Subjects -> OCCUPATIONS AND CAREERS (Total: 33 journals)
Showing 1 - 23 of 23 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
American Journal of Pastoral Counseling     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
British Journal of Guidance & Counselling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Career Development Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Community Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Entrepreneurship Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Field Actions Science Reports     Open Access  
Formation emploi     Open Access  
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Human Resource Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Industrial and Organizational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
International Journal of Work Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Career Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Human Capital     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Human Development and Capabilities : A Multi-Disciplinary Journal for People-Centered Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Vocational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Neurocritical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Palliative & Supportive Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Performance Improvement Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Professions and Professionalism     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Recherches & éducations     Open Access  
Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trabajo : Revista de la Asociación Estatal de Centros Universitarios de Relaciones Laborales y Ciencias del Trabajo     Open Access  
Vocations and Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Work and Occupations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Work, Employment & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
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Neurocritical Care
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.311
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 17  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1556-0961 - ISSN (Online) 1541-6933
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • The Neurocritical Care Society Gender Parity Analysis in Grants and
           Recognition Awards
    • Abstract: Background Several recent studies across the field of medicine have indicated gender disparity in the reception of prestigious awards and research grants, placing women in medicine at a distinct disadvantage. Gender disparity has been observed in neurology, critical care medicine and within various professional societies. In this study, we have examined the longitudinal trends of gender parity in awards and grants within the Neurocritical Care Society (NCS). Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted of all available data longitudinally from 2004, when NCS first granted awards through 2019. We used self-identified gender in the membership roster to record gender for each individual. For individuals without recorded gender, we used a previously validated double verification method using a systematic web-based search. We collected data on six awards distributed by the NCS and divided these awards into two main categories: (1) scientific category: (a) Christine Wijman Young Investigator Award; (b) Best Scientific Award; (c) Fellowship Grant; (d) INCLINE Grant; and (2) non-scientific category: (a) Travel Grant; and (b) Presidential Citation. Available data were analyzed to evaluate longitudinal trends in awards using descriptive statistics and simple or multiple linear regression analyses, as appropriate. Results A total of 445 awards were granted between the years 2004 and 2019. Thirty-six awards were in the scientific category, while 409 awards were in the non-scientific category. Only 8% of women received NCS awards in the scientific awards category, whereas 44% of women received an award in the non-scientific category. Most notable in the scientific category are the Best Scientific Award and the Fellowship Grant, in which no woman has ever received an award to date, compared to 18 men between both awards. In contrast, women are well represented in the non-scientific awards category with an average of 5% increase per year in the number of women awardees. Conclusions Our data reveal gender disparity, mainly for scientific or research awards. Prompt evaluation of the cause and further actions to address gender disparity in NCS grants and recognition awards is needed to establish gender equity in this area.
      PubDate: 2021-01-13
  • Association of Severe Acute Kidney Injury with Mortality and Healthcare
           Utilization Following Isolated Traumatic Brain Injury
    • Abstract: Background/Objective Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and disability in the USA. While cardiopulmonary dysfunction can result in poor outcomes following severe TBI, the impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) is poorly understood. We examined the association of severe AKI with hospital mortality and healthcare utilization following isolate severe TBI. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the National Trauma Data Bank from 2007 to 2014. We identified a cohort of adult patients with isolated severe TBI and described the incidence of severe AKI, corresponding to Acute Kidney Injury Network stage 3 disease or greater. We examined the association of severe AKI with the primary outcome of hospital mortality using multivariable logistic regression models. In secondary analyses, we examined the association of severe AKI with dialysis catheter placement, tracheostomy and gastrostomy utilization, and hospital length of stay. Results There were 37,851 patients who experienced isolated severe TBI during the study period. Among these patients, 787 (2.1%) experienced severe (Stage 3 or greater) AKI. In multivariable models, the development of severe AKI in the hospital was associated with in-hospital mortality (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.64–2.52), need for tracheostomy (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.52–2.89), PEG tube placement (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.45–2.45), and increased hospital length of stay (p < 0.001). Conclusions The overall incidence of severe AKI is relatively low (2.1%), but is associated with increased mortality and multiple markers of increased healthcare utilization following severe TBI.
      PubDate: 2021-01-13
  • Association of Cerebral Oxymetry with Short-Term Outcome in Critically ill
           Children Undergoing Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
    • Abstract: Background Acute brain injury (ABI) is a frequent complication of pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) that could be detected by continuous neuromonitoring. Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows monitoring of cerebral oxygenation. Objective To assess whether an impaired cerebral oxygenation was associated with short-term outcome during pediatric ECMO. Methods We conducted a single-center retrospective study in a pediatric intensive care unit. Children under 18 years old were included if receiving veno-venous or veno-arterial ECMO with concurrent NIRS monitoring. Cerebral saturation impairment was defined as rScO2 under 50% or 20% from the baseline for desaturation, and above 80%. Cerebral imaging (magnetic resonance imaging or CT scan) was performed in case of neurological concern. A radiologist blinded for patient history identified ABI as any hemorragic or ischemic lesion, then classified as major or minor. Primary endpoint was the outcome at hospital discharge. Poor outcome was defined as death or survival with a pediatric cerebral performance category scale (PCPC) score ≥ 3 and/or a major ABI. Good outcome was defined as survival with a PCPC score ≤ 2 and/or a minor or no ABI. Secondary endpoint was mortality before PICU discharge. Results Sixty-three patients met inclusion criteria; 48 (76%) had veno-arterial ECMO. Mortality rate was 51%. Forty-eight of sixty-three patients (76%) evolved with a poor outcome, including 20 major ABI. Mean rScO2 in the right/left hemisphere was 73 ± 9%/75 ± 9%. Cerebral desaturation and decline of rScO2 below 20% from the baseline, regardless of side, were each associated with poor outcome (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR), 4 [95%CI 1.2; 15.1], p = 0.03, and 3.9 [95%CI 1.1; 14.9], p = 0.04, respectively), as well as a mean right rScO2 < 70% during the ECMO course (adjusted OR, 5.6 [95%CI 1.3; 34], p = 0.04). Left rSCO2 ≥ 80% was inversely correlated with hospital mortality (adjusted OR of 0.14 [95%CI 0.02; 0.8], p = 0.04). Conclusions Cerebral desaturation attested by NIRS was associated with a poor short-term outcome in children of all ages undergoing ECMO, and rScO2 > 80% seemed to be protective. NIRS monitoring might be included within multimodal neuromonitoring to assess the risk of the brain injury related to pediatric ECMO.
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Lactate Levels, Brain Lactate Metabolism and
           Neurologic Outcome in Patients with Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
    • Abstract: Background/Objective Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum lactate levels were assessed to predict poor neurologic outcome 3 months after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). We compared arterio-CSF differences in the lactate (ACDL) levels between two neurologic outcome groups. Methods This retrospective observational study involved out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survivors who had undergone target temperature management. CSF and serum samples were obtained immediately (lactate0), and at 24 (lactate24), 48 (lactate48), and 72 (lactate72) h after ROSC, and ACDL was calculated at each time point. The primary outcome was poor 3-month neurologic outcome (cerebral performance categories 3–5). Results Of 45 patients, 27 (60.0%) showed poor neurologic outcome. At each time point, CSF lactate levels were significantly higher in the poor neurologic outcome group than in the good neurologic outcome group (6.97 vs. 3.37, 4.20 vs. 2.10, 3.50 vs. 2.00, and 2.79 vs. 2.06, respectively; all P < 0.05). CSF lactate’s prognostic performance was higher than serum lactate at each time point, and lactate24 showed the highest AUC values (0.89, 95% confidence interval, 0.75–0.97). Over time, ACDL decreased from − 1.30 (− 2.70–0.77) to − 1.70 (− 3.2 to − 0.57) in the poor neurologic outcome group and increased from − 1.22 (− 2.42–0.32) to − 0.64 (− 2.31–0.15) in the good neurologic outcome group. Conclusions At each time point, CSF lactate showed better prognostic performance than serum lactate. CSF lactate24 showed the highest prognostic performance for 3-month poor neurologic outcome. Over time, ACDL decreased in the poor neurologic outcome group and increased in the good neurologic outcome group.
      PubDate: 2021-01-11
  • Should We Assess Diaphragmatic Function During Mechanical Ventilation
    • PubDate: 2021-01-09
  • Temporal Dynamics of ICP, CPP, PRx, and CPPopt in High-Grade Aneurysmal
           Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and the Relation to Clinical Outcome
    • Abstract: Background High intracranial pressure (ICP) and low cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) may induce secondary brain injury following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). In the current study, we aimed to determine the temporal incidence of insults above/below certain ICP/CPP thresholds, the role of pressure autoregulation in CPP management (PRx and CPPopt), and the relation to clinical outcome. Methods In this retrospective study, 242 patients were included with aSAH, who were treated in the neurointensive care unit, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden, 2008–2018, with ICP monitoring the first 10 days post-ictus. Data from ICP, pressure autoregulation (PRx), CPP, and CPPopt (the CPP with the lowest/optimal PRx) were analyzed the first 10 days. The percentage of good monitoring time (GMT) above/below various ICP and CPP thresholds was calculated, e.g., ICP > 20 mm Hg (%), CPP < 60 mm Hg (%), and ∆CPPopt (CPP–CPPopt) < − 10 mm Hg (%). Results Of the 242 patients, 63 (26%) had favorable (GOS-E 5–8) and 179 (74%) had unfavorable (GOS-E 1–4) outcome at 12 months. Higher proportion (GMT) of ICP insults above 20 mm Hg was most common the first 3 days post-ictus and was then independently associated with unfavorable outcome. CPP gradually increased throughout the 10 days post-ictus, and higher proportion of GMT with CPP < 90 mm Hg was independently associated with unfavorable outcome in the late vasospasm phase (days 6.5–10). PRx was above 0 throughout the 10 days and deteriorated in the late vasospasm phase. Higher values were then independently associated with unfavorable outcome. There was no difference in GMT of CPP deviations from CPPopt between the outcome groups. Conclusions Avoiding intracranial hypertension early and maintaining a high CPP in the vasospasm phase when the pressure autoregulation is most disturbed may improve clinical outcome after aSAH.
      PubDate: 2021-01-09
  • Andexanet Alfa Versus 4-Factor Prothrombin Complex Concentrate for
           Reversal of Factor Xa Inhibitors in Intracranial Hemorrhage
    • Abstract: Background/Objective There are limited data on the risks and benefits of using andexanet alfa (AA) in comparison with four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) to reverse factor Xa inhibitors (FXi) associated intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). We sought to describe our experience with AA or 4F-PCC in patients with oral FXi-related traumatic and spontaneous ICH. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of consecutive adult patients with FXi-related ICH who received AA or 4F-PCC. FXi-related ICH cases included traumatic and spontaneous intracranial hemorrhages. Our primary analysis evaluated ICH stability on head computed tomography scan (CT), defined as a similar amount of blood from the initial scan at the onset of ICH to subsequent scans, at 6-h and 24-h post-administration of AA or 4F-PCC. For the subset of spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhages, volume was measured at 6-h and 24-h post-reversal. In secondary analyses, we evaluated good functional outcome at discharge, defined as a Modified Rankin Score of less than 3, and the incidence of thrombotic events after AA or 4F-PCC adminstration, during hospitalization. Results A total of 44 patients (16 traumatic and 28 spontaneous ICH) with median age of 79 years [72–86], 36% females, with a FXi-related ICH, were included in this study. The majority of spontaneous ICHs were intraparenchymal 19 (68%). Twenty-eight patients (64%) received AA and 16 patients (36%) received 4F-PCC. There was no difference between AA and 4F-PCC in terms of CT stability at 6 h (21 [78%] vs 10 [71%], p = 0.71) and 24 h (15 [88%] vs 6 [60%], p = 0.15). In a subgroup of patients with spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage, there was no difference in the degree of achieved hemostasis based on hematoma volume between AA and 4F-PCC at 6 h (9.3 mL [6.9–26.4] vs 10 mL [9.4–22.1], adjusted p = 0. 997) and 24-h (9.2 mL [6.1–18.8] vs 9.9 [9.4–21.1], adjusted p = 1). The number of patients with good outcome based on mRS on discharge were 10 (36%) and 6 (38%) in the AA and 4F-PCC groups, respectively (adjusted p = 0.81). The incidence of thromboembolic events was similar in the AA and 4F-PCC groups (2 [7%] vs 0, p = 0.53). Conclusion In this limited sample of patients, we found no difference in neuroimaging stability, functional outcome and thrombotic events when comparing AA and 4F-PCC in patients with FXi-related ICH. Since our analysis is likely underpowered, a multi-center collaborative network devoted to this question is warranted.
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
  • High Serum Soluble Fas Ligand Levels in Non-survivor Traumatic Brain
           Injury Patients
    • Abstract: Purpose Soluble Fas Ligand (sFasL) is one of the main ligands that activates the apoptosis extrinsic pathway. Higher expression of FasL in brain samples and higher cerebrospinal fluid FasL concentrations in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients than in controls have been found. However, the potential association between blood sFasL concentrations and TBI mortality has not been reported. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether that association exists. Methods We included patients with a severe isolated TBI, defined as < 9 points in Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and < 10 non-cranial aspects points in Injury Severity Score in this observational and prospective study performed in 5 Intensive Care Units. We measured serum sFasL concentrations on day 1 of TBI. Results We found that 30-day survivor (n = 59) in comparison to non-survivor patients (n = 24) had higher GCS (p = 0.001), lower age (p = 0.004), lower APACHE-II score (p < 0.001), lower intracranial pressure (ICP) (p = 0.01), lower computer tomography (CT) findings of high risk of death (p = 0.02) and lower serum sFasL concentrations (p < 0.001). The area under the curve for mortality prediction by serum sFasL levels was of 75% (95% CI = 63%–87%; p < 0.001). In Kaplan–Meier analysis was found that patients with serum sFasL levels > 29.2 pg/mL had a higher mortality rate (Hazard ratio = 6.2; 95% CI = 2.6–14.8; p < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis found an association between serum sFasL levels and mortality after controlling for GCS, age and CT findings (OR = 1.055; 95% CI = 1.018–1.094; p = 0.004), and after controlling for APACHE-II, ICP and CT findings (OR = 1.048; 95% CI = 1.017–1.080; p = 0.002). Conclusions The association between serum sFasL levels and 30-day mortality in TBI patients was the major novel finding of our study; however, future validation could be interesting to confirm those results.
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
  • Is the CT Blend Sign Composed of Two Parts of Blood with Different
    • Abstract: Background Blend sign on initial computed tomography (CT) is associated with poor outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the mechanisms underlying the blend sign formation are poorly understood. The present study aimed to explore the possible mechanism of the CT blend sign in patients with ICH. Methods Seventy healthy rabbits were selected to prepare an ICH model. The animals were assigned to a whole blood group + whole blood group (ww group, 50 rabbits), a whole blood + plasma group (wp group, 10 rabbits) or a whole blood + serum group (ws group, 10 rabbits). The animals of the ww group were allocated to five subgroups based on the interval between the first infusion of blood and the second one. The subgroups included ww 1 h group (with an interval of 1 h), ww 2 h group, ww 3 h group, ww 4 h group and ww 5 h group. The rabbits from each group received first infusion of 0.3 mL of whole blood into the basal ganglia area to form a hematoma. Then, they received a second infusion of the same amount of whole blood, plasma or serum into the brain to form another hematoma adjacent to the first one. Results A hematoma with two densities on brain CT could be formed in each group after a second infusion of blood into the brain. A significant difference in CT attenuation values was observed between the hyperattenuation and the hypoattenuation in all the groups. However, only the morphological features of the hematoma in the ww group was in accordance with the CT blend sign observed in humans. The CT attenuation values in the hypodensity area of the ww 4 h group or the ww 5 h group were decreased compared with the ww 1 h group to the ww 3 h group. Conclusions The CT blend sign observed in humans might be composed of two parts of blood with different ages. The hypodense area might be blood with older age and the hyperdense area might be new bleeding.
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
  • Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Neurocritical Care Unit: Nicotine
           Replacement Therapy and Thiamine Deficiency
    • PubDate: 2021-01-05
  • Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Neurocritical Care Unit: Nicotine
           Replacement Therapy and Thiamine Deficiency
    • PubDate: 2021-01-05
  • Advanced Bio-signal Analytics for Continuous Bedside Monitoring of
           Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: The Future
    • PubDate: 2021-01-05
  • Failure Mode and Effect Analysis: Engineering Safer Neurocritical Care
    • Abstract: Background/objective Inter-hospital patient transfers for neurocritical care are increasingly common due to increased regionalization for acute care, including stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. This process of transfer is uniquely vulnerable to errors and risk given numerous handoffs involving multiple providers, from several disciplines, located at different institutions. We present failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) as a systems engineering methodology that can be applied to neurocritical care transitions to reduce failures in communication and improve patient safety. Specifically, we describe our local implementation of FMEA to improve the safety of inter-hospital transfer for patients with intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage as evidence of success. Methods We describe the conceptual basis for and specific use-case example for each formal step of the FMEA process. We assembled a multi-disciplinary team, developed a process map of all components required for successful transfer, and identified “failure modes” or errors that hinder completion of each subprocess. A risk or hazard analysis was conducted for each failure mode, and ones of highest impact on patient safety and outcomes were identified and prioritized for implementation. Interventions were then developed and implemented into an action plan to redesign the process. Importantly, a comprehensive evaluation method was established to monitor outcomes and reimplement interventions to provide for continual improvement. Results This intervention was associated with significant reductions in emergency department (ED) throughput (ED length of stay from 300 to 149 min, (p < .01), and improvements in inter-disciplinary communication (increase from pre-intervention (10%) to post- (64%) of inter-hospital transfers where the neurological intensive care unit and ED attendings discussed care for the patient prior to their arrival). Conclusions Application of the FMEA approach yielded meaningful and sustained process change for patients with neurocritical care needs. Utilization of FMEA as a change instrument for quality improvement is a powerful tool for programs looking to improve timely communication, resource utilization, and ultimately patient safety.
      PubDate: 2021-01-05
  • Targeted Temperature Management Suppresses Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α
           and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in a Pig Model of
           Cardiac Arrest
    • Abstract: Background The hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor subtype 2 (VEGFR-2) pathway has been implicated in ischemia/reperfusion injury. The aim of this study was to clarify whether whole-body hypothermic targeted temperature management (HTTM) inhibits the HIF-1α/VEGF/VEGFR-2 pathway in a swine model of cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Methods Twenty-four domestic male Beijing Landrace pigs were used in this study. CA was electrically induced with ventricular fibrillation and left untreated for 8 min. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved in 16 pigs, which were randomly assigned either to normothermia at 38 °C or to HTTM at 33 °C (each group: n = 8). HTTM was intravascularly induced immediately after ROSC. The core temperature was reduced to 33 °C and maintained for 12 h after ROSC. The serum levels of HIF-1α, VEGF, VEGFR-2, and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were measured with enzyme immunoassay kits 0.5, 6, 12, and 24 h after ROSC. The expression of HIF-1α, VEGF, and VEGFR-2 in cerebral cortical tissue was measured by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis 24 h after ROSC. Neurological deficit scores and brain cortical tissue water content were evaluated 24 h after ROSC. Results The serum levels of HIF-1α, VEGF, and VEGFR-2 were significantly increased under normothermia within 24 h after ROSC. However, these increases were significantly reduced by HTTM. HTTM also decreased cerebral cortical HIF-1α, VEGF, and VEGFR-2 mRNA and protein expression 24 h after ROSC (all p < 0.05). HTTM pigs had better neurological outcomes and less brain edema than normothermic pigs. Conclusion The HIF-1α/VEGF/VEGFR-2 system is activated following CA and CPR. HTTM protects against cerebral injury after ROSC, which may be part of the mechanism by which it inhibits the expression of components of the HIF-1α/VEGF/VEGFR-2 signaling pathway.
      PubDate: 2021-01-05
  • Biofluid Biomarkers in Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Scoping Review
    • Abstract: Abstract Emerging evidence suggests that biofluid-based biomarkers have diagnostic and prognostic potential in traumatic brain injuries (TBI). However, owing to the lack of a conceptual framework or comprehensive review, it is difficult to visualize the breadth of materials that might be available. We conducted a systematic scoping review to map and categorize the evidence regarding biofluid-based biochemical markers of TBI. A comprehensive search was undertaken in January 2019. Of 25,354 records identified through the literature search, 1036 original human studies were included. Five hundred forty biofluid biomarkers were extracted from included studies and classified into 19 distinct categories. Three categories of biomarkers including cytokines, coagulation tests, and nerve tissue proteins were investigated more than others and assessed in almost half of the studies (560, 515, and 502 from 1036 studies, respectively). S100 beta as the most common biomarker for TBI was tested in 21.2% of studies (220 articles). Cortisol was the only biomarker measured in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, and saliva. The most common sampling time was at admission and within 24 h of injury. The included studies focused mainly on biomarkers from blood and central nervous system sources, the adult population, and severe and blunt injuries. The most common outcome measures used in studies were changes in biomarker concentration level, Glasgow coma scale, Glasgow outcome scale, brain computed tomography scan, and mortality rate. Biofluid biomarkers could be clinically helpful in the diagnosis and prognosis of TBI. However, there was no single definitive biomarker with accurate characteristics. The present categorization would be a road map to investigate the biomarkers of the brain injury cascade separately and detect the most representative biomarker of each category. Also, this comprehensive categorization could provide a guiding framework to design combined panels of multiple biomarkers.
      PubDate: 2021-01-05
  • The Association Between Arterial Oxygen Level and Outcome in
           Neurocritically Ill Patients is not Affected by Blood Pressure
    • Abstract: Background In neurocritically ill patients, one early mechanism behind secondary brain injury is low systemic blood pressure resulting in inadequate cerebral perfusion and consequent hypoxia. Intuitively, higher partial pressures of arterial oxygen (PaO2) could be protective in case of inadequate cerebral circulation related to hemodynamic instability. Study purpose We examined whether the association between PaO2 and mortality is different in patients with low compared to normal and high mean arterial pressure (MAP) in patients after various types of brain injury. Methods We screened the Finnish Intensive Care Consortium database for mechanically ventilated adult (≥ 18) brain injury patients treated in several tertiary intensive care units (ICUs) between 2003 and 2013. Admission diagnoses included traumatic brain injury, cardiac arrest, subarachnoid and intracranial hemorrhage, and acute ischemic stroke. The primary exposures of interest were PaO2 (recorded in connection with the lowest measured PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio) and the lowest MAP, recorded during the first 24 h in the ICU. PaO2 was grouped as follows: hypoxemia (< 8.2 kPa, the lowest 10th percentile), normoxemia (8.2–18.3 kPa), and hyperoxemia (> 18.3 kPa, the highest 10th percentile), and MAP was divided into equally sized tertiles (< 60, 60–68, and > 68 mmHg). The primary outcome was 1-year mortality. We tested the association between hyperoxemia, MAP, and mortality with a multivariable logistic regression model, including the PaO2, MAP, and interaction of PaO2*MAP, adjusting for age, admission diagnosis, premorbid physical performance, vasoactive use, intracranial pressure monitoring use, and disease severity. The relationship between predicted 1-year mortality and PaO2 was visualized with locally weighted scatterplot smoothing curves (Loess) for different MAP levels. Results From a total of 8290 patients, 3912 (47%) were dead at 1 year. PaO2 was not an independent predictor of mortality: the odds ratio (OR) for hyperoxemia was 1.16 (95% CI 0.85–1.59) and for hypoxemia 1.24 (95% CI 0.96–1.61) compared to normoxemia. Higher MAP predicted lower mortality: OR for MAP 60–68 mmHg was 0.73 (95% CI 0.64–0.84) and for MAP > 68 mmHg 0.80 (95% CI 0.69–0.92) compared to MAP < 60 mmHg. The interaction term PaO2*MAP was nonsignificant. In Loess visualization, the relationship between PaO2 and predicted mortality appeared similar in all MAP tertiles. Conclusions During the first 24 h of ICU treatment in mechanically ventilated brain injured patients, the association between PaO2 and mortality was not different in patients with low compared to normal MAP.
      PubDate: 2021-01-05
  • Pterygopalatine Fossa Blockade as Novel, Narcotic-Sparing Treatment for
           Headache in Patients with Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
    • Abstract: Background Severe headache is a hallmark clinical feature of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), affecting nearly 90% of patients during index hospitalization, regardless of the SAH severity or presence of a culprit aneurysm. Up to 1 in 4 survivors of SAH experience chronic headaches, which may be severe and last for years. Data guiding the optimal management of post-SAH headache are lacking. Opioids, often in escalating doses, remain the guideline-recommended mainstay of acute therapy, but pain relief remains suboptimal. Methods This study is a case series of adult patients who received bilateral pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) blockade for the management of refractory headaches after spontaneous SAH (aneurysmal and non-aneurysmal) at a single tertiary care center. We examined pain scores and analgesic requirements before and after block placement. Results Seven patients (median age 54 years, 3 men, four aneurysmal and three non-aneurysmal) received a PPF-block between post-bleed day 6–11 during index hospitalization in the neurointensive care unit. The worst pain recorded in the 24-h period before the block was significantly higher than in the period 4 h after the block (9.1 vs. 3.1; p = 0.0156), and in the period 8 h after the block (9.1 vs. 2.8; p = 0.0313). The only complication was minor oozing from the needle insertion sites, which subsided completely with gauze pressure within 1 min. Conclusions PPF blockade might constitute a promising opioid-sparing therapeutic strategy for the management of post-SAH headache that merits further prospective controlled randomized studies.
      PubDate: 2021-01-05
  • Sustained Low-Efficiency Dialysis is Associated with Worsening Cerebral
           Edema and Outcomes in Intracerebral Hemorrhage
    • Abstract: Background/Objectives We postulated that renal replacement therapy (RRT) in ICH patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased frequency and size of perihematomal edema (PHE) expansion and worse patient outcomes. Methods The Get With the Guidelines-Stroke Registry was queried for all patients admitted with ICH (N = 1089). Secondary causes, brainstem ICH, and initial HV < 7 cc were excluded. We identified patients with advanced CKD with and without RRT following admission for ICH. ABC/2 formula was used to measure hematoma volume (HV) and PHE. Patient outcomes were 30-day mortality, 90-day modified Rankin Scale score, and discharge disposition. We used propensity scores and optimal matching to adjust for multiple covariates. Results At 48 h post-ICH, PHE expansion was a significant predictor of poor patient outcomes in our cohort. Patients with CKD who received sustained low-efficacy dialysis (SLED) treatment had larger 48 h PHE growth compared to both untreated CKD group (average treatment effect (ATE), 11.5; 95% CI, 4.9–18.1; p < 0.01) and all untreated patients (ATE, 7.43; 95% CI, 4.7–10.2; p < 0.01). Moreover, patients with RRT had significantly worse functional and mortality outcomes. Conclusions SLED treatment in ICH patients with CKD was associated with significant increase in rate and frequency of PHE expansion. Absolute increase in PHE during 48-h post-ICH was associated with increased mortality and worse functional outcomes. Further prospective and multicenter evaluation is needed to differentiate the effects of RRT on hematoma dynamics and patient outcomes from those attributed to CKD.
      PubDate: 2021-01-05
  • Automated Pupillometry Identifies Absence of Intracranial Pressure
           Elevation in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients
    • Abstract: Introduction Although automated pupillometry is increasingly used in critical care settings, predictive value of automatically assessed pupillary parameters during different intracranial pressure (ICP) levels and possible clinical implications are unestablished. Methods This retrospective cohort study at the neurocritical care unit of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (2016–2018) included 23 nontraumatic supratentorial (intracerebral hemorrhage) ICH patients without signs of abnormal pupillary function by manual assessment, i.e., absent light reflex. We assessed ICP levels by an external ventricular drain simultaneously with parameters of pupillary reactivity [i.e., maximum and minimum apertures, light reflex latency (Lat), constriction and redilation velocities (CV, DV), and percentage change of apertures (per-change)] using a portable pupillometer (NeurOptics®). Computed tomography (CT) scans were analyzed to determine lesion location, size, intraventricular hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, midline shift, and compression or absence of the basal cisterns. We performed receiver operating characteristics analysis to investigate associations of ICP levels with pupillary parameters and to determine best cutoff values for prediction of ICP elevation. After dichotomization of assessments according to ICP values (normal: < 20 mmHg, elevated: ≥ 20 mmHg), prognostic performance of the determined cutoff parameters of pupillary function versus of CT-imaging findings was analyzed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (logistic regression, corresponding ORs with 95% CIs). Results In 23 patients (11 women, median age 59.0 (51.0–69.0) years), 1,934 assessments were available for analysis. A total of 74 ICP elevations ≥ 20 mmHg occurred in seven patients. Best discriminative thresholds for ICP elevation were: CV < 0.8 mm/s (AUC 0.740), per-change < 10% (AUC 0.743), DV < 0.2 mm/s (AUC 0.703), and Lat > 0.3 s (AUC 0.616). Positive predictive value of all four parameters to indicate ICP elevation ranged between 7.2 and 8.3% only and was similarly low for CT abnormalities (9.1%). We found high negative predictive values of pupillary parameters [CV: 99.2% (95% CI 98.3–99.6), per-change: 98.7% (95% CI 97.8–99.2), DV: 98.0% (95% CI 97.0–98.7), Lat: 97.0% (95% CI 96.0–97.7)], and CT abnormalities [99.7% (95% CI 99.2–99.9)], providing evidence that both techniques adequately identified ICH patients without ICP elevation. Conclusions Our data suggest an association between noninvasively detected changes in pupillary reactivity and ICP levels in sedated ICH patients. Although automated pupillometry and neuroimaging seem not sufficient to noninvasively indicate ICP elevation, both techniques, however, adequately identified ICH patients without ICP elevation. This finding may facilitate routine management by saving invasive ICP monitoring or repeated CT controls in patients with specific automated pupillometry readings.
      PubDate: 2020-12-24
  • Individualized Brain Tissue Oxygen-Monitoring Probe Placement Helps to
           Guide Therapy and Optimizes Outcome in Neurocritical Care
    • Abstract: Background/Objective In order to monitor tissue oxygenation in patients with acute neurological disorders, probes for measurement of brain tissue oxygen tension (ptO2) are often placed non-specifically in a right frontal lobe location. To improve the value of ptO2 monitoring, placement of the probe into a specific area of interest is desirable. We present a technique using CT-guidance to place the ptO2 probe in a particular area of interest based on the individual patient’s pathology. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed imaging and clinical data from all patients who underwent CT-guided ptO2 probe placement at our institution between October 2017 and April 2019. Primary endpoint was successful placement of the probe in a particular area of interest rated by two independent reviewers. Secondary outcomes were complications from probe insertion, clinical consequences from ptO2 measurements, clinical outcome according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) as well as development of ischemia on follow-up imaging. A historical control group was selected from patients who underwent conventional ptO2 probe placement between January 2010 and October 2017. Results Eleven patients had 16 CT-guided probes inserted. In 15 (93.75%) probes, both raters agreed on the correct placement in the area of interest. Each probe triggered on average 0.48 diagnostic or therapeutic adjustments per day. Only one infarction within the vascular territory of a probe was found on follow-up imaging. Eight out of eleven patients (72.73%) reached a good outcome (mRS ≤ 3). In comparison, conventionally placed probes triggered less diagnostic and therapeutic adjustment per day (p = 0.007). Outcome was worse in the control group (p = 0.024). Conclusion CT-guided probe insertion is a reliable and easy technique to place a ptO2 probe in a particular area of interest in patients with potentially reduced cerebral oxygen supply. By adjusting treatment aggressively according to this individualized monitoring data, clinical outcome may improve.
      PubDate: 2020-12-16
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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