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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 193 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advanced Materials Technologies     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 94)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 349)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Australian Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal  
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307)
ECTI Transactions on Computer and Information Technology (ECTI-CIT)     Open Access  
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 123)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 104)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 103)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Embedded Systems Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage     Hybrid Journal  
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
EPE Journal : European Power Electronics and Drives     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209)
Haptics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 100)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 75)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 73)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access  
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access  
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access  
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal ELTIKOM : Jurnal Teknik Elektro, Teknologi Informasi dan Komputer     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Magnetics Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Nanotechnology Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Pulse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Revue Méditerranéenne des Télécommunications     Open Access  
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Solid-State Circuits Magazine, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ural Radio Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Wireless Power Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Women in Engineering Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access  

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Journal Cover
Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.192
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 74  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0278-0046
Published by IEEE Homepage  [191 journals]
  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics publication information
    • Abstract: Provides a listing of current staff, committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Information
    • Abstract: Provides a listing of current staff, committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics Information for Authors
    • Abstract: Provides instructions and guidelines to prospective authors who wish to submit manuscripts.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Electrothermal Transient Behavioral Modeling of Thyristor-Based Ultrafast
           Mechatronic Circuit Breaker for Real-Time DC Grid Emulation
    • Authors: Ning Lin;Venkata Dinavahi;
      Pages: 1660 - 1670
      Abstract: The accuracy of power electronics simulation relies on the semiconductor switch model employed. Thus, in this paper where an ultrafast mechatronic circuit breaker (UFMCB) is implemented in real-time on the field programmable gate array, a detailed nonlinear thyristor model is proposed for extra device-level information regarding design evaluation. The cascaded thyristors impose a heavy computational burden on the UFMCB simulation, and node elimination is achieved following the proposal of a scalable thyristor model. For the convenience of the circuit breaker's integration into dc grid, a pair of coupled voltage-current sources is inserted as its interface, which achieves a reduction in the dimension of system admittance matrix, and the subsequent proposal of a relaxed scalar Newton-Raphson method further expedites the simulation by decomposing the nodal matrix equation. Meanwhile, the modular multilevel converter as a dc grid terminal adopts half-bridge and clamped double submodule topologies to test system performance in conjunction with the UFMCB. Real-time execution is achieved and the results are validated by ANSYS/Simplorer and PSCAD/EMTDC in device- and system-level, respectively.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Full Degree of Freedom Based Control Scheme of the Single-Phase Direct
           AC–AC Modular Multilevel Converter for Railway Power Conditioning Under
           Asymmetric Branch Conditions
    • Authors: Ming Lei;Yaohua Li;Cong Zhao;Zixin Li;Fei Xu;Fanqiang Gao;Ping Wang;
      Pages: 1671 - 1683
      Abstract: This paper conducts a thorough analysis on the circuit dynamics of the single-phase direct ac-ac modular multilevel converter (MMC) to address the branch energy divergence problem in the railway power conditioning application scenario. Based on the analysis, a full degree of freedom (DOF) based control scheme is proposed. By controlling all the DOFs in a coordinated manner, extended branch power controllability can be achieved, which enables each branch's energy to be regulated individually without deteriorating the terminal currents. As a result, the control flexibility and reliability of the MMC can be effectively enhanced in the presence of asymmetric branch conditions. The proposed control scheme is implemented in a cascaded control structure with well-established algorithms. The frequency-domain stability analysis is also presented to guide controller parameter design. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is validated through the experiments under various conditions.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Regenerative Test for Multiple Three-Phase Machines With Even Number of
           Neutral Points
    • Authors: Ahmad Anad Abduallah;Obrad Dordevic;Martin Jones;Emil Levi;
      Pages: 1684 - 1694
      Abstract: Testing the high-power machines in general is not an easy task. One of the standard tests is the full-load test. This test typically requires another machine, of the same or higher power rating, to be coupled to the tested one. For multiphase machines, which are commonly designed for high-power applications, this test can be conducted in a different way. In order to simplify full-load test, this paper proposes a new method that is applicable for multiple three-phase machines with even number of neutral points. The method is based on indirect rotor-field oriented control. It enables evaluation of the efficiency and the thermal design in the case of synchronous machines and the segregation of the constant and stator variable losses for induction machines, without the need for coupling another machine as a load. In the presented method, the full-load test conditions on the stator are obtained by circulating the rated active power flow in a closed loop from one winding set to another. The only power used during the test is to cover machine and converter losses. The proposed control scheme is unique and is based around y-component from the vector space decomposition subspace. It is validated through the simulation and experimental results.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • A Constant Switching Frequency Multiple-Vector-Based Model Predictive
           Current Control of Five-Phase PMSM With Nonsinusoidal Back EMF
    • Authors: Cong Xiong;Haiping Xu;Tao Guan;Peng Zhou;
      Pages: 1695 - 1707
      Abstract: Most of the existing finite-control-set model predictive current control (FCS-MPCC) schemes for multi-phase motor suffer from heavy computational burden, inevitable low-order harmonic currents, and variable switching frequencies. Some virtual voltage vector (V3)-based FCS-MPCC schemes can effectively suppress harmonic current by zeroing the harmonic subspace voltage on average during one sampling period. However, they fail when the motor has a nonsinusoidal back electromotive force. In order to solve the aforementioned issues, this paper proposes a constant switching frequency multiple-vector-based FCS-MPCC scheme. Unlike the traditional FCS-MPCC schemes, the proposed scheme selects optimal V3s and their duty ratios in two orthogonal subspaces. Thus, it can simultaneously track the references in both orthogonal subspaces. In this approach, the optimal V3s and their duty ratios are directly obtained from the principle of deadbeat current control without time-consuming enumeration-based state predictions and cost function calculations. In addition, the obtained optimal V3s and their duty ratios are adopted to rearrange the pulse sequence to obtain constant switching frequency and can be simply synthesized by carrier-based pulsewidth modulation. Furthermore, a discrete time disturbance observer is designed to improve the robustness of the proposed FCS-MPCC against parameter mismatch. Finally, comparative experiments with traditional MPCC schemes for five-phase surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous machine are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Improved Fusion of Permanent Magnet Temperature Estimation Techniques for
           Synchronous Motors Using a Kalman Filter
    • Authors: Daniel Efren Gaona Erazo;Oliver Wallscheid;Joachim Böcker;
      Pages: 1708 - 1717
      Abstract: In this paper, a new temperature observer topology is presented which overcomes the shortcomings of previous ones and achieves a higher accuracy, and a more robust disturbance rejection. It makes use of the Gopinath-style flux observer and combines a lumped-parameter thermal network operating at low speeds and a flux-based permanent magnet temperature observer operating at medium and high speeds. Simulation and experimental results on a 50 kW permanent magnet motor show a performance enhancement over standard topologies; particularly, a superior disturbance rejection to voltage estimation errors. A detailed analysis of the optimal controller tuning is also presented. Furthermore, a Kalman filter is incorporated to account for sensor noise and model uncertainties. Experimental results show an effective fusion of independent temperature estimation methods leading to a superior accuracy compared to the previously investigated approaches. Moreover, the Kalman filter-based fusion offers the capability of detecting temperature-related system failures, e.g., cooling circuit malfunctions.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • An Enhanced Control Strategy for AC–DC Matrix Converters Under
           Unbalanced Grid Voltage
    • Authors: Thanh-Luan Nguyen;Hong-Hee Lee;
      Pages: 1718 - 1727
      Abstract: Under unbalanced grid voltage conditions, an ac-dc matrix converter (MC) induces ripple on the dc side, as well as severe grid current harmonics. To overcome these problems, an enhanced control strategy for an ac-dc MC based on an independent control scheme for the active and reactive powers is proposed in this paper. The generated current reference is directly synthesized from instantaneous power analysis in a stationary frame, and a constant dc voltage and current and sinusoidal grid current are obtained. Moreover, the input power factor (IPF) becomes almost unity due to the reactive power control, in spite of unbalanced grid voltage conditions. There is no need to extract grid voltage components such as the positive and negative sequences, and a controller for the grid current is not required, in contrast to previous methods. Thus, the proposed control method can be implemented easily without a large storage requirement. Simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Back-Iron Extension Thermal Benefits for Electrical Machines With
           Concentrated Windings
    • Authors: Fengyu Zhang;David Gerada;Zeyuan Xu;Xiaochen Zhang;Chris Tighe;He Zhang;Chris Gerada;
      Pages: 1728 - 1738
      Abstract: This paper proposes a novel, low-cost, effective way to improve the thermal performance of electrical machines by extending a part of the back-iron into the slot. This modification helps in reducing the thermal resistance path from the center of the slot to the coolant; however, its thermal benefits must be clearly evaluated in conjunction with the electromagnetic aspects, due to the higher iron losses and flux leakage, and furthermore such an extension occupies space, which would otherwise be allocated to the copper itself. Taking a case study involving an existing 75-kW electric vehicle traction motor, the tradeoffs involving the losses, flux leakage, output torque, torque quality, and the peak winding temperature with and without back-iron extension are compared. Finally, experimental segments of the aforesaid motor are tested, verifying a significant 26.7% peak winding temperature reduction for the same output power with the proposed modification.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Sizing Methodology Based on Scaling Laws for a Permanent Magnet Electrical
           Variable Transmission
    • Authors: Florian Verbelen;Ahmed Abdallh;Hendrik Vansompel;Kurt Stockman;Peter Sergeant;
      Pages: 1739 - 1749
      Abstract: This paper proposes a method to design an electrical variable transmission (EVT) of which the stator and inner rotor contain a distributed three-phase winding, and the outer rotor is equipped with permanent magnets and a dc-field winding. The main problem with the design of EVTs is that the modeling relies on time-consuming finite-element (FE) calculations. Studying the effect of design changes is, therefore, a cumbersome task. To minimize the need for FE calculations, scaling laws are applied, which reduce the computational effort to a matter of milliseconds per design. Therefore, the losses of multiple scaled designs can be analyzed for a given load cycle while taking constraints into account such as maximum torque. By presenting this data in a performance map, the optimal design regarding the losses is easily deduced. To validate the presented methodology, FE calculations, measurements, and available literature are used.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Design and Performance of a High-Speed Permanent Magnet Generator with
           Amorphous Alloy Magnetic Core for Aerospace Applications
    • Authors: Flyur R. Ismagilov;Luca Papini;Viacheslav E. Vavilov;Denis V. Gusakov;
      Pages: 1750 - 1758
      Abstract: This paper deals with the design, prototyping, and testing of a high-speed permanent magnet generator with a stator magnetic core made of amorphous magnetic material (AMM) for aerospace applications. The target operative speed range is 30 000-60 000 rpm with an output power range between 50 and 300 kW. Two types of winding are examined and compared: tooth-coil and distributed. Special attention is dedicated to the rotor dynamics aspects of the solid disk magnet rotor assembly. The multidisciplinary design process is described. Electromagnetic calculations are provided for different operative conditions where the magnetic field and loss distribution are determined. Based on the design results, a full-size prototype rated at 120 kW and 60 000 rpm rotational speed featuring a stator core made of AMM has been developed and tested. The test results proved the high efficiency achievable with the described technical solutions. It has been proved that the use of AMMs in high-speed electrical machines enables to minimize losses in the stator magnetic core by five to seven times in comparison with traditional materials.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Design and Analysis of a New Parallel-Hybrid-Excited Machine With
           Harmonic-Shift Structure
    • Authors: Libing Cao;Kwok Tong Chau;Christopher H. T. Lee;Wong-Hing Lam;
      Pages: 1759 - 1770
      Abstract: This paper proposes a new hybrid-excited machine, termed parallel-hybrid-excited machine (PHEM) with harmonic-shift (HS) structure, or HS-PHEM. The key is to alternately place the dc-field pole pair and permanent magnet (PM) pole pair in the stator, thereby achieving the dc-field HS from the PM-field harmonics. Consequently, the dc-field harmonics interact with the PM harmonics to regulate the resultant effective harmonics in the airgap while the parallel flux paths of PM flux and dc-field flux can also be obtained, leading to more effective flux regulation ability. The operation principle and harmonics analysis are discussed, with emphasis on the validity of HS concept. Moreover, the electromagnetic performances of the proposed machine are evaluated by finite-element analysis and compared with other existing topologies in terms of torque, core loss, and efficiency. Finally, the experimental prototype is manufactured and tested for verifications.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Torque Ripple Suppression for Open-End Winding Permanent-Magnet
           Synchronous Machine Drives With Predictive Current Control
    • Authors: Xin Yuan;Chengning Zhang;Shuo Zhang;
      Pages: 1771 - 1781
      Abstract: In order to suppress the torque ripple of an open-end winding permanent-magnet synchronous machine (OEW-PMSM), a q-axis current injection method is typically employed but the disturbances caused by the third flux linkage parameter mismatch can augment the torque ripple. To solve this problem, in this paper, first, a zero-sequence current (ZSC) and zero-sequence back-EMF observer (ZCBO) are proposed based on an adaptive sliding mode control, which is able to simultaneously estimate ZSC and zero-sequence back EMF under varying conditions. Based on this ZCBO, the estimated ZSC and zero-sequence back EMF could compensate for the one-step control delay and suppress the aforementioned disturbances. Second, although central hexagon modulation is employed in the predictive current control (PCC) scheme, zero-sequence voltage (ZSV) still exists in the zero-sequence path due to the dead time of the inverter, affecting the predictive accuracy of the ZCBO. To accurately establish the ZCBO, the ZSV caused by the dead time of the inverter is considered in the ZCBO. Finally, a comparative study of two types of methods is presented, and simulations established by MATLAB software and experimental confirmations are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed PCC scheme in this paper.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Position Sensorless Control for Doubly Salient Electromagnetic Machine
           With Improved Startup Performance
    • Authors: Xingwei Zhou;Bo Zhou;Kaimiao Wang;
      Pages: 1782 - 1791
      Abstract: It is an effective approach to estimate rotor position of doubly salient electromagnetic machine (DSEM) from self-inductances, which changes with rotor position. To overcome the restrictions of low estimation accuracy as well as the inevitable commutation lag in the conventional sensorless startup method, this paper proposes a novel rotor angular position estimating technique for the DSEM sensorless startup. It starts with injecting three test pulses A + C- (phase A is connected to the positive rail of dc bus, and phase C is connected to the ground rail), B + A- and C + B- on armature windings, so two-phase series self-inductances can be identified according to the resultant currents. Then, the estimating expression of the DSEM rotor angular position is further obtained based on the geometrical relation in the rectangle composed of self-inductances, and the inevitable commutation lag in startup process is likely to be eliminated with the estimated rotor angular position. Moreover, the error of rotor angular position introduced by the nonideal linearity of self-inductances are analyzed in detail, and the boundaries of neighboring sectors are distinguished from normal sectors to compensate the estimation error of rotor angular position. Finally, to enhance the output torque performance during the DSEM startup process, a novel selection method for test pulses concerning rotor sector is developed. Compared to the conventional method, a quicker and superior startup performance is achieved since no negative torque is generated by the test pulses. The experiments on a 12/8-pole DSEM validate the correctness and feasibility of the proposed sensorless control methods.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • A Novel Fault-Tolerant Technique for Active-Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter
           Using Carrier-Based PWM
    • Authors: Peter Azer;Saeed Ouni;Mehdi Narimani;
      Pages: 1792 - 1803
      Abstract: This paper presents a novel fault-tolerant method for active-neutral-point-clamped (ANPC) inverter using a modified carrier-based pulsewidth modulation. At a fault event, the ANPC inverter is divided into subinverters, and the modulating signal is modified to two modulating signals. The modified modulating signals are used to control the subinverters and allow continuous operation of the three-level ANPC inverter during faulty conditions even up to four open-switch faults per phase. This technique provides the fault-tolerant capability of the ANPC inverter without the need to add any additional phase legs or complex control strategies. Furthermore, the proposed technique ensures the voltage balancing of the dc-link capacitors. The performance of the proposed fault-tolerant technique is verified through simulation studies in MATLAB/Simulink under different faulty conditions. The feasibility of the proposed technique is also verified experimentally.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Robust High Bandwidth Current Regulation for Permanent Magnet Synchronous
           Linear Motor Drivers by Using Two-Degree-of-Freedom Controller and Thrust
           Ripple Observer
    • Authors: Jiwen Zhao;Lijun Wang;Fei Dong;Zhongyan He;Juncai Song;
      Pages: 1804 - 1812
      Abstract: This paper proposes a high-performance current regulation scheme to enhance the current bandwidth and robustness of the permanent magnet synchronous linear motor (PMSLM). First, the disturbance caused by parameter variations and thrust ripple is considered in the modeling of PMSLM. Based on the model, a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) controller consisting of improved predictive current control (PCC) and adaptive internal model control is derived. The improved PCC is used to overcome time delay and increase current control bandwidth, whilst the adaptive internal model is utilized to estimate the disturbance caused by parameter variations to compensate PCC. Second, a new discrete-time Jacobian linearization observer is designed to estimate the thrust ripple. The actual thrust ripple can be suppressed by injecting the estimated value into the control system. Subsequently, a comparatively smoother output thrust and higher precision position tracking is obtained. Finally, the precise test platform based on semiphysical system AD5435 is established. The experimental results verify the validity of the proposed approach.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • A Robust Field-Weakening Approach for Direct Torque and Flux Controlled
           Reluctance Synchronous Motors With Extended Constant Power Speed Region
    • Authors: Xinan Zhang;Gilbert Hock Beng Foo;Muhammed Faz Rahman;
      Pages: 1813 - 1823
      Abstract: This paper proposes a new robust field-weakening approach for reluctance synchronous motors regulated by direct torque and flux control. Compared to the existing direct torque and flux control based field-weakening methods that cannot achieve maximized DC-link voltage utilization and are parameter dependent, the proposed approach contributes to improve the field-weakening performance of reluctance synchronous motor in two aspects. First, it extends the constant power speed range through autonomous stator flux reference adjustment, which maximizes the dc-link voltage utilization. Smooth transition between the maximum torque per ampere trajectory and field-weakening trajectory is also realized. Second, it enhances the parameter robustness of drives in very high-speed region by employing a torque reference adjustment scheme. This effectively avoids the instability of drives caused by machine parameter variations. The proposed approach is verified experimentally on a laboratory setup.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Analysis of PM Eddy Current Loss in Rotor-PM and Stator-PM Flux-switching
           Machines by Air-gap Field Modulation Theory
    • Authors: Peng Su;Wei Hua;Mingjin Hu;Zhe Chen;Ming Cheng;Wei Wang;
      Pages: 1824 - 1835
      Abstract: This paper investigates and compares the eddy current loss induced in permanent magnet (PM) in both rotor-PM flux-switching (RPM-FS) machines and stator-PM flux-switching (SPM-FS) machines. Based on the field modulation principle, the harmonic components of both the PM field and armature reaction field are deduced, as well as the corresponding frequencies. Then, the PM loss production mechanisms due to eddy current are revealed for the RPM-FS and SPM-FS machines, respectively. Consequently, the similarities and differences between two FS machines are investigated from the perspectives of both electromagnetic torque and PM eddy current loss production mechanisms. The results indicate that the PM eddy current loss in SPM-FS machines influences efficiency dramatically. However, for the RPM-FS machine, the armature reaction field affects the PM loss more sensitively. In addition, a large PM eddy current loss is associated with high-power rating and large current density FS machines for electric vehicle application, and can be reduced by utilizing PM segmentation method.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • The Relationship Between Root Locus and Transient Field Components of AC
    • Authors: Xin Qi;Joachim Holtz;
      Pages: 1836 - 1843
      Abstract: The dynamic analysis of induction motors is supported by well-known theories: the two-axes transformation, and the space vector theory. Yet some inconsistencies with the theory of dynamic systems exist. The machine eigenvalues suggest the existence of two damped oscillators, physically not understandable. The respective eigenfrequencies change with the angular velocity of the reference frame. This contradicts the understanding that eigenfrequencies are inherent system properties. Physically, the dynamics depend on the continuous distribution of magnetic energy and its spatial displacement during transient processes. Information on the system dynamics is lost when dividing the continuum of magnetic energy into discrete portions. Complex state variables associate the dynamics to the propagation in space of distributed magnetic fields. The dynamic analysis reveals the existence single-complex eigenvalues. These define a novel class of system identifiers. They are characterized by having only one imaginary part instead of a conjugate complex pair. The use of complex state variables conveys insight and physical understanding of the dynamic processes within the machine. The approach constitutes an extension to the theory of dynamic systems.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Novel Motor-Shaped Rotational Inductor for Motor Drive Applications
    • Authors: Muhammad Raza Khowja;Chris Gerada;Gaurang Vakil;Robert Abebe;Shafiq Odhano;Chintan Patel;Pat Wheeler;
      Pages: 1844 - 1854
      Abstract: This paper presents a validation of the novel motor-shaped rotational inductor. To validate the concept, 12 slots 2 poles rotational inductor is tested at different supply frequencies and rotor speeds. Experimental results have shown that the iron losses reduce as the rotor speed increases to the synchronous speed of the stator supply. The performance of the integrated rotational inductor is also compared with traditional EE core inductor in terms of total losses, synchronous inductance, copper resistance, and total harmonic distortion (THD). The total loss-to inductance ratio of the rotational inductor is reduced by 22.5% when rotor is rotating at 18 kRPM and supply frequency is held at 300 Hz. A significant reduction in copper resistance-to-inductance is also noticed when supply frequency is varied from 0 Hz to 20 kHz. Furthermore, the synchronous inductance and voltage and current's %THD of rotational inductor is found to be superior to EE core inductor.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • An Improved Torque Density Pseudo Six-Phase Induction Machine Using a
           Quadruple Three-Phase Stator Winding
    • Authors: Ayman S. Abdel-Khalik;Ahmed M. Massoud;Shehab Ahmed;
      Pages: 1855 - 1866
      Abstract: The nine-phase six-terminal induction machine has recently been proposed as a promising contender to the conventional six-phase asymmetrical winding machine in terms of torque density, phase current quality, stator winding simplicity, and fault-tolerant capability. However, the relatively lower dc-link voltage utilization of a single neutral arrangement in multiphase machines with multiple three-phase windings represents, in general, a technical challenge when compared to windings with isolated star points. Therefore, this paper proposes a new pseudo six-phase winding layout suitable for medium-voltage high-power induction machines, which employs quadruple three-phase stator winding sets, while providing the same terminal behavior of a nine-phase six-terminal winding. Additionally, like the traditional six-phase winding, two possible neutral arrangements can be configured. The proposed winding configuration provides the same dc-link voltage utilization as in conventional dual three-phase winding machines with isolated neutrals. The effect of the circulating zero-sequence current component experienced with a single neutral arrangement can also be avoided. A 1.5 Hp prototype induction machine is used to experimentally validate the proposed six-phase winding layout under both healthy and fault conditions.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Resonance Reduction by Optimal Switch Angle Selection in Switched
           Reluctance Motor
    • Authors: Xiaoqiang Guo;Rui Zhong;Mingshu Zhang;Desheng Ding;Weifeng Sun;
      Pages: 1867 - 1877
      Abstract: It is well-known that current and radial vibration harmonic may cause resonance and will thus cause severe vibration and acoustic noise in a switched reluctance motor (SRM). However, not each order of harmonic will cause resonance. It has not been fully discussed which order of current and radial vibration harmonic is the most important. This paper proposes an analytical method to derive the most important order of current and radial vibration, which lays significant foundation for resonance reduction method. Then, influence of different switch angles on current and radial vibration is analytically derived and comprehensively discussed. Based on that, resonance can be reduced by optimal switch angle selection considering efficiency sacrifice. Both simulations and experiments on a three-phase sample SRM have verified the correctness of the analytical method and effectiveness of the optimal switch angle selection method.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Design Considerations for Voltage Sensorless Control of a PFC Single-Phase
           Rectifier Without Electrolytic Capacitors
    • Authors: Wenlong Qi;Sinan Li;Siew-Chong Tan;S. Y. Hui;
      Pages: 1878 - 1889
      Abstract: In this paper, a voltage sensorless controller is developed for a two-switch single-phase rectifier that involves power factor correction and active pulsating power buffering without electrolytic capacitors. While a two-switch rectifier normally requires four sensed signals for control, only one current sensor is required in this proposal, thereby offering advantages such as low cost, high compactness, isolation between control and power circuits, and improved reliability. While the basic operating principle follows that of a conventional voltage sensorless controller for single-switch converters, several critical design considerations are the key to the success of the implementation which is explained in detail. The feasibilities of the controller are experimentally testified with a 100-W rectifier prototype regarding both steady state and dynamic performance.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • A Waveform-Subtraction Based Single-Stage Ripple-Suppression Converter
           Family for Multiple Waveform Generation
    • Authors: Guidong Zhang;Jie Chen;Samson Shenglong Yu;Dongyuan Qiu;Bo Zhang;Herbert Ho-Ching Iu;Tyrone Fernando;Yun Zhang;
      Pages: 1890 - 1898
      Abstract: This paper proposes a family of single-stage converters consisting of three different converters, each of which is able to produce a variety of waveforms through the waveform-subtraction technique. We brand this converter family as waveform-subtraction based single-stage converter (WSSC). By using only a single-stage converter, the proposed waveform generation technique is able to realize dc-dc-ac conversions and suppress input current ripple, meeting the needs of modernized power grid with renewable energy sources. At the same time, converters in this WSSC family are capable of generating a range of shapes, such as triangular, rectangular, and sawtooth waveforms, with simple structures, demonstrating its suitability of being applied in the electrochemical industry, e.g., in the electroplating process. Furthermore, the proposed family converters also realize substantially better input current ripple suppression compared to other conventional converters. In order to prove the validity and efficacy of the proposed WSSC and the theory underpinning it, in this paper, extensive simulations and analyses are conducted to verify the theoretical foundation of the proposed WSSC strategy, and the prototype of a converter from the proposed converter family is built and tested in our laboratory, which validates the functionality of the WSSC.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • A Four-Quadrant Single-Phase Grid-Connected Converter With Only Two
           High-Frequency Switches
    • Authors: Ken King Man Siu;Carl Ngai Man Ho;River Tin Ho Li;
      Pages: 1899 - 1909
      Abstract: This paper presents a new four-quadrant (4Q) boost-type converter with the use of active virtual ground (AVG) technology. The presented topology can step up the ac grid voltage to a regulated dc voltage under a stable bidirectional current flow and support the power transmission in either real power or reactive power delivery. With the use of the proposed modulation method, only two high-frequency switches are required through the 4Q operation. Under a full-bridge converter structure, an efficient system can be guaranteed. Also, benefiting from the AVG technology, an LCL filter is formed at the system input over the 4Q operation. Both magnitude of leakage current and grid current ripple are also minimized to a small value. Thus, a high-efficiency and low-noise 4Q converter is guaranteed. The presented topology is successfully implemented on a 750 VA prototype and the performance is experimentally verified on it, which shows good agreement with the theoretical knowledge.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Proposing a Multimode Switching Control Method for a Half-Bridge Converter
           to Improve Its Efficiency Over the Entire Load Variations
    • Authors: Alireza Ramezan Ghanbari;Abolghasem Asadollah Raie;
      Pages: 1910 - 1920
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to propose a novel switching control method to improve the efficiency of the basic half-bridge converter for the whole range of the load current. Using multimode control for this purpose, instead of modifying the structure of the converter, is proposed for the first time. Efficiency improvement is achieved by using a digital controller to select and change the control mode to the most efficient one, for each of the load sub-ranges. Control modes are prominent ones, including asymmetric, duty phase shift, pulsewidth modulation, and burst control, and are selected in turn, while the load current varies in its entire range from the full down to the no-load. The three transition points between control modes, being specific values of the load current, are analytically determined based on comparing the half-bridge converter power losses for different control modes. The digital controller compares the load current with the transition points and puts the converter in the control mode with the highest efficiency. The accuracy of the analytically determined transition points and the efficiency improvement of the proposed control method over the previous ones are investigated and approved by the experimental results.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Coordinated Control of Passive Transition from Grid-Connected to Islanded
           Operation for Three/Single-Phase Hybrid Multimicrogrids Considering Speed
           and Smoothness
    • Authors: Can Wang;Xianghe Li;Tian Tian;Zhirong Xu;Ran Chen;
      Pages: 1921 - 1931
      Abstract: With the proliferation of distributed generation in distribution networks, quickly and smoothly converting to a state of regional autonomy in the case of distribution network failure is one of the main challenges for the stable operation of a multimicrogrid (MMG). To address the aforementioned problem, this paper proposes coordinated control of the passive transition from grid-connected to islanded operation for a three/single-phase hybrid MMG. Under the premise of fully considering the constraints on the tie-line transfer power undertaken by the master power supply (MPS), the following two scenarios regarding safety and emergency are formulated: 1) when the output power of the MPS is in the safe range, the proposed strategy coordinates the energy storage (ES) in each submicrogrid (SMG) to achieve power balance; 2) when the output power is in the emergency range, this paper proposes a three-phase balance method based on a bubble sort to realize the combination optimization of the single-phase source-load-storage (SLS) and a fast power regulation method based on implicit enumeration for the SLS to reduce the tie-line transfer power, which could prevent failure of the mode transition from power overload. The test results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed coordination strategy.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • DC Fault Detection in Meshed MTdc Systems Based on Transient Average Value
           of Current
    • Authors: Yujun Li;Jiapeng Li;Liansong Xiong;Xian Zhang;Zhao Xu;
      Pages: 1932 - 1943
      Abstract: It is of great significance for a voltage source converter (VSC)-based multiterminal dc (MTdc) grid to isolate the dc fault lines within several milliseconds after dc fault. Existing protection schemes and fault analysis methods are mainly based on the numerical simulations, which lack the theoretical analysis. In this paper, a high-frequency (HF) equivalent model of VSC-based MTdc grid that is utilized for initial dc fault current calculation is first proposed. In the proposed model, the parallel connected capacitors of VSCs are regarded as short-circuited, and the initial fault current calculation of the fault dc line and the healthy dc line can be reduced as a simplified RL and RLC circuit. Accordingly, a novel dc fault detection method for VSC-based MTdc system is further proposed. In the proposed approach, the primary detection utilizes the transient average value of line current and the fault dc line can be identified quickly with only one-end information. In addition, the errors between the transient fault current calculation based on the distributed parameter line model and the lumped parameter line model are also evaluated. Numerous simulation studies carried out in PSCAD/EMTdc have demonstrated that the proposed HF equivalent model can be utilized for initial dc fault analysis of VSC-MTdc system and the proposed protection scheme is effective under different fault locations and high fault resistances. Compared with the traditional protection schemes based on rate of change of current, the proposed one requires relatively low sampling frequency and low computation burden, and has high fault resistance tolerance ability and high robustness with respect to the missing data.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Bidirectional DC–DC Converter for Modular Residential Battery
           Energy Storage Systems
    • Authors: Andrii Chub;Dmitri Vinnikov;Roman Kosenko;Elizaveta Liivik;Ilya Galkin;
      Pages: 1944 - 1955
      Abstract: A novel bidirectional dc-dc converter based on the quasi-Z-source (qZS) topology is presented in this paper. During battery discharge, it operates as the conventional qZS full-bridge converter with a synchronous voltage doubler rectifier. During battery charging, it operates as the half-bridge converter with a synchronous full-bridge rectifier and LC filter. A relay is used for reconfiguration between those two modes. The operation principle is explained, and design guidelines are provided. A prototype with a nominal power of 300 W is used for verification of steady-state regulation characteristics and efficiency measurements in the input voltage range compatible with an eight-cell LiFePO4 battery. Closed-loop control system for the converter application in dc microgrids is presented and tested in two control scenarios: dc-bus signaling and direct reference defined by a master controller through a communication channel.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Simultaneous Common-Mode Voltage Reduction and Neutral-Point Voltage
           Balance Scheme for the Quasi-Z-Source Three-Level T-Type Inverter
    • Authors: Changwei Qin;Chenghui Zhang;Xiangyang Xing;Xiaoyan Li;Alian Chen;Guangxian Zhang;
      Pages: 1956 - 1967
      Abstract: The conventional three-level inverter only has voltage buck capability. The quasi-Z-source three-level T-type inverter (QZS 3LT2 I) has been proposed to realize voltage buck-boost operation. In this paper, we further propose a novel modulation scheme for the QZS 3LT2 I to realize voltage boosting, reduce the common-mode voltage (CMV), and control the neutral-point voltage balance simultaneously. The proposed scheme adopts a large vector, a medium vector, a small vector with low CMV magnitude, a zero vector, and a shoot-through vector to generate the output voltage. According to sector number and neutral-point voltage difference, a p-type or n-type small vector with low CMV magnitude is properly selected to balance the neutral-point voltage. Shoot-through states are inserted within zero vector to boost the dc input voltage without affecting the ac output voltage. Dwell times of basic vectors are calculated through the revised volt-second balance equation. Furthermore, a coordinate control strategy between neutral-point voltage balance and voltage boosting is proposed. Doing so, the CMV magnitude can be restricted within one-sixth of dc-link voltage and neutral-point voltage imbalance can be effectively mitigated. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is verified by simulations and experiments.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Distributed Cooperative Control of Multiple Hybrid Energy Storage Systems
           in a DC Microgrid Using Consensus Protocol
    • Authors: Xia Chen;Mengxuan Shi;Jianyu Zhou;Yin Chen;Wenping Zuo;Jinyu Wen;Haibo He;
      Pages: 1968 - 1979
      Abstract: Hybrid energy storage system (HESS) consisting of battery and supercapacitor (SC) is an effective approach to alleviate voltage stability problems brought by the fluctuation of renewable resources in a dc microgrid. This paper proposes a novel distributed control scheme for multiple HESSs based on a leaderless consensus protocol to realize the power splitting between batteries and SCs and thus regulate the dc bus voltage. Without assigning leaders among the batteries and SCs, each SC or battery has equal priority in participating in voltage or state of charge (SOC) regulation using only neighboring information exchange instead of global communication. This distributed approach makes the system robust against any physical failure or communication fault only if the remaining communication network is connected. Consensus for the state variable associated with the battery SOC, the SC terminal voltage, and the dc average bus voltage are all achieved in this scheme, and thus the voltage quality and the energy storage lifetime can be improved. In addition, the small-signal stability of a four-HESS system is investigated, and the impact of the control parameters on the system is analyzed. Simulations and experimental studies are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme in an islanded dc microgrid.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Single-Cycle-Lag Compensator-Based Active Damping for Digitally Controlled
           LCL/LLCL-Type Grid-Connected Inverters
    • Authors: Zheyu Miao;Wenxi Yao;Zhengyu Lu;
      Pages: 1980 - 1990
      Abstract: The control delay weakens the active damping (AD) performance of digitally controlled LCL/LLCL-type grid-connected inverters (GCIs). The equivalent virtual impedance paralleled with the filter branch explains the effect of the capacitor-current-feedback AD. However, the virtual impedance appears capacitive or even negative due to the delay, which significantly weakens the effectiveness of AD. This paper proposes a single-cycle-lag compensator (SCLC) to eliminate the adverse effects caused by the control delay. The method retains effectiveness in applications with high resonant frequency or large control delay. It keeps system a positive equivalent resistance with a high equivalent inductance. The positive equivalent resistance leads to positive damping effect, while the high equivalent inductance causing little resonant frequency deviation can be neglected. Moreover, the effect of the impedance variation that causes the resonant frequency deviation is analyzed and the restrictions of the proposed method are discussed. By optimizing the LCL/LLCL filter parameters, the adaptability of the SCLC to the grid impedance variation can be further improved. With the SCLC, the LCL/LLCL-type GCIs achieve better steady-state and dynamic performances. Finally, experimental results are presented to verify the proposed method.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • A High Efficiency Nonisolated Buck–Boost Converter Based on ZETA
    • Authors: Mohamad Reza Banaei;Hossein Ajdar Faeghi Bonab;
      Pages: 1991 - 1998
      Abstract: In this paper, a new transformerless buck-boost converter based on a ZETA converter is introduced. The proposed converter has the ZETA converter advantages, such as buck-boost capability, input-to-output dc insulation, and continuous output current. The suggested converter voltage gain is higher than the classic ZETA converter. In the presented converter, only one main switch is utilized. The proposed converter offers low voltage stress of the switch; therefore, the low on-state resistance of the main switch can be selected to decrease the losses of the switch. The presented converter topology is simple; hence, the control of the converter is simple. The converter has the continuous output current. The mathematical analyses of the presented converter are given. The experimental results confirm the correctness of the analysis.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Equivalent Series Resistance-based Real-time Control of
           Battery-Ultracapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage Systems
    • Authors: Chen Zhao;He Yin;Chengbin Ma;
      Pages: 1999 - 2008
      Abstract: This paper proposes an equivalent series resistance (ESR)-based control, namely a circuit-level approach, to efficiently distribute load in battery-ultracapacitors (UC) hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs). The ESR circuit model of an example capacitor semiactive HESS is first built representing the energy losses at both circuit and system levels. The analytical derivations show that the overall energy loss of the HESS solely depends on the ratio of the dynamic load provided by the battery pack to the entire dynamic load. This energy loss is minimized following the load distribution determined by the ratio of the ESR of the battery pack to those of the UC pack and dc-dc converter. An ESR-based real-time control strategy is then developed to minimize the energy loss and regulate UC state-of-charge (SOC) to avoid overcharge/overdischarge. Both the simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed ESR-based control in terms of improvements in energy efficiency, usage of UC pack, and temperature rise reduction in batteries. The ESR-based control achieves a performance close to that using the ideal dynamic programming method. Compared with the battery-alone system, the total energy loss and battery temperature rise in the example HESS are averagely reduced by 44.9% and 51.9%, respectively, under the proposed ESR-based control.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • A Bidirectional CDT-LC Resonant DC–DC Converter With a Wide Voltage
    • Authors: Bo Chen;Ping Wang;Yi-feng Wang;Shu-huai Zhang;Liang Yang;Rui-lin Ji;
      Pages: 2009 - 2020
      Abstract: A novel high conversion ratio bidirectional C-dual transformers-LC (CDT-LC) resonant dc-dc converter is proposed in this paper. Based on the traditional LLC, an auxiliary transformer and an extra resonant capacitance are employed in the CDT-LC structure. It not only harvests high efficiency, but exhibits a good voltage gain feature. Especially for the case of light load, CDT-LC still harvests a high efficiency, compared with traditional converters. Also, it can achieve a fast gain reduction when the switching frequency is higher than resonant frequency. In this paper, the operating principles of the converter are analyzed in both bidirectional operation modes. In addition, its dual-transformers structure feature and voltage gain characteristics are discussed in details. Furthermore, the parameter design method is provided. Moreover, the loss breakdown for the converter is given in details. Finally, a 2.5-kW prototype is established to verify the performance of the CDT-LC converter, and its maximum efficiency reaches 97%.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Path-Following Control of A Quadrotor UAV With A Cable-Suspended Payload
           Under Wind Disturbances
    • Authors: Longhao Qian;Hugh H.T. Liu;
      Pages: 2021 - 2029
      Abstract: A path-following controller based on an uncertainty and disturbance estimator (UDE) for a quadrotor with a cable-suspended payload is proposed in this paper. The quadrotor and the payload are subject to unknown wind disturbances. The controller resembles a cascade architecture. For the outer loop, a UDE-based translational control law is proposed. The controller asymptotically stabilizes the quadrotor along a given path and estimates the lumped disturbances with a low-pass filter. For the inner loop, an attitude tracking controller is used to control the direction of the lift vector so that the actual lift force can asymptotically follow the reference force generated by the translational controller. The stability of the system with the translational controller and the attitude tracking controller has been shown to be asymptotically stable using the reduction theorem. With the help of the reduction theorem, the design of the translational and the attitude control can be decoupled, providing the flexibility of implementing different attitude controllers without redoing the stability analysis. As shown in the simulation, the control law can stabilize the quadrotor on the desired path under different wind disturbances.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • High-Order Disturbance-Observer-Based Sliding Mode Control for Mobile
           Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Systems
    • Authors: Jian Huang;Mengshi Zhang;Songhyok Ri;Caihua Xiong;Zhijun Li;Yu Kang;
      Pages: 2030 - 2041
      Abstract: In this paper, a novel high-order disturbance observer (HODO) for the mobile wheeled inverted pendulum (MWIP) system is first proposed. Based on a choice method of optimal gain matrices, the estimation accuracy of the HODO can be improved. Combining the proposed HODO and sliding mode control (SMC), a new control strategy is designed for the balance and speed control of the MWIP system. The boundness of the estimation error of HODO is proved and the stability of the closed-loop control system is achieved through the appropriate selection of sliding surface coefficients. The effectiveness of all proposed methods is verified by experiments on a real MWIP system.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Disturbance Observer-Based Robust Control and Its Applications: 35th
           Anniversary Overview
    • Authors: Emre Sariyildiz;Roberto Oboe;Kouhei Ohnishi;
      Pages: 2042 - 2053
      Abstract: Disturbance observer (DOB) has been one of the most widely used robust control tools since it was proposed by Ohnishi in 1983. This paper introduces the origins of DOB and presents a survey of the major results on DOB-based robust control in the last 35 years. Furthermore, it explains DOB's analysis and synthesis techniques for linear and nonlinear systems by using a unified framework. In final section, this paper presents concluding remarks on DOB-based robust control and its engineering applications.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Energy-Based Nonlinear Adaptive Control Design for the Quadrotor UAV
           System With a Suspended Payload
    • Authors: Sen Yang;Bin Xian;
      Pages: 2054 - 2064
      Abstract: In this paper, the control problem for an underactuated quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a suspended payload is investigated. An energy-based nonlinear controller is proposed that is able to control the quadrotor UAV's position and the payload's swing angle asymptotically. An adaptive control design is developed to compensate for the unknown length of the cable which is used to connect the UAV and the payload. The Lyapunov-based stability analysis is employed together to prove the stability of the closed-loop system. Detailed real-time experimental results illustrate the good performance of the proposed controller.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Development of a Magnetically Driven Microgripper for PicoNewton
           Force-Controlled Microscale Manipulation and Characterization
    • Authors: Hui Xie;Xianghe Meng;Hao Zhang;Lining Sun;
      Pages: 2065 - 2075
      Abstract: This paper presents a piconewton force-controlled magnetic microgripper (MMG) for microscale manipulation and characterization. The MMG consists of a cantilevered wrist force sensor and a magnetically driven double-finger gripper at the end. The manipulating force can be accurately detected by the wrist force sensor using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) optical lever. Moreover, the clamping force can be also precisely controlled by regulating the magnetic torque applied to the gripper fingers via the attached ferromagnetic beads. In addition, an AFM dynamic probing method was used for contact and clamping detection with the frequency shift of the oscillating MMG. The performance tests showed that the MMG has a gripping range of 0-17.4 μm; it allows for accurate clamping force loading with a resolution of 38 pN and detecting the grasping force with a resolution of 182 pN. The capability of the MMG was verified by conducting three-dimensional manipulation of the microbeads (O2 - O16 μm) with sub-micrometer accuracy and acting as an AFM colloid probe for fast mapping of the adhesion force. The proposed MMG is the first demonstration of a prototype capable of piconewton force-controlled microclamping, and it has great potential for high-precision microscale manipulation and characterization.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Neural-Network-Based
           Quadcopter UAV System
    • Authors: Fan Jiang;Farhad Pourpanah;Qi Hao;
      Pages: 2076 - 2085
      Abstract: In this paper, a quadcopter unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system based on neural-network enhanced dynamic inversion control is proposed for multiple real-world application scenarios. A sigma-pi neural network (SPNN) is used as the compensator to reduce the model error and improve the system performance in the presence of the uncertainties of UAV dynamics, payload, and environment. Besides, we present a technical framework for fast and robust implementation of multipurpose UAV systems and develop a testbed for the evaluation of UAV control system by using a high-precision optical motion capture system. Both simulation results and experiment results demonstrate that the SPNN can reduce the inversion errors related to UAV parameter uncertainties as well as tracking errors related to unknown disturbances and unmodeled dynamics. With the help of an online neural network (NN) learning mechanism, the entire system can achieve much higher accuracy in attitude and trajectory control than that achieved by conventional proportional-integral derivative based control systems under varying flight conditions.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Finite-Time Trajectory Tracking Control of Space Manipulator Under
           Actuator Saturation
    • Authors: Shiyuan Jia;Jinjun Shan;
      Pages: 2086 - 2096
      Abstract: This paper proposes a finite-time trajectory tracking controller for a space manipulator under model uncertainty, external disturbance, and actuator saturation. The dynamics of space manipulator is derived using Kane's method. Considering the model uncertainty that may exist when the manipulator captures an unknown payload, a radial basis function neural network (NN) is used to estimate the uncertain model of the space manipulator. An auxiliary system is designed to compensate the actuator saturation. Then a NN-based adaptive terminal sliding mode controller is proposed for trajectory tracking of a space manipulator. The stability of the proposed controller is analyzed using Lyapunov theory. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Adaptive Unbalance Compensation for a Three-Pole Active Magnetic Bearing
    • Authors: Shyh-Leh Chen;Shyu-Yu Lin;Chow-Shing Toh;
      Pages: 2097 - 2106
      Abstract: Mass imbalance frequently exists in a rotating machine. It may induce unbalance force, causing undesirable vibrations and noise. Active magnetic bearing (AMB) has been found to be a good device to deal with such problem. This paper is concerned with the unbalance compensation for a three-pole AMB system. An adaptive compensation scheme is proposed based on the theory of immersion and invariance (I&I) control. It is to immerse a higher-order system into a lower-order target system. The lower-order target system in this paper is the three-pole AMB system with known mass imbalance and with a stabilizing integral sliding mode controller (ISMC). On the other hand, the higher-order system is the three-pole AMB system with both the ISMC levitation controller and the adaptive compensator. The adaptive compensator is designed to deal with the case that the mass imbalance may be unknown and may be changing during operation in practical applications. It estimates the information of mass imbalance online and is incorporated into the ISMC so that the unbalance force can be eliminated. Both numerical simulations and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive compensator for mass imbalance.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Analysis of Consequent-Pole Flux Reversal Permanent Magnet Machine With
           Biased Flux Modulation Theory
    • Authors: Hui Yang;Z. Q. Zhu;Heyun Lin;Huayang Li;Shukang Lyu;
      Pages: 2107 - 2121
      Abstract: This paper proposes a consequent-pole flux reversal machine (CP-FRM) with biased flux modulation theory, which employs homopolar permanent magnets (PMs) placed between the adjacent stator poles. The machine topology is introduced from the perspective of FRM with a shifted magnet position and CP arrangement, and the performance comparison between the proposed CP-FRM and its original surface-mounted PM (SPM) counterpart is presented to highlight the torque improvement of the CP structure. Then, a simplified permeance model is applied to the CP-FRM to identify the principal effective air-gap field harmonics engaging in the torque productions. It shows that the CP-FRM works based on a biased flux modulation effect due to its asymmetric air-gap field distribution caused by the CP configuration, which unveils its underlying torque improvement mechanism over its SPM-FRM counterpart. In order to obtain the highest torque capability, the key design parameters are analytically optimized by analyzing the winding configuration, which aids the establishment of a general design guideline for the CP-FRM. The analytical and FE results are validated by experiments.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Sensorless Vibration Harmonic Estimation of Servo System Based on the
           Disturbance Torque Observer
    • Authors: Ching-Lon Huang;Shih-Chin Yang;
      Pages: 2122 - 2132
      Abstract: This paper proposes a sensorless vibration harmonic frequency estimation for a servo system driven by a permanent magnet (PM) synchronous machine. Traditional vibration harmonic estimation relies on the measurement using external sensors. An accelerometer is typically installed in the servo system to measure the vibration harmonic signal. Because the accelerometer must be attached on the visibly vibrational location inside the system, this vibration detection results in both issues about installation and reliability. To overcome this drawback, this paper proposes a disturbance observer to estimate the vibration harmonic by using current and position signal. A real-time signal process is developed to identify the vibration frequency from estimated harmonic. A servo system with a 400-W PM machine is built to verify the proposed vibration harmonic and frequency estimation. This paper includes the comparative evaluation between the accelerometer-based vibration harmonic measurement and the sensorless estimation.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • High Torque Density Torque Motor With Hybrid Magnetization Pole Arrays for
           Jet Pipe Servo Valve
    • Authors: Qiongfang Zhang;Liang Yan;Zihao Duan;Zongxia Jiao;Chris Gerada;I-Ming Chen;
      Pages: 2133 - 2142
      Abstract: Torque motor is one key component that directly influences the dynamic performance of jet pipe servo valve in aircraft. In this paper, a novel torque motor with hybrid-magnetization pole arrays is proposed. By changing the magnetization patterns of permanent magnets, the torque motor can significantly improve the output torque by range of 47-52% compared with traditional designs, while maintaining the system size and mass. The design concept and operating principle of the torque motor is presented. The magnetic field distribution is formulated analytically with equivalent magnetic circuit. Different from conventional study, the flux leakage of the permanent magnets and coils is included to improve the model precision. Subsequently, the output torque is derived mathematically from the airgap flux. Following that, the numerical calculation is conducted to validate the mathematical models of magnetic field and output torque. The design optimization is then carried out. One research prototype that can be mounted with either conventional magnet or the proposed hybrid array has been developed. The test rigs are constructed and experiments are conducted on the prototype. Both numerical computation and experimental results verify the significant improvement of torque generation of the proposed hybrid magnetization torque motor.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • $LCL$ -Type+Grid-Tied+Inverters&rft.title=Industrial+Electronics,+IEEE+Transactions+on&rft.issn=0278-0046&;&rft.aufirst=Yuheng&;Yongqiang+Ye;Qiangsong+Zhao;Yongfeng+Cao;Yongkang+Xiong;">Discrete-Time Modified UDE-Based Current Control for $LCL$ -Type Grid-Tied
    • Authors: Yuheng Wu;Yongqiang Ye;Qiangsong Zhao;Yongfeng Cao;Yongkang Xiong;
      Pages: 2143 - 2154
      Abstract: In LCL-type grid-tied inverters, the lumped disturbance, including parameter uncertainties, unmodeled dynamics, and grid harmonics, will deteriorate the current tracking performance and lead to high total harmonic distortion (THD). The uncertainty and disturbance estimator (UDE) scheme provides an effective way to attenuate the lumped disturbance. However, UDE for the current control in LCL-type grid-tied inverters is far from perfect. In this paper, a discrete-time modified UDE (MUDE) scheme is proposed to improve the current tracking performance and robustness. In MUDE, a reduced-order model of the LCL filter, combined with an active damping scheme, is proposed. The stability performance is discussed in detail, and a rigorous stability condition is proposed for the first time. Moreover, the analysis of the controller sampling frequency and grid impedance, and their influences on the system stability is presented. A design case based on the stability condition is also given. Comparative experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Noncooperative Event-Triggered Control Strategy Design With Round-Robin
           Protocol: Applications to Load Frequency Control of Circuit Systems
    • Authors: Yuan Yuan;Peng Zhang;Zidong Wang;Yun Chen;
      Pages: 2155 - 2166
      Abstract: In this paper, the noncooperative optimal control problem is investigated for a class of discrete time-varying networked control systems subject to exogenous nonlinear disturbances. To relive the transmission burden in the sensor-to-controller channel, the Round-Robin protocol is adopted to schedule the sensor transmissions. On the other hand, the controller operates in an event-triggered manner so as to reduce the transmission frequency and thereby preserving the energy in the controller-to-actuator channel. In the presence of the underlying scheduling and triggering mechanism, it is literally impossible to acquire the accurate value of the individual cost function for each controller and, as an effective alternative, a certain upper bound is derived on the individual cost function. Then, in virtue of the completing-the-square technique and the Moore-Penrose pseudo inverse, such an upper bound is minimized at each time instant. Furthermore, a sufficient condition is established to guarantee the boundedness of the derived upper bound over the infinite horizon. Finally, a numerical example on the power grid is provided to verify the validity of the proposed methodology.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • From Battery Cell to Electrodes: Real-Time Estimation of Charge and Health
           of Individual Battery Electrodes
    • Authors: Satadru Dey;Ying Shi;Kandler Smith;Andrew M. Colclasure;Xuemin Li;
      Pages: 2167 - 2175
      Abstract: Accurate information of battery internal variables is crucial for health-conscious and optimal battery management. Due to lack of measurements, advanced battery management systems rely heavily on estimation algorithms that provide such internal information. Although algorithms for cell-level charge and health estimation have been widely explored in the literature, algorithms for electrode-level quantities are almost nonexistent. The main obstacle in electrode-level estimation is the observability problem where the individual electrode states are not observable from terminal voltage output. However, if available, real-time feedback of electrode-level charge and health can be highly beneficial in maximizing energy utilization and battery life. Motivated by this scenario, in this paper we propose a real-time algorithm that estimates the available charge and health of individual electrodes. We circumvent the aforementioned observability problem by proposing an uncertain model-based cascaded estimation framework. The design and analysis of the proposed scheme are aided by a combination of Lyapunov's stability theory, adaptive observer theory, and interconnected systems theory. Finally, we illustrate the effectiveness of the estimation scheme by performing extensive simulation and experimental studies.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Frequency Data-Based Procedure to Adjust Gain and Phase Margins and
           Guarantee the Uniqueness of Crossover Frequencies
    • Authors: Negin Sayyaf;Mohammad Saleh Tavazoei;
      Pages: 2176 - 2185
      Abstract: Analytical data-driven tuning procedures with the aim of adjusting the values of frequency-domain specifications, e.g., gain margin, phase margin, and corresponding crossover frequencies, are among the most popular control techniques in industrial control. But, the multiplicity of crossover frequencies, as an Achilles' heel in these procedures, may cause that the obtained control system does not meet the intended frequency-domain objectives. Motivated by this fact, this paper improves a newly proposed data-driven tuning procedure for arbitrarily setting the values of gain and phase margins and crossover frequencies, in the viewpoint of guaranteeing the uniqueness of crossover frequencies. This improvement is done by analytically deriving some sufficient conditions for ensuring the uniqueness of gain and phase crossover frequencies in the under-study control system. The hardware-in-the-loop experimental results are presented to validate the importance and efficiency of the improved tuning procedure.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Embedded Hardware Artificial Neural Network Control for Global and
           Real-Time Imbalance Current Suppression of Parallel Connected IGBTs
    • Authors: Xiao Zeng;Zehong Li;Jiali Wan;Jinping Zhang;Min Ren;Wei Gao;Zhaoji Li;Bo Zhang;
      Pages: 2186 - 2196
      Abstract: A global and real-time control with embedded hardware artificial neural network (ANN) for imbalance current suppression of parallel connected insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) is first proposed in this paper. This method focuses on control strategy and control execution. The former one is realized by porting the ANN-based PID (ANN-PID) strategy in the control loop to yield the real-time and adaptive characteristics without IGBT quantity limitation. The latter one is realized by designing the IGBT gate quantity of charge regulator (GQR) to execute the command from ANN-PID controller. The evaluation of ANN-PID algorithm results 0.023% mean error in IGBT current control that reveals the feasibility of the proposed method. A full prototype with FPGA-based hardware accelerator for ANN-PID computing, including the designed GQR circuit, has been built for realization and qualification in a buck converter with parallel connected IGBTs. The experimental results show that the performance of the proposed method in imbalance current suppression is improved about 3.5-5.5 times as the load increase from low to high with the advantage of immunity to load change and the current imbalance can be suppressed within 4%.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Flux–Charge Analysis of Two-Memristor-Based Chua's Circuit:
           Dimensionality Decreasing Model for Detecting Extreme Multistability
    • Authors: Mo Chen;Mengxia Sun;Han Bao;Yihua Hu;Bocheng Bao;
      Pages: 2197 - 2206
      Abstract: In this paper, from a new perspective of flux and charge, we present in-depth analyses of two ideal memristor emulators and the fifth-order memristive Chua's circuit constructed based on them. The constitutive flux-charge relations of the two adopted memristor emulators are first formulated, and their initial-dependent characteristics are numerically revealed and experimentally verified. Thereafter, with these two constitutive relations, a third-order dimensionality decreasing flux-charge model for the fifth-order memristive Chua's circuit is constructed, in which five extra constant system parameters are introduced to indicate the initial states of the five dynamic elements. Numerical simulations confirm that this newly constructed model possesses several determined equilibria and maintains the initial-dependent dynamics of the original voltage-current model. Thus, the complex and sensitive initial state-related extreme multistability phenomenon can be deeply explored through theoretical analyses and hardware measurements. It is demonstrated that the sensitive extreme multistability phenomenon becomes detectable in the flux-charge domain, which is efficient for exploring the inner mechanisms and further seeking possible applications of this special phenomenon.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Neurofuzzy-Based Plant-Wide Hierarchical Coordinating Optimization and
           Control: An Application to Zinc Hydrometallurgy Plant
    • Authors: Shiwen Xie;Yongfang Xie;Hao Ying;Zhaohui Jiang;Weihua Gui;
      Pages: 2207 - 2219
      Abstract: In this paper, a novel three-layer coordinating optimization and control strategy involving fuzzy neural networks (FNNs) is proposed for industrial plant-wide control. This strategy includes a coordinator (top layer), local optimizers (middle layer), and local controllers (bottom layer). The coordinator determines and coordinates set-points of production indices for each process in the plant, aiming to achieve plant-wide optimal control. The local optimizers optimize individual unit and deliver the information to the coordinator. The controllers calculate optimal control inputs for the processes according to the set-points. Model predictive control (MPC) is used in this layer. Also used are FNNs with a gradient-based learning algorithm, which are trained to represent the models of the processes that are controlled by MPC. By constructing a Lyapunov function, convergence of the FNNs is established. Experiments are carried out in the largest zinc hydrometallurgy plant in China. The results demonstrate performance of our strategy in tracking the set-points and saving processing costs. Moreover, the strategy achieves a more optimal overall plant operation when compared to the same FNN-based MPC scheme that does not use the coordinator.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Blind Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Image Phase Retrieval
    • Authors: Yina Guo;Xiangning Zhao;Jianyu Li;Anhong Wang;Wenwu Wang;
      Pages: 2220 - 2230
      Abstract: In this paper, we consider the problem of recovering the phase information of the multiple images from the multiple mixed phaseless short-time Fourier transform image measurements, which is called the blind multiple-input multiple-output image phase retrieval (BMIPR) problem. It is an inherently ill-posed problem due to the lack of the phase and mixing information, and the existing phase retrieval algorithms are not explicitly designed for this case. To address the BMIPR phase retrieval problem, an integrated algorithm is presented, which combines a gradient descent algorithm by minimizing a nonconvex loss function with an independent component analysis algorithm and a nonlocal means algorithm. Experimental evaluation has been conducted to show that under appropriate conditions, the proposed algorithms can explicitly recover the images, the phases of the images, and the mixing matrix. In addition, the algorithm is robust to noise.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Power Quality Enhancement Using Euclidean Direction Search Based Control
    • Authors: Manoj Badoni;Alka Singh;Bhim Singh;
      Pages: 2231 - 2240
      Abstract: This paper proposes the design and control of a three-phase four-wire distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) for elimination of several power quality (PQ) issues, namely harmonics, reactive power, load unbalancing, and neutral current. A three-phase voltage source converter (VSC) and a zigzag transformer based configuration are utilized as a DSTATCOM. The zigzag transformer is operated to provide a suitable path for load neutral current and other PQ problems are mitigated by designing a suitable control for VSC. The control of VSC is developed using Euclidean direction search (EDS) technique based adaptive control theory. This control algorithm is designed to extricate fundamental constituents from the load current and used to generate switching pulses for VSC. The improved behavior of the proposed EDS-based control is observed by comparing it with other existing controllers. Real-time performance of the EDS control is verified on a developed prototype in the laboratory using VSC and DSP (dSPACE1104 R&D controller).
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Event-Triggered Adaptive Attitude Tracking Control for Spacecraft With
           Unknown Actuator Faults
    • Authors: Chenliang Wang;Lei Guo;Changyun Wen;Qinglei Hu;Jianzhong Qiao;
      Pages: 2241 - 2250
      Abstract: This paper is devoted to attitude tracking control of fractionated spacecraft with wireless communication. We consider the practical case that the spacecraft suffers from uncertain inertia parameters, external disturbances, and even unknown and time-varying actuator faults. Within the framework of the backstepping method, a novel event-triggered adaptive fault-tolerant control scheme is proposed. In our design, an event-triggering mechanism is introduced to determine the time instants for communication, which successfully avoids continuous communication and Zeno phenomenon. Then, with the aid of a bound estimation approach and a smooth function, the impacts of the actuator faults, as well as the network-induced error, are effectively compensated for. Moreover, by employing the prescribed performance control technique, it is shown that the attitude tracking errors can converge to predefined arbitrarily small residual sets with prescribed convergence rate and maximum overshoot, no matter if there exist unknown actuator faults. Compared with conventional adaptive attitude control schemes, the proposed scheme significantly reduces the communication burden, while providing high reliability and stable, rapid, and accurate response for attitude maneuvers. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Toward Accurate Quality Estimation of Screen Content Pictures With Very
           Sparse Reference Information
    • Authors: Zhifang Xia;Ke Gu;Shiqi Wang;Hantao Liu;Sam Kwong;
      Pages: 2251 - 2261
      Abstract: The screen content (SC) pictures, such as webpages, serve as a visible and convenient medium to well-represent the Internet information, and therefore, the visual quality of SC pictures is highly significant and has attained a growing amount of attention. Accurate quality evaluation of SC pictures not only provides the fidelity of the conveyed information, but also contributes to the improvement of the user experience. In practical applications, a reliable estimation of SC pictures plays a considerably critical role for the optimization of the processing systems as the guidance. Based on these motivations, this paper proposes a novel method for precisely assessing the quality of SC pictures using very sparse reference information. Specifically, the proposed quality method separately extracts the macroscopic and microscopic structures, followed by comparing the differences of macroscopic and microscopic features between a pristine SC picture and its corrupted version to infer the overall quality score. By studying the feature histogram for dimensionality reduction, the proposed method merely requires two features as the reference information that can be exactly embedded in the file header with very few bits. Experiments manifest the superiority of our algorithm as compared with state-of-the-art relevant quality metrics when applied to the visual quality evaluation of SC pictures.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • In-Service Wind Turbine DFIG Diagnosis Using Current Signature Analysis
    • Authors: Estefania Artigao;Andrés Honrubia-Escribano;Emilio Gómez-Lázaro;
      Pages: 2262 - 2271
      Abstract: Operation and maintenance costs of wind power plants represent a significant share of the total expenditure of a wind farm project. It is therefore vital to optimize maintenance activities in order to reduce costs while improving wind turbine reliability and availability. The induction generator is a major contributor to failure rates and downtime of wind turbines, where doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) are the dominant variable-speed technology employed. Actual data from operating wind turbines is seldom presented in the scientific literature. This paper analyzes two in-service DFIGs from wind turbines operating in a Spanish wind power plant. One of the generators under study reported excessive temperature on the rotor windings, while the other did not. In order to achieve a diagnosis for the reported excess of temperature, current signature analyses were performed on both machines. Fault-related frequency components were identified in the current spectra of the faulty machine, and were compared against the healthy one. A diagnosis was achieved for the faulty machine: Dynamic eccentricity caused by a rotor fault was identified as the cause of the excessive temperature in the rotor windings.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Fault Diagnosis Using Adaptive Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis
    • Authors: Wenliao Du;Myeongsu Kang;Michael Pecht;
      Pages: 2272 - 2282
      Abstract: Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) has been used for vibration-based fault diagnosis because it is able to uncover multifractality buried in nonlinear and nonstationary vibration signals and thus offers an opportunity to explore a new set of multifractal features for fault diagnosis. However, the choice of detrending polynomial orders is one of the major concerns in MF-DFA because improper polynomials can cause the underfitted or overfitted scale-dependent trend of the signals. To address this issue, adaptive MF-DFA (AMF-DFA) is developed in this paper. More specifically, the developed AMF-DFA uncovers multifractality of the signals by adaptively extracting a variable number of scale-dependent fluctuations present in the signals and automatically eliminating irrelevant trend components to the fundamental structure of the signals based on correlation analysis. Accordingly, the developed AMF-DFA does not require a priori knowledge (i.e., detrending polynomial order). The effectiveness of the developed AMF-DFA was verified for fault diagnosis applications.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Bayesian Deep-Learning-Based Health Prognostics Toward Prognostics
    • Authors: Weiwen Peng;Zhi-Sheng Ye;Nan Chen;
      Pages: 2283 - 2293
      Abstract: Deep-learning-based health prognostics is receiving ever-increasing attention. Most existing methods leverage advanced neural networks for prognostics performance improvement, providing mainly point estimates as prognostics results without addressing prognostics uncertainty. However, uncertainty is critical for both health prognostics and subsequent decision making, especially for safety-critical applications. Inspired by the idea of Bayesian machine learning, a Bayesian deep-learning-based (BDL-based) method is proposed in this paper for health prognostics with uncertainty quantification. State-of-the-art deep learning models are extended into Bayesian neural networks (BNNs), and a variational-inference-based method is presented for the BNNs learning and inference. The proposed method is validated through a ball bearing dataset and a turbofan engine dataset. Other than point estimates, health prognostics using the BDL-based method is enhanced with uncertainty quantification. Scalability and generalization ability of state-of-the-art deep learning models can be well inherited. Stochastic regularization techniques, widely available in mainstream software libraries, can be leveraged to efficiently implement the BDL-based method for practical applications.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Probabilistic Monitoring of Correlated Sensors for Nonlinear Processes in
           State Space
    • Authors: Shunyi Zhao;Yuriy S. Shmaliy;Choon Ki Ahn;Chunhui Zhao;
      Pages: 2294 - 2303
      Abstract: To optimize control and/or state estimation of industrial processes, information about measurement quality provided by sensors is required. In this paper, a probabilistic scheme is proposed in discrete-time nonlinear state space with the purpose of sensor monitoring. A quantitative index representing the measurement quality, as well as satisfied state estimates, is obtained by estimating the probability density functions (PDFs) of the states and the measurement noise covariance considered as a random variable using the variational Bayesian approach. To solve the intractable integrals of nonlinear PDFs in real time, a set of weighted particles is generated to overlap an empirical density of state, while the PDF of the measurement noise is still derived analytically. An example of localization and an experiment with a rotary flexible joint are supplied to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the applicability of existing methods and can monitor correlated sensors satisfactorily.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Subspace-Aided Closed-Loop System Identification With Application to DC
           Motor System
    • Authors: Kuan Li;Hao Luo;Chengming Yang;Shen Yin;
      Pages: 2304 - 2313
      Abstract: A novel closed-loop numerical algorithm for subspace state space system identification (CN4SID) is proposed in this paper. Different from standard schemes, CN4SID algorithm can extend the standard LQ decomposition to the closed-loop cases by incorporating the controller information. Moreover, the proposed method can deliver unbiased pole estimation in the closed-loop framework. To this end, CN4SID algorithm shows superior pole estimation performance compared with a class of subspace identification method via principal component analysis algorithms. The effectiveness of the proposed CN4SID algorithm is finally verified through a practical dc motor system.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Designing Dynamic Alarm Limits and Adjusting Manipulated Variables for
           Multivariate Systems
    • Authors: Yan Yu;Jiandong Wang;Zijian Ouyang;
      Pages: 2314 - 2325
      Abstract: Alarm systems are of paramount importance for safe and efficient operations of industrial plants. This paper proposes a method to design dynamic alarm limits and adjust manipulated variables for multivariate systems. A hyper-ellipsoid model is built from historical normal data points to represent a normal operating zone (NOZ). Dynamic alarm limits of each involved process variable are mathematically defined and calculated based on the NOZ. Adjustment amplitudes of some manipulated variables are determined in order to remove occurring alarms, by exploiting reduced NOZs in parallel coordinates. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated via numerical and industrial examples.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • An Incorrect Data Detection Method for Big Data Cleaning of Machinery
           Condition Monitoring
    • Authors: Xuefang Xu;Yaguo Lei;Zeda Li;
      Pages: 2326 - 2336
      Abstract: The presence of incorrect data leads to the decrease of condition-monitoring big data quality. As a result, unreliable or misleading results are probably obtained by analyzing these poor-quality data. In this paper, to improve the data quality, an incorrect data detection method based on an improved local outlier factor (LOF) is proposed for data cleaning. First, a sliding window technique is used to divide data into different segments. These segments are considered as different objects and their attributes consist of time-domain statistical features extracted from each segment, such as mean, maximum and peak-to-peak value. Second, a kernel-based LOF (KLOF) is calculated using these attributes to evaluate the degree of each segment being incorrect data. Third, according to these KLOF values and a threshold value, incorrect data are detected. Finally, a simulation of vibration data generated by a defective rolling element bearing and three real cases concerning a fixed-axle gearbox, a wind turbine, and a planetary gearbox are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, respectively. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to detect both missing segments and abnormal segments, which are two typical incorrect data, effectively, and thus is helpful for big data cleaning of machinery condition monitoring.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Review on Diagnosis Techniques for Intermittent Faults in Dynamic Systems
    • Authors: Donghua Zhou;Yinghong Zhao;Zidong Wang;Xiao He;Ming Gao;
      Pages: 2337 - 2347
      Abstract: In the past decades, with the rapid development of modern technologies, a special kind of fault, the intermittent fault (IF) has become a serious threat to system securities. Although fruitful research results have been obtained for fault diagnosis, most of them are concerned with permanent faults. Furthermore, up to now, there has been no overview on the diagnosis techniques for IFs in dynamic systems. In fact, IFs are common in a variety of fields, whereas their research is far from mature and many open issues still remain to be solved. Therefore, in this overview, our main objective is to attract direct attentions from more researchers and engineers into the fascinating area of IF diagnosis. In this paper, the concept, research background, challenges and research motivations of IFs are introduced. Then, current research into diagnostics of IFs is reviewed, along with discussions on their strengths, limitations, and future directions.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • A New Hybrid Model for Electromechanical Characteristic Analysis Under
           SISC in Synchronous Generators
    • Authors: Yu-Ling He;Yu-Yang Zhang;Ming-Xing Xu;Xiao-Long Wang;Jing Xiong;
      Pages: 2348 - 2359
      Abstract: This paper proposes a novel hybrid model for analyzing the electromechanical characteristics under stator interturn short-circuit (SISC) fault in synchronous generators. The hybrid of the model lies in that it considers the static air-gap eccentricity and SISC at the same time. Different from other studies, the proposed model can manage not only the impact of the short-circuit degree, but also the influence of the short-circuit positions on the magnetic flux density (MFD), which is the basis to analyze electromechanical characteristics. The phase current and the electromagnetic torque (EMT) are selected in this paper as the representative of the electrical parameter and the mechanical parameter, respectively. Two-dimensional finite-element analysis and experimental studies confirm the validation of the proposed model. The model employs two primary factors, i.e., the short-circuit turn number nm and the position angle αsm, to reflect the short-circuit degree and the short-circuit position, respectively. By feeding these two factors as well as the detailed parameters of the generator into the model, the electromechanical feature data such as the phase current and EMT can be quickly assessed, and the developing tendency of the key MFD-based parameters can be conveniently predicted.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Learning Representations With Local and Global Geometries Preserved for
           Machine Fault Diagnosis
    • Authors: Yue Li;Chamara Kasun Liyanaarachchi Lekamalage;Tianchi Liu;Pin-An Chen;Guang-Bin Huang;
      Pages: 2360 - 2370
      Abstract: Recently, deep learning-based representation learning methods have attracted increasing attention in machine fault diagnosis. However, few existing methods consider the geometry of data samples. In this paper, we propose a novel method to obtain representations that preserve the geometry of input data. More specifically, we formulate two cost functions to preserve the local and global geometries of input data, respectively and another cost function to reconstruct the input data. Furthermore, to simplify the training process, we formulate a discrimination cost function based on the label information. By jointly optimizing all cost functions, the method can efficiently learn discriminative representations with the local and global geometry of input data preserved. Furthermore, the proposed method can obtain hierarchical representations without any additional tuning step. On two benchmark datasets, the proposed method demonstrates better fault classification performance and shorter training and test time. Therefore, it is an efficient tool to provide accurate information about machine conditions for making maintenance decision and saving costs.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • A Game-Theoretic Approach to Cross-Layer Security Decision-Making in
           Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems
    • Authors: Kaixing Huang;Chunjie Zhou;Yuanqing Qin;Weixun Tu;
      Pages: 2371 - 2379
      Abstract: Current security measures in industrial cyber-physical systems (ICPS) lack the active decision capability to defend against highly-organized cyber-attacks. In this paper, a security decision-making approach based on stochastic game model is proposed to characterize the interaction between attackers and defenders in ICPSs and generate optimal defense strategies to minimize system losses. The major distinction of this approach is that it presents a practical way to build a cross-layer security game model for ICPSs by means of quantitative vulnerability analysis and time-based unified payoff quantification. A case study on a hardware-in-the-loop simulation testbed is carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • A Correlation-Based Distributed Fault Detection Method and Its Application
           to a Hot Tandem Rolling Mill Process
    • Authors: Kai Zhang;Kaixiang Peng;Steven X. Ding;Zhiwen Chen;Xu Yang;
      Pages: 2380 - 2390
      Abstract: In a hot tandem rolling mill (HTRM) process, the operating performance of mill stands can determine the quality of steel products, thus, should be properly monitored. Unlike previous work, which focused on a single stand or multiple stands together, this paper proposes an improved statistical fault detection (FD) method for real-time process monitoring of a target stand by considering its correlation with neighboring stands. First, it is verified that the detection performance of the traditional statistical FD method can be improved by reducing the influence of noises in process data. Then, a distributed canonical correlation analysis (CCA)-based FD method is developed to reduce the influence at the target stand by means of the compressed data transmitted from neighboring stands through a communication network. Furthermore, the proposed method can decrease the transmission and computational costs incurred by the centralized CCA method, which makes it applicable to the HTRM process. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is finally carried out to validate the proposed method, where better monitoring performance is shown compared with the existing methods.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Reducing Motion-Induced Noise With Mechanically Resonant Coil Sensor in a
           Rigid Helicopter Transient Electromagnetic System
    • Authors: Fei Liu;Jun Lin;Yanzhang Wang;Shilong Wang;Quan Xu;Xuefeng Cao;Zhanhui Li;Bin Chen;
      Pages: 2391 - 2401
      Abstract: Motion-induced noise (MIN) level is a crucial factor in a rigid helicopter transient electromagnetic (TEM) system, which is limited by two intrinsic constraints. First, the large transient transmitting current generates a disordered electromagnetic field at the sensing area that restricts the configuration of the coil sensor. Paradoxically, the MIN's frequency range is from 10 to 40 Hz, which covers the TEM signal's base frequency (25 Hz) due to the mechanical character of the coil sensor on the platform. Filtering the MIN is very difficult because the MIN and TEM signals are cogenetic from the coil sensor and they have overlapping frequency distributions. An effective way to reduce the MIN is to separate it from the TEM signal in the frequency spectrum. Hence, a mechanically resonant coil sensor configuration is designed in this paper to change the mechanical character of the coil sensor and reconcile the two conflicting aspects. Prospectively, the frequency of the MIN is decreased to 8.6 Hz. After processing the recorded data with the same method as before, the MIN level is reduced to 10 nV/m2 from previously 60 nV/m2 in field exploration. Given the anomaly response over the ore body, the detection resolution is improved. The detection depth can be increased by dozens of meters based on the explanatory layer model.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • An Energy-Efficient Multimode Multichannel Gas-Sensor System With
           Learning-Based Optimization and Self-Calibration Schemes
    • Authors: Kyeonghwan Park;Subin Choi;Hee Young Chae;Chan Sam Park;Seungwook Lee;Yeongjin Lim;Heungjoo Shin;Jae Joon Kim;
      Pages: 2402 - 2410
      Abstract: This paper presents an energy-efficient intelligent multisensor system for hazardous gases, whose performance can be adaptively optimized through a multimode structure and a learning-based pattern recognition algorithm. The multimode operation provides control capability on the tradeoff relationship between accuracy and power consumption. In-house microelectro-mechanical (MEMS) devices, with a suspended nanowire structure, are manufactured to provide desired characteristics of small size, low power, and high sensitivity. Pattern recognition to combine the dimensionality reduction and the neural network is adopted to improve the selectivity of MEMS gas sensors. Moreover, potential deviations in sensing characteristics are calibrated through a proposed self-calibration zooming structure. Reconfigurable circuits for these key features are integrated into an adaptive readout integrated circuit which is fabricated in a 180-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor process. For its system-level verification, a wireless multichannel gas-sensor system prototype is implemented and experimentally verified to achieve 2.6 times efficiency improvement.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Charge-Based Supercapacitor Storage Estimation for Indoor Sub-mW
           Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting Powered Wireless Sensor Nodes
    • Authors: Xicai Yue;Janice Kiely;Des Gibson;Emmanuel M. Drakakis;
      Pages: 2411 - 2421
      Abstract: Supercapacitors offer an attractive energy storage solution for lifetime “fit and forget” photovoltaic (PV) energy harvesting powered wireless sensor nodes for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Whilst their low storage capacity is not an issue for sub-mW PV applications, energy loss in the charge redistribution process is a concern. Currently, there is no effective method to estimate the storage of the supercapacitor in IoT applications for optimal performance with sub-mW input. The existing energy-based method requires supercapacitor model parameters to be obtained and the initial charge state to be determined, consequently it is not suitable for practical applications. This paper defines a charge-based method, which can directly evaluate supercapacitor's storage with straightforward calculations. Time constant analysis and experimental tests demonstrate that with the newly proposed method, the manufacturer-specified tiny leakage current, although measured long after postcharge (e.g., 72 h), can be directly used, making the storage estimation for a supercapacitor in IoT applications as simple as that for an ordinary capacitor. In addition, the demonstrated tiny leakage current at the required energy storage for a sub-mW PV-powered IoT application enables a supercapacitor alone to be employed as the storage mechanism, thus achieving lifetime battery-replacement-free, self-powered IoT nodes.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Novel Method for Direct Measurement of Air Gap Anomalies in Direct-Drive
           Electrical Motors
    • Authors: Jernej Herman;Samo Beguš;Polona Mihalič;Jovan Bojkovski;
      Pages: 2422 - 2429
      Abstract: This paper presents a novel measuring system for detecting air gap anomalies in direct-drive electrical motors. The air gap anomalies can be of different types of eccentricity that may in extreme cases result in a mechanical rub between the stator and rotor, potentially leading to a motor breakdown. A novel measuring method is proposed using a sensory system integrated in a motor air gap to measure its width directly in either a static or dynamic state. It uses an optical sensory (OS) system to measure reflection of the infrared radiation between the rotor and stator. The method is validated by using a parallel measuring system employing an analog Hall sensory (AHS) system that measures the change in the magnetic flux density. The two measuring systems are calibrated by comparing them to a reference laboratory measuring system consisting of a camera and lenses. The calibration is performed in a laboratory in a motor static state within one mechanical rotation cycle of the rotor. Using different calibration techniques, the optimal system accuracy with a maximum permissible error of 0.15 mm is obtained, in the measuring range between 0 and 2 mm. It covers most applications of the direct-drive electrical motors. The new measuring method is validated by using an experimental setup consisting of the presented OS system and validation system consisting of an AHS system integrated on a testing platform (Smart Fortwo car).
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • $_{infty+}$ +and+Iterative+Learning+Control&rft.title=Industrial+Electronics,+IEEE+Transactions+on&rft.issn=0278-0046&;&rft.aufirst=Hui&;Yongbing+Wen;Xingjian+Shen;Hao+Zhang;Lining+Sun;">High-Speed AFM Imaging of Nanopositioning Stages Using H $_{infty }$ and
           Iterative Learning Control
    • Authors: Hui Xie;Yongbing Wen;Xingjian Shen;Hao Zhang;Lining Sun;
      Pages: 2430 - 2439
      Abstract: This paper presents a method that combines a robust controller (H∞) and an iterative learning controller (ILC) to control a low mechanical bandwidth nanopositioning stage for high-speed atomic force microscopy imaging. In conventional scanning configurations, the imaging speed of a low-resonance frequency scanner is limited to a few Hz. However, the images obtained using the proposed method have no obvious anamorphosis with a scan speed of up to 80 Hz. This method uses a sinusoidal scanning mode in the fast-scan axis, which effectively reduces the mechanical vibration of the XY-scanner and improves the imaging bandwidth. In addition, a compact high-bandwidth Z-scanner configured with a symmetrical dual-actuator was developed to replace the Z-axis of the nanopositioning stage for high-speed tracking of the sample topography. To further improve the imaging performance, an ILC is designed to suppress the nonlinear behavior of piezoelectric and reduce the tracking error. In addition, a model-based H∞ is designed to reduce the measurement error and enhance the image quality. All algorithms and real-time control are implemented with a field-programmable gate array platform. The experimental results demonstrated that these configurations exhibit significant performance improvements by comparison with conventional scanning modes.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • An Analysis of the Impact of Transient Faults on the Performance of the
           CAN-FD Protocol
    • Authors: Daniel Henrique Pohren;Alexandre dos Santos Roque;Tiago Antônio Ingracio Kranz;Edison Pignaton de Freitas;Carlos Eduardo Pereira;
      Pages: 2440 - 2449
      Abstract: The increasing complexity of distributed real-time control systems in the vehicular area has led to the development of new protocols, such as controller area network with a flexible data rate (CAN-FD), that provides high-bandwidth communication with FD rate. Different topologies are used to interconnect electronic control units in safety-critical applications in the automotive area and the applied communication protocols, such as CAN-FD, must comply with reliability requirements. Moreover, the functional operations must be tested to their limits, since they require appropriate assessment techniques for different application scenarios. Recent research has highlighted that power switching systems cause transient faults that affect the communication network. In light of this concern, this paper explores the IEC/TS 62228:2007 and ISO 26262-3/4/9:2018 standards that can act as guidelines for the development of a test method and testing board for evaluating the impact of electrical fast transients on the performance of a distributed automotive control system. Metrics such as difference jitter, average jitter, and packet loss, are used to determine the fault impact on the control law of a critical vehicular control system. The experiments that were conducted show that during the four test scenarios in which the testing board was used, the average jitter increased from 10.41 to 29.05% in the worst case scenario. These results highlight the importance of carrying out consistent tests to prevent critical situations and that these data can be used in software requirements specification phases to improve reliability in vehicular control systems.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • VCA Protocol-Based Multilevel Flexible Architecture on Embedded PLCs for
           Visual Servo Control
    • Authors: Huifeng Wu;Yi Yan;Danfeng Sun;Rene Simon;
      Pages: 2450 - 2459
      Abstract: Visual, motion control, and programmable logic controller (PLC) systems are becoming increasingly inseparable and important in manufacturing. However, the types of programs and hardware used in these systems are numerous, and there are many communication protocols and mixed development methods among the systems; meanwhile, the requirements and complexities of these systems are ever growing. All these factors hinder application implementation for users, and very few reported studies have researched the integration of these three systems to ease complexity. Most of these studies have focused on individual applications. In this paper, we propose a multilevel flexible architecture based on a vision control algorithm (VCA) protocol. This multilevel architecture includes a flexible layer, a control layer, and an algorithm layer. The flexible layer is used to seamlessly integrate the visual system and the embedded PLC (ePLC). The VCA protocol is designed for data interactions between the layers. Correspondingly, customized hardware, memory allocation, and Petri-net-based multithreading structure of the proposed architecture are described in detail. Then, two cases are implemented: a winding machine with a visual system that obtains a regular winding effect by correcting θ, and a binocular catching robot uses cameras to track the trajectory and successfully catch a ball by adjusting speed and position. The results indicate that the proposed VCA-based architecture could easily be applied to two very different scenarios.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Profile-Guided Three-Phase Virtual Resource Management for Energy
           Efficiency of Data Centers
    • Authors: Zhe Ding;Yu-Chu Tian;Maolin Tang;Yuefeng Li;You-Gan Wang;Chunjie Zhou;
      Pages: 2460 - 2468
      Abstract: Energy efficiency is a critical issue in the management of data centers, which form the backbone of cloud computing. Virtual resource management has a significant impact on improving the energy efficiency of data centers. Despite the progress in this area, virtual resource management has been considered mainly at two separate levels: application assignment and virtual machine placement. It has not been well-investigated in a unified framework for both levels, limiting further improvement in the energy efficiency of data centers. To address this issue, this paper proposes the virtual resource management problem for energy efficiency as a constrained optimization problem. Then, this paper simplifies the problem through profile-guided task classification and problem decomposition for complexity reduction and improved energy efficiency. After that, a three-phase framework and algorithms are presented for profiling and profile updating, task classification and application assignment, and successive virtual machine placement. Experimental studies show energy savings of 8-12% by the three-phase framework compared to the existing technique.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Hybrid-Model-Based Intelligent Optimization of Ironmaking Process
    • Authors: Heng Zhou;Haifeng Zhang;Chunjie Yang;
      Pages: 2469 - 2479
      Abstract: Due to the limits on market requirements, material conditions, and production situations in manufacturing process, conventional optimization approaches are difficult to obtain optimal economical and technical indices with physical constraints. To optimize several conflicting objects such as production rate, economic benefits, and gas emission, a hybrid-model-based intelligent optimization method that consists of an improved genetic algorithm and derived deep learning is put forward in this paper. Integration of the hybrid model has made modeling and optimizing an indivisible whole, in which the fitness of the genetic algorithm comes from deep neural networks by weighted sum of the output variables that correspond to the input solutions. The recurrent neural network (RNN) with disposition-gated recurrent unit (dGRU) is applied to capture the dynamics of blast furnace by training the model over datasets recorded in the production scene. Meanwhile, the self-adaptive population genetic algorithm (SAPGA) with a varied population size depending on the fitness distribution is used to locate the optimal solutions under current working conditions. The hybrid intelligent optimization model, validated by both numerical tests and practical data, has been running in an ironmaking plant for one year. It has proved to be successful in meeting industry demands by optimizing multiproduction indices simultaneously.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
  • Is Using A Complex Control Gain in Three-Phase FLLs Reasonable'
    • Authors: Saeed Golestan;Josep M. Guerrero;Juan C. Vasquez;
      Pages: 2480 - 2484
      Abstract: A frequency-locked loop (FLL) is a stationary reference frame adaptive recursive filter with a high popularity in different engineering applications, particularly for extracting the grid voltage parameters and synchronization of power converters. In three-phase applications, the reduced-order generalized integrator-based FLL (ROGI-FLL) is a standard structure and a basic unit for designing more advanced FLLs. Very recently, to supposedly enhance the ROGI-FLL performance, using a complex control gain (instead of the traditional real one) in its structure has been proposed in the literature. Applying such a control gain, however, has some drawbacks that have not been discussed before. Explaining these shortcomings is the main objective of this letter. To facilitate this task, a small-signal model for a basic complex-coefficient ROGI-FLL (CC-ROGI-FLL) is obtained and analyzed. A numerical performance comparison between the CC-ROGI-FLL and ROGI-FLL is also conducted.
      PubDate: March 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 3 (2020)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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