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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 207 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advanced Materials Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Australian Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 309)
ECTI Transactions on Computer and Information Technology (ECTI-CIT)     Open Access  
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 124)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 109)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 103)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elektronika ir Elektortechnika     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Emitor : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
EPE Journal : European Power Electronics and Drives     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 102)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Letters on Electromagnetic Compatibility Practice and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Magnetics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Open Journal of Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Open Journal of Industry Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 77)
IEEE Pulse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 367)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 227)
IEEE Transactions on Haptics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
IEEE Women in Engineering Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access  
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Jurnal ELTIKOM : Jurnal Teknik Elektro, Teknologi Informasi dan Komputer     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Revue Méditerranéenne des Télécommunications     Open Access  
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.536
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 5  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1939-1412
Published by IEEE Homepage  [229 journals]
  • Proprioceptive Localization of the Fingers: Coarse, Biased, and
    • Authors: Bharat Dandu;Irene A. Kuling;Yon Visell;
      Pages: 259 - 269
      Abstract: The proprioceptive sense provides somatosensory information about positions of parts of the body, information that is essential for guiding behavior and monitoring the body. Few studies have investigated the perceptual localization of individual fingers, despite their importance for tactile exploration and fine manipulation. We present two experiments assessing the performance of proprioceptive localization of multiple fingers, either alone or in combination with visual cues. In the first experiment, we used a virtual reality paradigm to assess localization of multiple fingers. Surprisingly, the errors averaged 3.7 cm per digit, which represents a significant fraction of the range of motion of any finger. Both random and systematic errors were large. The latter included participant-specific biases and participant-independent distortions that evoked similar observations from prior studies of perceptual representations of hand shape. In a second experiment, we introduced visual cues about positions of nearby fingers, and observed that this contextual information could greatly decrease localization errors. The results suggest that only coarse proprioceptive information is available through somatosensation, and that finer information may not be necessary for fine motor behavior. These findings may help elucidate human hand function, and inform new applications to the design of human–computer interfaces or interactions in virtual reality.
      PubDate: April-June 1 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2020)
  • A Haptic Shared-Control Architecture for Guided Multi-Target Robotic
    • Authors: Firas Abi-Farraj;Claudio Pacchierotti;Oleg Arenz;Gerhard Neumann;Paolo Robuffo Giordano;
      Pages: 270 - 285
      Abstract: Although robotic telemanipulation has always been a key technology for the nuclear industry, little advancement has been seen over the last decades. Despite complex remote handling requirements, simple mechanically linked master–slave manipulators still dominate the field. Nonetheless, there is a pressing need for more effective robotic solutions able to significantly speed up the decommissioning of legacy radioactive waste. This paper describes a novel haptic shared-control approach for assisting a human operator in the sort and segregation of different objects in a cluttered and unknown environment. A three-dimensional scan of the scene is used to generate a set of potential grasp candidates on the objects at hand. These grasp candidates are then used to generate guiding haptic cues, which assist the operator in approaching and grasping the objects. The haptic feedback is designed to be smooth and continuous as the user switches from a grasp candidate to the next one, or from one object to another one, avoiding any discontinuity or abrupt changes. To validate our approach, we carried out two human–subject studies, enrolling 15 participants. We registered an average improvement of 20.8%, 20.1%, and 32.5% in terms of completion time, linear trajectory, and perceived effectiveness, respectively, between the proposed approach and standard teleoperation.
      PubDate: April-June 1 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2020)
  • Multi-Sensory Stimuli Improve Distinguishability of Cutaneous Haptic Cues
    • Authors: Jennifer L. Sullivan;Nathan Dunkelberger;Joshua Bradley;Joseph Young;Ali Israr;Frances Lau;Keith Klumb;Freddy Abnousi;Marcia K. O'Malley;
      Pages: 286 - 297
      Abstract: Wearable haptic systems offer portable, private tactile communication to a human user. To date, advances in wearable haptic devices have typically focused on the optimization of haptic cue transmission using a single modality, or have combined two types of cutaneous feedbacks, each mapped to a particular parameter of the task. Alternatively, researchers have employed arrays of haptic tactile actuators to maximize information throughput to a user. However, when large cue sets are to be transmitted, such as those required to communicate language, perceptual interference between transmitted cues can decrease the efficacy of single-sensory systems, or require large footprints to ensure salient spatiotemporal cues are rendered to the user. In this paper, we present a wearable, multi-sensory haptic feedback system, MISSIVE (Multi-sensory Interface of Stretch, Squeeze, and Integrated Vibration Elements), that conveys multi-sensory haptic cues to the user's upper arm. We present experimental results that demonstrate that rendering haptic cues with multi-sensory components—specifically, lateral skin stretch, radial squeeze, and vibrotactile stimuli—improved perceptual distinguishability in comparison to similar cues with all-vibrotactile components. These results support the incorporation of diverse stimuli, both vibrotactile and nonvibrotactile, for applications requiring large haptic cue sets.
      PubDate: April-June 1 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2020)
  • Data-Driven Texture Modeling and Rendering on Electrovibration Display
    • Authors: Reza Haghighi Osgouei;Jin Ryong Kim;Seungmoon Choi;
      Pages: 298 - 311
      Abstract: With the introduction of variable friction displays, either based on ultrasonic or electrovibration technology, new possibilities have emerged in haptic texture rendering on flat surfaces. In this work, we propose a data-driven method for realistic texture rendering on an electrovibration display. We first describe a motorized linear tribometer designed to collect lateral frictional forces from textured surfaces under various scanning velocities and normal forces. We then propose an inverse dynamics model of the display to describe its output-input relationship using nonlinear autoregressive neural networks with external input. Forces resulting from applying a pseudo-random binary signal to the display are used to train each network under the given experimental condition. In addition, we propose a two-step interpolation scheme to estimate actuation signals for arbitrary conditions under which no prior data have been collected. A comparison between real and virtual forces in the frequency domain shows promising results for recreating virtual textures similar to the real ones, also revealing the capabilities and limitations of the proposed method. We also conducted a human user study to compare the performance of our neural-network-based method with that of a record-and-playback method. The results showed that the similarity between the real and virtual textures generated by our approach was significantly higher.
      PubDate: April-June 1 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2020)
  • Co-Actuation: A Method for Achieving High Stiffness and Low Inertia for
           Haptic Devices
    • Authors: Ruihang Chu;Yuru Zhang;Hongdong Zhang;Weiliang Xu;Jee-Hwan Ryu;Dangxiao Wang;
      Pages: 312 - 324
      Abstract: Achieving high stiffness and low inertia is a big challenge for current haptic devices. Impedance-based devices are limited in providing high stiffness while, in contrast, admittance-based devices are limited in generating low inertia. Thus, it is difficult to simulate hard contact and small inertia simultaneously in virtual environments. In this paper, we introduce a co-actuation module to overcome this difficulty. The module is a one degree-of-freedom (DOF) revolute joint which consists of a link and a physical constraint with a clearance between the two components. A motor controls the physical constraint moving cooperatively with the link. In free space, the constraint has no contact to the link and thus, users can move the link freely without feeling the inertia of the motor. In constrained space, the constraint comes into contact with the link and thus, users can feel a resistance from the motor. By means of a direct physical contact between the link and the constraint, users can feel a hard virtual surface. This paper describes the principle and the implementation of the proposed co-actuation module. Performance evaluation was conducted using a two-DOF haptic device in a task workspace of 100 mm × 100 mm. The effective inertia of the device is 64-142 g within the task workspace. The device can stably render a virtual wall with stiffness as high as 65 N/mm. The penetration to the virtual wall was 0.02-0.41 mm when tapping the wall with a speed range of 80-320 mm/s. The maximum back driving force was about 0.19 N when moving within 4.5-8.6 mm/s. The experimental results demonstrate that the concept of co-actuation is feasible in achieving high force, high stiffness range and low inertia for haptic devices.
      PubDate: April-June 1 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2020)
  • FingerSight: A Vibrotactile Wearable Ring for Assistance With Locating and
           Reaching Objects in Peripersonal Space
    • Authors: Shantanu A. Satpute;Janet R. Canady;Roberta L. Klatzky;George D. Stetten;
      Pages: 325 - 333
      Abstract: This paper describes a prototype guidance system, “FingerSight,” to help people without vision locate and reach to objects in peripersonal space. It consists of four evenly spaced tactors embedded into a ring worn on the index finger, with a small camera mounted on top. Computer-vision analysis of the camera image controls vibrotactile feedback, leading users to move their hand to near targets. Two experiments tested the functionality of the prototype system. The first found that participants could discriminate between five different vibrotactile sites (four individual tactors and all simultaneously) with a mean accuracy of 88.8% after initial training. In the second experiment, participants were blindfolded and instructed to move their hand wearing the device to one of four locations within arm's reach, while hand trajectories were tracked. The tactors were controlled using two different strategies: (1) repeatedly signal axis with largest error, and (2) signal both axes in alternation. Participants demonstrated essentially straight-line trajectories toward the target under both instructions, but the temporal parameters (rate of approach, duration) showed an advantage for correction on both axes in sequence.
      PubDate: April-June 1 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2020)
  • Tactile Stimulation by Repetitive Lateral Movement of Midair Ultrasound
    • Authors: Ryoko Takahashi;Keisuke Hasegawa;Hiroyuki Shinoda;
      Pages: 334 - 342
      Abstract: We report a new vibrotactile modulation method of midair ultrasound focus, namely, lateral modulation (LM), in which the focus quickly moves along a small cyclic trajectory and provides stronger and clearer vibrotactile stimuli than those by the conventional amplitude modulation (AM) method. Midair ultrasound haptics has an essential technical advantage of offering remote, non-contact, and pinpoint tactile stimuli on device-free bare skin. On the other hand, lack of clarity in the presented vibrotactile sensation has often been pointed out, and until now, an AM focus has been valid only on glabrous skin. Our main scientific contribution of the article is to verify the LM method, with the following experimental findings newly obtained. We confirmed that with the same maximum output amplitude of the ultrasound phased arrays, LM stimuli with circular focal trajectories were sensed stronger than AM stimuli by glabrous skin and hairy skin in a modulation frequency of 10-200 Hz. We also found that the detection threshold in glabrous skin mainly depended on the focal speed, whereas the tendency in hairy skin was different from that. With these results, we discuss a basis of perceptional mechanism that responds to LM stimuli, along with practical aspects of potential applications.
      PubDate: April-June 1 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2020)
  • Effect of Auditory Feedback on Tactile Intensity Perception in a
           Touchscreen Application
    • Authors: Hong-In Won;M. Ercan Altinsoy;
      Pages: 343 - 353
      Abstract: This article presents the effect of auditory feedback on tactile intensity perception, which may be of interest to haptic or audiotactile interaction engineers. An experimental setup consisted of a touchscreen, an electrodynamic shaker, and a closed-back headphone for a subject to interact with the touchscreen and to feel audiotactile feedback. In the experiment, participants were asked to judge perceived tactile intensity, using the magnitude estimation method, in the absence and presence of simultaneous auditory feedback. All data collected from the subjects were analyzed statistically, and then the effect of auditory feedback was investigated focusing on the following aspects: whether the presence of auditory feedback changes perceived tactile intensity, whether the frequency component of auditory feedback affects tactile intensity perception, and whether the coincidence of tactile and auditory frequencies influences on tactile intensity perception. Besides, changes in Stevens's exponent were analyzed to discuss how tactile intensity perception varies due to the auditory feedback. Finally, an equal intensity contour, in the domain of sensation level and frequency of tactile stimulation, was drawn. It can be applied to adjust the level of tactile stimuli for haptic feedback designers to provide a constant perceived tactile intensity considering the presence of auditory feedback.
      PubDate: April-June 1 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2020)
  • Evolution and Analysis of Hapkit: An Open-Source Haptic Device for
           Educational Applications
    • Authors: Melisa Orta Martinez;Cara M. Nunez;Ting Liao;Tania K. Morimoto;Allison M. Okamura;
      Pages: 354 - 367
      Abstract: We present the design, evolution and analysis of “Hapkit,” a low-cost, open-source kinesthetic haptic device for use in educational applications. Hapkit was developed in 2013 based on the design of the Stanford Haptic Paddle, with the goal of decreasing cost and increasing accessibility for educational applications, including online teaching, K-12 school use, and college dynamic systems and control courses. In order to develop Hapkit for these purposes, we tested a variety of transmission, actuation, and structural materials. Hapkit 3.0, the latest version, uses a capstan drive, inexpensive DC motor, and 3-D printed structural materials. A frequency-domain system identification method was used to characterize Hapkit dynamics across the various designs. This method was validated using a first principles parameter measurement and a transient response analysis. This characterization shows that Hapkit 3.0 has lower damping and Coulomb friction than previous designs. We also performed a user study demonstrating that Hapkit 3.0 improves discrimination of virtual stiffness compared to previous designs. The design evolution of Hapkit resulted in a low-cost, high-performance device appropriate for open-source dissemination and educational applications.
      PubDate: April-June 1 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2020)
  • Tactile Perception of Virtual Edges and Gratings Displayed by Friction
           Modulation via Ultrasonic Actuation
    • Authors: Muhammad Khurram Saleem;Cetin Yilmaz;Cagatay Basdogan;
      Pages: 368 - 379
      Abstract: Tactile discrimination and roughness perception of real textures are extensively studied and underlying perceptual mechanisms are relatively well-established. However, tactile perception of virtual textures rendered by friction modulation techniques on touch surfaces has not been investigated in detail yet. In this article, we investigated our ability to discriminate two consecutive step changes in friction (called edges), followed by discrimination and roughness perception of multiple edges (called periodic gratings). The results showed that discrimination of two consecutive edges was significantly influenced by edge sequence: a step fall in friction ($FF$) followed by a step rise in friction ($RF$) was discriminated more easily than the reverse order. On the other hand, periodic gratings displayed by consecutive sequences of $FF$ followed by $RF$ were perceived with the same acuity as compared to vice versa. Independent of the edge sequence, we found that a relative difference of 14% in spatial period was required to discriminate two periodic gratings. Moreover, the roughness perception of periodic gratings decreased with increasing spatial period for the range that we have investigated (spatial period $>$ 2 mm), despite the lack of spatial cues on grating height. We also observed that rate of change in friction coefficient was better correlated with the roughness perception than the friction coefficient itself. These results will further help to understand and design virtual textures for touch surfaces.
      PubDate: April-June 1 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2020)
  • Experimental Assessment of Absolute Stability in Bilateral Teleoperation
    • Authors: Chiedu Nnaji Mokogwu;Kamran Razi;Keyvan Hashtrudi-Zaad;
      Pages: 380 - 392
      Abstract: Absolute stability analysis of bilateral teleoperation systems are typically model-based. Under borderline conditions of absolute stability, depending on the degree of uncertainty in the dynamic model of the teleoperator and existing noise, the system may behave as potentially unstable when the model-based analysis predicts otherwise. In this article, we propose a methodology to experimentally verify the absolute stability of master-slave teleoperation systems. Since absolute stability demands bounds of all possible environments, we achieve this by conducting only three experiments that are often experienced in teleoperation: free slave, mass-carrying slave and locked slave (rigid environment). We will validate and compare our proposed method with the benchmark Llewellyns absolute stability criterion. Furthermore, we will examine the robustness of the proposed method and will provide guidelines for choosing the mass for the mass-carrying load condition.
      PubDate: April-June 1 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2020)
  • Dual-Parameter Modulation Improves Stimulus Localization in Multichannel
           Electrotactile Stimulation
    • Authors: Lucia Seminara;Hoda Fares;Marta Franceschi;Maurizio Valle;Matija Štrbac;Dario Farina;Strahinja Dosen;
      Pages: 393 - 403
      Abstract: Among most challenging open issues in prosthetic research is the development of a robust bidirectional interface between a prosthesis and its user. Commercially available prosthetic systems are mechanically advanced, but they do not provide somatosensory feedback. Here, we present a novel non-invasive interface for multichannel electrotactile feedback, comprising a matrix of 24 pads, and we investigate the ability of able-bodied human subjects to localize the electrotactile stimulus delivered through the matrix. For this purpose, we tested conventional stimulation (same frequency for all pads) and a novel dual-parameter modulation scheme (interleaved frequency and intensity) designed to facilitate the spatial localization over the electrode. Electrotactile stimulation was also compared to mechanical stimulation of the same locations on the skin. Experimental results on eight able-bodied subjects demonstrated that the proposed interleaved coding substantially improved the spatial localization compared to same-frequency stimulation. The results also showed that same-frequency stimulation was equivalent to mechanical stimulation, whereas the performance with dual-parameter modulation was significantly better. These are encouraging outcomes for the application of a multichannel interface for the restoration of feedback in prosthetics. The high-resolution augmented interfaces might be used to explore novel scenarios for effective communication with the prosthesis user enabled by maximizing information transmission.
      PubDate: April-June 1 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2020)
  • Haptic Material Analysis and Classification Inspired by Human Exploratory
    • Authors: Matti Strese;Lara Brudermueller;Jonas Kirsch;Eckehard Steinbach;
      Pages: 404 - 424
      Abstract: We present a framework for the acquisition and parametrization of object material properties. The introduced acquisition device, denoted as Texplorer2, is able to extract surface material properties while a human operator is performing exploratory procedures. Using the Texplorer2, we scanned 184 material classes which we labeled according to biological, chemical, and geological naming conventions. Based on these real material recordings, we introduce a novel set of mathematical features which align with corresponding material properties defined in perceptual studies from related work and classify the materials using common machine learning techniques. Validation results of the proposed multi-modal features lead to an overall classification accuracy of 90.2% $pm$ 1.2% and an F$_text{text{1}}$ score of 0.90 $pm$ 0.01 using the random forest classifier. For the sake of comparison, a deep neural network is trained and tested on images of the material surfaces; it outperforms (90.7% $pm$ 1.0%) the hand-crafted feature-based approach yet leads to more critical misclassifications in terms of the proposed taxonomy.
      PubDate: April-June 1 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2020)
  • Influence of Sparse Contact Point and Finger Penetration in Object on
           Shape Recognition
    • Authors: Yusuke Ujitoko;Sho Sakurai;Koichi Hirota;
      Pages: 425 - 435
      Abstract: Making a virtual object shape recognizable using a haptic display is one of the major themes of haptic research. In previous works, multipoint haptic displays have been developed that had a high contact point density between the users’ finger skin and the virtual object. However, the ideal contact point density that enables intuitive shape recognition has not been determined yet. Meanwhile, there is also a fundamental problem; that is, real fingers and virtual objects do penetrate, which cannot be solved with such wearable displays. This article investigated the influence of both contact point density and penetration on the shape recognition performance. We prepared a real testing environment where the user touched the real object, and where we could simulate both the sparse contact point and the penetration. Specifically, users’ fingers wore thin film coated with glass particles and they touched the urethane foams that deformed flexibly. The result of experiments showed a broad trend where the sparseness of the contact and the softness of the object influenced the exploration time required to achieve recognition. In addition, the result suggested that the larger contact density could make up for the problem of penetration. We confirmed it by conducting two different tasks: (1) exploring the object surface with the index finger and (2) grasping the object surface with the thumb and the index finger.
      PubDate: April-June 1 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2020)
  • Haptic Exploration During Fast Video Playback: Vibrotactile Support for
           Event Search in Robot Operation Videos
    • Authors: Daniel Gongora;Masashi Konyo;Hikaru Nagano;Satoshi Tadokoro;
      Pages: 436 - 447
      Abstract: Fast playback allows quick video exploration, but it also decreases the saliency of short events. We propose a haptic exploration for detection of short events during fast video playback, considering that event-related information in vibrotactile feedback can be preserved during fast playback using Time Scale Modification (TSM) methods developed for audio. We evaluate our proposal in two collision detection experiments using first-person view (FPV) videos. In the first experiment, viewers watched at a fixed playback speed, i.e., $1times$ or $2times$, videos recorded with a camera mounted on a platform cart. In this experiment, event-related vibrations were measured at the back of the camera. In the second experiment, viewers used a media controller to adjust the playback speed in videos simulating an exploration with a mobile robot. In this experiment, event-related vibrations were generated from the measurements used in the first experiment. We show that a haptic exploration improves collision awareness under either constant or adjustable playback speed. In both experiments, the number of collisions reported without vibrotactile feedback deviated the greatest from the actual number of collisions in a video. Moreover, collision detection performance with vibrations time-scaled without Time Scale Modification (TSM) methods was not significantly different from performance without vibrations.
      PubDate: April-June 1 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2020)
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