Subjects -> BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (Total: 145 journals)
    - BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (137 journals)
    - CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK (8 journals)

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (137 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 35 of 35 Journals sorted alphabetically
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Edificación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building - Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Baurechtliche Blätter : bbl     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BER : Architects and Quantity Surveyors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Capital Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Building Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment Inquiry Journal     Open Access  
Built-Environment Sri Lanka     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies in Construction Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Cement and Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clay Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Construction Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Corporate Real Estate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy and Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Environment and Urbanization Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Gaceta Técnica     Open Access  
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
Glass Structures & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Handbook of Adhesives and Sealants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heritage Matters : The Magazine for New Zealanders Restoring, Preserving and Enjoying Our Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
Intelligent Buildings International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Construction Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Sustainable Real Estate and Construction Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Ventilation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal for Education in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Computational Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Modular and Offsite Construction (MOC) Summit Proceedings |     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Open Construction & Building Technology Journal     Open Access  
Organization, Technology and Management in Construction     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Revista ALCONPAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de la Construcción     Open Access  
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista INVI     Open Access  
RILEM Technical Letters     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Ruang-Space: Jurnal Lingkungan Binaan (Journal of The Built Environment)     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Construction Science and Technology     Open Access  
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Science and Technology for the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Stroitel’stvo : Nauka i Obrazovanie     Open Access  
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments     Free   (Followers: 3)
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  
YBL Journal of Built Environment     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Miet- und Raumrecht     Hybrid Journal  


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Journal Cover
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2075-5309
Published by MDPI Homepage  [233 journals]
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 35: Effects of Climate Change on the Moisture
           Performance of Tallwood Building Envelope

    • Authors: Maurice Defo, Michael A. Lacasse
      First page: 35
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the potential effects of climate change on the moisture performance and durability of massive timber walls on the basis of results derived from hygrothermal simulations. One-dimensional simulations were run using DELPHIN 5.9.4 for 31 consecutive years of the 15 realizations of the modeled historical (1986–2016) and future (2062–2092) climates of five cities located across Canada. For all cities, water penetration in the wall assembly was assumed to be 1% wind-driven rain, and the air changes per hour in the drainage cavity was assumed to be 10. The mold growth index on the outer layer of the cross-laminated timber panel was used to compare the moisture performance for the historical and future periods. The simulation results showed that the risk of mold growth would increase in all the cities considered. However, the relative change varied from city to city. In the cities of Ottawa, Calgary and Winnipeg, the relative change in the mold growth index was higher than in the cities of Vancouver and St. John’s. For Vancouver and St. John’s, and under the assumptions used for these simulations, the risk was already higher under the historical period. This means that the mass timber walls in these two cities could not withstand a water penetration rate of 1% wind-driven rain, as used in the simulations, with a drainage cavity of 19 mm and an air changes per hour value of 10. Additional wall designs will be explored in respect to the moisture performance, and the results of these studies will be reported in a future publication.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020035
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 36: Assessment of Cloud Computing Success
           Factors for Sustainable Construction Industry: The Case of Nigeria

    • Authors: Ayodeji Emmanuel Oke, Ahmed Farouk Kineber, Ibraheem Albukhari, Idris Othman, Chukwuma Kingsley
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Cloud Computing has become a valuable platform for sustainability in many countries. This study evaluates the cloud computing implementation and its Critical Success Factors (CSFs) towards ensuring sustainable construction projects in Nigeria. Data were collected from previous literature, supplemented by a quantitative approach via a questionnaire survey. Data were collected from 104 construction professionals while cloud computing CSFs were examined using Relative Importance Ranking (RII) and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). The results show that cloud computing’s awareness level is 96.2%, which means that the respondents are aware of cloud computing concept. Furthermore, the result shows that most of the respondents are adopting the concept. The analysis of the CSFs indicated that reliable data storage, performance as well as cost of accessibility and availability were the four most significant CSFs to cloud computing applications. Analysis of the CSFs through EFA generated four main components which include human satisfaction, organization, client’s acceptance, and industry-based. Consequently, this study contributed to existing body of knowledge by highlighting the cloud computing CSFs for achieving sustainable construction project. As such, the results could be a game-changer in the construction industry—not only in Nigeria but also in developing nations where construction projects are implemented through similar style and procedure. This study would be a benchmark for supporting decision-makers to improve data fragmentation, in which the use of data is paramount to the execution of construction works. Finally, the results of this study would be useful for enhancing sustainability and general management of construction projects through cloud computing implementation.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020036
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 37: Spatial Analysis, Interactive Visualisation
           and GIS-Based Dashboard for Monitoring Spatio-Temporal Changes of Hotspots
           of Bushfires over 100 Years in New South Wales, Australia

    • Authors: Michael Visner, Sara Shirowzhan, Chris Pettit
      First page: 37
      Abstract: The 2019–2020 bushfire season is estimated to be one of the worst fire seasons on record in Australia, especially in New South Wales (NSW). The devastating fire season ignited a heated public debate on whether prescribed burning is an effective tool for preventing bushfires, and how the extent of bushfires has been changing over time. The objective of this study is to answer these questions, and more specifically to identify how bushfire patterns have changed in the last 100 years in NSW. To do so, we conducted a spatio-temporal analysis on prescribed burns and bushfires using a 100-year dataset of bushfires. More specifically, three research questions were developed, with each one of them addressed differently. First, generalised linear modelling was applied to assess the changes in fire patterns. Second, a correlation analysis was conducted to examine whether prescribed burns are an effective tool for reducing bushfire risk. Third, a spatio-temporal analysis was applied to the bushfire location data to explore spatio-temporal clusters of high and low values for bushfires, known as hotspots and coldspots, respectively. The study found that the frequency of bushfires has increased over time; however, it did not identify a significant trend of change in their size. Based on the results of this study for the relationship between prescribed burns and bushfires, it seems impossible to determine whether prescribed burns effectively reduce bushfire risk. Thus, further analysis with a larger amount of data is required in the future. The results of the spatio-temporal analysis showed that cold spots are propagated around metropolitan areas such as Sydney, while hotspots are concentrated in rural areas such as the North Coast and South Coast regions of NSW. The analysis found four statistical areas that have become new bushfire frequency hotspots in the 2019–2020 bushfire season. These areas combined have about 40,000 residents and at least 13,000 built dwellings. We suggest that further analysis is needed in the field to determine if there is a pattern of movement of bushfire towards metropolitan areas. To make the results of this research accessible to the public, an online interactive GIS-based dashboard was developed. The insight gained from the spatial and temporal analyses in this research is crucial to making smarter decisions on allocating resources and developing preventive or mitigating strategies.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020037
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 38: Floor Acceleration Demands in a
           Twelve-Storey RC Shear Wall Building

    • Authors: Vladimir Vukobratović, Sergio Ruggieri
      First page: 38
      Abstract: The seismic response of acceleration-sensitive non-structural components in buildings has attracted the attention of a significant number of researchers over the past decade. This paper provides the results which improve the state-of-knowledge of the influences that higher vibration modes of structures and nonlinearity of non-structural components have on floor acceleration demands. In order to study these influences, a response-history analysis of a code-designed twelve-storey reinforced concrete building consisting of uncoupled ductile cantilever shear walls was conducted. The obtained absolute floor accelerations were used as a seismic input for linear elastic and nonlinear non-structural components represented by simple single-degree-of-freedom systems, and the main observations and findings related to the studied influences along the building height are presented and discussed. Additionally, the accuracy of the method for the direct determination of peak floor accelerations and floor response (acceleration) spectra recently co-developed by the first author was once again investigated and validated. A brief summary of the method is provided in the paper, along with the main steps in its application. Being relatively simple and sufficiently accurate, the method (in its simplified form) has been recently incorporated into the draft of the new generation of Eurocode 8.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020038
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 39: 2020 Buildings Young Investigator Award:
           Announcement and Interview with the Winner

    • Authors: Office
      First page: 39
      Abstract: After an extensive voting period, we are proud to present the winner of the Buildings Young Investigator Award [...]
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020039
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 40: Tests and Simulation of the Bond-Slip
           between Steel and Concrete with Recycled Aggregates from CDW

    • Authors: Miguel Bravo, António P. C. Duarte, Jorge de Brito, Luís Evangelista
      First page: 40
      Abstract: This works intends to analyze, experimentally and numerically, the bond-slip behavior between steel and concrete made with recycled aggregates (RA) from construction and demolition waste (CDW) from several recycling plants in Portugal. Pull-out tests performed in concrete mixes with RA from CDW are described and the main results (bond strength, bond-slip curves and failure modes) are shown and discussed. Additionally, a comparison between experimental and analytical (using equations from the literature) results is made. Afterwards, finite element (FE) models using Abaqus are developed and compared with the experimental results. The interface behavior between steel and concrete follows that prescribed by the CEB-FIP Model Code and uses as input experimental results. After validation, the models show good results when extended to predict the bond-slip behavior of the remaining concrete mixes studied. It is generally concluded that, per each 10% of natural aggregates replaced with RA from CDW, the bond strength decreases in circa 3% (numerically) to 5% (experimentally). CEB-FIP Model Code equations are shown to be able to predict bond strength and, when used in FE models, to lead to accurate simulation of the bond-slip response of steel and concrete with RA from CDW: the average ratio between numerical and experimental bond strengths is 0.95. In the scope of the FE models developed, a simple equation to be used along with those prescribed by CEB-FIP, which accounts for fraction and ratio of aggregates replaced, is put forward, as a first approach, showing good results.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020040
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 17: Review of the Construction Labour Demand and
           Shortages in the EU

    • Authors: Belinda Brucker Juricic, Mario Galic, Sasa Marenjak
      First page: 17
      Abstract: This paper reviews the recent literature on skill and labour shortages in the labour market with special emphasis on the construction sector in the European Union Member States, foreseeing the Construction 4.0 era. The free movement of people is one of the rights of all citizens of the EU which also includes the free movement of workers. Labour shortages in the EU are expected to increase in the future due to a declining population and an ageing workforce. In order to recognize and forecast labour shortages, EU Member states use a variety of instruments but they do not answer as to whether it is possible to use migrant labour to appease those shortages. There are several systems used to classify labour shortages in the EU Member states. Most of the countries classify labour shortages in relation to different sectors or occupation groups as well as by skill levels, but in some Member States, classification is made according to the type of employment. Instruments used to measure labour shortages significantly differ from country to country. Several criteria are used for creating lists of shortage occupations and most of the criteria include demand side and supply side criteria. A majority of the Member States are facing labour and skill shortages in various sectors and the construction sector is not an exception. As total employment in the construction sector decreased, so did the share of employed migrants. Labour shortages in the construction sector can be eased by the availability of a labour supply willing to accept unqualified and low-paying jobs. The construction sector seeks low-, medium-, and high-skilled individuals and is most likely the sector where most of the incoming migrants will be working, which has an impact on the development and implementation dynamic of Construction 4.0.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-02
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010017
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 18: Future Housing Identities: Designing in Line
           with the Contemporary Sustainable Urban Lifestyle

    • Authors: Ana Nikezić, Jelena Ristić Trajković, Aleksandra Milovanović
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Over the past decade, urban housing typologies have evolved from being a feature of modern life to an essential postmodern issue, questioning future housing identities. One of the ways in which architecture can become engaged in this ever-changing process of urban regeneration is to challenge the inherited traditional housing typologies with the newly recognized values of contemporary lifestyle. This paper presents research and design aimed at exploring contemporary sustainable urban lifestyles as a resource for positioning housing structures as cultural urban infrastructure. The main focus of this study is design principles and strategies for generating future housing identities in accordance with sustainable urban development and sustainability of life in urban areas. It is about finding housing conceptual models for an interaction between housing and identity as a response to the impact of increased cities, changed lifestyles in contemporary cities and the requirements for the preservation of the city image and the public space within the housing areas in the city center. The main goal of this study is to understand whether and how an architectural design can preserve a sustainability of life within the city center and become a valuable agent of place identity in the process of urban regeneration. The paper indicates that the contemporary development of society requires a new architectural paradigm, in which lifestyle and architecture create a unique elastic open-ended system with the ability to adapt and change over time and throughout the place.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010018
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 19: Positioning Positive Energy Districts in
           European Cities

    • Authors: Oscar Lindholm, Hassam ur Rehman, Francesco Reda
      First page: 19
      Abstract: There are many concepts for buildings with integrated renewable energy systems that have received increased attention during the last few years. However, these concepts only strive to streamline building-level renewable energy solutions. In order to improve the flexibility of decentralized energy generation, individual buildings and energy systems should be able to interact with each other. The positive energy district (PED) concept highlights the importance of active interaction between energy generation systems, energy consumers and energy storage within a district. This paper strives to inform the public, decision makers and fellow researchers about the aspects that should be accounted for when planning and implementing different types of PEDs in different regions throughout the European Union. The renewable energy environment varies between different EU regions, in terms of the available renewable energy sources, energy storage potential, population, energy consumption behaviour, costs and regulations, which affect the design and operation of PEDs, and hence, no PED is like the other. This paper provides clear definitions for different types of PEDs, a survey of the renewable energy market circumstances in the EU and a detailed analysis of factors that play an essential role in the PED planning process.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010019
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 20: Seawater-Neutralized Bauxite
           Residue–Polyester Composites as Insulating Construction Materials

    • Authors: Maissa Adi, Basim Abu-Jdayil, Fatima Al Ghaferi, Sara Al Yahyaee, Maryam Al Jabri
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Bauxite residue (BR) is one of the most commonly generated industrial wastes in the world. Thus, novel techniques for its proper utilization must be urgently developed. Herein, seawater-neutralized BR–unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) composites are presented as insulating construction materials with promising mechanical performance. Composites with different BR content (0–60 vol.%) were prepared to evaluate the influence of BR content on the compressive, tensile, and flexural strengths as well as the moduli of BR–UPR composites. Experimental results revealed that adding BR particles to the polyester matrix increased the compressive properties (strength, modulus, and strain). The composites containing 20 vol.% BR showed the maximum compressive strength (108 MPa), while the composites with 30 vol.% BR exhibited the maximum compressive modulus (1 GPa). Moreover, the reduction in tensile and flexural strengths with an increase in the BR content may be attributed to the lower efficiency of stress transfer between the BR particle–polyester interface due to weak adhesion at the interface, direct contact between particles, and presence of voids or porosity. Although the tensile strength and failure stress decreased with increasing filler content, the produced composites showed outstanding tensile strength (4.0–19.3 MPa) compared with conventional insulating materials. In addition, the composite with 40 vol.% BR demonstrated a flexural strength of 15.5 MPa. Overall, BR–UPR composites showed excellent compatibility with promising mechanical properties as potential insulating construction materials.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010020
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 21: Proposal for Tower Crane Productivity
           Indicators Based on Data Analysis in the Era of Construction 4.0

    • Authors: Thomas Danel, Zoubeir Lafhaj, Anand Puppala, Sophie Lienard, Philippe Richard
      First page: 21
      Abstract: This article proposes a methodology to measure the productivity of a construction site through the analysis of tower crane data. These data were obtained from a data logger that records a time series of spatial and load data from the lifting machine during the structural phase of a construction project. The first step was data collection, followed by preparation, which consisted of formatting and cleaning the dataset. Then, a visualization step identified which data was the most meaningful for the practitioners. From that, the activity of the tower crane was measured by extracting effective lifting operations using the load signal essentially. Having used such a sampling technique allows statistical analysis on the duration, load, and curvilinear distance of every extracted lifting operation. The build statistical distribution and indicators were finally used to compare construction site productivity.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 22: Influence of Ausforming Treatment on Super
           Elasticity of Cu-Zn-Al Shape Memory Alloy for Seismic Energy Dissipaters

    • Authors: Danko Ćorić, Irena Žmak
      First page: 22
      Abstract: In order to develop the application of the more cost-effective copper-based shape memory alloys (SMAs), rather than nickel–titanium as earthquake energy dissipaters, the influence of ausforming-induced plastic deformation on phase transformations, microstructure, super elasticity and mechanical properties of the shape memory alloy Cu-26Zn-4Al was examined. These specific SMA properties were targeted by applying appropriate parameters of the thermomechanical (the so-called ausforming) process: beta-phase homogenization at 800 °C for 20 min, one-step hot rolling at 800 °C and water quenching. The results showed significant microstructural changes, increased mechanical resistance and change in the phase transformation behavior. The SMA treated by ausforming retained the reversible austenitic–martensitic transformation ability, with the appearance of the super-elastic effect up to 6% of strain recovery. Although some strengthening occurred after hot rolling (an increase in true yield strength of 125 MPa was detected), all phase transformation temperatures were decreased. The smallest decrease was detected for the austenite finish temperature (32.8 °C) and the largest for the martensite finish temperature (42.0 °C), allowing both the expansion and the lowering of the temperature range of super elasticity, which is favorable for construction applications. It is concluded that it is possible to achieve an optimal combination of adequate strength and improved transformation behavior of Cu-Zn-Al alloy by applying the ausforming treatment.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010022
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 23: How Long Can a Wood Flooring System

    • Authors: Coelho, Silva, de Brito
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Wood is a natural, sustainable, and renewable material, which has been used as flooring for centuries, but not enough is known about its durability and performance over time when subjected to different degradation agents. This study proposes a methodology for the service life prediction of wood flooring systems, considering the impact of different factors that influence the floors’ durability. For that purpose, a fieldwork survey is performed to evaluate the degradation phenomena of 96 indoor wood floorings in-use conditions, located in Portugal. The data collected are converted into degradation patterns that graphically illustrate the loss of performance of wood floorings over time. An estimated service life of 44 years is obtained. This study thus allows quantifying the impact of various characteristics on the indoor wood floorings’ service life. The results reveal the high importance of the type of protection, the type of wood, and the type of floor (with a range of estimated service life values of around 18, 17 and 16 years, respectively). This study is a first step to understanding the degradation mechanisms of the wood flooring systems, in order to extend their service life, while allowing optimising of maintenance actions, thus promoting the durability and sustainability of these floorings.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010023
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 24: Seismic Upgrading of a Historical Masonry
           Bell Tower through an Internal Dissipative Steel Structure

    • Authors: Arianna Pavia, Fabrizio Scozzese, Enrica Petrucci, Alessandro Zona
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Masonry towers are part of a valuable architectural heritage characterizing the landscape of many historical areas. These towers are vulnerable structures that are prone to earthquake damage. Hence, the design of effective seismic upgrading interventions is an important task for preserving such architectural forms for future generations. In view of that, the objective of this study is to contribute a possible addition to the portfolio of available approaches for seismic upgrading of masonry towers. This goal was pursued by exploring an innovative structural solution that does not alter the external appearance of the tower and its static scheme under gravity loads, yet is able to increase its capacity to withstand seismic actions through added damping. Specifically, the proposed solution consists of a steel structure internal to the masonry tower that incorporates fluid viscous dampers. In order to evaluate its potentialities, a real case study was taken as a testbed structure, historic analysis as well as geometric and architectural surveys were undertaken, an initial design for the upgrading was made, and numerical simulations were performed. The obtained results, although preliminary, highlight the potentialities of the proposed structural solution for the seismic upgrading of masonry towers and might open the way to future developments and applications.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010024
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 25: Understanding the Operation of Contextual
           Compatibility through the Relationships among Heritage Intensity, Context
           Density, and Regulation Degree

    • Authors: Jeongyoon Choi, Sohyun Park
      First page: 25
      Abstract: It is easy to assume that historic environments consist mainly of traditional pre-modern style buildings; however, contemporary architecture is continuously added to historic environments, and its construction is positively encouraged by international heritage organizations such as UNESCO and ICOMOS. The conditions required for introducing contemporary architecture to historic urban environments manifest through the concept of contextual compatibility. This paper examines the meaning and operation of this compatibility in changing urban historical and cultural environments. It offers an empirical interpretation of ‘compatibility’ using three new conceptual parameters: the level of conservation value and importance designated by the heritage conservation system (heritage intensity), the ratio of contemporary architecture in a historic environment (context density), and the range of controlling measures available for conservation (regulation degree). Based on a content analysis of the relevant literature and a case study of 24 sample sites, this paper illuminates how ‘compatibility’ operates in the field, which sometimes contradicts our common assumptions. The notable findings reveal that heritage intensity and context density in the historical environment are not directly proportional to regulation degree. Meanwhile, low context density tends to correspond with highly detailed regulations and emphasise the physical realization of traditional elements.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010025
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 26: Structural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete
           Slabs Containing Fine Waste Aggregates of Polyvinyl Chloride

    • Authors: Nisreen S. Mohammed, Bashar Abid Hamza, Najla’a H. AL-Shareef, Husam H. Hussein
      First page: 26
      Abstract: In several areas worldwide, the high cost and shortage of natural resources have encouraged researchers and engineers to explore the serviceability and feasibility of using recycled aggregates in concrete mixtures, substituting a normal aggregate percentage. This technique has advantages for the environment by reducing the accumulation of waste materials, while it impacts the fresh and hardened concrete performances, reducing workability, flexural strength, compressive strength, and tensile strength. However, most studies have investigated the influence of replacing normal aggregates with waste aggregates on the concrete mechanical properties without examining the impact of using waste materials on concrete structural performance. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of replacing 75% of sand volume with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fine waste aggregates on the performance of reinforced concrete slabs. Different thicknesses of the concrete layer (0%, 25%, 50%, and 100% of slab thickness) containing PVC fine waste aggregates are investigated. Based on the reductions in the toughness and flexural strength capacity due to incorporating 75% PVC fine aggregate dosage, two approaches are used to strengthen the slabs with 75% PVC fine aggregates. The first approach is adding polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to the PVC fine aggregate concrete mix to improve the mechanical properties of the concrete. The PVA increases the water viscosity in the concrete, which reduces the dry out phenomenon. With that said, the PVA modified fresh concrete does enable the use of the limits of the PVC fine aggregate dosage for high dosage plastic aggregate concrete. The second approach uses two fiber wire mesh layers as an additional reinforcement in the tested slab. Results show that the PVC-30 slab exhibits an 8% decrease in total area toughness compared to the control (Con) slab, while for PVC-60 slab toughness, the total area shows 26% less. Additionally, the inclusion of PVA in the concrete with 75% PVC plastic waste fine aggregate replacement greatly influences the pre-and post-cracking ductile performance among other slabs, representing that using PVA with higher contents might increase the flexural performance. Therefore, due to the substantial effect of PVA material on the concrete flexural performance, it is proposed to utilize PVA with an optimum PCV fine aggregate dosage in the concrete mix.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010026
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 27: Most Frequent Problems of Building
           Structures of Urban Apartment Buildings from 2nd Half of 19th Century and
           the Start of 20th Century

    • Authors: Klara Kroftova
      First page: 27
      Abstract: An urban residential building from the second half of the 19th century and the start of the 20th century, the so-called tenement house, is a significant representative of the architecture of the developing urban fabric in Central Europe. The vertical and horizontal load-bearing structures of these houses currently tend to show characteristic, repeated defects and failures. Their knowledge may, in many cases, facilitate and speed up the design of the historic building’s restoration without compromising its heritage value in this process. The article presents the summary of the most frequently occurring defects and failures of these buildings. The summary, however, is not an absolute one, and, in the case of major damage to the building, it still applies that, first of all, a detailed analysis of the causes and consequences of defects and failures must be made as a basic prerequisite for the reliability and long-term durability of the building’s restoration and rehabilitation. An integral part of the rehabilitation of buildings must be the elimination of the causes of the appearance of their failures and remediation of all defects impairing their structural safety, health safety and energy efficiency.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010027
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 28: Development of Retrofitting Solutions:
           Remedial Wall Ties for Masonry Enclosure Brick Walls

    • Authors: Filipe Rebelo, António Figueiredo, Gonçalo Correia Lopes, Tiago Miguel Ferreira, Romeu Vicente
      First page: 28
      Abstract: The external envelope walls of a significant percentage of the residential building stock in Southern European countries is commonly constituted by infill masonry walls. However, thousands of square meters of this masonry wall typology presents severe issues of cracking and instability, related to the incorrect and deficient support conditions of the outer brick panel of the double-leaf wall solution. In this work, an experimental campaign divided in two phases has been performed to evaluate the effectiveness of two different remedial wall ties retrofitting techniques (Solution A and Solution B) used for double leaf horizontally hollowed clay brick masonry façades. The first phase of the experimental campaign was performed on 120 isolated specimens of horizontally hollowed clay bricks, resorting to post- and pre-NP EN 771-1 brick exemplars (that is, new and pre-existent aged bricks, respectively), as well as on 4 square wallettes, with a side length of 1.20 m, considered as representative of a real scale scenario, for evaluating the two remedial wall ties retrofitting techniques. The second phase of the experimental campaign was performed to fully characterize the different failure types as well as the slipping phenomena observed in the first phase of the experimental campaign, focusing solely on the retrofitting technique Solution B and comprises 24 tests performed on isolated specimens, resourcing to new and pre-existent aged bricks as well. The results obtained by the use of these techniques revealed an average anchorage strength value ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 kN for each tested tie-bar. Solution B reveals an increase of double of the anchorage strength value in comparison to Solution A. In this sense, the global results revealed a suitable applicability of both retrofit studied solutions.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010028
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 29: A Critical Review of Computational
           Creativity in Built Environment Design

    • Authors: Ning Gu, Peiman Amini Behbahani
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Computational creativity in built environment (BE) design has been a subject of research interest in the discipline. This paper presents a critical review of various ways computational creativity has been and can be defined and approached in BE design. The paper examines a comprehensive body of contemporary literature on the topics of creativity, computational creativity, and their assessment to identify levels of computational creativity. The paper then proceeds to a further review of the implications of these levels specifically in BE design. The paper identifies four areas in BE design where computational creativity is relevant. In two areas—synthesis (generation) and analysis—there is considerable literature on lower levels of computational creativity. However, in two other areas—interfacing and communication—even the definition of computational creativity is not as defined and clear for the discipline, and most works only consider the role of computers as a supporting tool or medium. These open up future research opportunities for the discipline.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-15
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010029
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 30: An Approach to Data Acquisition for Urban
           Building Energy Modeling Using a Gaussian Mixture Model and
           Expectation-Maximization Algorithm

    • Authors: Mengjie Han, Zhenwu Wang, Xingxing Zhang
      First page: 30
      Abstract: In recent years, a building’s energy performance is becoming uncertain because of factors such as climate change, the Covid-19 pandemic, stochastic occupant behavior and inefficient building control systems. Sufficient measurement data is essential to predict and manage a building’s performance levels. Assessing energy performance of buildings at an urban scale requires even larger data samples in order to perform an accurate analysis at an aggregated level. However, data are not only expensive, but it can also be a real challenge for communities to acquire large amounts of real energy data. This is despite the fact that inadequate knowledge of a full population will lead to biased learning and the failure to establish a data pipeline. Thus, this paper proposes a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) with an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm that will produce synthetic building energy data. This method is tested on real datasets. The results show that the parameter estimates from the model are stable and close to the true values. The bivariate model gives better performance in classification accuracy. Synthetic data points generated by the models show a consistent representation of the real data. The approach developed here can be useful for building simulations and optimizations with spatio-temporal mapping.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-16
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010030
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 31: A Systematic Review of Design Creativity in
           the Architectural Design Studio

    • Authors: Hernan Casakin, Andrew Wodehouse
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Creativity is fundamental to design problem-solving. This paper sets out a systematic review of the literature in relation to its role in the architectural design studio in order to identify central issues that impact upon this activity. Challenges and best practices in relation to systematic reviews are outlined, and the procedure followed in this context is set out in detail. This involves an iterative evaluation process that resulted in a pool of 17 papers for analysis. Eleven themes emerged in the analysis of the papers, which were organized into five key categories dealing with: pedagogy, cognitive approach, interaction and socialization, information representation, and measuring ideation and creativity. A discussion of these categories contributed to the comparison and connections between the selected papers, and the identification of critical issues and directions for promoting creativity in the architectural design studio.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010031
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 32: Investigating the Impact of Actual and
           Modeled Occupant Behavior Information Input to Building Performance

    • Authors: Mengda Jia, Ravi Srinivasan, Robert J. Ries, Gnana Bharathy, Nathan Weyer
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Occupant behaviors are one of the most dominant factors that influence building energy use. Understanding the influences from building occupants can promote the development of energy–efficient buildings. This paper quantifies the impact of different occupant behavior information on building energy model (BEM) from multiple perspectives. For this purpose, an occupant behavior model that uses agent–based modeling (ABM) approach is implemented via co-simulation with a BEM of an existing commercial building. Then, actual occupant behavior data in correspondence to ABM output, including operations on window, door, and blinds in selected thermal zones of the building are recorded using survey logs. A simulation experiment is conducted by creating three BEMs with constant, actual, and modeled occupant behavioral inputs. The analysis of the simulation results among these scenarios helps us gain an in–depth understanding of how occupant behaviors influence building performance. This study aims to facilitate robust building design and operation with human–in–the–loop system optimization.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010032
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 33: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Buildings in

    • Authors: Buildings Editorial Office Buildings Editorial Office
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Buildings maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...]
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010033
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 34: Indoor Daylighting and Thermal Response of a
           Passive Solar Building to Selective Components of Solar Radiation

    • Authors: Ochuko Kelvin Overen, Edson Leroy Meyer, Golden Makaka
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Solar radiation provides the most significant natural energy in buildings for space heating and daylighting. Due to atmospheric interference, solar radiation received at the Earth’s surface consists of direct beam and diffuse radiation, where diffuse can be further broken down into longwave and visible radiation. Although each of these components co-occurs, their influence on the indoor visual and thermal conditions of a building differ. This study aims to analyze the influence of the various components of solar radiation on the indoor thermal and daylighting of a passive solar building. Thus, a pyrheliometer, pyranometer, shaded-pyranometer, and pyrgeometer mounted on a SOLYS 2 (Kipp & Zonen, Delft, Netherlands) dual Axis sun tracker, were used to monitor direct, global horizontal, diffuse and downward longwave radiation, respectively. The seasonal indoor air temperature and relative humidity were measured using an HMP 60 temperature relative humidity probe. A Li-210R photometric sensor was used to monitor the indoor illuminance. The summer and winter indoor air temperature, as well as relative humidity, were found to be influenced by diffuse horizontal and global horizontal irradiance, respectively. In summer, the indoor air temperature response to diffuse horizontal irradiance was 0.7 °C/ħW/m2 and 1.1 °C/ħW/m2 to global horizontal irradiance in winter, where ħ is 99.9 W/m2. The indoor daylighting which was found to be above the minimum office visual task recommendation in most countries, but within the useful daylight illuminance range was dominated by direct normal irradiance. A response of 260 lux/ħW/m2 was observed. The findings of the study support the strategic locating of the windows in passive solar design. However, the results show that north-facing clerestory windows without shading device could lead to visual discomfort.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010034
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 1: Development and Mechanical Testing of
           Porous-Lightweight Geopolymer Mortar

    • Authors: Ghulam Qadir, Yasir Rashid, Ahmed Hassan, Esmaou Mahmoud Vall, Shamsa Saleh, Khadega Salim
      First page: 1
      Abstract: In this study, a novel porous geopolymer mortar (GP) was produced and tested experimentally. Industrial waste materials/by-products were used as constituents of the GP, along with dune sand. One sample was produced as a control sample for benchmarking. For the rest of the samples, 15%, 30%, and 45% by volume, the solid constituents were replaced with expanded polystyrene foam (EPS) beads. These mortar samples were heat cured to depolymerize the EPS to cause porosity inside the samples. Indoor experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of produced porous GP to high heat flux. The porous samples were able to reduce heat transmission across the opposite surfaces. Induced porosity resulted in a decrement in compressive strength from 77.2 MPa for the control sample to 15.8 MPa for 45% porous sample. However, the limit lies within the standards for partitioning walls in buildings and pavements in urban areas to absorb rainwater.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-22
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010001
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 2: The Behaviour of Fresh Concrete with Varying
           Coarse Aggregate Content at the Concrete-Steel Wall Interface

    • Authors: Audrė Rugytė, Mindaugas Daukšys, Svajūnas Juočiūnas, Ruben Paul Borg
      First page: 2
      Abstract: The interaction between concrete and steel occurs during concrete mixing and finishing processes, during filling of concrete moulds, formwork, composite columns and during pumping of concrete mixtures. More experimental investigation is required to predict variations in interface friction, as a result of the composition of the lubrication layer which depends on the composition of concrete. This study provides experimental results to allow for a better understanding of friction at concrete-steel interface, with changes in the coarse aggregate (CA) content in the aggregate mixture (AM). Friction tests on fresh concrete have been carried out using the BTRHEOM tribometer (Nantes, France) and the interface parameters were calculated on the basis of the interface friction between the concrete and the steel wall, through the ADRHEO software. The roughness parameters were measured along the length of the rotary steel cylinder of the tribometer. In addition, the roughness of new and modified metal form-lining in steel composite columns was also measured. Variations in the CA content in the AM in the 42 to 52% range had minimal effects on the yield stress of the interface. The viscous constant of the interface as measured with a tribometer decreased, when the roughness parameter Rt values of the rotary cylinder wall, which refer to the absolute vertical distance between the maximum profile peak height and the maximum profile valley depth along the sampling length, were in the 17.10 to 28.73 μm range. The roughness profile peaks’ asperity recorded, was higher for the worn metal form-lining and for the steel composite columns with the inner surface covered in rust, when compared to the rotary cylinder roughness profile. The hypothesis is based on the principle that a sufficient lubrication layer, with the required thickness of fine mortar is created at the interface between the concrete and the metal form-lining or steel composite column wall, when the CA content in the AM varies in the range from 42 to 52% and the wall roughness parameters (Rt) of these elements varies in the 15.00 to 30.00 μm range.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-22
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010002
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 3: ALDREN: A Methodological Framework to Support
           Decision-Making and Investments in Deep Energy Renovation of
           Non-Residential Buildings

    • Authors: Marta Maria Sesana, Graziano Salvalai, Diletta Brutti, Corinne Mandin, Wenjuan Wei
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Since 2002, the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) has set up the path to improve the efficiency gains in the EU building sector, including measures that should accelerate the rate of building renovation towards more energy efficient systems. Under the 2010 EPBD, all EU countries have established independent energy performance certification systems supported by independent mechanisms of control and verification. The EU directive 2018/844 has introduced different novelties and one of these regards the possibility for the Member States, together with the Long-Term Renovation Strategies (LTRS), to introduce an optional Building Renovation Passport Article 2a.1(c), considered as an empowering document that gives more reliable and independent information on the potential for energy savings that is tied up in their buildings. On 14 October 2020, the European Commission launched its Communication and Strategy on the Renovation Wave initiative, intending to double the current Europe’s renovation rate to make the continent carbon neutral by 2050. However, current practices and tools of energy performance assessment and certification applied across Europe face several challenges. In this context, the ALDREN project is a methodological framework that aims to support decision-making and investment in deep energy renovation of nonresidential buildings, based on a set of procedures (modules) that consist in the step-by-step implementation of protocols to assess the energy performance, indoor environmental quality, and financial value of buildings, before and after the energy renovation. The paper presents the ALDREN overall procedure with a focus on the development of the Building Renovation Passport and its application to an Italian office building.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-23
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010003
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 4: A Competency Model for the Selection and
           Performance Improvement of Project Managers in Collaborative Construction
           Projects: Behavioral Studies in Norway and Finland

    • Authors: Sina Moradi, Kalle Kähkönen, Ole Jonny Klakegg, Kirsi Aaltonen
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Collaborative work practices are getting more common in construction projects. Consequently, new project delivery models have emerged and new practices have also entered the world of traditional delivery models. The resultant collaborative construction projects provide a different working environment compared to the traditional construction delivery models. This different environment seems to require project managers with certain types of competencies, but there is currently very limited research-based knowledge concerning this subject. This study aims at identifying such competencies, which project managers of collaborative construction projects need to possess to succeed. For this purpose, a human behavioral approach was employed where project managers’ behavior in their everyday work was the main source for understanding their competencies. Accordingly, the survey strategy was utilized, where a self-evaluation questionnaire was sent to 33 project managers of collaborative construction projects, and a response rate of 73% was achieved. The findings present four groups of competencies within a matrix model, structured based on their contribution to project managers’ successful performance in collaborative construction projects and the degree to which they can develop those competencies. The developed model can provide a baseline for selecting project managers and for enhancing the performance of the current ones.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-23
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010004
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 5: A Review on the Factors Affecting the Use of
           Offsite Construction in Multifamily Housing in the United States

    • Authors: Gusmao Brissi, Debs, Elwakil
      First page: 5
      Abstract: The increasing demand for multifamily housing in the United States requires alternatives for building more affordable and sustainable housing to improve the quality of life for millions of families. Offsite construction (OSC) strategies may be a viable alternative for tackling this problem. Although the use of OSC is significant in the multifamily housing market in the world and it is also very promising in the US, a scarce amount of literature has focused on this topic. The purpose of this study is to identify specific factors that affect decisions on the use of OSC in multifamily housing in the US. Focusing on the sustainability dimensions of construction—social, environmental, and economic—the authors reviewed literature that was published between 2000 and 2019 and identified factors that are related to OSC adoption in general construction, in housing construction, and, more specifically, in multifamily housing construction in the US. Subsequently, a discussion on some important factors affecting decisions on the use of OSC in the American multifamily market is provided. The discussion focused on factors that, although important, have been under explored in the literature that addresses the use of OSC in multifamily projects, especially in the US, which are: customer’s attitude, building performance, and building comfort and indoor environmental quality (IEQ). In addition, a brief discussion regarding the importance of design to the uptake of OSC in multifamily projects is provided. This is one of the first studies dedicated to exploring the social, environmental, and economic factors that affect the use of OSC in multifamily housing in the US. The study also identifies research gaps, which serve as a roadmap for future research.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-24
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010005
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 6: Life Cycle GHG Emissions of Residential
           Buildings in Humid Subtropical and Tropical Climates: Systematic Review
           and Analysis

    • Authors: Daniel Satola, Martin Röck, Aoife Houlihan-Wiberg, Arild Gustavsen
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Improving the environmental life cycle performance of buildings by focusing on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions along the building life cycle is considered a crucial step in achieving global climate targets. This paper provides a systematic review and analysis of 75 residential case studies in humid subtropical and tropical climates. The study investigates GHG emissions across the building life cycle, i.e., it analyses both embodied and operational GHG emissions. Furthermore, the influence of various parameters, such as building location, typology, construction materials and energy performance, as well as methodological aspects are investigated. Through comparative analysis, the study identifies promising design strategies for reducing life cycle-related GHG emissions of buildings operating in subtropical and tropical climate zones. The results show that life cycle GHG emissions in the analysed studies are mostly dominated by operational emissions and are the highest for energy-intensive multi-family buildings. Buildings following low or net-zero energy performance targets show potential reductions of 50–80% for total life cycle GHG emissions, compared to buildings with conventional energy performance. Implementation of on-site photovoltaic (PV) systems provides the highest reduction potential for both operational and total life cycle GHG emissions, with potential reductions of 92% to 100% and 48% to 66%, respectively. Strategies related to increased use of timber and other bio-based materials present the highest potential for reduction of embodied GHG emissions, with reductions of 9% to 73%.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-24
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010006
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 7: Numerical Simulation and Parametric Analysis
           of Precast Concrete Beam-Slab Assembly Based on Layered Shell Elements

    • Authors: Feng, Xiong, Brunesi, Parisi, Wu
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Precast concrete (PC) plays an important role in the industrialization processes of buildings, so it is critical to study the seismic performance of such structures. Several experimental and numerical studies have been conducted to investigate the behavior of PC beam-to-column connections. However, most of the previous studies neglect the contribution of slabs. In light of this, this paper presents a numerical simulation method for dry connected beam-slab assemblies based on the layered shell element available in OpenSees. The beams were modeled with fiber elements, while the slabs were modeled with layered shell elements. The developed model was validated by simulating a typical beam-slab assembly test, with the characteristics of hysteretic performance found to be well reflected by the model. Moreover, a parametric study was performed to quantify the influence of slab parameters. The results showed that the thickness of the slab had a significant effect on the hysteretic performance of the specimen and that the influence of the slab width was obviously reduced after it exceeded a certain limit. Besides, the effect of the reinforcement ratio on stiffness and loadbearing capacity was not obvious and was accompanied by a slight positive correlation with the energy dissipation capacity.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-24
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010007
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 8: A Simple Framework for the Cost–Benefit
           Analysis of Single-Task Construction Robots Based on a Case Study of a
           Cable-Driven Facade Installation Robot

    • Authors: Hu, Iturralde, Linner, Zhao, Pan, Pracucci, Bock
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Single-task construction robots (STCRs) have become a popular research topic for decades. However, there is still a gap in the ubiquitous application of STCRs for onsite construction due to various reasons, such as cost concerns. Therefore, cost–benefit analysis (CBA) can be used to measure the net economic benefit of the STCRs, compared to traditional construction methods, in order to boost the implementation of STCRs. This paper presents a simple and practical framework for the economic evaluation of STCRs and conducts a case study of a cable-driven facade installation robot to verify the method. The results show that the cable-driven robot for facade installation is worth investing in in the UK, as well as in the majority of G20 countries. Furthermore, other socioenvironmental implications of STCRs and the limitations of the study are also discussed. In conclusion, the proposed method is highly adaptable and reproducible. Therefore, researchers, engineers, investors, and policy makers can easily follow and customize this method to assess the economic advantages of any STCR systems, compared to traditional construction technologies.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-24
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010008
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 9: Nonlinear Static Seismic Response of a
           Building Equipped with Hybrid Cross-Laminated Timber Floor Diaphragms and
           Concentric X-Braced Steel Frames

    • Authors: Roncari, Gobbi, Loss
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Simplified seismic design procedures mostly recommend the adoption of rigid floor diaphragms when forming a building’s lateral force-resisting structural system. While rigid behavior is compatible with many reinforced concrete or composite steel-concrete floor systems, the intrinsic stiffness properties of wood and ductile timber connections of timber floor slabs typically make reaching a such comparable in-plane response difficult. Codes or standards in North America widely cover wood-frame construction, with provisions given for both rigid and flexible floor diaphragms designs. Instead, research is ongoing for emerging cross-laminated-timber (CLT) and hybrid CLT-based technologies, with seismic design codification still currently limited. This paper deals with a steel-CLT-based hybrid structure built by assembling braced steel frames with CLT-steel composite floors. Preliminary investigation on the performance of a 3-story building under seismic loads is presented, with particular attention to the influence of in-plane timber diaphragms flexibility on the force distribution and lateral deformation at each story. The building complies with the Italian Building Code damage limit state and ultimate limit state design requirements by considering a moderate seismic hazard scenario. Nonlinear static analyses are performed adopting a finite-element model calibrated based on experimental data. The CLT-steel composite floor in-plane deformability shows mitigated effects on the load distribution into the bracing systems compared to the ideal rigid behavior. On the other hand, the lateral deformation always rises at least 17% and 21% on average, independently of the story and load distribution along the building’s height.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-24
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010009
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 10: Automated Positioning of Anchors for
           Personal Fall Arrest Systems for Steep-Sloped Roofs

    • Authors: Azin Heidari, Svetlana Olbina, Scott Glick
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Falls account for about one-third of all construction fatalities with most fatalities in the roofing trade. Even though a personal fall arrest system (PFAS) is required for fall protection, proper placement of PFAS anchor points is an issue evidenced by the high number of fatalities caused by incorrect anchor positioning. The research goal was to proof the concept of optimizing the location of the PFAS anchor points on steep-sloped roofs. This goal was achieved by: (1) Developing an algorithm for converting the required local jurisdiction construction regulations and standards for PFAS anchor positioning into machine-readable rules; and (2) Developing and validating an algorithm for optimizing the location of PFAS anchor points. The K-Nearest Neighbor Search (KNNS) optimization algorithm was selected in this research and was implemented into a standalone computer tool using Python programming language. The tool calculates the potential anchor locations that satisfy the fall clearance and swing hazard requirements and then displays the anchor locations both graphically and numerically. The optimization algorithm was validated using the K-fold Cross-Validation method, which proved the algorithm was adequately accurate and consistent. The research contribution is the proof of the concept that the development of an optimization algorithm and automated field-level tool for optimal selection of PFAS anchor points is possible, further research and refinement could help steep-sloped roofing companies improve their safety practices.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-25
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010010
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 11: Critical Review of the Evolution of Project
           Delivery Methods in the Construction Industry

    • Authors: Salma Ahmed, Sameh El-Sayegh
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Selecting the appropriate project delivery method (PDM) is a very significant managerial decision that impacts the success of construction projects. This paper provides a critical review of related literature on the evolution of project delivery methods, selection methods and selection criteria over the years and their suitability in the construction industry of today’s world. The literature review analysis has concluded that project delivery methods evolve at a slower rate compared to the evolution of the construction industry. The paper also suggests features of an evolved project delivery method that is digitally integrated, people-centered, and sustainability-focused. Moreover, the paper highlights the latest selection criteria such as risk, health and wellbeing, sustainability goals and technological innovations. Furthermore, the paper concluded that advanced artificial intelligence techniques are yet to be exploited to develop a smart decision support model that will assist clients in selecting the most appropriate delivery method for successful project completion. Additionally, the paper presents a framework that illustrates the relationship between the different PDM variables needed to harmonize with the construction industry. Last, but not least, the paper fills a gap in the literature as it covers a different perspective in the field of project delivery methods. The paper also provides recommendations and future research ideas.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-26
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010011
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 12: An Evaluation of the Environmental Payback
           Times and Economic Convenience in an Energy Requalification of a School

    • Authors: Francesco Asdrubali, Daniela Venanzi, Luca Evangelisti, Claudia Guattari, Gianluca Grazieschi, Paolo Matteucci, Marta Roncone
      First page: 12
      Abstract: The majority of Italian schools (70%) were built in the absence of any legislation related to energy efficiency, and therefore have very low energy performance due to aging or poor quality of construction. An energy retrofit of this building stock is needed to meet the current European goals on greenhouse gas emission reduction. The retrofit is also needed in order to guarantee adequate comfort levels in indoor spaces and good conditions for learning and educational activities, that are often not reached in poor quality constructions. This work presents the results of an interdisciplinary study related to the energy requalification of a school located in Ostia, near Rome in Italy, built in the 1960s with a steel structure and Eternit infill. The scope of the analysis is to verify the economic and environmental effectiveness of four proposed retrofit interventions concerning the replacement of fixtures and the installation of an insulating coat. The current thermal transmittance of the walls was evaluated through thermofluximetric measurements conducted in situ; dynamic simulations were performed to determine the current energy performance and the energy performances following the four proposed retrofit scenarios. Energy and carbon payback times were evaluated (by means of the life cycle analysis (LCA) approach) and the economic value was determined for each of the four proposed retrofits, using a probabilistic approach. The results show that the replacement of windows is the most convenient intervention from all points of view. The study provides evidence that an assessment of schools’ energy retrofits should include both economic and life cycle aspects.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-28
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010012
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 13: Fast Checking of Drift Demand in
           Multi-Storey Buildings with Asymmetry

    • Authors: Prashidha Khatiwada, Elisa Lumantarna, Nelson Lam, Daniel Looi
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Buildings possessing an asymmetrical arrangement of structural elements are torsionally unbalanced and can be vulnerable in a seismic event. Building codes of practices typically recommend the use of three-dimensional dynamic analysis to determine the seismic demands of a multi-storey building. Whilst most design practices are well equipped with commercial software for undertaking such analyses, designers often find it difficult to verify results. Much of the published technical articles present findings for buildings based on an idealised single-storey model. As a result of challenges in dealing with real multi-storey buildings, there has been very limited uptake of research findings in design practices. This article presents a three-tiered approach of estimating the displacement behaviour of the building in term of 3D/2D displacement ratio. The estimate can be used for verifying results reported from a computer package conveniently. The quick method provides predictions of the 3D/2D ratio and only requires the gross plan dimensions of the building to be known. The refined method requires knowledge of the torsional stiffness properties to be known, whereas the detailed method requires the eccentricity properties to be known as well. The proposed methodology is robust and reliable, as is demonstrated by case studies undertaken on six real multi-storey buildings.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-28
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010013
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 14: Numerically Evaluation of FRP-Strengthened
           Members under Dynamic Impact Loading

    • Authors: Faham Tahmasebinia, Linda Zhang, Sangwoo Park, Samad Sepasgozar
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Reinforced concrete (RC) members in critical structures, such as bridge piers, high-rise buildings, and offshore facilities, are vulnerable to impact loads throughout their service life. For example, vehicle collisions, accidental loading, or unpredicted attacks could occur. The numerical models presented in this paper are shown to adequately replicate the impact behaviour and damage process of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP)-strengthened concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) columns and Reinforced Concrete slabs. Validated models are developed using Abaqus/Explicit by reproducing the results obtained from experimental testing on bare CFST and RC slab members. Parameters relating to the FRP and material components are investigated to determine the influence on structural behaviour. The innovative method of using the dissipated energy approach for structural evaluation provides an assessment of the effective use of FRP and material properties to enhance the dynamic response. The outcome of the evaluation, including the geometrical, material, and contact properties modelling, shows that there is an agreement between the numerical and experimental behaviour of the selected concrete members. The experimentation shows that the calibration of the models is a crucial task, which was considered and resulted in matching the force–displacement behaviour and achieving the same maximum impact force and displacement values. Different novel and complicated Finite Element Models were comprehensively developed. The developed numerical models could precisely predict both local and global structural responses in the different reinforced concrete members. The application of the current numerical techniques can be extended to design structural members where there are no reliable practical guidelines on both national and international levels.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010014
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 15: Vibrations Induced by Mechanical Rock
           Excavation on R.C. Buildings in an Urban Area

    • Authors: Valeria Leggieri, Annamaria di Lernia, Gaetano Elia, Domenico Raffaele, Giuseppina Uva
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The paper describes the numerical approach adopted to investigate the effects of vibrations induced on reinforced concrete (R.C.) buildings by the excavation works needed to bury an existing railway line crossing an urban area in the south of Italy. The construction works are carried out in dolomitic rocks, characterized by a high resistance to excavation. Therefore, they may have a great impact on the surrounding environment in terms of induced vibrations. The study is conducted through an uncoupled approach, investigating the dynamic response of the geotechnical system and the above-surface structure, separately. The impulse force equivalent to the dynamic action of a breaker hammer is used as input motion for 2D finite element (FE) geotechnical simulations of the wave propagation process occurring during the excavation. Then, the acceleration time histories obtained from the geotechnical analyses are adopted to study the dynamic performance of an “index” R.C. building, representing the most recurrent structural typology in the examined area, through a 3D FE model. The results show how the adoption of a mitigation strategy consisting in the execution of a preliminary vertical cut followed by a rock crushing treatment allows to significantly reduce the vibrations induced by the excavation processes on existing buildings.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010015
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 16: Relief Method: The Analysis of Architectonic
           Façades by Fractal Geometry

    • Authors: Vilmos Katona
      First page: 16
      Abstract: This paper explores the working hypothesis that fractal patterns that closely match those found in nature are more likely to convey a strong sense of genius loci to humans by comparison with ‘Euclidean’ patterns that do not occur in nature frequently. A part of this survey is concerned with showing the pattern-conscious thinking, regarding the façade composition and material textures, of historical buildings compared to different ecological or geological scenes. We also examine the background of pattern-design from architectural theory, and extrapolate the matter to certain questions about spatial quality, tectonics, and the phenomenon of place. Our most important concern is an attempt to enhance architectural arguments regarding place and character with mathematical calculations. We introduce ‘relief method’ as a possible way to capture the haptic nature of architecture beyond the patterns of its two-dimensional projections. Through this approach, façades are considered as reliefs and pictures at the same time, thus reflecting the tension between their materiality and visual representation. Fractal geometry also helps to understand how architectonic layers define scale, and by which means architecture could be translated into the human level of physical existence.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010016
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 213: Robustness Assessment of Redundant
           Structural Systems Based on Design Provisions and Probabilistic Damage

    • Authors: Panagiotis Spyridis, Alfred Strauss
      First page: 213
      Abstract: Typically in structural design, foreseeable loads are assumed in a structural design and dimensioning exercise and design material properties may be handled in a semi-probabilistic approach. Structures can, however, be exposed to largely unforeseeable events such as intense environmental phenomena, accidents, malicious acts, and planning or execution errors, in addition to degradation with time. Recent significant collapses have highlighted the fact that robustness is an indispensable integral part of the structural design and provisions in upcoming codes are currently expanding in this respect. The paper examines the practical significance of quantitative robustness indicators included in recent research and upcoming standards and it assesses their efficiency based on case studies. Moreover, it proposes a probabilistic numerical methodology for robustness assessment under uncertainty, and it demonstrates its practical applicability based on computations with indicative structural truss systems, i.e., multi-component systems. The proposed method allows for quantifiable and comparable robustness measures, which can be integrated in reliability-based design and structural health monitoring of engineering systems. The redundancy aspect of robustness is pronounced as a plausible quantitative performance indicator for multi-component systems. In particular, the robustness index combining reliability and redundancy of the elements is proven to be the most useful one out of the examined approaches. This probabilistic elaboration does not only account for the reasonable treatment of variability and randomness, but it allows for an inverse identification of the critical failure paths and the characterization of weak links in the systems.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120213
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 214: Utilization of Quarry Dust and Calcareous
           Fly Ash for the Production of Lightweight Cellular
           Micro-Concrete—Synthesis and Characterization

    • Authors: Athanasia Soultana, Michael Galetakis
      First page: 214
      Abstract: This study aims to assess the production of cellular micro-concrete, consisting of quarry dust, calcareous fly ash, cement, and aluminum powder as aerating agent. The proposed mixture design methodology is based on a Box–Behnken fractional factorial experimental design. Testing of specimens included compressive and flexural strength, density, water absorption, and thermal conductivity measurements. Results indicate that density is a characteristic property which determines all the measured properties. Aerating agent to cement and fly ash ratio has the strongest effect on all the measured properties. The developed methodology is a valuable tool for the production of cellular micro-concrete with predetermined properties by utilizing large amounts of quarry dust.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120214
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 215: Implementation of Passive Radiative Cooling
           Technology in Buildings: A Review

    • Authors: Suhendri, Mingke Hu, Yuehong Su, Jo Darkwa, Saffa Riffat
      First page: 215
      Abstract: Radiative cooling (RC) is attracting more interest from building engineers and architects. Using the sky as the heat sink, a radiative cooling material can be passively cooled by emitting heat to the sky. As a result of the development of material technology, RC research has been revived, with the aim of increasing the materials’ cooling power as well as finding reliable ways to utilize it in cooling for buildings. This review identifies some issues in the current implementation of RC technologies in buildings from an architectural point of view. Besides the technical performance of the RC technologies, some architectural aspects, such as integration with architectural features, aesthetic requirements, as well as fully passive implementations of RC, also need to be considered for building application. In addition, performance evaluation of a building-integrated RC system should begin to account for its benefit to the occupant’s health and comfort alongside the technical performance. In conclusion, this review on RC implementation in buildings provides a meaningful discussion in regard to the direction of the research.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-26
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120215
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 216: Remaking Slums: International Examples of
           Upgrading Neighbourhoods

    • Authors: Josep Maria Montaner
      First page: 216
      Abstract: The slum, self-constructed houses and neighbourhoods, signifies the dwelling and home for a very representative part of humanity. This text analyses the different typologies and the different possible and ethical strategies for foreseeing, for remaking and for the resettlement of these self-produced neighbourhoods. Some study cases and examples as references are presented, such as Solanda neighbourhood in Quito, Ecuador, and the Favela-Bairro programme in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This article is situated in the field of housing studies and focused specially on architectural issues.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-26
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120216
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 217: Italian Household Load Profiles: A
           Monitoring Campaign

    • Authors: Giorgio Besagni, Lidia Premoli Vilà, Marco Borgarello
      First page: 217
      Abstract: The increasing share of renewable energy sources on the supply side, as well as the so-called electrification pathways on the demand side, has led to peculiar challenges for electrical systems: Indeed, the increasing load demand has to be balanced from the supply-side viewpoint. In particular, the residential sector contributes to nearly 26% of the final energy consumption in Europe, suggesting that a further understanding of households’ consumptions and load profiles is needed to support an energy transition. In this context, this paper contributes to the existing discussion by proposing a sociodemographic analysis of Italian households’ load profiles using a smart metering experimental study, while also considering the households in energy poverty conditions. For the sake of generality, results are presented based on a previously proposed household segmentation of the Italian residential sector. The outcomes point out three prominent peaks on load profiles for all the identified clusters, with a notable distinction in intensity. Where children are present, a higher load profile is noted, reaching a maximum value of 600 W of absorbed power between 19:30 and 22:30. Conversely, households in an energy poverty condition show a relatively regular load profile, ranging from a minimum of 110 W of absorbed power in baseload conditions at night time to a maximum of 280 W in the evening hours. The findings in this paper are in agreement with existing research in the field, and accordingly the study proposes a better focus on domestic appliances and sociodemographic parameters.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120217
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 218: Optimising Embodied Energy and Thermal
           Performance of Thermal Insulation in Building Envelopes via an Automated
           Building Information Modelling (BIM) Tool

    • Authors: Zixuan Chen, Ahmed W. A. Hammad, Imriyas Kamardeen, Ali Akbarnezhad
      First page: 218
      Abstract: Insulation systems for the floor, roof, and external walls play a prominent role in providing a thermal barrier for the building envelope. Design decisions made for the insulation material type and thickness can alleviate potential impacts on the embodied energy and improve the building thermal performance. This design problem is often addressed using a building information modelling (BIM)-integrated optimisation approach. However, one major weakness that lies in the current studies is that BIM is merely used as the source for design parameters input. This study proposes a BIM-based envelope insulation optimisation design tool using a common software Revit and its extension Dynamo to find the trade-off between the total embodied energy of the insulation system and the thermal performance of the envelope by considering the material type and thickness. In addition, the tool also permits data visualisation in a BIM environment, and automates subsequent material library mapping and instantiates the optimal insulation designs. The framework is tested on a case study based in Sydney, Australia. By analysing sample designs from the Pareto front, it is found that slight improvement in the thermal performance (1.3399 to 1.2112 GJ/m2) would cause the embodied energy to increase by more than 50 times.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120218
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 219: Improving City Vitality through Urban Heat
           Reduction with Green Infrastructure and Design Solutions: A Systematic
           Literature Review

    • Authors: Helen Elliott, Christine Eon, Jessica K Breadsell
      First page: 219
      Abstract: Cities are prone to excess heat, manifesting as urban heat islands (UHIs). UHIs impose a heat penalty upon urban inhabitants that jeopardizes human health and amplifies the escalating effects of background temperature rises and heatwaves, presenting barriers to participation in city life that diminish interaction and activity. This review paper investigates how green infrastructure, passive design and urban planning strategies—herein termed as green infrastructure and design solutions (GIDS)—can be used to cool the urban environment and improve city vitality. A systematic literature review has been undertaken connecting UHIs, city vitality and GIDS to find evidence of how qualities and conditions fundamental to the vitality of the city are diminished by heat, and ways in which these qualities and conditions may be improved through GIDS. This review reveals that comfortable thermal conditions underpin public health and foster activity—a prerequisite for a vital city—and that reducing environmental barriers to participation in urban life enhances physical and mental health as well as activity. This review finds that GIDS manage urban energy flows to reduce the development of excess urban heat and thus improve the environmental quality of urban spaces. Furthermore, it finds that the most equitable approach to urban cooling is one that reduces the intensity of the meso-scale UHI that affects all urban inhabitants. Subsequently, a cooler urban fabric based on GIDS is proposed. A cohesive approach to the widespread adoption of GIDS shows potential to produce a cooler urban fabric that is human-centered in its function and aesthetic to enhance participation in public life and stimulate life on the streets. Four spatial scales are presented in which a combination of GIDS may be collectively implemented to reduce the meso-scale UHI, including the urban, intra-urban, building and body scales. This approach considers the interacting nature of GIDS applied within contrasting urban landscapes, and aims to produce cooler urban conditions, better walking environments, and ecosystem co-benefits to stimulate participation in physical activity and public life to underpin public health, productivity and livelihoods, thereby inducing city vitality.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120219
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 220: Hysteretic Energy Demands in
           Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Systems Subjected to Earthquakes

    • Authors: Emrah Erduran
      First page: 220
      Abstract: Reliable estimation of energy demands imposed on a structure by a design ground motion is a key component of energy-based design. Although several studies have been conducted to quantify the energy demands in single-degree-of-freedoms systems, few have focused on multi-degree-of-freedom systems. This study aims to build on the knowledge from previous studies on multi-degree-of-freedom systems with special focus on the distribution of hysteretic energy demands among the components of the structure. Nonlinear response history analyses conducted under ground motion sets representing three different hazard levels show that the total input and hysteretic energy demands of multi-degree-of-freedom systems can be accurately estimated from equivalent single-degree-of-freedom systems for low- and medium-rise buildings. The distribution of hysteretic energy demands over the height of the multistory structures has been shown to vary significantly from ground motion to ground motion. Analyses results also show that the relative strength of adjoining beams and columns has a significant influence on the hysteretic energy demand distribution. On the other hand, the energy distribution is relatively insensitive to the damping model used in the analysis of the multi-degree-of-freedom system.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120220
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 221: Lean Thinking and Industrial 4.0 Approach
           to Achieving Construction 4.0 for Industrialization and Technological

    • Authors: Amusan Lekan, Aigbavboa Clinton, Ojo Sunday Isaac Fayomi, Owolabi James
      First page: 221
      Abstract: The construction industry is responsible for the infrastructural and physical development of nations and plays a pivotal role in determining economic equilibrium of nations of the world; hence, there is a need for constant evolving of advanced ways of carrying out construction operations. The concept has led to the evolution of Construction 4.0, which entails harmonizing disruption in technological applications to enhance construction productivity. The study, therefore, provides an attempt at evolving an enhanced approach to improve construction processes and resource management through application of lean construction and Industry 4.0. The purposive sampling method was used in this study to collect data. The data collection instrument consists of a structured questionnaire designed in a Likert scale of 1 to 5 distributed to 100 construction professionals through an online method that is actively involved in construction operations. The following parameters were censored and profiled, while the results are in tables and charts. The parameters include areas of lean thinking that could enhance Construction 4.0, areas of disruption in Industry 4.0 that influence Construction 4.0 advancement and parameters for practical integrating of lean thinking approach and Industry 4.0. Additionally, the influence of Industry 4.0 in technological development for the construction industry, disruptive innovation of Industry 4.0 and gains towards Construction 4.0. Furthermore, the relevance of Construction 4.0 in construction productivity, the importance of Construction 4.0, industrial application drivers in achieving Construction 4.0, future of Construction 4.0, achieving automation goal in construction and performance expectation of lean thinking and Industry 4.0 in the construction industry are found necessary. Simple percentage, Spearman rankings, Chi-square test, Student-T test, Mann–Whitney-U test and Relative Agreement and Importance index are the tools used to process the data. The study discovered, among others, the veracity of contingency approach in harnessing attributes of the lean thinking concept and disruptive applications in achieving Construction 4.0. The study recommends the application of the hybrid model suggested in the study as a guide to deployment of an application that could help in industrial productivity.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120221
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 222: Cost Optimization of a Zero-Emission Office

    • Authors: Nicola Lolli, Anne Gunnarshaug Lien, Øystein Rønneseth
      First page: 222
      Abstract: The cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures meant to achieve a zero-emission office building is investigated and compared to business as usual energy efficiency measures. The laboratory for zero emission buildings, the ZEB Lab, located in Trondheim, Norway, is an office building designed and built to compensate its lifecycle emissions with the use of a large array of building-integrated photovoltaic panels, pursuing a zero-emissions ambition level. Three design alternatives are investigated by downgrading the building insulation level to the values recommended by the currently enforced Norwegian building code, the byggteknisk forskrift TEK17. A sensitivity analysis of the variation of the installed area of the photovoltaic panels is performed to evaluate if smaller areas give better cost performances. Net present values are calculated by using three scenarios of future increase of electricity price for a time horizon of 20 years. Results show that business as usual solutions give higher net present values. Optimized areas of the photovoltaic panels further increase the net present values of the business as usual solutions in the highest electricity price scenario. The zero-emission ambition level shows a higher net present value than that of the business as usual solutions for a time horizon of at least 36 years.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120222
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 223: Assessment of the Impact of Hydraulic
           Binder on the Properties of the Cold Recycled Mixture with Foamed Bitumen
           and Bitumen Emulsion: Field Tests

    • Authors: Przemysław Buczyński, Marek Iwański, Jakub Krasowski
      First page: 223
      Abstract: The paper presents the results of tests of the impact of hydraulic and bituminous binders on the properties of the cold-recycled mixture (CRM). The composition of the cold-recycled mixture includes two types of different binders, i.e., bituminous binder in the form of foamed bitumen and bitumen emulsion, as well as Portland cement (CEM I 32.5R) and hydraulic binder. The hydraulic binder was produced by mixing three base ingredients in the following ratio: 40% CEM I 32.5R; 20% Ca(OH)2 and 40% CBD (cement bypass dust). The cold-recycled mixtures were produced under industrial conditions on a test section. The prepared CRM with bitumen emulsion (MCE) and foamed bitumen (MCAS) was collected from the test section and compacted under laboratory conditions. The impact of the type and kind of the binder was assessed in terms of physical properties, mechanical properties and deformation modulus (bearing capacity of subbase) of the recycled base course after 1, 7 and 28 days. It was found that the use of hydraulic binder in the recycled base course, regardless of the type of bituminous binder, reduced cohesion without reducing the remaining parameters.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120223
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 224: Acoustic Design of Ancient Buildings: The
           Odea of Pompeii and Posillipo

    • Authors: Giuseppe Ciaburro, Gino Iannace, Ilaria Lombardi, Amelia Trematerra
      First page: 224
      Abstract: In this paper, a typology of a building erected in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome is described: the Odeon. The Odeon is a covered building, but more modest in size than traditional open-air theatres without roofs. The Odeon could hold a few hundred spectators and therefore a smaller audience. The roof covering allowed the possibility of meetings even in adverse weather conditions. The etymology of the word of the Odeon (covered theatre) means the place of the ode, or of the songs. In this paper are discussed the architectonic and acoustic characteristics of the Odea of Pompeii and Posillipo. With commercial software (Odeon, Room Acoustics Software, Lyngby Denmark) we assess the acoustic characteristics of the Odea of Pompeii and Posillipo in the presence of an original roofing system and show that these buildings were well suited for music, songs and speech.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120224
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 225: Aesthetical Appeal and Dissemination of
           Architectural Heritage Photographs in Instagram

    • Authors: Vicente López-Chao, Vicente Lopez-Pena
      First page: 225
      Abstract: Image-based social networks are environments where users share their photographs and involuntarily contribute to evolve and to spread the meaning of things. For this reason, it is essential to use this source of information to determine how people perceive cultural heritage, specifically building heritage. These interactive spaces have a visual component that is essential to understand users’ perception of heritage architecture and that may also influence the dissemination of images. This research aims to describe the social concept of architectural heritage on Instagram and to explore whether the aesthetic appeal resources influence its dissemination. Images indexed to the hashtag #patrimonioarquitectonico (Spanish language version of #architecturalheritage) were collected for the period of three months (n = 180 images). A graphical and observational analysis was performed on categories of four variables of aesthetical appeal: human dimension, color, linear perspective and aesthetical quality. Subsequently, descriptive, cross-tabulation and variance analyses were applied. The findings have proven that regular users share a fairly heterogeneous vision of building types concerning architectural heritage, and that there are stakeholder accounts that could be altering their meaning due to strategies to protect residential areas. The paper describes how the aesthetic appeal variables add meaning to the social perception of the building heritage and which ones statistically influence its dissemination in terms of likes and engagement on Instagram.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-03
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120225
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 226: Takt Planning in Apartment Building
           Renovation Projects

    • Authors: Kimmo Keskiniva, Arto Saari, Juha-Matti Junnonen
      First page: 226
      Abstract: Takt production has been of great interest in construction during the last few years. In this research, a case study was carried out to demonstrate how the scheduling of an apartment building renovation project that utilizes takt production can be done. Furthermore, the study defines what clarifications should be made into the existing takt production models in the context of apartment building renovation projects, and it also explains why. Based on the study, adhering to a uniform production rate is challenging in apartment renovation projects. Therefore, a total of five clarifications to existing takt production methods are suggested. (1) Production with short takt requires a highly detailed definition of tasks in order to avoid ambiguousness. (2) Some tasks carried out in takt areas may have to be excluded from takt production. (3) The sensitivity of a created takt schedule should be evaluated, and buffers should be added accordingly. (4) Emphasis must be put on coordinating takted and non-takted tasks. (5) Takt plan modification during production requires effective procedures, since there is little time to react.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120226
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 227: Response of an Existing Two-Storey RC Frame

    • Authors: Simone Peloso, Chiara Casarotti, Filippo Dacarro, Giuseppe Sinopoli
      First page: 227
      Abstract: The purpose of the research was to study the response of existing constructions, designed for gravity loads only in the South of Italy, more precisely in the Sicily Region. The building is an existing two-story reinforced concrete structure, built in the 80s. In order to design the test, numerical study on the structure has been conducted, using information reported on original design drawings or derived by in situ geometric and material investigation. A number of numerical models and pushover analyses of the structure have been carried out, in order to account for the uncertainties related to possible different responses. The numerical analyses aimed at estimating the capacity of the structure in terms of both force and displacement, the ductility reserve, and the most likely sequence of formation of plastic hinges. The pseudo-static cyclic test was designed to push and pull the building in one direction at increasing displacement levels, up to a drift of about 2%. At the end of the test, the infill panels were completely collapsed. Beams, columns, and joints showed plastic hinges and shear failures in different parts of the structure, with spread spalling of the concrete. Numerical and experimental results were found in fair agreement.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120227
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 228: Experimental Study of Using
           Micro-Encapsulated Phase-Change Material Integrated into Hemp Shive

    • Authors: Edgars Kirilovs, Inga Zotova, Staņislavs Gendelis, Hans Jörg-Gusovius, Silvija Kukle, Veneranda Stramkale
      First page: 228
      Abstract: Phase change materials (PCMs) are now widely known as potential additives for building insulation materials to provide a thermal mass effect that helps conserve energy and maintain a comfortable indoor temperature. Therefore, the study presented in this paper focuses on an experimental investigation of the specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity of hemp shive mixed with PCMs. Industrially manufactured organic PCM-S50 received from MikroCaps Ltd. (Slovenia) has been used to further enhance respective properties of the product samples. The experimental boards were made from hemp shive by directly mixing 5% encapsulate PCMs into the mass. Cold pressing was used to manufacture the boards with Kleiberit urea formaldehyde resin glue as a binding agent. The experimental boards were made as 25 mm thick single-layer parts with a density of 300 ± 20 kg/m3, which qualify them as low-density boards. By adding nanocapsules during the board manufacturing process, the heat capacity is increased by 62%. Based on the great potential of using latent heat, it becomes a possible solution for the development of new technologies related to the automatic regulation of an indoor microclimate.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120228
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 229: CFD Visualization in a Virtual Reality
           Environment Using Building Information Modeling Tools

    • Authors: Jiayi Yan, Karen Kensek, Kyle Konis, Douglas Noble
      First page: 229
      Abstract: Scientific visualization has been an essential process in the engineering field, enabling the tracking of large-scale simulation data and providing intuitive and comprehendible graphs and models that display useful data. For computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data, the need for scientific visualization is even more important given the complicated spatial data structure and large quantities of data points characteristic of CFD data. To better take advantage of CFD results for buildings, the potential use of virtual reality (VR) techniques cannot be overlooked in the development of building projects. However, the workflow required to bring CFD simulation results to VR has not been streamlined. Building information modeling (BIM) as a lifecycle tool for buildings includes as much information as possible for further applications. To this end, this study brings CFD visualization to VR using BIM tools and reports the evaluation and analysis of the results.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120229
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 230: AHP-Systems Thinking Analyses for Kaizen
           Costing Implementation in the Construction Industry

    • Authors: Temitope Omotayo, Bankole Awuzie, Temitope Egbelakin, Lovelin Obi, Mercy Ogunnusi
      First page: 230
      Abstract: The incessant reportage of cost overruns and abandoned projects in contemporary literature have accentuated the need for a re-examination of the nature of the cost management strategies deployed to these projects. This study explores the potential of kaizen costing strategy to engender effective cost management within construction project delivery systems in developing countries. Data collected during this study were analysed using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and systems thinking approaches to determine the criticality of the factors influencing the effective implementation of kaizen costing. Seven (7) archetypes leading to final causal loop diagram identified the incorporation of the plan–do–check–act approach to project and cost planning, the budgeting system of the construction companies, overhead cost reduction during construction and the overall procurement process. Executing these archetypes will potentially reduce high overhead costs, project cost and time overruns, as well as enhance construction industry sector growth policies and construction organisation corporate governance.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120230
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 231: Additive Manufacturing Applications for
           Industry 4.0: A Systematic Critical Review

    • Authors: Sepasgozar, Shi, Yang, Shirowzhan, Edwards
      First page: 231
      Abstract: Additive manufacturing, including 3D printing (3DP), is one of the critical pillars of Industry 4.0 and the next construction revolution. Several countries, including China, have utilized 3DP on larger scales or real projects. However, reviews of the lessons learned from previous large-sized practices of 3DP utilization are scarce. This paper presents a few practical applications of implementing 3DP over the past decade and suggests a direction for future research work. Recent publications on 3DP practices are systematically reviewed using an interpretivist philosophical lens, and more specifically, the nozzle characteristics are focused upon. The Scopus and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) journal databases are utilized, resulting in the examination of 54 English and 62 Chinese papers. The selected practices from Mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Macao are considered for this review. A content critical review approach is adopted, and the identified papers are critically reviewed. These papers reported key challenges and advantages from their reported practices, such as limitations in aggregate sizes, nozzle sizes, standards, post-occupancy satisfaction, final product quality, productivity challenges and other associated risks. The paper reports upon prominent limitations and signposts directions for future investigations.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120231
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 232: An Anchoring Groove Technique to Enhance
           the Bond Behavior between Heat-Damaged Concrete and CFRP Composites

    • Authors: Rajai Al-Rousan, Mohammad AL-Tahat
      First page: 232
      Abstract: This experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of using carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites with special anchoring grooves, specifically in terms of the ability of the concrete–CFRP bond to withstand elevated temperatures. The obtained findings of this experiment clearly highlighted the effectiveness of the direction of the anchoring grooves on the behavior of the concrete–CFRP bonding area. The results also showed that high temperatures lessen the bond’s strength and the ultimate slippage. On the other hand, this study showed that increasing the length of the CFRP sheet resulted in enhancement of the bond’s strength and slippage. When exposed to temperatures above 500 °C, the structures’ residual splitting and compression strength decreased significantly, resulting in the bond’s strength reducing to 67% and the slippage to 19%, with respect to the control samples. In the non-grooved and vertically grooved beams, the CFRP–concrete bond showed a skin-peeling type of failure. It appeared, also, that the temperature and the number of anchored grooves significantly affected the bonding area of the surface; as the surface was exposed to failure in adhesion, more concrete remained attached to the CFRP composite, signifying a stronger attachment.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-07
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120232
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 233: Increasing Green Infrastructure in Cities:
           Impact on Ambient Temperature, Air Quality and Heat-Related Mortality and

    • Authors: Matthaios Santamouris, Paul Osmond
      First page: 233
      Abstract: Urban vegetation provides undeniable benefits to urban climate, health, thermal comfort and environmental quality of cities and represents one of the most considered urban heat mitigation measures. Despite the plethora of available scientific information, very little is known about the holistic and global impact of a potential increase of urban green infrastructure (GI) on urban climate, environmental quality and health, and their synergies and trade-offs. There is a need to evaluate globally the extent to which additional GI provides benefits and quantify the problems arising from the deployment of additional greenery in cities which are usually overlooked or neglected. The present paper has reviewed and analysed 55 fully evaluated scenarios and case studies investigating the impact of additional GI on urban temperature, air pollution and health for 39 cities. Statistically significant correlations between the percentage increase of the urban GI and the peak daily and night ambient temperatures are obtained. The average maximum peak daily and night-time temperature drop may not exceed 1.8 and 2.3 °C respectively, even for a maximum GI fraction. In parallel, a statistically significant correlation between the peak daily temperature decrease caused by higher GI fractions and heat-related mortality is found. When the peak daily temperature drops by 0.1 °C, then the percentage of heat-related mortality decreases on average by 3.0% The impact of additional urban GI on the concentration of urban pollutants is analysed, and the main parameters contributing to decrease or increase of the pollutants’ concentration are presented.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-07
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120233
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 234: Emission Reduction Potential of Different
           Types of Finnish Buildings through Energy Retrofits

    • Authors: Janne Hirvonen, Juha Jokisalo, Paula Sankelo, Tuomo Niemelä, Risto Kosonen
      First page: 234
      Abstract: Energy retrofitting of buildings shows great potential in reducing CO2 emissions. However, most retrofitting studies only focus on a single building type. This paper shows the relative potential in six Finnish building types, to identify possible focus areas for future retrofits in Finland. Data from previous optimization studies was used to provide optimal cases for comparison. Energy demand of the buildings was generated through dynamic simulation with the IDA-ICE software. The cases were compared according to emissions reduction, investment and life cycle cost. It was found that, in all buildings, it was possible to reduce emissions cost-neutrally by 20% to 70% in buildings with district heating and by 70% to 95% using heat pumps. Single-family homes with oil or wood boilers switching to heat pumps had the greatest emission reduction potential. More stringent requirements for energy efficiency could be mandated during building renovation.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-08
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120234
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 235: Experimental Data and Simulations of
           Performance and Thermal Comfort in a Patient Room Equipped with Radiant
           Ceiling Panels

    • Authors: Paolo Valdiserri, Silvia Cesari, Maddalena Coccagna, Pasquale Romio, Sante Mazzacane
      First page: 235
      Abstract: Hospitals require the highest energy demands in non-residential buildings. They provide healthcare 24/7/365 and, at the same time, they ensure indoor air quality, thermal comfort and sterility. However, several studies reveal that high indoor temperatures and low relative humidity (RH) are often perceived in patient rooms during the heating season, suggesting an important energy saving potential. Against this background, radiant ceiling panel (RCP) systems result to be one of the most appropriate solutions as they allow to achieve significant energy savings while providing the highest level of thermal and acoustic comfort, as well as of infection control. In the present study the microclimatic survey of a patient room at Maggiore Hospital in Bologna, Italy, equipped with an air conditioning system integrated with RCP, has reported occupant thermal discomfort. Experimental data were used to calibrate a building model and dynamic building energy simulations were carried out to analyse indoor air temperature, relative humidity, predicted mean vote (PMV) and predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD) indexes under different inlet air temperatures, to identify the best design conditions for energy efficiency and thermal comfort improvement. It was found that the highest advantages can be obtained when neutral air is supplied.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-11
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120235
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 236: Improving the Accuracy of a Hygrothermal
           Model for Wood-Frame Walls: A Cold-Climate Study

    • Authors: Charles R. Boardman, Samuel V. Glass
      First page: 236
      Abstract: A one-dimensional transient hygrothermal model was used to simulate eight different wood-frame wall assemblies. Simulations were compared with measured results from a two-year field study exploring the effects of exterior insulation on wall moisture performance in a cold-climate. The field study documented the moisture content, temperature, and relative humidity measurements in wall assemblies using oriented strand board (OSB) sheathing. Simulations were performed using generic design input values as well as input values based on measurements or sensitivity analysis. Laboratory material property measurements informed the choice of material property values in the improved model for OSB, asphalt-coated kraft paper, and interior latex paint. Simulations using improved input values typically agreed with field measurements within measurement error. The most significant model improvements were all related to vapor permeance. The vinyl siding used an effective permeance much lower than typically recommended. However, both the extruded polystyrene insulation and the asphalt-coated kraft paper facing on the cavity fiberglass insulation had higher permeance than literature values.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-11
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120236
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 237: Alternative Method to the Replication of
           Wind Effects into the Buildings Thermal Simulation

    • Authors: Aiman Albatayneh, Dariusz Alterman, Adrian Page, Behdad Moghtaderi
      First page: 237
      Abstract: To design energy-efficient buildings, energy assessment programs need to be developed for determining the inside air temperature, so that thermal comfort of the occupant can be sustained. The internal temperatures could be calculated through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis; however, miniscule time steps (seconds and milliseconds) are used by a long-term simulation (i.e., weeks, months) that require excessive time for computing wind effects results even for high-performance personal computers. This paper examines a new method, wherein the wind effect surrounding the buildings is integrated with the external air temperature to facilitate wind simulation in building analysis over long periods. This was done with the help of an equivalent temperature (known as Tnatural), where the convection heat loss is produced in an equal capacity by this air temperature and by the built-in wind effects. Subsequently, this new external air temperature Tnatural can be used to calculate the internal air temperature. Upon inclusion of wind effects, above 90% of the results were found to be within 0–3 °C of the perceived temperatures compared to the real data (99% for insulated cavity brick (InsCB), 91% for cavity brick (CB), 93% for insulated reverse brick veneer (InsRBV) and 94% for insulated brick veneer (InsBV) modules). However, a decline of 83–88% was observed in the results after ignoring the wind effects. Hence, the presence of wind effects holds greater importance in correct simulation of the thermal performance of the modules. Moreover, the simulation time will expectedly reduce to below 1% of the original simulation time.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-11
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120237
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 238: Outdoor Thermal Comfort: Coupling
           Microclimatic Parameters with Subjective Thermal Assessment to Design
           Urban Performative Spaces

    • Authors: Mohamed H. Elnabawi, Neveen Hamza
      First page: 238
      Abstract: Thermal comfort plays a main role in encouraging people to use outdoor spaces, specifically in hot arid and humid climates. The reconciliation of climatic aspects during the urban design phase is limited in implementation, due to the need for multidisciplinary collaboration between desperate scientific fields of climatology, urban planning, and urban environmental modelling. This paper aims to create an integrated interface between the microclimate, outdoor thermal comfort, and design guidelines. The investigation combines subjective and objective approaches, including on-site field measurements, a structured questionnaire using the seven-point American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE 55) thermal sensation votes, and a correlation study of these votes and the microclimatic parameters. Pedestrian thermal comfort was then examined under six shading scenarios, addressing the form and opening of shading devices using computational fluid dynamics. Modelling is based on four dependent variables: wind velocity, ventilation flow rate, air temperature, and the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index. Findings indicate that the form and location of apertures of the shading devices were the dominant factors in achieving thermal comfort on the urban scale, and led to a reduction in air temperature and a physiological equivalent temperature of 2.3–2.4 °C. Subjective votes indicate that people who live in hot arid climates have a wider range of adaptation and tolerance to local climatic conditions Accordingly, a psychometric chart, for the case study outdoor thermal comfort was developed,
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-11
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120238
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 239: Critical Value Management Activities in
           Building Projects: A Case of Egypt

    • Authors: Ahmed Farouk Kineber, Idris Othman, Ayodeji Emmanuel Oke, Nicholas Chileshe, Badr Alsolami
      First page: 239
      Abstract: Value management (VM) is one of the principles adopted by stakeholders to manage issues in the building industry. This paper aims to examine VM diffusion between residential building entities in the Egyptian residential building industry. This research was confined to the Cairo and Giza regions, with enough residential building experience from clients, consultants, and contractors. A quantitative questionnaire survey was generated to find answers from those active in the residential building industry. The results show that although VM’s most widely practiced activities in the Egyptian construction industry are only information phase activities, professionals in Egyptian building projects agreed that all VM activities are important. The results also demonstrated that there is a significant positive correlation among VM phases. The results constitute activities for the adoption of VMs in Egypt. Its guidelines will dramatically enhance the implementation of VMs both in Egypt and in other developing countries where similar projects are conducted. Finally, this research strengthens the residential building industry’s present management by enhancing VM tools and elements to generate value for money.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-12
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120239
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 240: A New Modular Structural System for Tall
           Buildings Based on Tetrahedral Configuration

    • Authors: Giulia Angelucci, Fabrizio Mollaioli, Roberto Tardocchi
      First page: 240
      Abstract: Inspired by the high mechanical performance of diagrid structures, the minimization of material consumption on braced tubes and the expressive potency of tensegrity modular structures, this work proposes an innovative three-dimensional system for tall buildings. A new modular structural system generated from the assembly of tetrahedral units is investigated. The paper integrates insights on the architectural implications and mechanical performance of the reticular system arranged in repetitive triangular-based modules. The impact of different geometric configurations of the structural members on the economic design is also discussed and recommendations for the optimal topology are made. Guidelines for the design and analytical formula for accessing preliminary member sizes are proposed on the basis of stiffness requirements.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-14
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120240
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 241: Suitability of Seismic Isolation for
           Buildings Founded on Soft Soil. Case Study of a RC Building in Shanghai

    • Authors: Francisco López Almansa, Weng Dagen, Li Tao, Bashar Alfarah
      First page: 241
      Abstract: Base (seismic) isolation is a promising technology for seismic protection of buildings and other constructions. Nowadays, it is accepted that such a technique is efficient and reliable; however, it has two major limitations: soft foundation soil, and tall buildings. The first issue restrains the seismic isolation spreading, given that soft soil is frequent in densely populated areas, and usually such a soil type concentrates the highest seismicity levels. This paper aims to contribute to demonstrating that base isolation, if properly implemented, can be suitable for soft soil. A representative case study is analyzed: a 6-story reinforced concrete (RC) building with base isolation that has recently been built in Shanghai. Since the building is founded on soft soil, concern regarding base isolation suitability arose; even the Chinese design code does not recommend this solution for soft soil. To clarify this issue, non-linear time-history analyses are carried out for a number of natural and artificial seismic inputs that represent the site seismicity; the superstructure behavior is linear, while nonlinearities are concentrated in the isolation layer. The adequacy of base isolation is assessed in the superstructure (in terms of reduction of interstory drift, absolute acceleration and shear force) and in the isolation layer (in terms of axial force, torsion angle and shear strain). The relevance of soil–structure interaction is discussed. The behavior when the mechanical parameters of the isolation units have experienced important changes is also analyzed. The major conclusion is that base isolation of ordinary mid-height RC buildings founded on soft soil can perform satisfactorily in medium seismicity regions.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-14
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120241
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 242: Creative Decision-Making Processes in
           Parametric Design

    • Authors: Ju Hyun Lee, Michael J. Ostwald
      First page: 242
      Abstract: Decision-making in design is a cognitive process wherein alternatives are generated and evaluated, potentially enabling a more creative design process. In recent years parametric design’s heightened capacity for automatically generating and evaluating options has been celebrated by researchers and designers, but it has also placed an increased emphasis on decision-making activities which have not previously been studied in this context. This paper conducts the first in-depth protocol analysis of the decision-making process (DMP) in parametric design. Using empirical data, it identifies three parametric DMPs at the conceptual design stage: (i) “conclusive” DMP, (ii) “confirmative” DMP, and (iii) “simulative” DMP. The results of this research indicate that while conclusive DMP generates and evaluates design alternatives, its “forward incrementation” approach has only limited potential for creativity. The confirmative DMP develops three creative operation loops in parametric design, suggesting it may be an important creative process. The simulative DMP simultaneously addresses divergent and convergent thinking, also indicating potential creative operations and outcomes. The identification and analysis of these DMPs contributes to developing new knowledge about the processes used in parametric design and their capacity to support creative results.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120242
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 243: Seismic Acceleration and Displacement
           Demand Profiles of Non-Structural Elements in Hospital Buildings

    • Authors: Giammaria Gabbianelli, Daniele Perrone, Emanuele Brunesi, Ricardo Monteiro
      First page: 243
      Abstract: The importance of non-structural elements in performance-based seismic design of buildings is presently widely recognized. These elements may significantly affect the functionality of buildings even for low seismic intensities, in particular for the case of critical facilities, such as hospital buildings. One of the most important issues to deal with in the seismic performance assessment of non-structural elements is the definition of the seismic demand. This paper investigates the seismic demand to which the non-structural elements of a case-study hospital building located in a medium–high seismicity region in Italy, are prone. The seismic demand is evaluated for two seismic intensities that correspond to the definition of serviceability limit states, according to Italian and European design and assessment guidelines. Peak floor accelerations, interstorey drifts, absolute acceleration, and relative displacement floor response spectra are estimated through nonlinear time–history analyses. The absolute acceleration floor response spectra are then compared with those obtained from simplified code formulations, highlighting the main shortcomings surrounding the practical application of performance-based seismic design of non-structural elements. The absolute acceleration floor response spectra are then compared with those obtained from simplified code formulations. The results, both in terms of absolute acceleration and relative displacement floor response spectra, highlighted the influence of the higher modes of the structure and the inaccuracy of the code provisions, pointing out the need for more accurate simplified methodologies for the practical application of performance-based seismic design of non-structural elements.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120243
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 244: Development of Simulation Model for Proper
           Sales Price of Apartment House in Seoul

    • Authors: Kihyuk Kim, Jiyeong Yun, Sungjin Kim, Dae Young Kim, Donghoon Lee
      First page: 244
      Abstract: The number of new homes built in China in 2014 doubled compared to 2004, while Korea has built more than 3000 units every year since 2004 and Japan has built more than 6000 new units. Apartments account for 60% of homes in Korea, so it is anticipated that apartment construction projects will not cease in Korea. The current company assumes that the sale rate (pre-sale rate) of apartments may be completely controlled by the pre-sale prices. The study calculated appropriate pre-sale prices to maximize the revenue of companies based on that assumption. For that purpose, the study identified the factors affecting the pre-sale prices and analyzed its correlation with the pre-sale prices based on the apartments located in Seoul, Korea. As a result of the analysis, it was found that the pre-sale prices of apartments are correlated with the number of apartment complexes, local rates, and local development level. The final result of the study suggested a way to calculate the sale prices using the factors that are thought to be correlated with the pre-sale prices. A simulation model was created using the method. When tested, it yielded an average deviation rate of 10.32%. The current study will contribute to preventing the economic losses that may be caused by apartment construction projects.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-16
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120244
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 245: 3D Concrete Printing Sustainability: A
           Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Four Construction Method Scenarios

    • Authors: Malek Mohammad, Eyad Masad, Sami G. Al-Ghamdi
      First page: 245
      Abstract: Three-dimensional concrete printing (3DCP) has become recognized as a possible alternative to conventional concrete construction, mainly due to its potential to increase productivity and reduce the environmental impact of the construction industry. Despite its up-and-coming popularity within the field, limited research has quantitively investigated the environmental benefits that 3DCP brings. This paper investigates the environmental tradeoff of utilizing 3DCP over conventional construction by conducting a detailed cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) study of four case-scenarios (conventional concrete construction, 3DCP with reinforcement elements, 3DCP without any reinforcement, and 3DCP without any reinforcement and utilizing a lightweight printable concrete material.) These case-scenarios were carefully selected to quantify the environmental impact of 3DCP while emphasizing the importance of the material composition. The LCA was conducted for a 1 m2 external load-bearing wall in all four scenarios. The LCA analysis showed that 3DCP significantly reduced environmental effects in terms of global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), smog formation potential (SFP), and fossil fuel depletion (FFD), as compared to conventional construction methods. However, these environmental improvements diminished when 3DCP was coupled with the use of conventional reinforcement elements. Moreover, the use of an alternative concrete mixture in 3DCP showed a further decrease in the GWP, AP, EP, and FFD impact. Ultimately, the findings in this paper support the advantages of 3DCP technology and recommend the investigation of the development of (i) sustainable printable concrete materials and (ii) novel reinforcement techniques that are suitable for 3DCP rather than adopting conventional reinforcement techniques.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-17
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120245
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 246: Seismic Design of Grana Cheese Cold-Formed
           Steel Racks

    • Authors: Claudio Bernuzzi, Marco Simoncelli
      First page: 246
      Abstract: Since few years ago only one typology of racks was used to store Grana cheese wheels for aging, which was designed focusing on the sole static behavior. Battened steel columns made by vertical tubes welded to horizontal angles were connected by means of wood boards supporting the wheels. In 2012, a strong earthquake occurred in Emilia Romagna (Italy) and a great number of these structures collapsed owing to the absence of checks for resistance against earthquakes. This catastrophic event plus the need to maximize the structural efficiency led to the development of a new typology of rack systems based on the use of cold-formed steel members. Owing to an extremely limited state-of-the-art on these modern cheese rack, design is carried out in agreement with the standard provisions calibrated and proposed for adjustable pallet racks, despite the non-negligible differences between these structural systems. The paper is focused on the comparison between the available seismic design approaches for cheese rack in order to highlight their main advantages and limits. In particular, among the four design approaches admitted in the European standards, the modal response spectrum analysis (MRSA) and the nonlinear time-history (NLTH) have been considered and the associated results compared in terms of maximum safety index of the members, global displacements and interstorey drifts. Research outcomes stress the differences associated with the considered approaches in terms of expected performance underlining the importance of an accurate definition of the behavior (q-) factor.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-18
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120246
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 247: Seismic Vulnerability of Masonry
           Lighthouses: A Study of the Bengut Lighthouse, Dellys, Boumerdès, Algeria

    • Authors: Karima Amari, Amina Abdessemed Foufa, Mustapha Cheikh Zouaoui, Giuseppina Uva
      First page: 247
      Abstract: In Algeria, lighthouses are an essential element of the maritime landscape and constitute a substantial part of the local historical and cultural heritage, marked by a great variety of styles, architecture, geometrical forms, and materials. The study presented falls into the general context of pre- and post-seismic conservation of Algerian lighthouses, since all these stone masonry buildings are situated in areas characterized by a medium–high seismic hazard. In the paper, a relevant example has been analyzed: the Bengut Lighthouse, which has been classified as “National Heritage” by the Algerian Ministry of Culture and has been severely damaged by the Boumerdès that occurred on 21 May 2003. After an overview of historical lighthouses in Algeria and their morpho-typological classification, the case study of the lighthouse at Cap Bengut is presented, showing the results of a detailed survey of the geometric and constructive features and of the actual cracking and damage pattern. First, based on the critical analysis of this knowledge framework, a preliminary qualitative evaluation of the seismic vulnerability has been made, analyzing and classifying the set of local and global failure modes coherently with the observed structural pathologies and damages. Then, numerical modeling has been implemented in TreMuri computer code, performing a set of pushover analyses. This allowed the investigation of the criticalities in the response of the building to seismic actions, characterization of the dynamic behavior, and comparison with the actual observed damages, which are discussed, providing an interpretation of the global and local failure modes. Based on the results of the visual assessment and numerical analysis, guidelines for the retrofitting intervention have been proposed, by considering, on the one hand, the objective of effectively mitigating the elements of vulnerability pointed out by the results and, on the other, the main principles of conservation and restoration. The presented study and its results, in perspective, are intended to provide a basis for developing risk and vulnerability analysis of typological classes of historical lighthouses at a large scale.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-18
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120247
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 248: Influence of the Cross-Sectional Shape of a
           Reinforced Bimodular Beam on the Stress-Strain State in a Transverse

    • Authors: Alexey Beskopylny, Elena Kadomtseva, Besarion Meskhi, Grigory Strelnikov, Oleg Polushkin
      First page: 248
      Abstract: The paper considers the stress-strain state of a reinforced concrete beam, as a bimodular material, under the action of an impact. The behavior of bimodular concretes with different moduli of elasticity in tension and compression has not been studied enough. At the same time, taking into account the bimodularity of concrete makes it possible to design a more economical structure, especially for dynamic load. In this article, the impact is considered as an absolutely plastic impact of an absolutely rigid body on an elastic system. The stress state is investigated for beams of rectangular, T-section and I-sections, and is compared with and without the bimodularity of reinforced concrete. The analysis of the dependence of the stress state on the shape, cross-sectional dimensions, and the location of reinforcing bars in the compressed and tensioned zones was carried out for lightweight concrete (Et < Ec) and for heavy concrete (Et > Ec) under the action of shock load with and without regard to the mass of the beam. The numerical study shows that taking into account the mass of the beam upon impact significantly decreases the magnitude of the normal stresses in both the tensioned and compressed zones. Beams of rectangular cross-section have the highest load-bearing capacity when the cross-section height is equal for both light and heavy concrete. An increase in the size of the flange of the I-beam in the stretched zone leads to a sharp decrease in normal tensile stresses and a slight increase in normal compressive stresses. The proposed engineering method makes it possible to numerically study the effect on the stress-strain state of a beam under the action of a concentrated impact of various geometric characteristics of the cross-section, bimodularity of the material, size, number and location of reinforcement.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-18
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120248
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 249: The Impacts of Symmetry in Architecture and
           Urbanism: Toward a New Research Agenda

    • Authors: Michael W. Mehaffy
      First page: 249
      Abstract: Architecture has an ancient relationship to mathematics, and symmetry—in the broad sense of the term—is a core topic of both. Yet the contemporary application of theories of symmetry to architecture and built environments is a surprisingly immature area of research. At the same time, research is showing a divergence between the benefits of and preferences for natural environments on the one hand, and built environments on the other, demonstrating relatively deleterious effects of many contemporary built environments. Yet the research cannot yet pinpoint the actual geometric factors of architecture and urbanism that could produce such an important divergence. This paper explores this research gap, surveying the literature across a range of fields, and assessing current evidence for the impacts of symmetry in the built environment upon human perception and well-being. As an emerging case study, it considers the recent work by Christopher Alexander and Nikos Salingaros, two trained mathematicians who have made notable contributions to architecture and urbanism. The conclusion proposes a new research agenda toward further development of this immature subject area.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-19
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120249
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 250: Evaluation of the Impact of the Envelope
           System on Thermal Energy Demand in Hospital Buildings

    • Authors: Jiménez Mejía, Barbero-Barrera, Rodríguez Pérez
      First page: 250
      Abstract: Construction materials and systems for the thermal building envelope have played a key role in the improvement of energy efficiency in buildings. Urban heat islands together with the upcoming rising global temperature demand construction solutions that are adapted to the specific microclimate conditions. These circumstances are even more dramatic in the case of healthcare buildings where the need to preserve constant indoor temperatures is a priority for the proper recovery of patients. A new neonatal hospital, located in Madrid (Spain), has been monitored, and building energy simulations were performed to evaluate the effect of the building envelope on the energy demand. Based on the simulation results, the design of the building envelope was found to be insufficiently optimised to properly protect the building from the external heat flow. This is supported by the monitored results of the indoor temperatures, which went over the standard limit for about 50% of the hours, achieving up to 27 °C in June and July, and 28 °C in August. The results showed, on one hand, that solar radiation gains transmitted through the façade have an important impact on the indoor temperature in the analysed rooms. Heat gains through the opaque envelope showed an average of 8.37 kWh/day, followed by heat gains through the glazing with an average value of 5.29 kWh/day; while heat gains from lighting and occupancy were 5.21 kWh/day and 4.47 kWh/day, respectively. Moreover, it was shown that a design of the envelope characterised by large glass surfaces and without solar protection systems, resulted in excessive internal thermal loads that the conditioning system was not able to overcome.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-19
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120250
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 251: An Integrated Organizational System for
           Project Source Selection in the Major Iranian Construction Companies

    • Authors: Amir Faraji, Maria Rashidi, Ehsan Sorooshnia
      First page: 251
      Abstract: Studies show that procurement management and its processes strongly affect project success in the construction industry, because the project-oriented organizations in the construction industry prefer to buy goods and services from outside the project team and benefit from outsourcing. Hence, these organizations are continually facing different levels of procurement processes, and the establishment of a robust outsourcing system is crucial for success of their projects and development of their businesses. On the other hand, the housing projects are considered a significant sector of the construction industry in terms of the number of projects and the impact on the national economy. Traditionally, the key sources in conventional housing projects are the general contractors, the consultants and the suppliers. In this study, essential elements of an organizational system have been investigated by expert opinions and through the Delphi method, and all effective aspects of the source selection problem have been identified and integrated. Based on the research findings, procurement of housing construction projects should be organized in three organizational levels: development of the long list, preparation of the short list and selection of the most appropriate source by focusing on four main elements of the source identification method, criteria definition, evaluation arrangement and assessment model.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-21
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10120251
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 192: A Critical Appraisal of PV-Systems’

    • Authors: Usman, Tah, Abanda, Nche
      First page: 192
      Abstract: Climate change and global warming have triggered a global increase in the use of renewable energy for various purposes. In recent years, the photovoltaic (PV)-system has become one of the most popular renewable energy technologies that captures solar energy for different applications. Despite its popularity, its adoption is still facing enormous challenges, especially in developing countries. Experience from research and practice has revealed that installed PV-systems significantly underperform. This has been one of the major barriers to PV-system adoption, yet it has received very little attention. The poor performance of installed PV-systems means they do not generate the required electric energy output they have been designed to produce. Performance assessment parameters such as performance yields and performance ratio (PR) help to provide mathematical accounts of the expected energy output of PV-systems. Many reasons have been advanced for the disparity in the performance of PV-systems. This study aims to analyze the factors that affect the performance of installed PV-systems, such as geographical location, solar irradiance, dust, and shading. Other factors such as multiplicity of PV-system components in the market and the complexity of the permutations of these components, their types, efficiencies, and their different performance indicators are poorly understood, thus making it difficult to optimize the efficiency of the system as a whole. Furthermore, mathematical computations are presented to prove that the different design methods often used for the design of PV-systems lead to results with significant differences due to different assumptions often made early on. The methods for the design of PV-systems are critically appraised. There is a paucity of literature about the different methods of designing PV-systems, their disparities, and the outcomes of each method. The rationale behind this review is to analyze the variations in designs and offer far-reaching recommendations for future studies so that researchers can come up with more standardized design approaches.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-10-23
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10110192
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 193: Monitoring of Structural Safety of
           Buildings Using Wireless Network of MEMS Sensors

    • Authors: Jacek Zabielski, Piotr Srokosz
      First page: 193
      Abstract: The 21st century abounds in modern electronic-information technologies, which are applied in many areas of life. Amongst many modern technologies there is also the Internet of Things (IoT) that is the concept of incorporating objects and devices equipped with a communication interface into the telecommunication and IT networks. This particular feature makes IoT a paradigm that can be successfully applied to measurement systems used in research in civil engineering, especially using a wireless sensor network deployed in scattered research locations. In turn, technological progress in the miniaturization of sensors and controllers allows the construction of very efficient and low-cost systems for monitoring the physical parameters of buildings, which are safety indicators. The main purpose of this paper is to present the concept of wireless network of MEMS-based sensors with particular emphasis on its application in monitoring of structural safety including the author’s own system based on Long Range (LoRa) technology. The exact novelty of the proposed concept is the synergistic synthesis of solutions in the field of electronics, micromechanics and computer science, applied for civil engineering purposes. The system consists of MEMS accelerometers based on MPU6050 chips and A1302 Hall-effect sensors supported by AVR microcontrollers and LoRa transceivers based on RF98 chips operating at 433 MHz. The prototype of the measuring network was installed in a selected university building in which structural discontinuities (wall cracks) were noted. Sample results of measurements of the impact of service loads on the building structure behavior were presented in the form of accelerograms.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-10-23
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10110193
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 194: A Novel Contribution for Resilient
           Buildings. Theoretical Fragility Curves: Interaction between Energy and
           Structural Behavior for Reinforced Concrete Buildings

    • Authors: Alessandra De Angelis, Fabrizio Ascione, Rosa Francesca De Masi, Maria Rosaria Pecce, Giuseppe Peter Vanoli
      First page: 194
      Abstract: The paper introduces a new semi-probabilistic methodology for the definition of energy fragility curves suitable for a macro-classification of building stock inspired to and coupled with the widely adopted method of seismic fragility curves. The approach is applied to the reinforced concrete residential buildings of the Italian stock. Starting from a classification according to the climatic zone and the construction period, some reference buildings in terms of building envelope typologies have been defined and simulated by means of dynamic modeling tools. Then, cumulative distributions of the probability that the primary energy consumption for heating was comparable with certain threshold values are defined according to the climatic conditions expressed with the heating degree days, which constitute the intensity measure for the fragility curves. Finally, by focusing on the interaction points between structural and energetic aspects, it is shown how these curves can be useful for decision-makers with regards to definition of importance and or the level of intervention to be made to the building envelope for improving its seismic safety and the energy quality. Indeed, non-integrated interventions are more expensive and less efficient.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-10-27
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10110194
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 195: Adjustment of Multiple Variables for
           Optimal Control of Building Energy Performance via a Genetic Algorithm

    • Authors: Nam-Chul Seong, Jee-Heon Kim, Wonchang Choi
      First page: 195
      Abstract: Optimizing the operating conditions and control set points of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system in a building is one of the most effective ways to save energy and improve the building’s energy performance. Here, we optimized different control variables using a genetic algorithm. We constructed and evaluated three optimal control scenarios (cases) to compare the energy savings of each by varying the setting and number and type of the optimized control variables. Case 1 used only air-side control variables and achieved an energy savings rate of about 5.72%; case 2 used only water-side control variables and achieved an energy savings rate of 16.98%; and case 3, which combined all the control variables, achieved 25.14% energy savings. The energy savings percentages differed depending on the setting and type of the control variables. The results show that, when multiple control set points are optimized simultaneously in an HVAC system, the energy savings efficiency becomes more effective. It was also confirmed that the control characteristics and energy saving rate change depending on the location and number of control variables when optimizing using the same algorithm.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-10-29
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10110195
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 196: Multiscale Numerical Analysis of
           TRM-Reinforced Masonry under Diagonal Compression Tests

    • Authors: Gulinelli, Aprile, Rizzoni, Grunevald, Lebon
      First page: 196
      Abstract: The present paper reports an experimental study coupled with a numerical modelling approach to simulate masonry walls strengthened with textile-reinforced mortar (TRM). This innovative reinforcing technique is based on high-strength fibre grids embedded into inorganic matrices, and it has recently been promoted for the seismic retrofitting of historical masonry buildings. In the experimental campaign presented here, two different commercial TRM systems are applied to single-leaf clay masonry panels. The specimens are then subjected to diagonal compression tests in order to evaluate the effects of TRM on the structural performance. The proposed finite element (FE) model, based on an original multiscale approach, is employed to simulate the diagonal compression tests. The numerical results show a very good agreement with the experimental data, including in terms of failure mode. In particular, the approach reproduces the macroscopic behaviour of the masonry panels as regards the force-displacement response, and it allows for the possibility of simulating bed joint sliding and TRM layer debonding.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10110196
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 197: On the Distribution in Height of Base Shear
           Forces in Linear Static Analysis of Base-Isolated Structures

    • Authors: Adamo Zinco, Fernando Fraternali, Gianmario Benzoni, Enzo Martinelli
      First page: 197
      Abstract: Although base isolation is nowadays a well-established seismic-protection technique for both buildings and bridges, and several issues are still open and attract the interest of the research community. Among them, the formulation of computationally efficient and accurate analysis methods is a relevant aspect in structural design of seismic-isolated buildings. In fact, codes and guidelines currently in force in various parts of the world generally include the possibility for designers to utilize linear-elastic analysis methods based on equivalent linearization of the non-linear force-displacement response of isolators. This paper proposes a formula for defining the force distribution in height that should be considered in linear-static analyses to obtain a more accurate approximation of the actual structural response, supposedly simulated by means of non-linear time history analysis. To do that, it summarizes the results of a wide parametric analysis carried out on a batch of structures characterized by three different heights and various properties of base isolators. The reported results highlight that the equivalent static force distribution provided by both Italian and European codes tend to underestimate the actual seismic lateral forces acting on base-isolated buildings, whereas the inverted triangular distribution, proposed in various American codes and standards, is often conservative.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10110197
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 198: Modeling of Building Energy Consumption by
           Integrating Regression Analysis and Artificial Neural Network with Data

    • Authors: Iffat Ridwana, Nabil Nassif, Wonchang Choi
      First page: 198
      Abstract: With the constant expansion of the building sector as a major energy consumer in the modern world, the significance of energy-efficient building systems cannot be more emphasized. Most of the buildings are now equipped with an electric dashboard to record consumption data which presents a significant scope of research by utilizing those data in energy modeling. This paper investigates conventional regression modeling in building energy estimation and proposes three models with data classifications to improve their performance. The proposed models are regression models and an artificial neural network model with data classification for predicting hourly or sub-hourly energy usage in four different buildings. Energy data is collected from a building energy simulation program and existing buildings to develop the models for detailed analysis. Data classification is recommended according to the system operating schedules of the buildings and models are tested for their performance in capturing the data trends resulting from those schedules. Proposed regression models and an ANN model with the recommended classification show very accurate results in estimating energy demand compared to conventional regression models. Correlation coefficient and root mean squared error values improve noticeably for the proposed models and they can potentially be utilized for energy conservation purposes and energy savings in the buildings.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10110198
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 199: Methodology for Continuous Improvement
           Projects in Housing Constructions

    • Authors: Patricia del Solar Serrano, Mercedes del Río Merino, Paola Villoria Sáez
      First page: 199
      Abstract: Several authors have studied construction defects, but no studies were found implementing best practices and control strategies through the implementation of continuous improvement projects. This article shows a procedure based on Continuous Improvement Projects, which can be used in building constructions, and it is structured into four phases: Plan, Do, Check, Act, following the PDCA Quality Cycle. In addition, the method developed was specified for ceramic tiling execution and was further implemented in three building projects of Spain. The results obtained concluded that the proposed Procedure can be used by construction professionals who are concerned about improving the quality of construction. In addition, the implementation of the Procedure managed to reduce around 45% the costs derived from the defects caused during the ceramic tiling execution, due to the best practices incorporated in the Procedure. A slight increase in the number of defects was also found, motivated by the thorough inspection conducted when the Procedure was applied. Therefore, the Procedure (incorporating the lessons learned) must be implemented so that by learning, gaining experience, and incorporating best practices, the goal of zero defects can be achieved.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10110199
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 200: Upgrading the Smartness of Retrofitting
           Packages Towards Energy-Efficient Residential Buildings in Cold Climate
           Countries: Two Case Studies

    • Authors: Laurina C. Felius, Mohamed Hamdy, Fredrik Dessen, Bozena Dorota Hrynyszyn
      First page: 200
      Abstract: Improving the energy efficiency of existing buildings by implementing building automation control strategies (BACS) besides building envelope and energy system retrofitting has been recommended by the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) 2018. This paper investigated this recommendation by conducting a simulation-based optimization to explore cost-effective retrofitting combinations of building envelope, energy systems and BACS measures in-line with automation standard EN 15232. Two cases (i.e., a typical single-family house and apartment block) were modeled and simulated using IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA-ICE). The built-in optimization tool, GenOpt, was used to minimize energy consumption as the single objective function. The associated difference in life cycle cost, compared to the reference design, was calculated for each optimization iteration. Thermal comfort of the optimized solutions was assessed to verify the thermal comfort acceptability. Installing an air source heat pump had a greater energy-saving potential than reducing heat losses through the building envelope. Implementing BACS achieved cost-effective energy savings up to 24%. Energy savings up to 57% were estimated when BACS was combined with the other retrofitting measures. Particularly for compact buildings, where the potential of reducing heat losses through the envelope is limited, the impact of BACS increased. BACS also improved the thermal comfort.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10110200
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 201: Architectural Design Exploration Using
           Generative Design: Framework Development and Case Study of a Residential

    • Authors: Jani Mukkavaara, Marcus Sandberg
      First page: 201
      Abstract: The use of generative design has been suggested to be a novel approach that allows designers to take advantage of computers’ computational capabilities in the exploration of design alternatives. However, the field is still sparsely explored. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the potential use of generative design in an architectural design context. A framework was iteratively developed alongside a prototype, which was eventually demonstrated in a case study to evaluate its applicability. The development of a residential block in the northern parts of Sweden served as the case. The findings of this study further highlight the potential of generative design and its promise in an architectural context. Compared to previous studies, the presented framework is open to other generative algorithms than mainly genetic algorithms and other evaluation models than, for instance, energy performance models. The paper also presents a general technical view on the functionality of the generative design system, as well as elaborating on how to explore the solution space in a top-down fashion. This paper moves the field of generative design further by presenting a generic framework for architectural design exploration. Future research needs to focus on detailing how generative design should be applied and when in the design process.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10110201
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 202: Effects of Dissipative Systems on the
           Seismic Behavior of Irregular Buildings—Two Case Studies

    • Authors: Marco Miani, Caterina Di Marco, Giada Frappa, Margherita Pauletta
      First page: 202
      Abstract: Conservation of heritage buildings has become a very important issue in many countries, as it is in Italy, where a great number of existing buildings of historical–artistic importance are seismically vulnerable. To improve existing building behavior, researchers focus on the design of retrofit interventions. This paper presents the application of energy dissipation devices in the retrofit of two existing Reinforced Concrete (RC) buildings, both irregular in plan and along their heights, designed for gravitational loads only. These buildings are representative of Italian public housing built in the 1960s and early 1970s. Technical information and mechanical properties of materials are presented, and non-linear analyses are carried out to evaluate the buildings’ behavior under earthquake loads. Many of their structural members do not satisfy the verifications required by the Italian Building Code. Retrofit interventions with buckling-restrained axial dampers in one building and viscous fluid dampers in the other are proposed. The verifications of the retrofitted buildings and the amount of the energy absorbed by the devices with respect to that absorbed by the unretrofitted buildings show the effectiveness of the proposed interventions. Moreover, it is demonstrated that adequate dispositions of the dissipative devices in plan and along the height increase the torsional stiffness of the buildings, improving their structural response under seismic action.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10110202
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 203: Seismic Upgrading of RC Wide Beam–Column
           Joints Using Steel Jackets

    • Authors: Giuseppe Santarsiero, Angelo Masi
      First page: 203
      Abstract: This study is devoted to experimentally investigate the seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) wide beam–column joints equipped with a steel jacketing seismic strengthening solution. To this end, three identical full-scale specimens have been tested under cyclic loading, one in the as-built condition and two after the application of the strengthening solutions. Details of selected solutions are described in the paper along with the experimental results which confirm how the application of simple and feasible steel interventions can effectively improve the seismic capacity of wide beam–column connections in RC frames, especially in terms of lateral load carrying capacity and energy dissipation.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10110203
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 204: A Systematic Review of Digital Technology
           Adoption in Off-Site Construction: Current Status and Future Direction
           towards Industry 4.0

    • Authors: Mudan Wang, Cynthia Changxin Wang, Samad Sepasgozar, Sisi Zlatanova
      First page: 204
      Abstract: Off-site construction (OSC) is known as an efficient construction method that could save time and cost, reduce waste of resources, and improve the overall productivity of projects. Coupled with digital technologies associated with the Industry 4.0 concept, OSC can offer a higher rate of productivity and safety. While there is a rich literature focusing on both OSC and Industry 4.0, the implementation of associated digital technologies in the OSC context has not been fully evaluated. This paper intends to evaluate the current literature of digital technology applications in OSC. Scientometric analyses and a systematic review were carried out evaluating fifteen typical digital technologies adopted by OSC projects, including building information modelling (BIM), radio frequency identification devices (RFID), global positioning systems (GPS), the Internet of Things (IoT), geographic information systems (GIS), sensors, augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), photogrammetry, laser scanning, artificial intelligence (AI), 3D printing, robotics, big data, and blockchain. This review formulates a clear picture of the current practice of these digital technologies and summarizes the main area of application and limitations of each technology when utilized in OSC. The review also points out their potential and how they can be better adopted to improve OSC practice in the future.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-13
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10110204
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 205: Waste Incineration Heat and Seasonal
           Thermal Energy Storage for Promoting Economically Optimal Net-Zero Energy
           Districts in Finland

    • Authors: Janne Hirvonen, Risto Kosonen
      First page: 205
      Abstract: In countries with high heating demand, waste heat from industrial processes should be carefully utilized in buildings. Finland already has an extensive district heating grid and large amounts of combined heat and power generation. However, despite the average climate, there is little use for excess heat in summer. Waste incineration plants need to be running regardless of weather, so long-term storage of heat requires consideration. However, no seasonal energy storage systems are currently in operation in connection with Finnish waste incineration plants. This study used dynamic energy simulation performed with the TRNSYS 17 software to analyze the case of utilizing excess heat from waste incineration to supplement conventional district heating of a new residential area. Seasonal energy storage was utilized through a borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) system. Parametric runs using 36 different storage configurations were performed to find out the cost and performance range of such plans. Annual energy storage efficiencies from 48% to 69% were obtained for the BTES. Waste heat could generate 37–89% of the annual heat demand. Cost estimations of waste heat storage using BTES are not available in the literature. As an important finding in this study, a levelized cost of heat of 10.5–23.5 €/MWh was obtained for various BTES configurations used for incineration waste heat storage. In the three most effective cases, the stored heat reduced annual CO2 emissions of the residential area by 42%, 64% and 86%. Thus, the solution shows great potential for reducing carbon emissions of district heating in grids connected to waste incineration plants.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10110205
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 206: Optimising Window Design on Residential
           Building Facades by Considering Heat Transfer and Natural Lighting in
           Nontropical Regions of Australia

    • Authors: Zixuan Chen, Ahmed W A Hammad, Imriyas Kamardeen, Assed Haddad
      First page: 206
      Abstract: Windows account for a significant proportion of the total energy lost in buildings. The interaction of window type, Window-to-Wall Ratio (WWR) scheduled and window placement height influence natural lighting and heat transfer through windows. This is a pressing issue for nontropical regions considering their high emissions and distinct climatic characteristics. A limitation exists in the adoption of common simulation-based optimisation approaches in the literature, which are hardly accessible to practitioners. This article develops a numerical-based window design optimisation model using a common Building Information Modelling (BIM) platform adopted throughout the industry, focusing on nontropical regions of Australia. Three objective functions are proposed; the first objective is to maximise the available daylight, and the other two emphasize undesirable heat transfer through windows in summer and winter. The developed model is tested on a case study located in Sydney, Australia, and a set of Pareto-optimum solutions is obtained. Through the use of the proposed model, energy savings of up to 8.57% are achieved.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10110206
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 207: A Construct Validation Approach for
           Exploring Sustainability Adoption in Pakistani Construction Projects

    • Authors: Mehfooz Ullah, Muhammad Waris Ali Khan, Ammar Hussain, Faisal Rana, Asadullah Khan
      First page: 207
      Abstract: Sustainable Project Management (SPM) is a novel theme in construction industries of developing countries and very little is known (so far) about the sustainability performance of construction projects in those settings. Accordingly, the quantitative measurement of SPM as a higher-order construct is not well established and lacks a holistic approach and homogenous taxonomy of indicators. This study explores the SPM practices of construction firms by validating SPM as a second-order construct in the Pakistani construction industry. Data were obtained from 146 construction firms, which were then analyzed using partial least square structure equation modeling. Results of the first and second level measurement model assessments showed that construction firms practice SPM, with varying degrees of attention paid to three sustainability aspects. Environmental dimension surfaced as the most important, in-terms of practice and social sustainability as least. The analysis of the second-order measurement model yielded significant results, thus, validating the higher-order structure of SPM. This study contributes to the field by presenting one of the first studies of its kind by focusing on the sustainability practices of construction firms by using a higher-order design of SPM construct within the context of developing countries.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10110207
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 208: Experimental Investigation of Novel

    • Authors: Keerthana John, Mahmud Ashraf, Matthias Weiss, Riyadh Al-Ameri
      First page: 208
      Abstract: Trapezoidal-shaped thin-walled metallic profiled sheets are used in composite floor construction to enable rapid construction and reduce reinforcement and formwork requirements in concrete casting. However, relevant literature reported the early failure of steel sections due to the buckling and shear of existing trapezoidal and re-entrant decking profiles. There are also limitations regarding design rules for composite flooring systems. Current work aims to develop a new type of composite top-hat section for possible use in composite slim-floor construction. Sinusoidal metallic corrugated sheets that are widely used in building construction were utilized and a new bending technique was used to produce deck components, in which transverse corrugations were introduced along the main direction of the corrugated profile. This paper investigates the structural response of these new sections for several loading and support conditions using a pilot experimental scheme. The developed top-hat sections demonstrated considerable resistance to bending as well as buckling through effective stress re-distributions under considered construction stage loading for single span and continuous span conditions. Currently available design equations recommended by Australian Standards for a similar type of corrugated decks were used to predict the design strength and to compare it with those obtained experimentally. It was concluded that the expressions proposed by the code were inadequate for single span loading cases and would require modifications before being applied to the new profile.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10110208
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 209: The Role of Façades in Solar Energy

    • Authors: Valéria V. Horn, Annamária Dudás, Anita Terjék
      First page: 209
      Abstract: During the summer, the environmental impact of building operations can be reduced by optimizing ventilation and preventing heat from entering the building. Shades are used to create a comfortable temperature state in interiors without operating mechanical equipment or using low-power systems. The most significant factor in reducing energy consumption would be if the spatial delimitation of buildings utilizes solar energy in a passive or active way. At the same time, limiting the energy entering through windows reduces the temperature of interiors and the amount of energy used for cooling; thus, the phenomenon of the urban heat island would be less exacerbated. In the case of existing historical buildings, there are limited possibilities to reduce the energy consumption of the building and to protect the buildings against excessive summer heating, especially in connection with the structural appearance of the doors and windows on the façade. This paper presents the preparation of a large-scale reconstruction project based on a newly developed combined window that can significantly reduce indoor summer overheating. Designing steps of the complex retrofitting of a traditional box-type window are highlighted based on the results of closely connected literature pertaining to thermal, ventilation, shading, and acoustical phenomena. The result is a detailed structural and technological design of the reconstruction for the historical window in a combined way, as the frame, glazing, ventilation, and shading are simultaneously developed and calculated approximately; moreover, active shading is integrated. One aim of this desktop study was to demonstrate that in the case of historical buildings, it is possible and necessary to reduce heat losses during the heating season and to minimize the risk of summer overheating, and to show that the surface of the façade could be converted into an energy producer.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10110209
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 210: Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Existing RC
           School Buildings: The “P3” School Typology

    • Authors: João M.C. Estêvão, Carlos Esteves
      First page: 210
      Abstract: The seismic assessment of existing school buildings is an important issue in earthquake prone regions; such is the case of the Algarve, which is the southern region of Portugal mainland. Having this problem in mind, the PERSISTAH project (Projetos de Escolas Resilientes aos SISmos no Território do Algarve e de Huelva, in Portuguese) aimed to develop a computational approach enabling the damage evaluation of a large number of individual school buildings. One of the school typologies assessed was the so-called “P3” schools. This typology is composed of several different modules that are combined in different manners depending on the number of students. Each module was built in accordance with architectural standardised designs. For this reason, there are many replicas of these modules all over the Algarve region. The structural system of each module is composed of a frame of reinforced concrete (RC) elements. Nonlinear static seismic analysis procedures were adopted to evaluate the structural seismic behaviour, namely by using the new concept of performance curve. Based on the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that the seismic safety of this type of school building is mainly ruled by the shear capacity of the columns. This study also shows the difficulties of carrying out accurate seismic assessments of existing buildings using the methods of analysis that are established in the Eurocode 8.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10110210
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 211: Enhanced Seismic Retrofit of a Reinforced
           Concrete Building of Architectural Interest

    • Authors: Gloria Terenzi, Elena Fuso, Stefano Sorace, Iacopo Costoli
      First page: 211
      Abstract: Modern heritage buildings designed in the 1950s and 1960s often feature poor seismic performance capacities and may require significant retrofit interventions. A representative case study in Florence, i.e., the edifice housing the Automobile Club Headquarters, is examined here. The building was designed in 1959 with an articulated reinforced concrete structure and presents some enterprising solutions for the time, including suspended floors accommodating large glazed curtain wall façades in the main halls. The original design documentation was collected with accurate record research and checked with detailed on-site surveys. Based on the information gained on the structural system by this preliminary investigation, a time-history assessment analysis was carried out. Remarkable strength deficiencies in most members and severe pounding conditions between the two constituting wings, which are separated by a narrow technical gap, were found. As a result, a base isolation retrofit hypothesis is proposed in order to improve the seismic response capacities of the building without altering its elegant architectural appearance, being characterized by large free internal spaces and well-balanced proportions of the main structural members. A substantial performance improvement is obtained thanks to this rehabilitation strategy, as assessed by the achievement of non-pounding response conditions and safe stress states for all members up to the maximum considered normative earthquake level. Furthermore, the very low peak inter-storey drifts evaluated in retrofitted conditions help in preventing damage to the glazed façades and the remaining drift-sensitive non-structural components.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10110211
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 10, Pages 212: Effect of Support Conditions on Performance
           of Continuous Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams

    • Authors: Moustafa Mansour, Bilal El-Ariss, Tamer El-Maaddawy
      First page: 212
      Abstract: While continuous reinforced concrete deep beams with fixed and hinged support conditions are every so often found in structures, little research has focused on their performance. This, in part, can be attributed to the demanding nature of ensuring fixed supports in experimentally testing such members. Nonetheless, conducting numerical analysis in comparison with experimental study has been a typical technique for producing a reliable numerical model as an alternative to destructive tests. This paper is aimed at numerically investigating the impact of different support conditions in the performance of two-span continuous reinforced concrete deep beams. A numerical model of three experimentally tested beams with two exterior rollers and interior hinge support conditions was generated. Good comparison, with an acceptable variation between numerical and experimental results, was achieved by tuning a few parameters in the numerical model, including element type, mesh size, and material constitutive relations. The refined numerical model was used as an alternative to destructive tests to conduct a parametric study to further investigate the impact of different sets of support conditions in the performance of two-span continuous reinforced concrete deep beams. This study highlights the potentially serious consequences of the support conditions in the performance of such deep beams.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings10110212
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2020)
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