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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 202 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advanced Materials Technologies     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 99)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Australian Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 304)
ECTI Transactions on Computer and Information Technology (ECTI-CIT)     Open Access  
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 123)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 108)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 103)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
EPE Journal : European Power Electronics and Drives     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 100)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Letters on Electromagnetic Compatibility Practice and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Magnetics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Open Journal of Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Open Journal of Industry Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 77)
IEEE Pulse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 363)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221)
IEEE Transactions on Haptics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
IEEE Women in Engineering Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access  
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal ELTIKOM : Jurnal Teknik Elektro, Teknologi Informasi dan Komputer     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Revue Méditerranéenne des Télécommunications     Open Access  
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ural Radio Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Instabilities in Silicon Devices
Number of Followers: 1  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1874-5903
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3204 journals]
  • The editors
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Instabilities in Silicon Devices, Volume 3

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:46Z
  • Foreword
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Instabilities in Silicon Devices, Volume 3

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:46Z
  • Introduction to volume 3
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Instabilities in Silicon Devices, Volume 3

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:46Z
  • List of contributors
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Instabilities in Silicon Devices, Volume 3

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:46Z
  • The authors
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Instabilities in Silicon Devices, Volume 3

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:46Z
  • Foreword
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Instabilities in Silicon Devices, Volume 3

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:46Z
  • Chapter 1 Silica, silicon nitride and oxynitride thin films An overview of
           fabrication techniques, properties and applications
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Instabilities in Silicon Devices, Volume 3

      Although thermal oxide remains an insulator of choice for silicon-based microelectronic devices, thin nitride and oxynitride films possess superior qualities for specific applications. In this chapter we describe both the main techniques used to manufacture thin nitrided insulator films and the main physical and electrical properties of the obtained films. The direct nitridation of silicon in ammonia, by thermal means, is difficult because it requires high temperature (> 950°C) and the obtained films are very thin (< 10 nm) because of the self-limiting nature of the growth process. Since the network of amorphous silicon nitride is denser than that of silica, it resists chemical etching (by HF solutions) better and behaves as a better barrier against diffusion. These properties are exploited in the LOCOS process. Unlike the oxide defects, the defects contained in nitrides behave mostly as electron traps. Thin oxynitride films can be fabricated by nitriding thin silica films in ammonia at high temperature (> 800°C). Nitridation may be performed at low pressure (P(NH3) < 1 mbar) or at “high” pressure (P(NH3) ≈ 1 bar). In either case, the ensuing nitrogen concentration below the surface and at the SiO2-Si interface is greater than in the bulk. The introduction of nitrogen atoms in silica, their concentration and their distribution modify in a complex fashion the physical and electrical properties of this material. The presence of nitrogen increases the dielectric strength of silica but increases the density of electron traps and introduces a hole conduction mode. It is also possible to fabricate thin oxide or nitride films, or to nitride thin silica films by using Rapid high Temperature Processes (based on the lamp heating of single wafers). The short process times used allow one to fabricate films whose properties are superior to those grown in furnace processes. To minimize the problems associated with the presence of hydrogen atoms introduced in nitrides during processing in ammonia, one can reoxidize these nitrided films. It is also possible to obtain virtually hydrogen-free nitride films by processing silicon surfaces directly in gaseous N2O or NO. The films thus obtained possess electrical properties which are superior to those of usual nitride films, and especially a greater dielectric strength and a better resistance to electrical stresses. It is also possible to fabricate nitride and oxynitride films at lower temperatures (and even at room temperature) by enhancing the reactivity of the species involved, by non-thermal means. These processes, briefly reviewed, use photons, electrons, ions or plasmas as an enhancement method, which allows one to reduce considerably the “thermal budget”. Thin nitride and oxynitride films have found numerous applications in microelectronic devices.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:46Z
  • Chapter 2 A review of buried oxide structures and SOI technologies
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Instabilities in Silicon Devices, Volume 3

      Various techniques have been tried to fabricate buried oxide (BOX) structures and Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) devices. The advantages associated with such structures are many: an increased integration, a reduction in coupling effects, a better radiation hardness and low leakage currents. Most currently used techniques are reviewed in this chapter. To obtain a SOI structure, silicon can be deposited on an amorphous (or polycrystalline) insulator, or on a crystallized insulator. Although many insulator substrates have been tried, the best results have been obtained by epitaxial deposition of silicon on sapphire (Al2O3). The obstacles which the CMOS/SOS process had to overcome to become a reliable process are reviewed along with other techniques which permit growing a layer of crystalline silicon on an amorphous substrate (the ZMR and ISE process). A buried oxide can also be manufactured by implanting oxygen ions at a given depth in a silicon wafer. The SIMOX process is based on this principle. Other techniques (the FIPOS, SOOZ, GAA and EPIC processes) make it possible to grow an oxide layer underneath the device one wants to isolate. It is also possible to obtain a buried oxide by bonding two wafers, one of which has been oxidized. The BESOI process enables not only to obtain silicon-on-silica structures but also to associate other semi-conductor materials with an oxide. Whatever the method used, BOX structures have found applications not only in microelectronics but also in micro-optics, sensors and micro-machines. When BOX structures are irradiated, the presence of an additional oxide layer and of an additional silicon-insulator interface gives birth to new effects (charge build-up, creation of new interface and bulk traps). These effects must be taken into account when a SOI device is designed to operate in a radiation environment. Technologies based on buried oxides have a promising future.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:46Z
  • Chapter 3 Dielectric breakdown in SiO2 A survey of test methods
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Instabilities in Silicon Devices, Volume 3

      This chapter updates Chapter 6 of Volume 1 and reviews the testing methods used for characterizing the breakdown of capacitors with special emphasis on MOS capacitors. The mechanism of breakdown is described by the “Qbd model” or “charge-to-breakdown model”, based on the continuous degradation and eventual breakdown caused by charge leaking through the capacitor. This is explained briefly and the degradation of the stressed capacitors is discussed in more detail. The main proof of the Qbd model is found by comparing the different testing methods and showing that all the statistical results merge into the same Qbd distribution law. Apparent differences in various test results are caused by obvious effects such as current confinement and local breakdown. The impact of this unifying model, the physical meaning of Qbd and ζbd and the correlation of the two are studied. Recent literature on other models is briefly discussed.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:46Z
  • Chapter 4 Hot carrier injections in SIO2 and related instabilities in
           submicrometer mosfets
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Instabilities in Silicon Devices, Volume 3

      This chapter aims at reviewing recent results on hot carrier injections, interface state creation, charge trapping and related phenomena in submicrometer MOSFETs. Starting from a phenomenological description of hot carrier injections in MOSFETs, the modeling of hot carrier injection is then discussed, from simple analytical models to more sophisticated ones. Typical examples of simulated substrate and gate currents are given. The damage to electrical performances of MOSFETs, induced by hot carrier injection, is described as a function of the operating voltage conditions. A comparison of damage induced by dynamic (DC) and static (AC) injections is included in this chapter. Accelerated aging experiments are described in order to determine the lifetime of devices. Recent results regarding the microscopic nature of damage induced by hot carrier injection and the physical mechanisms by which these defects are created are reviewed. Ways of reducing instabilities due to hot carrier injections, using device engineering, are presented. Finally, recent results regarding deep submicrometer devices (< 0.1 μm) are briefly discussed and future trends are sketched.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:46Z
  • Chapter 5 Multilayer dielectrics for memory applications
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Instabilities in Silicon Devices, Volume 3

      This chapter presents the applications of two-layer and three-layer thin films to memory devices. The behavior of silicon dioxide and silicon nitride films as well as the behavior of the oxide/nitride interface are specifically analyzed. We first recall some generalities on how an MNOS structure, used as a non-volatile memory cell, works, i.e. how data can be written, read and erased. We then recall the basic phenomena which underlie this “memory” behavior. We also recall the basic equations which link the charge distribution, the potential distribution and the currents in such a structure. We then briefly present several models used to explain and quantify how the charge is injected in the nitride and how this leads to a variation in threshold voltage of any transistor possessing an MNOS structure instead of a regular gate structure. Various new results on the origin and the characteristics of nitride traps are then presented. Silicon nitride is shown to contain amphoteric traps possessing three states of charge, whose origin is mainly attributed to Silicon Dangling Bonds, not linked to a Nitrogen atom. These traps are shown to be widely distributed throughout the nitride and possess numerous energy levels. Recent models describing the switching and/or the retention behavior of MNOS structures are mentioned next. In all these models one considers that the traps are distributed uniformly in the nitride bulk, although in some of them, an additional trap density is introduced at the nitride/oxide interface. MNOS memory devices are now proposed as commercial products. However, the fact that the stored charge is spread throughout the nitride, limits the possibilities of scaling down these devices. This limitation can be circumvented by introducing a third insulating layer, made of silicon oxide, between the nitride and the gate electrode. These new devices are called MONOS or SONOS, depending on the electrode material (metal or polysilicon). Their behavior can be modeled and the models take into account the presence of amphoteric traps. The ONO (Oxide/Nitride/Oxide) structure is also studied for its applications as a storage capacitor for dynamic random access memory and as an inter-gate insulator for floating gate memories. The physics and the modeling of the ONO insulator are presented.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:46Z
  • Chapter 6 Charge pumping techniques Their use for diagnosis and interface
           states studies in MOS transistors
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Instabilities in Silicon Devices, Volume 3

      The charge pumping (CP) technique is a powerful tool used to characterize the traps of the Si-SiO2 interface in submicrometer MOS devices. It is based on the exploitation of a repetitive process whereby majority carriers coming from the substrate recombine with minority carriers previously trapped in interface states, when the MOSFET is submitted to well-chosen biasing cycles. By taking into account the emission processes which control the exchange of charges at the interface, information concerning the capture cross-section and the energy distribution of the interface states can be obtained. In this chapter, we describe various charge pumping techniques and their applications. We first show that a “pumping current” is detected under certain circumstances in a MOS transistor and we present the fundamentals of the charge pumping technique. We then describe the early version of the two-level (2CP) technique. The first-order modeling is not sufficient to explain all the experimental results found. We thus introduce a more thorough analysis of the various physical phenomena which take place when a triangular, trapezoidal or sinusoidal voltage pulse is applied to the gate electrode. We then review the experimental parameters which affect the CP response of the MOS transistor (the frequency and the profile of the gate pulse, the reverse bias of the source and drain junctions, the device temperature) and we indicate the accuracy and the limitations of the classical 2CP method. We show next how the 2CP method enables us to calculate the average density of the interface states 〈Dit〉 and their average cross-section 〈σ〉. By adjusting some experimental parameters we also gain access to the energy distribution of the states Dit(E) and to their spatial distribution D it (x). With the spectroscopic technique, we explain that it is possible to define an energy window by exploiting a differential signal and that Dit(E) and σ(E) are accessible by performing a temperature sweep. The introduction of a third voltage level in the gate pulse gives access to the same parameters as the 2CP but requires less simplifying assumptions. We show that the 3CP and its variants are powerful tools to determine the Dit(E) and σ(E) distributions. We end this chapter by describing some clever applications of the 2CP method: characterization of interfaces (degraded homogeneously or not) characterization of border traps (by using a frequency sweep) and characterization of grain boundary traps in polysilicon thin-film transistors. Given the shrinking dimensions of elementary transistors, the various CP techniques are to date the only techniques which make it possible to characterize the Si-SiO2 interface directly in the transistor itself. They thus have a promising future.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:46Z
  • Chapter 7 The study of thermal nitridation and reoxidation mechanisms
           using isotopic tracing methods
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Instabilities in Silicon Devices, Volume 3

      The electrical properties of thin films of silicon nitride and silicon oxynitride are closely linked to their structure and atomic composition. These in turn depend on growth mechanisms which were not well understood up to now. In this chapter, we show that the growth of films in well-controlled ambients (alternately natural and isotopically-enriched) combined with high-resolution profiling techniques, enable one to describe, on an atomic scale, the transport and exchange mechanisms taking place. We first recall the fundamentals of isotopic tracing and we describe two techniques used to measure the indepth concentration profiles: step-by-step chemical etching associated with an absolute quantitative analysis using Nuclear Reaction Analysis, and low-energy Nuclear (narrow) Resonance Profiling. By applying these two techniques to the thermal growth of nitride films, carried out on a silicon substrate in gaseous ammonia, we can clarify the part that each chemical species play. We show that film growth is due to the interstitial migration of NHx groups. Hydrogen liberated during nitridation diffuses towards the top surface of the nitride film. Likewise, these techniques show that the nitridation of silica in gaseous ammonia is due to the interstitial diffusion of NHx groups. this diffusion is however accompanied by an atomic exchange (O atoms being substituted by N atoms) taking place near the top surface of the film. During the reoxidation of oxynitride films, these techniques show that the interstitial diffusion of oxygen is accompanied by an (N→O) exchange and by a decrease in hydrogen content due to the formation of water vapor. The thermal growth of silicon oxynitride films can also be performed in a single step, using gaseous N2O. In this case, the films are devoid of hydrogen and nitrogen remains located near the Si/SiO2 interface. Finally, when these oxynitride films are reoxidized, the interstitial diffusion of oxygen is accompanied by an important (O→O) exchange and by a global loss of nitrogen which migrates towards the top surface.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:46Z
  • Foreword
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Instabilities in Silicon Devices, Volume 3

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:46Z
  • Chapter 8 The space radiation environment
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Instabilities in Silicon Devices, Volume 3

      In many civilian and military applications, electronic components must operate in a radiation environment, and thus may experience instability phenomena. In Section I of this chapter, we introduce the parameters which enable us: to fully characterize the particles encountered in a radiation environment and to describe their effects on matter. We then describe the two basic constituents of the environment encountered in spa solar particles and cosmic rays. Particles can be emitted by the sun, either continuously (solar wind) or sporadically (solar flares). The rest of the galaxy behaves also as a continuous source of radiation (the cosmic rays). In Section 3 we show that there exists around the Earth, zones where particles are preferentially trapped (the so-called Van Allen belts). The Earth's magnetic field is responsible for this trapping. This field also shields our planet by filtering out most of the solar and galactic particles. In the last section we show that, given some hypotheses, the radiation environment of the Earth can be modeled. The models enable us to predict the fluxes and the energy spectrum of the particles that a spacecraft will encounter during a mission in space and thus help us compute the probability that a “Single Event Phenomenon” occur or that a component fail. We finally give a few examples illustrating the use of these models.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:46Z
  • Chapter 9 An overview of radiation-matter interactions
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Instabilities in Silicon Devices, Volume 3

      Electronic components are increasingly used in terrestrial or space radiation environments. Inside these components, radiation gives rise to electrical phenomena which can only be understood and modeled if the basic physics of radiation-matter interactions is well understood. This physics is detailed in this chapter. We first indicate, in Section 2, the definitions and the basic units one uses to describe both the radiation sources and the irradiated material. In Section 3 we define the concept of interaction cross section, applied to the absorption or to the scattering of particles in matter, as well as the concepts of stopping power and range. Two types of “defects” are created by radiation: displacement damage and ionization phenomena. In Section 4 we describe how these defects are generated and how they recombine. We also describe two examples of radiation environments encountered by electronic devices during their manufacturing: ion implantation and lithography. Energetic electrons can interact elastically with the nuclei of the target atoms, or inelastically with their shell electrons. They can also generate Bremsstrahlung radiation when stopped by the target material. The first two mechanisms are described in Section 5. Energetic ions interact with matter in ways similar to electrons. We show in Section 6 that, by making suitable hypotheses about the shape of an “interaction potential”, we can deduce expressions both for the interaction cross section of ions and for their stopping power. Energetic ions can be encountered during device manufacturing and in space (cosmic rays). In Section 7 we describe the three basic mechanisms taking place when photons interact with matter: the photoelectric effect, the Compton effect, and pair production. Any of these three mechanisms can prevail depending on photon energy and on the atomic mass of the target material. We end this long chapter by describing (in Section 8) how neutrons interact with matter. Two mechanisms prevail: either the neutron collides with a nucleus or it is captured by the nucleus. In the first case the primary “knock-on atom” can generate a cascade of secondary collisions, while in the second case neutron capture is followed by the emission of particles which, in turn, can generate collisions. This leads us to define a “damage function” (useful for damage modeling).

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:46Z
  • Chapter 10 Radiation effects in electronic components
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Instabilities in Silicon Devices, Volume 3

      A silicon device, operating in a radiation environment, and not designed or protected for that purpose will eventually fail. If we exclude dose rate effects, which are not treated in this chapter, there exist two basic failure modes: one due to displacement damage, the other one due to ionizing dose effect. When an energetic particle penetrates inside a material it generates both ionization phenomena and displacement defects. This is illustrated in Section 2 using the results of a computer simulation (the implantation of a high-energy helium ion in amorphous silicon is simulated). In Section 3 we give some generalities on displacement damage. The generated primary defects recombine and give birth to secondary defects which introduce new (allowed) energy levels in the forbidden gap of silicon. These levels perturb the electrical properties of silicon, and especially the excess carrier lifetime. We show in Section 4 how we can define a damage coefficient which links the fluence of impinging particles to the modification of a given electrical parameter of the substrate. This damage coefficient can be assessed by computing the NIEL (Non-Ionizing Energy Loss) of the particle in the material. We finally show, using some simplifying assumptions, that the reverse of the common-emittor current gain (1/hFE) varies linearly with fluence, which is confirmed experimentally. This “macroscopic” approach of displacement damage may not however be sufficient in the future to quantify what happens in highly integrated devices. The impact of ionizing particles in devices is described in Section 5. When ionization occurs in silicon it can give rise to a photocurrent. If it occurs in silica, ionization triggers both a charge build-up in the bulk and the generation of (allowed) energy states at the oxide surface. This is accomplished by means of complex mechanisms, not yet fully understood. We see in Section 6 that most MOS devices are sensitive to ionization effects in silica (also called “total dose effect”). During and after irradiation, the threshold voltage shifts and the two contributions to this shift (the trapped charge and the interface states) can be separated experimentally. In Section 7 we review the sensitivity to displacement damage and ionization effects of a large number of device families. A device can be hardened against radiation in at least three different ways: by design, by technological processes and by shielding. This is what we show in Section 8. Finally, in section 9 we take a look at the techniques and procedures used to test the sensitivity of devices to radiation and we mention the various sources of radiation data presently available.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:46Z
  • Chapter 11 Defects and radiation-induced charge-trapping phenomena in SiO2
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Instabilities in Silicon Devices, Volume 3

      The irradiation of a MOS structure (a capacitor or a transistor) generally leads to the build-up of a positive space-charge in the oxide. This phenomenon is due to the generation of electron-hole pairs and to subsequent charge trapping on electrically active defects of the SiO2 layer. In this chapter, we first recall that most SiO2 insulating layers used in microelectronics have an amorphous structure, and then show that an intrinsic defect must be understood as a perturbation of the short-range order of this structure. We next review the electrically active defects, both intrinsic and extrinsic, encountered in amorphous SiO2, which have been identified by EPR techniques. We show that most of these identified defects behave as hole traps. By rewriting the continuity equations for free and trapped carriers, we can derive general expressions giving the voltage shifts (ΔVot) due to charge trapping in the oxide of a MOS structure irradiated under bias. Usable expressions of ΔVot may be obtained, after making some simplifying assumptions, when the traps are either uniformly distributed in the bulk or are located at the Si-SiO2 interface. We next examine, from a phenomenological point of view, what the ΔVot(E) curves should look like when the applied field (E) varies, for high and low absorbed doses, and for given trap distributions. Predictions are compared to experimental results. We also describe the “field collapse effect” observed for large dose irradiations. In this case, the internal field generated by the space-charge cancels out the action of the applied field. The expressions derived earlier enable us, for given experimental conditions, to determine separately the capture cross-section and the density of oxide traps in a MOS structure. Experimental results obtained for SIMOX oxides are indicated. Finally, we propose a model to describe the effects of high temperature anneals on the SiO2 layer, and show how the derived expressions permit also to confirm, by electrical means, that oxygen atoms out-diffuse from silica layers into silicon during some high-temperature process steps.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:46Z
  • Chapter 12 The effects of cosmic ions on electronic components
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Instabilities in Silicon Devices, Volume 3

      Because of their increasing degree of integration, on-board electronic components are increasingly sensitive to the heavy ions of the cosmic rays. When an energetic ion goes through a component, it generates ionization phenomena along its path. The ensuing transient (photo) current may alter the content of memory cells or perturb the functioning of logic devices (logical upset) or even destroy the component. The sensitivity of a component to heavy ions may be characterized by measuring the number of single events produced as a function of the incident energy of the particle or of the energy it looses. Two mechanisms contribute to collecting the charges generated along the ion track: funneling and diffusion. These mechanisms may be analyzed relatively easily for an ideal pn diode. In a real component, the charge collection mechanisms are more complex because of the presence of neighboring sensitive structures, of coupling phenomena and of possible short-circuits. A permanent degradation of the component may even take place because of the excitation of parasitic structures. Three such degradation modes have been identified so far: the Single Event Latchup (SEL), the Single Event Burn-out (SEB) and the Single Event Gate Rupture (SEGR). It is, to some extent, possible to compare the sensitivity of various technologies by studying their structure and the dimensions of their elementary transistors. These analyses are, however, insufficient to model the phenomena and experimental characterizations are needed. These can be performed by means of particle accelerators, radioactive sources or picosecond lasers. Methods to predict the number of logical upsets likely to occur during a mission have been devised using semi-empirical models and computer codes. In some cases, the predicted results have been compared (successfully) to results obtained on-board satellites. It is possible to harden electronic circuits against heavy ion effects by adapting the manufacturing process, and by using different cell architecture and routing. The very dynamic field of ion-component interactions will no doubt continue to grow as circuit integration continues and more electronics is flown in space.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:46Z
  • Authors index
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Instabilities in Silicon Devices, Volume 3

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:46Z
  • List of errata to volume 1 of instabilities in silicon devices silicon
           passivation and related instabilities
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Instabilities in Silicon Devices, Volume 3

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:46Z
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