Subjects -> METALLURGY (Total: 58 journals)
Showing 1 - 10 of 10 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Metallurgica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Device Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Fluid Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Archives of Metallurgy and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Complex Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Materials : Materials Science and Engineering for Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Graphene and 2D Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Handbook of Ferromagnetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Handbook of Magnetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
High Temperature Materials and Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Sciences (IJEMS)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Metallurgy and Alloys     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ironmaking & Steelmaking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ISIJ International - Iron and Steel Institute of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Izvestiya Vuzov. Poroshkovaya Metallurgiya i Funktsional’nye Pokrytiya (Proceedings of Higher Schools. Powder Metallurgy аnd Functional Coatings)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
JOM Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cluster Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Iron and Steel Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Materials & Metallurgical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Materials Processing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Metallurgical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Metal Finishing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Metallurgical and Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions E     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Metallurgical Research and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Metallurgy and Foundry Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration     Hybrid Journal  
Powder Diffraction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Powder Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Powder Metallurgy Progress     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Practical Metallography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Rare Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Revista de Metalurgia     Open Access  
Revista del Instituto de Investigación de la Facultad de Ingeniería Geológica, Minera, Metalurgica y Geográfica     Open Access  
Revista Remetallica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue de Métallurgie     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Metallurgy (Metally)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Steel Times lnternational     Partially Free   (Followers: 19)
Transactions of the IMF     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Tungsten     Hybrid Journal  
Universal Journal of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Welding in the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Welding International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Вісник Приазовського Державного Технічного Університету. Серія: Технічні науки     Open Access  
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Journal Cover
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions E
Number of Followers: 2  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 2196-2936 - ISSN (Online) 2196-2944
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Thermal Conductivity Degradation and Microstructural Damage
           Characterization in Low-Dose Ion Beam-Irradiated 3C-SiC
    • Authors: Vinay S. Chauhan; M. Faisal Riyad; Xinpeng Du; Changdong Wei; Beata Tyburska-Püschel; Ji-Cheng Zhao; Marat Khafizov
      Pages: 61 - 69
      Abstract: Abstract This study assesses the impact of low-dose and low-temperature irradiation on the properties of cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC). 3C-SiC was irradiated with Kr ions to different fluences at 420 K (147 °C). Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the impact of irradiation-induced defects on vibrational modes and time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) was used to measure thermal conductivity. We observe a noticeable reduction in thermal conductivity with increasing fluence. Analysis of Raman spectra reveals the longitudinal optical (LO) and transverse optical (TO) modes with noticeable peak broadening of LO mode with increasing dosage. We also notice a decrease of ratio of peak intensities of LO and TO modes in irradiated samples. We observe a correlation between the thermal conductivity reduction and the decrease in the peak intensity ratio and attribute this to the accumulation of charged vacancy defects.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40553-017-0107-3
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2-4 (2017)
  • Manufacture of a UO 2 -Based Nuclear Fuel with Improved Thermal
           Conductivity with the Addition of BeO
    • Authors: Chad B. Garcia; Ryan A. Brito; Luis H. Ortega; James P. Malone; Sean M. McDeavitt
      Pages: 70 - 76
      Abstract: Abstract The low thermal conductivity of oxide nuclear fuels is a performance-limiting parameter. Enhancing this property may provide a contribution toward establishing accident-tolerant fuel forms. In this study, the thermal conductivity of UO2 was increased through the fabrication of ceramic-ceramic composite forms with UO2 containing a continuous BeO matrix. Fuel with a higher thermal conductivity will have reduced thermal gradients and lower centerline temperatures in the fuel pin. Lower operational temperatures will reduce fission gas release and reduce fuel restructuring. Additions of BeO were made to UO2 fuel pellets in 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 vol pct concentrations with the goals of establishing reliable lab-scale processing procedures, minimizing porosity, and maximizing thermal conductivity. The microstructure was characterized with electron probe microanalysis, and the thermal properties were assessed by light flash analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Reliable, high-density samples were prepared using compaction pressure between 200 and 225 MPa and sintering times between 4 and 6 hours. It was found that the thermal conductivity of UO2 improved approximately 10 pct for each 1 vol pct BeO added over the measured temperature range 298.15 K to 523.15 K (25 °C to 250 °C) with the maximum observed improvement being \(\sim \) 100 pct, or doubled, at 10 vol pct BeO.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40553-017-0108-2
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2-4 (2017)
  • A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Recycling the Platinum Group Metals
           from Automobile Catalytic Converter: An Australian Perspective
    • Authors: Maryam Ghodrat; M. Akbar Rhamdhani; Pezhman Sharafi; Bijan Samali
      Pages: 77 - 88
      Abstract: Abstract This study provides a comparison between environmental impacts of the recovery of platinum group metals (PGMs) from the end-of-life catalytic converters by hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical methods. A gate to grave life cycle assessment of a typical three-way catalytic converter manufactured for an Australian passenger car was carried out using GaBi professional environmental package. Recovery rates, as well as qualities, quantities, losses, and fugitive emissions for all materials and elements used in both methods were calculated based on the developed flowsheets. A life cycle impact assessment was then made by carrying out a mass balance calculation. Inventory data show that the hydrometallurgical route for recycling of the platinum group metals out of catalytic converter scrap has lower impacts on the environment compared with the pyrometallurgical method. In terms of emission effects, the hydrometallurgical process was found to be highly advantageous since it causes insignificant emissions to air, sea water, and fresh water. It is also found that the hydrometallurgical route performs comparatively superior in terms of acidification, eutrophication, fossil depletion, and human toxicity. The obtained results are applicable only to the Australian setting.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40553-017-0109-1
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2-4 (2017)
  • Liquidus Projection and Isothermal Section of the Sb-Se-Sn System
    • Authors: Jui-shen Chang; Sinn-wen Chen
      Pages: 89 - 100
      Abstract: Abstract Sb-Se-Sn ternary alloys are promising chalcogenide materials. The liquidus projection and 673.2 K (400 °C) isothermal section of the Sb-Se-Sn ternary system are determined. Numerous Sb-Se-Sn alloys are prepared, and their primary solidification phases are examined. In addition to the three terminal phases, (Sb), (Se) and (Sn), there are Sb2Sn3, SbSn, SnSe, SnSe2, Sb2Se3, Sn2Sb9Se9, and SnSb2Se4 phases. In addition, there are two miscibility gaps along the Sb-Se and Se-Sn and sides. There are ten invariant reactions in the Sb-Se-Sn ternary system, and seven of them are experimentally determined in this study. The lowest reaction temperature of determined invariant reaction is L + SbSn = (Sn) + SnSe at 515.4 K ± 5 K (242.2 °C ± 5 °C). There are nine tie-triangles, which are Liquid + SbSn + SnSe, SbSn + SnSe + (Sb), SnSe + (Sb) + Sn2Sb9Se9, (Sb) + Sb2Se3 + Sn2Sb9Se9, SnSe + Sn2Sb9Se9 + SnSb2Se4, Sb2Se3 + Sn2Sb9Se9 + SnSb2Se4, SnSe + SnSe2 + SnSb2Se4, SnSe2 + SnSb2Se4 + Sb2Se3, and SnSe2 + Sb2Se3 + Liquid in the 673.2 K (400 °C) isothermal section of the Sb-Se-Sn ternary system.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40553-017-0110-8
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2-4 (2017)
  • Reduction of Hematite to Magnetite in CO/CO 2 Gas Mixtures Under Carbon
           Looping Combustion Conditions
    • Authors: Tegan Simmonds; Peter C. Hayes
      Pages: 101 - 113
      Abstract: Abstract Iron oxides have been identified as promising materials for use as oxygen carriers in chemical looping combustion technologies as there are abundant resources available in the form of ore and in industrial wastes. The isothermal reduction of hematite (Fe2O3) in the fuel reactor and the subsequent oxidation of magnetite (Fe3O4) in air are the principal reactions of interest for these applications. Experimental investigations have been carried out to characterize the microstructural changes taking place as a result of the reduction reactions for a range of CO/CO2 gas compositions at temperatures between 1073 K and 1373 K (800 °C and 1100 °C). It has been shown that magnetite spinel is formed directly from hematite under these conditions and that porous magnetite or dense platelet or “lath” type morphologies can be formed depending on gas composition and reaction temperature. The conditions for the lath/pore transition are established. Dendritic gas pores are formed during the creation of the porous magnetite. This morphology allows continuous contact between the gas reactant and reaction interface and results in high reduction reaction rates.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40553-017-0112-6
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2-4 (2017)
  • Isothermal Oxidation of Magnetite to Hematite in Air and Cyclic
           Reduction/Oxidation Under Carbon Looping Combustion Conditions
    • Authors: Tegan Simmonds; Peter C. Hayes
      Pages: 114 - 122
      Abstract: Abstract In the carbon looping combustion process the oxygen carrier is regenerated through oxidation in air; this process has been simulated by the oxidation of dense synthetic magnetite for selected temperatures and times. The oxidation of magnetite in air is shown to occur through the formation of dense hematite layers on the particle surface. This dense hematite forms through lath type shear transformations or solid-state diffusion through the product layer. Cyclic reduction in CO-CO2/oxidation in air of hematite single crystals has been carried out under controlled laboratory conditions at 1173 K (900 °C). It has been shown that the initial reduction step is critical to determining the product microstructure, which consists of gas pore dendrites in the magnetite matrix with blocky hematite formed on the pore surfaces. The progressive growth of the magnetite layer with the application of subsequent cycles appears to continue until no original hematite remains, after which physical disintegration of the particles takes place.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40553-017-0111-7
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2-4 (2017)
  • Oxide Particle Growth During Friction Stir Welding of Fine Grain MA956
           Oxide Dispersion-Strengthened Steel
    • Authors: Brad W. Baker; Keith E. Knipling; Luke N. Brewer
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Abstract Friction stir welding of an aluminum-containing oxide dispersion-strengthened steel causes significant oxide particle growth visible at both the nano- and microscales. Quantitative stereology of scanning electron images, small-angle X-ray scattering, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and atom-probe tomography is used to quantify the degree of particle coarsening as a function of welding parameters. Results show the dispersed oxides are significantly coarsened in the stir zone due to a proposed combination of agglomeration, Ostwald ripening, and phase transformation within the Al2O3-Y2O3 system. This oxide particle coarsening effectively removes all strengthening contribution of the original oxide particles, as confirmed by uniaxial tensile tests and microhardness measurements.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40553-016-0101-1
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
  • Creep Crack Growth Behavior of Alloys 617 and 800H in Air and Impure
           Helium Environments at High Temperatures
    • Authors: D. S. Grierson; G. Cao; P. Brooks; P. Pezzi; A. Glaudell; D. Kuettel; G. Fischer; T. Allen; K. Sridharan; W. C. Crone
      Pages: 13 - 21
      Abstract: Abstract The environmental degradation of intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) materials in impure helium has been identified as an area with major ramifications on the design of very high-temperature reactors (VHTR). It has been reported that in some helium environments, non-ductile failure is a significant failure mode for Alloy 617 with long-term elevated-temperature service. Non-ductile failure of intermediate exchangers can result in catastrophic consequences; unfortunately, the knowledge of creep crack initiation and creep crack growth (CCG) in candidate alloys is limited. Current codes and code cases for the candidate alloys do not provide specific guidelines for effects of impure helium on the high-temperature behavior. The work reported here explores creep crack growth characterization of Alloy 617 and Alloy 800H at elevated temperatures in air and in impure helium environments, providing information on the reliability of these alloys in VHTR for long-term service. Alloy 617 was found to exhibit superior CCG resistance compared to Alloy 800H. For Alloy 617 tested at 973 K (700 °C), a notable increase in the resistance to crack growth was measured in air compared to that measured in the helium environment; CCG results for Alloy 800H suggest that air and helium environments produce similar behavior. Testing of grain boundary-engineered (GBE) Alloy 617 samples revealed that, although the technique produces superior mechanical properties in many respects, the GBE samples exhibited inferior resistance to creep crack growth compared to the other Alloy 617 samples tested under similar conditions. Grain size is noted as a confounding factor in creep crack growth resistance.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40553-016-0102-0
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
  • Molten Salt Electrolytically Produced Carbon/Tin Nanomaterial as the Anode
           in a Lithium Ion Battery
    • Authors: Rajshekar Das Gupta; Carsten Schwandt; Derek J. Fray
      Pages: 22 - 28
      Abstract: Abstract A carbon/tin nanomaterial, consisting of predominantly Sn-filled carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles, is prepared by molten salt electrochemistry, using electrodes of graphite and an electrolyte of LiCl salt containing a small admixture of SnCl2. The C/Sn hybrid material generated is incorporated into the active anode material of a lithium ion battery and tested with regard to storage capacity and cycling behavior. The results demonstrate that the C/Sn material has favorable properties, in terms of energy density and in particular long-term stability, that exceed those of the individual components alone. The initial irreversible capacity of the material is somewhat larger than that of conventional battery graphite which is due to its unique nanostructure. Overall the results would indicate the suitability of this material for use in the anodes of lithium ion batteries with high rate capability.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40553-016-0103-z
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
  • Reaction of SiF 4 with Al Metal
    • Authors: Xiaobing Xie; Kai Lau; Angel Sanjurjo; Abdullah I. Alkhudhiri; Abdullah Alzaben; Waiel Alabbad
      Pages: 29 - 40
      Abstract: Abstract The reaction of SiF4 gas with aluminum (Al) was studied at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1723 K (1450 °C). Although thermochemical estimates indicate that reactions throughout the temperature range should be thermodynamically favorable, we found that no reaction takes place appreciably until Al is heated to around 1473 K (1200 °C). The reaction products consist of fine powders of Si, Al, and AlF3. Some of the reaction products were transported away from the reaction zone by strong convection currents resulting from the exothermic reaction. Even at approximately 1673 K (1400 °C), the reaction rate is slow and a significant amount of Al remains unreacted. When NaF powders were used to line the graphite reactor, NaAlF4, AlF3, and Si powders were observed on the upper cooler walls of the reactor, and Si whiskers were formed just above the Al-Si alloy globule on the bottom of the crucible. We found evidence of the formation of AlF and SiF2 vapor species in the reaction zone, which then disproportionated along the cooler walls of the reactor, generating powders of Al and Si and regenerating condensable AlF3 and SiF4 gas, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40553-016-0104-y
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
  • Study of Mass Transfer in Gas Blowing Processes for Silicon Purification
    • Authors: Jochen Altenberend; Guy Chichignoud; Yves Delannoy
      Pages: 41 - 50
      Abstract: Abstract Boron removal processes are crucial to make the metallurgical route for silicon refining for solar cells competitive and thus reduce the cost of solar energy. The rate-limiting step was investigated in silicon purification processes for boron removal based on gas blowing, to gain better understanding that should help to improve the design of such processes. We calculate the boron concentration in the off-gas that corresponds to chemical equilibrium between the gas and silicon. The real concentration in the off-gas ranges between 9 and 30 pct of this theoretical value calculated using Gibbs free energies reported in literature. Purification experiments with varying temperature and hydrogen concentration were done to evaluate whether limited chemical reaction rates induce deviation from chemical equilibrium. The experiments and data from literature show that the chemical reactions at the surface of the melt are close to chemical equilibrium, thus the purification rate is limited by mass transfer in the gas phase near the interface. Based on this, recommendations for the design of a gas blowing purification process are given.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40553-016-0105-x
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
  • A Novel Multiphase Sn-Sb-Cu Alloy Electrodeposited on 3D Interconnected
           Microporous Cu Current Collector as Negative Electrode for Lithium Ion
    • Authors: Srijan Sengupta; Arghya Patra; Yash Deo; Karabi Das; Subhasish Basu Majumder; Siddhartha Das
      Pages: 51 - 59
      Abstract: Abstract We report a novel, active-active-inactive-type tin-antimony-copper alloy with dendritic morphology electrodeposited on 3D interconnected microporous copper foam (~70 μm pore diameter) as a promising high specific capacity anode for Li-ion batteries. The multiphase composition, SnSb and Cu6Sn5 “reactant” intermetallics embedded in Sn “matrix,” alleviates the volumetric stress generated during cycling by lithiating at different step potentials (0.84, 0.66, 0.57, 0.42, 0.39, and 0.38 to 0.33 V vs Li/Li+). Copper foam successfully acts as a stress buffer preventing both pulverization and delamination. This combination of properties in tin-antimony-copper anode on copper foam results in 2nd cycle discharge capacity of 723 mAh/g, superior rate capability, and stable cycle retention with a capacity loss of 16 pct in the last 70 cycles at a rate of 400 mA/g (0.5 C) while preserving its structural integrity in comparison to tin-antimony-copper anode deposited on a planar copper foil as a current collector.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40553-017-0106-4
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
  • Editorial
    • Authors: David Laughlin
      Pages: 227 - 227
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40553-016-0100-2
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2016)
  • Iron-Catalyzed Boron Removal from Molten Silicon in Ammonia
    • Authors: Zhiyuan Chen; Kazuki Morita
      Pages: 228 - 233
      Abstract: Abstract A high-temperature process of refining metallurgical-grade silicon to solar-grade silicon was developed. In this gas purging treatment, boron impurity in silicon reacts with ammonia and the products are removed as volatiles at high temperature. 1 mass pct metallic iron was added to molten silicon as a catalyst, improving the boron removal ratio from 14 to 80 pct at 1723 K (1450 °C). At 1823 K (1550 °C), this reaction could reduce boron concentration from more than 120 ppmw to <1 ppmw within 6 hours, meeting the purity requirement of solar-grade silicon. Nickel was tested in place of iron but showed no catalytic effect on boron removal. The result confirmed the catalytic role of iron in boron removal from molten silicon in ammonia. Possible mechanisms of catalysis, influence from iron concentration, and temperature effect on the catalytic reaction were explored. An apparent activation energy of 329 ± 129 kJ mol−1 was calculated from experimental data.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40553-016-0078-9
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2016)
  • Microstructure of Yttria-Doped Ceria as a Function of Oxalate
           Co-Precipitation Synthesis Conditions
    • Authors: Laurent Brissonneau; Aurore Mathieu; Brigitte Tormos; Anna Martin-Garin
      Pages: 264 - 271
      Abstract: Abstract In sodium fast reactors (SFR), dissolved oxygen in sodium can be monitored via potentiometric sensors with an yttria-doped thoria electrolyte. Yttria-doped ceria (YDC) was chosen as a surrogate material to validate the process of such sensors. The material must exhibit high density and a fine grain microstructure to be resistant to the corrosion by liquid sodium and thermal shocks. Thus, the oxalic co-precipitation route was chosen to avoid milling steps that could bring impurity incorporation which is suspected to induce grain boundary corrosion in sodium. The powder and sintered pellets examination show that the synthesis conditions are of primary importance on the process yield, the oxalate powder microstructure and, eventually, on the ceramic density and microstructure. The impurity content was limited by controlling the synthesis, calcination, and sintering steps.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40553-016-0087-8
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2016)
  • Copper-Silicon-Magnesium Alloys for Latent Heat Storage
    • Authors: P. J. Gibbs; E. A. Withey; E. N. Coker; A. M. Kruizenga; C. E. Andraka
      Pages: 272 - 280
      Abstract: Abstract The systematic development of microstructure, solidification characteristics, and heat of solidification with composition in copper-silicon-magnesium alloys for thermal energy storage is presented. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to relate the thermal characteristics to microstructural development in the investigated alloys and clarifies the location of one of the terminal three-phase eutectics. Repeated thermal cycling highlights the thermal storage stability of the transformation through multiple melting events. Two near-terminal eutectic alloys display high enthalpies of solidification, relatively narrow melting ranges, and stable transformation hysteresis behaviors suited to thermal energy storage.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40553-016-0089-6
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2016)
  • Liquidus Projections of Bi-Se-Ga and Bi-Se-Te Ternary Systems
    • Authors: Po-han Lin; Sinn-wen Chen; Jenn-dong Hwang; Hsu-shen Chu
      Pages: 281 - 290
      Abstract: Abstract This study determines the liquidus projections of both Bi-Se-Ga and Bi-Se-Te ternary systems which are constituent ternary systems of promising Bi-Se-Te-Ga thermoelectric materials. Ternary Bi-Se-Ga and Bi-Se-Te alloys are prepared. Their primary solidification phases are experimentally determined, and thermal analysis experiments are carried out. The liquidus projections are determined based on the ternary experimental results and phase diagrams of constituent binary systems. The Bi-Se-Ga system includes seven primary solidification phases, Bi, Ga, GaSe, Ga2Se3, Se, Bi2Se3, and (Bi2)n(Bi2Se3)m. In the Bi-Se-Te system, there are five primary solidification phases, Bi, (Bi2)n(Bi2Te3)m, Bi2(Se,Te)3, (Se,Te), and (Bi2)n(Bi2Se3)m. Both the (Bi2)n(Bi2Te3)m and (Bi2)n(Bi2Se3)m phases are not a single phase, but a collection of series undetermined phases. Large miscibility gaps are observed in the Bi-Se-Ga system. The temperatures of the invariant reactions, Liquid + Bi + GaSe = Ga and Liquid + Ga2Se3 = Bi + GaSe, are at 495 K (222 °C) and 533 K (260 °C), respectively.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40553-016-0090-0
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2016)
  • Evaluation of Drying Rates of Lignite Particles in Superheated Steam Using
           Single-Particle Model
    • Authors: Tsuyoshi Kiriyama; Hideaki Sasaki; Akira Hashimoto; Shozo Kaneko; Masafumi Maeda
      Pages: 308 - 316
      Abstract: Abstract Drying rates of lignite particle groups in superheated steam are evaluated using a single-particle model developed for Australian lignite. Size distributions of the particles are assumed to obey the Rosin–Rammler equation with the maximum particle diameters defined as 100, 50, and 6 mm. The results show the drying rate of a lignite group depends strongly on the maximum particle size, and removal of large particles prior to drying is shown to be effective to reduce the drying time. The calculation model is available for simulations of drying behaviors of lignite in various dryers when an appropriate heat transfer coefficient is given. This study simulates the drying of particles smaller than 6 mm using a heat transfer coefficient in a fluidized bed dryer reported elsewhere. The required drying time estimated from the calculation is comparable to the processing time reported in an actual fluidized bed dryer, supporting the validity of the calculation model.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40553-016-0096-7
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2016)
  • Influence of Both Cooling Rate and TeO 2 Addition on the Properties of
           YBCO Superconductor
    • Authors: Yasser Momtaz Zaki Ahmed; Mervat Said Hassan; Hassan Abd-Elatif
      Pages: 317 - 328
      Abstract: Abstract Composite of superconducting system YBCO-TeO2 was synthesized utilizing solid-state reaction technique. Different weight percentages of TeO2 were mixed with a basic mixture [YBCO] for the synthesis of [YBa2Cu3O7−y ]1−x (TeO2) x composites. These mixtures were sintered at 1213 K (940 °C) for 24 hours and the samples cooled down by two different ways. The first way carried out via slowly cooling in furnace with the rate of 274 K/min to 275 K/min (1 °C/min to 2 °C/min) and the second one is quenching in oxygen gas. The XRD analysis showed that YBCO orthorhombic phase is the major phase appeared in all samples with different TeO2 content regardless of the cooling way. Additionally, minor unknown secondary phases appeared and enlarged with increasing TeO2 addition. Although quenched samples showed a phase difference between the sample's outer surface (orthorhombic) and its interior (tetragonal), the slowly cooled one did not clearly show such distinction. Moreover, doping YBCO with TeO2 leads to increase in the sample bulk density and reduction in their degradation degree in the wet atmosphere.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40553-016-0097-6
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2016)
  • Erratum to: Using SPL (Spent Pot-Lining) as an Alternative Fuel in
           Metallurgical Furnaces
    • Authors: Lei Gao; Sina Mostaghel; Shamik Ray; Kinnor Chattopadhyay
      Pages: 337 - 337
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40553-016-0099-4
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2016)
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