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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 202 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advanced Materials Technologies     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 99)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Australian Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 304)
ECTI Transactions on Computer and Information Technology (ECTI-CIT)     Open Access  
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 123)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 108)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 103)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
EPE Journal : European Power Electronics and Drives     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 100)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Letters on Electromagnetic Compatibility Practice and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Magnetics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Open Journal of Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Open Journal of Industry Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 77)
IEEE Pulse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 363)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221)
IEEE Transactions on Haptics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
IEEE Women in Engineering Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access  
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal ELTIKOM : Jurnal Teknik Elektro, Teknologi Informasi dan Komputer     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Revue Méditerranéenne des Télécommunications     Open Access  
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ural Radio Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.267
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 38  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0018-9294
Published by IEEE Homepage  [228 journals]
  • Frontcover
    • Abstract: Presents the front cover for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
    • Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering (T-BME)
    • Abstract: These instructions give guidelines for preparing papers for this publication. Presents information for authors publishing in this journal.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering Handling Editors
    • Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • A Wearable Human Motion Tracking Device Using Micro Flow Sensor
           Incorporating a Micro Accelerometer
    • Authors: Shi Qiang Liu;Jun Chang Zhang;Rong Zhu;
      Pages: 940 - 948
      Abstract: Objective: This paper proposes a wearable human motion tracking device using micro flow sensor incorporating a micro accelerometer, which allows detecting postures of human limbs in dynamic motions. Methods: A micro flow sensor is used to detect motion velocity, from which, motion acceleration can be estimated. Thereby, the limb postures are figured out by using the components of the gravity acceleration that are determined by subtracting the motion accelerations from the accelerometer outputs. The motion tracking device is packaged in a watch-type case, which allows it to be wearable. A Kalman filter is employed to implement sensor data fusion. Results: The motion velocity, motion acceleration, and postures of human limbs can be effectively detected by the proposed motion tracking device and methodology. Experiments including human limb tracking are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed device and methodology. Conclusion: The experimental results show that the measurements of human limb motion and posture are feasible and free of accumulative errors. Significance: The flow-aid motion tracking device is wearable, environmental-restriction free, and practicable for long-term monitoring, and provides a promising approach for physical rehabilitation, intelligent prosthesis, personal athletic training, etc.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Relationship Between Ascending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms Hemodynamics and
           Biomechanical Properties
    • Authors: Francesca Condemi;Salvatore Campisi;Magalie Viallon;Pierre Croisille;Stéphane Avril;
      Pages: 949 - 956
      Abstract: Goal: Ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (aTAA) is a major cause of human deaths. Despite important recent progress to better understand its pathogenesis and development, the role played by deranged hemodynamics on aTAA risk of rupture is still partially unknown. Our aim was to develop and apply a novel methodology to assess the correlation between aTAA rupture risk and hemodynamic biomarkers combining for the first time in vivo, in vitro and in silico analyses. Methods: Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses were performed and validated on 10 patients using patient-specific data derived from CT scan and 4D MRI. Systolic wall shear stress (WSS), time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), flow eccentricity (Floweccentricity) and helicity intensity (h2) were assessed. A bulge inflation test was carried out in vitro on the 10 aTAA samples resected during surgical repair. The biomechanical and rupture properties of these samples were derived: the burst pressure, the physiological tangent elastic modulus (E_physio), the Cauchy stress at rupture ($sigma_{rm rupt}$), the rupture stretch ($lambda_{rm rupt}$) and the rupture stretch criterion ($gamma_{rm stretch}$). Statistical analysis was performed to determine correlation between all variables. Results: Statistically highly significant (p
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • A 2-D Cell Layer Study on Synergistic Combinations of High-Voltage and
           Low-Voltage Irreversible Electroporation Pulses
    • Authors: Yanpeng Lv;Chenguo Yao;Boris Rubinsky;
      Pages: 957 - 965
      Abstract: Irreversible electroporation (IRE) employs brief, high-electric field pulses to ablate tumors while preserving the extracellular matrix. Recently, we showed that combining short high-voltage (SHV) IRE pulses and long low-voltage (LLV) IRE pulses can enlarge the tissue ablation region, presumably through a synergistic effect. Objective: The goal of this study is to further investigate the effect of this combination on a 2-D cell layer tumor model. Methods: 2-D layers of tumor cells are exposed to various SHV and LLV combinations, and the results of propidium iodide (PI) and fluorescein diacetate staining are examined to correlate treatment protocols with the ensuing irreversible and reversible electroporation areas. Results: The combination of SHV+LLV pulses produces a larger area of electroporation and ablation than LLV+SHV pulses, LLV pulses alone, and SHV pulses alone. Conclusion: Judiciously combining SHV and LLV pulses can produce a synergistic effect that enlarges the electroporation-induced ablation area. A hypothetical explanation for this effect is that it involves a combination of pore expansion and electrolysis induced by LLV pulses in the area that had been reversibly permeabilized by the SHV pulses. Significance: This paper is valuable for the design of improved IRE protocols and provides a hypothesis for the mechanisms involved.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Toward Safe Retinal Microsurgery: Development and Evaluation of an
           RNN-Based Active Interventional Control Framework
    • Authors: Changyan He;Niravkumar Patel;Mahya Shahbazi;Yang Yang;Peter Gehlbach;Marin Kobilarov;Iulian Iordachita;
      Pages: 966 - 977
      Abstract: Objective: Robotics-assisted retinal microsurgery provides several benefits including improvement of manipulation precision. The assistance provided to the surgeons by current robotic frameworks is, however, a “passive” support, e.g., by damping hand tremor. Intelligent assistance and active guidance are, however, lacking in the existing robotic frameworks. In this paper, an active interventional control framework (AICF) has been presented to increase operation safety by actively intervening the operation to avoid exertion of excessive forces to the sclera. Methods: AICF consists of the following four components: first, the steady-hand eye robot as the robotic module; second, a sensorized tool to measure tool-to-sclera forces; third, a recurrent neural network to predict occurrence of undesired events based on a short history of time series of sensor measurements; and finally, a variable admittance controller to command the robot away from the undesired instances. Results: A set of user studies were conducted involving 14 participants (with four surgeons). The users were asked to perform a vessel-following task on an eyeball phantom with the assistance of AICF as well as other two benchmark approaches, i.e., auditory feedback (AF) and real-time force feedback (RF). Statistical analysis shows that AICF results in a significant reduction of proportion of undesired instances to about 2.5%, compared with 38.4% and 26.2% using AF and RF, respectively. Conclusion: AICF can effectively predict excessive-force instances and augment performance of the user to avoid undesired events during robot-assisted microsurgical tasks. Significance: The proposed system may be extended to other fields of microsurgery and may potentially reduce tissue injury.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • A Real-Time Arrhythmia Heartbeats Classification Algorithm Using Parallel
           Delta Modulations and Rotated Linear-Kernel Support Vector Machines
    • Authors: Xiaochen Tang;Ziwei Ma;Qisong Hu;Wei Tang;
      Pages: 978 - 986
      Abstract: Real-time wearable electrocardiogram monitoring sensor is one of the best candidates in assisting cardiovascular disease diagnosis. In this paper, we present a novel real-time machine learning system for Arrhythmia classification. The system is based on the parallel Delta modulation and QRS/PT wave detection algorithms. We propose a patient dependent rotated linear-kernel support vector machine classifier that combines the global and local classifiers, with three types of feature vectors extracted directly from the Delta modulated bit-streams. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated using the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. According to the AAMI standard, two binary classifications are performed and evaluated, which are supraventricular ectopic beat (SVEB) versus the rest four classes, and ventricular ectopic beat (VEB) versus the rest. For SVEB classification, the preferred SkP-32 method's F1 score, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictivity value are 0.83, 79.3%, 99.6%, and 88.2%, respectively, and for VEB classification, the numbers are 0.92%, 92.8%, 99.4%, and 91.6%, respectively. The results show that the performance of our proposed approach is comparable to that of published research. The proposed low-complexity algorithm has the potential to be implemented as an on-sensor machine learning solution.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Identification of Multidimensional Regulatory Modules Through Multi-Graph
           Matching With Network Constraints
    • Authors: Jiazhou Chen;Guoqiang Han;Aodan Xu;Hongmin Cai;
      Pages: 987 - 998
      Abstract: Objective: The accumulation of large amounts of multidimensional genomic data provides new opportunities to study multilevel biological regulatory associations. Identifying multidimensional regulatory modules (md-modules) from omics data is crucial to provide a comprehensive understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of biological systems. Methods: We develop a multi-graph matching with multiple network constraints (MGMMNC) model to identify the md-modules. The MGMMNC model aims to accurately capture highly relevant md-modules by considering the relationships intra- and inter-multidimensional omics data, including interactions within a network and cycle consistency information. The proposed technique adopts a novel graph-smoothing similarity measurement for the highly contaminated genetic data. Results: The superiority and effectiveness of MGMMNC have been demonstrated by comparative experiments with three state-of-the-art techniques using simulated and cervical cancer data. Conclusion: MGMMNC can accurately and efficiently identify the md-modules that are significantly enriched in gene ontology biological processes and in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Many different level molecules in the same md-module collaboratively regulate the same pathway. Moreover, the md-modules are capable of stratifying patients into subtypes with significant survival differences. Significance: The problem of identifying multidimensional regulatory modules from omics data is formulated as a multi-graph matching problem, and multiple network constraints and cycle consistency information are seamlessly integrated into the matching model.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • A Modeling Approach for Investigating Opto-Mechanical Relationships in the
           Human Eye Lens
    • Authors: Kehao Wang;Demetrios T. Venetsanos;Masato Hoshino;Kentaro Uesugi;Naoto Yagi;Barbara K. Pierscionek;
      Pages: 999 - 1006
      Abstract: Objective: The human visual system alters its focus by a shape change of the eye lens. The extent to which the lens can adjust ocular refractive power is dependent to a significant extent on its material properties. Yet, this fundamental link between the optics and mechanics of the lens has been relatively under-investigated. This study aims to investigate this opto-mechanical link within the eye lens to gain insight into the processes of shape alteration and their respective decline with age. Methods: Finite Element models based on biological lenses were developed for five ages: 16, 35, 40, 57, and 62 years by correlating in vivo measurements of the longitudinal modulus using Brillouin scattering with in vitro X-ray interferometric measurements of refractive index and taking into account various directions of zonular force. Results: A model with radial cortical Young's moduli provides the same amount of refractive power with less change in thickness than a model with uniform cortical Young's modulus with a uniform stress distribution and no discontinuities along the cortico-nuclear boundary. The direction of zonular angles can significantly influence curvature change regardless of the modulus distribution. Conclusions: The present paper proposes a modelling approach for the human lens, coupling optical and mechanical properties, which shows the effect of parameter choice on model response. Significance: This advanced modelling approach, considering the important interplay between optical and mechanical properties, has potential for use in design of accommodating implant lenses and for investigating non-biological causes of pathological processes in the lens (e.g., cataract).
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • A Time-Frequency Approach for Cerebral Embolic Load Monitoring
    • Authors: Syed M. Imaduddin;Kerri L. LaRovere;Barry D. Kussman;Thomas Heldt;
      Pages: 1007 - 1018
      Abstract: Objective: To enable reliable cerebral embolic load monitoring from high-intensity transient signals (HITS) recorded with single-channel transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound. Methods: We propose a HITS detection and characterization method using a weighted-frequency Fourier linear combiner that estimates baseline Doppler signal power. An adaptive threshold is determined by examining the Doppler signal power variance about the baseline estimate, and HITS are extracted if their Doppler power exceeds this threshold. As signatures from multiple emboli may be superimposed, we analyze the detected HITS in the time-frequency (TF) domain to segment the signals into individual emboli. A logistic regression classification approach is employed to classify HITS into emboli or artifacts. Data were collected using a commercial TCD device with emboli-detection capabilities from 12 children undergoing mechanical circulatory support or cardiac catheterization. A subset of 696 HITS were reviewed, annotated, and split into training and testing sets for developing and evaluating the HITS classification algorithm. Results: The classifier yielded 98% and 96% sensitivity for 100% specificity on training and testing data, respectively. The TF approach decomposed 38% of candidate embolic signals into two or more embolic events that ultimately account for 69% of the overall embolic counts. Our processing pipeline resulted in highly accurate emboli identification and produced emboli counts that were lower (by a median of 64%) compared to the commercial ultrasound system's estimates. Significance: Using only single-channel, single-frequency Doppler ultrasound, the proposed method enables sensitive detection and segmentation of embolic signatures. Our approach paves the way toward accurate real--ime cerebral emboli monitoring.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Robust Longitudinal Ankle Edema Assessment Using Wearable Bioimpedance
           Spectroscopy
    • Authors: Samer Mabrouk;Sinan Hersek;Hyeon Ki Jeong;Daniel Whittingslow;Venu G. Ganti;Paul Wolkoff;Omer T. Inan;
      Pages: 1019 - 1029
      Abstract: Objective: We present a robust methodology for tracking ankle edema longitudinally based on bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). Methods: We designed a miniaturized BIS measurement system and employed a novel calibration method that enables accurate, high-resolution measurements with substantially lower power consumption than conventional approaches. Using this state-of-the-art wearable BIS measurement system, we developed a differential measurement technique for robust assessment of ankle edema. This technique addresses many of the major challenges in longitudinal BIS-based edema assessment, including day-to-day variability in electrode placement, positional/postural variability, and intersubject variability. Results: We first evaluated the hardware in bench-top testing, and determined the error of the bioimpedance measurements to be 0.4 Ω for the real components and 0.54 Ω for the imaginary components with a resolution of 0.2 Ω. We then validated the hardware and differential measurement technique in: 1) an ex vivo, fresh-frozen, cadaveric limb model, and 2) a cohort of 11 human subjects for proof of concept (eight healthy controls and five subjects with recently acquired acute unilateral ankle injury). Conclusion: The hardware design, with novel calibration methodology, and differential measurement technique can potentially enable long-term quantification of ankle edema throughout the course of rehabilitation following acute ankle injuries. Significance: This could lead to better-informed decision making regarding readiness to return to activities and/or tailoring of rehabilitation activities to an individual's changing needs.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • The Role of One-Dimensional Model-Generated Inter-Subject Variations in
           Systemic Properties on Wall Shear Stress Indices of Intracranial Aneurysms
           
    • Authors: Raoul R. F. Stevens;Wouter P. Donders;Sjeng Quicken;Frans N. van de Vosse;Werner H. Mess;Tammo Delhaas;Wouter Huberts;
      Pages: 1030 - 1039
      Abstract: Variations in systemic properties of the arterial tree, such as aging-induced vessel stiffness, can alter the shape of pressure and flow waveforms. As a consequence, the hemodynamics around a cerebral aneurysm change, and therefore, also the corresponding in- and outlet boundary conditions (BCs) used for three-dimensional (3D) calculations of hemodynamic indices. In this study, we investigate the effects of variations in systemic properties on wall shear stress (WSS) indices of a cerebral aneurysm. We created a virtual patient database by varying systemic properties within physiological ranges. BCs for 3D-CFD simulations were derived using a pulse wave propagation model for each realization of the virtual database. WSS indices were derived from the 3D simulations and their variabilities quantified. Variations in BCs, caused by changes in systemic properties, yielded variabilities in the WSS indices that were of the same order of magnitude as differences in these WSS indices between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. Sensitivity analysis showed that the systemic properties impacted both in- and outlet BCs simultaneously and altered the WSS indices. We conclude that the influence of variations in patient-specific systemic properties on WSS indices should be evaluated when using WSS indices in multidisciplinary rupture prediction models.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Successful Tumor Electrochemotherapy Using Sine Waves
    • Authors: Tomás García-Sánchez;Borja Mercadal;Melanie Polrot;Adeline Muscat;Hector Sarnago;Óscar Lucía;Lluis M. Mir;
      Pages: 1040 - 1049
      Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this work is to assess the ability of sine waves to perform electrochemotherapy (ECT) and to study the dependence of the frequency of the applied sine wave on the treatment efficacy. Methods: A subcutaneous tumor model in mice was used, and the electric field was delivered in combination with bleomycin. Sinusoidal electric fields of different frequencies, amplitudes, and durations were compared to square waves. Computer simulations were additionally performed. Results: The results confirmed the ability of a sinusoidal electric field to obtain successful ECT responses. A strong dependence on frequency was obtained. The efficacy of the treatment decreased when the frequency of the sine waves was increased. At low sinusoidal frequency, the efficacy of the treatment is very similar to that obtained with a square wave. The collateral effects such as skin burns and muscle contractions decreased for the highest frequency assayed. Conclusion: The use of sine wave burst represents a feasible option for the treatment of cancer by ECT. Significance: These results could have important implications for the treatment of cancer in the clinical world where ECT is performed with dc square pulses.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • A Sensorless Rotational Speed-Based Control System for Continuous Flow
           Left Ventricular Assist Devices
    • Authors: Moustafa Meki;Yu Wang;Palaniappan Sethu;Mohammed Ghazal;Ayman El-Baz;Guruprasad Giridharan;
      Pages: 1050 - 1060
      Abstract: Objective: Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices (CFLVAD) are circulatory support devices that are implanted in patients with end-stage heart failure. We developed a novel control algorithm for CFLVAD to maintain physiologic perfusion while avoiding ventricular suction using only the intrinsic pump measurement of pump speed and without utilizing model-based estimation. Methods: The controller objective is to maintain a differential pump speed setpoint. A mathematical model of the circulatory system coupled with a model of a CFLVAD was used to test the control algorithm in silico. Robustness and efficacy were evaluated by comparing the proposed control algorithm to constant speed control, differential pump pressure control, mean aortic pressure control, and ventricular end diastolic pressure control during (1) rest and exercise conditions, (2) a rapid eight-fold increase in pulmonary vascular resistance under rest and exercise, (3) transitions from rest to exercise, and exercise to rest, (4) safe mode during left ventricular asystole, and (5) RPM measurement noise of 1% to 10% for (1) to (4). Results and conclusion: The control algorithm provided adequate perfusion while preventing ventricular suction for all test conditions. Performance did not deteriorate significantly with pump speed measurement noise of up to 6%. The safe mode successfully detected asystole and maintained adequate perfusion to sustain life even when the differential pump speed was low. Significance: Maintaining a constant differential pump speed can simultaneously achieve physiologic perfusion and suction prevention without needing unreliable, direct measurements of flow or pressure, or complex parameter or model-based estimation techniques.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Analysis–Synthesis Learning With Shared Features: Algorithms for
           Histology Image Classification
    • Authors: Xuelu Li;Vishal Monga;U. K. Arvind Rao;
      Pages: 1061 - 1073
      Abstract: Objective: The diversity of tissue structure in histopathological images makes feature extraction for classification a challenging task. Dictionary learning within a sparse representation-based classification (SRC) framework has been shown to be successful for feature discovery. However, there exist stiff practical challenges: 1) computational complexity of SRC can be onerous in the decision stage since it involves solving a sparsity constrained optimization problem and often over a large number of image patches; and 2) images from distinct classes continue to share several geometric features. We propose a novel analysis–synthesis model learning with shared features algorithm (ALSF) for classifying such images more effectively. Methods: In the ALSF, a joint analysis and synthesis learning model is introduced to learn the classifier and the feature extractor at the same time. Unlike SRC, no explicit optimization is needed in the inference phase leading to much reduced computation. Crucially, we introduce the learning of a low-rank shared dictionary and a shared analysis operator, which more accurately represents both similarities and differences in histopathological images from distinct classes. We also develop an extension of ALSF with a sparsity constraint, whose presence or absence facilitates a cost–performance tradeoff. Results: The ALSF is evaluated on three challenging and well-known datasets: 1) spleen tissue images; 2) brain tumor images; and 3) breast cancer tissue dataset, provided by different organizations. Conclusion: Experimental results demonstrate both complexity and performance benefits of the ALSF over state-of-the-art alternatives. Significance: Modeling shared features with appropriate quantitative constraints lead to significantly improved classification in histopathology.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Non-Contact High-Frequency Ultrasound Microbeam Stimulation: A Novel
           Finding and Potential Causes of Cell Responses
    • Authors: Luchao Qi;Qi Zhang;Yan Tan;Kwok Ho Lam;Hairong Zheng;Ming Qian;
      Pages: 1074 - 1082
      Abstract: Invasiveness research is an essential step in breast cancer metastasis. The application of high-frequency ultrasound microbeam stimulation (HFUMS) offers a manner of determining the invasion potential of human breast cancer cells by eliciting the elevation of transient cytoplasmic calcium ions (Ca2+). The fluorescent index (FI), which is a composite parameter reflecting calcium elevations elicited by HFUMS, was shown to be higher in invasive breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) compared to weakly invasive breast cancer cells (MCF-7) using the low-intensity 50-MHz HFUMS. This novel finding shows significant difference from the reported studies in which MCF-7 cells showed no response to HFUMS. In addition to the negligible response of normal human breast cells (MCF-10A), HFUMS shows the potential to be capable of differentiating the normal cells from the cancer cells. To understand the mechanism of HFUMS worked on mechanotransduction in cells, different channel blockers were used to investigate the roles of specific channels during HFUMS. It was found that GsMTx4 (30 μM), a selective blocker of mechanosensitive Piezo channels, reduces the FI values significantly in MDA-MB-231 cells, while SKF-96365 (40 μM), a general TRP channel blocker, cannot induce the significant inhibition of FI values. The results indicate that Piezo channels may play the main role in invasion and metastatic propagation of cells.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Estimation of Vascular Permeability in Irregularly Shaped Cancers Using
           Ultrasound Poroelastography
    • Authors: Md Tauhidul Islam;Ennio Tasciotti;Raffaella Righetti;
      Pages: 1083 - 1096
      Abstract: Objective: Vascular permeability (VP) is a mechanical parameter which plays an important role in cancer initiation, metastasis, and progression. To date, there are only a few non-invasive methods that can be used to image VP in solid tumors. Most of these methods require the use of contrast agents and are expensive, limiting widespread use. Methods: In this paper, we propose a new method to image VP in tumors, which is based on the use of ultrasound poroelastography. Estimation of VP by poroelastography requires knowledge of the Young's modulus (YM), Poisson's ratio (PR), and strain time constant (TC) in the tumors. In our method, we find the ellipse which best fits the tumor (regardless of its shape) using an eigen-system-based fitting technique and estimate the YM and PR using Eshelby's elliptic inclusion formulation. A Fourier method is used to estimate the axial strain TC, which does not require any initial guess and is highly robust to noise. Results: It is demonstrated that the proposed method can estimate VP in irregularly shaped tumors with an accuracy of above $text{80}%$ using ultrasound simulation data with signal-to-noise ratio of 20 dB or higher. In vivo feasibility of the proposed technique is demonstrated in an orthotopic mouse model of breast cancer. Conclusion: The proposed imaging method can provide accurate and localized estimation of VP in cancers non-invasively and cost-effectively. Significance: Accurate and non-invasive assessment of VP can have a significant impact on diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of cancers.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Wireless Hyperthermia Stent System for Restenosis Treatment and Testing
           With Swine Model
    • Authors: Ying Yi;Jiaxu Chen;Madeshwaran Selvaraj;York Hsiang;Kenichi Takahata;
      Pages: 1097 - 1104
      Abstract: This paper reports the first in vivo testing of a resonant-heating stent toward wireless hyperthermia treatment of in-stent restenosis. The stent, made of gold-coated medical-grade stainless steel, is designed to function as an electrical inductor and forms a radiofrequency (RF) resonant circuit with an integrated capacitor microchip. Upon implantation and deployment with the balloon catheter, the stent device serves as a wireless heater as part of the resonant wireless power transfer system, which allows for the device to produce mild heat only when the stent is resonated with a tuned RF electromagnetic field supplied from the external antenna. The wireless power transmitter includes an independent omnidirectional booster antenna that enhances the power delivery to the implanted stent device. The entire stent device is packaged with 40-μm-thick Parylene C film that is shown to be essential for minimizing electrothermal damping in a conductive liquid like blood. The in vitro tests of the prototype system show a temperature increase of 3.3 °C in the stent device couple in a flow loop of saline pumped at a flow rate relevant to the condition of coronary stenosis. In swine models, the system demonstrates RF heating of the stent devices expanded to different diameters, in live blood stream, achieving temperature rises of up to 2.6 °C in a consistent and repeatable manner. These results bring the technology one step closer toward clinical realization of wireless thermal therapy of in-stent restenosis.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Facilitating Calibration in High-Speed BCI Spellers via Leveraging
           Cross-Device Shared Latent Responses
    • Authors: Masaki Nakanishi;Yu-Te Wang;Chun-Shu Wei;Kuan-Jung Chiang;Tzyy-Ping Jung;
      Pages: 1105 - 1113
      Abstract: Objective: This paper proposes a novel device-to-device transfer-learning algorithm for reducing the calibration cost in a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) speller by leveraging electroencephalographic (EEG) data previously acquired by different EEG systems. Methods: The transferring is done by projecting the scalp-channel EEG signals onto a shared latent domain across devices. Three spatial filtering techniques, including channel averaging, canonical correlation analysis (CCA), and task-related component analysis (TRCA), were employed to extract the shared responses from different devices. The transferred data were integrated into a template-matching-based algorithm to detect SSVEPs. To evaluate its transferability, this paper conducted two sessions of simulated online BCI experiments with ten subjects using 40 visual stimuli modulated by joint frequency-phase coding method. In each session, two different EEG devices were used: first, the Quick-30 system (Cognionics, Inc.) with dry electrodes, and second, the ActiveTwo system (BioSemi, Inc.) with wet electrodes. Results: The proposed method with CCA- and TRCA-based spatial filters achieved significantly higher classification accuracy compared with the calibration-free standard CCA-based method. Conclusion: This paper validated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in implementing calibration-free SSVEP-based BCIs. Significance: The proposed method has great potentials to enhance practicability and usability of real-world SSVEP-based BCI applications by leveraging user-specific data recorded in previous sessions even with different EEG systems and montages.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Evaluation of Artifact Subspace Reconstruction for Automatic Artifact
           Components Removal in Multi-Channel EEG Recordings
    • Authors: Chi-Yuan Chang;Sheng-Hsiou Hsu;Luca Pion-Tonachini;Tzyy-Ping Jung;
      Pages: 1114 - 1121
      Abstract: Objective: Artifact subspace reconstruction (ASR) is an automatic, online-capable, component-based method that can effectively remove transient or large-amplitude artifacts contaminating electroencephalographic (EEG) data. However, the effectiveness of ASR and the optimal choice of its parameter have not been systematically evaluated and reported, especially on actual EEG data. Methods: This paper systematically evaluates ASR on 20 EEG recordings taken during simulated driving experiments. Independent component analysis (ICA) and an independent component classifier are applied to separate artifacts from brain signals to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of the ASR. Results: ASR removes more eye and muscle components than brain components. Even though some eye and muscle components retain after ASR cleaning, the power of their temporal activities is reduced. Study results also showed that ASR cleaning improved the quality of a subsequent ICA decomposition. Conclusions: Empirical results show that the optimal ASR parameter is between 20 and 30, balancing between removing non-brain signals and retaining brain activities. Significance: With an appropriate choice of parameter, ASR can be a powerful and automatic artifact removal approach for offline data analysis or online real-time EEG applications such as clinical monitoring and brain–computer interfaces.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • In Vivo Intrathecal Tracer Dispersion in Cynomolgus Monkey Validates Wide
           Biodistribution Along Neuraxis
    • Authors: Kevin Tangen;Ivan Nestorov;Ajay Verma;Jenna Sullivan;Robert W. Holt;Andreas A. Linninger;
      Pages: 1122 - 1132
      Abstract: Objective: It is commonly believed that in intrathecal (IT) drug delivery, agent distribution is confined to a narrow region close to the injection site, thereby undermining the efficacy of the method. Methods: To test the claim, multimodal in vivo imaging was used to experimentally observe the effects of IT infusion in cynomolgus monkey, looking at cerebrospinal fluid flow, anatomy, and dispersion of a radiolabeled tracer. Results: At high infusion rates, the tracer reached the cervical region after only 2 h, demonstrating rapid and wide distribution. The same in vivo nonhuman primate imaging data also provided evidence in support of a computational fluid dynamic model for the prediction of drug distribution following IT injection. Tracer dispersion was predicted in two specimens matching the distribution acquired with positron emission tomography (PET). For the third specimen, tracer dispersion simulations were conducted as a blind study: predictions were made before in vivo biodistribution data was known. In all cases, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions of drug dispersion after IT administration showed close spatio-temporal agreement with tracer biodistribution in vivo. Conclusion: Validation by in vivo nonhuman primate data confirms our ability to predict the biodistribution of intrathecally administered agents in subject-specific models of the central nervous system from first principles. Significance: The experiments reinstate IT delivery as a viable administration method when targeting molecules to the whole spine or the brain. The proposed computational methodology enables rational design of novel therapies for neurological diseases that require reliable, efficient, and safe delivery of therapeutic agents to specific target sites in the central nervous system.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • An Automatic Method for the Segmentation and Classification of Imminent
           Labor Contraction From Electrohysterograms
    • Authors: Jean-Baptiste Tylcz;Charles Muszynski;Joséphine Dauchet;Dan Istrate;Catherine Marque;
      Pages: 1133 - 1141
      Abstract: Objective: Preterm birth is the first cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Despite continuous clinical routine improvements, the preterm rate remains steady. Moreover, the specificity of the early diagnosis stays poor as many hospitalized women for preterm delivery threat finally deliver at term. In this context, the use of electrohysterograms may increase the sensitivity and the specificity of early diagnosis of preterm labor. Methods: This paper proposes a clinical application of electrohysterogram processing for the classification of patients as prone to deliver within a week or later. The approach relies on non-linear correlation analysis for the contraction bursts extraction and uses computation of various features combined with the use of Gaussian mixture models for their classification. The method is tested on a new dataset of 68 records collected on women hospitalized for preterm delivery threat. Results: This paper presents promising results for the automatic segmentation of the contraction and a classification sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of, respectively, 80.7%, 76.3%, and 76.2%. Conclusion: These results are in accordance with the gold standards but have the advantage to be non-invasive and could be performed at home. Significance: Diagnosis of imminent labor is possible by electrohysterography recording and may help in avoiding over-medication and in providing better cares to at-risk pregnant women.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • A Deep Learning Framework for Single-Sided Sound Speed Inversion in
           Medical Ultrasound
    • Authors: Micha Feigin;Daniel Freedman;Brian W. Anthony;
      Pages: 1142 - 1151
      Abstract: Objective: Ultrasound elastography is gaining traction as an accessible and useful diagnostic tool for things such as, cancer detection and differentiation and thyroid disease diagnostics. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art shear wave imaging techniques, essential to promote this goal, are limited to high-end ultrasound hardware due to high-power requirements, and are extremely sensitive to patient and sonographer motion, and generally suffer from low frame rates. Motivated by research and theory showing that longitudinal wave sound speed carries similar diagnostic abilities to shear wave imaging, we present an alternative approach using single-sided pressure-wave sound speed measurements from channel data. Methods: In this paper, we present a single-sided sound speed inversion solution using a fully convolutional deep neural network. We use simulations for training, allowing the generation of limitless ground truth data. Results: We show that it is possible to invert for longitudinal sound speed in soft tissue at high frame rates. We validate the method on simulated data. We present highly encouraging results on limited real data. Conclusion: Sound speed inversion on channel data has made significant potential possible in real time with deep learning technologies. Significance: Specialized shear wave ultrasound systems remain inaccessible in many locations. Longitudinal sound speed and deep learning technologies enable an alternative approach to diagnosis based on tissue elasticity. High frame rates are also possible.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Entry-Prohibited Effect of kHz Pulsed Magnetic Field Upon Interaction
           Between SPIO Nanoparticles and Mesenchymal Stem Cells
    • Authors: Peng Wang;Siyu Ma;Guangfu Ning;Wu Chen;Bin Wang;Dewen Ye;Bo Chen;Yuzhi Yang;Qing Jiang;Ning Gu;Jianfei Sun;
      Pages: 1152 - 1158
      Abstract: Objective: The interaction between superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the presence of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) has become an important area of research in recent years. Methods: A parameter-adjustable pulsed magnetic field was developed based on the principle of insulated gate bipolar translator transistor-controlled discharge of large capacitances. The internalizations of SPIO nanoparticles by MSCs were investigated under the treatment of PMF in both intermittent stimulation mode and continuous stimulation mode. Results: The intensities and frequencies of pulsed magnetic field can be adjustable in the range of 1.9–4.6 mT and 3–5 kHz, respectively. This PMF was safe to the MSCs. However, the uptake of SPIO nanoparticles by MSCs was significantly prohibited under the treatment of kHz-ranged PMF while the 10 Hz PMF enhanced the cellular uptake of nanoparticles. This phenomenon was relative with the magnetic effect of the PMF with different frequency. Conclusion: The PMF can be used to effectively regulate the cellular uptake of SPIO nanoparticles and the mechanism lies in the magnetic effect. Significance: The interaction between SPIO nanoparticles and the MSCs is a fundamental and important issue for nanomedicine and stem cell research. Our results demonstrate that the external magnetic field can be used to regulate their interaction. We believe that this safe, facile, and flexible method will greatly promote the development and clinical translation of regenerative medicine and nanomedicine.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Intracardiac Turbines Suitable for Catheter-Based Implantation—An
           Approach to Power Battery and Leadless Cardiac Pacemakers?
    • Authors: Andreas Haeberlin;Yannick Rösch;Maximilien Victor Tholl;Yvan Gugler;Jan Okle;Paul Philipp Heinisch;Tobias Reichlin;Jürgen Burger;Adrian Zurbuchen;
      Pages: 1159 - 1166
      Abstract: Objective: Cardiac pacemakers are powered by batteries, which become exhausted after a few years. This is a problem in particular for leadless pacemakers as they are difficult to explant. Thus, autonomous devices powered by energy harvesters are desired. Methods: We developed an energy harvester for endocardial implantation. The device contains a microgenerator to convert a flexible turbine runner's rotation into electrical energy. The turbine runner is driven by the intracardiac blood flow; a magnetic coupling allows hermetical sealing. The energy harvester has a volume of 0.34 cm3 and a weight of 1.3 g. Computational simulations were performed to assess the hemodynamic impact of the implant. The device was studied on a mock circulation and an in vivo trial was performed in a domestic pig. Results: In this article, we show that an energy harvester with a 2-bladed 14-mm-diameter turbine runner delivers 10.2 ± 4.8 μW under realistic conditions (heart rate 80/min, stroke volume 75 ml) on the bench. An increased output power (>80 μW) and power density (237.1 μW/cm3) can be achieved by higher stroke volumes, increased heart rates, or larger turbine runners. The device was successfully implanted in vivo. Conclusion: The device is the first flow-based energy harvester suitable for catheter-based implantation and provides enough energy to power a leadless pacemaker. Significance: The high power density, the small volume, and the flexible turbine runner blades facilitate the integration of the energy harvester in a pacemaker. This would allow overcoming the need for batteries in leadless pacemakers.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • A Physiological Control System for an Implantable Heart Pump That
           Accommodates for Interpatient and Intrapatient Variations
    • Authors: Masoud Fetanat;Michael Stevens;Christopher Hayward;Nigel H. Lovell;
      Pages: 1167 - 1175
      Abstract: Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) can provide mechanical support for a failing heart as a bridge to transplant and destination therapy. Physiological control systems for LVADs should be designed to respond to changes in hemodynamic across a variety of clinical scenarios and patients by automatically adjusting the heart pump speed. In this study, a novel adaptive physiological control system for an implantable heart pump was developed to respond to interpatient and intrapatient variations to maintain the left-ventricle-end-diastolic-pressure (LVEDP) in the normal range of 3 to 15 mmHg to prevent ventricle suction and pulmonary congestion. A new algorithm was also developed to detect LVEDP from pressure sensor measurement in real-time mode. Model-free adaptive control (MFAC) was employed to control the pump speed via simulation of 100 different patient conditions in each of six different patient scenarios, and compared to standard PID control. Controller performance was tracked using the sum of the absolute error (SAE) between the desired and measured LVEDP. The lower SAE on control tracking performance means that the measured LVEDP follows the desired LVEDP faster and with less amplitude oscillations, preventing ventricle suction and pulmonary congestion (mean and standard deviation of SAE (mmHg) for all 600 simulations were 18813 ± 29345 and 24794 ± 28380 corresponding to MFAC and PID controller, respectively). In four out of six patient scenarios, MFAC control tracking performance was better than the PID controller. This study shows the control performance can be guaranteed across different patients and conditions when using MFAC over PID control, which is a step toward clinical acceptance of these systems.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Theoretical Value of Deceleration Capacity Points to Deceleration Reserve
           of Fetal Heart Rate
    • Authors: Massimo Walter Rivolta;Tamara Stampalija;Martin G. Frasch;Roberto Sassi;
      Pages: 1176 - 1185
      Abstract: Objective: The interpretation of Average Acceleration and Deceleration Capacities (AC/DC), computed through Phase-Rectified Signal Averaging (PRSA), in intrapartum fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring is still matter of investigation. We aimed to elucidate some behaviors of AC/DC. Methods: We derived the theoretical value of PRSA for stationary stochastic Gaussian processes and proved that for these time series AC and DC are necessarily identical in absolute value. The difference between DC and AC, termed Deceleration Reserve (DR), was introduced to detect signal's asymmetric trends. DR was tested on FHR signals from: near-term pregnant sheep model of labor consisting of chronically hypoxic and normoxic fetuses with both groups developing acidemia due to umbilical cord occlusions (UCO); and the CTU-UHB dataset containing fetal CTG recordings collected during labor of newborns that resulted acidotic and non-acidotic, respectively. DR was compared with AC and DC in terms of discriminatory power (AUC), between the groups, after correcting for signal power or deceleration area, respectively. Results: DR displayed higher discriminatory power on the animal model during severe acidemia, with respect to AC/DC ($p< 0.05$) but also distinguished correctly all chronically hypoxic from normoxic fetuses at baseline prior to UCO. DR also outperformed AC/DC on the CTU-UHB dataset in distinguishing acidemic fetuses at birth (AUC: 0.65). Conclusion: Theoretical results motivated the introduction of DR, that proved to be superior than AC/DC for risk stratification during labor. Significance: DR, measured during labor, might permit to distinguish acidemic fetuses due to their different autonomic regulation, paving the way for new monitoring strategies.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Biomarker Identification Through Integrating fMRI and Epigenetics
    • Authors: Yuntong Bai;Zille Pascal;Wenxing Hu;Vince D. Calhoun;Yu-Ping Wang;
      Pages: 1186 - 1196
      Abstract: Objective: Integration of multiple datasets is a hot topic in many fields. When studying complex mental disorders, great effort has been dedicated to fusing genetic and brain imaging data. However, an increasing number of studies have pointed out the importance of epigenetic factors in the cause of psychiatric diseases. In this study, we endeavor to fill the gap by combining epigenetics (e.g., DNA methylation) with imaging data (e.g., fMRI) to identify biomarkers for schizophrenia (SZ). Methods: We propose to combine linear regression with canonical correlation analysis (CCA) in a relaxed yet coupled manner to extract discriminative features for SZ that are co-expressed in the fMRI and DNA methylation data. Result: After validation through simulations, we applied our method to real imaging epigenetics data of 184 subjects from the Mental Illness and Neuroscience Discovery Clinical Imaging Consortium. After significance test, we identified 14 brain regions and 44 cytosine-phosphate-guanine(CpG) sites. Average classification accuracy is $text{88.89}%$. By linking the CpG sites to genes, we identified pathways Guanosine ribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis and Guanosine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis, and a GO term Perikaryon. Conclusion: This imaging epigenetics study has identified both brain regions and genes that are associated with neuron development and memory processing. These biomarkers contribute to a good understanding of the mechanism underlying SZ but are overlooked by previous imaging genetics studies. Significance: Our study sheds light on the understanding and diagnosis of SZ with a imaging epigenetics approach, which is demonstrated to be effective in extracting novel biomarkers associated with SZ.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Real-Time Analysis of Animal Feeding Behavior With a Low-Calculation-Power
           CPU
    • Authors: Yuki Totani;Susumu Kotani;Kei Odai;Etsuro Ito;Manabu Sakakibara;
      Pages: 1197 - 1205
      Abstract: Our goal was to develop an automated system to determine whether animals have learned and changed their behavior in real-time using a low calculation-power central processing unit (CPU). The bottleneck of real-time analysis is the speed of image recognition. For fast image recognition, 99.5% of the image was excluded from image recognition by distinguishing between the subject and the background. We achieved this by applying a binarization and connected-component labeling technique. This task is important for developing a fully automated learning apparatus. The use of such an automated system can improve the efficiency and accuracy of biological studies. The pond snail Lymnaea stagnails can be classically conditioned to avoid food that naturally elicits feeding behavior, and to consolidate this aversion into long-term memory. Determining memory status in the snail requires real-time analysis of the number of bites the snail makes in response to food presentation. The main algorithm for counting bites comprises two parts: extracting the mouth images from the recorded video and measuring the bite rate corresponding to the memory status. Reinforcement-supervised learning and image recognition were used to extract the mouth images. A change in the size of the mouth area was used as the cue for counting the number of bites. The accuracy of the final judgment of whether or not the snail had learned was the same as that determined by human observation. This method to improve the processing speed of image recognition has the potential for broad application beyond biological fields.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • A Generic Approach to Lung Field Segmentation From Chest Radiographs Using
           Deep Space and Shape Learning
    • Authors: Awais Mansoor;Juan J. Cerrolaza;Geovanny Perez;Elijah Biggs;Kazunori Okada;Gustavo Nino;Marius George Linguraru;
      Pages: 1206 - 1220
      Abstract: Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) techniques for lung field segmentation from chest radiographs (CXR) have been proposed for adult cohorts, but rarely for pediatric subjects. Statistical shape models (SSMs), the workhorse of most state-of-the-art CXR-based lung field segmentation methods, do not efficiently accommodate shape variation of the lung field during the pediatric developmental stages. The main contributions of our work are: 1) a generic lung field segmentation framework from CXR accommodating large shape variation for adult and pediatric cohorts; 2) a deep representation learning detection mechanism, ensemble space learning, for robust object localization; and 3) marginal shape deep learning for the shape deformation parameter estimation. Unlike the iterative approach of conventional SSMs, the proposed shape learning mechanism transforms the parameter space into marginal subspaces that are solvable efficiently using the recursive representation learning mechanism. Furthermore, our method is the first to include the challenging retro-cardiac region in the CXR-based lung segmentation for accurate lung capacity estimation. The framework is evaluated on 668 CXRs of patients between 3 month to 89 year of age. We obtain a mean Dice similarity coefficient of $0.96 pm 0.03$ (including the retro-cardiac region). For a given accuracy, the proposed approach is also found to be faster than conventional SSM-based iterative segmentation methods. The computational simplicity of the proposed generic framework could be similarly applied to the fast segmentation of other deformable objects.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Multi-Tuned Cable Traps for Multinuclear MRI and MRS
    • Authors: Matthew Wilcox;Steven M. Wright;Mary P. McDougall;
      Pages: 1221 - 1228
      Abstract: Objective: The method of pole-insertion for multi-tuning cable traps was studied for multinuclear MRI and MRS applications. Methods: Relative efficiency of the different cable trap modes was studied as component values were varied and at four different magnetic field strengths. In all cases, efficiencies were compared to equivalent single-tuned designs. Results: The multi-tuned traps were able to block shield currents at multiple frequencies with only slightly degraded efficiencies as compared to their single-tuned counterparts. As in double-tuned coil design, the cable trap effectiveness at each frequency was found to be highly dependent on the trap inductor value with larger trap inductances leading to worse efficiency at the lower frequency but better efficiency at the higher frequency. This relationship held at all field strengths examined. Conclusion: This work presents design guidelines for the double-tuning method that are useful when designing RF coils for multinuclear studies. The design takes up less space than using two single-tuned cable traps mounted in series as is commonly done. Triple-tuned and “floating” designs were also demonstrated as proofs-of-concept for a single field strength and showed great promise to prove similarly useful in future studies. Significance: For many applications such as when using high-density array coils, finding a space-efficient solution to eliminate common-mode currents could be of significant benefit. This multi-tuned approach provides space efficiency at a small cost in trapping efficiency.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Corrections to “Portable System for Time-Domain Diffuse Correlation
           Spectroscopy”
    • Authors: Davide Tamborini;Kimberly A. Stephens;Melissa M. Wu;Parya Farzam;Andrew M. Siegel;Oleg Shatrovoy;Megan Blackwell;David A. Boas;Stefan A. Carp;Maria Angela Franceschini;
      Pages: 1229 - 1229
      Abstract: Conflict of interest information was missing from the above named paper.
      PubDate: April 2020
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4 (2020)
       
 
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