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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 175 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 76)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 305)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Consumer Electronics Times     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 253)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrica     Open Access  
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 104)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 85)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 91)
Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Embedded Systems Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access  
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 185)
Haptics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access  
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Nano Devices, Sensors and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Informatics     Open Access  
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access  
Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Magnetics Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Nanotechnology Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal  
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Paladyn. Journal of Behavioral Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Pulse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Solid-State Circuits Magazine, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
TELE     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Wireless Power Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Women in Engineering Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access  

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Journal Cover
Solid-State Electronics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.492
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 9  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0038-1101
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • High Concentration Phosphorus Doping in Ge for CMOS-Integrated Laser
           Applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2019Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): Chan-Hyuck Park, Motoki Yako, Kazumi Wada, Yasuhiko Ishikawa, Donghwan Ahn Germanium is promising material for the laser that can be monolithically integrated on Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor platform and has emission wavelength of 1550 nm for optical interconnect. To obtain significant optical gain, it is necessary to achieve high n-type doping concentration level, while avoiding the damage to Ge crystalline quality. In this paper, we report an ex-situ phosphorus diffusion doping of Ge film, based on low-temperature phosphosilicate glass (PSG) pre-deposition process such as spin-on-glass and sub-atmospheric chemical vapor deposition (SACVD) methods. Closely related to optical gain properties of Ge for Ge-on-Si laser application, the photoluminescence characteristics of Ge epitaxial film after P diffusion doping were investigated. Especially, SACVD-processed PSG deposited directly on Ge film without any Si capping layer successfully led to high phosphorus doping concentration of ∼ 1019 cm-3 deep inside Ge and dramatically enhanced photoluminescence intensity by more than 10 times compared to intrinsic Ge film. By using the SACVD-PSG based P doping process, we developed an inverted-rib Ge waveguide structure for more effective optical gain. In the inverted-rib Ge structure, the mode will be positioned upward and stay relatively away from the Ge-Si interface where many dislocations are located and, as a result, we can expect less optical loss due to scattering and the overall higher mode gain. As a very promising preliminary result, from optical-pumping of the inverted-rib Ge, a threshold-like behavior starting at 18 kW/cm2 and amplified spontaneous emission around 1570 nm were demonstrated.
       
  • On the C-V characteristics of nanoscale strained Gate-All-Around Si/SiGe
           MOSFETs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2019Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): Amrita Kumari, Subindu Kumar, Tarun Kumar Sharma, Mukul K. Das Gate-all-around (GAA) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is one of the mainstream research topics of the current era in the field of semiconductor devices since they are the most efficient architectures among all multiple-gate (MG) devices. Incorporating strain in GAA device can boost the device performance significantly. As such, strained-Si (S-Si) GAA MOSFETs can have vast technological importance in future high performance logic technologies. Due to imperfections in the fabrication process, the cross-section of a GAA device may deviate from its ideal circular nature, giving rise to an elliptical structure. Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) characteristics is an important tool for characterizing such devices. For the first time, we analytically model the quasi-static C-V characteristics of elliptical S-Si GAA MOSFETs for various operating regions. We have incorporated quantum mechanical effects (QMEs) which cannot be neglected in devices having ultra-nanometre dimensions. Computations were carried out to investigate the effects of device dimensions, interface trap charges, doping concentration, germanium mole fraction and stress on the C-V characteristics of S-Si GAA MOSFETs. The possibilities for enhancing the device performance by using high-k dielectrics have also been investigated.
       
  • Synaptic Behaviors of HfO2 ReRAM by Pulse Frequency Modulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2019Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): Dong Keun Lee, Min-Hwi Kim, Tae-Hyeon Kim, Suhyun Bang, Yeon-Joon Choi, Sungjun Kim, Seongjae Cho, Byung-Gook Park A resistive switching random-access memory (ReRAM) device with TiN/HfO2/SiO2/p+-Si stack is analyzed for synaptic behavior. Fabricated RRAM device stack consists of heavily doped p-type silicon bottom electrode (BE), HfO2 as a switching layer, SiO2 as a tunneling barrier layer and TiN as a top electrode (TE). The RRAM cell successfully shows I-V curves including SET and RESET operations in DC sweep mode. By inserting a SiO2 tunneling barrier layer, gradual switching characteristics are obtained by pulse operation. By optimizing the pulse scheme applied to the device, biological synaptic plasticity of long-term potentiation and depression is demonstrated. Finally, spike rate-dependent plasticity (SRDP) learning rule is realized by applying pulses with different frequencies to both terminals of the ReRAM device.
       
  • Silicon-based high-integration reconfigurable dipole with SPiN
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2019Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): Han Su, Huiyong Hu, Pedram Mousavi, Heming Zhang, Bin Wang, Yuanhao Miao To improve the integration of reconfigurable antenna systems, a novel high-integration solid state plasma reconfigurable dipole antenna based on surface PiN (SPiN) diodes was presented in this paper. Silicon-based SPiN diodes were the basic building blocks of plasma channel, and carrier concentration within the intrinsic region achieved a relatively high level (exceeding 1018 cm-3). In this paper, parameters of the plasma region have been extensively discussed, and several optimized band stop filters were also introduced to replace the conventional capacitor and inductor. This method greatly improved the integration of antenna system to meet the requirements of modern communications. The resonant frequencies at 2.43 GHz and 2.53 GHz have been achieved by turning on or off different sections of the dipole. The Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) of the antenna was 1.03 and 1.34, respectively. Other parameters of this antenna were also investigated in this paper. Experimental results confirm the usefulness of the SPiN diodes within solid state plasma antenna and other semiconductor fields.
       
  • Mobility extraction for short channel UTBB-FDSOI MOSFETs under back bias
           using an accurate inversion charge density model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2019Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): L. Trojman, L-Å Ragnarsson, N. Collaert In this work we measure the inversion charge density for short UTBB-FDSOI MOSFET (down to 45nm) using an accurate method for the extraction of the parasitic components which take into account the effect of the back bias. Based on these results, we propose a modification of the inversion charge density model that uses the simplified Lambert function in order to include the back bias effect. This model is then validated with the experimental data for different gate length (from 185nm to 45nm). It is shown that this inversion charge model is valid for the mobility extraction and give very good assessment of the mobility if we know only the IV-characteristic, the threshold voltage (with back bias effect) and the inversion charge capacitance. Finally, this method is used to extract the mobility for short channel devices (down to 40nm) and it is found that the short channel mobility suffers from degradation even for large back bias. For the shortest device, it is demonstrated that the main source of mobility degradation is caused by oxide charges and interface states located near the S/D extensions and then it is deduced that the mobility reduction for large back bias is related to neutral defect from Si-crystal close to the channel edge.
       
  • Experimental validation of the surface state distribution model in the
           Suzuki theory to qualify the thin film surface materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2019Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): L. Pichon, K. Yang, A-C. Salaün The relevance of the theoretical Suzuki’s model of surface state density to determine the surface states distribution at the active layer/silicon dioxide interfaces is carried out in polycrystalline silicon thin film transistors (TFTs) issued from two different crystallization technologies of the active layer: furnace solid phase crystallized (FSPC) and laser solid phase crystallized (LSPC) TFTs. The experimental validation of this model is demonstrated using the field effect conductance method. Results show that distribution is higher for the FSPC TFTs in relationship with the process crystallization of the active layer. In addition, it is shown that theoretical surface state model allows discriminating dangling bonds states and tail states distributions and acts as relevant model to qualify the surface of thin film material.
       
  • Reconfigurable logic for carry-out computing in 1-bit full adder using a
           single magnetic tunnel junction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2019Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): Gi Yoon Bae, Yechan Hwang, Sangmin Lee, Taewan Kim, Wanjun Park We propose a method for reconfigurable logic using a single magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) as the main computing element in the single-gate architecture. The introduction of the MTJ to reconfigurable computing provides advantages in layout efficiency, power consumption, and the device variation problem. In this study, we present a three-terminal MTJ implemented by two inputs (ampere magnetic field and spin torque-transfer current) acting as a logic element that performs the Boolean logic functions of NAND and NOR with corresponding programmable input values in a fixed architecture. In addition, the reconfigurable functionality is confirmed through demonstration of carry-out computing across the operator built with single-MTJ logic architecture.
       
  • Degradation and failure mechanism of AlGaN-based UVC-LEDs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2019Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): Zhanhong Ma, Haicheng Cao, Shan Lin, Xiaodong Li, Lixia Zhao The degradation behaviors of flip-chip 260nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UVC-LEDs) were studied using in-situ accelerated system and different analytical technologies. The optical power of LEDs stressed at a constant DC current of 20mA decreased to about 63% of the initial value after 150 h. The failure mechanisms were investigated systematically by using current-voltage measurements, Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy, Transient Thermal Analysis, Scan Electron Microscopy, etc. The results show that: the concentration of H in p-GaN layer decreased from 4.5e17 atoms/cm3 for the unstressed samples to 6.0e16 atoms/cm3 for stressed sample, while there is no change for the Mg concentration, indicating the hydrogen dissociated from the Mg-H complex resulting from the activation of the Mg-dopant during the stressed period; the increase of the current for the reverse bias region and the low-forward bias region during stress is due to the increase in defect-assisted carrier tunneling; the diffusion of contact metal during stress lead to the decrease of the thermal resistance of die attach. These results will help to improve the reliability design of AlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs.
       
  • Tunneling Field Effect Transistors (TFETs) with 3D Fin-shaped Channel
           Structure and Their Electrical Characteristics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): Donghwan Lim, Hoonhee Han, Changhwan Choi In this study, we have demonstrated 3D fin-structured channel Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) tunneling field effect transistor (TFET) to enhance transistor on-current (Ion) by reducing leakage current and enhancing gate controllability. By comparing with planar TFET, the subthreshold swing (S.S) value is apparently reduced by ∼20 mV/dec with increased Ion using fin-typed TFET. Moreover, we have investigated impact of the interfacial layer (IL) modulation on the electrical characteristics of each planar TFET and fin-typed TFET, where IL modulation was performed by adopting modified chemical oxide as well as interface treatment. The IL modulation is substantial on the fin-typed TFET in terms of off leakage current (Ioff) as well as threshold voltage instability (△Vth) against electrical stress, indicating 3D channel is more sensitive to interface condition. Our results suggest that alternative 3D structure with an appropriate interface treatment might be beneficial to attain better Ion while keeping lower S.S and Ioff.
       
  • A Macro Model of RF Schottky Diode in 22-nm CMOS and Its Application
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2019Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): Chao Xu, Pingping Yu, Yanfeng Jiang RF Schottky Barrier Diode (SBD) device can be compatible with deep submicron CMOS process, which is a research edge-cutting technology in the field of microelectronics. An accurate device model is highly required by the relevant circuit simulation work. In this paper, a macro device model of SBD in 22 nm CMOS node is developed based on the actual device structure. To increase its accuracy, a novel iterative algorithm is employed during the model parameter extraction. The simulation results are consistent with experimental data in frequency range from 10 MHz to 10 GHz, indicating that the developed SBD model can accurately reflect the DC and RF characteristics of the 22 nm device. Moreover, the application of the developed RF SBD device model is verified based on RF energy harvesting circuit in terms of the output voltage and efficiency, showing the feasibility of the developed SBD model in RF integrated circuit.
       
  • A Sub-35 pW Axon-Hillock artificial neuron circuit
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2019Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): F. Danneville, C. Loyez, K. Carpentier, I. Sourikopoulos, E. Mercier, A. Cappy Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications are developing at a high rate, facing soon a tremendous energy challenge. In this context, the original Axon-Hillock (AH) Artificial Neuron (AN) has been optimized to achieve ultra-low power (ULP) consumption. The membrane capacitance was taken out, and in order to drastically reduce its power consumption, the (feedback) capacitance is lowered to 5 fF, the transistors gate width is reduced to 120 nm and the supply voltage is decreased to as low as 200 mV. Designed and fabricated using 65 nm CMOS Technology, the refined AH neuron features a standby power of 11 pW, and when excited, a power consumption that does not exceed 30 pW for a firing frequency of 15.6 kHz. Its energy efficiency per spike is lower than 2 fJ / spike when the DC power is included (around 1 fJ / spike excluding the DC power), for an area of 31 µm2. These performance confer to this ULP AH neuron a high potential for future development of highly energy efficient Spiking Neural Networks, required to design future neuroprocessors embedded in various applications (smart visual sensors for autonomous vehicles, robotics).
       
  • Investigation on the change of the performance of Si-Zn-Sn-O thin film
           transistors under negative bias temperature stress depending on the
           channel thickness
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2018Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): Jin Young Hwang, Sang Yeol Lee Amorphous silicon doped zinc tin oxide (a-SZTO) thin film transistors (TFTs) have been fabricated by RF-magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The effect of different channel thickness on the electrical properties and the stability of a-SZTO TFTs have been investigated. Thickness was changed from 30 to 75 nm. As increasing channel thickness, electrical characteristics were improved due to the increase of the carrier concentration, however thick channel over 42 nm was deteriorated due to the increase of carrier scattering associated with increased trap density. Temperature stresses of a-SZTO TFTs were measured in the temperature range from 300K to 333K and activation energy (Ea) falling rate was calculated based on the results of temperature stress in order to investigate the defect states in the band gap. The Ea falling rate was decreased when increasing of channel thickness. Negative bias temperature stress (NBTS) was measured at 333K, -20V for 7200s to determine the stability of a-SZTO TFTs. After NBTS, the electrical characteristics such as the threshold voltage shift (ΔVTH) and the subthreshold swing (S.S), were deteriorated mainly due to the increase of total trap density. To confirm the increase of trap density, DOS was extracted through activation energy. These results indicated that good stability condition is observed at thin channel thickness of 30 nm. We suggest that the thickness of a-SZTO should be optimized for the enhancement of electrical property and stability.
       
  • Light-Illumination Stability of Amorphous InGaZnO Thin Film Transistors in
           Oxygen and Moisture Ambience
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2018Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): Chengyuan Dong, Jianeng Xu, Yan Zhou, Ying Zhang, Haiting Xie The light-illumination stability of amorphous InGaZnO Thin Film Transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) in oxygen and moisture ambience was in-depth characterized by both current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. With the illuminated light wavelength decreasing, both I-V and C-V curves shifted negatively. When the ambient oxygen content or moisture level increased, the a-IGZO TFTs exhibited more stable properties under light illumination. A qualitative model was proposed to explain the related physical mechanism. The higher oxygen content or moisture level benefited the light-illumination-induced oxygen adsorption at back channels of a-IGZO TFTs and prevented the formation of oxygen vacancies (VO) in channel layers; the VO variation with the light illumination became more difficult and hence led to better light-illumination stability of the corresponding TFT devices.
       
  • Analysis and Compact Modeling of Temperature-Dependent Switching in SiC
           IGBT Circuits
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): Kai Matsuura, Yuta Tanimoto, Atsushi Saito, Yosuke Miyaoku, Takeshi Mizoguchi, Mitiko Miura-Mattausch, Hans Jürgen Mattausch Compact modeling of the 4H-SiC IGBT switching characteristics in circuits is investigated, with a focus on reproducing the temperature-dependent switching performance. For this purpose the HiSIM-IGBT compact model for circuit simulation, previously developed for Si as well as SiC IGBTs, is extended by replacing the physical Si material parameters with those of SiC. Using this extended model, good reproduction of measured 4H-SiC IGBT switching waveforms at room temperature has been confirmed. However, substantial deviations are observed between measured and simulated switching characteristics at higher temperatures. The main reason is identified in the reported analysis as the temperature dependence of the carrier trapping, which strongly influences the characteristics of the MOSFET part in the IGBT. This carrier trap effect is phenomenologically modeled by a threshold voltage shift as well as a charge modification induced at the gate oxide. An important further effect is induced by the temperature dependence of the carrier lifetime in the base region, which mainly affects the bipolar IGBT part and increases the switching-tail current at higher temperatures. It is demonstrated that the newly developed compact model can accurately reproduce the measured SiC IGBT switching performances for a wide range of temperature variations, which enables a reliable and accurate design of SiC-IGBT circuits.
       
  • Optimization of PFN thickness in Inverted High-Performance
           PTB7:PC70BM Solar Cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2018Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): L. Reséndiz, V.S. Balderrama, G. Lastra, M. Ramírez, V. Cabrera, M. Estrada Organic solar cells (OSCs) made from PTB7:PC70BM, with different thicknesses of a conjugated electrolyte PFN (0, 5, 7, 10, and 15 nm) used as the cathode buffer layers, were fabricated partially in air. OSCs with 10 nm of PFN were the most efficient in experimental tests, at 7.41%. Numerical simulations of the cells were also performed using the physics-based Silvaco/ATLAS CAD simulator, which describe the OSCs using the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) model. Simulations were used to determine the optimum values of PFN thickness for achieving high overall performance, which lies in the region from 5 to 10 nm.
       
  • Hardware Implementation of Neural Network using Pre-Programmed Resistive
           Device for Pattern Recognition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2018Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): Wooseok Choi, Kibong Moon, Myonghoon Kwak, Changhyuck Sung, Jongwon Lee, Jeonghwan Song, Jaesung Park, Solomon Amsalu Chekol, Hyunsang Hwang To achieve high pattern recognition accuracy by using an analog input voltage scheme, we have confirmed that the conductance linearity (CL) , conductance uniformity (CU) and multi-levels conductance (MLC) characteristics are the key factors for synapse devices. We analyze the CL, CU and MLC characteristics of WOx-based resistive device (RD) for hardware neural network applications. Our findings show that excellent CL of RD is achieved by engineering the WOx composition and Schottky barrier height. Further, by adjusting top electrode materials, the RD exhibits improved CU due to the uniform W-WOx contact leading to discrete MLC states of RD with varying the device area. Finally, we have successfully demonstrated the potential of WOx-based RD for synapse application of hardware inference system through neural network simulation and the hardware implementation.
       
  • Improved efficiency of organic light emitting devices using graphene oxide
           with optimized thickness as hole injection layer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2018Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): Yangyang Guo, Wenjun Wang, Shuhong Li, Yunlong Liu, Tingting Liu, Qinglin Wang, Qingru Wang, Xuexi Gao, Quli Fan, Wenlian Li Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) with graphene oxide (GO) as hole injection layer (HIL) have been demonstrated. The OLED devices possess structures of ITO/GO(x nm)/NPB(40 nm)/Alq3(70 nm)/LiF(0.5 nm)/Al(100 nm), it is found that as the thickness of GO-HIL is a 3.6 nm an optimal current efficiency of 4.4 cd/A and a brightness of 15770cd/m2 were achieved, respectively, which are higher than that of reference device without GO-HIL layer (1cd/A and 4735cd/m2) . We reason that the improvement of electroluminescent (EL) intensity would be ascribed to the smoothed ITO surface and the reduced hole-injection barrier due to the high work function of GO layer. In terms of the impendence spectroscopy analysis of hole-only devices (HODs), for electrical character of device is mainly depends on the bulk resistance of the HODs. As a result, the optimized EL device offers fallen bulk resistances, finally, the improvement in EL performance was obviously realized.
       
  • Electrical properties of 4H-SiC MIS capacitors with AlN gate dielectric
           grown by MOCVD
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2018Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): R.Y. Khosa, J.T. Chen, K. Pálsson, R. Karhu, J. Hassan, N. Rorsman, E.Ö. Sveinbjörnsson We report on the electrical properties of the AlN/4H-SiC interface using capacitance- and conductance-voltage (CV and GV) analysis of AlN/SiC MIS capacitors. The crystalline AlN layers are made by hot wall MOCVD. CV analysis at room temperature reveals an order of magnitude lower density of interface traps at the AlN/SiC interface than at nitrided SiO2/SiC interfaces. Electron trapping in bulk traps within the AlN is significant when the MIS capacitors are biased into accumulation resulting in a large flatband voltage shift towards higher gate voltage. This process is reversible and the electrons are fully released from the AlN layer if depletion bias is applied at elevated temperatures. Current-voltage (IV) analysis reveals that the breakdown electric field intensity across the AlN dielectric is 3-4 MV/cm and is limited by trap assisted leakage. By depositing an additional SiO2 layer on top of the AlN layer, it is possible to increase the breakdown voltage of the MIS capacitors significantly without having much impact on the quality of the AlN/SiC interface.
       
  • Bias-stress effects in diF-TES-ADT field-effect transistors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2018Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): Chang-Hyun Kim A systematic analysis of the bias-stress effects in solution-processed organic field-effect transistors is reported. Difluoro 5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl) anthradithiophene, a high-performance molecular semiconductor, forms a charge-transport channel and is coupled with injection contacts made of Au, Ag, or Cu. The electrode metal is found to not only greatly affect the switching performances but also drive the response of transistors to the extended applications of gate voltage. The observations are put into the framework of contact-limited transistor model, which holistically assesses the material, geometry, and stress-related contributions.
       
  • Experimental observation of zero DIBL in short-channel hysteresis-free
           ferroelectric-gated FinFET
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2018Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): Jaemin Shin, Changhwan Shin The experimental investigation for the drain-induced-barrier-lowering (DIBL) in nanometer scale hysteresis-free 100 nm-long ferroelectric-gated FinFET (which employs the voltage-amplifying attribute of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3-based ferroelectric capacitor) is done to verify the DIBL improvement. The DIBL of the ferroelectric-gated FinFET (which is evaluated at 10-7 A/μm of drain current) is improved from ∼ 48 mV/V to ∼ 32 mV/V. When the DIBL is evaluated at 10-6 A/μm, it is reduced from 22.89 mV/V to ∼ 0 mV/V. The physical origin of the DIBL enhancement can be understood due to negative DIBL. The negative DIBL effect [a.k.a., drain-induced-barrier-rising (DIBAR)] is originated from a decrease of internal gate voltage, which takes place due to a gate charge reduction with increased drain voltage.
       
  • Lightweight Flexible Indium-Free Oxide TFTs with AND Logic Function
           Employing Chitosan Biopolymer as Self-Supporting Layer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2018Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): Guangdi Feng, Yuhang Zhao, Jie Jiang Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide, is nontoxic, lightweight and biodegradable, which exhibits a great potential for the emerging flexible and “green” electronic applications. Here, lightweight flexible aluminum-zinc-oxide (AZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are fabricated using chitosan biopolymer as self-supporting layer. This kind of biopolymer electrolyte can provide a strong electric-double-layer effect, which leads to a large capacitance with lower energy consumption. With the low-cost indium-free AZO deposited onto the chitosan film as the coplanar gate and source/channel/drain electrodes, the transistor shows a moderate on/off ratio of ∼104, a relatively ideal field-effect mobility of 0.3 cm2/Vs and a moderate sub-threshold swing of 0.65 V/dec. Moreover, logic “AND” function is realized in the flexible device with two coplanar gates as the input terminals. Such chitosan-gated flexible TFT devices can provide promising candidates for the next generation wearable and “green” electronics.
       
  • Gas Sensing Characteristics of the FET-Type Gas Sensor Having
           Inkjet-Printed WS2 Sensing Layer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2018Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): Yujeong Jeong, Jongmin Shin, Yoonki Hong, Meile Wu, Seongbin Hong, Ki Chang Kwon, Seokhoon Choi, Taehyung Lee, Ho Won Jang, Jong-Ho Lee This paper investigates the gas sensing characteristics of the MOSFET-type sensor having an inkjet-printed WS2 sensing layer. The drain current of the gas sensor increases when NO2 gas is injected into the test chamber since NO2 gas is an oxidizing gas that extracts electrons from the sensing layer. On the contrary, the drain current decreases when H2S gas is injected into the test chamber since H2S gas is a reducing gas that donates electrons to the sensing layer. In both cases, the change of the drain current increases as the gas concentration increases. However, for other gases (NH3 and CO2), the gas sensor has a small change of the drain current. The responses of the gas sensor to 10 ppm NO2, H2S, NH3, and CO2 gases are 15.20%, 7.18%, 1.66%, and 3.02%, respectively. Therefore, the WS2 sensor has a high selectivity for NO2 gas among the four target gases.
       
  • DC Current-crowding estimation for SiGe:C heterojunction bipolar
           transistors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2018Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): E. Ramirez-Garcia, E. Garduño-Nolasco, L.M. Rodríguez-Méndez, L.M. Diaz-Albarran, D. Valdez-Perez, M.C. Galaz-Larios, F. Aniel, N. Zerounian, M.A. Enciso-Aguilar We present a reliable technique to model the influence of DC current-crowding in bipolar transistors on the variation of emitter width (WE,ef) as a function of collector current density (JC) in silicon-germanium-carbon heterojunction bipolar transistors (SiGe:C HBTs). This method avoids using geometrical assumptions that may be invalid for highly scaled devices. We point out that according to the scientific literature consulted, this is the first time that the evolution of WE,ef with JC extracted from measurements of S-parameters, high frequency noise and small-signal electric modelling is reported for a bipolar transistor technology (homojunction or heterojunction). The investigated SiGe:C HBTs have eight different base layer configurations, varying in base doping level and Ge content. The results show that WE,ef decreases with JC for all devices. This behaviour is directly linked to the current-crowding effect. The procedure was used to identify the base configuration layer from the batch of eight SiGe:C HBTs that minimized current-crowding. This method could be applied to state-of-the-art SiGe:C HBTs to determine the base layer technological configuration that mitigates current-crowding and improves the reliability of SiGe:C HBTs. Finally, knowledge of the effective emitter width as a function of bias opens the road to thoroughly analyse the self-heating impact on ultra-fast SiGe:C HBTs.
       
  • Efficient Modified Bimetallic Alloy Nanoparticles Porous Silicon Gas
           Sensors for CO Gas Detection Process
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2018Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): Alwan M. Alwan, Duaa A. Hashim, Muslim F. Jawad The influence of embedding Au, Pd monometallic and Au-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles on porous silicon-based gas sensor was investigated. Porous silicon layer P-si was prepared by photo electrochemical etching (PECE) with the laser wavelength of about 635 nm and 25 mW/cm2 laser power density. AuNPs/P-si, PdNPs/P-si and Au-PdNPs/P-si hetrostructures were prepared by ion reduction process, this made by dipping fresh P-si in the salt solution contain HAuCl4, PdCl2 and mixing solutions at ratio 1:1 for about (1.2, 5 and 2 min), respectively. Au NPs/P-si, Pd NPs/P-si and Au-Pd NPs/P-si were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). Efficient gas sensing process was recorded for modified porous silicon P-si gas sensor with smallest bimetallic Au-Pd nanoparticles size. Considerable improvement in sensitivity and temporal response were obtained for modified bimetallic alloy nanoparticles porous silicon compared with bare P-si and monometallic nanoparticles gas sensors due to the high specific surface area.
       
  • Excellent Data Retention Characteristic of Te-based Conductive-Bridge RAM
           using Semiconducting Te Filament for Storage Class Memory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2018Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): Sangmin Lee, Jeonghwan Song, Seokjae Lim, Solomon Amsalu Chekol, Hyunsang Hwang In this work, we explore the electrical properties and data retention of Te-based conductive-bridge random-access memory (CBRAM) of ZrxTe1−x/Al2O3/Pt cells. The virgin resistance and forming voltage are decreased with increasing Zr composition (0.5 ≦ x ≦ 0.7) and decreasing electrolyte thickness. The resistance of the conductive filament (CF) formed in the Te-CBRAM shows semiconducting behavior that is decreased with increasing temperature, whereas a Cu-based CBRAM shows metallic behavior. Furthermore, the conductance change of Te-based CBRAM, during the filament dissolution step, occurs with lower conductance units than those of Cu/Ag-based CBRAM. The most differentiable characteristics of both devices are the data retention. Te-based CBRAM shows better data stability at high temperature (150 °C) than Cu-based device. Accelerated tests (250, 270, and 300 °C) were performed to understand the data retention of the Te-CBRAM, yielding excellent retention characteristics (10 years at 177 °C) despite its relatively low activation energy (Ea, 1.07 eV) than Cu/Ag- based devices. We believe that the excellent retention properties of Te-based devices are more influenced by the wide effective CF size than by Ea.
       
  • The Influence of Grain Boundary Interface Traps on Electrical
           Characteristics of Top Select Gate Transistor in 3D NAND Flash Memory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): Xingqi Zou, Lei Jin, Liang Yan, Yu Zhang, Di Ai, Chenglin Zhao, Feng Xu, Chunlong Li, Zongliang Huo The electrical characteristics of top select gate transistor (TSG) has been investigated in vertical channel three dimensional NAND flash memory. TSG shows wider initial Vth distribution as compared with memory cells, and even worse after erase. By experimental analysis and TCAD simulation, a physical model based on grain boundary (GB) interface traps is proposed to explain the mechanism. Grain boundary traps in offset region between bit line contact and TSG can induce a higher local potential barrier in channel, which results in higher TSG initial Vth. Besides, random GB position within offset region, leads to worse variation of TSG initial Vth. Furthermore, the local potential barrier in offset region of TSG cannot be reduced by erase operation, leading to worse Vth distribution after erase. According to proposed model, two methods with optimization of offset doping energy and poly-Si GB trap passivation condition are proposed to achieve tight distribution and improved erase uniformity.
       
  • Thermal Effects and Photoluminescence of Zirconium Doped Hybrid Sol Gel
           Waveguide
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Solid-State ElectronicsAuthor(s): Ha-Sung Kong, Kwang-Sun Kang Controlled process conditions enabled the fabrication of well-defined, high quality, and reproducible waveguides. Multifactor lithographic process conditions have been achieved in order to fabricate 3-D single mode waveguide. One of the key factors is the heating (preheating and post-baking) process. Good waveguides were formed with 30 minutes of pre-heating at 100°C. Sol gel waveguides have much lower light loss than polymer waveguides. Low light loss (0.16dB/cm) was achieved with an aged sol gel slab waveguide. By carefully controlling the index difference between cladding and core, light was easily launched into 4-inch lengths of single mode 3-D ridge waveguides. Strong photoluminescence (PL) was observed after varying periods of the post baking process. The PL intensity was found to be strongly dependant on the heating period and temperature and increased until 65 hours heating at 110 °C.
       
 
 
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