Subjects -> BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (Total: 145 journals)
    - BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (137 journals)
    - CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK (8 journals)

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (137 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 35 of 35 Journals sorted alphabetically
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Edificación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building - Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Baurechtliche Blätter : bbl     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BER : Architects and Quantity Surveyors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Capital Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Building Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment Inquiry Journal     Open Access  
Built-Environment Sri Lanka     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies in Construction Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Cement and Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clay Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Construction Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Corporate Real Estate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy and Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Environment and Urbanization Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Gaceta Técnica     Open Access  
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
Glass Structures & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Handbook of Adhesives and Sealants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heritage Matters : The Magazine for New Zealanders Restoring, Preserving and Enjoying Our Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
Intelligent Buildings International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Construction Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Sustainable Real Estate and Construction Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Ventilation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal for Education in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Computational Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Modular and Offsite Construction (MOC) Summit Proceedings |     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Open Construction & Building Technology Journal     Open Access  
Organization, Technology and Management in Construction     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Revista ALCONPAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de la Construcción     Open Access  
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista INVI     Open Access  
RILEM Technical Letters     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Ruang-Space: Jurnal Lingkungan Binaan (Journal of The Built Environment)     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Construction Science and Technology     Open Access  
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Science and Technology for the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Stroitel’stvo : Nauka i Obrazovanie     Open Access  
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal  
Terrain.org : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments     Free   (Followers: 3)
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  
YBL Journal of Built Environment     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Miet- und Raumrecht     Hybrid Journal  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.601
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 16  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1976-0485 - ISSN (Online) 2234-1315
Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Evaluation on the Bond Capacity of the Fire-Protected FRP Bonded to
           Concrete Under High Temperature

    • Abstract: Abstract To figure out the change in the reinforcing effect of FRP system used for the retrofit of RC beam when it is exposed to high temperature, it is required to evaluate not only the behavior of the entire beam, but also the bond performance at anchorage zone through a bond test according to the increase of external temperature. Moreover, the study to find various fire-protection methods is necessary to prevent the epoxy from reaching the critical temperature during an exposure to high temperature. In this manner, the fire-resistance performances of externally bonded (EB) FRP and near-surface-mounted (NSM) FRP to concrete block were evaluated by high-temperature exposure tests after performing a fire-protection on the surface in this paper. Board-type insulation with mortar was considered for the fire-protection of FRP system. After the fire-protection of the FRPs bonded to concrete blocks, an increasing exposure temperature was applied to the specimens with keeping a constant shear bond stress between concrete and the FRP. Based on the result, the temperature when the bond strength of the FRP disappears was evaluated. In addition, a finite element analysis was performed to find a proper method for predicting the temperature variation of the epoxy which is fire-protected with board-type insulation during the increase of external temperature. As a result of the test, despite the same fire-protection, NSM specimens were able to resist 1.54–2.08 times higher temperature than EB specimens. In the design of fire-protection of FRP system with the board-type insulation, it is necessary to consider the transfer from sides as well as the face with FRP. If there is no insulation of FP boards on the sides, the epoxy easily reaches its critical temperature by the heat penetrated to the sides, and increasing the thickness of the FP board alone for the face with FRP does not increase the fire-resistance capacity. As a result of the FE analysis, the temperature variation at epoxy can be predicted using the analytical approach with the proper thermal properties of FP mortar and board.
      PubDate: 2021-01-27
       
  • Preparation of Self-healing Additives for Concrete via Miniemulsion
           Polymerization: Formulation and Production Challenges

    • Abstract: Abstract Concrete structures undergo internal damage; this usually starts at the atomic level with defects that then grow and form cracks, which can propagate through the material. Here, a method of preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocapsules adhesive system via miniemulsion polymerization technique is reported, where MMA + DMA (resin + accelerator) and BPO (hardener) components are separately encapsulated by PMMA shells. The crack-healing potential of these nanocapsules was then investigated by embedding them into the mortar matrix. The prepared PMMA core–shell self-healing nanostructures survived the mixing and hardening processes, and the hardened mortar alkaline environment. The stress fields associated with propagating cracks (load‐induced cracking) broke the brittle/weak inert shell of these core–shell structures, resulted in releasing the healing agents to bridge the nascent and early-stage fractures (< 10 µm) in a short time. Long-term healing was achieved through the formation of polymorph calcite crystals in the presence of moisture and CO2, which improved the durability of mortar by filling the gaps. Formulation design (addition of chemical admixtures) and process parameters (blade design and mixing speed) were found to directly impact the uniform distribution of nanocapsules, the survival rate of nanocapsules, and the overall strength of the hardened concrete. The stepwise approach to formulate and fabricate a novel high-strength self-healing concrete system unlocks unique opportunities to design nanomaterials that safeguard the integrity of concrete structures.
      PubDate: 2021-01-25
       
  • Freeze–Thaw Resistance of Ternary Blended Concrete Using Ferronickel
           Slag

    • Abstract: Abstract The present study investigated the resistance of concrete blended with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and ferronickel slag (FNS) to cycles of freeze and thaw. The replacement ratio of the binders was 0%, 50 wt% of GGBS and 30 wt% of GGBS + 20 wt% of FNS for O100, OG50 and OG30F20, respectively. Specimens consisted of cement paste and concrete kept at 0.45 water/binder ratio. After 28 days of curing, specimens were subjected to freeze and thaw cycles (300) for measuring the variation of strength, weight loss and fundamental transverse frequency. Simultaneously mercury intrusion porosimetry was performed to examine the pore structure modifications at 28 days. The hydration products for cement paste cured at each determined age were characterized by X-ray diffraction and the content of CH and CSH was obtained from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). As a result, the ternary blended concrete specimens showed lower deterioration degree when subjected to the freeze and thaw cycles. This may be due to a latent hydraulic and/or pozzolanic reaction producing more CSH in the matrix, which in turn increases the volume of small pores. The increased content of C–S–H gel for OG30F20 was confirmed by TGA, accounting for 69.9%. However, the binder system consisting of ordinary Portland cement and GGBS did not exhibit higher resistance to the given deleterious environment, presumably due to a delayed hydration process.
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
       
  • Toward Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Structures Based on
           Self-Sensing Concrete Nanocomposites: A Validation in a
           Reinforced-Concrete Beam

    • Abstract: Abstract Self-sensing concrete materials, also known as smart concretes, are emerging as a promising technological development for the construction industry, where novel materials with the capability of providing information about the structural integrity while operating as a structural material are required. Despite progress in the field, there are issues related to the integration of these composites in full-scale structural members that need to be addressed before broad practical implementations. This article reports the manufacturing and multipurpose experimental characterization of a cement-based matrix (CBM) composite with carbon nanotube (CNT) inclusions and its integration inside a representative structural member. Methodologies based on current–voltage (I–V) curves, direct current (DC), and biphasic direct current (BDC) were used to study and characterize the electric resistance of the CNT/CBM composite. Their self-sensing behavior was studied using a compression test, while electric resistance measures were taken. To evaluate the damage detection capability, a CNT/CBM parallelepiped was embedded into a reinforced-concrete beam (RC beam) and tested under three-point bending. Principal finding includes the validation of the material’s piezoresistivity behavior and its suitability to be used as strain sensor. Also, test results showed that manufactured composites exhibit an Ohmic response. The embedded CNT/CBM material exhibited a dominant linear proportionality between electrical resistance values, load magnitude, and strain changes into the RC beam. Finally, a change in the global stiffness (associated with a damage occurrence on the beam) was successfully self-sensed using the manufactured sensor by means of the variation in the electrical resistance. These results demonstrate the potential of CNT/CBM composites to be used in real-world structural health monitoring (SHM) applications for damage detection by identifying changes in stiffness of the monitored structural member.
      PubDate: 2021-01-19
       
  • An Accurate Numerical Model Simulating Hysteretic Behavior of Reinforced
           Concrete Columns Irrespective of Types of Loading Protocols

    • Abstract: Abstract In older reinforced concrete (RC) buildings, columns are fragile elements that can induce collapse of entire buildings during earthquakes. An accurate assessment of the seismic vulnerability of RC buildings using nonlinear response history analyses requires an accurate numerical model. The peak-oriented hysteretic rule is often used in existing numerical models to simulate the hysteretic behavior of RC members, with predefined backbone curves and cyclic deterioration. A monotonic backbone curve is commonly constructed from a cyclic envelope. Because cyclic envelope varies according to loading protocols, particularly in a softening branch, it is difficult to obtain a unique backbone curve irrespective of loading protocols. In addition, cyclic deterioration parameters irrespective of loading protocols cannot be found because these parameters are estimated with respect to the backbone curves. Modeling parameters of existing numerical models can also vary with respect to loading protocol. The objective of this study is to propose a loading protocol-independent numerical model that does not require estimates of modeling parameters specifically tuned for a certain loading protocol. The accuracy of the proposed model is verified by comparing the simulated and measured cyclic curves of different sets of identical RC column specimens under various loading protocols.
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
       
  • Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical Behaviour of
           Wall–Beam–Strut Joints for Prefabricated Underground Construction

    • Abstract: Abstract Prefabricated construction is becoming increasingly prevalent, however, it is rarely applied in underground constructions, except for tunnel linings, due to the difficulties that arise in jointing various prefabricated components in underground conditions. To solve the vertical location problem of embedded mechanical couplers during the construction of wall–beam–strut joints for a prefabricated metro station, a new connection using welded steel plates is proposed. In this paper, four full-scale specimens of wall–beam–strut joints connected using welded steel plates and mechanical couplers were experimentally tested under monotonic and low-reversed cyclic loading conditions. The testing results were analysed in terms of the ultimate bearing capacity, failure mode, hysteresis, skeleton curve, stiffness degradation, energy dissipation and strain of the reinforcement bars. Notably, the two kinds of joints had similar ultimate bearing capacities and failure modes, but the crack distributions on the tops of the waler beams were different. For the specimens with the welded steel plate connection, tensile horizontal cracks first appeared on the top surface of the beam, where the welded steel plate was located, and then coalesced gradually; however, this cracking pattern was not observed during the experimental test of the specimens connected with the mechanical couplers. Furthermore, it was determined that the energy dissipation and ductility of the welded steel plate connection were better than those of the mechanical coupler connected joint, because the steel plate could redistribute the internal force in the joint and increase the stiffness. It was concluded that the proposed welded steel plate connection could be more favourable than the mechanical coupler connection in the construction of a prefabricated metro station in Guangzhou. Moreover, the results obtained from these experiments could provide guidelines for the corresponding connections employed in underground-prefabricated structures.
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
       
  • Correction to: Experimental Study and Analytical Modeling on Fatigue
           

    • Abstract: An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.
      PubDate: 2021-01-08
       
  • Investigation on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of
           Eco-friendly Mortar Containing WGP at Elevated Temperature

    • Abstract: Abstract The properties of mortars containing waste glass powder (WGP) as a cement substitute for sustainable construction at various high temperatures were investigated. For this purpose, specimens from four mixtures with WGP at various percentage levels of 0, 5, 10 and 15% were prepared and exposed to the specified temperatures. After that, the compressive and flexural strength were determined at high temperatures. The mass loss was also measured by weighing the samples before and after exposing to the high temperatures. The microstructure of mortars was analyzed by petrographic examination. Based on the obtained results, incorporation of WGP as partial replacement of cement could improve strength characteristics of the mortars at the elevated temperatures up to 17%. Also, the optimum ratio of cement replacement level was found to be 10%. In addition, the petrographic images of the mortars showed that at the same time with the strength loss of specimens, the red discoloration of WGP occurred that is attributed to the oxidation of iron compounds that starts at temperatures above 200 °C.
      PubDate: 2021-01-07
       
  • Experimental Study on the Cyclic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Shear
           Walls Exposed to Fire

    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the thermal and cyclic behaviors of fire-damaged walls designed with different failure modes, aspect ratios and heated areas. These cyclic behaviors include temperature distribution, maximum lateral load, stiffness, ductility, and energy dissipations, etc. Toward this goal, the concrete wall specimens were exposed to heat following an ISO 834 standard time–temperature curve and the cyclic loading was applied to the fire-damaged walls. The test results showed that exposure to fire significantly reduced the cyclic performance of the RC walls. Especially, it was observed that heated area, designed failure mode, and aspect ratio have influences on maximum lateral loads, stiffness, and ductility of the fire-damaged walls, while almost no effects of the heated area, designed failure mode, and aspect ratio on temperature distribution and energy dissipation were found.
      PubDate: 2020-12-18
       
  • Structural Performance of PC Double Beam–Column Connection Under
           Gravity and Seismic Loading

    • Abstract: Abstract Recently, as a new precast concrete (PC) construction method for increasing economy and constructability, the PC double-beam system has been developed for factories or logistic centers, where construction duration is particularly important. In this study, half-scaled PC double beam–column connection was tested under gravity loading and cyclic lateral loading. The major test parameters included the use of the spliced PC column and the addition of reinforcement at the beam–column joint. In the gravity loading test, the flexural behavior of the PC double beam was investigated. The test results showed satisfactory flexural capacity at the PC double-beam section, validating the composite action between the PC and RC members. In the cyclic lateral loading test, the seismic performance of the PC double beam–column connection was investigated. Based on the test results, the failure mode, load-carrying capacity, deformation capacity, energy dissipation capacity, secant stiffness, and shear strength of the PC double-beam system were evaluated and compared with those of a conventional RC double beam–column connection. According to the test results, the structural performance of the PC double beam–column connection was comparable to that of the RC double beam–column connection and satisfied the acceptance criteria of moment frame in the ACI 374.1-05 provision.
      PubDate: 2020-12-10
       
  • Parametric Study of Different Unbonded Tendon Layouts in Pre-stressed
           Concrete Flat Plates

    • Abstract: Abstract Post-tensioned unbonded tendons are widely used in flat slabs/plates when there is a demand for large span lengths, durable tendons and a reduction in the weight of structure. For post-tensioned flat slab/plates, different tendon layouts have been discussed in the literature. It is vital to compare the structural response (i.e., deflection and stresses) and the clashing of tendons of the proposed tendon layouts in the literature to select an appropriate layout. Hence, this study focuses on the analysis of three different six-panel flat plates (i.e., panel sizes: 6 m × 6 m, 9 m × 6 m and 11 m × 6 m) with five different tendon layouts, using computer programs ADAPT-Floor Pro and FEM-Design 17, based on linear finite element (FE) analysis. Short-term/long-term deflection and stress due to service load obtained from the computer programs has also been compared, to highlight the differences. Ultimate bending moment of resistance was calculated theoretically for different layouts and compared. Results from the analysis show that, when a higher portion of tendons is concentrated instead of distributed, stresses caused by other structural loads are counteracted best. The layout with all tendons concentrated also has the best results in terms of deflections.
      PubDate: 2020-11-26
       
  • Mix-design and Properties of Mortars from Alkali-activated Fly Ashes
           Containing High Amounts of Unburned Carbon Matter

    • Abstract: Abstract Alkali-activated materials are a promising type of binder candidate as a substitute to Portland cement. Fly ashes can be used as binder precursors giving higher environmental benefits. In the present research, fly ashes (Type F) containing different amounts of unburned carbonaceous matter have been used to formulate mortars. Serious problems concerning the workability in the fresh state have been found when high carbon content are reached. An attempt to avoid the preliminary treatments used to eliminate the unburned matter is carried out by exploiting different mix-design receipts obtained by changing the water/binder ratio, the ratio of the alkaline activators and using different types of superplasticizer additives. Data so far collected underline that a high amount of unburned carbonaceous matter can not only compromise the mechanical properties of the materials, but also the rheological ones and underline the necessity to develop ad hoc additives for this type of binders.
      PubDate: 2020-11-20
       
  • Review of Several Experimental Methods for Characterization of Micro- and
           Nano-Scale Pores in Cement-Based Material

    • Abstract: Abstract Mechanical properties and durability of cement-based materials are largely affected by pore structures. This paper provides an overview of several experimental techniques to characterize pore size distribution and specific surface area, with focus on pores in calcium silicate hydrates. The reviewed experimental techniques are nitrogen and water vapor sorption isotherm, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and small-angle scattering (SAS). Different pretreatment methods are compared for sorption measurements. Pore size distribution and specific surface area are analyzed using data from different methods to understand difference and consistency of these methods. It is found that pore size distribution calculated from sorption isotherm is very sensitive to adsorption model. Though specific surface areas from different techniques are quite different from each other, they are all able to detect the microstructural alteration due to long-term drying.
      PubDate: 2020-11-15
       
  • Risk Assessment of Aged Concrete Gravity Dam Subjected to Material
           Deterioration Under Seismic Excitation

    • Abstract: Abstract This paper proposes an approach to assess and predict the seismic risk of existing concrete gravity dams (CGDs) considering the ageing effect. The combination of fragility function and cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) depending on two failure states has been used in the analysis. It represents the time-variant degradation of the concrete structure and the conditional change of structural vulnerability in the case of the seismic excitation. Therefore, the seismic risk assessment captures here the nonlinear dynamic behavior of a concrete gravity dam through the fragility analysis. Incremental dynamic analysis for the fragility curves is adopted to state the performance of the dam in terms of different intensity measures. To assess the capacity of the aged concrete gravity dam, this research introduces a way to estimate the CAVlimit of CGDs with varying time. For a case study, an existing concrete gravity dam in Korea has been taken into consideration to apply this approach. The numerical finite element model is validated by optimizing the recorded field data. The proposed approach and its findings will be helpful to CGDs operators to ensure whether a dam needs to stop after a specific time using the extracted mathematical model. Furthermore, as this mathematical model is the function of time, the operator can get an idea about dam conditions at any specific time and can take necessary steps.
      PubDate: 2020-10-15
       
  • Use of Higher-Harmonic and Intermodulation Generation of Ultrasonic Waves
           to Detecting Cracks due to Steel Corrosion in Reinforced Cement Mortar

    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this work was to provide further confirmation of the possible use of non-linear ultrasonic techniques for detecting the cracking due to corrosion of steel reinforcements in concrete. To this end accelerated steel corrosion tests have been conducted on model reinforced cement mortar specimens, while monitoring the appearance and width evolution of visible surface cracks, and performing non-linear ultrasonic measurements based on the phenomena of harmonic distortion and intermodulation. A new parameter, based on the difference between the amplitude of the fundamental frequency and the sum of the amplitudes of all the first-order and second-order intermodulation products, has been proposed in this work. The results confirm that the appearance of visible surface micro-cracks are preceded and accompanied by the observation of strong non-linear features in the received signal. Furthermore, the new parameter proposed in this work is as efficient as the relative non-linearity parameters, classically used in harmonic distortion non-linear ultrasonic studies, for detecting the non-linear features associated with the critical events of the cracking of cement mortar due to embedded steel corrosion. A hypothesis has been developed considering the possible effect of the filling of the void space by liquid containing rust products after the formation of new cracks or the enlargement of its width. This filling process, which might be particularly enhanced by net convective transport of liquid, would explain the evolution of the values of all the parameters used for putting in evidence the non-linear elastic features after the critical events of the cracking process.
      PubDate: 2020-10-06
       
  • Studies on Hemp and Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    • Abstract: Abstract This paper reports on the first phase of a multi-phase research program conducted at the American University of Beirut (AUB) on “Hemp and Recycled Aggregates Concrete” (HRAC). HRAC is a new sustainable concrete material where hemp fibers are incorporated in the mix, the coarse aggregate content is reduced by 20% of the concrete volume, and 50% of the natural coarse aggregates (NCA) are replaced by recycled concrete aggregates (RCA), thus saving on natural resources and addressing the problem of waste material disposal. The effect of the new material on concrete consistency and hardened mechanical properties was studied. Also, few durability tests were conducted. Variables included percentage replacement of NCA by RCA (0 or 50%), maximum size aggregate (10 or 20 mm), hemp fiber length (20 or 30 mm), and hemp fiber treatment (alkali or silane or acetyl). Fiber characterization tests were conducted including morphology, crystallinity, and thermal analysis. The tests indicated that alkali and acetyl fiber treatments were better than the silane treatment in removing impurities on the fiber surface. Also, alkali and acetyl treatments have increased the crystallinity of the fibers while silane treatment decreased it. Results of mechanical properties tests showed that while HRAC has considerable lower compressive strength and modulus of elasticity than plain concrete, the flexural strength and splitting tensile strength are not significantly affected. The flexural stress–strain behavior of HRAC is ductile as compared to the brittle behavior of the plain concrete beams indicating positive impact on toughness and energy dissipation. The durability tests indicated that whereas HRAC mixes have higher absorption than plain concrete, they have better thermal properties and their resistance to freeze–thaw cycles is comparable to plain concrete. All test results were not significantly affected by fiber length or fiber treatment.
      PubDate: 2020-10-01
       
  • Finite Element Analysis and Calculation Method of Residual Flexural
           Capacity of Post-fire RC Beams

    • Abstract: Abstract Fire tests and subsequent bending tests of four reinforced concrete (RC) beams were performed. Based on these tests, the post-fire performance of RC beams was further studied using finite-element simulation through reasonable selection of suitable thermal and thermodynamic parameters of steel and concrete materials. A thermodynamic model of RC beams with three sides under fire was built using finite-element analysis (FEA) software ABAQUS. The FEA model was validated with the results of fire tests. Different factors were taken into account for further parametric studies in fire using the propsed FE model. The results show that the main factors affecting the fire resistance of the beams are the thickness of the concrete cover, reinforcement ratio of longitudinal steel, the fire exposure time and the fire exposure sides. Based on the strength reduction formula at high temperature of steel and concrete and four test results, an improved section method was proposed to develop a calculation formula to calculate the flexural capacity of RC beams after fire. The theoretical calculation method proposed in this paper shows good agreement with FEA results, which can be used to calculate the flexural capacity of RC beams after fire.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
       
  • Crack Propagation Analysis of Synthetic vs. Steel vs. Hybrid
           

    • Abstract: Abstract Improvement in fracture behaviour of fibre-reinforced concrete (FRC) due to the inclusion of various types and combinations of fibres is widely reported. The fracture behaviour of FRC needs to be fully understood for the optimum use of these fibres in structural elements. Fracture behaviours of synthetic fibre-reinforced concrete (SynFRC), hybrid fibre-reinforced concrete (HFRC) and steel fibre-reinforced concrete (SFRC) are investigated in this study using digital image correlation (DIC) technique. This work focuses on improvement in the structural performance of FRC through a comprehensive study of the change in the crack length, crack opening and fracture process zone (FPZ) due to different fibres addition and their combinations. Three distinct fibre dosages of 0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00%, of macro-polyolefin fibres, hooked end steel fibres and their hybrid combination are regarded as research parameters. Test outcomes indicate that HFRC offers higher post-cracking resistance when compared to SynFRC. SFRC showcases superior fracture performance than that of HFRC and SynFRC. Full-field strain measurements from DIC are used to measure the crack openings at different load levels during the fracture tests. Results of DIC analysis show good agreement with experimental measurements. Continuous monitoring of strain contours using DIC reveals the effective engagement of fibres along the depth at higher dosages for HFRC when compared to that of SynFRC. Also, HFRC had longer cracks than SFRC at a particular load.
      PubDate: 2020-09-28
       
  • Durability of Structural Lightweight Concrete Containing Expanded Perlite
           Aggregate

    • Abstract: Abstract This study focuses on the development of durable structural lightweight concrete (LWC) by incorporating expanded perlite aggregate (EPA) in the range of 0 to 20% by weight. In order to ensure its durability when exposed to chloride environment, concrete was produced with low water-to-cement ratio and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was replaced with 50% and 7% ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and silica fume (SF), respectively. The mechanical properties and durability of concrete were assessed by determining the unit weight, compressive strength, flexural strength, drying shrinkage, chloride permeability and migration, as well as resistance of concrete to corrosion of reinforcing steel. Very importantly, thermal insulation properties were determined using a hot guarded plate. In addition, a finite element model (FEM) was prepared to study the behavior of EPA-modified concrete under seismic loading. The results showed that the unit weight of concrete was reduced by 20% to 30% when compared with the normal weight concrete (NWC). The compressive strength of the developed LWC was sufficient to be used as structural concrete, particularly of those mixtures containing 10% and 15% perlite aggregate. The durability of LWC was comparable to NWC in terms of chloride diffusion and resistance of concrete to corrosion of reinforcing steel. The tangible outcomes also include the superior thermal insulation properties of LWC compared to NWC. The greater incorporation of EPA in the concrete resulted in better behavior under seismic loading.
      PubDate: 2020-09-21
       
  • Stressing State Analysis of Reinforcement Concrete Beams Strengthened with
           Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

    • Abstract: Abstract This paper investigated the working behavior characteristics of six reinforcement concrete (RC) beams subjected to bending based on the numerical shape function (NSF) method and structural stressing state theory. Firstly, the structural stressing state mode is expressed based on the generalized strain energy density (GSED) derived from the measured strain data. Then, one of the Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP)-strengthened RC beams is taken as an example and the leap characteristics of RC beam’s stressing state are detected by applying the Mann–Kendall (M–K) criterion, updating the existing definition of the structural failure load. Accordingly, the stressing state modes and strain fields of the CFRP-strengthened RC beam are proposed to reveal their leap characteristics. Furthermore, through comparing the working performance of six RC beams, the effects of different strengths and different reinforcement ratios on CFRP strengthening performance are investigated. Finally, the NSF method is applied to reasonably interpolate the limited strain data for further revealing the stressing state characteristics of the RC beams. The research results explore a new analysis method to conduct an accurate estimation of the structural failure load and provide a reference for the future design of CFRP-strengthened RC beams.
      PubDate: 2020-09-14
       
 
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