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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 184 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 79)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 318)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 267)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 106)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 86)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 93)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Embedded Systems Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access  
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 197)
Haptics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access  
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Nano Devices, Sensors and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access  
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal ELTIKOM : Jurnal Teknik Elektro, Teknologi Informasi dan Komputer     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Magnetics Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Nanotechnology Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Pulse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Revue Méditerranéenne des Télécommunications     Open Access  
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Solid-State Circuits Magazine, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Wireless Power Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Women in Engineering Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access  

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Journal Cover
Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.192
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 58  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0278-0046
Published by IEEE Homepage  [191 journals]
  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics publication information
    • Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Information
    • Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics Information for Authors
    • Abstract: These instructions give guidelines for preparing papers for this publication. Presents information for authors publishing in this journal.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Low-Capacitance Modular Multilevel Converter Operating With High Capacitor
           Voltage Ripples
    • Authors: Qiang Song;Wenbo Yang;Biao Zhao;Jingwei Meng;Shukai Xu;Zhe Zhu;
      Pages: 7456 - 7467
      Abstract: To provide a reliable approach that can significantly decrease energy storage requirements, this paper proposes a low-capacitance modular multilevel converter (MMC) operating with high capacitor voltage ripples. In the proposed MMC with high ripples (HR-MMC), the dc value of the capacitor voltage is slightly decreased by slightly increasing the number of series-connected submodules in each arm. Therefore, the MMC can operate under a higher capacitor voltage ripple without changing the peak capacitor voltage. Evaluation shows that the cost and volume of the HR-MMC can be reduced due to the reduction of energy storage requirements. The volume reduction effect is particularly obvious. The impacts of the capacitor voltage ripple on the linear modulation region are also analyzed. The obtained active and reactive power diagram shows that the active power and capacitive reactive power ratings are not affected by the high capacitor voltage ripple. The high capacitor voltage ripple only results in a reduction of inductive reactive power rating. The correctness of the theoretical analysis and the feasibility of the HR-MMC were verified through simulations and experiments.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Multiple Multiphase Combined Star–Polygon Winding Analysis
    • Authors: Seyed Morteza Raziee;Onur Misir;Bernd Ponick;
      Pages: 7468 - 7479
      Abstract: In order to improve the efficiency and to reduce the field amplitudes of spatial harmonics influencing noise and vibration of electrical machines, three- and five-phase combined star–polygon windings have been suggested in the literature. Besides, the efficiency of an electrical machine is dependent on the fundamental winding factor and the noise/vibration level is related to the winding factors of some higher/lower harmonics. However, there is no systematic method to calculate the winding factor of each spatial harmonic for a multiple topology. This paper deals with proposing different topologies of multiple series multiphase combined star–polygon windings and accordingly with the calculation methods of winding factors for all spatial harmonics and the harmonic leakage factor. The results of winding function approach and symmetrical components of electromotive forces (EMFs) are perfectly in compliance with each other, provided that the fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis is sufficiently accurate. The results obtained from measurements on an unskewed electrically excited synchronous machine are applied for validating the results given by the sum of EMFs and the proposed calculation formula. The sum of EMFs, considering just one set of a multiple topology, can give the same results as the proposed winding analysis methods for the fundamental or the slot harmonic winding factors.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Common-Mode Voltage Minimization for Grid-Tied Modular Multilevel
    • Authors: Sixing Du;Bin Wu;Navid Zargari;
      Pages: 7480 - 7487
      Abstract: Transformerless modular multilevel converter (MMC)-based drive system usually installs a grid-tied MMC to interface with medium-voltage ac utility. Since no front-end transformer is installed, the grid-tied MMC is expected to directly defense the common-mode voltage (CMV) from asymmetrical grid fault and switching operation of converters for maximally protecting the medium-voltage motor. This paper presents a control strategy to minimize the CMV of the grid-tied MMC. The CMV due to asymmetrical grid fault is canceled by MMC counterpart voltage, while the switching ripples caused by MMC switching operation are reduced by arranging the arm-voltage pulses end-to-end. Moreover, the influence of MMC counterpart voltage on phase-leg power deviation is analyzed, and a solution based on feed-forward control is developed accordingly. Under the control of the proposed strategy, the maximal CMV of the grid-tied system is reduced from $1/3$ per unit (p.u.) to ($1/3{boldsymbol{N}}$) p.u. under serious asymmetrical grid condition, where ${boldsymbol{N}}$ is the per-arm submodule number. Meanwhile, the united power factor, constant dc-bus voltage, and balanced phase-leg power are also realized. Simulations and experiments confirm the validation of the proposal.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • A New and Fast Method for On-line Estimation of d and q Axes Inductances
           of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines Using Measurements of
           Current Derivatives and Inverter DC-Bus Voltage
    • Authors: Minh Xuan Bui;M. Faz Rahman;Deqi Guan;Dan Xiao;
      Pages: 7488 - 7497
      Abstract: This paper proposes a novel on-line technique for estimation of the inductances of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine (IPMSM) based on the measurement of dc-bus voltage of the inverter and the stator current derivatives at certain voltage vectors during each pulsewidth modulation (PWM) cycle. This technique removes the requirement for the bulky and expensive shaft-locking mechanisms and test signal injection for obtaining the machine dq inductance parameters off line. It also overcomes the problems associated with other recursive on-line techniques which take a number of PWM cycles to update the parameters. The proposed method estimates the d and q axes inductances of IPMSMs within each PWM cycle without requiring knowledge of stator resistance, rotor flux linkage, and rotor speed. It also tracks the variations of the inductances (especially the q-axis inductance), which vary significantly due to q-axis magnetic saturation and cross saturation effect of the IPMSM, with sufficient accuracy. This paper presents full analysis, system simulation, and extensive experimental studies in order to verify the accuracy, quick tracking ability, and robustness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • An Improved Modulation Strategy for Fast Capacitor Voltage Balancing of
           Three-Level NPC Inverters
    • Authors: Santu K. Giri;Subrata Banerjee;Chandan Chakraborty;
      Pages: 7498 - 7509
      Abstract: This paper presents an improved pulsewidth modulation strategy in conjunction with an optimal compensator for fast capacitor voltage balancing in three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter. The voltage balancing compensator is designed in such a way that it produces optimal unbalance compensation coefficient according to the inherent limitations related to the variability range of modulating signals. It generates maximum compensating neutral current for the full modulation depth extending into overmodulation region and throughout the entire range of load power factor angles, and thus improves the unbalance compensation ability for all the operating conditions of the inverter. The optimal compensation offset signal corresponding to each operating point is determined from the boundary limit of the auxiliary modulating signals. Particle swarm optimization is applied for such purpose. The performance of the proposed optimal compensator for different combinations of modulation index and load power factors are evaluated through extensive simulation study using Matlab/Simulink and validated in experimentation using a three-level NPC inverter prototype with induction motor load. Finally, the voltage balancing performances of the proposed compensator are compared with that available in literature to confirm the usefulness of the proposed concept.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Voltage-Dip Analysis of Brushless Doubly Fed Induction Generator Using
           Reduced T-Model
    • Authors: Ramtin Sadeghi;Seyed M. Madani;Thomas Anthony Lipo;M. R. Agha Kashkooli;Mohammad Ataei;Sul Ademi;
      Pages: 7510 - 7519
      Abstract: This paper presents the performance analysis of brushless doubly fed induction generator (BDFIG) during symmetrical voltage dips. The equivalent circuit consists of resistances and dependent voltage sources in its rotor loop; thus, its voltage-dip analysis becomes more challenging. To overcome such difficulty, a reduced full-order model of the BDFIG into a new T-model is presented. A detailed mathematical analysis is performed subject to voltage-dip conditions. The time variation for the machines fluxes, electromotive forces, voltages, currents, and active and reactive powers are analyzed and their analytical approaches are derived. The current/voltage stress of power converter during voltage dip is discussed. The accuracy of the proposed T-model and the theoretical voltage dip is confirmed via experimental tests on a 3-kW BDFIG, and simulation results of a 2-MW BDFIG.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • An Analytical Method for Calculating the Natural Frequencies of a Motor
           Considering Orthotropic Material Parameters
    • Authors: Shenglong Hu;Shuguang Zuo;Hao Wu;Mingtian Liu;
      Pages: 7520 - 7528
      Abstract: In this paper, a novel analytical method is proposed for calculating the natural frequencies of a motor to reduce the large natural frequency calculation errors produced by common isotropic analytical models. First, a theoretical model of the equivalent cylindrical shell is established with five orthotropic material parameters by considering the simple-support boundary condition, the effect of the axial length, and the orthotropic characteristics of the motor. Then, the density of the equivalent cylindrical shell is obtained, and the composite material theory is employed to estimate the equivalent orthotropic material parameters. Finally, we find that the natural frequencies and the modal shapes obtained by the proposed analytical model are in good agreement with those of the experimental results, verifying the accuracy of the proposed model.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Robust and High-Dynamic-Performance Control of Induction Motor Drive Using
           Transient Vector Estimator
    • Authors: Siddavatam Ravi Prakash Reddy;Umanand Loganathan;
      Pages: 7529 - 7538
      Abstract: The two most commonly used induction motor control methods are the scalar ($V/f$) and vector (field-oriented) control techniques. $V/f$ control has good steady-state response and robustness against the variation in machine parameters, but the resulting torque dynamics are poorer. Vector control achieves better dynamic performance by decoupling the flux- and torque-producing components of the stator current. Vector-controlled techniques are heavily dependent on the machine parameters and are sensitive to the variation in machine parameters. This paper proposes a novel control technique, which integrates the robustness features of scalar control and good dynamic performance of vector control. Estimation of the transient vector is responsible for improving dynamics in the proposed control. The proposed control technique uses an optimal controller with an output feedback law. The operation of the proposed control is validated experimentally under both steady-state and transient conditions. Finally, the proposed control is compared with both the $V/f$ and vector control strategies in terms of dynamic performance and parameter sensitivity.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Behavior Study of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines Based on a New
           Normalized Model
    • Authors: Hao Ge;James Weisheng Jiang;Jin Ye;Ali Emadi;
      Pages: 7539 - 7550
      Abstract: Permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) are widely used in many applications. The performance of the PMSM is highly dependent on the motor parameters. Many research studies have been done to evaluate the PMSM performances in terms of maximum torque capability, power capability, and field-weakening capability. This paper proposes a new normalized PMSM model and uses two parameters, characteristic current and saliency ratio, to uniquely define the motor characteristic. Based on this normalized model, the full map motor behaviors, including torque capability, power capability, torque/power–speed characteristics, and power factor behaviors, are studied parametrically. A new unitless metric, i.e., copper loss factor, is introduced to evaluate the copper loss variation of PMSMs. The saturation effect on the motor behavior is studied based on the 2004 Prius traction motor, which confirms that the field-weakening characteristic can be well predicted using the linearized model. A new design flow for traction PMSMs, which requires wide-speed operation, is proposed based on the full map motor behavior study, and a prototype machine is designed accordingly. The behavior study and the effectiveness of the traction motor design flow are validated experimentally by the prototype.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • An Integrated On-Board EV Charger with Safe Charging Operation for
           Three-Phase IPM Motor
    • Authors: Yang Xiao;Chunhua Liu;Feng Yu;
      Pages: 7551 - 7560
      Abstract: This paper presents a safe charging operation for the integrated on-board electric vehicle (EV) charging system, where the power electronic components are reconfigured from the propulsive system. First, the rotational movement is detected and analyzed, when the motor windings are reutilized as the dc–dc inductors. Then the safe charging operation is investigated, which is based on the analysis of the charging torque and the ripple currents. Moreover, a new control strategy is presented with the purpose of the safe operation and smoothing reactor during the EV charging process. Finally, both simulation and experimentation are carried out to verify the safe charging operation. The results prove the feasibility and validity of the proposed safe charging operation for on-board charger with the three-phase interior permanent-magnet motor.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Stray Flux Monitoring for Reliable Detection of Rotor Faults Under the
           Influence of Rotor Axial Air Ducts
    • Authors: Yonghyun Park;Chanseung Yang;Jongwan Kim;Heonyoung Kim;Sang Bin Lee;Konstantinos N. Gyftakis;Panagiotis A. Panagiotou;Shahin Hedayati Kia;Gérard-André Capolino;
      Pages: 7561 - 7570
      Abstract: Monitoring of induction motor faults based on stray flux measurement has been investigated by many researchers due to its potential benefits in cost and simplicity. Although it was shown that flux-based monitoring can provide sensitive fault detection comparable to that of motor current signature analysis, the lack of “remote” monitoring capability has limited its practical use. The performance and reliability of stray flux-based detection of induction motor rotor cage faults are evaluated in this paper. It is shown for the first time in this work that the spectrum analysis of the radial stray flux can provide reliable detection of rotor faults immune to the influence of rotor axial air ducts, which is the most common cause of false rotor fault alarms. The reliability and sensitivity of stray flux-based rotor fault detection are demonstrated through experimental testing on laboratory and 6.6 kV field motors.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • High Performance Three-Phase PMSM Open-Phase Fault-Tolerant Method Based
           on Reference Frame Transformation
    • Authors: Xinxiu Zhou;Jun Sun;Haitao Li;Xinda Song;
      Pages: 7571 - 7580
      Abstract: Open-phase fault may lead to motor efficiency and performance degradation. Various fault-tolerant methods have been proposed to reconfigure the controller and to track the sinusoidal current references. Unfortunately, the time-varying sinusoidal current commands are difficult to be tracked. In order to improve open-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) performance, a new open-phase PMSM fault-tolerant method is proposed in this paper, which is realized based on a novel reference frame transformation. With the new frame transformation, the position-dependent sinusoidal current commands are transformed to dc variables. Thus, the current controller design becomes very easy (PI controller is enough). The experimental results confirm that with the proposed method the PMSM fault-tolerant performance is enhanced distinctly compared with the conventional fault-tolerant methods.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Introduction and Advantage of Space Opposite Vectors Modulation Utilized
           in Dual Two-Level Inverters With Isolated DC Sources
    • Authors: Amir Aghazadeh;Mohamadsaleh Jafari;Naser Khodabakhshi-Javinani;Hamed Nafisi;Hamed Jabbari Namvar;
      Pages: 7581 - 7592
      Abstract: In this paper, space opposite vectors modulation (SOVM) is proposed to decrease common-mode voltage (CMV), and also improve inverter switching losses compared to pulsewidth modulation 7 (PWM7) for dual two-level inverters (DTLI). Employing the control simplicity of DTLI to achieve multilevel winding voltages, the two conventional two-level inverters of DTLI are independently controlled; consequently, the capability of adjusting phase difference between the carriers (PDC) of two inverters is established. To mathematically evaluate and compare the performance of DTLI driven by SOVM and PWM7, CMV and losses for different PWMs are formulated. Moreover, contour, three- and two-dimensional analyses are conducted to investigate the effects of PDC and modulation index on CMV, voltage total harmonic distortion (THD), voltage weighted THD and switching losses. All theoretical bases, simulation results from MATLAB/Simulink and experimental results conducted by a DTLI prototype validate the superiority of SOVM over PWM7.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Influence of Gear Ratio on the Performance of Fractional Slot Concentrated
           Winding Permanent Magnet Machines
    • Authors: Yue Liu;Z. Q. Zhu;
      Pages: 7593 - 7602
      Abstract: Fractional slot concentrated winding (FSCW) permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) have been a research hotspot over the past few decades. Recently, the magnetic gearing effect in FSCW PMSMs is revealed along with its gear ratio, which is a function of slot/pole number combination. At the design stage of FSCW PMSMs, one of the key issues is the selection of the slot/pole number combination. This paper shows that the gear ratio can contribute to a proper slot/pole number selection in any multiphase FSCW PMSMs by acting as a unified index for a quick overall performance comparison. In this paper, first, the magnetic gearing effect in FSCW PMSMs is explained and the gear ratio is further discussed. The advantages of adopting gear ratio as the overall performance index over other indices are revealed. The influence of the gear ratio on the winding factor, torque output, cogging torque, inductance, and rotor losses of three- and six-phase FSCW PMSMs is analyzed and validated by experiments, thus proving the analyses.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Novel Decoupling Modular Permanent Magnet Flux-Switching Linear Motor
    • Authors: Zongsheng Zhang;Xu Tang;Chao Zhang;Minghua Li;
      Pages: 7603 - 7612
      Abstract: In this paper, a novel decoupling modular permanent magnet flux-switching linear motor (PMFSLM) is proposed. The primary iron core of the motor is a nonsegmented structure without magnetic coupling among different modules. In contrast to a normal PMFSLM driven by a sinusoidal current, the proposed PMFSLM adopts square-wave current driving. On the basis of structure and working characteristics, a piecewise linear permeance model of a single-module PMFSLM is presented, and a specific design method of the novel modular three-phase PMFSLM is proposed. The proposed design method aims at reducing the cogging force and force ripple of a three-phase PMFSLM. Through further electromagnetic analysis, a set of structural parameters is proposed, based on which finite-element analysis (FEA) is conducted. FEA results show that the design aim is realized even with the influence of armature winding commutation. Prototype experiments of a single-module PMFSLM are performed, and experimental results agree well with FEA results. The findings of this paper verify the effectiveness and practicability of the novel modular PMFSLM and the proposed design method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Zero-Sequence Current Suppression Strategy With Reduced Switching
           Frequency for Open-End Winding PMSM Drives With Common DC BUS
    • Authors: Wei Hu;Heng Nian;Dan Sun;
      Pages: 7613 - 7623
      Abstract: Zero-sequence current (ZSC) is inevitable in the structure of an open-end winding permanent-magnet synchronous machine (OW-PMSM) system with a common dc bus due to the simultaneous existence of the ZSC loop and the zero-sequence voltage (ZSV) caused by the inverters and third electromotive force. To suppress the ZSC, a novel strategy with a reduced switching frequency is proposed in this paper. The main contribution of the proposed method is that the ZSC is suppressed totally with a reduced switching frequency. The duration time of the active voltage vectors is redistributed to generate the reference voltage in a zero-sequence loop, which leads to the suppression of the ZSC. Different from the conventional method, only the active voltage vectors instead of the zero voltage vectors are employed to suppress the ZSC. Consequently, the switching frequency in the modulation process can be reduced. In addition, the effective modulation range of the ZSV is analyzed, which further reveals the relationship among the effective modulation of the ZSV, the modulation index, and the ratio of the third flux linkage component to the fundamental flux linkage component. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by an OW-PMSM experimental setup with a common dc bus. Moreover, the proposed method is experimentally compared with the existing methods.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Sector-Based Analytic Overmodulation Method
    • Authors: Heekwang Lee;Seungmin Hong;Jongwon Choi;Kwanghee Nam;Jaehong Kim;
      Pages: 7624 - 7632
      Abstract: In this paper, an overmodulation (OVM) technique is proposed based on Fourier analysis. The OVM trajectory is a mixture of six arc segments of the inscribed circle and six vertices of the voltage hexagon. By adjusting the holding angle at each vertex, the modulation index is determined. The fundamental component is expressed as a function of the holding angle, and the linearity with the modulation index is obtained by the inverse relation. This algorithm guarantees seamless transitions from the space vector pulsewidth modulation to OVM and finally to the six-step. Apart from the variable voltage variable frequency control, the proposed algorithm works well with the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor current controller. By computer simulation and experimental evidence, the effectiveness is demonstrated.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • A Simplified MPFC With Capacitor Voltage Offset Suppression for the
           Four-Switch Three-Phase Inverter-Fed PMSM Drive
    • Authors: Dan Sun;Junpan Su;Chong Sun;Heng Nian;
      Pages: 7633 - 7642
      Abstract: This paper proposes a simplified model predictive flux control (S-MPFC) for a four-switch three-phase inverter (FSTPI)-fed permanent-magnet-synchronous-motor (PMSM) drive system with the consideration of capacitor voltage offset suppression. A stator flux compensator is introduced to fulfill the capacitor voltage offset suppression. A reference stator flux vector is obtained to represent the reference flux, the reference torque, and the capacitor voltage offset based on the ${boldsymbol i}_{boldsymbol d}$ = 0 control mode. Therefore, the flux vector is taken as the only control term in the cost function without any dreary weighting factor tuning work. Moreover, an offset flux error is defined according to the inherent features of the FSTPI, therefore, the optimal voltage vector can be selected in the stationary reference frame using a simple sector division and only one prediction calculation. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed S-MPFC.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Single-Phase Simplified Split-Source Inverter (S3I) for Boost DC–AC
           Power Conversion
    • Authors: Sze Sing Lee;Adrian Soon Theam Tan;Dahaman Ishak;Rosmiwati Mohd-Mokhtar;
      Pages: 7643 - 7652
      Abstract: The single-phase split-source inverter (SSI) is an emerging and attractive topology for a boost dc–ac power conversion system. Such as an inverter features high compactness, although at the expense of high-frequency commutations across the diodes. The corresponding hybrid pulsewidth modulation (PWM) also confines the voltage harmonics to concentrate around the switching frequency and its multiples. This paper proposes a simplified SSI, which is realized by inserting only one power switch into an H-bridge. While generating the ac output, the newly developed PWM strategy ensures the inductor charged with constant duty cycle. When compared to the existing SSIs, it offers the added benefits of reduced switch count, enhanced voltage-boosting gain, reduced output filter requirement, and enhanced power efficiency. Comprehensive steady-state analysis is discussed while simulation and experimental results are subsequently presented to prove the validity of the proposed topology and the PWM strategy.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Modular Design Methodology of DC Breaker Based on Discrete Metal Oxide
           Varistors With Series Power Electronic Devices for HVdc Application
    • Authors: Xiangyu Zhang;Zhanqing Yu;Zhengyu Chen;Yulong Huang;Biao Zhao;Rong Zeng;
      Pages: 7653 - 7662
      Abstract: Different from the continuous-switching behavior of series power electronic devices in converters, the single-switching attribute of dc circuit breakers (DCBs) provides opportunities to integrate metal oxide varistors (MOVs), balancing circuits, and series power devices. This paper proposes a modular design methodology based on discrete MOVs of a DCB with series power electronic devices. The modular dc circuit breaker (MDCB) topology and voltage balance issues, the steep front effect and solution, and the design method are proposed and analyzed in this paper. Compared with the traditional DCB, the MDCB has a self-balancing ability, thereby removing the voltage-balancing circuit and reducing the number of series modules. The standard designed cell can be operated as an independent DCB or compose a high-voltage DCB in series flexibly, which decreases the difficulty of design and commission. Finally, a series experimental platform based on an insulated-gate commutated thyristor, an insulated-gate bipolar transistor, and an injection-enhanced gate transistor is built to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed design methodology.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • An Interleaved Nonisolated ZVS Ultrahigh Step-Down DC–DC Converter
           With Low Voltage Stress
    • Authors: Mozhgan Amiri;Hosein Farzanehfard;
      Pages: 7663 - 7671
      Abstract: This paper presents a nonisolated ultrahigh step-down dc–dc converter for low-voltage high-current applications. The converter provides extended duty cycle for all power switches while low voltage and current stresses are imposed on semiconductor devices that cause low conduction losses and low output current ripple. In addition, soft-switching condition is achieved for all semiconductor devices without adding any active element. To achieve the improved voltage conversion ratio, a pair of coupled inductors and series capacitors is used in the interleaved step-down structure. The two auxiliary inductors provide zero-voltage zero-current switching turn on for all switches and zero-current switching turn on and turn off for all diodes. Thus, the losses associated with semiconductor components are reduced impressively and the overall efficiency of the proposed converter is improved considerably. The accuracy of the converter operation is confirmed by a 450-W laboratory prototype operating at 400-V input, 12-V output, and 100 kHz switching frequency.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Increasing Energy Capture From Partially Shaded PV String Using
           Differential Power Processing
    • Authors: Hossein Delavaripour;Behzad Mirzaeian Dehkordi;Hossein Abootorabi Zarchi;Ehsan Adib;
      Pages: 7672 - 7682
      Abstract: In photovoltaic (PV) strings based on series-connected PV modules, mismatches among the modules due to partial shading will cause power loss either due to series connection constraint or bypass diodes. This paper proposes a new distributed maximum power point tracking (DMPPT) scheme using multiwinding forward-based converter, which acts as a current balancing differential power processing converter. The converter is configured in the way that each converter port is connected in parallel with individual PV module to enable module-level maximum power extraction. The proposed architecture operates in two modes: local maximum power point tracking (MPPT) mode and current balancing mode. The new maximum power points (MPPs) at module levels are tracked in a local MPPT mode and then dispatched to start current balancing mode of operation. In the current balancing mode, this paper proposes a simple control approach to maximize the output power from partially shaded PV string by maintaining an effective MPPT at module levels and directly transferring the compensation currents toward the shaded modules from modules under normal conditions without any intermediary. The proposed DMPPT scheme is validated by the simulation and experimental results. The results show that using the proposed scheme, the system efficiency is significantly improved compared to other existing topologies.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • An Evaluation Method for Voltage Dips in a Shipboard Microgrid Under
           Quasi-Balanced and Unbalanced Voltage Conditions
    • Authors: Wenzhao Liu;Tomasz Tarasiuk;Chun-Lien Su;Mariusz Gorniak;Mehdi Savaghebi;Juan Carlos Vasquez;Josep M. Guerrero;
      Pages: 7683 - 7693
      Abstract: High power motor loads are widely used in shipboard microgrids (SMGs) consuming about 70% of the generated electrical power. Voltage dips, which are usually caused by the starting current of high-power motors, are one of the main causes of onboard sensitive electrical equipment dropout. This phenomenon must be considered in design of SMGs to comply with maritime standards. In this paper, an evaluation method is proposed to estimate the expected severity of voltage dips and also generator current transient surges due to the onboard motor startups under real sea-going conditions. This is based on the Riemann-summation-principle evaluation method. The quasi-balanced and unbalanced ac bus voltage cases are carefully selected to present the actual impact of the voltage dips in real SMG. The evaluations are validated by measurements gathered from the ballast pump motor startup in the SMG. The proposed method can provide ship engineers with necessary information about the actual magnitude/depth of voltage dips. Accordingly, the allowable capacities of high-power motors can be estimated, which is beneficial to determine proper motor starter designs and improve the power quality in real SMGs.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Cascaded Multilevel Converter Topology for Large-Scale Photovoltaic System
           With Balanced Operation
    • Authors: Kangan Wang;Rongwu Zhu;Chen Wei;Feng Liu;Xiaojie Wu;Marco Liserre;
      Pages: 7694 - 7705
      Abstract: Cascaded H-bridge (CHB) multilevel converters are promising candidates for large-scale grid-connected photovoltaic systems (megawatt to gigawatt). However, the conventional CHB multilevel converter cannot ensure the inter-module and inter-phase power balance, resulting in imbalanced grid currents. Therefore, in this paper, a new topology consisting of CHB multilevel converters and interleaved-boost full-bridge LLC (IB-FBLLC)-based three-port dc–dc isolation converters is proposed. In this proposed topology, a common dc bus made up of the low-voltage-side ports of IB-FBLLC-based three-port dc–dc converters can completely solve the inherent power imbalance issues. Moreover, the design parameters of dc–dc converters considering the minimization of the input current ripple and optimization of switching frequency range are discussed in detail. Simulation results of the three-phase system and experimental results of the single-phase system clearly verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed topology and control strategies.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • A Novel Estimation Method for the State of Health of Lithium-Ion Battery
           Using Prior Knowledge-Based Neural Network and Markov Chain
    • Authors: Houde Dai;Guangcai Zhao;Mingqiang Lin;Ji Wu;Gengfeng Zheng;
      Pages: 7706 - 7716
      Abstract: The state of health (SOH) of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is a critical parameter of the battery management system. Because of the complex internal electrochemical properties of LIBs and uncertain external working environment, it is difficult to achieve an accurate SOH determination. In this paper, we have proposed a novel SOH estimation method by using a prior knowledge-based neural network (PKNN) and the Markov chain for a single LIB. First, we extract multiple features to capture the battery aging process. Due to its effective fitting ability for complex nonlinear problems, the neural network with a prior knowledge-based optimization strategy is adopted for the battery SOH prediction. The Markov chain, with the advantageous prediction performance for the long-term system, is established to modify the PKNN estimation results based on the prediction error. Experimental results show that the maximum estimation error of the SOH is reduced to less than 1.7% by adopting the proposed method. By comparing with the group method of data handling and the back-propagation neural network in conjunction with the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm, the proposed estimation method obtains the highest SOH accuracy.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • A Simplified Model-Based State-of-Charge Estimation Approach for
           Lithium-Ion Battery With Dynamic Linear Model
    • Authors: Jinhao Meng;Daniel-Ioan Stroe;Mattia Ricco;Guangzhao Luo;Remus Teodorescu;
      Pages: 7717 - 7727
      Abstract: The performance of model-based state-of-charge (SOC) estimation method relies on an accurate battery model. Nonlinear models are thus proposed to accurately describe the external characteristics of the lithium-ion battery. The nonlinear estimation algorithms and online parameter identification methods are needed to guarantee the accuracy of the model-based SOC estimation with nonlinear battery models. A new approach forming a dynamic linear battery model is proposed in this paper, which enables the application of the linear Kalman filter for SOC estimation and also avoids the usage of online parameter identification methods. With a moving window technology, partial least squares regression is able to establish a series of piecewise linear battery models automatically. One element state-space equation is then obtained to estimate the SOC from the linear Kalman filter. The experiments on a LiFePO4 battery prove the effectiveness of the proposed method compared with the extended Kalman filter with two resistance and capacitance equivalent circuit model and the adaptive unscented Kalman filter with least squares support vector machines.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Robust EnKF With Improved RCGA-Based Control for Solar Energy Conversion
    • Authors: Priyank Shah;Bhim Singh;
      Pages: 7728 - 7740
      Abstract: In this paper, the robust ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF)-based control is proposed for multifunctional three-phase grid-connected solar energy conversion system with distribution static compensator abilities. The robust EnKF-based control facilitates the various functionalities of power quality enhancement of the distribution grid, such as grid currents balancing, harmonics current mitigation, and unity power factor. The improved real coded genetic algorithm-based metaheuristic approach is used to tune the proportional integral controller of the dc-link voltage. Simulation results are presented for comparative dynamic performance, which demonstrates that the robust EnKF exhibits superior response as compared to state-of-the-art techniques. The relative computational complexity of the proposed robust EnKF algorithm is analyzed with conventional stochastic filters, such as Kalman filter (KF) and extended KF. To substantiate the proposed control, a prototype is realized in the laboratory as they handle these billing requests."'> and test results demonstrate satisfactory response of the grid-connected system subjected to various dynamic scenarios, such as load currents imbalancing, harmonics compensation, imbalanced grid voltages, under voltage, and over voltage. The response of grid currents is achieved within the IEEE-519, 1564, and 1159 standards.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Four-Switch Three-Phase Operation of Grid-Side Converter of Doubly Fed
           Induction Generator With Three Vectors Predictive Direct Power Control
    • Authors: Mohammad Ebrahim Zarei;Carlos Veganzones Nicolás;Jaime Rodríguez Arribas;Dionisio Ramírez;
      Pages: 7741 - 7752
      Abstract: A predictive power control for a four-switch three-phase (FSTP) grid-side converter (GSC) of doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) is presented in this paper. In this new method, three voltage vectors are employed to ensure that the proposed strategy maintains the switching frequency constant while the ripple of the active and reactive powers of the GSC is minimized. Moreover, a compensation power to eliminate the dc voltage deviation in the capacitors is presented, and it can be estimated without using any low-pass filter. The proposed method can be implemented in a microcontroller very easily. First, the proposed strategy has been evaluated in MATLAB/Simulink environment and afterward it was implemented in a laboratory prototype. The simulation and experimental results of the proposed predictive strategy show that it is capable to suppress the dc-link voltage offset, featuring balanced currents and a fast dynamic response while the GSC current total harmonic distortion is low. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed method is compared to two other predictive controls. The results prove that the proposed method is well suitable for the FSTP GSC of a DFIG.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Wideband Harmonic Resonance Characteristics and Coordinated Damping Method
           for Distributed Generation Power Plants
    • Authors: Zhiyong Chen;Xucheng Huang;An Luo;Junquan Yang;Ling Yang;
      Pages: 7753 - 7764
      Abstract: Impedance interactions generally exist within the networks of distributed generation power plants, which have the potential for wideband harmonic resonances. For exploring these resonance phenomena, the impedance model of a typical distributed generation power plant is initially established in this paper. Furthermore, the distribution of the resonance bands is analyzed, and their classification is discussed. Additionally, a coordinated damping method, which comprises an active damper and a passive damper, is set forth to attenuate these resonance bands. The principle behind the coordinated damping is to dominate the plant's harmonic impedance by introducing the passive damper, and in the meantime to block the harmonic impedance interacting between the plant and the grid by virtue of the active damper. Finally, substantial simulations and experiments are performed. The results indicate that harmonic currents do deteriorate during their propagation along the feeders, the plants are subjected to the wideband resonances caused by both the plant- and feeder-level impedance interactions, and the proposed coordinated damper enables to relieve the intensity of the impedance interactions, thereby fulfilling the demand for the harmonic resonance control of the plants.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Robust 3IMPL Control Algorithm for Power Management of SyRG/PV/BES-Based
           Distributed Islanded Microgrid
    • Authors: Rohini Sharma;Seema Kewat;Bhim Singh;
      Pages: 7765 - 7777
      Abstract: In an islanded ac microgrid, a comprehensive algorithm of a three-phase, improved-magnitude, phase-locked-loop (3IMPL) control algorithm is developed in this paper to provide dc offset removal, steady-state error removal, and fast dynamic response. In addition, the control of the voltage-source converter (VSC) using the 3IMPL algorithm provides voltage and frequency control and elimination of harmonics of nonlinear loads. In the proposed microgrid, a solar photovoltaic (PV) array is connected to the dc link through a boost converter, and an incremental conductance technique is used for extraction of maximum power from a PV array. Due to intermittency of the PV array, a synchronous reluctance generator is used for pico-hydro generation because it is economical, ecologically sustainable, and extremely reliable and requires less maintenance. Moreover, a microgrid suffers from problems of variation in generation and continuous load fluctuations; therefore, for power balancing between the source and the load, a storage battery is connected across the dc link of the VSC through a bidirectional dc–dc converter. Test results on a prototype have verified the control strategy and are able to improve the power quality of the system at varying solar insolation and unbalance in the load.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Consensus-Based Distributed Control for Photovoltaic-Battery Units in a DC
    • Authors: Xia Chen;Mengxuan Shi;Jianyu Zhou;Wenping Zuo;Yin Chen;Jinyu Wen;Haibo He;
      Pages: 7778 - 7787
      Abstract: In this paper, a distributed cooperative control scheme, considering the state-of-charge balance and power limits of battery-storage units (BSUs) in the consensus protocol, is proposed to achieve the average bus voltage consensus in a dc microgrid with photovoltaics. The state variable defined in the consensus protocol enables all BSUs to charge or discharge together without introducing circulating currents among BSUs. Furthermore, by incorporating power limits of BSUs in the defined state variable, power violation of the BSUs can be prevented. The consensus-based distributed control only utilizes neighbor-to-neighbor communication to realize the global consensus, and, thus, avoids the single point of the failure compared to the conventional centralized control. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method in an islanded dc microgrid under different testing scenarios.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Evolution Strategies Learning With Variable Impedance Control for Grasping
           Under Uncertainty
    • Authors: Yingbai Hu;Xinyu Wu;Peng Geng;Zhijun Li;
      Pages: 7788 - 7799
      Abstract: During a robot's interaction with the environment, it is necessary to ensure the safety and robustness of the robot's movements. To improve the safety and adaptiveness of robots in performing complex movement tasks, a novel method called covariance matrix adaptation-evolution strategies (CMA-ES) for learning complex and high-dimensional motor skills is presented. Considering the complex motion model of trajectories, dynamic movement primitives (DMPs), which is a generic method for trajectories modeling in attractor landscape based on differential dynamic systems, is used to represent the robot's trajectories. CMA-ES offers a theoretical rule for updating the parameters of DMPs and a variable impedance controller, which can reduce the impact of noisy environment on the robot's movement. In this paper, we propose two hierarchies for controlling the robot: the high-level neural-dynamic network optimization for redundancy resolution in task space and the low-level CMA-ES fusing with DMPs for learning trajectories in joint space. In this paper, CMA-ES method is explored to learn variable impedance control and the performance of the proposed method in learning the robot's movements is also tested.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Efficiency Optimization and Component Selection for Propulsion Systems of
           Electric Multicopters
    • Authors: Xunhua Dai;Quan Quan;Jinrui Ren;Kai-Yuan Cai;
      Pages: 7800 - 7809
      Abstract: Currently, the time of endurance of electric multicopters is still too short for many mission requirements, and optimizing the efficiency of the propulsion system is considered as an effective way to overcome this problem. This paper proposes a practical method to help designers quickly select the optimal products of the propulsion system to maximize the multicopter efficiency under the desired flight condition. First, the modeling methods for the components of the propulsion system are studied respectively to describe the optimization problem mathematically. Second, methods are proposed to find optimal motor and propeller combination with the maximum thrust efficiency according to the given design requirements. Finally, factors that may affect the hovering time of multicopters are analyzed, and the optimal battery parameters are obtained for maximizing the multicopter endurance. Experiments and simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • FVC: A Novel Nonmagnetic Compass
    • Authors: Wenjun Lv;Yu Kang;Yun-Bo Zhao;
      Pages: 7810 - 7820
      Abstract: The accurate orientation measurement in real time contributes significantly to the control of mobile robots, and further assists them to realize some fundamental functions, such as automatic pilot, cargo delivery, target tracking, etc. The traditional magnetic compass has been denounced for its susceptibility to ferro or electromagnetic materials, vehicular motion, and latitude variation. Hence, in this paper, we aim at proposing a novel nonmagnetic compass named floor visual compass (FVC) for mobile robots working in controlled indoor scenarios, which is mainly implemented by a downward-looking monocular camera. With previously laid auxiliary strips on the floor, which are parallel to the reference axis, the FVC is able to estimate the robot's orientation by means of image processing technologies and interval arithmetics. Considering the computational complexity of the visual orientation measurement, an event trigger for FVC is designed, to reduce the frequency of the correction operation using the visual orientation measurements. The real-world experiment verifies the effectiveness of the proposed nonmagnetic compass.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Moment-Based 2.5-D Visual Servoing for Textureless Planar Part Grasping
    • Authors: Zaixing He;Chenrui Wu;Shuyou Zhang;Xinyue Zhao;
      Pages: 7821 - 7830
      Abstract: Conventional moment-based visual servoing methods suffer from several problems in industrial applications due to the utilization of high-order image moments. In this paper, we analyze the shortcomings of the moment-based visual servoing from the viewpoint of practical industrial applications, and propose a novel moment-based two-and-a-half-dimensional visual servoing method for grasping textureless planar parts. We use hybrid visual features that combine image moments with three-dimensional (3-D) rotation in the Cartesian space to control the robot motion. Instead of applying high-order image moments, we use rotation features, which provide a decoupled interaction matrix that is full rank and with no local minimum in the control scheme. Furthermore, to estimate the relative rotation of the textureless part in real time, a new estimation method based on a cross-correlation analysis is proposed. The proposed visual servoing method provides a better motion control and 3-D trajectory of the robot arm and remains stable in the workspace. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Adaptive Tracking Control of a Class of Constrained Euler–Lagrange
           Systems by Factorization of Dynamic Mass Matrix
    • Authors: Zhifeng Ye;Zhijun Li;Chun-Yi Su;Bo Huang;
      Pages: 7831 - 7840
      Abstract: Due to the uncertain parameters and/or the coupled matrices in a majority of Euler–Lagrange (EL) systems among multiple inputs and outputs, the controller designs for the constrained robots with unknown nonlinearities and disturbances are still challenging and difficult. In this paper, a new adaptive motion tracking control method for a class of constrained EL systems is presented. The main feature of the presented control is that high-dimensional vector-based integral Lyapunov function combined with a disturbance observer is presented for a class of EL systems with the nonsymmetric nonlinearity of input of the actuators. As long as the error trajectories deviate from or approach the sliding surface, it allows the disturbance estimation to adjust its value. The errors of tracking will converge to a small zone. Thus, stability of a closed-loop system can be ensured. When the designed parameters of the controller are chosen appropriately, the size of the tracking errors in stable state can be ensured. The applicability of this control method has been verified by the experiments with a planar robotic manipulator.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Composite Learning Robot Control With Friction Compensation: A Neural
           Network-Based Approach
    • Authors: Kai Guo;Yongping Pan;Haoyong Yu;
      Pages: 7841 - 7851
      Abstract: Friction is one of the significant obstacles that hinders high-performance robot tracking control because accurate friction modeling and effective compensation are challenging issues. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a modified neural network (NN) structure with additional jump approximation activation functions to model the inherent discontinuous friction in robotic systems, this structure allows us to improve the NN approximation accuracy without using too many NN nodes. The modeling accuracy is theoretically guaranteed by a composite learning technique, it explores both online historical data and instantaneous data to achieve NN weight convergence under a much weaker interval-excitation condition than the stringent persistent-excitation condition. Furthermore, a partitioned NN technique is used to handle a problem caused by variable substitution when formulating the prediction error for composite learning. This technique also helps us to alleviate the requirements regarding the inertial matrix inversion and joint acceleration signals. The practical exponential stability of the closed-loop system is proved under the more realizable interval-excitation condition. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed approach.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • A Lightweight Surface Milli-Walker Based on Piezoelectric Actuation
    • Authors: Hanmin Peng;Jianzhi Yang;Xiaolong Lu;Pancheng Zhu;Dawei Wu;
      Pages: 7852 - 7860
      Abstract: To realize an efficient translation in a narrow space, a surface milli-walker based on linear piezoelectric actuation is proposed, fabricated, and tested in this paper. Operating at the second-order out-of-plane flexural vibration mode, the proposed surface walker is able to realize a linear movement on demand. The surface walker has a weight of 0.135 g with package size of 6 × 2 × 2 mm. Experimental results show that the maximum velocity and drag force of the walker can reach up to 200 mm/s and 10 mN, respectively. The velocity of the walker can be smoothly adjusted over a range of 0.15–200 mm/s. In addition, its startup time is as quick as 6 ms. The milli-walker holds great promises for numerous potential applications in precise instruments.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Development of a Novel Two-DOF Pointing Mechanism Using a
           Bending–Bending Hybrid Piezoelectric Actuator
    • Authors: Shijing Zhang;Junkao Liu;Jie Deng;Yingxiang Liu;
      Pages: 7861 - 7872
      Abstract: A novel two-DOF pointing mechanism using a bending–bending hybrid piezoelectric actuator was proposed. The pointing mechanism realized rotary motions around two orthogonal axes by single actuator based on the inertial driving principle. The pointing mechanism was designed and its operating principles were described in detail. The theoretical analyses were performed to design the piezoelectric actuator. The piezoelectric actuator was fabricated and a prototype of the pointing mechanism was assembled. The measured results indicated that the maximum rotary velocities of the rotor were 0.153 rad/s around X-axis and 0.154 rad/s around Y-axis under the voltage of 400 Vp-p and frequency of 460 Hz, respectively. Moreover, the angular displacement resolutions achieved 2.49 μrad around X-axis and 2.52 μrad around Y-axis under a voltage increment of 3 V. The two-DOF pointing mechanism could be applied to precision pointing and attitude adjustment systems as its merits of high speed, high resolution, and large motion space.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Adaptive Control of a Piezo-Actuated Steering Mirror to Restrain
           Laser-Beam Jitter
    • Authors: Wei Zhu;Xiaoting Rui;
      Pages: 7873 - 7881
      Abstract: Tracking, pointing, and imaging performances of precision laser systems are restricted by laser-beam jitter, which is time varying or uncertain. This paper proposes an adaptive control that uses a piezo-actuated steering mirror to actively resist the jitter and achieve precise pointing. First, in order to realize the single-valued linear input–output relationship, which can simplify the adaptive-control design and improve the stability and convergence rate of the adaptive filter algorithm, the hysteresis non-linearity of the piezo-actuators is feedforward compensated. Then, an adaptive controller is built based on an adaptive lattice recursive least-square filter that identifies the disturbance statistics in real-time by utilizing sensor data from a position sensing detector. The developed controllers are verified on a jitter-control system. Experimental results demonstrate that the adaptive-control method significantly extends the disturbance-rejection bandwidth, and that the control performance surpasses the conventional proportion-integral-differential (PID) control method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • A Novel Spatiotemporal Fuzzy Method for Modeling of Complex Distributed
           Parameter Processes
    • Authors: Xinjiang Lu;Tete Hu;Feng Yin;
      Pages: 7882 - 7892
      Abstract: Fuzzy modeling has been widely used to model lumped parameter systems. However, it cannot be used to model complex distributed parameter systems (DPS) due to its inability to handle spatial dynamics. In this paper, we propose a novel spatiotemporal fuzzy method for the modeling of complex nonlinear DPSs. A spatial fuzzy model is first constructed to represent the nonlinear spatial dynamics. This process ensures that the space information is inherently considered in the spatiotemporal fuzzy model. A fuzzy model is then used to represent the nonlinear temporal dynamics. These two fuzzy models are further integrated to construct a spatiotemporal fuzzy model, which allows for the reconstruction of the DPS. Additionally, it can improve the modeling robustness even in the presence of noise due to the robust ability of fuzzy modeling. Performance analyses and experimental validations further show that the proposed method can effectively model complex nonlinear DPSs and has the better modeling ability than several commonly used methods.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Robust Predictive Speed Regulation of Converter-Driven DC Motors via a
           Discrete-Time Reduced-Order GPIO
    • Authors: Jun Yang;Han Wu;Liang Hu;Shihua Li;
      Pages: 7893 - 7903
      Abstract: Converter-driven direct current (dc) motors exhibit various advantages in industry, but impose several challenges to higher precision speed regulation in the presence of parametric uncertainties and exogenous, time-varying load torque disturbances. In this paper, the robust predictive speed regulation problem of a generic dc–dc buck converter-driven permanent magnet dc motors is addressed by using an output feedback discrete-time model predictive control algorithm. A new discrete-time reduced-order generalized proportional-integral observer (GPIO) is proposed to reconstruct the virtual system states as well as the lumped disturbances. The estimates of GPIO are then collected for output speed prediction. An optimized duty ratio law of the converter is obtained by solving a constrained receding horizon optimization problem, where the operational constraint on control input is explicitly taken into account. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed new algorithm is demonstrated by various experimental testing results.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Nonlinear Constrained Optimal Control of Wave Energy Converters With
           Adaptive Dynamic Programming
    • Authors: Jing Na;Bin Wang;Guang Li;Siyuan Zhan;Wei He;
      Pages: 7904 - 7915
      Abstract: In this paper, we address the energy maximization problem of wave energy converters (WEC) subject to nonlinearities and constraints, and present an efficient online control strategy based on the principle of adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) for solving the associated Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation. To solve the derived constrained nonlinear optimal control problem, a critic neural network (NN) is used to approximate the time-dependant optimal cost value and then calculate the practical suboptimal causal control action. The proposed novel WEC control strategy leads to a simplified ADP framework without involving the widely used actor NN. The significantly improved computational efficacy of the proposed control makes it attractive for its practical implementation on a WEC to achieve a reduced unit cost of energy output, which is especially important when the dynamics of a WEC are complicated and need to be described accurately by a high-order model with nonlinearities and constraints. Simulation results are provided to show the efficacy of the proposed control method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Constant-Frequency Capacitor Current Hysteresis Control of Buck Converter
           Using Reconstructed Ideal-Capacitor Voltage
    • Authors: Weiguo Lu;Shaoling Li;Yidi Yang;Zhaoyang Zhao;Herbert Ho-Ching Iu;
      Pages: 7916 - 7926
      Abstract: For the case with electrolytic capacitors as the output capacitor, the traditional capacitor current hysteresis (CCH) controlled buck converter is always in over-damping state due to the ESR, and has a poor dynamic performance. Moreover, there is a problem of variable switching frequency operation in the CCH controlled buck converter. To solve these problems, an improved constant-frequency CCH (CF-CCH) control scheme using the reconstructed ideal-capacitor voltage is proposed in this paper. The ideal-capacitor voltage is reconstructed through a low-pass filter and an integrator, and introduced into the control loop to replace the actual output voltage. In the proposed CF-CCH control scheme, the damping ratio is designed as the optimum value 0.707, which is in under-damping state. Furthermore, the switching frequency is kept constant by disturbing the hysteresis bands with a pair of periodic ramp signals. In addition, the circuit design of the proposed CF-CCH control scheme is presented. Finally, the validity and superiority of the proposed CF-CCH control scheme are verified by simulation and experiments.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Distributed Containment Control of Continuous-Time Multiagent Systems With
           Nonconvex Control Input Constraints
    • Authors: Chunhua Yang;Mengmeng Duan;Peng Lin;Wei Ren;Weihua Gui;
      Pages: 7927 - 7934
      Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the distributed constrained containment control problem for continuous-time multiagent systems with nonconvex control input constraints. A nonlinear projection containment control algorithm for followers with double-integrator continuous-time dynamics is proposed. We show that each follower finally stays in the convex hull formed by multiple stationary leaders, provided that for each follower, there exists at least one directed path from leaders to it in the union of the graphs in each bounded time interval. Finally, a simulation example is implemented to illustrate theoretical results.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Novel Control Approaches for Demand Response With Real-Time Pricing Using
           Parallel and Distributed Consensus-Based ADMM
    • Authors: Dinh Hoa Nguyen;Shun-Ichi Azuma;Toshiharu Sugie;
      Pages: 7935 - 7945
      Abstract: This paper studies the automated demand response (DR) problem in smart grids equipped with information and communication technology networks, where power generating and consuming units can exchange information as a multiagent system (MAS), and a real-time pricing (RTP) scheme is proposed. When the communication graph among agents is connected, a novel parallel and distributed consensus-based algorithm is proposed to derive an RTP scheme to facilitate DR, and when communication uncertainties exist, a robust consensus algorithm is proposed to cease the effect of uncertainties. Next, this paper proposes a novel control mechanism to tackle the problem of disconnected communication among agents, e.g., under cyber-attacks, by employing the so-called mixed communication-broadcast control architecture where the underlying ideas are twofold. First, each area in the grid associated with a connected subgraph is controlled by a MAS to guarantee the power balance and to reach consensus on the local electric price for that area. Second, a supervisory unit observes those local electric prices to calculate the global electric price for the whole grid and then broadcasts to all units so that they can properly adjust their output powers. Simulations are carried out on the IEEE 39-bus system to validate the proposed control mechanisms.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Consensus of Second-Order Multiagent Systems With Both Velocity and Input
    • Authors: Junjie Fu;Guanghui Wen;Wenwu Yu;Tingwen Huang;Xinghuo Yu;
      Pages: 7946 - 7955
      Abstract: This paper considers consensus control of second-order multiagent systems subject to both velocity and input constraints under general directed communication graphs. A new class of distributed consensus controller is proposed, which is shown that under proper initial velocity conditions, consensus can be achieved, while both the velocity and input constraints are satisfied during the consensus process. The proposed controller can be designed without relying on global information about the communication graph such as the eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix. Extensions to dynamic formation control and leader-following consensus with both velocity and input constraints are also presented based on the consensus controller. Furthermore, the sampled-data leader-following case is also investigated when the communication rate is constrained. Simulations on the outer-loop coordination control of multiple quadrotors are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Robust Model Fitting Based on Greedy Search and Specified Inlier Threshold
    • Authors: Taotao Lai;Hamido Fujita;Changcai Yang;Qiming Li;Riqing Chen;
      Pages: 7956 - 7966
      Abstract: Robust model fitting is an important task for modern electronic industries. In this paper, an efficient robust model-fitting method is proposed to estimate model hypotheses for multistructure data with high outlier rates. The proposed method consists mainly of two steps. First, an improved greedy search strategy is used to generate model hypotheses. Different from the conventional greedy search strategy that always initializes its model hypotheses randomly, the improved greedy search strategy may initialize its model hypotheses by using the inliers of the current best hypotheses for generating more accurate hypotheses. Second, on the basis of the improved greedy search strategy and a specified inlier threshold, a novel parameter detector is used to detect whether the parameters of the generated hypotheses are correct. If they are correct, then the proposed method finishes its fitting process. Otherwise, the first and second steps are performed again. Experimental results on the AdelaideRMF and Hopkins 155 datasets revealed that the proposed method outperformed several state-of-the-art model-fitting methods, including the method based on the conventional greedy search strategy.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Discrete-Time Sliding Mode Control With Disturbance Rejection
    • Authors: Jinhui Zhang;Peng Shi;Yuanqing Xia;Hongjiu Yang;
      Pages: 7967 - 7975
      Abstract: In this paper, the problem of sliding mode control for a class of discrete-time system is addressed. A disturbance observer is embedded in the controller to achieve active disturbance rejection. For systems with matched and mismatched disturbances, by Lyapunov stability and $H_{infty }$ approach, the sliding surfaces are derived, and the sliding mode controllers are designed by a modified reaching law approach to actively counteract disturbances. Verification examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and potential of the proposed new design schemes.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • A Predictive KH-Based Model to Enhance the Performance of Industrial
           Electric Arc Furnaces
    • Authors: Abdollah Kavousi-Fard;Wencong Su;Tao Jin;Ameena Saad Al-Sumaiti;Haidar Samet;Abbas Khosravi;
      Pages: 7976 - 7985
      Abstract: This paper develops a new predictive approach to improve the static VAr compensator (SVC) performance in the electric arc furnaces (EAFs). The proposed method models the reactive power consumption pattern in the EAF for a half-cycle ahead to improve the SVC compensation process. Given this, a new nonparametric approach based on lower upper bound estimation method and support vector regression (SVR) is developed to construct prediction intervals (PIs) around the reactive power consumption pattern in the SVC. The proposed method makes use of the PI concept to model the uncertainties of reactive power and, thus, avoid the flicker issues. Owing to the high complexity and nonlinearity of the proposed problem, a new optimization method based on the krill herd (KH) algorithm is proposed to adjust the SVR setting parameters, optimally. Also, a three-stage modification method is suggested to increase the krill population and avoid the premature convergence. The feasibility and performance of the proposed method are examined using experimental data gathered from the Mobarakeh Steel Company, Iran.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Model Predictive Sliding Control for Finite-Time Three-Axis Spacecraft
           Attitude Tracking
    • Authors: Farhad Bayat;
      Pages: 7986 - 7996
      Abstract: This paper deals with the robust optimal three-axis attitude tracking problem of spacecrafts. To this aim, the exceptional features of two advanced control approaches, i.e., nonlinear terminal sliding mode control (TSMC) and linear model predictive control (MPC), are combined in a compound double layer structure. The proposed approach addresses the global stability and robust attitude tracking of near-polar orbit spacecrafts actuated by a set of reaction wheels and subject to unknown disturbances, uncertainties, and actuators’ saturation. The TSMC controller is designed to guarantee the robust three-axis attitude tracking goal in the presence of disturbances and uncertainties provided that proper target points are available. The next part of the compound controller takes the advantages of the MPC technique (i.e., preknown attitude maneuvers and constraints) into account to provide the required optimal target points for the lower level TSMC controller. Despite the fact that the spacecraft has nonlinear nature, we have analytically derived conditions under which the actuators’ constraints satisfaction is guaranteed a priori. Finally, a set of simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and performance of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Course Control of Unmanned Wave Glider With Heading Information Fusion
    • Authors: Leifeng Wang;Ye Li;Yulei Liao;Kaiwen Pan;Weixin Zhang;
      Pages: 7997 - 8007
      Abstract: The unmanned wave glider (UWG) is a new kind of wave-powered unmanned marine vehicle for persistent marine environment monitoring. However, the course control of UWG is unusual due to the special multijoint structure and special operating principle. Control methods for single body marine vehicles cannot guarantee the control performance of UWG. In this paper, first, we propose the dynamic linearized model of UWG's multiheading system to describe the interrelation of Float's heading, Glider's heading, and system course. The dynamic linearized model is real-time corrected by dynamic I/O data of the controlled system in the sailing process of UWG. Then, the heading information fusion strategy is proposed to calculate the desired heading of Glider. Finally, via direct heading control of Glider, the course control of UWG is realized indirectly. Aiming at the “Ocean Rambler” UWG, simulation experiments and sea trials in Qingdao sea area are carried out. Simulation and sea trial results demonstrate that the proposed dynamic linearized model of UWG's multiheading system and heading information fusion strategy improve the course control performance of UWG significantly.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Modified Repetitive Control for Odd-Harmonic Current Suppression in
           Magnetically Suspended Rotor Systems
    • Authors: Peiling Cui;Guoxi Zhang;
      Pages: 8008 - 8018
      Abstract: In a magnetically suspended rotor (MSR) system, harmonic current mainly caused by mass imbalance and sensor runout would produce harmonic vibration. Repetitive control (RC) is one remarkable approach for eliminating such harmonics. Conventional RC (CRC) attempts to compensate for all frequency components simultaneously. However, in the practical MSR system, it is usual that the current comprises only odd-harmonic components. This paper investigates a modified odd-harmonic RC (MORC) scheme to respond to this issue. The signal generator of arbitrary-order discrete-time periodic signal is established, by which the general forms of CRC and ORC can be obtained. Besides, it is proved that ORC with halved data memory possesses a faster convergence rate, higher repetitive gain, wider frequency bandwidth at the targeted frequency and greater robustness to frequency fluctuation than CRC. The stability criterion for the MORC-controlled MSR system is proved as well. Simulation and experimental results have highlighted the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Observer-Based Adaptive Decentralized Fault-Tolerant Control of Nonlinear
           Large-Scale Systems With Sensor and Actuator Faults
    • Authors: Lili Zhang;Guang-Hong Yang;
      Pages: 8019 - 8029
      Abstract: This paper investigates the problem of decentralized fault-tolerant tracking control for nonlinear large-scale systems with sensor and actuator faults. Due to the adverse coupling effects that unknown sensor faults and output interconnections coexist, the previous methods fail to achieve decentralized tracking controls. Focus of this paper is particularly on addressing this issue. First, a decentralized fault-tolerant observer is constructed to simultaneously estimate unmeasured state and compensate the actuator faults. Then, an adaptive signal compensation mechanism is presented to mitigate the effects of sensor faults and output interconnections. By applying the cubic absolute-value Lyapunov function analysis method, it is shown that all the signals are bounded and the tracking error of each subsystem converges to an adjustable neighborhood of zero. An example of a large-scale power system is adopted to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained scheme.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Optimization of the Electric Arc Furnace Process
    • Authors: Yadollah Saboohi;Amirhossein Fathi;Igor Škrjanc;Vito Logar;
      Pages: 8030 - 8039
      Abstract: This paper presents an electric arc furnace (EAF) optimization framework intended to define optimal control profiles for the EAF, in order to increase its efficiency and thus reduce the energy consumption. The framework aims to minimize controllable losses and to maximize energy transfer to the bath and, consequently, minimize the operational costs. This is achieved through improved actuation of the EAF inputs, i.e., transformer power, oxygen lancing, and carbon addition. To achieve maximal energy transfer to the bath and to reduce the heat losses from the arcs, proper properties of the slag, such as foaminess and basicity, are a subject of considerable attention. The framework is designed as a model-based optimization, intended to be executed online in parallel to the actual EAF process. In order to achieve sufficiently low computational complexity and to allow process optimization by arbitrary time intervals, the framework uses path constraints instead of end-point constraints. A combination of several optimization algorithms is used to solve the optimization problem. The validation of the framework was performed by comparing the predicted and the measured operational variables. Simulation results show that optimized operation profiles lead to a significant decrease in operational costs and production times.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Two-Period Frame Transient Switching Control for Buck Converter Using
           Coupled-Inductor Auxiliary Circuit
    • Authors: Weiguo Lu;Zhaoyang Zhao;Yixiao Ruan;Shaoling Li;Herbert Ho-Ching Iu;
      Pages: 8040 - 8050
      Abstract: In this paper, a two-period frame transient switching control scheme for buck converters using coupled-inductor auxiliary circuit to improve the load dynamic response is proposed. The proposed auxiliary circuit only works during a transient event, while in steady state only the main converter side of the coupled inductor is used with a constant-frequency capacitor-current hysteresis control (CF-CCHC) scheme. The transient event consists of two periods, in the first of which, the coupled inductor is inversely connected in parallel using a logic switching control scheme, so as to reduce the equivalent inductance sharply and achieve a small voltage-deviation transient regulation. In the second transient period, the auxiliary-circuit side inductor works in a freewheeling state and the converter behaves as in an approximate steady state using the CCHC scheme. With three switching actions of the auxiliary circuit, the proposed scheme is implemented using a digital processor and an analog control circuit. With the application of the proposed control scheme to a 24–12 V synchronous buck converter, its feasibility is validated in simulation and experiment. Experimental results demonstrate that the settling time of the proposed scheme, with its coupled coefficient of 0.57, has improved by more than 83% compared to the time-optimal control scheme, and the voltage deviation has improved by more than 77% as well.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Gain-Scheduled Control of Linear Differential Inclusions Subject to
           Actuator Saturation
    • Authors: Pengyuan Li;Yuhu Wu;Xi-Ming Sun;Zi-Qiang Lang;
      Pages: 8051 - 8059
      Abstract: This paper focuses on the problem of robust stabilization of linear differential inclusions subject to actuator saturation. A continuous set of nonlinear controllers is constructed by a parameter-dependent convex hull Lyapunov function to avoid actuator saturation for known worst-case disturbances. The controller, which can achieve the best closed-loop performance while complies the saturation bound, is selected at each time, based on the closed-loop states. Thanks to the application of the continuous dynamic gain-scheduled control law, the internal stability and guaranteed disturbance attenuation can be obtained simultaneously. A quarter-car active suspension system is studied to demonstrate the benefit of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Sampled-Data Control With Adjustable Switching Frequency for DC–DC
    • Authors: Xingda Yan;Zhan Shu;Suleiman M. Sharkh;Zheng-Guang Wu;Michael Z. Q. Chen;
      Pages: 8060 - 8071
      Abstract: In this paper, a novel sampled-data control approach is proposed for dc–dc converters. The dc–dc power electronic converter is modeled as a sampled-data switched affine system according to the status of the power switch. A novel switching control algorithm is synthesized by using the switched Lyapunov theory. The proposed approach is able to not only drive the output to a prescribed set point from any initial condition, but also track a varying reference signal, and the switching frequency can be adjusted online with the guaranteed stability. In addition, with this approach, continuous conduction mode and discontinuous conduction mode operations can be treated in a unified way. The effectiveness and merits of the proposed method are illustrated by experiments on a laboratory prototype.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Efficiency Assessment of Induction Motors Operating Under Different Faulty
    • Authors: Maëva Garcia;Panagiotis A. Panagiotou;Jose Alfonso Antonino-Daviu;Konstantinos N. Gyftakis;
      Pages: 8072 - 8081
      Abstract: Fault diagnosis in induction motors has been a topic that has drawn an increasing attention among the electrical engineering community, including both industry and academia. Diverse techniques have been developed in order to detect the presence of possible faults in their early stages so that forced outages of the motor and consequent economic consequences can be avoided. However, little attention has been paid to the implications of the presence of these faults in terms of motor efficiency reduction. The efficiency drops caused by the existence of faults or anomalies in the motor, which can be present during long time intervals, can lead to economic losses that can be even greater than those caused by eventual motor outages. In spite of this fact, many industrial users are not aware of the efficiency repercussions of the operation under unhealthy conditions. As a consequence, it becomes necessary to accurately study and quantify the efficiency decrements caused by the presence of possible failures, so that the users can have this information available to adopt proper maintenance decisions. This paper analyses how different noncatastrophic failures influence the value of motor efficiency; different types of rotor faults as well as bearing failures are considered. In this paper, it is shown that the presence of these failures indeed strongly affects the motor efficiency and may have serious implications on the motor performance and operational cost.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Stator Winding Fault Thermal Signature Monitoring and Analysis by In Situ
           FBG Sensors
    • Authors: Anees Mohammed;Juan I. Melecio;Siniša Djurović;
      Pages: 8082 - 8092
      Abstract: Winding short circuit faults are recognized as one of most frequent electric machine failure modes. Effective on-line diagnosis of these is vital, but remains a challenging task, in particular, at incipient fault stage. This paper reports a novel technique for on-line detection of incipient stator short circuit faults in random wound electrical machines based on in situ monitoring of windings thermal signature using electrically nonconductive and electromagnetic interference immune fiber-Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors. The presented method employs distributed thermal monitoring, based on the FBG multiplexing feature, in a variety of points within windings, in proximity to thermal hot spots of interest that arise from fault. The ability of the proposed method to enable fault diagnosis through identification of fault-induced localized thermal excitation is validated in steady-state and transient operating conditions on a purpose built inverter driven induction machine test facility. The results demonstrate the capability of unambiguous detection of inter-turn faults, including a single shorted turn. Furthermore, the winding thermal and electrical characteristics at the onset of inter-turn fault are examined and correlated, enabling better understanding of fault diagnostic requirements.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Indexing and Designing Deadbands for Industrial Alarm Signals
    • Authors: Zhen Wang;Xingzhen Bai;Jiandong Wang;Zijiang Yang;
      Pages: 8093 - 8103
      Abstract: Alarm systems play critically important roles for the safe and efficient operation of industrial plants, but they often suffer from too many nuisance alarms. Deadbands are widely used in industrial alarm systems to reduce the number of nuisance alarms. This paper formulates an index to determine whether deadbands are suitable for removing nuisance alarms of an analog signal, and proposes a method to design the deadband width. First, the deadband index is defined from two metrics, namely, normalized alarm durations and normalized alarm deviations. If the index is larger than ${text{45}}^{circ }$, as indicated by a hypothesis test, then nuisance alarms are associated with large/small normalized alarm durations/deviations, so that deadbands are suitable. Second, a design method is proposed to find an optimal deadband width, so as to achieve the best weighted balance between the time duration of nuisance alarms and the delay in detecting abnormal conditions. The proposed method is applicable to nonindependent and identically distributed (IID) signals, whereas available design methods are confined to IID signals. Industrial examples are provided to validate the deadband index and the design method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Parametric Fault Diagnosis Based on Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Neural Networks
    • Authors: Qiongbin Lin;Shican Chen;Chih-Min Lin;
      Pages: 8104 - 8115
      Abstract: This paper aims to propose a more efficient classifier and applies it to parametric fault diagnosis for converter circuit. A novel method for fault diagnosis based on a fuzzy cerebellar model neural network (FCMNN) in a dual-buck bidirectional dc–ac converter circuit is proposed. The proposed method uses fast Fourier transform to analyze the fault signal and effectively extract fault characteristics. The parameter adaptation laws of the classifier are derived to achieve fast and effective training and testing efficiency. After training, the neural network can identify the working state of capacitor and inductor, and achieve parametric fault diagnosis. The training samples and test samples are collected through a dual-buck bidirectional dc–ac converter circuit simulation system and a practical experimental platform. A back-propagation neural network, support vector machine, and the proposed FCMNN are performed for circuit fault diagnosis, and the results of these three methods are compared. Both the simulation results and experimental results show that the proposed FCMNN can effectively diagnose parametric faults, such as the component degradation of the capacitor and inductor, with fast learning and diagnosis speed, higher diagnostic accuracy, and good antinoise ability.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Time–Frequency-Based Condition Monitoring of 22.9-kV HTS Cable Systems:
           Cooling Process and Current Imbalance
    • Authors: Geon Seok Lee;Su Sik Bang;Gu-Young Kwon;Yeong Ho Lee;Song-Ho Sohn;Sang-Chul Han;Yong-June Shin;
      Pages: 8116 - 8125
      Abstract: In this paper, new time–frequency-based anomaly detection methodology is proposed for the condition monitoring of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems. The time–frequency-based anomaly detection methodology includes two indices, which are obtained via cross Wigner–Ville distribution and scattering parameter. For the validation of the proposed methodology, the methodology is applied to an ac 22.9-kV/50-MVA HTS cable system connected to the real power grid network. Furthermore, the changes in dielectric properties of the HTS cable system during the cooling process and the current imbalance failure are monitored. The proposed anomaly detection indices are shown to be able to detect the heat and the current imbalance caused by the malfunction of the joint box. For the application of the two validated indices, new anomaly detection procedure for HTS cable systems is also presented.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Online Condition Monitoring for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Insulation
           Degradation of Inverter-Fed Machines
    • Authors: Igor Tsyokhla;Antonio Griffo;Jiabin Wang;
      Pages: 8126 - 8135
      Abstract: Real-time winding insulation condition monitoring is becoming an important research topic in response to increase in high availability and reliability demands in modern drives. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to monitor ground-wall insulation of low-voltage inverter-fed machines based on a multifrequency measurement of equivalent insulation ground-wall capacitance and dissipation factor. The monitoring is applied to four machine stator samples subjected to accelerated aging until failure. Insulation degradation is continuously tracked via the capacitance and dissipation parameters. A link between ground-wall insulation capacitance and final lifetime is established. The relationship between capacitance progression and its value at the final machine failure is used to develop a method for the prognosis of the final failure time.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Fault Detection and Severity Identification of Ball Bearings by Online
           Condition Monitoring
    • Authors: Osama Abdeljaber;Sadok Sassi;Onur Avci;Serkan Kiranyaz;Abdelrahman Aly Ibrahim;Moncef Gabbouj;
      Pages: 8136 - 8147
      Abstract: This paper presents a fast, accurate, and simple systematic approach for online condition monitoring and severity identification of ball bearings. This approach utilizes compact one-dimensional (1-D) convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to identify, quantify, and localize bearing damage. The proposed approach is verified experimentally under several single and multiple damage scenarios. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed approach can achieve a high level of accuracy for damage detection, localization, and quantification. Besides its real-time processing ability and superior robustness against the high-level noise presence, the compact and minimally trained 1-D CNNs in the core of the proposed approach can handle new damage scenarios with utmost accuracy.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Thermal Parameter Monitoring of IGBT Module Using Junction Temperature
           Cooling Curves
    • Authors: Jun Zhang;Xiong Du;Yaoyi Yu;Shuai Zheng;Pengju Sun;Heng-Ming Tai;
      Pages: 8148 - 8160
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose a method to monitor the thermal parameters of insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module using the junction temperature cooling curves. Relationship between the time constants of junction temperature cooling curves and thermal parameters of the Cauer model is established for condition monitoring. Advantages of the proposed approach include no need to measure the power loss and to heat the module to thermal equilibrium. Simulation and experimental tests are performed to verify the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method can not only monitor the thermal parameter of a single layer, but also enable the concurrent monitoring of thermal parameters in multiple layers.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • $^{primeprime}$ &rft.title=Industrial+Electronics,+IEEE+Transactions+on&rft.issn=0278-0046&;&rft.aufirst=Bo&;Chao+Li;Zhenyi+Gao;Qi+Wei;Bin+Zhou;Rong+Zhang;">Design, Optimization, and Compensation of a High-Precision
           Single-Excitation Absolute Capacitance Angular Encoder up to
           ±4 $^{primeprime}$
    • Authors: Bo Hou;Chao Li;Zhenyi Gao;Qi Wei;Bin Zhou;Rong Zhang;
      Pages: 8161 - 8171
      Abstract: This paper presents a single-excitation absolute capacitive rotary encoder that is small in size, lightweight, robust, and highly precise. The encoder consists of two plates: a rotor and a stator. The rotor consists of a planar coupling ring, a petal-form sensitive electrode, and a rough sensitive electrode, whereas the stator consists of a planar excitation ring and eight groups of collection electrodes. First, the two sensitive electrodes together with the eight sets of collection electrodes encode the angular position into amplitude-modulated signals, which are read out by a single-excitation electronic system. High-precision absolute position information is obtained by using the combination of 36 petal-form sensitive electrodes and a rough sensitive electrode. Then, a linear programming method is used to optimize the critical dimensions of the encoder within a limited area to achieve a miniaturized design. Finally, a harmonic frequency compensation method is used to reduce repeatable and periodical measurement errors, which are caused by manufacturing, circuit, and installation errors. A prototype is fabricated and tested on a high-precision testing turntable. The measurement results show that the resolution is 0.00015° and the accuracy over the full absolute range is 0.0022°, indicating that the encoder has considerable potential for use in high-precision applications.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Error-Based Feedforward Control for a Charge-Coupled Device Tracking
    • Authors: Tao Tang;Tao Yang;Bo Qi;Ge Ren;Qiliang L. Bao;
      Pages: 8172 - 8180
      Abstract: High control bandwidth is usually restricted in a finite sampling rate of a charge-coupled device (CCD)-based tracking loop, which hinders a good closed-loop performance. Conventionally, a rate feedforward controller is usually used to improve the control performance; however, it is restricted by the line-of-sight (LOS) rate, which is required to be estimated due to only the LOS error available in the CCD-based tracking control system. Besides that, it is also affected by the inverse of the control model. A new error-based feedforward (EBF) control mode is proposed to overcome these difficulties. Due to being plugged into an existing feedback control loop, the closed-loop performance of the CCD-based control system can be minimized by optimizing a Q-filter. The closed-loop stability and robustness with this EBF control system are investigated on the condition of the gain margin and the phase margin of the open-loop transfer function. Furthermore, this paper proposes a new criterion to enhance the robustness of the EBF control system and reveals the sensitivity function property. Because of not being restricted by an accurate model, this new feedforward controller cannot lead to a compromise between error attenuation and noise propagation in the control loop. Simulations and experiments are both used to testify the effectiveness of the improved control mode.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Distributed Optical Fiber Sensors for PCB-Strain Analysis
    • Authors: Miguel Gomes;Sílvia Cruz;Henrique Lopes;Bruno Arcipreste;Roberto Magalhães;Alexandre Ferreira da Silva;Júlio C. Viana;
      Pages: 8181 - 8188
      Abstract: Printed circuit board (PCB)-strain tests are part of the quality control processes to detect and identify predamages on manufactured products. Such tests are commonly performed by instrumenting a PCB, and subjecting it to the manufacturing conditions. Among the various parameters to evaluate on the production equipment, the induced strain on the PCB is one of them, enabling the assessment of the manufacturing equipment performance. PCB instrumentation with foil strain gauges is currently highly complex due to small size and over populated boards, limiting the overall number of monitoring points. This paper aims at outlining an alternative approach based on distributed optical fiber technology sensors. To prove its feasibility, optical fiber sensors based on optical frequency domain reflectometry are considered and benchmarked against conventional foil strain gauges. A PCB was instrumented with both sensor technologies and subjected to an in-circuit test machine. The strain results showed a match between both technologies, with a maximum deviation of 3.5%, a high precision level for multiple tests, and a high sensitivity for both high and low induced strains. Overall, the fiber optic solution proved to be a suitable alternative technology for foil strain gauges in PCB-strain measurement application.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Tri-Adaptive Method for Improving the Resolution of MEMS Digital Sensors
    • Authors: Gong-Xu Liu;Ling-Feng Shi;Guang-Wei Li;Li-Ye Cheng;
      Pages: 8189 - 8196
      Abstract: The micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) digital sensors have been widely used in various fields, e.g., industrial application, navigation and positioning, etc. In order to make full use of the resolution of a sensor, people tend to choose the lower range, which often leads to the out-of-range problem. In fact, it is a tradeoff among resolution, range, and efficiency. It is possible to optimize two of these, but difficult to optimize all three. Therefore, a tri-adaptive method, i.e., adaptive range, adaptive sampling frequency, and adaptive output frequency, is proposed in this paper. We set up two test platforms based on the two common MEMS digital sensors: MPU6050 and MPU9250. The turntable experiments and numerical simulation experiments are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method can significantly improve resolution based on the tradeoff among resolution, range, and efficiency. Besides, the proposed method is of generalization, which can be applied in industrial robots, medical electronics, and other fields.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • AR-Aided Smart Sensing for In-Line Condition Monitoring of IGBT Wafer
    • Authors: Kongjing Li;Gui Yun Tian;Xiaotian Chen;Chaoqing Tang;Haoze Luo;Wuhua Li;Bin Gao;Xiangning He;Nick Wright;
      Pages: 8197 - 8204
      Abstract: This paper describes an augmented reality (AR)-aided smart sensing technique for in-line condition monitoring of insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) wafers. A series of signal processing algorithms are applied for enabling sensor intelligence. Based on electromagnetic infrared–visible fusion (IVF), a supplementary palpable three-dimensional thermography layer is integrated with an IGBT wafer in real world environment. Before the IVF, independent component analysis is implemented to identify defects in the wafer. The proposed AR-aided smart sensing technique enhances user's perception and interaction between the industrial systems and the surrounding world. In contrast to conventional sensor techniques, it provides nondestructive testing and evaluation based high-throughput in-line condition monitoring method. The advantages of noncontact and time efficient of this smart sensing technique potentially bring huge benefit to yield management and production efficiency. AR-aided smart sensing can improve the productivity, quality, and reliability of power electronic materials and devices, as well as in other industrial applications.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Model-Based Compensation of Rate-Dependent Hysteresis in a Piezoresistive
           Strain Sensor
    • Authors: Alberto Oliveri;Martina Maselli;Matteo Lodi;Marco Storace;Matteo Cianchetti;
      Pages: 8205 - 8213
      Abstract: This paper is concerned with modeling of smart textiles, aimed at compensating their intrinsic nonlinearities. In particular, a new model is proposed to compensate for hysteresis and relaxation in strain sensors made of Electrolycra. These sensors are increasingly employed in emerging areas such as wearable electronics and soft robotics for their simple transduction mechanism and low cost. However, being intrinsically nonlinear, the signals measured from these devices need some processing, in order to increase their sensing accuracy. Here, we propose a new model for the compensation of the main distortions intrinsic to these soft sensors, which are mainly caused by hysteresis and relaxation, whose combined effect produces rate-dependent hysteresis. The model capabilities are tested on experimental data measured on Electrolycra. The comparisons with the results obtained with two different models witness the good behavior of the proposed model.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Quality Inspection of Remote Radio Units Using Depth-Free Image-Based
           Visual Servo With Acceleration Command
    • Authors: Ali Anwar;Weiyang Lin;Xiaoke Deng;Jianbin Qiu;Huijun Gao;
      Pages: 8214 - 8223
      Abstract: In this paper, the problem of quality inspection of remote radio units (RRUs) is approached using the image-based visual servo control. A novel computer vision pipeline is designed that recognizes the power port of RRU and tracks it from the stream of images. For the control part, a new depth-independent interaction matrix is designed that relates the depth information with the area of the region of interest surrounding the power port. Based on this, an acceleration command is generated to drive the robot's trajectories. Furthermore, a propotional-derivative (PD)-type controller is designed based on the idea of sliding surface in variable structure control. This reduces the number of design parameters to a single parameter. The designed controllers are proven to be stable using the Lyapunov stability analysis. Simulation results and experimental validations are provided to support the research arguments.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Functional Fabric Pattern—Examining the Case of Pressure Detection
           and Localization
    • Authors: Takamasa Terada;Masahiro Toyoura;Takahide Sato;Xiaoyang Mao;
      Pages: 8224 - 8234
      Abstract: This paper proposes a method for modifying the functionality of conductive fabric by using different weaves on the same materials. After introducing the method, this paper demonstrates its effectiveness using an example involving fabric pressure sensors. The fabric pressure sensors in this paper can alter the electrical properties of a given fabric—while using the same material in both the warp and weft directions—by changing the weaving technique at certain locations within the fabric. Conventional fabric pressure sensors require separate, location-specific outputs; every increase in the number of detection locations requires an increase in the number of detector circuit input cables. However, our fabric pressure sensors can detect location and external force via just three input–output cables.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Simultaneous Wireless Strain Sensing and Energy Harvesting From Multiple
           Piezo-Patches for Structural Health Monitoring Applications
    • Authors: Huakang Xia;Yinshui Xia;Yidie Ye;Libo Qian;Ge Shi;
      Pages: 8235 - 8243
      Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach called simultaneous wireless strain sensing and energy harvesting from multiple piezo-patches, which is intended for self-powered structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The energy harvesting (EH) subsystem is mainly the self-powered extended synchronous electric charge extraction interface based on double cross-coupled rectifying structure and a single flyback transformer, which is able to harvest energy from multiple piezo-patches. Also, the wireless strain sensing (WSS) subsystem is mainly the low-power multiplexing analog front end, which is designed to process the multichannel strain signals. The innovation of the proposed approach is that energy harvesting and strain sensing can actually work simultaneously without interfering with each other. The prototype is implemented based on discrete components and tested with an emulated SHM system. Experimental results show the EH subsystem can produce 5.45 mJ energy in 100 s under 108 $mu varepsilon$ and 30.4 Hz dynamic strain. The average current consumption of the WSS subsystem is 7.53 $mu$A, and the required energy in a 100 s is 2.49 mJ, which means the system is able to self-start even if the battery is exhausted. Additionally, the self-powered capacity can be further improved in a practical SHM system since more piezo-patches can be employed.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Multiview Generative Adversarial Network and Its Application in Pearl
    • Authors: Qi Xuan;Zhuangzhi Chen;Yi Liu;Huimin Huang;Guanjun Bao;Dan Zhang;
      Pages: 8244 - 8252
      Abstract: This paper focuses on automatic pearl classification by adopting deep learning method, using multiview pearl images. Traditionally, in order to get a satisfying classification result, we need to collect a huge number of labeled pearl images, which however is expensive in industry. Fortunately, generative adversarial network (GAN) was proposed recently to effectively expand training set, so as to improve the performance of deep learning models. We thus propose a multiview GAN (MV-GAN) to automatically expand our labeled multiview pearl images, and the expanded data set is then used to train the multistream convolutional neural network (MS-CNN). The experiments show that the utilization of images generated by the MV-GAN can indeed significantly reduce the classification error of the basic MS-CNN (up to 26.71%, relatively), obtaining the state-of-the-art results. More interestingly, it can also help the MS-CNN resist the brightness disturbance, leading to more robust classification.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Neutral Current Minimization Control for Solid State Transformers Under
           Unbalanced Loads in Distribution Systems
    • Authors: Junru Chen;Tao Yang;Cathal O’Loughlin;Terence O’Donnell;
      Pages: 8253 - 8262
      Abstract: This paper analyzes the neutral current reduction performance of a three-phase four-leg solid state transformer (SST) under different degrees of unbalanced load. Several kinds of control strategies are presented, such as the neutral current elimination controls that rely on phase shifting, voltage amplitude, phase shifting, and voltage amplitude combination control. A neutral current minimization control, which ensures the SST output voltages complying with the EN 50160 output voltage unbalance standard, is also developed. These control approaches simply build on the balanced voltage control providing voltage references which slightly unbalance the voltage amplitude and phase angle or both. The effectiveness of the proposed strategies is validated through tests on a downscaled prototype. Simulation results for the neutral current minimization control of the SST applied to a real urban distribution network with distributed loads are presented. The results of this analysis show that overall the neutral current minimization results in an energy saving from both reduced losses in the distribution cables and reduced power consumption in the load.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Real-Time Wavelet-Based Grid Impedance Estimation Method
    • Authors: Denis Keuton Alves;Ricardo L. A. Ribeiro;Flavio Bezerra Costa;Thiago Oliveira Alves Rocha;
      Pages: 8263 - 8265
      Abstract: This letter presents a novel method to estimate the grid impedance based on stationary discrete wavelet packet transform (SDWPT). The proposed method uses a steady-state technique, by injecting an interharmonic current into the grid and measuring the voltage response at the point of common coupling to estimate the grid impedance. The proposed method employed a standard three-phase photovoltaic system interconnected to the grid to validate its effectiveness experimentally. Comparisons with a discrete Fourier transform- and continuous wavelet transform-based impedance estimation approaches demonstrate the performance of proposed method. Besides, the proposed SDWPT-based impedance estimation provided accurate experimental results, which make it viable for real-time applications.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Equivalent Circuit for the Trans-Rotary Magnetic Gear
    • Authors: Amin Abolhasani;Siavash Pakdelian;
      Pages: 8266 - 8272
      Abstract: This letter proposes an equivalent circuit for the trans-rotary magnetic gear. The circuit is presented for both impedance and admittance analogies. In both analogies, the gearing effect is modeled by a transformer. The gear's compliance is modeled by a parallel capacitor in the impedance analogy and by a series inductor in the admittance analogy. As an example, the proposed equivalent circuit is coupled to the equivalent circuit of a backpack energy-harvesting system to create an all-electric equivalent for the energy-harvesting system. The resulting all-electric equivalent circuit provides insight into system dynamics and control strategies. Moreover, the proposed circuit can be readily extended to other types of magnetic gears.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • DC Decoupling-Based Three-Phase Three-Level Transformerless PV Inverter
           Topology for Minimization of Leakage Current
    • Authors: Venu Sonti;Sachin Jain;
      Pages: 8273 - 8278
      Abstract: This letter presents a three-phase three-level cascaded photovoltaic (PV) inverter configuration based on the dc decoupling strategy. The given configuration requires two additional decoupling switches for the minimization of the leakage current. The leakage current is minimized by avoiding or restricting the change in terminal voltages, during the common zero state. Further, a common zero state in all the three phases is obtained using a phase opposition disposition pulsewidth modulation technique. Once the common zero state is realized, the dc decoupling switches are used to isolate the PV source and output load. Apart from the terminal voltage, the proposed configuration also reduces the transitions in the common-mode voltage. Further, this letter also presents an analysis of the terminal voltage using the switching function concept. From the given switching function analysis, an analytical expression of the terminal voltage is derived and is used to obtain the analytical waveform, which matches with the simulation results. In addition to the terminal voltage, the leakage current waveform is also given. Fast Fourier transform spectrums of both are shown. These results are further supported by the experimental waveforms which match both simulation and analytical waveforms. Further, the proposed cascaded multilevel inverter (CMLI) is also compared with the conventional CMLI.
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
  • Corrections to “Extended State Observer-Based Integral Sliding Mode
           Control for an Underwater Robot With Unknown Disturbances and Uncertain
    • Authors: Rongxin Cui;Lepeng Chen;Chenguang Yang;Mou Chen;
      Pages: 8279 - 8280
      Abstract: NA
      PubDate: Oct. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 10 (2019)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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