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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 175 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 76)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 305)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 253)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 104)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 85)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 91)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Embedded Systems Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access  
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 185)
Haptics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access  
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Nano Devices, Sensors and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Magnetics Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Nanotechnology Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Pulse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Solid-State Circuits Magazine, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Wireless Power Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Women in Engineering Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access  

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Journal Cover
Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.611
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 305  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0018-9251
Published by IEEE Homepage  [191 journals]
  • IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society
    • Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • From the Editor-in-Chief
    • Authors: M. Rice;
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Uncertainty-Dependent Warning Threshold for Spacecraft Rendezvous
           Collision Probability
    • Authors: Zhen-Jiang Sun;Ya-Zhong Luo;Hai-Yang Li;
      Pages: 2 - 16
      Abstract: This paper proposes a warning threshold calculation method for instantaneous collision probability in a spacecraft rendezvous mission. By introducing missing alarm probability, the warning threshold is determined as a function of the propagated trajectory uncertainty and a semianalytical calculation model is presented. The simulation results show that the proposed method makes good use of trajectory uncertainty information and provides a reasonable and accurate method for evaluating the safety of a rendezvous trajectory with uncertainty.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • A Hamming Distance and Spearman Correlation Based Star Identification
    • Authors: Mehta Deval Samirbhai;Shoushun Chen;Kay Soon Low;
      Pages: 17 - 30
      Abstract: This paper presents a novel star identification algorithm for a “lost-in-space” mode star tracker. The Spearman-correlation approach provides reliable recognition even when the captured images are swayed and biased from the onboard star pattern database. The hamming distance approach provides a shortlisted list of star IDs. Thus, the proposed combination of hamming distance and Spearman correlation provides a reliable and fast recognition. The achievable performance is evaluated by testing on simulated and real images.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Mission Scheduling in Space Network With Antenna Dynamic Setup Times
    • Authors: Lei Wang;Chunxiao Jiang;Linling Kuang;Sheng Wu;Ligang Fei;Huiming Huang;
      Pages: 31 - 45
      Abstract: Due to the constantly increasing mission demands for the space network (SN), the technical issue of high-efficient scheduling has attracted continuous attention in recent years. Most of the previous scheduling algorithms have generally ignored two critical factors, i.e., the dynamic property of single access (SA) antenna's setup times and the time-space distribution characteristics of users’ requested missions. In this paper, we build a mathematical model for the heterogeneous intersatellite link antenna (ILA) pointing route problem with the consideration of constraints on visibility windows and dynamic setup times. Specifically, the ILA's pointing mechanics cost and the missions’ time-space distribution are first taken into account into the scheduling model. Meanwhile, a new two-stage heuristic algorithm with hierarchical scheduling strategies is proposed to solve this optimization model. Finally, we employ the SN dataset to verify our proposed model by comparing three algorithms, the existing greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP) algorithm with static setup times, our improved GRASP algorithm with dynamic setup times, and our proposed two-stage heuristic algorithm. Experimental results show that our improved GRASP can schedule 3.72%, 10.36%, 12.51% more missions and can consume 53.18%, 49.95%, and 49.32% less setup times of SA antennas than the original Rojanasoonthon's GRASP for the mission scale of 200, 400, and 600, respectively. Moreover, compared with the improved GRASP algorithm, our proposed two-stage heuristic algorithm is more effective, which can further enhance the total number of scheduled missions by 2.41%, 4.43%, and 6.02% and reduce the setup times of SA antennas by 11.84%, 10.38%, and 9.54%.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Optimal Batch Distributed Asynchronous Multisensor Fusion With Feedback
    • Authors: Zebo Zhou;
      Pages: 46 - 56
      Abstract: Asynchronous multisensor systems have been widely equipped on various host platforms to meet the requirements of modern navigation campaigns. However, the existing asynchronous fusion algorithms are not efficient in many challenged environments, due to the limitations of communication condition, out-of-sequence observation, and computation affordance. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a batch state asynchronous fusion algorithm with feedback for distributed architecture systems. It is optimal in the sense of minimum mean-squared estimation and its fusion solution is rigorously derived by fully considering the correlations of sequential/cross channels and one-step prediction information. The final fusion solution is straightforward expressed with the combinations of multiple local Kalman filtering estimates outputs during one fusion period. Moreover, no additional interpolation, extrapolation or synchronization procedures are required. Furthermore, to alleviate the computational burden of our proposed algorithm, its approximation form is also given by replacing the weighting matrix by the weighting scalar. Simulations are carried out to illustrate the efficiency and the performance of the proposed algorithm.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Detection Schemes for Range-Spread Targets Based on the Semidefinite
    • Authors: Seungwon Lee;Mai Nguyen;Iickho Song;Jinsoo Bae;Seokho Yoon;
      Pages: 57 - 69
      Abstract: Employing the generalized likelihood ratio test and semidefinite programming (SDP), we derive two detectors, called the SDP and maximization in the reduced space (MRS) detectors for range-spread targets with unknown Doppler shift. It is confirmed that, when knowledge of Doppler frequency is unavailable or imperfect, the proposed detectors perform better than the conventional detector. The MRS detector also outperforms the SDP and conventional detectors in some cases, including when the range-spread target is highly fluctuating.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Phase Noise in FMCW Radar Systems
    • Authors: Kashif Siddiq;Mervyn K. Hobden;Steve R. Pennock;Robert J. Watson;
      Pages: 70 - 81
      Abstract: Phase noise is one of the fundamental performance parameters in modern radar, communication, spectroscopic, and metrological systems. In this paper, a phase noise theory has been developed for FMCW radar systems. A new design equation has been derived to specify the maximum bound on the allowable source phase noise level in radar systems. The nonlinear phase noise decorrelation function due to coherent mixing has been analyzed for propagation delays less than the coherence time of the reference oscillator, and the spectral broadening of target responses has been discussed for delay times greater than the coherence time. The effects of the subsystems in the transceiver chain are presented and a new model of phase noise in ADCs is discussed. Phase noise modeling techniques are presented, followed by a comparison of a PLL frequency synthesizer with a low-noise frequency synthesizer to demonstrate the reduction of phase noise sidebands for improved detection and tracking performance. Practical measurements from two millimeter wave FMCW radar systems utilizing the two frequency synthesizers have been presented to validate the developed theory.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Backstepping-Based Impact Time Control Guidance Law for Missiles With
           Reduced Seeker Field-of-View
    • Authors: Hyeong-Geun Kim;H. Jin Kim;
      Pages: 82 - 94
      Abstract: This paper proposes a guidance law that achieves the desired terminal impact time without violating a seeker's field-of-view (FOV) limits. In order to derive the guidance law, kinematic conditions for impact time control are defined, and the backstepping control technique is applied for the satisfaction of the conditions. As a virtual control input for the backstepping structure, the missile lead angle, which represents the angle between the line-of-sight (LOS) and missile velocity vector, is used and its magnitude is limited by a prescribed limit. Then, the seeker's look angle can also be confined within a specific range because the seeker look angle is mainly determined by the difference between the LOS and the velocity vector. This capability to confine the seeker's look angle with achieving the desired impact time is the main contribution of the paper. To evaluate the performance of the proposed law, numerical simulation is conducted. The result demonstrates that the proposed guidance law enables the missile to simultaneously achieve the interception and desired impact time without violating the prespecified FOV limits.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • High Performance Autonomous Charge Equalization in Series Connected
    • Authors: Gregor Kirbiš;David Selčan;Marko Kos;Iztok Kramberger;
      Pages: 95 - 107
      Abstract: In this paper, a novel balancing circuit is proposed, which is well suited to aerospace electronics, as it allows for the use of off-the-shelf radiation tolerant components. The new design was examined analytically with and without a zero-voltage switching topology. Its performance was compared to other popular battery balancing circuits. Further, an equation was derived, which can be used to estimate the time to balance. The proposed balancer circuit was evaluated using forward and several flyback transformer types, and with the use of static and dynamic testing, the design was also evaluated under fault conditions as it provides a short-circuit protection. It was determined experimentally that the proposed design achieves an efficiency of up to 84%.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Unambiguous Sparse Recovery of Migrating Targets With a Robustified
           Bayesian Model
    • Authors: Stéphanie Bidon;Marie Lasserre;François Le Chevalier;
      Pages: 108 - 123
      Abstract: The problem considered is that of estimating unambiguously migrating targets observed with a wideband radar. We extend a previously described sparse Bayesian algorithm to the presence of diffuse clutter and off-grid targets. A hybrid-Gibbs sampler is formulated to jointly estimate the sparse target amplitude vector, the grid mismatch, and the (assumed) autoregressive noise. Results on synthetic and fully experimental data show that targets can be actually unambiguously estimated even if located in blind speeds.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Fixed-Time Attitude Tracking Control for Spacecraft With Input
    • Authors: Haibin Sun;Linlin Hou;Guangdeng Zong;Xinghuo Yu;
      Pages: 124 - 134
      Abstract: This paper investigates the fixed-time attitude tracking control problem for rigid spacecraft with input quantization and external disturbances. A novel fixed-time disturbance observer is designed to estimate unknown disturbances. By using adding a power integrator technique, a fixed-time controller is constructed, which can guarantee system states converge to a neighborhood of origin in fixed time. The parameter of quantizer can be coarsely chosen. Finally, simulation results are employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed control scheme.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Designing the Air–Ground Data Links for Future Air Traffic Control
    • Authors: Dirk Gómez Depoorter;Wolfgang Kellerer;
      Pages: 135 - 146
      Abstract: The future air traffic management in Europe and the USA is being defined by the SESAR and NextGen programs, respectively. In the mid-2020s, air–ground air traffic control communications will be primarily data-centric as opposed to current voice-centric communications. The International Civilian Aviation Organization has proposed the required communication performance (RCP) metric to define the requirements to support the new data communication services. In this paper, we propose a model to calculate the expected performance using the RCP metric based on the air–ground data link characteristics. Then, we present the results of using the model to obtain the characteristics that an air–ground data link must have to support the future ATC communication requirements proposed by Eurocontrol and the Federal Aviation Administration.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Converted Measurement Sigma Point Kalman Filter for Bistatic Sonar and
           Radar Tracking
    • Authors: Steven V. Bordonaro;Peter Willett;Yaakov Bar-Shalom;Tod Luginbuhl;
      Pages: 147 - 159
      Abstract: Tracking with bistatic sonar or radar measurements is challenging due to the fact that the measurements are nonlinear functions of the Cartesian state. The performance of existing approaches, including the extended Kalman filter and sigma point Kalman filters, such as the unscented Kalman filter and cubature Kalman filter, may not be acceptable in terms of mean square error or tracker consistency (i.e., the tracker's state estimation error covariance is not statistically consistent with the actual estimation errors). This paper generalizes the sigma point Kalman filter (SPKF) as a converted measurement SPKF. The resulting converted measurement sigma point Kalman filter is demonstrated to have improved performance over the conventional SPKF when employed in a bistatic tracking scenario.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Real-Time Amplifier Load-Impedance Optimization for Adaptive Radar
           Transmitters Using a Nonlinear Tunable Varactor Matching Network
    • Authors: Sarvin Rezayat;Christopher Kappelmann;Zachary Hays;Lucilia Lamers;Matthew Fellows;Charles Baylis;Ed Viveiros;Abigail Hedden;John Penn;Robert J. Marks;
      Pages: 160 - 169
      Abstract: Future radar transmitters will need to be able to quickly reconfigure their radio-frequency circuitry to change operating frequency and spectral output while maintaining high power-added efficiency (PAE). In this paper, fast tuning of a tunable-varactor matching network is demonstrated to optimize the PAE while meeting requirements on the adjacent-channel power ratio. The tunable varactor network, a first-level prototype of a tunable radar amplifier matching network, incurs nonlinear performance, providing possible challenges to measurement accuracy. To address the issue of nonlinearities while maintaining ability to quickly reconfigure, the tunable-varactor network is characterized at different input power levels to allow useful performance in its nonlinear regime. The power-dependent characterization is used in an algorithm for optimization of an amplifier's PAE, by looking up the matching network characterization performed at the power estimated to be output by the amplifier. Measurement results show that this characterization enhances the consistency of the optimized PAE. Using the tunable varactor network reduces the optimization time to one-fourth of the time required when using the algorithm with a traditional mechanical load-pull tuner.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Multiobjective 4D Trajectory Optimization for Integrated Avionics and Air
           Traffic Management Systems
    • Authors: Alessandro Gardi;Roberto Sabatini;Trevor Kistan;
      Pages: 170 - 181
      Abstract: Avionics and air traffic management (ATM) systems are evolving with the introduction of progressively higher levels of automation, toward attaining the ambitious operational, technical, and safety enhancements required to sustain the present growth of global air traffic. This paper presents novel 4-Dimensional Trajectory (4DT) functionalities that are being developed for integration in ATM and avionics systems to support trajectory based operations (TBO). The 4DT planning process, which is the main focus of the paper, is supported by a custom multiobjective variant of state-of-the-art optimal control algorithms, incorporating various operational, economic, and environmental factors. Capitalizing on the higher theoretical accuracy offered by optimal control algorithms compared to other methods, a key feature of the proposed approach is the introduction of a postprocessing stage to ensure that the mathematically optimal trajectories are translated into a set of standardized 4DT descriptors, which can be flown by state-of-the-art automatic flight control systems. Additionally, to support air-ground 4DT intent negotiation and validation in the TBO context, the 4DT postprocessing ensures that optimal trajectories are synthetically described by a limited number of parameters, minimizing the bandwidth requirements imposed on airborne data links. Simulation-based verification activities addressing operational efficiency improvements and computational performance in the terminal area ATM context support the viability of the proposed 4DT planning functionality for online tactical TBO.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Bias Smith Tube Optimization of Drain Voltage and Load Reflection
           Coefficient to Maximize Power-Added Efficiency Under ACPR Constraints for
           Radar Power Amplifiers
    • Authors: Matthew Fellows;Sarvin Rezayat;Lucilia Lamers;Joseph Barkate;Alexander Tsatsoulas;Charles Baylis;Lawrence Cohen;Robert J. Marks;
      Pages: 182 - 191
      Abstract: Reconfigurable transmitter power amplifiers will be necessary in future cognitive radar systems to allow adjustment in operating frequency, spectral output, and other desired operating characteristics while maintaining performance. Circuit optimization algorithms for tuning the amplifier load impedance and bias voltage in real time should maximize power-added efficiency while limiting the adjacent-channel power ratio (ACPR) in order to obtain spectral compliance. This paper presents a fast vector-based three-dimensional optimization for simultaneous bias adjustment and impedance matching for these goals using the bias Smith tube as the optimization space. Simulation and measurement results are presented for this optimization algorithm, and correspondence between the results is examined for several different starting locations in the bias Smith tube. This algorithm will allow simultaneous optimization of bias voltage and load impedance in real time in order to meet changing requirements.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Disturbance Compensation Based Piecewise Linear Control Design for
           Perching Maneuvers
    • Authors: Zhen He;Da Li;Yuping Lu;
      Pages: 192 - 204
      Abstract: This paper investigates the control design approach for perching maneuvers of fixed-wing aircraft in the presence of both initial deviations and mismatched disturbances. The highly nonlinear longitudinal dynamics is transformed into a piecewise linear model. A disturbance observer is designed and a piecewise linear controller using the estimates of disturbances is constructed. System stability and disturbance attenuation are analyzed theoretically. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Linear Quadratic Optimal Control-Based Missile Guidance Law With Obstacle
    • Authors: Martin Weiss;Tal Shima;
      Pages: 205 - 214
      Abstract: Two missile guidance algorithms are proposed for the intercept and for the rendezvous of a maneuvering target, while avoiding a static obstacle by a specified avoidance distance. The guidance algorithms are derived as solutions of a linear quadratic optimal control problem and they are expressed as formulas reminiscent of the classical (augmented) proportional navigation type guidance laws. These formulas include correction terms that are responsible for obstacle avoidance and are parameterized by the minimum avoidance distance. Simulation results are used to demonstrate the performance of the two algorithms.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Distributed Adaptive Attitude Control for Networked Underactuated Flexible
    • Authors: Ti Chen;Jinjun Shan;Hao Wen;
      Pages: 215 - 225
      Abstract: This paper studies the distributed adaptive control of a team of underactuated flexible spacecraft under a leader–follower architecture with the measurements of the rigid bodies only. By treating the flexible spacecraft as an underactuated Lagrange system, an adaptive control strategy is proposed with the feedback of the generalized coordinates, velocities, and accelerations of the rigid bodies. Then, an extended state observer is introduced to design a distributed adaptive controller without the measurement of the generalized accelerations.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Efficient Terrain Matching With 3-D Zernike Moments
    • Authors: Kedong Wang;Tongqian Zhu;Yifeng Gao;Jinling Wang;
      Pages: 226 - 235
      Abstract: The 3-D Zernike descriptors are investigated for an efficient terrain matching algorithm. The maximum order of the 3-D Zernike moments and the template size are determined. The odd-order descriptors are compared with the even-order ones in sensitivity to terrain elevation fluctuation and robustness to noise and rotation. Numerical experiments show that the matching with the odd-order descriptors can achieve as good as or better than that with both the odd-order and the even-order descriptors.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Sliding Mode Guidance Law for Impact Time Control Without Explicit
           Time-to-Go Estimation
    • Authors: Hyeong-Geun Kim;Dongsoo Cho;H. Jin Kim;
      Pages: 236 - 250
      Abstract: This paper presents an impact time control guidance law that does not perform explicit time-to-go estimation. In order to satisfy the interception and the desired impact time constraint simultaneously, a sliding surface variable formulated as a sum of the relative range and the desired time-to-go is defined, weighted by two nonzero weighting functions. Then, the achievement of the sliding mode satisfies the following equivalence: The relative range is zero if and only if the elapsed time equals to the desired impact time. It means that both the interception and impact time control can be satisfied at the same time in the sliding mode. The impact time control guidance law is derived to enforce the defined surface variable to the sliding mode. Because the law is designed based on the capture condition without separate time-to-go estimation process, the achievement of the sliding mode always guarantees the interception of the target at the desired impact time. In addition, the proposed law can be applied to an engagement considering nonstationary targets in a straightforward manner because the corresponding time-to-go estimation is not needed. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed guidance law has better performance in comparison with the existing guidance law, in respect of satisfying the desired impact time constraint against a nonstationary target.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Design of Rao–Blackwellized Point-Mass Filter With Application in
           Terrain Aided Navigation
    • Authors: Jindřich Duník;Miloš Soták;Miloš Veselý;Ondřej Straka;Wesley Hawkinson;
      Pages: 251 - 272
      Abstract: This paper is devoted to the terrain aided navigation (TAN) systems based on the state estimation algorithms. In particular, the emphasis is laid on the design of the Bayesian Rao–Blackwellized point-mass filter for nonlinear state-space models of a specific structure typically used in the terrain aided navigation. The proposed filter preserves advantages of the point-mass filter, including the high estimation accuracy, robust initialization, deterministic nature of the algorithm, and predictable computational complexity, while the computational complexity is significantly reduced. The performance of the Rao–Blackwellized point-mass filter is illustrated using a simulated numerical example and a TAN system based on the real data.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Quantifying Safety of Laser-Based Navigation
    • Authors: Mathieu Joerger;Boris Pervan;
      Pages: 273 - 288
      Abstract: In this paper, a new safety risk evaluation method is developed, simulated, and tested for laser-based navigation algorithms using feature extraction (FE) and data association (DA). First, at FE, we establish a probabilistic measure of separation between features to quantify the sensor's ability to distinguish landmarks. Then, an innovation-based DA process is designed to evaluate the impact on integrity risk of incorrect associations, while considering all potential measurement permutations. The algorithm is analyzed and tested in a structured environment.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Maneuver Guidance and Formation Maintenance for Control of Leaderless
           Space-Robot Teams
    • Authors: Yunhe Meng;Qifeng Chen;Xing Chu;Ahmed Rahmani;
      Pages: 289 - 302
      Abstract: A basic problem for a group of space-based robots is how to maintain a rigid formation during orbital maneuvers. To a leaderless team with homogeneous space-based robots, a multirobot controller architecture is proposed in which information flow is included. For each robot, there are two coupled feedback loops with different control objectives. One feedback loop is for guidance and is designed so that each robot can rapidly maneuver and rendezvous at the target point in a neighboring orbit. The other feedback loop is for formation control and is designed so that all robots in the group maintain a desired formation during a maneuver. A modified linear quadratic regulator method is used to design the guidance and control laws, where separate performance indexes are used for the two loops. By analyzing the interaction between the formation control and the maneuver guidance, a new restriction on the communication topology is proposed. An estimator for the state of the formation center is included in this control loop, and to guarantee a consensus on the formation center state estimates among all of the robots, a distributed Kalman filter based on the consensus algorithm is developed. Simulation results demonstrate the approach.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Detection of GNSS Ionospheric Scintillations Based on Machine Learning
           Decision Tree
    • Authors: Nicola Linty;Alessandro Farasin;Alfredo Favenza;Fabio Dovis;
      Pages: 303 - 317
      Abstract: This paper proposes a methodology for automatic, accurate, and early detection of amplitude ionospheric scintillation events, based on machine learning algorithms, applied on big sets of 50 Hz postcorrelation data provided by a global navigation satellite system receiver. Experimental results on real data show that this approach can considerably improve traditional methods, reaching a detection accuracy of 98%, very close to human-driven manual classification. Moreover, the detection responsiveness is enhanced, enabling early scintillation alerts.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Joint DOA and Clutter Covariance Matrix Estimation in Compressive Sensing
           MIMO Radar
    • Authors: Soheil Salari;Francois Chan;Yiu-Tong Chan;Il-Min Kim;Roger Cormier;
      Pages: 318 - 331
      Abstract: We apply the technique of compressive sensing (CS) to multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radars to estimate the direction of arrival (DOA) of potential targets embedded in cluttered environments using far fewer samples than the Nyquist rate. Specifically, incorporating clutter into the sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) methodology, we devise a novel algorithm for joint estimation of targets’ DOAs, clutter covariance matrix, and noise variance. Furthermore, we develop a low-complexity and fast version of the proposed algorithm, which can be efficiently employed in practice.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Multiple Cell Upsets Inside Aircrafts. New Fault-Tolerant Architecture
    • Authors: Andrés Jiménez Olazábal;Jorge Pleite Guerra;
      Pages: 332 - 342
      Abstract: Multiple cell upsets (MCU) is an issue that has to be dealt with when designing electronics for working in a radiated environment. Furthermore, the constant evolution of ICs integration density causes an increment in the MCUs span. These issues are typical in aviation applications, where, additionally, fault-tolerant (FT) performance is required. FT systems are typically based on a redundancy concept for storing and retrieving healthy information, for example, with a triple modular redundancy (TMR) scheme. The main issue with redundancy is design oversizing. On the other hand, reconfiguration-based techniques allow error scrubbing with a limited overhead. The main drawback here is overhead vulnerability to radiation, which is invalid for FT requirements. This paper proposes a new hybrid architecture that takes advantage of the optimized performance of reconfiguration-based techniques supported on extremely compressed redundant information nonvulnerable to radiation, referred to in this paper as hardwired seed bits (HSB). It also includes different known techniques, such as interleaving, error detection and correction (EDAC) algorithms, etc., for optimizing the final architecture as much as possible. As a result, the proposed approach meets FT requirements thanks to nonvulnerable tiny redundant information combined with an optimized performance through EDAC-based implementation.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • GNSS Jamming Mitigation Using Adaptive-Partitioned Subspace Projection
    • Authors: Pai Wang;Yongqing Wang;Ediz Cetin;Andrew Graham Dempster;Siliang Wu;
      Pages: 343 - 355
      Abstract: Intentional jammers broadcasting chirp-style signals present a major threat to the operation of the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers. The time–frequency (TF) domain method based on the subspace projection technique is a common countermeasure against jamming. However, it is sensitive to inaccuracies in the instantaneous frequency (IF) estimates when dealing with jammers with rapidly changing frequency characteristics. In this paper, an approach for chirp-style jamming signal suppression in GNSS receivers using an adaptive-partitioned subspace projection is developed, which is insensitive to IF estimation errors. We first propose to choose the TF observation window length based on the jammer sweep rate and displace the IF estimates by a spectral bin to handle the resolution errors in the IF estimates. This operation ensures that the instantaneous phase (IP) estimation errors approximately stay constant for the interval that the jammer IF varies linearly upward. Owing to this property, the received data vector is partitioned into adaptive block sizes based on the jammer chirp rate estimates, which reflect the varying IF characteristics. The received signal is then projected onto the jammer orthogonal subspace constructed from the IF estimates according to the adaptive projection blocks. Simulation results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed technique for suppressing chirp-style jammers when compared with other techniques reported in the literature. The proposed approach provides an improvement by up to 11 dB in terms of the correlator signal-to-noise power ratio of the processed signal.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Constrained Waveform Design for Colocated MIMO Radar With Uncertain
           Steering Matrices
    • Authors: Xianxiang Yu;Guolong Cui;Lingjiang Kong;Jian Li;Guan Gui;
      Pages: 356 - 370
      Abstract: This paper deals with the robust waveform design of multiple-input multiple-output radar to improve target detectability embedded in signal-dependent interferences. Two iterative algorithms with ensuring convergence properties are introduced to maximize the worst case signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) over steering matrix mismatches under the constant modulus and similarity constraints. Each iteration of the proposed algorithms splits the high-dimensional problem into multiple one dimensional problems, to which the optimal solutions can be found in polynomial times. Numerical examples are provided to assess the capabilities of the proposed techniques in comparison with the existing methods in terms of the SINR and the computational times for both the continuous and discrete phase cases of the probing signal.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Design and Evaluation of UAV Flow Angle Estimation Filters
    • Authors: Pengzhi Tian;Haiyang Chao;Harold Patrick Flanagan;Steven G. Hagerott;Yu Gu;
      Pages: 371 - 383
      Abstract: This paper presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of four filters for the estimation of angle of attack (AOA) and angle of sideslip (AOS) of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Specifically, two novel filters (a complementary filter and an extended Kalman filter) are proposed and evaluated without using direct flow angle and Global Positioning System measurements; two existing AOA/AOS filters are also implemented and evaluated. All filters are designed with minimal inputs and states to ensure the ease of implementation, simplicity of tuning, and computation efficiency. Both simulation and UAV flight test results show the performance of the proposed filters. Especially, flight test results from two different UAVs (a T-tail UAV and a flying wing UAV) show that the root mean square errors of estimated inertial AOA and AOS are less than 1.5$^circ$ under nominal flight conditions and around 2$^circ$ under aggressive maneuvers compared with direct flow angle measurements.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Disturbance Observer-Based Attitude Control for Spacecraft With Input MRS
    • Authors: An-Min Zou;Anton H.J. de Ruiter;Krishna Dev Kumar;
      Pages: 384 - 396
      Abstract: This paper considers the problem of attitude tracking control for uncertain rigid spacecraft subject to control input magnitude and rate saturation (MRS). First, a smooth input MRS model is proposed. Then, a robust attitude tracking control scheme is designed based on the backstepping and finite-time disturbance observer techniques. Finally, the effectiveness of the control scheme derived here is illustrated by numerical simulations.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Path-Length Compensation in Multiloop Retrodirective Cross-Eye Jamming
    • Authors: Warren P. du Plessis;
      Pages: 397 - 406
      Abstract: Multiloop retrodirective cross-eye jammers offer the possibility of both simplifying system implementation and improving system performance. However, the signals for each jammer loop propagate along different paths, leading to potentially detrimental effects on system performance. Static and dynamic compensation for path-length differences are introduced and analyzed. Of the two, static compensation is simpler but is only effective for limited engagement geometries. Dynamic compensation is more general but requires an accurate estimate of the engagement geometry.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Sequential Gaussian Approximation Filter for Target Tracking With
           Nonsynchronous Measurements
    • Authors: Xusheng Yang;Wen-An Zhang;Li Yu;Fuwen Yang;
      Pages: 407 - 418
      Abstract: This paper presents an adaptive sequential fusion estimation method for the target tracking with nonsynchronous measurements in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Based on Gaussian assumption and Bayesian inference, a sequential cubature Kalman filtering (SCKF) method, as well as its square root form (SR-SCKF), is presented by applying the cubature rule to approximate the $function times Gaussian$ integrals. By taking into consideration the time-varying properties of the measurement noise and the linearization errors, some adaptive factors are introduced into the SCKF to compensate for the measurement uncertainties based on Chi-square tests. The convergence analysis of the SCKF is presented. It is proved that the adaptive SCKF (ASCKF) has a better convergence property than the SCKF. Both simulations and experiments of a target tracking example are presented to show the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed ASCKF method.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Fast RodFIter for Attitude Reconstruction From Inertial Measurements
    • Authors: Yuanxin Wu;Qi Cai;Tnieu-Kien Truong;
      Pages: 419 - 428
      Abstract: Attitude computation is of vital importance for a variety of applications. Based on the functional iteration of the Rodrigues vector integration equation, the RodFIter method can be advantageously applied to analytically reconstruct the attitude from discrete gyroscope measurements over the time interval of interest. It is promising to produce ultra-accurate attitude reconstruction. However, the RodFIter method imposes a high computational load and does not lend itself to an onboard implementation. In this paper, a fast approach to significantly reduce RodFIter's computation complexity is presented while maintaining almost the same accuracy of attitude reconstruction. It reformulates the Rodrigues vector iterative integration in terms of the Chebyshev polynomial iteration. Due to the excellent property of Chebyshev polynomials, the fast RodFIter is achieved by means of appropriate truncation of Chebyshev polynomials, with provably guaranteed convergence. Moreover, simulation results validate the speed and accuracy of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Approximate Maximum Likelihood Radio Emitter Geolocation With Time-Varying
    • Authors: Gregory E. Bottomley;Douglas A. Cairns;
      Pages: 429 - 443
      Abstract: Direct geolocation of radio emitters has traditionally been formulated using short measurement intervals over which delay and Doppler frequency shift are approximated as constant. In this paper, we consider maximum likelihood position estimation using long measurement intervals for which the Doppler is time varying. A series of assumptions and approximations are used to develop an efficient solution involving coherent combining of traditional, complex ambiguity function processing outputs. Simulation results are used to demonstrate potential gains.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • High Range Resolution Profile Estimation via a Cognitive Stepped Frequency
    • Authors: Augusto Aubry;Vincenzo Carotenuto;Antonio De Maio;Luca Pallotta;
      Pages: 444 - 458
      Abstract: The problem of high range resolution profile (HRRP) estimation is considered in this paper. In particular, stepped frequency waveforms are devised to enhance the target range profile (RP) estimation accuracy. The basic idea relies on the dynamic optimization of the probing waveform accounting for some feedback information to minimize the profile estimation error. The transmitted frequency hopping pattern is selected so as to minimize the predicted Cramer–Rao lower bound (CRLB) associated with the amplitudes and locations of the scattering centers falling in the coarse range bin under test (i.e., the target profile). Specifically, it is assumed that the target imaging is initially performed via a conventional linear stepped frequency transmission, hence, based on the collected data, an initial prediction of the target profile is derived (perception). Then, the RP estimation is enhanced progressively according to the cognitive paradigm, via a specific frequency pattern selection at the next transmission (action). The results highlight the capabilities of the cognitive approach to provide interesting benefits with respect to the classic linear stepped frequency strategy.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Performance of the Low-Rank Adaptive Normalized Matched Filter Test Under
           a Large Dimension Regime
    • Authors: Alice Combernoux;Frédéric Pascal;Guillaume Ginolhac;
      Pages: 459 - 468
      Abstract: When a possible target is embedded in a low-rank (LR) Gaussian clutter (which is contained in a low-dimensional subspace) plus a white Gaussian noise, the detection process can be performed by applying the LR adaptive normalized matched filter (LR-ANMF), which is a function of the estimated projector. In a recent work, we derived an approximate distribution of the LR-ANMF under the $mathcal {H}_0$ hypothesis by using a restrictive hypothesis (the target has to be orthogonal to the clutter subspace). In this paper, we propose to determine new approximations of the Pfa and the Pd of the LR-ANMF by relaxing this restrictive hypothesis. This new derivation is based on results concerning the convergence in a large dimension regime of quadratic forms. Simulations validate our result, in particular, when the tested signal is close to the clutter subspace.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Maximum-Likelihood Power-Distortion Monitoring for GNSS-Signal
    • Authors: Jason N. Gross;Cagri Kilic;Todd E. Humphreys;
      Pages: 469 - 475
      Abstract: We propose an extension to the so-called power-distortion (PD) detector. The PD detector jointly monitors received power and correlation-profile distortion to detect the presence of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) carryoff-type spoofing, jamming, or multipath. We show that classification performance can be significantly improved by replacing the PD detector's symmetric-difference (SD) based distortion measurement with one based on the postfit residuals of the maximum-likelihood estimate of a single-signal correlation function model. We call the improved technique the power-distortion maximum-likelihood (PD-ML) detector. In direct comparison with the PD detector, the PD-ML detector exhibits improved classification accuracy when tested against an extensive library of recorded field data. In particular, it is 1) significantly more accurate at distinguishing a spoofing attack from a jamming attack; 2) better at distinguishing multipath-afflicted data from interference-free data; and 3) less likely to issue a false alarm by classifying multipath as spoofing. The PD-ML detector achieves this improved performance at the expense of additional computational complexity.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • CubeSat-Based Passive Bistatic Radar for Space Situational Awareness: A
           Feasibility Study
    • Authors: Adriano Rosario Persico;Paul Kirkland;Carmine Clemente;John J. Soraghan;Massimiliano Vasile;
      Pages: 476 - 485
      Abstract: This paper proposes a low budget solution to detect and possibly track space debris and satellites in Low Earth Orbit. The concept consists of a space-borne radar installed on a cubeSat flying at low altitude and detecting the occultations of radio signals coming from existing satellites flying at higher altitudes. The paper investigates the feasibility and performance of such a passive bistatic radar system. Key performance metrics considered in this paper are: the minimum size of detectable objects, considering visibility and frequency constraints on existing radio sources, the receiver size, and the compatibility with current cubeSat's technology. Different illuminator types and receiver altitudes are considered under the assumption that all illuminators and receivers are on circular orbits.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Protection Scheme for Star Tracker Images
    • Authors: Luis Alberto Aranda;Pedro Reviriego;Ricardo G. Toral;Juan Antonio Maestro;
      Pages: 486 - 492
      Abstract: Radiation effects in star trackers can cause malfunctions that may lead to the loss of communication with the satellite. This paper presents a scheme to protect star tracker images stored in memory against single event upsets (SEUs). Fault injection and resource utilization reports show that, with the protection technique, 99.98% of the SEUs can be corrected using 37% less memory space than single error correction Hamming codes. The remaining 0.02% has a negligible effect in the star identification algorithm.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Information Formulation of the UDU Kalman Filter
    • Authors: Christopher D'souza;Renato Zanetti;
      Pages: 493 - 498
      Abstract: A new information formulation of the Kalman filter is presented where the information matrix is parameterized as the product of an upper triangular matrix, a diagonal matrix, and the transpose of a triangular matrix (referred as UDU factorization). The UDU factorization of the Kalman filter is known for its numerical stability; this paper extends the technique to the information filter. A distinct characteristic of the new algorithm is that measurements can be processed as vectors, while the classic UDU factorization requires scalar measurement processing, i.e., a diagonal measurement noise covariance matrix.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • On the Performance of LAP-Based Multiple-Hop RF/FSO Systems
    • Authors: Liang Yang;Jinhai Yuan;Xinxin Liu;Mazen O. Hasna;
      Pages: 499 - 505
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose a low-altitude aerial platform (LAP) based relaying system, where two LAPs serve as relays. More specifically, the air-to-ground links are assumed to be radio frequency (RF) channels experiencing large-scale path loss and small-scale fading, while the link between the two relays is assumed to employ a free-space optical communication scheme. Based on such a setup, we derive closed-form expressions for the outage probability and optimal altitude. Our results show that the optimal altitude of the LAPs plays a crucial role in the system performance. Furthermore, pointing errors has a greater impact on the system performance than the path loss of the RF links.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Hypersonic Target Tracking With High Dynamic Biases
    • Authors: Xiangyu Zhang;Jingli Huang;Guohong Wang;Lin Li;
      Pages: 506 - 510
      Abstract: The chirp signal, which is of large time bandwidth product, is widely used in the current radar systems. However, high dynamic biases are brought into the radar ranging when the signal is used in the hypersonic target tracking, due to the distance-Doppler coupling. In view of the situation, this letter proposes an unbiased tracking algorithm which can eliminate the influence of high dynamic biases at the same time of target tracking.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • A Closed-Form Localization Algorithm Using Angle-of-Arrival and Difference
           Time of Scan Time Measurements in Scan-Based Radar
    • Authors: WanChun Li;YingXiang Li;Ping Wei;Heng-Ming Tai;
      Pages: 511 - 515
      Abstract: This letter presents a closed-form localization algorithm using the angle-of-arrival and difference time of scan time measurements from the scan-based radar (SBR). With the known radar scanning velocity, the difference time of the scan time can be converted into a subtended angle, which has linear relationship with the angle-of-arrival (AOA). The best linear unbiased estimator is applied for the optimal and reliable the AOA estimation. The weighted least square (WLS) method is used for localization of the SBR system. The presented solution is computationally efficient and statistically consistent in that the measured mean squared errors achieve the Cramer–Rao lower bounds.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Technical Areas and Editors: AESS IEEE Aerospace & Electronic Systems
    • Pages: 516 - 520
      Abstract: Presents a listing of AESS society technical editors and their areas of expertise.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
  • Information for Authors
    • Pages: 521 - 522
      Abstract: These instructions give guidelines for preparing papers for this publication. Presents information for authors publishing in this journal.
      PubDate: Feb. 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2019)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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