic characteristic. When there are high-frequency disturbances on the pulp density and flowrate caused by the one-stage grinding and separation system, the dynamic characteristics of the hematite regrinding process becomes time variant. In this article, considering the fact that the regrinding system mostly works near its operating point, the dynamic characteristics of the regrinding system can be described as a combination of a deterministic linear model and an unknown high-order nonlinearity. Based on this description, a hydrocyclone feeding pressure (HFP) inner-loop proportional integral (PI) control system is proposed, and a dynamic model of the sump level (SL) outer-loop is established. The unknown change of the high-order nonlinearity is described by the previous sampled high-order nonlinearity and its change rate. A PI feedforward controller is then designed to compensate the previous sampled high-order nonlinearity based on a one-step optimal feedforward control law design approach. A one-step optimal regulate law based adaptive compensator is designed by using the tracking error and the exactly calculated value of the previous sampled high-order nonlinearity and its change rate. With the proposed PI feedforward controller and the adaptive compensator, a signal compensation based adaptive level outer-loop PI controller and an adaptive cascade control structure are proposed. Finally, the performance analysis and the industrial application demonstrate that, when the unknown high-frequency disturbances and the unknown change on the model parameters are in presence, the proposed algorithm can maintain the HFP, the hydrocyclone feeding density, and the SL in the desired ranges during the entire operation.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • A New Penalty Domain Selection Machine Enabled Transfer Learning for
           Gearbox Fault Recognition
    • Authors: Fei Shen;Yun Hui;Ruqiang Yan;Chuang Sun;Jiawen Xu;
      Pages: 8743 - 8754
      Abstract: The various structures and working conditions make gearbox fault recognition (GFR) more challenging. This article presents a new penalty domain selection machine (PDSM) enabled transfer learning for GFR study. The domain selection rules are designed using the band-selective independent component analysis to obtain the relation between different sensor locations and fault components for signal separation. Meanwhile, the initial penalty factors are calculated to speed up the PDSM process. For PDSM, the domain/signal penalty factors are added to the objective error function of original domain selection machine (DSM) to adapt varying working conditions and different sensor locations simultaneously. To solve the mixed optimization problem involved in PDSM, the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker conditions are utilized to transform it to a two-layer single problem. Experiments using drivetrain dynamics simulator prove that PDSM has higher diagnostic accuracy than other domain adaptation models. Meanwhile, it indicates faster convergence and stronger clustering capability than DSM.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • A Simple Equivalent Temperature Rise Test Method Suitable for Safely
           Evaluating Thermal Limits of Motors and Power Devices Without Model
    • Authors: Baochao Wang;Shili Dong;Fei Liu;Jianhui Hu;
      Pages: 8755 - 8766
      Abstract: Accurately getting thermal limits (peak capacity and duration, maximum temperature, thermal dynamic, etc.) is very useful to avoid damage, verify reliability, reduce size, and determine overloading capability of motors and power devices. Conventional model-dependent thermal analysis often leads to complexity and requires empirical knowledge. If feasible, experimentally evaluating one thermal behavior through another test is not only simple but also fast and accurate. By exploring model basic properties not a precise model, this article provides a “superposition-based” simple equivalent temperature rise test method. Unlike conventional experiments with persistent loading until the stable high-temperature point, the proposed method is able to reconstruct high-temperature data from much lower temperature data by short-term loading, avoiding the risk of permanent damage and reducing the energy consumption. It works for various heat transfer relations, cooling conditions, and loss compositions, as validated by the experimental results. No cumulative error occurs. The nonlinearity influence and the corresponding linear approximation are analyzed in detail. Discussions on inherent nonlinearity influence reduction are provided. Two “superposition-based” accuracy improvements for the nonlinear heat transfer coefficient and variant power loss are also provided. It could be suitable for evaluating the overloading ability or thermal limits without damage risk and with reduced energy consumption.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • A Prognostic Model Based on DBN and Diffusion Process for Degrading
    • Authors: Chang-Hua Hu;Hong Pei;Xiao-Sheng Si;Dang-Bo Du;Zhe-Nan Pang;Xi Wang;
      Pages: 8767 - 8777
      Abstract: Remaining useful life (RUL) prediction is extremely significant to ensure the safe and reliable operation for bearing suffering from the deterioration. The main focus of the RUL prediction is to accurately predict the future failure event, and thus, how to quantify the prediction uncertainty will be a major concern. However, current deep learning based RUL prediction methods are difficult to reflect the uncertainty of the RUL prediction results. Toward this end, we propose a RUL prediction model based on the deep belief network (DBN) and diffusion process (DP) in this article. The proposed method consists of two parts: feature extraction combining DBN and locally linear embedding (LLE), DP-based RUL prediction. In the first part, DBN is used to extract deep hidden features behind the monitoring signals, and then the features with higher tendency are screened as the input of LLE. The health index that can truly reflect the bearing health condition is further determined through LLE. In the second part, a health index evolving model based on DP is presented and the probability density function (PDF) of the predicted RUL is accordingly derived in the sense of the first hitting time (FHT). As such, the proposed method holds promise to improve the prediction accuracy and facilitate the prognostic uncertainty. Finally, experimental studies on the bearing degradation data and the associated comparative analysis verify the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Precise Phase Demodulation Algorithm for Sinusoidal Encoders and Resolvers
    • Authors: Guoyong Ye;Guobo Zhao;Hongzhong Liu;Bingheng Lu;
      Pages: 8778 - 8787
      Abstract: Sinusoidal encoders and resolvers encode position information by providing a pair of sine and the cosine signals. In order to determine the position information, suitable phase demodulation algorithms should be applied to the sinusoidal signals. In this article, a precise phase demodulation algorithm is presented based on the linearization technique. Inspired by the good linearity of the sinusoidal signals around the null point, the proposed algorithm makes use of the linear sections of the original sinusoidal signals and the generated phase-shift signals to obtain a preliminary linearized signal. A compensation strategy is then provided to achieve a nearly perfect linearized signal, from which position information can be linearly determined without utilizing a lookup table. The whole linearization process is only involved with simple mathematical and logic operations on the input sinusoidal signals. It is illustrated that the phase demodulation error is less than 0.00003194° over 360° signal period (corresponds to approx. 23-bit accuracy per period), which implies a small negligible error. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm is implemented utilizing a field-programmable gate array, and experiments are performed to demonstrate its effectiveness.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Considering Losses to Enhance Circuit Model Accuracy of Ultrasonic
           Wireless Power Transfer System
    • Authors: Maopeng Wu;Xiyou Chen;Chen Qi;Xianmin Mu;
      Pages: 8788 - 8798
      Abstract: Ultrasonic wireless power transfer (UWPT) has been a promising technology to recharge the sensor batteries that locate in enclosed metal containers. An accurate and comprehensive analytical model is the key enabling tool for designing the UWPT system. In this article, a novel equivalent circuit model has been proposed for a typical UWPT system with two symmetric piezoelectric transducers bounding onto an aluminum plate coaxially. The proposed model is a two-port network equivalent circuit that can be described by T parameters. By considering the losses of the UWPT system, the accuracy of this model has been enhanced in comparison with the widely used equivalent circuit model, which ignores its losses. The experimental results show that the average error of output power decreases about 6.4 times in the proposed model compared to the existing model. Moreover, the proposed model is tested under various working conditions to validate the enhanced accuracy.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • A Class D Power Amplifier for Multifrequency Eddy Current Testing Based on
           Multisimultaneous-Frequency Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulsewidth
    • Authors: Yang Tao;Christos Ktistis;Yifei Zhao;Wuliang Yin;Anthony J. Peyton;
      Pages: 8799 - 8807
      Abstract: Efficiency and multisimultaneous-frequency (MSF) output capability are two major criteria characterizing the performance of a power amplifier in the application of multifrequency eddy current testing (MECT). Switch-mode power amplifiers are known to have a very high efficiency, yet they have rarely been adopted in the instrumental development of MECT. In addition, switch-mode power amplifiers themselves are lacking in the research literature for MSF capability. In this article, a Class D power amplifier is designed so as to address the two issues. An MSF selective harmonic elimination pulsewidth modulation method is proposed to generate alternating magnetic fields, which are rich in selected harmonics. A field-programmable-gate-array-based experimental system has been developed to verify the design. Results show that the proposed methodology is capable of generating high MSF currents in the transmitting coil with a low distortion of signal.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • All-Day Mobile Healthcare Monitoring System Based on Heterogeneous
           Stretchable Sensors for Medical Emergency
    • Authors: Sungho Lee;Srinivas Gandla;Muhammad Naqi;Uihyun Jung;Hyungsoon Youn;Dogi Pyun;Yumie Rhee;Sunju Kang;Hyuk-Jun Kwon;Heejung Kim;Min Goo Lee;Sunkook Kim;
      Pages: 8808 - 8816
      Abstract: Epidermal and wearable electronic sensor technologies have gained extensive interest in recent years owing to deliver real-time healthcare information to the personalized smartphone. Herein, we proposed a fully integrated wearable smart patch-based sensor system with Kirigami-inspired strain-free deformable structures having temperature and humidity sensors along with a commercial acceleration sensor. The presented fully integrated wearable sensor system easily attaches to the skin to accurately determine the body information, and integrated circuit including read-out circuit and wireless communication transfer medical information (temperature, humidity, and motion) to mobile phone to assist with emergencies due to “unpredictable” deviations and to aid in medical checkups for vulnerable patients. This article addresses the challenge of all-day continuous monitoring of human body biological signals by introducing the well-equipped breathable (water permeability ∼ 80 gm−1·h−1), excellent adhesion to the skin (peel strength < 200 gf/12 mm), biocompatible, and conformable smart patch that can absorb the moisture (sweat) generated from the skin without any harshness and allowing the users’ to continuously monitor the early detection of diagnosis. Furthermore, the proposed patch-based medical device enables wireless sensing capabilities in response to rapid variation, equipped with a customized circuit design, low-power Bluetooth module, and a signal processing integrated circuit mounted on a flexible printed circuit board. Thus, a unique platform is established for multifunctional sensors to interface with hard electronics, providing emerging opportunities in the biomedical field as well as Internet-of-Things applications.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Experimental Analysis and Optimization of a Contactless Eddy-Current-Based
           Speed Sensor for Smooth Conductive Surfaces
    • Authors: Cheng Gong;Arda Tüysüz;Michael Flankl;Tibor Stolz;Johann W. Kolar;Thomas Habetler;
      Pages: 8817 - 8828
      Abstract: Speed sensing is an essential part in all closed-loop systems. There exist some situations in industry where the speed has to be measured without touching the target object, for example, the accurate speed measurement of the solid metal wheels with smooth surfaces of freight wagons. In this article, a contactless, eddy-current-based speed sensor is proposed for applications where the speed of a smooth conductive surface is to be measured; but contact to or modification of this target surface is prohibited. The proposed speed sensor is composed of a permanent magnet (PM) rotor that is free to rotate above the target surface. The relative motion of the surface with respect to the PM field induces eddy currents in the surface, which leads to a torque being applied on the rotor. Consequently, the PM rotor speeds up until it reaches a steady rotational speed that is proportional to the speed of the target surface. Three models are proposed. They are a two-dimensional (2-D) finite-element model, a 2-D analytical model, and a three-dimensional (3-D) combined numerical/analytical model. Measurements are taken on multiple hardware prototypes to validate the analysis. Finally, a multiobjective (PM volume vs. dynamic performance) Pareto optimization is conducted for the proposed speed sensing system. The results show that smaller rotors with lower pole-pair numbers generally have better dynamic performance as well as lower costs.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Interference-Compensating Magnetometer Calibration With Estimated
           Measurement Noise Covariance for Application to Small-Sized UAVs
    • Authors: Hakjun Lee;Chanu Lee;Hayeong Jeon;Junwoo Jason Son;Youngbin Son;Soohee Han;
      Pages: 8829 - 8840
      Abstract: This article proposes a new interference-compensating magnetometer calibration scheme aided by a gyroscope sensor, which could reduce the effect of induced magnetic interference due to nearby onboard current flow. By using the innovation process and a linear matrix inequality approach, mean and variance of the induced magnetic interference are estimated to ensure that their physical meaningful values are taken to be closest to the empirically measured ones. The values are reflected in the update step of the extended Kalman filter in order to accurately estimate the calibration parameters and the corresponding direction. Results of experiments performed using a real unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) demonstrate that the proposed calibration scheme compensates well for the disturbing magnetic interference arising from the UAV's onboard current and hence reduces the estimation error of its yaw angle, or its heading direction, by approximately two-thirds of that obtained using the existing scheme.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Measurement of Liquid Film Thickness Using Distributed Conductance Sensor
           in Multiphase Slug Flow
    • Authors: Dayang Wang;Ningde Jin;Lusheng Zhai;Yingyu Ren;
      Pages: 8841 - 8850
      Abstract: In this article, a novel coaxial three-electrode distributed conductance sensor (CTDCS) is proposed to achieve the salinity and oil content independent measurement of the liquid film thickness in multiphase slug flow. The conductance sensor obtains the liquid film thickness by measuring the conductance between the electrodes. However, the conductance depends on the liquid film thickness and liquid conductivity. For gas–water and oil–gas–water flows in an industrial process, the variations of the salinity and oil content of liquid phase change the liquid conductivity. This will seriously affect the measurement of the liquid film thickness using a conventional two-electrode sensor. Owing to its novel three-electrode configuration, the proposed CTDCS can overcome the problem mentioned above. The optimal geometry of the CTDCS is determined by exhaustive search using a finite-element method, and the electronic circuit suitable for the condition of conductivity variation is investigated. The ratio of two-channel outputs, which is independent of conductivity is acquired and its relationship with the liquid film thickness is established. The advantages of the CTDCS are that it can online compensate conductivity variations and acquire the circumferential distribution of liquid film thicknesses. Hence, the salinity and oil content independent measurement of liquid film thickness is realized for the first time.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Ultrastable and Low-Noise Self-Compensation Method for Circuit Thermal
           Drift of Eddy Current Sensors Based on Analog Multiplier
    • Authors: Guofeng Zhao;Jing Yin;Lei Wu;Zhihua Feng;
      Pages: 8851 - 8859
      Abstract: This article proposes a self-temperature compensation method based on an analog multiplier, which reduces the circuit thermal drift by more than an order of magnitude. An ac bridge eddy current sensor (ECS) is used as an example to analyze the thermal drift of the circuit in detail, and the basic principle of the compensation method is expounded. A high-precision ECS prototype is manufactured and tested. Results show that the temperature coefficient of the circuit in the prototype is decreased from 243 to 5 ppm/°C with this technique. This self-compensation method is simple, effective, and universal. Furthermore, this technique has a unique advantage for high-bandwidth and high-precision sensors and can work efficiently in complex and harsh temperature environments.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Motion Characteristic Recognition of Transmission Lines Based on Inertial
    • Authors: Jinxian Yang;Lijun Chao;
      Pages: 8860 - 8867
      Abstract: An excellent design of the damper is inseparable from an accurate acquisition of motion amplitude and frequency values of transmission lines. However, these values, in general, are remarkably difficult to precisely measure due to the harsh measurement environments and complex motions of transmission lines. To solve these problems, a motion-characteristic-analysis-method-based inertial measurement, by employing a three-axis accelerometer and a three-axis gyroscope, is designed to recognize the motion state and estimate the motion amplitude and frequency of transmission lines. The center of the inertial measurement method lies in motion signal extraction involving frequency slice wavelet transform and weighted singular value decomposition. Experimental results show that the proposed method adapts well to the motion characteristic analysis of transmission lines.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Multiresonant Chipless RFID Array System for Coating Defect Detection and
           Corrosion Prediction
    • Authors: Sameir Deif;Mojgan Daneshmand;
      Pages: 8868 - 8877
      Abstract: In this article, a fully passive, wireless solution for out-of-sight pipeline monitoring is presented. By predicting corrosion before its occurrence, a proactive response may be taken to mitigate the chance of an environmental disaster. The chipless radio-frequency identification system is a combination of a tag ID, consisting of an array of six rectangular spiral resonators, and a tag antenna consisting of two cross-polarized novel patch antennas etched on a skin-thin microwave laminate. The tags are grounded on a carbon steel pipeline coated with $text{3 mm}$ Teflon (polyethylene-like electrical characteristics). The proposed system exhibits robust capability to create frequency signatures to detect and monitor defects underneath the pipeline coating owing to water ingress that could eventuate to corrode the pipeline. The reader antenna above the pipeline comprises two identically cross-polarized log periodic dipole antennas with the intent to remotely capture resonances of the tag ID in real-time for early detection and prediction of potential pipeline exposure to moisture. The proposed structure provides low-cost real-time solution.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Nonlinear Ultrasonic Transmissive Tomography for Low-Contrast Biphasic
           Medium Imaging Using Continuous-Wave Excitation
    • Authors: Hao Liu;Chao Tan;Shu Zhao;Feng Dong;
      Pages: 8878 - 8888
      Abstract: Industrial process tomography possesses unique advantages in biphasic medium measurement and has received broad attention in the past decades. Aiming at the widely existing low-contrast biphasic medium, this article proposes a nonlinear ultrasonic transmissive tomography (UTT) approach using continuous-wave excitation. Considering the refraction effect at the biphasic interface, the reconstruction method with nonlinear forward problem and the prototype-based resolution enhancement algorithm is proposed with higher accuracy, resolution, and speed. The UTT system is improved with a high-voltage excitation module and fan-beam transducer array to evaluate the proposed method, where the performance is qualitatively and quantitatively compared with the state-of-the-art reconstruction algorithms and measurement techniques from different perspectives. The results show that the reconstruction performance is significantly improved where the size, shape, and position of the dispersed medium can be accurately discriminated. Accordingly, the ultrasonic tomography with continuous-wave excitation is proved to be feasible and efficient in the visualized measurement of low-contrast biphasic medium.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Deep Learning Approaches on Pedestrian Detection in Hazy Weather
    • Authors: Guofa Li;Yifan Yang;Xingda Qu;
      Pages: 8889 - 8899
      Abstract: Effectively detecting pedestrians in various environments would significantly improve driving safety for autonomous vehicles. However, the degrpted visibility and blurred outline and appearance of pedestrian images captured during hazy weather strongly limit the effectiveness of current pedestrian detection methods. To solve this problem, this article presents three novel deep learning approaches based on you only look once. The depth wise separable convolution and linear bottleneck skills were used to reduce the computational cost and number of parameters, rendering our network more efficient. We also innovatively developed a weighted combination layer in one of the approaches by combining multiscale feature maps and a squeeze and excitation block. Collected pedestrian images in hazy weather were augmented using six strategies to enrich the database. Experimental results show that our proposed methods can effectively detect pedestrians in hazy weather, significantly outperforming state-of-the-art methods in both accuracy and speed.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Back-to-Back Competitive Learning Mechanism for Fuzzy Logic Based
           Supervisory Control System of Hybrid Electric Vehicles
    • Authors: Ji Li;Quan Zhou;Huw Williams;Hongming Xu;
      Pages: 8900 - 8909
      Abstract: This article proposes a novel back-to-back competitive learning mechanism (BCLM) for a fuzzy logic (FL) supervisory control system of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). This mechanism allows continuous competition between two fuzzy logic controllers during real-world driving. The leading controller will have the regulatory function of the supervisory control system. First, the configuration of the HEV model and its FL-based control system are analyzed. Second, the algorithm of chaos-enhanced accelerated particle swarm optimization (CAPSO) is developed for back-to-back learning of the membership function. Third, based on fuel-prioritized cost functions, the regulation of competitive assessment is designed to select a controller with a better fuel economy. Finally, the competitive performance of using the CAPSO algorithm is contrasted with other swarm-based methods and the BCLM-driven control system is validated by a hardware-in-the-loop test. The results demonstrate that the BCLM control system significantly reduces fuel consumption, at least 9% from charge sustaining and charge depleting based, and at least 7% from conventional FL-based systems.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Graph-Theory-Based Modeling and Control for System-Level Optimization of
           Smart Transformers
    • Authors: Marco Liserre;Vivek Raveendran;Markus Andresen;
      Pages: 8910 - 8920
      Abstract: Smart transformers offer the possibility to reduce the costs related to the integration of renewables and charging station into the grid and are gaining industrial interests. Grid system operators request modularity for easy maintenance and power scalability. Normally, the power is shared equally in the modular structure. However, differences in electrical and thermal parameters of the individual cells result in a nonoptimal efficiency and reliability characteristics with equal power sharing. In this article, a generalized approach for system-level modeling of modular converters with graph theory is presented. Graph theory simplifies the power flow management in modular architectures to a network flow problem, thereby facilitating the routing of power among the cells for optimizing reliability and efficiency. A power routing algorithm based on convex cost flow optimization is discussed, and case studies are presented to demonstrate the potential of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • A High-Performance and Economical Multiport Hybrid Direct Current Circuit
    • Authors: Jinghan He;Yiping Luo;Meng Li;Yongjie Zhang;Yin Xu;Qiufang Zhang;Guomin Luo;
      Pages: 8921 - 8930
      Abstract: Hybrid dc circuit breaker (HCB) is an effective device for interrupting dc fault currents in dc grids. Conventional two-port HCB requires too many insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) in series in its main breaker, resulting in considerable costs. Recently proposed multiport hybrid dc circuit breakers (multiport HCBs, and the number of ports is greater than or equal to 2) interrupt fault currents on multiple lines using only one shared main breaker, significantly reducing the implementation costs but losing some fault handling capabilities. To overcome these obstacles, we propose a novel high-performance economical multiport hybrid dc circuit breaker (MP-HCB) in this article. The topology and its control method are proposed. Due to the designed ring-connection structure, the proposed MP-HCB can avoid dc bus fault, and thus is more reliable. The electrical stresses of the breaker are theoretically analyzed, and the parameters are determined to make the MP-HCB capable of multiple-line faults. Compared with the typical two-port HCB and the existing multiport HCBs, the proposed MP-HCB can achieve full fault current interruption capability with lower costs. To protect a dc node connecting with three lines, the cost of the semiconductors of the proposed MP-HCB is only 1/3 of the typical two-port HCB and 1/2 of the existing multiport HCB. Finally, the performances of the proposed MP-HCB are verified via a four-terminal HVdc system in power systems computer aided design/ electromagnetic transients including DC (PSCAD/EMTDC).
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • An Output Capacitorless Low-Dropout Regulator With a Low-VDD Inverting
           Buffer for the Mobile Application
    • Authors: Jieun Park;Byunghun Lee;Sung-Wan Hong;
      Pages: 8931 - 8935
      Abstract: To provide power to the latest mobile applications that use functions with heavy loads, in this letter, we present a capacitorless low-dropout regulator (LDO) that supplies a large load current up to 600 mA. The proposed buffer and the feedforward paths are used to provide a stable operation and fast response along with a large load current. Owing to these schemes, the proposed LDO has a high unity gain frequency of 2.85 MHz at 100 mA with a total compensation capacitance of 5.1 pF. In addition, the LDO operates under a wide input voltage range of 1.5–5.0 V owing to the low-VDD structure. Also, a power supply rejection ratio was –52 dB at 100 kHz. The chip was implemented with a small size of 0.082 mm2 using the I/O devices of a 0.18 μm CMOS process with a minimum length of 0.5 μm.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • An Open-Loop Synchronization Technique With Simple Structure for Phase
           Error Compensation and Frequency Estimation
    • Authors: Peng Liu;Shanxu Duan;
      Pages: 8936 - 8940
      Abstract: The open-loop synchronization technique (OLST) features unconditional stability and fast dynamic performance. However, the estimated phase and amplitude errors occur in presence of the grid frequency drift. Moreover, the frequency prediction method recommended in literatures is complicated. To overcome these problems, this letter proposes a simple solution, which obtains the phase error by comparing the filtered signals with the original ones, and the frequency drift can be easily derived from the phase error. The proposed technique not only inherits the advantages of OLST but also enhances the adaptability to frequency and phase angle drifts. The effectiveness of the proposed OLST is verified by the experimental results.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Guest Editorial: Applications of Predictive Control in Microgrids
    • Pages: 8941 - 8943
      Abstract: This "Special Section on Applications of Predictive Control in Microgrids" of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS presents recent advances of predictive control techniques in distributed generation and microgrids.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Predictive Control Based DC Microgrid Stabilization With the Dual Active
           Bridge Converter
    • Authors: Linglin Chen;Fei Gao;Ke Shen;Zhenyu Wang;Luca Tarisciotti;Patrick Wheeler;Tomislav Dragičević;
      Pages: 8944 - 8956
      Abstract: Dual-active-bridge (DAB) enabled dc microgrids stabilization is investigated in this article. DAB has two control objectives: load current regulation and the dc-bus voltage stabilization. In multiobjective control applications, the conventional proportional integrator (PI)-based controllers face challenges in the control loop coordination. The saturation of the loops largely deteriorate the control performance. Moreover, the system impedance has to be measured before designing the active damping control. In this article, a moving discretized control set—model predictive control (MDCS-MPC) is proposed for DAB. The proposed MDCS-MPC is inherently a good choice for multiobjective control. It provides several advantages, such as a good tradeoff between two control objectives and adaptive performance on system impedance. The evaluation and comparison of the proposed MDCS-MPC and PI are carried out. Experiments on a 270–270V, 20 kHz, 1 kW DAB converter are conducted to verify the theoretical claims.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • An Advanced Voltage Support Scheme Considering the Impact of Zero-Sequence
           Voltage Under Microgrid Faults Using Model Predictive Control
    • Authors: Soumya Ranjan Mohapatra;Vivek Agarwal;
      Pages: 8957 - 8968
      Abstract: Negative sequence voltage affects the consequences of the presence of zero-sequence voltage in different ways under various grid fault conditions. The prime objective of the work presented in this article is to confine the point of common coupling (PCC) phase voltages within the stipulated limits during faults considering all the sequence voltages of a microgrid. Depending on the phase and amplitude of sequence voltages, the proposed scheme defines a control parameter to classify all possible faults into two categories. In the first category, the defined control parameter decides the positive and negative sequence grid currents to accommodate the zero-sequence voltage at the PCC within the stipulated limits. In the second category, the zero-sequence current is supplied along with the positive and negative sequence currents to achieve the objective. Accordingly, a four-leg inverter is employed to accomplish the voltage limit goals under various fault conditions. Resistive-inductive grid impedance of the microgrid is considered for the implementation of the proposed voltage support scheme. The LC-filter-based model predictive control is employed to control the four-leg three-level inverter for achieving three objectives, such as grid current control, active damping, and dc-link capacitor voltage balancing simultaneously. Analysis and experimental results are reported to support the concept.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Frequency-Adaptive Virtual Flux Estimator-Based Predictive Power Control
           With Suppression of Dc Voltage Ripples Under Unbalanced Network
    • Authors: Haitao Yang;Yongchang Zhang;Jie Liu;
      Pages: 8969 - 8979
      Abstract: This article presents a closed-loop virtual-flux (VF) estimator for grid voltage sensorless control of pulsewidth modulation (PWM) rectifier under unbalanced network. Compared with the prior open-loop VF estimator, the proposed method shows better filtering capability and improved robustness against load variation. Considering the grid frequency may deviate from the nominal value in practical application, an adaptive method is further developed for online frequency estimation. Additionally, the finite control set-model predictive power control with power compensation is implemented based on the proposed VF estimator to attenuate dc voltage ripples under unbalanced network. Theoretical analysis show that the twice-grid-frequency ripple component in the dc voltage can be effectively suppressed even with inductance mismatches. Experimental tests on a two-level PWM rectifier confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Double Vector Model Predictive Control to Reduce Common-Mode Voltage
           Without Weighting Factors for Three-Level Inverters
    • Authors: Tong Liu;Alian Chen;Changwei Qin;Jie Chen;Xiaoyan Li;
      Pages: 8980 - 8990
      Abstract: The conventional model predictive control (MPC) suffers from high common-mode voltage (CMV) magnitude and large current ripples. In this article, the reduced CMV MPC strategy with double vector (RCMV-MPCDV) is proposed for three-level inverters, which adopts double vector to reduce the CMV and current ripples simultaneously in per-sampling period. First, based on geometric relationship of median, a novel cost function that evaluates median line distance is proposed to reduce the computational complexity, rather than evaluating the closest distance. Second, in order to reduce the computational burden, the double vector preselection algorithm is presented with fewer evaluation times. Third, the candidate vectors are reclassified and regrouped from partial basic vectors, which restricts CMV magnitude within one-sixth of dc-link voltage. In addition, to select more satisfactory double vectors for RCMV-MPCDV scheme, two improved methods are proposed to compensate the losing candidate vectors. The simulation and experimental results with steady-state performance and dynamic response validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Performance Analysis of Model Predictive Technique Based Combined Control
           for PMSG-Based Distributed Generation Unit
    • Authors: Rupa Mishra;Tapas Kumar Saha;
      Pages: 8991 - 9000
      Abstract: In this article, we propose a predictive model technique based on combined control for distributed generation unit (DGU) driven by the uncontrolled prime mover. The DGU constitutes of a permanent magnet synchronous generator, along with back-to-back converter, and is operated to supply distributed load at fixed voltage and frequency. The model predictive control is developed by using two cost functions for the generator- and load-side converters simultaneously. The cost function for the generator-side converter is generated in the synchronously rotating reference frame, whereas the load side is developed in the stationary reference frame. The cost functions are developed to maintain the power flow from the generator at the desired level of demand throughout the operation. The proposed controller identifies the switching state of the converters without using the pulsewidth modulation modulator. The DGU is, thus, controlled to maintain the load voltage and frequency, irrespective of the uncontrolled variation of the load impedance and speed of the prime mover. Additionally, the controller is tested with the variation of the active power component of the load voltage and deviation in the dc-link voltage. The implementation of the proposed control is performed in the simulation environment successfully. The experimental results are presented to validate the theoretical performances in a scaled laboratory prototype.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Reducing Distribution Power Loss of Islanded AC Microgrids Using
           Distributed Electric Springs With Predictive Control
    • Authors: Yun Yang;Yaxiao Qin;Siew-Chong Tan;Shu Yuen Ron Hui;
      Pages: 9001 - 9011
      Abstract: Recently proposed electric springs (ESs), as alternatives to conventional energy storage systems, are used to regulate bus voltages of ac microgrids with few or even no battery packs. Pioneering works have demonstrated the merits of ES in reducing the infrastructure and maintenance costs of expensive battery packs while still improving the power quality, stability, and dynamic responses of microgrids. However, distribution power loss reduction of islanded ac microgrids by controlling distributed ES has never been investigated. The major novel contribution of this article is to extend the function of ES, along with emerging high-speed communication techniques, to enhance the rate of energy utilization in islanded ac microgrids. A predictive control in the power flow router calculates and feeds the optimal bus voltage references to each ES, which in turn controls the respective distribution power flow based on real-time power measurements. This allows the distributed ES to mitigate the overall distribution power loss of the islanded ac microgrid. Simulation results verified the significant power loss reductions in various structures of islanded ac microgrids with the distributed ES under the proposed predictive control. Experimental results also validate the effectiveness of the distributed ES operating under the predictive control in reducing the distribution power loss of a 3-bus and a 5-bus islanded ac microgrid.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Model Predictive Control With Lifetime Constraints Based Energy Management
           Strategy for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Systems
    • Authors: Hongwen He;Shengwei Quan;Fengchun Sun;Ya-Xiong Wang;
      Pages: 9012 - 9023
      Abstract: In this article, a model predictive control (MPC) energy management strategy is proposed to distribute power flows of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)-based hybrid power systems consisting of PEMFC, battery, and waste heat recovery system such as TEG and CHP. To optimally meet the demand of load power balancing as well as protect PEMFC from lifetime degradation, a novel objective function by considering fuel consumption, state-of-charge (SOC) of battery, as well as power slope and temperature of PEMFC is constructed and solved in the states prediction horizon within the defined lifetime constraints and SOC limitations. In particular, temperature effects are newly introduced by adding a state-variable to the energy management model and formulating a penalty function. Simulations with mobility and stationary application scenarios are presented. In the automobile case, the hydrogen consumption of the constraints MPC is reduced by 9.98% compared with the rule-based strategy, and the same results can be achieved in the household application. A hardware in the loop experiment was carried out to verify the real-time performance of the MPC strategy which occupied a 2.21% average CPU load rate. The proposed MPC strategy has a promising fuel consumption optimization, lifetime extension, and real-time capability.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
  • Connect. Support. Inspire [Advertisement]
    • Pages: 9024 - 9024
      Abstract: Advertisement, IEEE Women in Engineering.
      PubDate: Oct. 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2020)
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